National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for implants aerospace fasteners

  1. Electromagnetic fasteners

    DOEpatents

    Crane, Randolph W.; Marts, Donna J.

    1994-01-01

    An electromagnetic fastener for manipulating objects in space uses the matic attraction of various metals. An end effector is attached to a robotic manipulating system having an electromagnet such that when current is supplied to the electromagnet, the object is drawn and affixed to the end effector, and when the current is withheld, the object is released. The object to be manipulated includes a multiplicity of ferromagnetic patches at various locations to provide multiple areas for the effector on the manipulator to become affixed to the object. The ferromagnetic patches are sized relative to the object's geometry and mass.

  2. Electromagnetic fasteners

    DOEpatents

    Crane, Randolph W.; Marts, Donna J.

    1994-11-01

    An electromagnetic fastener for manipulating objects in space uses the matic attraction of various metals. An end effector is attached to a robotic manipulating system having an electromagnet such that when current is supplied to the electromagnet, the object is drawn and affixed to the end effector, and when the current is withheld, the object is released. The object to be manipulated includes a multiplicity of ferromagnetic patches at various locations to provide multiple areas for the effector on the manipulator to become affixed to the object. The ferromagnetic patches are sized relative to the object's geometry and mass.

  3. Separable fastening device

    DOEpatents

    Harvey, Andrew C.; Ribich, William A.; Marinaccio, Paul J.; Sawaf, Bernard E.

    1987-12-01

    A separable fastener system has a first separable member that includes a series of metal hook sheets disposed in stacked relation that defines an array of hook elements on its broad surface. Each hook sheet is a planar metal member of uniform thickness and has a body portion with a series of hook elements formed along one edge of the body. Each hook element includes a stem portion, a deflecting surface portion, and a latch portion. Metal spacer sheets are disposed between the hook sheets and may be varied in thickness and in number to control the density of the hook elements on the broad surface of the first fastener member. The hook and spacer sheets are secured together in stacked relation. A second fastener member has a surface of complementary engaging elements extending along its broad surface which are releasably interengageable with the hook elements of the first fastener member, the deflecting surfaces of the hook elements of the first fastener member tending to deflect hook engaging portions of the second fastener member and the latch portions of the hook elements of the first fastener member engaging portions of the second fastener member in fastening relation.

  4. Self-locking threaded fasteners

    DOEpatents

    Glovan, Ronald J.; Tierney, John C.; McLean, Leroy L.; Johnson, Lawrence L.

    1996-01-01

    A threaded fastener with a shape memory alloy (SMA) coatings on its threads is disclosed. The fastener has special usefulness in high temperature applications where high reliability is important. The SMA coated fastener is threaded into or onto a mating threaded part at room temperature to produce a fastened object. The SMA coating is distorted during the assembly. At elevated temperatures the coating tries to recover its original shape and thereby exerts locking forces on the threads. When the fastened object is returned to room temperature the locking forces dissipate. Consequently the threaded fasteners can be readily disassembled at room temperature but remains securely fastened at high temperatures. A spray technique is disclosed as a particularly useful method of coating of threads of a fastener with a shape memory alloy.

  5. Self-locking threaded fasteners

    DOEpatents

    Glovan, R.J.; Tierney, J.C.; McLean, L.L.; Johnson, L.L.

    1996-01-16

    A threaded fastener with a shape memory alloy (SMA) coatings on its threads is disclosed. The fastener has special usefulness in high temperature applications where high reliability is important. The SMA coated fastener is threaded into or onto a mating threaded part at room temperature to produce a fastened object. The SMA coating is distorted during the assembly. At elevated temperatures the coating tries to recover its original shape and thereby exerts locking forces on the threads. When the fastened object is returned to room temperature the locking forces dissipate. Consequently the threaded fasteners can be readily disassembled at room temperature but remains securely fastened at high temperatures. A spray technique is disclosed as a particularly useful method of coating of threads of a fastener with a shape memory alloy. 13 figs.

  6. Wire brush fastening device

    SciTech Connect

    Meigs, R.A.

    1993-08-31

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus.

  7. Wire brush fastening device

    SciTech Connect

    Meigs, R.A.

    1995-09-19

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus. 13 figs.

  8. Wire brush fastening device

    SciTech Connect

    Meigs, Richard A.

    1995-01-01

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus.

  9. Korea Parts and Fasteners KPF | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    KPF Jump to: navigation, search Name: Korea Parts and Fasteners (KPF) Place: Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do, Korea (Republic) Product: KPF, formerly called Korea Bolt Industries, makes...

  10. Korea Parts and Fasteners KPF Plextronics JV | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Parts and Fasteners (KPF) and Plextronics aimed at building a production line for organic photovoltaic panels and a research and development (R&D) center. References: Korea Parts...

  11. Headmark List of Suspect Counterfeit Fasteners 1992 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    PDF icon Headmark List of Suspect Counterfeit Fasteners 1992 More Documents & Publications SuspectCounterfeit Items Awareness Training Manual National Historic Preservation Act ...

  12. Nevada Science of Aerospace

    SciTech Connect

    Jason Marcks

    2004-07-01

    Funding was used to operate the educational program entitled the Nevada Science of Aerospace Project.

  13. Integrated Dynamic Electron Solutions, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    - like those used by wounded veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan - to military vehicle components, biomedical implants, aerospace fasteners and chemical plant valves....

  14. ALL GRADE 5 AND GRADE 8 FASTENERS WHICH DO NOT BEAR ANY MANUFACTURERS'

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ALL GRADE 5 AND GRADE 8 FASTENERS WHICH DO NOT BEAR ANY MANUFACTURERS' HEADMARKS Grade 5 Grade 8 GRADE 5 FASTENERS WITH THE FOLLOWING MANUFACTURERS' HEADMARKS: GRADE 8 FASTENERS WITH THE FOLLOWING MANUFACTURERS' HEADMARKS: MARK KS MARK J (CA TW JP YU) (Greater than 1/2 inch dia) MARK A NF H M MS Hollow Triangle E MARK KS RT FM KY J UNY A KS RT KY J UNY NF H M MS E FM GRADE 8.2 FASTENERS WITH THE FOLLOWING HEADMARKS: MARK KS KS J KS GRADE A325 FASTENERS WITH THE FOLLOWING HEADMARKS: MARK A325 KS

  15. Rotating Eddy Current Probe for Detecting Cracks Under Raised Fastener

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Heads - Energy Innovation Portal Find More Like This Return to Search Rotating Eddy Current Probe for Detecting Cracks Under Raised Fastener Heads Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (398 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Early detection of fatigue damage from repeated cyclic loading is critical to ensuring the safety and reliability of aircraft, rotorcraft and many civil structures. This damage typically

  16. THE AEROSPACE CORPORATION \\

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    I, .* THE AEROSPACE CORPORATION Suite 4000, 955 L'Enfant Plaza, S. W., Washington, D.C. 20024, Telephone: (202) 488.6000 7117-01.87.sej.16 28 July 1987 Mr. Andrew Wallo, III,...

  17. THE AEROSPACE CORPORATION '

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    q 3 THE AEROSPACE CORPORATION ' Suite 4000, 955 L' Enant Plaza, S. W., Warhington, D.C. 20024, Telephone: (202) 488-6000 7117-01.87.sej.16 28 July 1987 . Mr. Andrew Wallo, III,...

  18. Career Map: Aerospace Engineer | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Aerospace Engineer Career Map: Aerospace Engineer An aerospace engineer stands in front of a drivetrain testing machine. Aerospace Engineer Position Title Aerospace Engineer Alternate Title(s) Aeronautical Engineer Education & Training Level Advanced, Bachelor's required, prefer graduate degree Education & Training Level Description Aerospace engineers must have a bachelor's degree in aerospace engineering or another field of engineering or science related to aerospace systems. Brief job

  19. THE AEROSPACE CORPORATION

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    THE AEROSPACE CORPORATION 20030 Century Blvd., Germanlown, Maryland 20767, Telephone: (301) 428-2700 7848-02.80.eav.34 16 September 1980 m777 Dr. William E. Mott Acting Director Environmental & Safety Engineering Division U. S. Department of Energy Germantown, Maryland 20767 Dear Dr. Mott: - UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO BUILDINGS USED BY THE MANHATTAN ENGINEER DISTRICT During a recent investigation of the official Manhattan Engineer District history, I came across some additional information that

  20. Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Vitko, J. Jr.

    1995-04-01

    The Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (UAV) Workshop concentrated on reviewing and refining the science experiments planned for the UAV Demonstration Flights (UDF) scheduled at the Oklahoma Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) in April 1994. These experiments were focused around the following sets of parameters: Clear sky, daylight; Clear-sky, night-to-day transition; Clear sky - improve/validate the accuracy of radiative fluxes derived from satellite-based measurements; Daylight, clouds of opportunity; and, Daylight, broken clouds.

  1. Thermal Impact of Fasteners in High-Performance Wood-Framed Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Dane Christensen

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses high-performance wood-framed walls that use much less than 40% of the energy consumed by similar homes built to minimum code, and evaluates the thermal impact of fasteners used to construct these walls.

  2. An environmental cracking evaluation of fastener materials for seawater applications

    SciTech Connect

    Aylor, D.M.

    1994-12-31

    Slow strain rate tests (SSRT) were conducted on various nickel-base, titanium base, and copper-nickel (Cu-Ni) alloys in order to identify a replacement material for Alloy K-500 in seawater fastener applications. SSRT data and fracture surface analysis of the test specimens identified a susceptibility to environmental cracking in cathodically polarized environments for Alloy K-500, Alloy 625 Plus, and Alloy 625PH. Alloy 625 Plus exhibited slightly increased environmental cracking resistance-at {minus}850 mV vs. SCE over Alloy K-500 and Alloy 625PH. Ti-6Al-4V ELI, Beta C, and Beta 21S titanium displayed no susceptibility to environmental cracking in freely corroding 3.5% NaCl or cathodically polarized conditions. Precharging these titanium alloys for 8 weeks at {minus}1,250 mV vs. SCE did not adversely affect their environmental cracking resistance. The Cu-3Ni and Cu-15Ni-7Sn spray formed alloys exhibited extensive scatter and low measured maximum loads, presumably due to macroporosity present in the as-fabricated material.

  3. German Aerospace Center (DLR) | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    German Aerospace Center (DLR) Name: German Aerospace Center (DLR) Place: Cologne, Germany Number of Employees: 5001-10,000 Website: www.dlr.deendesktopdefault.a Coordinates:...

  4. German Aerospace Center DLR | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Aerospace Center DLR Jump to: navigation, search Name: German Aerospace Center (DLR) Place: Stuttgart, Germany Zip: 70569 Product: Stuttgart-based, agency that manages the...

  5. Issues surrounding the use of nickel-copper alloy K-500 fasteners in seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Natishan, M.E.; Porr, W.C. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    Nickel-copper alloy K-500 has long been used for the manufacture of fasteners for seawater applications. Alloy K-500 is a nickel-copper solid solution, precipitation strengthened with fine gamma prime precipitates to give it high strength, toughness and good general corrosion resistance. As the use of K-500 has increased in seawater, specifically in seawater tanks protected with anodes, its susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement has come to light. Several recent failures in air suggest other rate-dependent failures mechanisms for this alloy that must be considered in fastener applications. These failure mechanisms and their interactions will be discussed.

  6. A bias assessment for in-situ ultrasonic hardness testing of steel fasteners

    SciTech Connect

    Ratiu, M.D.; Moisidis, N.T.

    1996-12-31

    The problem of sub-standard and/or mismarked installed fasteners has received broad attention in quality control standard and largely discussed in technical publications and in public press. The Industrial Fastener Institute (IFI, 1988) released a detailed documented inspection program to ensure the delivery and the usage of appropriate fasteners, imposing mandatory traceability of the manufacturer marking and quality certification reports. For the billions of the existing installed bolts without reliable lot identification and/or quality certification, IFI recommends in-situ control using non-destructive testing and/or hardness measurements with portable testers. The ultrasonic indentation hardness (HU) with the Krautkramer portable tester--operating on the ultrasonic contact impedance method described by Kleesattel (Jankowski D.M., 1990)--is one of the more frequent equipment used in the in-situ control of steel products and machine elements. The advantages of the ultrasonic tester--low weight, direct hardness reading, easy to operate--have determined to be included also for the in-situ control of installed fasteners. However, the bias of this method was not analyzed; the practiced calibration of standard blocks is not conclusive for the comparison of the in-situ measured hardness with the standard reference value obtained using laboratory Rockwell hardness (HR) tester. The purpose of this paper is to point out the specific consistent/systematic differences between HU results and the reference standard HR, which defines the ruggedness and the bias of the ultrasonic method.

  7. MACHINING ELIMINATION THROUGH APPLICATION OF THREAD FORMING FASTENERS IN NET SHAPED CAST HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Cleaver, Ryan J; Cleaver, Todd H; Talbott, Richard

    2012-05-02

    The ultimate objective of this work was to eliminate approximately 30% of the machining performed in typical automotive engine and transmission plants by using thread forming fasteners in as-cast holes of aluminum and magnesium cast components. The primary issues at the source of engineers reluctance to implementing thread forming fasteners in lightweight castings are: * Little proof of consistency of clamp load vs. input torque in either aluminum or magnesium castings. * No known data to understand the effect on consistency of clamp load as casting dies wear. The clamp load consistency concern is founded in the fact that a portion of the input torque used to create clamp load is also used to create threads. The torque used for thread forming may not be consistent due to variations in casting material, hole size and shape due to tooling wear and process variation (thermal and mechanical). There is little data available to understand the magnitude of this concern or to form the basis of potential solutions if the range of clamp load variation is very high (> +/- 30%). The range of variation that can be expected in as-cast hole size and shape over the full life cycle of a high pressure die casting die was established in previous work completed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, (PNNL). This established range of variation was captured in a set of 12 cast bosses by designing core pins at the size and draft angles identified in the sited previous work. The cast bosses were cut into nuts that could be used in the Ford Fastener Laboratory test-cell to measure clamp load when a thread forming fastener was driven into a cast nut. There were two sets of experiments run. First, a series of cast aluminum nuts were made reflecting the range of shape and size variations to be expected over the life cycle of a die casting die. Taptite thread forming fasteners, (a widely used thread forming fastener suitable for aluminum applications), were driven into the various cored, as

  8. May 12, 2011, Visiting Speakers Program Events - Aerospace Industry...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Commercial Aerospace Electronics" http:www.dsp.dla.milappuilcontentdocumentsndiaarticle.pdf Unpublished work (2011) Aerospace Industries Association of America, Inc. ...

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: Careers: Aerospace Engineering

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerospace Engineering Aerospace imagery Sandia's aerospace engineers have provided critical data for the design and analysis of flight vehicles since the 1950s. Aerospace engineers at Sandia support atmospheric and space flight vehicles across the speed regimes, from subsonic to hypersonic, through their collaborative work on multidisciplinary teams. Our aerodynamics and astronautics specialists integrate the results from experiments, analysis, and simulation to solve complex problems of

  10. Application of Thread-Forming Fasteners in Net-Shaped Cast Holes in Lightweight Metal Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Paxton, Dean M.; Dudder, Gregory J.; Charron, William A.; Cleaver, Todd H.

    2006-03-12

    The application of thread-forming fasteners (TFFs) in net-shaped die-cast holes of lightweight metal alloys is being explored by the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) through work at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). These fasteners are being applied in drilled hole applications for general assembly which have reduced costs, reduced investment, and improved warranty while delivering better joint properties. Successful development of this idea in light-weight alloy die-cast products will expand the use of lightweight materials due to the proven benefits already achieved in existing applications. A portion of this effort has included a parametric study of the relationship between joint strength and as-cast hole geometry in aluminum alloy A380 test specimens.

  11. Probing the Elastic-Plastic, Time-Dependant Response of Test Fasteners using Finite Element Analysis (FEA)

    SciTech Connect

    ML Renauld; H Lien

    2004-12-13

    The evolution of global and local stress/strain conditions in test fasteners under test conditions is investigated using elastic-plastic, time-dependent finite element analyses (FEA). For elastic-plastic response, tensile data from multiple specimens, material heats and test temperatures are integrated into a single, normalized flow curve from which temperature dependency is extracted. A primary creep model is calibrated with specimen- and fastener-based thermal relaxation data generated under a range of times, temperatures, stress levels and environments. These material inputs are used in analytical simulations of experimental test conditions for several types of fasteners. These fastener models are constructed with automated routines and contact conditions prescribed at all potentially mating surfaces. Thermal or mechanical room temperature pre-loading, as appropriate for a given fastener, is followed by a temperature ramp and a dwell time at constant temperature. While the amount of thermal stress relaxation is limited for the conditions modeled, local stress states are highly dependent upon geometry (thread root radius, for example), pre-loading history and thermal expansion differences between the test fastener and test fixture. Benefits of this FE approach over an elastic methodology for stress calculation will be illustrated with correlations of Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) initiation time and crack orientations in stress concentrations.

  12. Shanghai Aerospace Industrial General Corporation aka Shanghai...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Industrial General Corporation aka Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shanghai Aerospace Industrial General Corporation (aka Shanghai...

  13. Thermal Impact of Fasteners in High-Performance Wood-Framed Walls: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, D.

    2011-01-01

    Buildings are heavy consumers of energy, and residential building design is rapidly addressing topics to maximize energy conservation en route to net-zero energy consumption. Annual energy analysis of a building informs the choice among disparate energy measures, for cost, durability, occupant comfort, and whole-house energy use. Physics-based and empirical models of elements of a building are used in such analyses. High-performance wood-framed walls enable builders to construct homes that use much less than 40% of the energy consumed by similar homes built to minimum code. Modeling for these walls has considered physical features such as framing factor, insulation and framing properties, roughness and convective effects, and air leakage. The thermal effects of fasteners used to construct these walls have not been fully evaluated, even though their thermal conductivity is orders of magnitudes higher than that of other building materials. Drywall screws and siding nails are considered in this finite element thermal conductivity analysis of wall sections that represent wood-framed walls that are often used in high-performance homes. Nails and screws reduce even the best walls' insulating performance by approximately 3% and become increasingly significant as the framing factor increases.

  14. The ARM Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle Program

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    The ARM Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle Program The ARM Program's focus is on climate research, specifi- cally research related to solar radiation and its interaction with clouds. The SGP CART site contains highly sophisti- cated surface instrumentation, but even these instruments cannot gather some crucial climate data from high in our atmosphere. The lowest layer of our atmosphere, known as the "troposphere," is where our weather events take place. The troposphere contains virtually all

  15. The ARM unpiloted aerospace vehicle (UAV) program

    SciTech Connect

    Sowle, D.

    1995-09-01

    Unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs) are an important complement to the DOE`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. ARM is primarily a ground-based program designed to extensively quantify the radiometric and meteorological properties of an atmospheric column. There is a need for airborne measurements of radiative profiles, especially flux at the tropopause, cloud properties, and upper troposphere water vapor. There is also a need for multi-day measurements at the tropopause; for example, in the tropics, at 20 km for over 24 hours. UAVs offer the greatest potential for long endurance at high altitudes and may be less expensive than piloted flights. 2 figs.

  16. Hr. Andrew Wallo The Aerospace Corporation

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Department of Energy Washington, b.C. 20545 OCT 28 1985 // && ' Q Hr. Andrew Wallo The Aerospace Corporation Suite 4000 955 L'Enfant Plaza, S.W. Washington, D.C. 20024 Dear Andy: The comTIents and authority decision from the following sites are set out 2cL.f I below. No additional cments are included; therefore, a careful editoria review of these documents should be made when the documents are finalized. t 1. Watertown Arsenal, Watertown, HA NY.4 Although building 421 was used for AEC

  17. Single Ion Implantation

    ScienceCinema

    Thomas Schenkel

    2010-01-08

    On the equipment needed to implant ions in silicon and other materials. More information: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/f...

  18. Working Group Reports Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle Workshop J. Vitko, Jr.

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    5 Working Group Reports Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle Workshop J. Vitko, Jr. Sandia National Laboratories Livermore, California The Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (UAV) Workshop concentrated on reviewing and refining the science experiments planned for the UAV Demonstration Flights (UDF) scheduled at the Oklahoma Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) in April 1994. These experiments are summarized below. UDF Experiments 1. Clear sky, daylight Scientific questions: Do models and observations agree? Under

  19. Linear-array systems for aerospace NDE

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Robert A.; Willsher, Stephen J.; Bending, Jamie M.

    1999-12-02

    Rapid large-area inspection of composite structures for impact damage and multi-layered aluminum skins for corrosion has been a recognized priority for several years in both military and civil aerospace applications. Approaches to this requirement have followed two clearly different routes: the development of novel large-area inspection systems, and the enhancement of current ultrasonic or eddy-current methods to reduce inspection times. Ultrasonic inspection is possible with standard flaw detection equipment but the addition of a linear ultrasonic array could reduce inspection times considerably. In order to investigate their potential, 9-element and 17-element linear ultrasonic arrays for composites, and 64-element arrays for aluminum skins, have been developed to DERA specifications for use with the ANDSCAN area scanning system. A 5 m{sup 2} composite wing surface has been scanned with a scan resolution of approximately 3 mm in 6 hours. With subsequent software and hardware improvements all four composite wing surfaces (top/bottom, left/right) of a military fighter aircraft can potentially be inspected in less than a day. Array technology has been very widely used in the medical ultrasound field although rarely above 10 MHz, whereas lap-joint inspection requires a pulse center-frequency of 12 to 20 MHz in order to resolve the separate interfaces in the lap joint. A 128 mm-long multi-element array of 5 mmx2 mm ultrasonic elements for use with the ANDSCAN scanning software was produced to a DERA specification by an NDT manufacturer with experience in the medical imaging field. This paper analyses the performance of the transducers that have been produced and evaluates their use in scanning systems of different configurations.

  20. ARM - Field Campaign - Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (UAV) IOP

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsUnmanned Aerospace Vehicle (UAV) IOP Campaign Links ARM UAV Program Science Plan ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (UAV) IOP 1996.09.01 - 1996.09.30 Lead Scientist : John Vitko For data sets, see below. Abstract Fall 1996 Flight Series Campaign Data Sets IOP Participant Data Source Description Final Data Tooman UAV-Altus Order Data Tooman Tw

  1. Hydroxylapatite Otologic Implants

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, A.D.; Lauf, R.J.; Beale, B.; Johnson, R.

    2000-01-01

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (LMER) and Smith and Nephew Richards Inc. of Bartlett, TN, was initiated in March 1997. The original completion date for the Agreement was March 25, 1998. The purpose of this work is to develop and commercialize net shape forming methods for directly creating dense hydroxylapatite (HA) ceramic otologic implants. The project includes three tasks: (1) modification of existing gelcasting formulations to accommodate HA slurries; (2) demonstration of gelcasting to fabricate green HA ceramic components of a size and shape appropriate to otologic implants: and (3) sintering and evaluation of the HA components.

  2. Tissue implantation method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Doss, J.D.

    1979-12-05

    The disclosure describes the implantation of seeds of radioactive material into body tissue utilizing a cannula and anchor containing suture.

  3. Session Papers Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program- Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle: The Follow-On Phase

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Session Papers Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program- Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle: The Follow-On Phase J. Vitko, Jr. ARM-UAV Technical Director Sandia National Laboratories Livermore, California A companion paper ("Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle Workshop," this volume) discusses the initial unmanned aerospace vehicle (UAV) demonstration flights (UDF). These flights are designed to provide an early demonstration of the scientific utility of UAVs by using an existing UAV and instruments

  4. Remote actuated valve implant

    DOEpatents

    McKnight, Timothy E; Johnson, Anthony; Moise, Jr., Kenneth J; Ericson, Milton Nance; Baba, Justin S; Wilgen, John B; Evans, III, Boyd McCutchen

    2014-02-25

    Valve implant systems positionable within a flow passage, the systems having an inlet, an outlet, and a remotely activatable valve between the inlet and outlet, with the valves being operable to provide intermittent occlusion of the flow path. A remote field is applied to provide thermal or magnetic activation of the valves.

  5. Recent developments in graphite. [Use in HTGR and aerospace

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Overall, the HTGR graphite situation is in excellent shape. In both of the critical requirements, fuel blocks and support structures, adequate graphites are at hand and improved grades are sufficiently far along in truncation. In the aerospace field, GraphNOL N3M permits vehicle performance with confidence in trajectories unobtainable with any other existing material. For fusion energy applications, no other graphite can simultaneously withstand both extreme thermal shock and neutron damage. Hence, the material promises to create new markets as well as to offer a better candidate material for existing applications.

  6. UAVs in climate research: The ARM Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, W.R.

    1994-05-01

    In the last year, a Department of Energy/Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program project known as ``ARM-UAV`` has made important progress in developing and demonstrating the utility of unmanned aerospace vehicles as platforms for scientific measurements. Recent accomplishments include a series of flights using an atmospheric research payload carried by a General Atomics Gnat UAV at Edwards AFB, California, and over ground instruments located in north-central Oklahoma. The reminder of this discussion will provide background on the program and describe the recent flights.

  7. Active sensors for health monitoring of aging aerospace structures

    SciTech Connect

    GIURGIUTIU,VICTOR; REDMOND,JAMES M.; ROACH,DENNIS P.; RACKOW,KIRK A.

    2000-03-08

    A project to develop non-intrusive active sensors that can be applied on existing aging aerospace structures for monitoring the onset and progress of structural damage (fatigue cracks and corrosion) is presented. The state of the art in active sensors structural health monitoring and damage detection is reviewed. Methods based on (a) elastic wave propagation and (b) electro-mechanical (NM) impedance technique are sighted and briefly discussed. The instrumentation of these specimens with piezoelectric active sensors is illustrated. The main detection strategies (E/M impedance for local area detection and wave propagation for wide area interrogation) are discussed. The signal processing and damage interpretation algorithms are tuned to the specific structural interrogation method used. In the high-frequency EIM impedance approach, pattern recognition methods are used to compare impedance signatures taken at various time intervals and to identify damage presence and progression from the change in these signatures. In the wave propagation approach, the acoustic-ultrasonic methods identifying additional reflection generated from the damage site and changes in transmission velocity and phase are used. Both approaches benefit from the use of artificial intelligence neural networks algorithms that can extract damage features based on a learning process. Design and fabrication of a set of structural specimens representative of aging aerospace structures is presented. Three built-up specimens, (pristine, with cracks, and with corrosion damage) are used. The specimen instrumentation with active sensors fabricated at the University of South Carolina is illustrated. Preliminary results obtained with the E/M impedance method on pristine and cracked specimens are presented.

  8. Broad beam ion implanter

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.

    1996-10-08

    An ion implantation device for creating a large diameter, homogeneous, ion beam is described, as well as a method for creating same, wherein the device is characterized by extraction of a diverging ion beam and its conversion by ion beam optics to an essentially parallel ion beam. The device comprises a plasma or ion source, an anode and exit aperture, an extraction electrode, a divergence-limiting electrode and an acceleration electrode, as well as the means for connecting a voltage supply to the electrodes. 6 figs.

  9. Broad beam ion implanter

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    1996-01-01

    An ion implantation device for creating a large diameter, homogeneous, ion beam is described, as well as a method for creating same, wherein the device is characterized by extraction of a diverging ion beam and its conversion by ion beam optics to an essentially parallel ion beam. The device comprises a plasma or ion source, an anode and exit aperture, an extraction electrode, a divergence-limiting electrode and an acceleration electrode, as well as the means for connecting a voltage supply to the electrodes.

  10. Implantable medical sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Darrow, Christopher B.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Lane, Stephen M.; Lee, Abraham P.; Wang, Amy W.

    2001-01-01

    An implantable chemical sensor system for medical applications is described which permits selective recognition of an analyte using an expandable biocompatible sensor, such as a polymer, that undergoes a dimensional change in the presence of the analyte. The expandable polymer is incorporated into an electronic circuit component that changes its properties (e.g., frequency) when the polymer changes dimension. As the circuit changes its characteristics, an external interrogator transmits a signal transdermally to the transducer, and the concentration of the analyte is determined from the measured changes in the circuit. This invention may be used for minimally invasive monitoring of blood glucose levels in diabetic patients.

  11. Atmospheric radiation measurement unmanned aerospace vehicle (ARM-UAV) program

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, W.R.

    1996-11-01

    ARM-UAV is part of the multi-agency U.S. Global Change Research Program and is addressing the largest source of uncertainty in predicting climatic response: the interaction of clouds and the sun`s energy in the Earth`s atmosphere. An important aspect of the program is the use of unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs) as the primary airborne platform. The ARM-UAV Program has completed two major flight series: The first series conducted in April, 1994, using an existing UAV (the General Atomics Gnat 750) consisted of eight highly successful flights at the DOE climate site in Oklahoma. The second series conducted in September/October, 1995, using two piloted aircraft (Egrett and Twin Otter), featured simultaneous measurements above and below clouds and in clear sky. Additional flight series are planned to continue study of the cloudy and clear sky energy budget in the Spring and Fall of 1996 over the DOE climate site in Oklahoma. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Compliance with the Aerospace MACT Standard at Lockheed Martin

    SciTech Connect

    Kurucz, K.L.; Vicars, S.; Fetter, S.; Mueller, T.

    1997-12-31

    Actions taken and planned at four Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMC) facilities to comply with the Aerospace MACT Standard are reviewed. Many LMC sites have taken proactive steps to reduce emissions and implement low VOC coating technology. Significant administrative, facility, and material challenges remain to achieve compliance with the upcoming NESHAP and Control Technology Guideline (CTG) standards. The facilities discussed herein set up programs to develop and implement compliance strategies. These facilities manufacture military aircraft, missiles, satellites, rockets, and electronic guidance and communications systems. Some of the facilities are gearing up for new production lines subject to new source MACT standards. At this time the facilities are reviewing compliance status of all primers, topcoats, maskants and solvents subject to the standard. Facility personnel are searching for the most efficient methods of satisfying the recordkeeping, reporting and monitoring, sections of the standards while simultaneously preparing or reviewing their Title V permit applications. Facility decisions on paint booths are the next highest priority. Existing dry filter paint booths will be subject to the filtration standard for existing paint booths which requires the use of two-stage filters. Planned paint booths for the F-22 program, and other new booths must comply with the standard for new and rebuilt booths which requires three stage or HEPA filters. Facilities looking to replace existing water wash paint booths, and those required to retrofit the air handling equipment to accommodate the two-stage filters, are reviewing issues surrounding the rebuilt source definition.

  13. Titanium cholla : lightweight, high-strength structures for aerospace applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, Clinton J.; Voth, Thomas Eugene; Taggart, David G.; Gill, David Dennis; Robbins, Joshua H.; Dewhurst, Peter

    2007-10-01

    Aerospace designers seek lightweight, high-strength structures to lower launch weight while creating structures that are capable of withstanding launch loadings. Most 'light-weighting' is done through an expensive, time-consuming, iterative method requiring experience and a repeated design/test/redesign sequence until an adequate solution is obtained. Little successful work has been done in the application of generalized 3D optimization due to the difficulty of analytical solutions, the large computational requirements of computerized solutions, and the inability to manufacture many optimized structures with conventional machining processes. The Titanium Cholla LDRD team set out to create generalized 3D optimization routines, a set of analytically optimized 3D structures for testing the solutions, and a method of manufacturing these complex optimized structures. The team developed two new computer optimization solutions: Advanced Topological Optimization (ATO) and FlexFEM, an optimization package utilizing the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) software for stress analysis. The team also developed several new analytically defined classes of optimized structures. Finally, the team developed a 3D capability for the Laser Engineered Net Shaping{trademark} (LENS{reg_sign}) additive manufacturing process including process planning for 3D optimized structures. This report gives individual examples as well as one generalized example showing the optimized solutions and an optimized metal part.

  14. Medical implants and methods of making medical implants

    DOEpatents

    Shaw, Wendy J; Yonker, Clement R; Fulton, John L; Tarasevich, Barbara J; McClain, James B; Taylor, Doug

    2014-09-16

    A medical implant device having a substrate with an oxidized surface and a silane derivative coating covalently bonded to the oxidized surface. A bioactive agent is covalently bonded to the silane derivative coating. An implantable stent device including a stent core having an oxidized surface with a layer of silane derivative covalently bonded thereto. A spacer layer comprising polyethylene glycol (PEG) is covalently bonded to the layer of silane derivative and a protein is covalently bonded to the PEG. A method of making a medical implant device including providing a substrate having a surface, oxidizing the surface and reacting with derivitized silane to form a silane coating covalently bonded to the surface. A bioactive agent is then covalently bonded to the silane coating. In particular instances, an additional coating of bio-absorbable polymer and/or pharmaceutical agent is deposited over the bioactive agent.

  15. Implantable biomedical devices on bioresorbable substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, John A; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Omenetto, Fiorenzo; Kaplan, David L; Litt, Brian; Viventi, Jonathan; Huang, Yonggang; Amsden, Jason

    2014-03-04

    Provided herein are implantable biomedical devices, methods of administering implantable biomedical devices, methods of making implantable biomedical devices, and methods of using implantable biomedical devices to actuate a target tissue or sense a parameter associated with the target tissue in a biological environment. Each implantable biomedical device comprises a bioresorbable substrate, an electronic device having a plurality of inorganic semiconductor components supported by the bioresorbable substrate, and a barrier layer encapsulating at least a portion of the inorganic semiconductor components. Upon contact with a biological environment the bioresorbable substrate is at least partially resorbed, thereby establishing conformal contact between the implantable biomedical device and the target tissue in the biological environment.

  16. Pulsed source ion implantation apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    1996-01-01

    A new pulsed plasma-immersion ion-implantation apparatus that implants ions in large irregularly shaped objects to controllable depth without overheating the target, minimizing voltage breakdown, and using a constant electrical bias applied to the target. Instead of pulsing the voltage applied to the target, the plasma source, for example a tungsten filament or a RF antenna, is pulsed. Both electrically conducting and insulating targets can be implanted.

  17. Pulsed source ion implantation apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.

    1996-09-24

    A new pulsed plasma-immersion ion-implantation apparatus that implants ions in large irregularly shaped objects to controllable depth without overheating the target, minimizing voltage breakdown, and using a constant electrical bias applied to the target. Instead of pulsing the voltage applied to the target, the plasma source, for example a tungsten filament or a RF antenna, is pulsed. Both electrically conducting and insulating targets can be implanted. 16 figs.

  18. Controlled ion implant damage profile for etching

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., George W.; Ashby, Carol I. H.; Brannon, Paul J.

    1990-01-01

    A process for etching a material such as LiNbO.sub.3 by implanting ions having a plurality of different kinetic energies in an area to be etched, and then contacting the ion implanted area with an etchant. The various energies of the ions are selected to produce implant damage substantially uniformly throughout the entire depth of the zone to be etched, thus tailoring the vertical profile of the damaged zone.

  19. Implantation, Activation, Characterization and Prevention/Mitigation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Internal Short Circuits in Lithium-Ion Cells Implantation, Activation, Characterization and PreventionMitigation of Internal Short Circuits in Lithium-Ion Cells 2012 ...

  20. Fractional order PID controller for improvement of PMSM speed control in aerospace applications

    SciTech Connect

    Saraji, Ali Motalebi; Ghanbari, Mahmood

    2014-12-10

    Because of the benefits reduced size, cost and maintenance, noise, CO2 emissions and increased control flexibility and precision, to meet these expectations, electrical equipment increasingly utilize in modern aircraft systems and aerospace industry rather than conventional mechanic, hydraulic, and pneumatic power systems. Electric motor drives are capable of converting electrical power to drive actuators, pumps, compressors, and other subsystems at variable speeds. In the past decades, permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and brushless dc (BLDC) motor were investigated for aerospace applications such as aircraft actuators. In this paper, the fractional-order PID controller is used in the design of speed loop of PMSM speed control system. Having more parameters for tuning fractional order PID controller lead to good performance ratio to integer order. This good performance is shown by comparison fractional order PID controller with the conventional PI and tuned PID controller by Genetic algorithm in MATLAB soft wear.

  1. Implantable, remotely-programmable insulin infusion system

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, G.A.; Bair, R.E.; Gaona, J.I. Jr.; Love, J.T.; Urenda, R.S.

    1981-10-01

    An implantable, remotely-programmable insulin infusion system is described which has a mass of 280 grams and an implanted lifetime exceeding two years. The system uses a rotary solenoid-driven peristaltic pump controlled by low power CMOS timing circuitry which provides bimodal insulin delivery. Fifteen low rates from 0.39 to 5.9 units/hour and 15 high doses from 0.84 to 12.5 units are available using U100 insulin. The system has been tested in the laboratory, evaluated in diabetic dogs, and implanted in one diabetic human.

  2. THE AEROSPACE

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... Buflovak Company Curtiss,Wright IMetal Processing Division) ,. ' GleasonWorks- ... Ithaca Gun Company Radiation Applications, Inc. Titanium Alloy Metals Air Force Plant 36 Alba ...

  3. THE AEROSPACE

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... 546) American Machine and Foundry Bliss and Laughlin, Inc. Buflovak Company Curtiss Wright (Metal Processing Division) Gleason Works Ithaca Gun Company Radiation Applications, Inc. ...

  4. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program - unmanned aerospace vehicle: The follow-on phase

    SciTech Connect

    Vitko, J. Jr.

    1995-04-01

    Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (UAV) demonstration flights (UDF) are designed to provide an early demonstration of the scientific utility of UAVs by using an existing UAV and instruments to measure broadband radiative flux profiles under clear sky conditions. UDF is but the first of three phases of ARM-UAV. The second phase significantly extends both the UAV measurement techniques and the available instrumentation to allow both multi-UAV measurements in cloudy skies and extended duration measurements in the tropopause. These activities build naturally to the third and final phase, that of full operational capability, i.e., UAVs capable of autonomous operations at 20-km altitudes for multiple days with a full suite of instrumentation for measuring radiative flux, cloud properties, and water vapor profiles.

  5. Ion sources for ion implantation technology (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Shigeki Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka; Umisedo, Sei; Miyamoto, Naoki

    2014-02-15

    Ion sources for ion implantation are introduced. The technique is applied not only to large scale integration (LSI) devices but also to flat panel display. For LSI fabrication, ion source scheduled maintenance cycle is most important. For CMOS image sensor devices, metal contamination at implanted wafer is most important. On the other hand, to fabricate miniaturized devices, cluster ion implantation has been proposed to make shallow PN junction. While for power devices such as silicon carbide, aluminum ion is required. For doping processes of LCD fabrication, a large ion source is required. The extraction area is about 150 cm 10 cm, and the beam uniformity is important as well as the total target beam current.

  6. Ultrasound image guided acetabular implant orientation during total hip replacement

    DOEpatents

    Chang, John; Haddad, Waleed; Kluiwstra, Jan-Ulco; Matthews, Dennis; Trauner, Kenneth

    2003-08-19

    A system for assisting in precise location of the acetabular implant during total hip replacement. The system uses ultrasound imaging for guiding the placement and orientation of the implant.

  7. Dosimetry implant for treating restenosis and hyperplasia

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Suresh; Gonzales, Gilbert R; Howell, Roger W; Bolch, Wesley E; Adzic, Radoslav

    2014-09-16

    The present invention discloses a method of selectively providing radiation dosimetry to a subject in need of such treatment. The radiation is applied by an implant comprising a body member and .sup.117mSn electroplated at selected locations of the body member, emitting conversion electrons absorbed immediately adjacent selected locations while not affecting surrounding tissue outside of the immediately adjacent area.

  8. Implantable apparatus for localized heating of tissue

    DOEpatents

    Doss, J.D.

    1985-05-20

    With the object of repetitively treating deep-seated, inoperable tumors by hyperthermia as well as locally heating other internal tissue masses repetitively, a receiving antenna, transmission line and electrode arrangement are implanted completely within the patient's body, with the receiving antenna just under the surface of the skin and with the electrode arrangement being located so as to most effectively heat the tissue to be treated. An external, transmitting antenna, driven by an external radio-frequency energy source, is closely coupled to the implanted receiving antenna so that the energy coupled across the air-skin interface provides electromagnetic energy suitable for heating the tissue in the vicinity of the implanted electrodes. The resulting increase in tissue temperature may be estimated by an indirect measurement of the decrease in tissue resistivity in the heat region. This change in resistivity appears as a change in the loading of the receiving antenna which can be measured by either determining the change in the phase relationship between the voltage and the current appearing on the transmitting antenna or by measuring the change in the magnitude of the impedance thereof. Optionally, multiple electrode arrays may be activated or inactivated by the application of magnetic fields to operate implanted magnetic reed swtiches. 5 figs.

  9. Implantable apparatus for localized heating of tissue

    DOEpatents

    Doss, James D.

    1987-01-01

    With the object of repetitively treating deep-seated, inoperable tumors by hyperthermia as well as locally heating other internal tissue masses repetitively, a receiving antenna, transmission line, and electrode arrangment are implanted completely within the patient's body, with the receiving antenna just under the surface of the skin and with the electrode arrangement being located so as to most effectively heat the tissue to be treated. An external, transmitting antenna, driven by an external radio-frequency energy source, is closely coupled to the implanted receiving antenna so that the energy coupled across the air-skin interface provides electromagnetic energy suitable for heating the tissue in the vicinity of the implanted electrodes. The resulting increase in tissue temperature may be estimated by an indirect measurement of the decrease in tissue resistivity in the heated region. This change in resistivity appears as a change in the loading of the receiving antenna which can be measured by either determining the change in the phase relationship between the voltage and the current appearing on the transmitting antenna or by measuring the change in the magnitude of the impedance thereof. Optionally, multiple electrode arrays may be activated or inactivated by the application of magnetic fields to operate implanted magnetic reed switches.

  10. Method for ion implantation induced embedded particle formation via reduction

    DOEpatents

    Hampikian, Janet M; Hunt, Eden M

    2001-01-01

    A method for ion implantation induced embedded particle formation via reduction with the steps of ion implantation with an ion/element that will chemically reduce the chosen substrate material, implantation of the ion/element to a sufficient concentration and at a sufficient energy for particle formation, and control of the temperature of the substrate during implantation. A preferred embodiment includes the formation of particles which are nano-dimensional (<100 m-n in size). The phase of the particles may be affected by control of the substrate temperature during and/or after the ion implantation process.

  11. Modeling the Behaviour of an Advanced Material Based Smart Landing Gear System for Aerospace Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Varughese, Byji; Dayananda, G. N.; Rao, M. Subba

    2008-07-29

    The last two decades have seen a substantial rise in the use of advanced materials such as polymer composites for aerospace structural applications. In more recent years there has been a concerted effort to integrate materials, which mimic biological functions (referred to as smart materials) with polymeric composites. Prominent among smart materials are shape memory alloys, which possess both actuating and sensory functions that can be realized simultaneously. The proper characterization and modeling of advanced and smart materials holds the key to the design and development of efficient smart devices/systems. This paper focuses on the material characterization; modeling and validation of the model in relation to the development of a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) based smart landing gear (with high energy dissipation features) for a semi rigid radio controlled airship (RC-blimp). The Super Elastic (SE) SMA element is configured in such a way that it is forced into a tensile mode of high elastic deformation. The smart landing gear comprises of a landing beam, an arch and a super elastic Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) SMA element. The landing gear is primarily made of polymer carbon composites, which possess high specific stiffness and high specific strength compared to conventional materials, and are therefore ideally suited for the design and development of an efficient skid landing gear system with good energy dissipation characteristics. The development of the smart landing gear in relation to a conventional metal landing gear design is also dealt with.

  12. Bioactive glass coatings for orthopedic metallic implants

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Saiz, Eduardo; Fujino, Sigheru; Oku, Takeo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2003-06-30

    The objective of this work is to develop bioactive glass coatings for metallic orthopedic implants. A new family of glasses in the SiO2-Na2O-K2O-CaO-MgO-P2O5 system has been synthesized and characterized. The glass properties (thermal expansion, softening and transformation temperatures, density and hardness) are in line with the predictions of established empirical models. The optimized firing conditions to fabricate coatings on Ti-based and Co-Cr alloys have been determined and related to the glass properties and the interfacial reactions. Excellent adhesion to alloys has been achieved through the formation of 100-200 nm thick interfacial layers (Ti5Si3 on Ti-based alloys and CrOx on Co-Cr). Finally, glass coatings, approximately 100 mu m thick, have been fabricated onto commercial Ti alloy-based dental implants.

  13. Production of Endohedral Fullerenes by Ion Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Diener, M.D.; Alford, J. M.; Mirzadeh, S.

    2007-05-31

    The empty interior cavity of fullerenes has long been touted for containment of radionuclides during in vivo transport, during radioimmunotherapy (RIT) and radioimaging for example. As the chemistry required to open a hole in fullerene is complex and exceedingly unlikely to occur in vivo, and conformational stability of the fullerene cage is absolute, atoms trapped within fullerenes can only be released during extremely energetic events. Encapsulating radionuclides in fullerenes could therefore potentially eliminate undesired toxicity resulting from leakage and catabolism of radionuclides administered with other techniques. At the start of this project however, methods for production of transition metal and p-electron metal endohedral fullerenes were completely unknown, and only one method for production of endohedral radiofullerenes was known. They therefore investigated three different methods for the production of therapeutically useful endohedral metallofullerenes: (1) implantation of ions using the high intensity ion beam at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Surface Modification and Characterization Research Center (SMAC) and fullerenes as the target; (2) implantation of ions using the recoil energy following alpha decay; and (3) implantation of ions using the recoil energy following neutron capture, using ORNL's High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) as a thermal neutron source. While they were unable to obtain evidence of successful implantation using the ion beam at SMAC, recoil following alpha decay and neutron capture were both found to be economically viable methods for the production of therapeutically useful radiofullerenes. In this report, the procedures for preparing fullerenes containing the isotopes {sup 212}Pb, {sup 212}Bi, {sup 213}Bi, and {sup 177}Lu are described. None of these endohedral fullerenes had ever previously been prepared, and all of these radioisotopes are actively under investigation for RIT. Additionally, the chemistry for

  14. Ultrafine-grained titanium for medical implants

    DOEpatents

    Zhu, Yuntian T.; Lowe, Terry C.; Valiev, Ruslan Z.; Stolyarov, Vladimir V.; Latysh, Vladimir V.; Raab, Georgy J.

    2002-01-01

    We disclose ultrafine-grained titanium. A coarse-grained titanium billet is subjected to multiple extrusions through a preheated equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) die, with billet rotation between subsequent extrusions. The resulting billet is cold processed by cold rolling and/or cold extrusion, with optional annealing. The resulting ultrafine-grained titanium has greatly improved mechanical properties and is used to make medical implants.

  15. Ion implantation and annealing conditions for delamination of silicon layers by hydrogen ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, Tohru; Kakizaki, Yasuo; Kihana, Takeo; Oshima, Sohtaro; Kitamura, Taira; Kajiyama, Kenji; Yoneda, Tomoaki; Sekine, Kohei; Inoue, Morio

    1997-04-01

    The delamination of thin silicon layers by ion implantation and annealing has been studied in H{sup +} implanted silicon layers. Hydrogen ions are implanted into a (100) p-silicon layer through a 100 nm thick oxide layer at 100 keV with different doses ranging from 1.0 {times} 10{sup 16} to 1.0 {times} 10{sup 17} ion/cm{sup 2}. Delamination of thin silicon layers was clearly observed in cross-sectional scanning electron microscope photographs at doses above 5.0 {times} 10{sup 16} ion/cm{sup 2}. The delamination occurs at 485 C with 10 min annealing for an implantation at 5.0 {times} 10{sup 16} ion/cm{sup 2}. This temperature, however, can be reduced to 425 and 400 C by increasing annealing time to 60 and 120 min, respectively. Delamination is closely related to the formation of H-Si defect bonds and the release of a hydrogen atom from these bonds in the hydrogen ion implanted Si layer. Temperature variation of the intensity in the hydrogen desorption shows two intensity peaks at 450 and 650 C.

  16. Method of electroplating a conversion electron emitting source on implant

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Suresh C.; Gonzales, Gilbert R.; Adzic, Radoslav; Meinken, George E.

    2012-02-14

    Methods for preparing an implant coated with a conversion electron emitting source (CEES) are disclosed. The typical method includes cleaning the surface of the implant; placing the implant in an activating solution comprising hydrochloric acid to activate the surface; reducing the surface by H.sub.2 evolution in H.sub.2SO.sub.4 solution; and placing the implant in an electroplating solution that includes ions of the CEES, HCl, H.sub.2SO.sub.4, and resorcinol, gelatin, or a combination thereof. Alternatively, before tin plating, a seed layer is formed on the surface. The electroplated CEES coating can be further protected and stabilized by annealing in a heated oven, by passivation, or by being covered with a protective film. The invention also relates to a holding device for holding an implant, wherein the device selectively prevents electrodeposition on the portions of the implant contacting the device.

  17. On the state of Mn impurity implanted in Si

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, A. F.; Bublik, V. T.; Vdovin, V. I.; Agafonov, Yu. A.; Balagurov, L. A.; Zinenko, V. I.; Kulemanov, I. V.; Shcherbachev, K. D.

    2009-07-15

    The state of manganese impurity in implanted silicon at implantation doses of up to 5 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} has been investigated by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. It is established that, after short-term vacuum annealing at 850{sup o}C, most of the implanted manganese impurities are in microinclusions up to 20 nm in size formed by a tetragonal silicide phase of the Mn{sub 15}Si{sub 26} type.

  18. Porous coatings from wire mesh for bone implants

    DOEpatents

    Sump, Kenneth R.

    1986-01-01

    A method of coating areas of bone implant elements and the resulting implant having a porous coating are described. Preselected surface areas are covered by a preform made from continuous woven lengths of wire. The preform is compressed and heated to assure that diffusion bonding occurs between the wire surfaces and between the surface boundaries of the implant element and the wire surfaces in contact with it. Porosity is achieved by control of the resulting voids between the bonded wire portions.

  19. Passivation layer on polyimide deposited by combined plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition and cathodic vacuum arc technique

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Z. J.; Tay, B. K.; Sze, J. Y.; Ha, P. C. T.

    2007-05-15

    A thin passivation layer of aluminum oxide was deposited on polyimide by using the combined plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII and D) and cathodic vacuum arc technique. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy C 1s spectra showed that the carbonyl bond (C=O) and ether group (C-O-C and C-N-C) presented in pristine polyimide were damaged by implantation of aluminum ions and deposition of an aluminum oxide passivation layer. O 1s and Al 2p spectra confirmed the formation of a thin aluminum oxide passivation layer. This passivation layer can be implemented in aerospace engineering where polyimide may suffer degradation from fast atomic oxygen in the low-earth-orbit environment. To test the protection of this passivation layer to energetic oxygen ions, a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system was used to simulate the oxygen-ion irradiation, and the results showed that a higher weight occurred for passivated samples compared to pristine ones. X-ray diffraction showed that Al peaks were presented on the surface region, but no aluminum oxide peak was detected. The authors then concluded that Al clusters were formed in polyimide besides aluminum oxide, which was in an x-ray amorphous state. Furthermore, contact-angle measurements showed a reduced contact angle for passivated polyimide from a pristine value of 78 deg. to 20 deg. by using deionized water. Several discussions have been made on the surface chemical and structural property changes by using the combined PIII and D and cathodic vacuum arc technique.

  20. Structure-Assisted Functional Anchor Implantation in Robust Metal...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure-Assisted Functional Anchor Implantation in Robust Metal-Organic Frameworks with ... functionality was performed to the functionalized framework via a click reaction. ...

  1. Microstructure evolution in carbon-ion implanted sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Orwa, J. O.; McCallum, J. C.; Jamieson, D. N.; Prawer, S.; Peng, J. L.; Rubanov, S.

    2010-01-15

    Carbon ions of MeV energy were implanted into sapphire to fluences of 1x10{sup 17} or 2x10{sup 17} cm{sup -2} and thermally annealed in forming gas (4% H in Ar) for 1 h. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy results obtained from the lower dose implant showed retention of implanted carbon and accumulation of H near the end of range in the C implanted and annealed sample. Three distinct regions were identified by transmission electron microscopy of the implanted region in the higher dose implant. First, in the near surface region, was a low damage region (L{sub 1}) composed of crystalline sapphire and a high density of plateletlike defects. Underneath this was a thin, highly damaged and amorphized region (L{sub 2}) near the end of range in which a mixture of i-carbon and nanodiamond phases are present. Finally, there was a pristine, undamaged sapphire region (L{sub 3}) beyond the end of range. In the annealed sample some evidence of the presence of diamond nanoclusters was found deep within the implanted layer near the projected range of the C ions. These results are compared with our previous work on carbon implanted quartz in which nanodiamond phases were formed only a few tens of nanometers from the surface, a considerable distance from the projected range of the ions, suggesting that significant out diffusion of the implanted carbon had occurred.

  2. Biocompatible implants and methods of making and attaching the same

    DOEpatents

    Rowley, Adrian P; Laude, Lucien D; Humayun, Mark S; Weiland, James D; Lotfi, Atoosa; Markland, Jr., Francis S

    2014-10-07

    The invention provides a biocompatible silicone implant that can be securely affixed to living tissue through interaction with integral membrane proteins (integrins). A silicone article containing a laser-activated surface is utilized to make the implant. One example is an implantable prosthesis to treat blindness caused by outer retinal degenerative diseases. The device bypasses damaged photoreceptors and electrically stimulates the undamaged neurons of the retina. Electrical stimulation is achieved using a silicone microelectrode array (MEA). A safe, protein adhesive is used in attaching the MEA to the retinal surface and assist in alleviating focal pressure effects. Methods of making and attaching such implants are also provided.

  3. Beryllium-7 Implantation in Plastics for Prosthesis Wear Studies...

    Office of Science (SC)

    Beryllium-7 Implantation in Plastics for Prosthesis Wear Studies Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear ...

  4. Few Electron Quantum Dot coupling to Donor Implanted Electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Few Electron Quantum Dot coupling to Donor Implanted Electron Spins. Abstract not provided. Authors: Rudolph, Martin ; Patrick Harvey-Collard ; Nielsen, Erik ; Gamble, John ...

  5. Ion implantation of highly corrosive electrolyte battery components

    DOEpatents

    Muller, R.H.; Zhang, S.

    1997-01-14

    A method of producing corrosion resistant electrodes and other surfaces in corrosive batteries using ion implantation is described. Solid electrically conductive material is used as the ion implantation source. Battery electrode grids, especially anode grids, can be produced with greatly increased corrosion resistance for use in lead acid, molten salt, and sodium sulfur. 6 figs.

  6. Ion implantation of highly corrosive electrolyte battery components

    DOEpatents

    Muller, Rolf H.; Zhang, Shengtao

    1997-01-01

    A method of producing corrosion resistant electrodes and other surfaces in corrosive batteries using ion implantation is described. Solid electrically conductive material is used as the ion implantation source. Battery electrode grids, especially anode grids, can be produced with greatly increased corrosion resistance for use in lead acid, molten salt, end sodium sulfur.

  7. Process for forming one or more substantially pure layers in substrate material using ion implantation

    DOEpatents

    Musket, Ronald G.; Brown, David W.; Munir, Zuhair A.

    1990-01-01

    A process is disclosed for forming a substantially pure layer of an implantable element in a substrate material by (a) selecting an implantable element and a substrate material to be implanted which, at the temperatures to be used, have limited mutual solubility in one another and do not form any intermediate phases with one another; (b) implanting a sufficient amount of the implantable element in the substrate material to permit formation of the desired substantially pure layer of the implantable element in the substrate material; and (c) annealing the implanted substrate material to form the desired layer. The annealing step may not be required if the desired layer was formed during the implantation.

  8. Development of Linear Mode Detection for Top-down Ion Implantation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    - towards a two donor system in Si SNL nanoImplanter Single ion detectors Deterministic single ion implant Path forward to a two donor system This work was ...

  9. Method of fabricating optical waveguides by ion implantation doping

    DOEpatents

    Appleton, B.R.; Ashley, P.R.; Buchal, C.J.

    1987-03-24

    A method for fabricating high-quality optical waveguides in optical quality oxide crystals by ion implantation doping and controlled epitaxial recrystallization is provided. Masked LiNbO/sub 3/ crystals are implanted with high concentrations of Ti dopant at ion energies of about 360 keV while maintaining the crystal near liquid nitrogen temperature. Ion implantation doping produces an amorphous, Ti-rich nonequilibrium phase in the implanted region. Subsequent thermal annealing in a water-saturated oxygen atmosphere at up to 1000/degree/C produces solid-phase epitaxial regrowth onto the crystalline substrate. A high-quality crystalline layer results which incorporates the Ti into the crystal structure at much higher concentrations than is possible by standard diffusion techniques, and this implanted region has excellent optical waveguiding properties.

  10. Method of fabricating optical waveguides by ion implantation doping

    DOEpatents

    Appleton, Bill R.; Ashley, Paul R.; Buchal, Christopher J.

    1989-01-01

    A method for fabricating high-quality optical waveguides in optical quality oxide crystals by ion implantation doping and controlled epitaxial recrystallization is provided. Masked LiNbO.sub.3 crystals are implanted with high concentrations of Ti dopant at ion energies of about 350 keV while maintaining the crystal near liquid nitrogen temperature. Ion implantation doping produces an amorphous, Ti-rich nonequilibrium phase in the implanted region. Subsequent thermal annealing in a water-saturated oxygen atmosphere at up to 1000.degree. C. produces solid-phase epitaxial regrowth onto the crystalline substrate. A high-quality single crystalline layer results which incorporates the Ti into the crystal structure at much higher concentrations than is possible by standard diffusion techniques, and this implanted region has excellent optical waveguides properties.

  11. Charge state defect engineering of silicon during ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.A.; Ravi, J.; Erokhin, Y.; Rozgonyi, G.A.; White, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    Effects of in situ interventions which alter defect interactions during implantation, and thereby affect the final damage state, have been investigated. Specifically, we examined effects of internal electric fields and charge carrier injection on damage accumulation in Si. First, we implanted H or He ions into diode structures which were either reverse or forward biased during implantation. Second, we implanted B or Si ions into plain Si wafers while illuminating them with UV light. In each case, the overall effect is one of damage reduction. Both the electric field and charge carrier injection effects may be understood as resulting from changes in defect interactions caused in part by changes to the charge state of defects formed during implantation.

  12. Implant for in-vivo parameter monitoring, processing and transmitting

    DOEpatents

    Ericson, Milton N. (Knoxville, TN); McKnight, Timothy E. (Greenback, TN); Smith, Stephen F. (London, TN); Hylton, James O. (Clinton, TN)

    2009-11-24

    The present invention relates to a completely implantable intracranial pressure monitor, which can couple to existing fluid shunting systems as well as other internal monitoring probes. The implant sensor produces an analog data signal which is then converted electronically to a digital pulse by generation of a spreading code signal and then transmitted to a location outside the patient by a radio-frequency transmitter to an external receiver. The implanted device can receive power from an internal source as well as an inductive external source. Remote control of the implant is also provided by a control receiver which passes commands from an external source to the implant system logic. Alarm parameters can be programmed into the device which are capable of producing an audible or visual alarm signal. The utility of the monitor can be greatly expanded by using multiple pressure sensors simultaneously or by combining sensors of various physiological types.

  13. Glass/ceramic coatings for implants

    DOEpatents

    Tomsia, Antoni P.; Saiz, Eduardo; Gomez-Vega, Jose M.; Marshall, Sally J.; Marshall, Grayson W.

    2011-09-06

    Glass coatings on metals including Ti, Ti6A14V and CrCo were prepared for use as implants. The composition of the glasses was tailored to match the thermal expansion of the substrate metal. By controlling the firing atmosphere, time, and temperature, it was possible to control the reactivity between the glass and the alloy and to fabricate coatings (25-150 .mu.m thick) with excellent adhesion to the substrate. The optimum firing temperatures ranged between 800 and 840.degree. C. at times up to 1 min in air or 15 min in N.sub.2. The same basic technique was used to create multilayered coatings with concentration gradients of hydroxyapatite (HA) particles and SiO.sub.2.

  14. Nanocomposite formed by titanium ion implantation into alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Spirin, R. E.; Salvadori, M. C. Teixeira, F. S.; Sgubin, L. G.; Cattani, M.; Brown, I. G.

    2014-11-14

    Composites of titanium nanoparticles in alumina were formed by ion implantation of titanium into alumina, and the surface electrical conductivity measured in situ as the implantation proceeded, thus generating curves of sheet conductivity as a function of dose. The implanted titanium self-conglomerates into nanoparticles, and the spatial dimensions of the buried nanocomposite layer can thus be estimated from the implantation depth profile. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry was performed to measure the implantation depth profile, and was in good agreement with the calculated profile. Transmission electron microscopy of the titanium-implanted alumina was used for direct visualization of the nanoparticles formed. The measured conductivity of the buried layer is explained by percolation theory. We determine that the saturation dose, φ{sub 0}, the maximum implantation dose for which the nanocomposite material still remains a composite, is φ{sub 0} = 2.2 × 10{sup 16 }cm{sup −2}, and the corresponding saturation conductivity is σ{sub 0} = 480 S/m. The percolation dose φ{sub c}, below which the nanocomposite still has basically the conductivity of the alumina matrix, was found to be φ{sub c} = 0.84 × 10{sup 16 }cm{sup −2}. The experimental results are discussed and compared with a percolation theory model.

  15. Implantation conditions for diamond nanocrystal formation in amorphous silica

    SciTech Connect

    Buljan, Maja; Radovic, Iva Bogdanovic; Desnica, Uros V.; Ivanda, Mile; Jaksic, Milko; Saguy, Cecile; Kalish, Rafi; Djerdj, Igor; Tonejc, Andelka; Gamulin, Ozren

    2008-08-01

    We present a study of carbon ion implantation in amorphous silica, which, followed by annealing in a hydrogen-rich environment, leads to preferential formation of carbon nanocrystals with cubic diamond (c-diamond), face-centered cubic (n-diamond), or simple cubic (i-carbon) carbon crystal lattices. Two different annealing treatments were used: furnace annealing for 1 h and rapid thermal annealing for a brief period, which enables monitoring of early nucleation events. The influence of implanted dose and annealing type on carbon and hydrogen concentrations, clustering, and bonding were investigated. Rutherford backscattering, elastic recoil detection analysis, infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, ultraviolet-visible absorption measurements, and Raman spectroscopy were used to study these carbon formations. These results, combined with the results of previous investigations on similar systems, show that preferential formation of different carbon phases (diamond, n-diamond, or i-carbon) depends on implantation energy, implantation dose, and annealing conditions. Diamond nanocrystals formed at a relatively low carbon volume density are achieved by deeper implantation and/or lower implanted dose. Higher volume densities led to n-diamond and finally to i-carbon crystal formation. This observed behavior is related to damage sites induced by implantation. The optical properties of different carbon nanocrystal phases were significantly different.

  16. Ion-implanted planar-buried-heterostructure diode laser

    DOEpatents

    Brennan, Thomas M.; Hammons, Burrell E.; Myers, David R.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    1991-01-01

    A Planar-Buried-Heterostructure, Graded-Index, Separate-Confinement-Heterostructure semiconductor diode laser 10 includes a single quantum well or multi-quantum well active stripe 12 disposed between a p-type compositionally graded Group III-V cladding layer 14 and an n-type compositionally graded Group III-V cladding layer 16. The laser 10 includes an ion implanted n-type region 28 within the p-type cladding layer 14 and further includes an ion implanted p-type region 26 within the n-type cladding layer 16. The ion implanted regions are disposed for defining a lateral extent of the active stripe.

  17. Single ion implantation for solid state quantum computer development

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, Thomas; Meijers, Jan; Persaud, Arun; McDonald, Joseph W.; Holder, Joseph P.; Schneider, Dieter H.

    2001-12-18

    Several solid state quantum computer schemes are based on the manipulation of electron and nuclear spins of single donor atoms in a solid matrix. The fabrication of qubit arrays requires the placement of individual atoms with nanometer precision and high efficiency. In this article we describe first results from low dose, low energy implantations and our development of a low energy (<10 keV), single ion implantation scheme for {sup 31}P{sup q+} ions. When {sup 31}P{sup q+} ions impinge on a wafer surface, their potential energy (9.3 keV for P{sup 15+}) is released, and about 20 secondary electrons are emitted. The emission of multiple secondary electrons allows detection of each ion impact with 100% efficiency. The beam spot on target is controlled by beam focusing and collimation. Exactly one ion is implanted into a selected area avoiding a Poissonian distribution of implanted ions.

  18. Tunnel oxide passivated contacts formed by ion implantation for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Excellent passivation quality is achieved for n-type passivated contacts by P implantations into either intrinsic (undoped) or in-situ B-doped a-Si layers with implied open-circuit ...

  19. Surface acoustic wave probe implant for predicting epileptic seizures

    DOEpatents

    Gopalsami, Nachappa; Kulikov, Stanislav; Osorio, Ivan; Raptis, Apostolos C.

    2012-04-24

    A system and method for predicting and avoiding a seizure in a patient. The system and method includes use of an implanted surface acoustic wave probe and coupled RF antenna to monitor temperature of the patient's brain, critical changes in the temperature characteristic of a precursor to the seizure. The system can activate an implanted cooling unit which can avoid or minimize a seizure in the patient.

  20. Photosensitivity enhancement of PLZT ceramics by positive ion implantation

    DOEpatents

    Peercy, P.S.; Land, C.E.

    1980-06-13

    The photosensitivity of lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) ceramic material used in high resolution, high contrast, and non-volatile photoferroelectric image storage and display devices is enhanced significantly by positive ion implantation of the PLZT near its surface. Ions that are implanted include H/sup +/, He/sup +/, Ar/sup +/, and a preferred co-implant of Ar/sup +/ and Ne/sup +/. The positive ion implantation advantageously serves to shift the band gap energy threshold of the PLZT material from near-uv light to visible blue light. As a result, photosensitivity enhancement is such that the positive ion implanted PLZT plate is sensitive even to sunlight and conventional room lighting, such as fluorescent and incandescent light sources. The method disclosed includes exposing the PLZT plate to these positive ions of sufficient density and with sufficient energy to provide an image. The PLZT material may have a lanthanum content ranging from 5 to 10%; a lead zirconate content ranging from 62 to 70 mole %; and a lead titanate content ranging from 38 to 30%. The region of ion implantation is in a range from 0.1 to 2 microns below the surface of the PLZT plate. Density of ions is in the range from 1 x 10/sup 12/ to 1 x 10/sup 17/ ions/cm/sup 2/ and having an energy in the range from 100 to 500 keV.

  1. Highly Stripped Ion Sources for MeV Ion Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2009-06-30

    Original technical objectives of CRADA number PVI C-03-09 between BNL and Poole Ventura, Inc. (PVI) were to develop an intense, high charge state, ion source for MeV ion implanters. Present day high-energy ion implanters utilize low charge state (usually single charge) ion sources in combination with rf accelerators. Usually, a MV LINAC is used for acceleration of a few rnA. It is desirable to have instead an intense, high charge state ion source on a relatively low energy platform (de acceleration) to generate high-energy ion beams for implantation. This de acceleration of ions will be far more efficient (in energy utilization). The resultant implanter will be smaller in size. It will generate higher quality ion beams (with lower emittance) for fabrication of superior semiconductor products. In addition to energy and cost savings, the implanter will operate at a lower level of health risks associated with ion implantation. An additional aim of the project was to producing a product that can lead to long­ term job creation in Russia and/or in the US. R&D was conducted in two Russian Centers (one in Tomsk and Seversk, the other in Moscow) under the guidance ofPVI personnel and the BNL PI. Multiple approaches were pursued, developed, and tested at various locations with the best candidate for commercialization delivered and tested at on an implanter at the PVI client Axcelis. Technical developments were exciting: record output currents of high charge state phosphorus and antimony were achieved; a Calutron-Bemas ion source with a 70% output of boron ion current (compared to 25% in present state-of-the-art). Record steady state output currents of higher charge state phosphorous and antimony and P ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb {sup 4 +}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. Ultimate commercialization goals did not succeed (even though a number of the products like high

  2. Photosensitivity enhancement of PLZT ceramics by positive ion implantation

    DOEpatents

    Land, Cecil E.; Peercy, Paul S.

    1983-01-01

    The photosensitivity of lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) ceramic material used in high resolution, high contrast, and non-volatile photoferroelectric image storage and display devices is enhanced significantly by positive ion implantation of the PLZT near its surface. Implanted ions include H.sup.+, He.sup.+, Ne.sup.+, Ar.sup.+, as well as chemically reactive ions from Fe, Cr, and Al. The positive ion implantation advantageously serves to shift the absorption characteristics of the PLZT material from near-UV light to visible light. As a result, photosensitivity enhancement is such that the positive ion implanted PLZT plate is sensitive even to sunlight and conventional room lighting, such as fluorescent and incandescent light sources. The method disclosed includes exposing the PLZT plate to the positive ions at sufficient density, from 1.times.10.sup.12 to 1.times.10.sup.17, and with sufficient energy, from 100 to 500 KeV, to provide photosensitivity enhancement. The PLZT material may have a lanthanum content ranging from 5 to 10%, a lead zirconate content of 62 to 70 mole %, and a lead titanate content of 38 to 30%. The ions are implanted at a depth of 0.1 to 2 microns below the surface of the PLZT plate.

  3. High concentration of deuterium in palladium from plasma ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, H.S.; Lee, W.M. )

    1991-11-01

    Based on a theoretical calculation, a new scheme to increase deuterium density in palladium over its initial value is presented. This deuterium enrichment scheme makes use of plasma ion implantation. A cylindrical palladium rod (target) preloaded with deuterium atoms, coated with a diffusion-barrier material, is immersed in a deuterium plasma. The palladium rod is connected to a high-power modulator which provides a series of negative-voltage pulses. During these negative pulses, deuterium ions fall into the target, penetrate the diffusion barrier, and are implanted inside the palladium. For reasonable system parameters allowed by present technology, it is found from theoretical calculations that the saturation deuterium density after prolonged ion implantation can be several times the palladium atomic number density. Assuming an initial deuterium density, {ital n}{sub 0}=4{times}10{sup 22} cm{sup {minus}3}, it is also found that the deuterium density in palladium can triple its original value within a few days of the ion implantation for a reasonable target size. Because of the small diffusion coefficient in palladium, the incoming ions do not diffuse quickly inward, thereby accumulating near the target surface at the beginning of the implantation.

  4. Ion Implanted Passivated Contacts for Interdigitated Back Contacted Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Young, David L.; Nemeth, William; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Reedy, Robert; Bateman, Nicholas; Stradins, Pauls

    2015-06-14

    We describe work towards an interdigitated back contacted (IBC) solar cell utilizing ion implanted, passivated contacts. Formation of electron and hole passivated contacts to n-type CZ wafers using tunneling SiO2 and ion implanted amorphous silicon (a-Si) are described. P and B were ion implanted into intrinsic amorphous Si films at several doses and energies. A series of post-implant anneals showed that the passivation quality improved with increasing annealing temperatures up to 900 degrees C. The recombination parameter, Jo, as measured by a Sinton lifetime tester, was Jo ~ 14 fA/cm2 for Si:P, and Jo ~ 56 fA/cm2 for Si:B contacts. The contact resistivity for the passivated contacts, as measured by TLM patterns, was 14 milliohm-cm2 for the n-type contact and 0.6 milliohm-cm2 for the p-type contact. These Jo and pcontact values are encouraging for forming IBC cells using ion implantation to spatially define dopants.

  5. Propulsion and Power Generation Capabilities of a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) Fusion System for Future Military Aerospace Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Knecht, Sean D.; Mead, Franklin B.; Miley, George H.; Froning, David

    2006-01-20

    The objective of this study was to perform a parametric evaluation of the performance and interface characteristics of a dense plasma focus (DPF) fusion system in support of a USAF advanced military aerospace vehicle concept study. This vehicle is an aerospace plane that combines clean 'aneutronic' dense plasma focus (DPF) fusion power and propulsion technology, with advanced 'lifting body'-like airframe configurations utilizing air-breathing MHD propulsion and power technology within a reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle. The applied approach was to evaluate the fusion system details (geometry, power, T/W, system mass, etc.) of a baseline p-11B DPF propulsion device with Q = 3.0 and thruster efficiency, {eta}prop = 90% for a range of thrust, Isp and capacitor specific energy values. The baseline details were then kept constant and the values of Q and {eta}prop were varied to evaluate excess power generation for communication systems, pulsed-train plasmoid weapons, ultrahigh-power lasers, and gravity devices. Thrust values were varied between 100 kN and 1,000 kN with Isp of 1,500 s and 2,000 s, while capacitor specific energy was varied from 1 - 15 kJ/kg. Q was varied from 3.0 to 6.0, resulting in gigawatts of excess power. Thruster efficiency was varied from 0.9 to 1.0, resulting in hundreds of megawatts of excess power. Resulting system masses were on the order of 10's to 100's of metric tons with thrust-to-weight ratios ranging from 2.1 to 44.1, depending on capacitor specific energy. Such a high thrust/high Isp system with a high power generation capability would allow military versatility in sub-orbital space, as early as 2025, and beyond as early as 2050. This paper presents the results that coincide with a total system mass between 15 and 20 metric tons.

  6. Magnetic Processing A Pervasive Energy Efficient Technology for Next Generation Materials for Aerospace and Specialty Steel Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Ludtka, G.M.; Ray, P.; Magee, J.

    2010-09-10

    Thermomagnetic Magnetic Processing is an exceptionally fertile, pervasive and cross-cutting technology that is just now being recognized by several major industry leaders for its significant potential to increase energy efficiency and materials performance for a myriad of energy intensive industries in a variety of areas and applications. ORNL has pioneered the use and development of large magnetic fields in thermomagnetically processing (T-MP) materials for altering materials phase equilibria and transformation kinetics. ORNL has discovered that using magnetic fields, we can produce unique materials responses. T-MP can produce unique phase stabilities & microstructures with improved materials performance for structural and functional applications not achieved with traditional processing techniques. These results suggest that there are unprecedented opportunities to produce significantly enhanced materials properties via atomistic level (nano-) microstructural control and manipulation. ORNL (in addition to others) have shown that grain boundary chemistry and precipitation kinetics are also affected by large magnetic fields. This CRADA has taken advantage of ORNLs unique, custom-designed thermo-magnetic, 9 Tesla superconducting magnet facility that enables rapid heating and cooling of metallic components within the magnet bore; as well as ORNLs expertise in high magnetic field (HMF) research. Carpenter Technologies, Corp., is a a US-based industrial company, that provides enhanced performance alloys for the Aerospace and Specialty Steel products. In this CRADA, Carpenter Technologies, Corp., is focusing on applying ORNLs Thermomagnetic Magnetic Processing (TMP) technology to improve their current and future proprietary materials product performance and open up new markets for their Aerospace and Specialty Steel products. Unprecedented mechanical property performance improvements have been demonstrated for a high strength bainitic alloy industrial

  7. Electrical characterization of ion-implanted 4H-silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Morath, C.P.

    1999-03-01

    Electrical characterization has been performed on ion-implanted p-type 4H-SiC to assess the activation efficiency and implantation-related damage recrystallization with the intention of developing an implantation/annealing scheme. Low doped (Na-Nd = 5{times}10(sup 15)/cu cm) epitaxial p-type layers grown by MOCVD were implanted with Al or B at doses ranging from 1{times}10(sup 13) to 1{times}10(sup 14)/sq cm at room temperature or 500 C. The electrical technique of Temperature Dependent Hall Effect (TDHE) indicated that Al and B act as shallow acceptors 4H-SiC with ionization energies of 252 and 285 meV, respectively. The highest activation efficiency for Al and B implanted samples was found to occur at anneal temperatures of 1650 C and 1550 C, respectively. The implantation dose resulting in the highest concentration for Al and B implantation was found to be 3{times}10(sup 13)/sq cm. An average peak mobility of 200 sq cm/ V s was found for an Al implanted sample; this is considerably higher than the average peak mobility for the B implanted samples, 100 sq cm/ V s. No significant gains in activation efficiency or mobility were evident with high temperature implantation compared to the room temperature implantation. Overall, Al implantation of 4H-SiC appears superior with regard to these properties compared to B implantation.

  8. Method and apparatus for plasma source ion implantation

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, John R.

    1988-01-01

    Ion implantation into surfaces of three-dimensional targets is achieved by forming an ionized plasma about the target within an enclosing chamber and applying a pulse of high voltage between the target and the conductive walls of the chamber. Ions from the plasma are driven into the target object surfaces from all sides simultaneously without the need for manipulation of the target object. Repetitive pulses of high voltage, typically 20 kilovolts or higher, causes the ions to be driven deeply into the target. The plasma may be formed of a neutral gas introduced into the evacuated chamber and ionized therein with ionizing radiation so that a constant source of plasma is provided which surrounds the target object during the implantation process. Significant increases in the surface hardness and wear characteristics of various materials are obtained with ion implantation in this manner.

  9. Method and apparatus for plasma source ion implantation

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, J.R.

    1988-08-16

    Ion implantation into surfaces of three-dimensional targets is achieved by forming an ionized plasma about the target within an enclosing chamber and applying a pulse of high voltage between the target and the conductive walls of the chamber. Ions from the plasma are driven into the target object surfaces from all sides simultaneously without the need for manipulation of the target object. Repetitive pulses of high voltage, typically 20 kilovolts or higher, causes the ions to be driven deeply into the target. The plasma may be formed of a neutral gas introduced into the evacuated chamber and ionized therein with ionizing radiation so that a constant source of plasma is provided which surrounds the target object during the implantation process. Significant increases in the surface hardness and wear characteristics of various materials are obtained with ion implantation in this manner. 7 figs.

  10. A micro-structured ion-implanted magnonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Obry, Bjoern; Pirro, Philipp; Chumak, Andrii V.; Ciubotaru, Florin; Serga, Alexander A.; Hillebrands, Burkard; Braecher, Thomas; Graduate School Materials Science in Mainz, D-67663 Kaiserslautern ; Osten, Julia; Fassbender, Juergen

    2013-05-20

    We investigate spin-wave propagation in a microstructured magnonic-crystal waveguide fabricated by localized ion implantation. The irradiation caused a periodic variation in the saturation magnetization along the waveguide. As a consequence, the spin-wave transmission spectrum exhibits a set of frequency bands, where spin-wave propagation is suppressed. A weak modification of the saturation magnetization by 7% is sufficient to decrease the spin-wave transmission in the band gaps by a factor of 10. These results evidence the applicability of localized ion implantation for the fabrication of efficient micron- and nano-sized magnonic crystals for magnon spintronic applications.

  11. Process for forming one or more substantially pure layers in substrate material using ion implantation

    DOEpatents

    Musket, Ronald G.; Brown, David W.; Munir, Zuhair A.

    1992-01-01

    A process is disclosed for forming a substantially pure monocrystalline layer of an implantable element in a monocrystalline substrate material by (a) selecting an implantable element and a monocrystalline substrate material to be implanted which, at the temperatures to be used, have limited mutual solubility in one another and do not form any intermediate phases with one another; (b) implanting a sufficient amount of the implantable element in the substrate material to permit formation of the desired substantially pure layer of the implantable element in the substrate material; and (c) annealing the implanted substrate material to form the desired layer. The annealing step may not be required if the desired layer was formed during the implantation. Also disclosed is an article made by the process.

  12. Process for forming one or more substantially pure layers in substrate material using ion implantation

    DOEpatents

    Musket, R.G.; Brown, D.W.; Munir, Z.A.

    1990-12-11

    A process is disclosed for forming a substantially pure layer of an implantable element in a substrate material by (a) selecting an implantable element and a substrate material to be implanted which, at the temperatures to be used, have limited mutual solubility in one another and do not form any intermediate phases with one another; (b) implanting a sufficient amount of the implantable element in the substrate material to permit formation of the desired substantially pure layer of the implantable element in the substrate material; and (c) annealing the implanted substrate material to form the desired layer. The annealing step may not be required if the desired layer was formed during the implantation. 2 figs.

  13. Role of strain in the blistering of hydrogen-implanted silicon (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Role of strain in the blistering of hydrogen-implanted silicon Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Role of strain in the blistering of hydrogen-implanted silicon The authors investigated the physical mechanisms underlying blistering in hydrogen-implanted silicon by examining the correlation between implantation induced damage, strain distribution, and vacancy diffusion. Using Rutherford backscattering, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force

  14. In-vivo orthopedic implant diagnostic device for sensing load, wear, and infection

    DOEpatents

    Evans, III, Boyd McCutchen; Thundat, Thomas G.; Komistek, Richard D.; Dennis, Douglas A.; Mahfouz, Mohamed

    2006-08-29

    A device for providing in vivo diagnostics of loads, wear, and infection in orthopedic implants having at least one load sensor associated with the implant, at least one temperature sensor associated with the implant, at least one vibration sensor associated with the implant, and at least one signal processing device operatively coupled with the sensors. The signal processing device is operable to receive the output signal from the sensors and transmit a signal corresponding with the output signal.

  15. Characterization of carbon ion implantation induced graded microstructure and phase transformation in stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Kai; Wang, Yibo; Li, Zhuguo; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-08-15

    Austenitic stainless steel 316L is ion implanted by carbon with implantation fluences of 1.2 × 10{sup 17} ions-cm{sup −} {sup 2}, 2.4 × 10{sup 17} ions-cm{sup −} {sup 2}, and 4.8 × 10{sup 17} ions-cm{sup −} {sup 2}. The ion implantation induced graded microstructure and phase transformation in stainless steel is investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The corrosion resistance is evaluated by potentiodynamic test. It is found that the initial phase is austenite with a small amount of ferrite. After low fluence carbon ion implantation, an amorphous layer and ferrite phase enriched region underneath are formed. Nanophase particles precipitate from the amorphous layer due to energy minimization and irradiation at larger ion implantation fluence. The morphology of the precipitated nanophase particles changes from circular to dumbbell-like with increasing implantation fluence. The corrosion resistance of stainless steel is enhanced by the formation of amorphous layer and graphitic solid state carbon after carbon ion implantation. - Highlights: • Carbon implantation leads to phase transformation from austenite to ferrite. • The passive film on SS316L becomes thinner after carbon ion implantation. • An amorphous layer is formed by carbon ion implantation. • Nanophase precipitate from amorphous layer at higher ion implantation fluence. • Corrosion resistance of SS316L is improved by carbon implantation.

  16. Surgical implantation techniques for electronic tags in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Glenn N.; Cooke, Steven J.; Brown, Richard S.; Deters, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Intracoelomic implantation of transmitters into fish requires making a surgical incision, incision closure, and other surgery related techniques; however, the tools and techniques used in the surgical process vary widely. We review the available literature and focus on tools and techniques used for conducting surgery on juvenile salmonids because of the large amount of research that is conducted on them. The use of sterilized surgical instruments properly selected for a given size of fish will minimize tissue damage and infection rates, and speed the wound healing of fish implanted with transmitters. For the implantation of transmitters into small fish, the optimal surgical methods include making an incision on the ventral midline along the linea alba (for studies under 1 month), protecting the viscera (by lifting the skin with forceps while creating the incision), and using absorbable monofilament suture with a small-swaged-on swaged-on tapered or reverse-cutting needle. Standardizing the implantation techniques to be used in a study involving particular species and age classes of fish will improve survival and transmitter retention while allowing for comparisons to be made among studies and across multiple years. This review should be useful for researchers working on juvenile salmonids and other sizes and species of fish.

  17. Epitaxial silicide formation on recoil-implanted substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Shin; Egashira, Kyoko; Tanaka, Tomoya; Etoh, Ryuji; Hata, Yoshifumi; Tung, R. T.

    2005-01-15

    An epitaxy-on-recoil-implanted-substrate (ERIS) technique is presented. A disordered surface layer, generated by forward recoil implantation of {approx}0.7-3x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} of oxygen during Ar plasma etching of surface oxide, is shown to facilitate the subsequent epitaxial growth of {approx}25-35-nm-thick CoSi{sub 2} layers on Si(100). The dependence of the epitaxial fraction of the silicide on the recoil-implantation parameters is studied in detail. A reduction in the silicide reaction rate due to recoil-implanted oxygen is shown to be responsible for the observed epitaxial formation, similar to mechanisms previously observed for interlayer-mediated growth techniques. Oxygen is found to remain inside the fully reacted CoSi{sub 2} layer, likely in the form of oxide precipitates. The presence of these oxide precipitates, with only a minor effect on the sheet resistance of the silicide layer, has a surprisingly beneficial effect on the thermal stability of the silicide layers. The agglomeration of ERIS-grown silicide layers on polycrystalline Si is significantly suppressed, likely from a reduced diffusivity due to oxygen in the grain boundaries. The implications of the present technique for the processing of deep submicron devices are discussed.

  18. Method for implantation of high dopant concentrations in wide band gap materials

    DOEpatents

    Usov, Igor; Arendt, Paul N.

    2009-09-15

    A method that combines alternate low/medium ion dose implantation with rapid thermal annealing at relatively low temperatures. At least one dopant is implanted in one of a single crystal and an epitaxial film of the wide band gap compound by a plurality of implantation cycles. The number of implantation cycles is sufficient to implant a predetermined concentration of the dopant in one of the single crystal and the epitaxial film. Each of the implantation cycles includes the steps of: implanting a portion of the predetermined concentration of the one dopant in one of the single crystal and the epitaxial film; annealing one of the single crystal and the epitaxial film and implanted portion at a predetermined temperature for a predetermined time to repair damage to one of the single crystal and the epitaxial film caused by implantation and activates the implanted dopant; and cooling the annealed single crystal and implanted portion to a temperature of less than about 100.degree. C. This combination produces high concentrations of dopants, while minimizing the defect concentration.

  19. Modification of the optical properties of ZnO thin films by proton implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, Yong Ju; Park, Jun Kue; Lee, W.; Lee, Cheol Eui; Park, W.

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ► Optical properties of proton-implanted ZnO thin film prepared by rf magneton sputtering were studied. ► Increase in the ordinary refractive index after proton implantation was explained by the polarizability. ► A slight decrease in the optical bandgap by proton implantation was identified. -- Abstract: Optical properties of proton-implanted ZnO thin film prepared by radio-frequency (rf) magneton sputtering have been studied, the optical constants being obtained from the reflectance measurements by employing Cauchy–Urbach model. Increase in the ordinary refractive index after proton implantation was explained by that in the polarizability. Besides, a slight increase in the optical band gap by proton implantation was identified and discussed in terms of the hydrogen shallow donors introduced by the proton implantation.

  20. Method of making silicon on insalator material using oxygen implantation

    DOEpatents

    Hite, Larry R.; Houston, Ted; Matloubian, Mishel

    1989-01-01

    The described embodiments of the present invention provide a semiconductor on insulator structure providing a semiconductor layer less susceptible to single event upset errors (SEU) due to radiation. The semiconductor layer is formed by implanting ions which form an insulating layer beneath the surface of a crystalline semiconductor substrate. The remaining crystalline semiconductor layer above the insulating layer provides nucleation sites for forming a crystalline semiconductor layer above the insulating layer. The damage caused by implantation of the ions for forming an insulating layer is left unannealed before formation of the semiconductor layer by epitaxial growth. The epitaxial layer, thus formed, provides superior characteristics for prevention of SEU errors, in that the carrier lifetime within the epitaxial layer, thus formed, is less than the carrier lifetime in epitaxial layers formed on annealed material while providing adequate semiconductor characteristics.

  1. Medium and high energy phosphorus implants into silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, P.M.; Lavine, J.P.; Zheng, L.

    1996-12-31

    The present investigation explores MeV phosphorus implants into silicon through an oxide. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) provides the experimental depth profiles, which are compared to simulations that include the crystal structure. The calculated results are noticeably shallower than the data. The experimental results do not agree with depth profiles based on published moments. The effect of the oxide thickness is studied with the aid of the simulations and the trends of the moments with oxide thickness are presented.

  2. Ion Implanted Contacts to Semiconductor Devices - Energy Innovation Portal

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Ion Implanted Contacts to Semiconductor Devices National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary To improve solar cell conversion efficiency, researchers have been focused on making improvements to cell contacts in order to decrease the level of carrier recombination at the cell interface. One way to reduce carrier recombination is to passivate the surface of the cell. Surface passivation generally involves either applying another material onto

  3. Observations of Ag diffusion in ion implanted SiC

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Gerczak, Tyler J.; Leng, Bin; Sridharan, Kumar; Jerry L. Hunter, Jr.; Giordani, Andrew J.; Allen, Todd R.

    2015-03-17

    The nature and magnitude of Ag diffusion in SiC has been a topic of interest in connection with the performance of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel for high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Ion implantation diffusion couples have been revisited to continue developing a more complete understanding of Ag fission product diffusion in SiC. Ion implantation diffusion couples fabricated from single crystal 4H-SiC and polycrystalline 3C-SiC substrates and exposed to 1500–1625°C, were investigated in this study by transmission electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The high dynamic range of SIMS allowed for multiple diffusion régimes to be investigated,more » including enhanced diffusion by implantation-induced defects and grain boundary (GB) diffusion in undamaged SiC. Lastly, estimated diffusion coefficients suggest GB diffusion in bulk SiC does not properly describe the release observed from TRISO fuel.« less

  4. THE AEROSPACE CORPORATION

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    a "Disclaimer of Other Provisions of the,Law" invoked by the President under authority ... Disclaimer of Other Provisions of the Law, indicates that the contract was entered ...

  5. THE AEROSPACE CORPORATION ,'

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... New York is directed by the Public Health Law to take cognizance of the interests of ... Health prescribed by law and is directed to enforce the Public Health Law and the State ...

  6. THE AEROSPACE CORPORATION /

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... Operations Office revealed five additional colleges and universities that performed research in support of Hanford's Division of Biology and Medicine and Division of Research. ...

  7. THE AEROSPACE CORPORATION

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... Operations Office revealed five additional colleges and universities that performed research in support of Hanford's Division of Biology and Medicine and Division of Research. ...

  8. THE AEROSPACE CORPORATION

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... Operations Office revealed five additiona' colleges and universities that performed research in support of Hanfoi Division of Biology and Medicine and Division of Research. ...

  9. THE AEROSPACE CORPORATION

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... Operations Office revealed five additional colleges and universities that performed research insupport of Hanford's Division of Biology and Medicine and Division of Research. ...

  10. THE AEROSPACE CORPORATION

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... Operations Office revealed five additional colleges and universities that performed research in,support of Hanford's Division of Biology and Medicine and Division of Research. ...

  11. THE AEROSPACE CORPORATION

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    SLATER STEELS CORPORATION) FORT WAYNE, INDIANA Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology Division of Facility and Site ...

  12. THE AEROSPACE CORPORATION 1

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    1 e 20030 Century Blvd., Germantown, Maryland 20767, Telephone: (301) 428-2700 7963-02.81.aw.05 20 January 1981 Dr. William E. Mott, Director Environmental & Safety Engineering Division U.S. Department of Energy Germantown, Maryland 20767 Dear Dr. Mott: INVESTIGATIONS OF RECORDS ON THE FORMER VULCAN CRUCIBLE SITE, ALIQUIPPA, PA. AND THE NATIONAL GUARD ARMORY, CHICAGO, IL In your comments of 12 January 1981, regarding the Argonne survey report for Vulcan Crucible Steel Co., Argonne was

  13. THE AEROSPACE CORPORATION

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... BE INCLUDED IN FUSRAP. CONTRACT STANARD OIL OF IIANA IN B-10 PLANT DEVELOPMENT (BOlRN) ... INDICATE tED ACTIVITIES WERE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF HEAVY WATER. THERE IS NO INDICATION ...

  14. THE AEROSPACE CORPORATION

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... West Lake Landfill Nebraska Nuclear Power Facility New Brunswick Laboratory U.S. Radium Corporation LASL Land Parcels (9) Project Gnome Site Trinity Test Site Nuclear Rocket Dev. ...

  15. THE AEROSPACE CORPORATION

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... ' Y. U.S. Radium Corporation LASL Land Parcels (9) Orange, NJ Los Alamos, Nk Project Gnome Site Carlsbad, NM Trinity Test Site White Sands,'NFi Nuclear Rocket Dev..Station ...

  16. THE AEROSPACE CORPORATION

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... U.S. Radium Corporation LASL Land Parcels (9) Project Gnome Site Trinity Test Site LOCATION Grand Junction, CO Slick Rock, CO Ames, IA West Chicago, IL Kansas City, MO St. ...

  17. THE AEROSPACE CORPORATION

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... The first 100 tons was reportedly moved by lighter of the Lehigh Valley Railroad for shipment to Port Hope for refining by the Eldorado Mining Company. The U.S. Government took ...

  18. THE AEROSPACE CORPORATION

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    The period of time the processing was performed is not known. The site also conducted developed research for the VCA processing plants at Naturita and Mexican Hat. The work was ...

  19. THE AEROSPACE CORPORATION

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... -' ;I'1 'Sng to <-)cyer>e s::ch l'l::-Atj.r.hT E.TnounL, 'q such sun as it stiy:b.tc:. i? ... and has been negotiated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1946; 2. Paragraph 5 of Article XT ...

  20. THE AEROSPACE CORPORATION

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... 546) American Machine and Foundry Bliss and Laughlin, Inc. Buflovak Company Curtiss Wright (Metal Processing Division) Gleason Works Ithaca Gun Company Radiation Applications, Inc. ...

  1. THE AEROSPACE CORPORATION

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    4000, 955 L' Enfant Plaza, S. W., Washington, D. C. 20024, Telephone: (202) 488-6000 7117-01.85.brf.52 20 November 1985 Mr. Arthur Whitman, NE-23 Division of Facility & Site...

  2. Annealing Behavior of Ion-implanted Nitrogen in D9 Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Arunkumar, J.; David, C.; Nair, K. G. M.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Magudapathy, P.; Kennedy, John

    2011-07-15

    Nitrogen isotope N{sup 15} was implanted at the sub-surface of D9 steel. The resonance nuclear reaction analysis was used to probe the implanted nitrogen as a function of depth. The as-implanted D9 sample was isochronally annealed and by observing the broadening of nitrogen depth profile at various annealing junctures, activation energy for nitrogen diffusion in steel was deduced.

  3. Development of Steel Fastener Nano-Ceramic Coatings for Corrosion...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    12 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting lm052osborne2012o.pdf (589.24 KB) More Documents & ...

  4. Ion Sources for High Energy Ion Implantation at BNL | U.S. DOE...

    Office of Science (SC)

    Ion Sources for High Energy Ion Implantation at BNL Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science ...

  5. Synergistic Effects of Iodine and Silver Ions Co-Implanted in 6H-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhudzai, Remeredzai J.; Malherbe, Johan; Hlatshwayo, T. T.; van der Berg, N. G.; Devaraj, Arun; Zhu, Zihua; Nandasiri, Manjula I.

    2015-10-23

    Motivated by the aim of understanding the release of fission products through the SiC coating of fuel kernels in modern high temperature nuclear reactors, a fundamental investigation is conducted to understand the synergistic effects of implanted silver (Ag) and iodine (I) in 6H-SiC. The implantation of the individual species, as well as the co-implantation of 360 keV ions of I and Ag at room temperature in 6H-SiC and their subsequent annealing behavior has been investigated by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), Atom Probe Tomography (APT) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). SIMS and APT measurements indicated the presence of Ag in the co-implanted samples after annealing at 1500 ºC for 30 hours in sharp contrast to the samples implanted with Ag only. In samples implanted with Ag only, complete loss of the implanted Ag was observed. However, for I only implanted samples, some iodine was retained. APT of annealed co-implanted 6H-SiC showed clear spatial association of Ag and I clusters in SiC, which can be attributed to the observed I assisted retention of Ag after annealing. Such detailed studies will be necessary to identify the fundamental mechanism of fission products migration through SiC coatings.

  6. Characterization of an RF plasma ion source for ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Kopalidis, Peter M.; Wan Zhimin

    2012-11-06

    A novel inductively coupled RF plasma ion source has been developed for use in a beamline ion implanter. Ion density data have been taken with an array of four Langmuir probes spaced equally at the source extraction arc slit. These provide ion density uniformity information as a function of source pressure, RF power and gas mixture composition. In addition, total extracted ion beam current data are presented for the same conditions. The comparative advantages of the RF source in terms of higher beam current, reduced maintenance and overall productivity improvement compared to a hot cathode source are discussed.

  7. High-Tech Brain Implant Predicts, Prevents Epileptic Seizures

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    (ANL-IN-08-043) - Energy Innovation Portal High-Tech Brain Implant Predicts, Prevents Epileptic Seizures (ANL-IN-08-043) Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology <p> Prototype of a seven-element cooling probe with cooling head containing inlet and outlet reservoirs for coolant flow.</p> Prototype of a seven-element cooling probe with cooling head containing inlet and outlet reservoirs for coolant flow. Technology Marketing Summary Epilepsy, a seizure

  8. FeN foils by nitrogen ion-implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yanfeng; Wang, Jian-Ping; Al Mehedi, Md; Fu, Engang; Wang, Yongqiang

    2014-05-07

    Iron nitride samples in foil shape (free standing, 500 nm in thickness) were prepared by a nitrogen ion-implantation method. To facilitate phase transformation, the samples were bonded on the substrate followed by a post-annealing step. By using two different substrates, single crystal Si and GaAs, structural and magnetic properties of iron nitride foil samples prepared with different nitrogen ion fluences were characterized. α″-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} phase in iron nitride foil samples was obtained and confirmed by the proposed approach. A hard magnetic property with coercivity up to 780 Oe was achieved for the FeN foil samples bonded on Si substrate. The feasibility of using nitrogen ion implantation techniques to prepare FeN foil samples up to 500 nm thickness with a stable martensitic phase under high ion fluences has been demonstrated. A possible mechanism was proposed to explain this result. This proposed method could potentially be an alternative route to prepare rare-earth-free FeN bulk magnets by stacking and pressing multiple free-standing thick α″-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} foils together.

  9. Properties of nitrogen implanted and electron beam annealed bulk ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, J.; Carder, D. A.; Markwitz, A.; Reeves, R. J.

    2010-05-15

    The optical properties of bulk ZnO ion implanted with nitrogen ions, at an energy of 23 keV have been studied as a function of implantation fluence and electron beam (EB) annealing conditions. Nuclear reaction analysis and Raman results have revealed the implanted N concentration and its structural changes with respect to various nitrogen ion fluences. The optical properties of nitrogen implanted bulk ZnO were investigated by low temperature photoluminescence measurements. An enhanced peak at 3.235 eV has been attributed to donor-accepter pair (DAP) emission involving the implanted N acceptor in ZnO. The emission near 3.3085 eV is attributed to a free electron to acceptor transition. We also report a broad band emission feature at {approx}3.09 eV in the nitrogen implanted with 1-2x10{sup 15} ions cm{sup -2} and EB annealed at 800-900 deg. C. This is assigned to a thermally activated nitrogen acceptor transition as it is unique only to nitrogen implanted samples. An ionization energy of 377 meV indicates that this line may correspond to a significantly less shallow acceptor level. In addition an increase in the intensity and dominance of this DAP line in nitrogen implanted samples over the other acceptor transitions was observed with increasing annealing time and temperatures. It is shown that EB annealing offers a method of enhanced nitrogen activation when compared to a more conventional furnace approach.

  10. Mass and charge overlaps in beamline implantation into compound semiconductor materials

    SciTech Connect

    Current, M. I.; Eddy, R.; Hudak, C.; Serfass, J.; Mount, G.

    2012-11-06

    Mass overlaps occurring as a result of extraction of ions from an arc discharge and gas collisions, producing molecular break up and charge exchange in the accelerator beamline, are examined for ion implantation into compound semiconductors. The effects of the choice of plasma gas elements for Be{sup +} implants are examined as an example.

  11. Multi-analyte analysis of saliva biomarkers as predictors of periodontal and pre-implant disease

    DOEpatents

    Braun, Thomas; Giannobile, William V; Herr, Amy E; Singh, Anup K; Shelburne, Charlie

    2015-04-07

    The present invention relates to methods of measuring biomarkers to determine the probability of a periodontal and/or peri-implant disease. More specifically, the invention provides a panel of biomarkers that, when used in combination, can allow determination of the probability of a periodontal and/or peri-implant disease state with extremely high accuracy.

  12. Ion implantation and dynamic recovery of tin-doped indium oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Shigesato, Yuzo; Paine, D.C.; Haynes, T.E.

    1993-09-01

    The effect of O{sup +} on implantation on the electronic (carrier density, mobility), resistivity and microstructural properties of thin film Sn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (ITO) was studied. Both polycrystalline (c-) and amorphous (a-) ITO thin films, 200 nm thick, were implanted at substrate temperatures ranging from {minus}196 to 300{degrees} C with 80 keV O{sup +} at doses ranging from 0 to 4.0{times}10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}2}. X-ray diffraction studies show that polycrystalline ITO remains crystalline even after implantation with 80 keV O{sup +} at {minus}196{degrees}C to a dose of 4.0{times}10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}2} which suggests that dynamic recovery processes are active in ITO at this low temperature. Although the x-ray diffraction pattern of the polycrystalline ITO remains unchanged with implant dose, the electrical properties were seen to degrade when implanted to a dose of 1.0{times}10{sup 15}cm{sup {minus}2} below 200{degrees}C. In contrast, amorphous ITO films remains amorphous upon ion implantation and shows almost no degradation in resistivity when implanted below 16{degrees}C. The recrystallization temperature of amorphous ITO is about 150{degrees}C in the absence of ion implantation.

  13. Implantable device for in-vivo intracranial and cerebrospinal fluid pressure monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Ericson, Milton N. (Knoxville, TN); McKnight, Timothy E. (Greenback, TN); Smith, Stephen F. (London, TN); Hylton, James O. (Clinton, TN)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention relates to a completely implantable intracranial pressure monitor, which can couple to existing fluid shunting systems as well as other internal monitoring probes. The implant sensor produces an analog data signal which is then converted electronically to a digital pulse by generation of a spreading code signal and then transmitted to a location outside the patient by a radio-frequency transmitter to an external receiver. The implanted device can receive power from an internal source as well as an inductive external source. Remote control of the implant is also provided by a control receiver which passes commands from an external source to the implant system logic. Alarm parameters can be programmed into the device which are capable of producing an audible or visual alarm signal. The utility of the monitor can be greatly expanded by using multiple pressure sensors simultaneously or by combining sensors of various physiological types.

  14. Modeling of electrodes and implantable pulse generator cases for the analysis of implant tip heating under MR imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Acikel, Volkan Atalar, Ergin; Uslubas, Ali

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: The authors’ purpose is to model the case of an implantable pulse generator (IPG) and the electrode of an active implantable medical device using lumped circuit elements in order to analyze their effect on radio frequency induced tissue heating problem during a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. Methods: In this study, IPG case and electrode are modeled with a voltage source and impedance. Values of these parameters are found using the modified transmission line method (MoTLiM) and the method of moments (MoM) simulations. Once the parameter values of an electrode/IPG case model are determined, they can be connected to any lead, and tip heating can be analyzed. To validate these models, both MoM simulations and MR experiments were used. The induced currents on the leads with the IPG case or electrode connections were solved using the proposed models and the MoTLiM. These results were compared with the MoM simulations. In addition, an electrode was connected to a lead via an inductor. The dissipated power on the electrode was calculated using the MoTLiM by changing the inductance and the results were compared with the specific absorption rate results that were obtained using MoM. Then, MRI experiments were conducted to test the IPG case and the electrode models. To test the IPG case, a bare lead was connected to the case and placed inside a uniform phantom. During a MRI scan, the temperature rise at the lead was measured by changing the lead length. The power at the lead tip for the same scenario was also calculated using the IPG case model and MoTLiM. Then, an electrode was connected to a lead via an inductor and placed inside a uniform phantom. During a MRI scan, the temperature rise at the electrode was measured by changing the inductance and compared with the dissipated power on the electrode resistance. Results: The induced currents on leads with the IPG case or electrode connection were solved for using the combination of the MoTLiM and

  15. Investigation of Donor and Acceptor Ion Implantation in AlN

    SciTech Connect

    Osinsky, Andrei

    2015-09-16

    AlGaN alloys with high Al composition and AlN based electronic devices are attractive for high voltage, high temperature applications, including microwave power sources, power switches and communication systems. AlN is of particular interest because of its wide bandgap of ~6.1eV which is ideal for power electronic device applications in extreme environments which requires high dose ion implantation. One of the major challenges that need to be addressed to achieve full utilization of AlN for opto and microelectronic applications is the development of a doping strategy for both donors and acceptors. Ion implantation is a particularly attractive approach since it allows for selected-area doping of semiconductors due to its high spatial and dose control and its high throughput capability. Active layers in the semiconductor are created by implanting a dopant species followed by very high temperature annealing to reduce defects and thereby activate the dopants. Recovery of implant damage in AlN requires excessively high temperature. In this SBIR program we began the investigation by simulation of ion beam implantation profiles for Mg, Ge and Si in AlN over wide dose and energy ranges. Si and Ge are implanted to achieve the n-type doping, Mg is investigated as a p-type doping. The simulation of implantation profiles were performed in collaboration between NRL and Agnitron using a commercial software known as Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM). The simulation results were then used as the basis for ion implantation of AlN samples. The implanted samples were annealed by an innovative technique under different conditions and evaluated along the way. Raman spectroscopy and XRD were used to determine the crystal quality of the implanted samples, demonstrating the effectiveness of annealing in removing implant induced damage. Additionally, SIMS was used to verify that a nearly uniform doping profile was achieved near the sample surface. The electrical characteristics

  16. Characterization of few-layered graphene grown by carbon implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kin Kiong; McCallum, Jeffrey C.; Jamieson, David N.

    2014-02-21

    Graphene is considered to be a very promising material for applications in nanotechnology. The properties of graphene are strongly dependent on defects that occur during growth and processing. These defects can be either detrimental or beneficial to device performance depending on defect type, location and device application. Here we present experimental results on formation of few-layered graphene by carbon ion implantation into nickel films and characteristics of graphene devices formed by graphene transfer and lithographic patterning. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the number of graphene layers formed and identify defects arising from the device processing. The graphene films were cleaned by annealing in vacuum. Transport properties of cleaned graphene films were investigated by fabrication of back-gated field-effect transistors, which exhibited high hole and electron mobility of 1935 and 1905 cm2/Vs, respectively.

  17. Ion implantation of erbium into polycrystalline cadmium telluride

    SciTech Connect

    Ushakov, V. V. Klevkov, Yu. V.; Dravin, V. A.

    2015-05-15

    The specific features of the ion implantation of polycrystalline cadmium telluride with grains 20–1000 μm in dimensions are studied. The choice of erbium is motivated by the possibility of using rare-earth elements as luminescent “probes” in studies of the defect and impurity composition of materials and modification of the composition by various technological treatments. From the microphotoluminescence data, it is found that, with decreasing crystal-grain dimensions, the degree of radiation stability of the material is increased. Microphotoluminescence topography of the samples shows the efficiency of the rare-earth probe in detecting regions with higher impurity and defect concentrations, including regions of intergrain boundaries.

  18. Versatile, high-sensitivity faraday cup array for ion implanters

    DOEpatents

    Musket, Ronald G.; Patterson, Robert G.

    2003-01-01

    An improved Faraday cup array for determining the dose of ions delivered to a substrate during ion implantation and for monitoring the uniformity of the dose delivered to the substrate. The improved Faraday cup array incorporates a variable size ion beam aperture by changing only an insertable plate that defines the aperture without changing the position of the Faraday cups which are positioned for the operation of the largest ion beam aperture. The design enables the dose sensitivity range, typically 10.sup.11 -10.sup.18 ions/cm.sup.2 to be extended to below 10.sup.6 ions/cm.sup.2. The insertable plate/aperture arrangement is structurally simple and enables scaling to aperture areas between <1 cm.sup.2 and >750 cm.sup.2, and enables ultra-high vacuum (UHV) applications by incorporation of UHV-compatible materials.

  19. Structural and electrical properties of In-implanted Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, R. Kremer, F.; Mirzaei, S.; Medling, S. A.; Ridgway, M. C.; Sprouster, D. J.; Decoster, S.; Glover, C. J.; Russo, S. P.

    2015-10-28

    We report on the effects of dopant concentration on the structural and electrical properties of In-implanted Ge. For In concentrations of ≤ 0.2 at. %, extended x-ray absorption fine structure and x-ray absorption near-edge structure measurements demonstrate that all In atoms occupy a substitutional lattice site while metallic In precipitates are apparent in transmission electron micrographs for In concentrations ≥0.6 at. %. Evidence of the formation of In-vacancy complexes deduced from extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements is complimented by density functional theory simulations. Hall effect measurements of the conductivity, carrier density, and carrier mobility are then correlated with the substitutional In fraction.

  20. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries for Implantable Devices

    DOE R&D Accomplishments

    Bates, J. B.; Dudney, N. J.

    1997-05-01

    Thin films of LiCoO{sub 2} have been synthesized in which the strongest x ray reflection is either weak or missing, indicating a high degree of preferred orientation. Thin film solid state batteries with these textured cathode films can deliver practical capacities at high current densities. For example, for one of the cells 70% of the maximum capacity between 4.2 V and 3 V ({approximately}0.2 mAh/cm{sup 2}) was delivered at a current of 2 mA/cm{sup 2}. When cycled at rates of 0.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, the capacity loss was 0.001%/cycle or less. The reliability and performance of Li LiCoO{sub 2} thin film batteries make them attractive for application in implantable devices such as neural stimulators, pacemakers, and defibrillators.

  1. The local structure and ferromagnetism in Fe-implanted SrTiO? single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Lobacheva, O. Chavarha, M.; Yiu, Y. M.; Sham, T. K.; Goncharova, L. V.

    2014-07-07

    We report a connection between the local structure of low-level Fe impurities and vacancies as the cause of ferromagnetic behavior observed in strontium titanate single crystals (STO), which were implanted with Fe and Si ions at different doses then annealed in oxygen. The effects of Fe doping and post-implantation annealing of STO were studied by X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device magnetometry. XANES spectra for Fe and Ti K- and L-edge reveal the changes in the local environment of Fe and Ti following the implantation and annealing steps. The annealing in oxygen atmosphere partially healed implantation damages and changed the oxidation state of the implanted iron from metallic Fe? to Fe?/Fe? oxide. The STO single crystals were weak ferromagnets prior to implantation. The maximum saturation moment was obtained after our highest implantation dose of 210? Fe atom/cm, which could be correlated with the metallic Fe? phases in addition to the presence of O/Ti vacancies. After recrystallization annealing, the ferromagnetic response disappears. Iron oxide phases with Fe? and Fe? corresponding to this regime were identified and confirmed by calculations using Real Space Multiple Scattering program (FEFF9).

  2. Conventional Versus Automated Implantation of Loose Seeds in Prostate Brachytherapy: Analysis of Dosimetric and Clinical Results

    SciTech Connect

    Genebes, Caroline; Filleron, Thomas; Graff, Pierre; Jonca, Frdric; Huyghe, Eric; Thoulouzan, Matthieu; Soulie, Michel; Malavaud, Bernard; Aziza, Richard; Brun, Thomas; Delannes, Martine; Bachaud, Jean-Marc

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To review the clinical outcome of I-125 permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) for low-risk and intermediate-risk prostate cancer and to compare 2 techniques of loose-seed implantation. Methods and Materials: 574 consecutive patients underwent I-125 PPB for low-risk and intermediate-risk prostate cancer between 2000 and 2008. Two successive techniques were used: conventional implantation from 2000 to 2004 and automated implantation (Nucletron, FIRST system) from 2004 to 2008. Dosimetric and biochemical recurrence-free (bNED) survival results were reported and compared for the 2 techniques. Univariate and multivariate analysis researched independent predictors for bNED survival. Results: 419 (73%) and 155 (27%) patients with low-risk and intermediate-risk disease, respectively, were treated (median follow-up time, 69.3 months). The 60-month bNED survival rates were 95.2% and 85.7%, respectively, for patients with low-risk and intermediate-risk disease (P=.04). In univariate analysis, patients treated with automated implantation had worse bNED survival rates than did those treated with conventional implantation (P<.0001). By day 30, patients treated with automated implantation showed lower values of dose delivered to 90% of prostate volume (D90) and volume of prostate receiving 100% of prescribed dose (V100). In multivariate analysis, implantation technique, Gleason score, and V100 on day 30 were independent predictors of recurrence-free status. Grade 3 urethritis and urinary incontinence were observed in 2.6% and 1.6% of the cohort, respectively, with no significant differences between the 2 techniques. No grade 3 proctitis was observed. Conclusion: Satisfactory 60-month bNED survival rates (93.1%) and acceptable toxicity (grade 3 urethritis <3%) were achieved by loose-seed implantation. Automated implantation was associated with worse dosimetric and bNED survival outcomes.

  3. Method of making an ion-implanted planar-buried-heterostructure diode laser

    DOEpatents

    Brennan, Thomas M.; Hammons, Burrell E.; Myers, David R.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    1992-01-01

    Planar-buried-heterostructure, graded-index, separate-confinement-heterostructure semiconductor diode laser 10 includes a single quantum well or multi-quantum well active stripe 12 disposed between a p-type compositionally graded Group III-V cladding lever 14 and an n-type compositionally graded Group III-V cladding layer 16. The laser 10 includes an iion implanted n-type region 28 within the p-type cladding layer 14 and further includes an ion implanted p-type region 26 within the n-type cladding layer 16. The ion implanted regions are disposed for defining a lateral extent of the active stripe.

  4. RHEED, AES and XPS studies of the passive films formed on ion implanted stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, C.R.; Doss, K.G.K.; Wang, Y.F.; Warren, J.B.; Hubler, G.K.

    1981-12-01

    P-implantation (10/sup 17/ ions cm/sup -2/, 40 KeV) into 304 stainless steel (ss) has been carried out, and an amorphous surface alloy was formed. Polarization studies in deaerated 1N H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/+ 2% NaCl showed that P-implantation improved both the general and localized corrosion resistance of 304 ss. A comparative study has been carried out between the implanted and unimplanted steel to determine what influence P-implantation has upon the properties of the passive film formed 1N H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The influence of Cl ions on pre-formed passive films was also studied. RHEED, XPS and AES were used to evaluate the nature of the passive films formed in these studies.

  5. Thermal properties of holmium-implanted gold films for a neutrino mass experiment with cryogenic microcalorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Prasai, K.; Yanardag, S. Basak; Galeazzi, M.; Uprety, Y.; Alves, E.; Rocha, J.; Bagliani, D.; Biasotti, M.; Gatti, F.; Gomes, M. Ribeiro

    2013-08-15

    In a microcalorimetric neutrino mass experiment using the radioactive decay of {sup 163}Ho, the radioactive material must be fully embedded in the microcalorimeter absorber. One option that is being investigated is to implant the radioactive isotope into a gold absorber, as gold is successfully used in other applications. However, knowing the thermal properties at the working temperature of microcalorimeters is critical for choosing the absorber material and for optimizing the detector performance. In particular, it is paramount to understand if implanting the radioactive material in gold changes its heat capacity. We used a bolometric technique to measure the heat capacity of gold films, implanted with various concentrations of holmium and erbium (a byproduct of the {sup 163}Ho fabrication), in the temperature range 70 mK–300 mK. Our results show that the specific heat capacity of the gold films is not affected by the implant, making this a viable option for a future microcalorimeter holmium experiment.

  6. Evolution of Ion Implantation Technology and its Contribution to Semiconductor Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukamoto, Katsuhiro; Kuroi, Takashi; Kawasaki, Yoji

    2011-01-07

    Industrial aspects of the evolution of ion implantation technology will be reviewed, and their impact on the semiconductor industry will be discussed. The main topics will be the technology's application to the most advanced, ultra scaled CMOS, and to power devices, as well as productivity improvements in implantation technology. Technological insights into future developments in ion-related technologies for emerging industries will also be presented.

  7. Note: Laser ablation technique for electrically contacting a buried implant layer in single crystal diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, M. P.; Baldwin, J. W.; Butler, J. E.; Pate, B. B.; Feygelson, T. I.

    2011-05-15

    The creation of thin, buried, and electrically conducting layers within an otherwise insulating diamond by annealed ion implantation damage is well known. Establishing facile electrical contact to the shallow buried layer has been an unmet challenge. We demonstrate a new method, based on laser micro-machining (laser ablation), to make reliable electrical contact to a buried implant layer in diamond. Comparison is made to focused ion beam milling.

  8. Real-time Optimization Method for Optical Parameters of Ion Implanters

    SciTech Connect

    Ogata, Seiji [ULVAC, Inc., Research and Development Div., 2500 Hagizono Chigasaki Kanagawa 253-8543 (Japan); Nishihashi, Tsutomu; Tonari, Kazuhiko [ULVAC, Inc., Inst. Semiconductor Technology, 1220-1 Suyama Susono Shizuoka 410-1231 (Japan); Yokoo, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Hideo; Hisamune, Takeshi [ULVAC, Inc., Semiconductor Equipment Div. 2, 1220-14 Suyama Susono Shizuoka 410-1231 (Japan); Araki, Masasumi [ULVAC, Inc., Software Development Control Solution Div., Hagizono Chigasaki Kanagawa 253-8543 (Japan)

    2006-11-13

    Real-time optimization for optical parameters, such as applied voltage to the electrostatic quadrupole lens, has been realized by using newly developed high-speed computation algorithm for charged particle beams. The virtual optimization code has been incorporated in the control system of SOPHI-200, which is the ULVAC'S new medium current ion implanter. Automatic setup within 5minutes is achieved for any recipe of implantation.

  9. Optimization of High-Energy Implanter Beamline Pumping

    SciTech Connect

    LaFontaine, Marvin; Pharand, Michel; Huang Yongzhang; Pokidov, Ilya; Ferrara, Joseph

    2006-11-13

    A high-energy implanter process chamber and its pumping configuration were designed to minimize the residual gas density in the endstation. A modified Nastran trade mark sign finite-element analysis (FEA) code was used to calculate the pressure distribution and gas flow within the process chamber. The modified FE method was readily applied to the internal geometry of the scan chamber, the corrector magnet waveguide, and the process chamber, which included the scan arm assembly, 300mm wafer, and plasma electron flood gun (PEF). Using the modified Nastran code, the gas flow and pressure distribution within the beamline geometry were calculated. The gas load consisted of H2, which is generated by photoresist (PR) outgassing from the 300mm wafer, and Xe from the plasma electron flood gun. Several pumping configurations were assessed, with each consisting of various locations and pumping capacities of vacuum pumps. The pressure distribution results for each configuration are presented, along with pumping efficiency results which are helpful in selecting the optimum pump configuration. The analysis results were compared to measured data, indicating a good correlation between the two.

  10. Effects of temperature dependent pre-amorphization implantation on NiPt silicide formation and thermal stability on Si(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Ozcan, Ahmet S.; Wall, Donald; Jordan-Sweet, Jean; Lavoie, Christian

    2013-04-29

    Using temperature controlled Si and C ion implantation, we studied the effects of pre-amorphization implantation on NiPt alloy silicide phase formation. In situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction and resistance measurements were used to monitor phase and morphology evolution in silicide films. Results show that substrate amorphization strongly modulate the nucleation of silicide phases, regardless of implant species. However, morphological stability of the thin films is mainly enhanced by C addition, independently of the amorphization depth.

  11. An evaluation of the maximum tag burden for implantation of acoustic transmitters in juvenile Chinook salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Boyd, James W.; Deters, Katherine A.; Eppard, M. B.

    2010-04-01

    Abstract.—The influence of a surgically implanted acoustic micro-transmitter and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag on the growth and survival of hatchery-reared juvenile Chinook salmon was examined. Growth and survival were compared between treatment (implanted) and control fish within three fork length (FL) size groups (80-89, 90-99, and 100-109 mm). The acoustic micro-transmitter and PIT tag implanted in our study had a combined weight of 0.74 g. Weights of study fish ranged from 4.7 to 16.3 g for treatment fish and from 5.1 to 16.8 g for control fish. The burden for the combined acoustic and PIT tag experienced by implanted fish ranged from 8.8% to 15.7% for the 80-89 mm FL group, 6.0-10.9% for the 90-99 mm FL group, and 4.5-8.6% for the 100-109 mm FL group. Results indicated that growth and survival were size-dependent among implanted juvenile Chinook salmon. Significant differences in growth rate and survival were observed between treatment and control fish in the 80-89 mm FL group. Within this group, growth of fish smaller than 88.5 mm FL (tag burden > 10.0%) was negatively affected by the implantation or presence of an acoustic micro-transmitter and PIT tag. Survival of fish in the 90-99 mm FL group did not differ between treatment and control fish. However, survival of implanted fish within this size group that were smaller than 97.2 mm FL (tag burden > 7.4%) was negatively influenced. These results indicate that the burden of an acoustic micro-transmitter and PIT tag should be maintained at or below about 7.0% for studies that use hatchery-reared juvenile Chinook salmon.

  12. An Efficient Molecular Dynamics Scheme for Predicting Dopant Implant Profiles in Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Beardmore, K.M.; Gronbech-Jensen, N.

    1998-09-15

    The authors present a highly efficient molecular dynamics scheme for calculating the concentration profile of dopants implanted in group-IV alloy, and III-V zinc blende structure materials. The program incorporates methods for reducing computational overhead, plus a rare event algorithm to give statistical accuracy over several orders of magnitude change in the dopant concentration. The code uses a molecular dynamics (MD) model, instead of the binary collision approximation (BCA) used in implant simulators such as TRIM and Marlowe, to describe ion-target interactions. Atomic interactions are described by a combination of 'many-body' and screened Coulomb potentials. Inelastic energy loss is accounted for using a Firsov model, and electronic stopping is described by a Brandt-Kitagawa model which contains the single adjustable parameter for the entire scheme. Thus, the program is easily extensible to new ion-target combinations with the minimum of tuning, and is predictive over a wide range of implant energies and angles. The scheme is especially suited for calculating profiles due to low energy, large angle implants, and for situations where a predictive capability is required with the minimum of experimental validation. They give examples of using their code to calculate concentration profiles and 2D 'point response' profiles of dopants in crystalline silicon, silicon-germanium blends, and gallium-arsenide. They can predict the experimental profiles over five orders of magnitude for <100> and <110> channeling and for non-channeling implants at energies up to hundreds of keV.

  13. Nonlinear effects in defect production by atomic and molecular ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    David, C. Dholakia, Manan; Chandra, Sharat; Nair, K. G. M.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Amirthapandian, S.; Amarendra, G.; Varghese Anto, C.; Santhana Raman, P.; Kennedy, John

    2015-01-07

    This report deals with studies concerning vacancy related defects created in silicon due to implantation of 200 keV per atom aluminium and its molecular ions up to a plurality of 4. The depth profiles of vacancy defects in samples in their as implanted condition are carried out by Doppler broadening spectroscopy using low energy positron beams. In contrast to studies in the literature reporting a progressive increase in damage with plurality, implantation of aluminium atomic and molecular ions up to Al{sub 3}, resulted in production of similar concentration of vacancy defects. However, a drastic increase in vacancy defects is observed due to Al{sub 4} implantation. The observed behavioural trend with respect to plurality has even translated to the number of vacancies locked in vacancy clusters, as determined through gold labelling experiments. The impact of aluminium atomic and molecular ions simulated using MD showed a monotonic increase in production of vacancy defects for cluster sizes up to 4. The trend in damage production with plurality has been explained on the basis of a defect evolution scheme in which for medium defect concentrations, there is a saturation of the as-implanted damage and an increase for higher defect concentrations.

  14. Embedded Ge nanocrystals in SiO{sub 2} synthesized by ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Baranwal, V. Pandey, Avinash C.; Gerlach, J. W.; Lotnyk, A.; Rauschenbach, B.; Karl, H.; Ojha, S.; Avasthi, D. K.; Kanjilal, D.

    2015-10-07

    200 nm thick SiO{sub 2} layers grown on Si substrates were implanted with 150 keV Ge ions at three different fluences. As-implanted samples were characterized with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry to obtain depth profiles and concentration of Ge ions. As-implanted samples were annealed at 950 °C for 30 min. Crystalline quality of pristine, as-implanted, and annealed samples was investigated using Raman scattering measurements and the results were compared. Crystalline structure of as-implanted and annealed samples of embedded Ge into SiO{sub 2} matrix was studied using x-ray diffraction. No secondary phase or alloy formation of Ge was detected with x-ray diffraction or Raman measurements. Scanning transmission electron microscope measurements were done to get the nanocrystal size and localized information. The results confirmed that fluence dependent Ge nanocrystals of different sizes are formed in the annealed samples. It is also observed that Ge is slowly diffusing deeper into the substrate with annealing.

  15. Peculiarities and application perspectives of metal-ion implants in glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzoldi, P.; Gonella, F.; Arnold, G.W.; Battaglin, G.; Bertoncello, R.

    1993-12-31

    Ion implantation in insulators causes modifications in the refractive-index as a result of radiation damage, phase separation, or compound formation. As a consequence, light waveguides may be formed with interesting applications in the field of optoelectronics. Recently implantation of metals ions (e.g. silver, copper, gold, lead,...) showed the possibility of small radii colloidal particles formation, in a thin surface layer of the glass substrate. These particles exhibit an electron plasmon resonance which depends on the optical constants of the implanted metal and on the refractive-index of the glass host. The non-linear optical properties of such colloids, in particular the enhancement of optical Kerr susceptibility, suggest that the, ion implantation technique may play an important role for the production of all-optical switching devices. In this paper an analysis of the state-of-the-art of the research in this field will be presented in the framework of ion implantation in glass physics and chemistry.

  16. Method For Plasma Source Ion Implantation And Deposition For Cylindrical Surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Fetherston, Robert P. , Shamim, Muhammad M. , Conrad, John R.

    1997-12-02

    Uniform ion implantation and deposition onto cylindrical surfaces is achieved by placing a cylindrical electrode in coaxial and conformal relation to the target surface. For implantation and deposition of an inner bore surface the electrode is placed inside the target. For implantation and deposition on an outer cylindrical surface the electrode is placed around the outside of the target. A plasma is generated between the electrode and the target cylindrical surface. Applying a pulse of high voltage to the target causes ions from the plasma to be driven onto the cylindrical target surface. The plasma contained in the space between the target and the electrode is uniform, resulting in a uniform implantation or deposition of the target surface. Since the plasma is largely contained in the space between the target and the electrode, contamination of the vacuum chamber enclosing the target and electrodes by inadvertent ion deposition is reduced. The coaxial alignment of the target and the electrode may be employed for the ion assisted deposition of sputtered metals onto the target, resulting in a uniform coating of the cylindrical target surface by the sputtered material. The independently generated and contained plasmas associated with each cylindrical target/electrode pair allows for effective batch processing of multiple cylindrical targets within a single vacuum chamber, resulting in both uniform implantation or deposition, and reduced contamination of one target by adjacent target/electrode pairs.

  17. Plasma immersion ion implantation for the efficient surface modification of medical materials

    SciTech Connect

    Slabodchikov, Vladimir A. Borisov, Dmitry P. Kuznetsov, Vladimir M.

    2015-10-27

    The paper reports on a new method of plasma immersion ion implantation for the surface modification of medical materials using the example of nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloys much used for manufacturing medical implants. The chemical composition and surface properties of NiTi alloys doped with silicon by conventional ion implantation and by the proposed plasma immersion method are compared. It is shown that the new plasma immersion method is more efficient than conventional ion beam treatment and provides Si implantation into NiTi surface layers through a depth of a hundred nanometers at low bias voltages (400 V) and temperatures (≤150°C) of the substrate. The research results suggest that the chemical composition and surface properties of materials required for medicine, e.g., NiTi alloys, can be successfully attained through modification by the proposed method of plasma immersion ion implantation and by other methods based on the proposed vacuum equipment without using any conventional ion beam treatment.

  18. Compositional and Structural Study of Gd Implanted ZnO Films

    SciTech Connect

    Murmu, Peter P.; Kennedy, John V.; Markwitz, Andreas; Ruck, Ben J.

    2009-07-23

    We report a compositional and structural study of ZnO films implanted with 30 keV Gd ions. The depth profile of the implanted ions, measured by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, matches predictions of DYNAMIC-TRIM calculations. However, after annealing at temperatures above 550 deg. C the Gd ions are observed to migrate towards the bulk, and at the same time atomic force microscope images of the film surfaces show significant roughening. Raman spectroscopy shows that the annealed films have a reduced number of crystalline defects. The overall results are useful for developing an implantation-annealing regime to produce well characterized samples to investigate magnetism in the ZnO:Gd system.

  19. Patterned Exfoliation of GaAs Based on Masked Helium Implantation and Subsequent Rapid Thermal Annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, H. J.; Choi, H. W.; Kim, G. D.; Hong, W.; Kim, J. K.

    2009-03-10

    A method of patterning single crystal GaAs based on ion implantation induced selective area exfoliation is suggested. Samples were implanted with 200-500 keV helium ions to a fluence range of 2-4x10{sup 16} He{sup +}/cm{sup 2} at room temperature through masks of Ni mesh (40 {mu}m opening) or stainless steel wire (50 {mu}m in diameter), and subsequent rapid thermal annealing at 350-500{open_square} resulted in expulsion of ion beam exposed material. The influences of ion energy, ion fluence, implantation temperature, subsequent annealing conditions (temperature and ramp rate), and mask pattern and its orientation with GaAs lattice on the patterned exfoliation were examined.

  20. Spectroscopy and capacitance measurements of tunneling resonances in an Sb-implanted point contact.

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Joel Robert; Rahman, Rajib; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.; Eng, Kevin; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Young, Ralph Watson; Lilly, Michael Patrick; Stalford, Harold Lenn; Bishop, Nathaniel; Bielejec, Edward Salvador

    2010-08-01

    We fabricated a split-gate defined point contact in a double gate enhancement mode Si-MOS device, and implanted Sb donor atoms using a self-aligned process. E-beam lithography in combination with a timed implant gives us excellent control over the placement of dopant atoms, and acts as a stepping stone to focused ion beam implantation of single donors. Our approach allows us considerable latitude in experimental design in-situ. We have identified two resonance conditions in the point contact conductance as a function of split gate voltage. Using tunneling spectroscopy, we probed their electronic structure as a function of temperature and magnetic field. We also determine the capacitive coupling between the resonant feature and several gates. Comparison between experimental values and extensive quasi-classical simulations constrain the location and energy of the resonant level. We discuss our results and how they may apply to resonant tunneling through a single donor.

  1. Effect of exposure environment on surface decomposition of SiC-silver ion implantation diffusion couples

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Gerczak, Tyler J.; Zheng, Guiqui; Field, Kevin G.; Allen, Todd R.

    2014-10-05

    SiC is a promising material for nuclear applications and is a critical component in the construction of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel. A primary issue with TRISO fuel operation is the observed release of 110m Ag from intact fuel particles. The release of Ag has prompted research efforts to directly measure the transport mechanism of Ag in bulk SiC. Recent research efforts have focused primarily on Ag ion implantation designs. The effect of the thermal exposure system on the ion implantation surface has been investigated. Results indicate the utilization of a mated sample geometry and the establishment of a static thermalmore » exposure environment is critical to maintaining an intact surface for diffusion analysis. In conclusion, the nature of the implantation surface and its potential role in Ag diffusion analysis are discussed.« less

  2. Effect of exposure environment on surface decomposition of SiC-silver ion implantation diffusion couples

    SciTech Connect

    Gerczak, Tyler J.; Zheng, Guiqui; Field, Kevin G.; Allen, Todd R.

    2014-10-05

    SiC is a promising material for nuclear applications and is a critical component in the construction of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel. A primary issue with TRISO fuel operation is the observed release of 110m Ag from intact fuel particles. The release of Ag has prompted research efforts to directly measure the transport mechanism of Ag in bulk SiC. Recent research efforts have focused primarily on Ag ion implantation designs. The effect of the thermal exposure system on the ion implantation surface has been investigated. Results indicate the utilization of a mated sample geometry and the establishment of a static thermal exposure environment is critical to maintaining an intact surface for diffusion analysis. In conclusion, the nature of the implantation surface and its potential role in Ag diffusion analysis are discussed.

  3. Non-Contact Measurement of Thermal Diffusivity in Ion-Implanted Nuclear Materials

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Hofmann, F.; Mason, D. R.; Eliason, J. K.; Maznev, A. A.; Nelson, K. A.; Dudarev, S. L.

    2015-11-03

    Knowledge of mechanical and physical property evolution due to irradiation damage is essential for the development of future fission and fusion reactors. Ion-irradiation provides an excellent proxy for studying irradiation damage, allowing high damage doses without sample activation. Limited ion-penetration-depth means that only few-micron-thick damaged layers are produced. Substantial effort has been devoted to probing the mechanical properties of these thin implanted layers. Yet, whilst key to reactor design, their thermal transport properties remain largely unexplored due to a lack of suitable measurement techniques. Here we demonstrate non-contact thermal diffusivity measurements in ion-implanted tungsten for nuclear fusion armour. Alloying withmore » transmutation elements and the interaction of retained gas with implantation-induced defects both lead to dramatic reductions in thermal diffusivity. These changes are well captured by our modelling approaches. Our observations have important implications for the design of future fusion power plants.« less

  4. Non-Contact Measurement of Thermal Diffusivity in Ion-Implanted Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, F.; Mason, D. R.; Eliason, J. K.; Maznev, A. A.; Nelson, K. A.; Dudarev, S. L.

    2015-11-03

    Knowledge of mechanical and physical property evolution due to irradiation damage is essential for the development of future fission and fusion reactors. Ion-irradiation provides an excellent proxy for studying irradiation damage, allowing high damage doses without sample activation. Limited ion-penetration-depth means that only few-micron-thick damaged layers are produced. Substantial effort has been devoted to probing the mechanical properties of these thin implanted layers. Yet, whilst key to reactor design, their thermal transport properties remain largely unexplored due to a lack of suitable measurement techniques. Here we demonstrate non-contact thermal diffusivity measurements in ion-implanted tungsten for nuclear fusion armour. Alloying with transmutation elements and the interaction of retained gas with implantation-induced defects both lead to dramatic reductions in thermal diffusivity. These changes are well captured by our modelling approaches. Our observations have important implications for the design of future fusion power plants.

  5. Effects of seed migration on post-implant dosimetry of prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, M.; Wang, J. Z.; Nag, S.; Gupta, N.

    2007-02-15

    Brachytherapy using permanent seed implants has been an effective treatment for prostate cancer. However, seeds will migrate after implant, thus making the evaluation of post-implant dosimetry difficult. In this study, we developed a computer program to simulate seed migration and analyzed dosimetric changes due to seed migration at various migration amounts. The study was based on 14 patients treated with Pd-103 at the James Cancer Hospital. Modeling of seed migration, including direction, distance as well as day of migration, was based on clinical observations. Changes of commonly used dosimetric parameters as a function of migration amount (2, 4, 6 mm respectively), prostate size (from 20 to 90 cc), and prostate region (central vs peripheral) were studied. Change of biological outcome (tumor control probability) due to migration was also estimated. Migration reduced prostate D90 to 99{+-}2% of original value in 2 mm migration, and the reduction increased to 94{+-}6% in 6 mm migration. The reduction of prostate dose led to a 14% (40%) drop in the tumor control probability for 2 mm (6 mm) migration, assuming radiosensitive tumors. However, migration has less effect on a prostate implanted with a larger number of seeds. Prostate V100 was less sensitive to migration than D90 since its mean value was still 99% of original value even in 6 mm migration. Migration also showed a different effect in the peripheral region vs the central region of the prostate, where the peripheral mean dose tended to drop more significantly. Therefore, extra activity implanted in the peripheral region during pre-plan can be considered. The detrimental effects of migration were more severe in terms of increasing the dose to normal structures, as rectum V50 may be 70% higher and urethra V100 may be 50% higher in the case of 6 mm migration. Quantitative knowledge of these effects is helpful in treatment planning and post-implant evaluation.

  6. Performance improvement of silicon nitride ball bearings by ion implantation. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.M.; Miner, J.

    1998-03-01

    The present report summarizes technical results of CRADA No. ORNL 92-128 with the Pratt and Whitney Division of United Technologies Corporation. The stated purpose of the program was to assess the 3effect of ion implantation on the rolling contact performance of engineering silicon nitride bearings, to determine by post-test analyses of the bearings the reasons for improved or reduced performance and the mechanisms of failure, if applicable, and to relate the overall results to basic property changes including but not limited to swelling, hardness, modulus, micromechanical properties, and surface morphology. Forty-two control samples were tested to an intended runout period of 60 h. It was possible to supply only six balls for ion implantation, but an extended test period goal of 150 h was used. The balls were implanted with C-ions at 150 keV to a fluence of 1.1 {times} 10{sup 17}/cm{sup 2}. The collection of samples had pre-existing defects called C-cracks in the surfaces. As a result, seven of the control samples had severe spalls before reaching the goal of 60 h for an unacceptable failure rate of 0.003/sample-h. None of the ion-implanted samples experienced engineering failure in 150 h of testing. Analytical techniques have been used to characterize ion implantation results, to characterize wear tracks, and to characterize microstructure and impurity content. In possible relation to C-cracks. It is encouraging that ion implantation can mitigate the C-crack failure mode. However, the practical implications are compromised by the fact that bearings with C-cracks would, in no case, be acceptable in engineering practice, as this type of defect was not anticipated when the program was designed. The most important reason for the use of ceramic bearings is energy efficiency.

  7. Exascale Opportunities for Aerospace Engineering

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    physical fidelity - Panel methods (incompressible, inviscid) : 1960s - Linearized compressible flow methods : 1970s - Non-linear potential flow methods: 1980s - Reynolds averaged...

  8. Synthesis of layer-tunable graphene: A combined kinetic implantation and thermal ejection approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Gang; Zhang, Miao; Liu, Su; Xie, Xiaoming; Ding, Guqiao; Wang, Yongqiang; Chu, Paul K.; Gao, Heng; Ren, Wei; Yuan, Qinghong; Zhang, Peihong; Wang, Xi; Di, Zengfeng

    2015-05-04

    Layer-tunable graphene has attracted broad interest for its potentials in nanoelectronics applications. However, synthesis of layer-tunable graphene by using traditional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method still remains a great challenge due to the complex experimental parameters and the carbon precipitation process. Herein, by performing ion implantation into a Ni/Cu bilayer substrate, the number of graphene layers, especially single or double layer, can be controlled precisely by adjusting the carbon ion implant fluence. The growth mechanism of the layer-tunable graphene is revealed by monitoring the growth process is observed that the entire implanted carbon atoms can be expelled towards the substrate surface and thus graphene with designed layer number can be obtained. Such a growth mechanism is further confirmed by theoretical calculations. The proposed approach for the synthesis of layer-tunable graphene offers more flexibility in the experimental conditions. Being a core technology in microelectronics processing, ion implantation can be readily implemented in production lines and is expected to expedite the application of graphene to nanoelectronics.

  9. Plasma source ion implantation research and applications at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, C.P.; Faehl, R.J.; Henins, I.

    1996-12-31

    Plasma Source Ion Implantation research at Los Alamos Laboratory includes direct investigation of the plasma and materials science involved in target surface modification, numerical simulations of the implantation process, and supporting hardware engineering. Target materials of Al, Cr, Cu-Zn, Mg, Ni, Si, Ti, W, and various Fe alloys have been processed using plasmas produced from Ar, NH{sub 3}, N{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} gases. Individual targets with surface areas as large as {approximately}4 m{sup 2}, or weighing up to 1200 kg, have been treated in the large LANL facility. In collaboration with General Motors and the University of Wisconsin, a process has been developed for application of hard, low friction, diamond-like-carbon layers on assemblies of automotive pistons. Numerical simulations have been performed using a 2{1/2}-D particle- in-cell code, which yields time-dependent implantation energy, dose, and angle of arrival for ions at the target surface for realistic geometries. Plasma source development activities include the investigation of pulsed, inductively coupled sources capable of generating highly dissociated N{sup +} with ion densities n{sub i} {approximately} 10{sup 11}/cm{sup 3}, at {approximately}100 W average input power. Cathodic arc sources have also been used to produce filtered metallic and C plasmas for implantation and deposition either in vacuum, or in conjunction with a background gas for production of highly adherent ceramic coatings.

  10. Development of high productivity medium current ion implanter 'EXCEED 3000AH Evo2'

    SciTech Connect

    Ikejiri, T.; Hamamoto, N.; Hisada, S.; Iwasawa, K.; Kawakami, K.; Kokuryu, K.; Miyamoto, N.; Nogami, T.; Sakamoto, T.; Sasada, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamashita, T. [Nissin Ion Equipment Co., LTD., 575, Kuze-tonoshiro-cho, Minami-ku, Kyoto, 601-8205 (Japan)

    2011-01-07

    High productivity medium current ion implanter 'EXCEED 3000AH Evo2' is developed. In semiconductor manufacturing field, improvement of the productivity is continuously required. Especially mass production lines recently tend to use low energy beam and 2 pass implant for higher throughput. The 'Evo2' has been developed in an effort to fulfill these requirements. The 'Evo2' increases low energy beam current by 150 to 250% by applying electrostatic einzel lens called 'V-lens' installed at the exit of the Collimator magnet. This lens is also able to control the beam incident angle by adjusting the upper and lower electrode's voltages independently. Besides, mechanical scanning speed is enhanced to minimize process time of 2 pass implant, while also frequency of the fast beam scanning is enhanced to keep dose uniformity. In addition, a vacuum pumping capability at the target chamber is enhanced to reduce a vacuum waiting time during processing photo-resist wafers. This improvement achieved to reduce process time by 40% for a specific recipe. Furthermore, a modified Indirectly Heated Cathode with electron active Reflection 2 (IHC-R2) ion source which has a long life time filament has been installed. These new elements and/or functions have realized typically 25% improvement of productivity compared to standard EXCEED, and also improve a precise implantation capability.

  11. Third Order Optical Nonlinearity of Colloidal Metal Nanoclusters Formed by MeV Ion Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkisov, S. S.; Williams, E.; Curley, M.; Ila, D.; Venkateswarlu, P.; Poker, D. B.; Hensley, D. K.

    1997-10-01

    We report the results of characterization of nonlinear refractive index of the composite material produced by MeV Ag ion implantation of LiNbO{sub 3} crystal (z-cut). The material after implantation exhibited a linear optical absorption spectrum with the surface plasmon peak near 430 nm attributed to the colloidal silver nanoclusters. Heat treatment of the material at 500 deg C caused a shift of the absorption peak to 550 nm. The nonlinear refractive index of the sample after heat treatment was measured in the region of the absorption peak with the Z-scan technique using a tunable picosecond laser source (4.5 ps pulse width).The experimental data were compared against the reference sample made of MeV Cu implanted silica with the absorption peak in the same region. The nonlinear index of the Ag implanted LiNbO{sub 3} sample produced at five times less fluence is on average two times greater than that of the reference.

  12. Characterization of P{sup +} implanted SiO{sub 2} powders

    SciTech Connect

    Kajiyama, Kenji; Suzuki, Yasuo; Kokubo, Tadashi

    1996-12-31

    {sup 31}P ions were implanted into high-purity SiO{sub 2} sphere powders of 20-30{mu}m{phi} at 50keV energy with 1.5{times}10{sup 17}/cm{sup 2} dose utilizing a modified medium-current implanter and, for reference, into SiO{sub 2} plate at 200keV with 1.0{times}10{sup 18}/cm{sup 2} utilizing a conventional medium-current implanter. P doping profile was measured by 3D-SIMS with 0.5{mu}m{phi} Cs{sup +} primary beam. Buried high P-concentration region was revealed. Implanted structure was observed by XTEM, EPMA and {mu}-RHEED: tens-nm-diameter sphere-like balls of phospho-silicate glass were distributed around the projected range. The top surface was almost unchanged from the substrate and was so thick as to prevent P elusion into hot water.

  13. Synthesis of layer-tunable graphene: A combined kinetic implantation and thermal ejection approach

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Wang, Gang; Zhang, Miao; Liu, Su; Xie, Xiaoming; Ding, Guqiao; Wang, Yongqiang; Chu, Paul K.; Gao, Heng; Ren, Wei; Yuan, Qinghong; et al

    2015-05-04

    Layer-tunable graphene has attracted broad interest for its potentials in nanoelectronics applications. However, synthesis of layer-tunable graphene by using traditional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method still remains a great challenge due to the complex experimental parameters and the carbon precipitation process. Herein, by performing ion implantation into a Ni/Cu bilayer substrate, the number of graphene layers, especially single or double layer, can be controlled precisely by adjusting the carbon ion implant fluence. The growth mechanism of the layer-tunable graphene is revealed by monitoring the growth process is observed that the entire implanted carbon atoms can be expelled towards the substratemore » surface and thus graphene with designed layer number can be obtained. Such a growth mechanism is further confirmed by theoretical calculations. The proposed approach for the synthesis of layer-tunable graphene offers more flexibility in the experimental conditions. Being a core technology in microelectronics processing, ion implantation can be readily implemented in production lines and is expected to expedite the application of graphene to nanoelectronics.« less

  14. Controlled removal of ceramic surfaces with combination of ions implantation and ultrasonic energy

    DOEpatents

    Boatner, Lynn A.; Rankin, Janet; Thevenard, Paul; Romana, Laurence J.

    1995-01-01

    A method for tailoring or patterning the surface of ceramic articles is provided by implanting ions to predetermined depth into the ceramic material at a selected surface location with the ions being implanted at a fluence and energy adequate to damage the lattice structure of the ceramic material for bi-axially straining near-surface regions of the ceramic material to the predetermined depth. The resulting metastable near-surface regions of the ceramic material are then contacted with energy pulses from collapsing, ultrasonically-generated cavitation bubbles in a liquid medium for removing to a selected depth the ion-damaged near-surface regions containing the bi-axially strained lattice structure from the ceramic body. Additional patterning of the selected surface location on the ceramic body is provided by implanting a high fluence of high-energy, relatively-light ions at selected surface sites for relaxing the bi-axial strain in the near-surface regions defined by these sites and thereby preventing the removal of such ion-implanted sites by the energy pulses from the collapsing ultrasonic cavitation bubbles.

  15. Dosimetric comparison between model 9011 and 6711 sources in prostate implants

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hualin; Beyer, David

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the model 9011 iodine-125 ({sup 125}I) in prostate implants by comparing dosimetric coverage provided by the 6711 vs 9011 source implants. Postimplant dosimetry was performed in 18 consecutively implanted patients with prostate cancer. Two were implanted with the 9011 source and 16 with the 6711 source. For purposes of comparison, each implant was then recalculated assuming use of the other source. The same commercially available planning system was used and the specific source data for both 6711 and 9011 products were entered. The results of these calculations are compared side by side in the terms of the isodose values covering 100% (D100) and 90% (D90) of prostate volume, and the percentages of volumes of prostate, bladder, rectum, and urethra covered by 200% (V200), 150% (V150), 100% (V100), 50% (V50), and 20% (V20) of the prescribed dose as well. The 6711 source data overestimate coverage by 6.4% (ranging from 4.9% to 6.9%; median 6.6%) at D100 and by 6.6% (ranging from 6.2% to 6.8%; median 6.6%) at D90 compared with actual 9011 data. Greater discrepancies of up to 67% are seen at higher dose levels: average reduction for V100 is 2.7% (ranging from 0.6% to 7.7%; median 2.3%), for V150 is 14.6% (ranging from 6.1% to 20.5%; median 15.3%), for V200 is 14.9% (ranging from 4.8% to 19.1%; median 16%); similarly seen in bladder, rectal, and urethral coverage. This work demonstrates a clear difference in dosimetric behavior between the 9011 and 6711 sources. Using the 6711 source data for 9011 source implants would create a pronounced error in dose calculation. This study provides evidence that the 9011 source can provide the same dosimetric quality as the 6711 source, if properly used; however, the 6711 source data should not be considered as a surrogate for the 9011 source implants.

  16. Impact of implanted phosphorus on the diffusivity of boron and its applicability to silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schrof, Julian Müller, Ralph; Benick, Jan; Hermle, Martin; Reedy, Robert C.

    2015-07-28

    Boron diffusivity reduction in extrinsically doped silicon was investigated in the context of a process combination consisting of BBr{sub 3} furnace diffusion and preceding Phosphorus ion implantation. The implantation of Phosphorus leads to a substantial blocking of Boron during the subsequent Boron diffusion. First, the influences of ion implantation induced point defects as well as the initial P doping on B diffusivity were studied independently. Here, it was found that not the defects created during ion implantation but the P doping itself results in the observed B diffusion retardation. The influence of the initial P concentration was investigated in more detail by varying the P implantation dose. A secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis of the BSG layer after the B diffusion revealed that the B diffusion retardation is not due to potential P content in the BSG layer but rather caused by the n-type doping of the crystalline silicon itself. Based on the observations the B diffusion retardation was classified into three groups: (i) no reduction of B diffusivity, (ii) reduced B diffusivity, and (iii) blocking of the B diffusion. The retardation of B diffusion can well be explained by the phosphorus doping level resulting in a Fermi level shift and pairing of B and P ions, both reducing the B diffusivity. Besides these main influences, there are probably additional transient phenomena responsible for the blocking of boron. Those might be an interstitial transport mechanism caused by P diffusion that reduces interstitial concentration at the surface or the silicon/BSG interface shift due to oxidation during the BBr{sub 3} diffusion process. Lifetime measurements revealed that the residual (non-blocked) B leads to an increased dark saturation current density in the P doped region. Nevertheless, electrical quality is on a high level and was further increased by reducing the B dose as well as by removing the first few nanometers of the silicon surface after

  17. Plasma-based ion implantation and deposition: A review of physics,technology, and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pelletier, Jacques; Anders, Andre

    2005-05-16

    After pioneering work in the 1980s, plasma-based ion implantation (PBII) and plasma-based ion implantation and deposition (PBIID) can now be considered mature technologies for surface modification and thin film deposition. This review starts by looking at the historical development and recalling the basic ideas of PBII. Advantages and disadvantages are compared to conventional ion beam implantation and physical vapor deposition for PBII and PBIID, respectively, followed by a summary of the physics of sheath dynamics, plasma and pulse specifications, plasma diagnostics, and process modeling. The review moves on to technology considerations for plasma sources and process reactors. PBII surface modification and PBIID coatings are applied in a wide range of situations. They include the by-now traditional tribological applications of reducing wear and corrosion through the formation of hard, tough, smooth, low-friction and chemically inert phases and coatings, e.g. for engine components. PBII has become viable for the formation of shallow junctions and other applications in microelectronics. More recently, the rapidly growing field of biomaterial synthesis makes used of PBII&D to produce surgical implants, bio- and blood-compatible surfaces and coatings, etc. With limitations, also non-conducting materials such as plastic sheets can be treated. The major interest in PBII processing originates from its flexibility in ion energy (from a few eV up to about 100 keV), and the capability to efficiently treat, or deposit on, large areas, and (within limits) to process non-flat, three-dimensional workpieces, including forming and modifying metastable phases and nanostructures. We use the acronym PBII&D when referring to both implantation and deposition, while PBIID implies that deposition is part of the process.

  18. Interaction of Sn atoms with defects introduced by ion implantation in Ge substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Taoka, Noriyuki Fukudome, Motoshi; Takeuchi, Wakana; Arahira, Takamitsu; Sakashita, Mitsuo; Nakatsuka, Osamu; Zaima, Shigeaki

    2014-05-07

    The interaction of Sn atoms with defects induced by Sn implantation of Ge substrates with antimony (Sb) as an n-type dopant and the impact of H{sub 2} annealing on these defects were investigated by comparison with defects induced by Ge self-implantation. In the Ge samples implanted with either Sn or Ge, and annealed at temperatures of less than 200?C, divacancies, Sb-vacancy complexes with single or double acceptor-like states, and defects related to Sb and interstitial Ge atoms were present. On the other hand, after annealing at 500?C in an N{sub 2} or H{sub 2} atmosphere, defects with different structures were observed in the Sn-implanted samples by deep level transition spectroscopy. The energy levels of the defects were 0.33?eV from the conduction band minimum and 0.55?eV from the valence band maximum. From the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics, interaction between Sn atoms and defects after annealing at 500?C was observed. The effect of H{sub 2} annealing at around 200?C was observed in the C-V characteristics, which can be attributed to hydrogen passivation, and this effect was observed in both the Ge- and Sn-implanted samples. These results suggest the presence of defects that interact with Sn or hydrogen atoms. This indicates the possibility of defect control in Ge substrates by Sn or hydrogen incorporation. Such defect control could yield high-performance Ge-based devices.

  19. Temperature dependence of helium-implantation-induced lattice swelling in polycrystalline tungsten: X-ray micro-diffraction and Eigenstrain modelling

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    de Broglie, I.; Beck, C. E.; Liu, W.; Hofmann, Felix

    2015-05-30

    Using synchrotron X-ray micro-diffraction and Eigenstrain analysis the distribution of lattice swelling near grain boundaries in helium-implanted polycrystalline tungsten is quantified. Samples heat-treated at up to 1473 K after implantation show less uniform lattice swelling that varies significantly from grain to grain compared to as-implanted samples. An increase in lattice swelling is found in the vicinity of some grain boundaries, even at depths beyond the implanted layer. As a result, these findings are discussed in terms of the evolution of helium-ion-implantation-induced defects.

  20. Enhanced retained dose uniformity in NiTi spinal correction rod treated by three-dimensional mesh-assisted nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Q. Y.; Hu, T.; Kwok, Dixon T. K.; Chu, Paul K.

    2010-05-15

    Owing to the nonconformal plasma sheath in plasma immersion ion implantation of a rod sample, the retained dose can vary significantly. The authors propose to improve the implant uniformity by introducing a metal mesh. The depth profiles obtained with and without the mesh are compared and the implantation temperature at various locations is evaluated indirectly by differential scanning calorimeter. Our results reveal that by using the metal mesh, the retained dose uniformity along the length is greatly improved and the effects of the implantation temperature on the localized mechanical properties of the implanted NiTi shape memory alloy rod are nearly negligible.

  1. Who Will Be America's Next Top Energy Innovator? | Department...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... components for artificial limbs - like those used by wounded veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan - to military vehicle components, biomedical implants, aerospace ...

  2. Low-temperature, site selective graphitization of SiC via ion implantation and pulsed laser annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Lemaitre, Maxime G.; Tongay, Sefaattin; Wang, Xiaotie; Venkatachalam, Dinesh K.; Elliman, Robert G.; Fridmann, Joel; Gila, Brent P.; Appleton, Bill R.; Hebard, Arthur F.; Ren, Fan

    2012-05-07

    A technique is presented to selectively graphitize regions of SiC by ion implantation and pulsed laser annealing (PLA). Nanoscale features are patterned over large areas by multi-ion beam lithography and subsequently converted to few-layer graphene via PLA in air. Graphitization occurs only where ions have been implanted and without elevating the temperature of the surrounding substrate. Samples were characterized using Raman spectroscopy, ion scattering/channeling, SEM, and AFM, from which the degree of graphitization was determined to vary with implantation species, damage and dose, laser fluence, and pulsing. Contrasting growth regimes and graphitization mechanisms during PLA are discussed.

  3. Determination of prescription dose for Cs-131 permanent implants using the BED formalism including resensitization correction

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Wei Molloy, Janelle; Aryal, Prakash; Feddock, Jonathan; Randall, Marcus

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: The current widely used biological equivalent dose (BED) formalism for permanent implants is based on the linear-quadratic model that includes cell repair and repopulation but not resensitization (redistribution and reoxygenation). The authors propose a BED formalism that includes all the four biological effects (4Rs), and the authors propose how it can be used to calculate appropriate prescription doses for permanent implants with Cs-131. Methods: A resensitization correction was added to the BED calculation for permanent implants to account for 4Rs. Using the same BED, the prescription doses with Au-198, I-125, and Pd-103 were converted to the isoeffective Cs-131 prescription doses. The conversion factor F, ratio of the Cs-131 dose to the equivalent dose with the other reference isotope (F{sub r}: with resensitization, F{sub n}: without resensitization), was thus derived and used for actual prescription. Different values of biological parameters such as α, β, and relative biological effectiveness for different types of tumors were used for the calculation. Results: Prescription doses with I-125, Pd-103, and Au-198 ranging from 10 to 160 Gy were converted into prescription doses with Cs-131. The difference in dose conversion factors with (F{sub r}) and without (F{sub n}) resensitization was significant but varied with different isotopes and different types of tumors. The conversion factors also varied with different doses. For I-125, the average values of F{sub r}/F{sub n} were 0.51/0.46, for fast growing tumors, and 0.88/0.77 for slow growing tumors. For Pd-103, the average values of F{sub r}/F{sub n} were 1.25/1.15 for fast growing tumors, and 1.28/1.22 for slow growing tumors. For Au-198, the average values of F{sub r}/F{sub n} were 1.08/1.25 for fast growing tumors, and 1.00/1.06 for slow growing tumors. Using the biological parameters for the HeLa/C4-I cells, the averaged value of F{sub r} was 1.07/1.11 (rounded to 1.1), and the averaged value of F

  4. Effects of helium implantation on the tensile properties and microstructure of Ni₇₃P₂₇ metallic glass nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Liontas, Rachel; Gu, X. Wendy; Fu, Engang; Wang, Yongqiang; Li, Nan; Mara, Nathan; Greer, Julia R.

    2014-09-10

    We report fabrication and nanomechanical tension experiments on as-fabricated and helium-implanted ~130 nm diameter Ni₇₃P₂₇ metallic glass nano-cylinders. The nano-cylinders were fabricated by a templated electroplating process and implanted with He⁺ at energies of 50, 100, 150, and 200 keV to create a uniform helium concentration of ~3 at. % throughout the nano-cylinders. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and through-focus analysis reveal that the specimens contained ~2 nm helium bubbles distributed uniformly throughout the nano-cylinder volume. In-situ tensile experiments indicate that helium-implanted specimens exhibit enhanced ductility as evidenced by a 2-fold increase in plastic strain over as-fabricated specimens, with no sacrifice in yield and ultimate tensile strengths. This improvement in mechanical properties suggests that metallic glasses may actually exhibit a favorable response to high levels of helium implantation.

  5. Effects of helium implantation on the tensile properties and microstructure of Ni₇₃P₂₇ metallic glass nanostructures

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Liontas, Rachel; Gu, X. Wendy; Fu, Engang; Wang, Yongqiang; Li, Nan; Mara, Nathan; Greer, Julia R.

    2014-09-10

    We report fabrication and nanomechanical tension experiments on as-fabricated and helium-implanted ~130 nm diameter Ni₇₃P₂₇ metallic glass nano-cylinders. The nano-cylinders were fabricated by a templated electroplating process and implanted with He⁺ at energies of 50, 100, 150, and 200 keV to create a uniform helium concentration of ~3 at. % throughout the nano-cylinders. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and through-focus analysis reveal that the specimens contained ~2 nm helium bubbles distributed uniformly throughout the nano-cylinder volume. In-situ tensile experiments indicate that helium-implanted specimens exhibit enhanced ductility as evidenced by a 2-fold increase in plastic strain over as-fabricated specimens, with nomore » sacrifice in yield and ultimate tensile strengths. This improvement in mechanical properties suggests that metallic glasses may actually exhibit a favorable response to high levels of helium implantation.« less

  6. Diffusion of Ag, Au and Cs implants in MAX phase Ti3SiC2 (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Diffusion of Ag, Au and Cs implants in MAX phase Ti3SiC2 MAX phases (M: early transition metal; A: elements in group 13 or 14; X: C or N), such as titanium silicon carbide ...

  7. Si?-implanted Si-wire waveguide photodetectors for the mid-infrared

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Souhan, Brian; Lu, Ming; Grote, Richard R.; Chen, Christine P.; Huang, Hsu-Cheng; Driscoll, Jeffrey B.; Stein, Aaron; Bakhru, Hassaram; Bergman, Keren; Green, William M. J.; et al

    2014-10-28

    CMOS-compatible Si?-implanted Si-waveguide p-i-n photodetectors operating at room temperature and at mid-infrared wavelengths from 2.2 to 2.3 m are demonstrated. Responsivities of 9.9 2.0 mA/W are measured at a 5 V reverse bias with an estimated internal quantum efficiency of 2.7 4.5%. The dark current is found to vary from a few microamps down to less than a nanoamp after a post-implantation annealing of 350C. The measured photocurrent dependence on input power shows a linear correspondence over more than three decades, and the frequency response of a 250 m-length p-i-n device is measured to be ~1.7 GHz formorea wavelength of ? = 2.2 m, thus potentially opening up new communication bands for photonic integrated circuits.less

  8. Stretchable nanocomposite electrodes with tunable mechanical properties by supersonic cluster beam implantation in elastomers

    SciTech Connect

    Borghi, F.; Podestà, A.; Milani, P.; Melis, C.; Colombo, L.; Ghisleri, C.; Ravagnan, L.

    2015-03-23

    We demonstrate the fabrication of gold-polydimethylsiloxane nanocomposite electrodes, by supersonic cluster beam implantation, with tunable Young's modulus depending solely on the amount of metal clusters implanted in the elastomeric matrix. We show both experimentally and by atomistic simulations that the mechanical properties of the nanocomposite can be maintained close to that of the bare elastomer for significant metal volume concentrations. Moreover, the elastic properties of the nanocomposite, as experimentally characterized by nanoindentation and modeled with molecular dynamics simulations, are also well described by the Guth-Gold classical model for nanoparticle-filled rubbers, which depends on the presence, concentration, and aspect ratio of metal nanoparticles, and not on the physical and chemical modification of the polymeric matrix due to the embedding process. The elastic properties of the nanocomposite can therefore be determined and engineered a priori, by controlling only the nanoparticle concentration.

  9. Laser induced diffusion of ion-implanted bismuth in fused silica

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S.Y.; Weeks, R.A.; Zuhr, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    The near surface regions of optical grade fused silica discs (Spectrosil A) were modified by implantation with bismuth ions at 160 and 320 keV and at room temperature. The glasses implanted with a nominal dose of 6 {times} l0{sup 16} Bi{sup 2+} ions/cm{sup 2} were subsequently annealed with a 5 eV KrF pulsed excimer laser and by a furnace in oxygen atmosphere. Rutherford backscattering and optical absorption were measured before and after the anneals. Backscattering profiles after laser anneal showed shifts of the profiles toward the surface with decrease in retained dose. We attribute the diffusion of bismuth to Soret effect. Profiles of furnace annealed samples showed that the diffusion was both toward and away from the surface.

  10. Isotope effects on desorption kinetics of hydrogen isotopes implanted into stainless steel by glow discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuyama, M.; Kondo, M.; Noda, N.; Tanaka, M.; Nishimura, K.

    2015-03-15

    In a fusion device the control of fuel particles implies to know the desorption rate of hydrogen isotopes by the plasma-facing materials. In this paper desorption kinetics of hydrogen isotopes implanted into type 316L stainless steel by glow discharge have been studied by experiment and numerical calculation. The temperature of a maximum desorption rate depends on glow discharge time and heating rate. Desorption spectra observed under various experimental conditions have been successfully reproduced by numerical simulations that are based on a diffusion-limited process. It is suggested, therefore, that desorption rate of a hydrogen isotope implanted into the stainless steel is limited by a diffusion process of hydrogen isotope atoms in bulk. Furthermore, small isotope effects were observed for the diffusion process of hydrogen isotope atoms. (authors)

  11. Activation of ion-implanted polycrystalline silicon thin films prepared on glass substrates

    SciTech Connect

    So, Byoung-Soo; Bae, Seung-Muk; You, Yil-Hwan; Kim, Young-Hwan; Hwang, Jin-Ha

    2012-10-15

    Phosphorous-implanted polycrystalline Si thin films were subjected to thermal annealing between 300 °C and 650 °C. The thermal activation was monitored electrically and structurally using Hall measurements, Raman spectroscopy, UV–visible spectrophotometry, and transmission electron microscopy. Charge transport information was correlated to the corresponding structural evolution in thermal activation. Phosphorous-implanted activation is divided into short-range ordering at low temperatures and long-range ordering at high temperatures, with the boundary between low and high temperatures set at 425 °C. Short-range ordering allows for significant increase in electronic concentration through substitution of P for Si. Higher temperatures are attributed to long-range ordering, thereby increasing electronic mobility.

  12. Channeling Doping Profiles Studies for Small Incident Angle Implantation into Silicon Wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, B.N.; Variam, N.; Jeong, U.; Mehta, S.; Posselt, M.; Lebedev, A.

    2003-08-26

    Traditional de-channeling dopant profiles in the silicon crystal wafers have been achieved by tilting the wafer away from the incident beam. As feature sizes of device shrink, the advantages for channeled doping profiles for implants with small or near zero degree incident angles are being recognized. For example, high-energy CMOS well spacing limitations caused by shadowing and encroachment of the ion beam by photoresist mask can be avoided for near zero degree incident implants. Accurate models of channeled profiles are essential to predict the device performance. This paper mainly discusses the damage effect on channeled dopant profiles. Especially, damage effects on channeled dopant profiles are correlated to ThermaWave (TW) measurements. It is demonstrated that there is a critical dose at which the damage effects have to be considered for channeled dopant profile evolvements.

  13. Implantable devices having ceramic coating applied via an atomic layer deposition method

    DOEpatents

    Liang, Xinhua; Weimer, Alan W.; Bryant, Stephanie J.

    2016-03-08

    Substrates coated with films of a ceramic material such as aluminum oxides and titanium oxides are biocompatible, and can be used in a variety of applications in which they are implanted in a living body. The substrate is preferably a porous polymer, and may be biodegradable. An important application for the ceramic-coated substrates is as a tissue engineering scaffold for forming artificial tissue.

  14. Everolimus-induced Pneumonitis after Drug-eluting Stent Implantation: A Case Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Susumu Kikuchi, Naoshi; Ichikawa, Atsuo; Sano, Go; Satoh, Keita; Sugino, Keishi; Isobe, Kazutoshi; Takai, Yujiro; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Homma, Sakae

    2013-08-01

    Despite the wide use of everolimus as an antineoplastic coating agent for coronary stents to reduce the rate of restenosis, little is known about the health hazards of everolimus-eluting stents (EES). We describe a case of pneumonitis that developed 2 months after EES implantation for angina. Lung pathology demonstrated an organizing pneumonia pattern that responded to corticosteroid therapy. Although the efficacy of EES for ischemic heart disease is well established, EES carries a risk of pneumonitis.

  15. Students analyze artificial implants at ASM Materials Camp | Y-12 National

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Security Complex Students analyze artificial ... Students analyze artificial implants at ASM Materials Camp Posted: June 10, 2013 - 8:37am Student Hunter Stombaugh loads a material sample into the Saphir 550.3, a laboratory instrument used to grind and polish samples before placing them in an electron microscope for analysis. OAK RIDGE, Tenn. - Fifteen high school students and one college freshman recently got up close and personal with lab equipment worth nearly a half million dollars at

  16. Beryllium-7 Implantation in Plastics for Prosthesis Wear Studies | U.S. DOE

    Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Beryllium-7 Implantation in Plastics for Prosthesis Wear Studies Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science Applications of Nuclear Science Archives Small Business Innovation Research / Small Business Technology Transfer Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building

  17. Ion Sources for High Energy Ion Implantation at BNL | U.S. DOE Office of

    Office of Science (SC)

    Science (SC) Ion Sources for High Energy Ion Implantation at BNL Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science Applications of Nuclear Science Archives Small Business Innovation Research / Small Business Technology Transfer Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave.,

  18. High-performance carbon nanotube-implanted mesoporous carbon spheres for supercapacitors with low series resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Bin; Chen, Xiaohua; Guo, Kaimin; Xu, Longshan; Chen, Chuansheng; Yan, Haimei; Chen, Jianghua

    2011-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} CNTs-implanted porous carbon spheres are prepared by using gelatin as soft template. {yields} Homogeneously distributed CNTs form a well-develop network in carbon spheres. {yields} CNTs act as a reinforcing backbone assisting the formation of pore structure. {yields} CNTs improve electrical conductivity and specific capacitance of supercapacitor. -- Abstract: Carbon nanotube-implanted mesoporous carbon spheres were prepared by an easy polymerization-induced colloid aggregation method using gelatin as a soft template. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements reveal that the materials are mesoporous carbon spheres, with a diameter of {approx}0.5-1.0 {mu}m, a specific surface area of 284 m{sup 2}/g and average pore size of 3.9 nm. Using the carbon nanotube-implanted mesoporous carbon spheres as electrode material for supercapacitors in an aqueous electrolyte solution, a low equivalent series resistance of 0.83 {Omega} cm{sup 2} and a maximum specific capacitance of 189 F/g with a measured power density of 8.7 kW/kg at energy density of 6.6 Wh/kg are obtained.

  19. Defect production during ion implantation of various A/sub III/B/sub V/ semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Wesch, W.; Wendler, E.; Goetz, G.; Kekelidse, N.P.

    1989-01-15

    The present paper gives a survey about the defect generation caused by ion implantation of GaAs, InAs, GaP, and InP. By combining Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, optical spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopic methods, further information concerning the kinetics of the defect production as well as the type of defects created is obtained. Generally, the defect concentration in the region of implantation parameters investigated can be described by the energy density deposited into nuclear processes. Below critical values of the nuclear deposited energy density in GaAs weakly damaged layers containing point defects and point defect clusters are produced. With increasing nuclear deposited energy density an increasing number of amorphous zones is created due to manifold overlap of the initial defect clusters. The results indicate that in GaAs and InAs already at relatively low implantation temperatures, the amorphization occurs via homogeneous defect nucleation. The results obtained for GaP and InP, on the other hand, point at a remarkable contribution of heterogeneous defect nucleation already at room temperature, leading to amorphization at markedly lower nuclear deposited energy densities in spite of nearly identical values of the nuclear deposited energy. It is therefore concluded that defect recombination and annealing at room temperature is much less pronounced in the phosphides than in the arsenides.

  20. Probing the carrier concentration profiles in phosphorus-implanted germanium using infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry

    SciTech Connect

    D'Costa, Vijay Richard Yeo, Yee-Chia

    2015-02-21

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry with photon energy in the 0.045–0.65 eV range was used to investigate germanium samples implanted with 30 keV phosphorus ions and annealed at 700 °C. The infrared response of implanted layers is dominated by free carrier absorption which is modeled using a Drude oscillator. The carrier concentration profiles were modeled using an error function, and compared with those obtained by electrochemical capacitance-voltage profiling and secondary ion mass spectrometry. In the flat region of the carrier concentration profile, average carrier concentration and mobility of 1.40 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} and 336 cm{sup 2}V{sup −1}s{sup −1}, respectively, were obtained. A phosphorus diffusivity of ∼1.2 × 10{sup −13} cm{sup 2}/s was obtained. The mobility versus carrier concentration relationships obtained for the implanted samples are close to the empirical relationship for bulk Ge.

  1. Spin-dependent recombination at arsenic donors in ion-implanted silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Franke, David P. Brandt, Martin S.; Otsuka, Manabu; Matsuoka, Takashi; Itoh, Kohei M.; Vlasenko, Leonid S.; Vlasenko, Marina P.

    2014-09-15

    Spin-dependent transport processes in thin near-surface doping regions created by low energy ion implantation of arsenic in silicon are detected by two methods, spin-dependent recombination using microwave photoconductivity and electrically detected magnetic resonance monitoring the direct current through the sample. The high sensitivity of these techniques allows the observation of the magnetic resonance, in particular, of As in weak magnetic fields and at low resonance frequencies (401200 MHz), where high-field-forbidden transitions between the magnetic sublevels can be observed due to the mixing of electron and nuclear spin states. Several implantation-induced defects are present in the samples studied and act as spin readout partner. We explicitly demonstrate this by electrically detected electron double resonance experiments and identify a pair recombination of close pairs formed by As donors and oxygen-vacancy centers in an excited triplet state (SL1) as the dominant spin-dependent process in As-implanted Czochralski-grown Si.

  2. From plasma immersion ion implantation to deposition: A historical perspective on principles and trends

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2001-06-14

    Plasma immersion techniques of surface modification are known under a myriad of names. The family of techniques reaches from pure plasma ion implantation, to ion implantation and deposition hybrid modes, to modes that are essentially plasma film deposition with substrate bias. In the most general sense, all plasma immersion techniques have in common that the surface of a substrate (target) is exposed to plasma and that relatively high substrate bias is applied. The bias is usually pulsed. In this review, the roots of immersion techniques are explored, some going back to the 1800s, followed by a discussion of the groundbreaking works of Adler and Conrad in the 1980s. In the 1990s, plasma immersion techniques matured in theoretical understanding, scaling, and the range of applications. First commercial facilities are now operational. Various immersion concepts are compiled and explained in this review. While gas (often nitrogen) ion implantation dominated the early years, film-forming immersion techniques and semiconductor processing gained importance. In the 1980s and 1990s we have seen exponential growth of the field but signs of slowdown are clear since 1998. Nevertheless, plasma immersion techniques have found, and will continue to have, an important place among surface modification techniques.

  3. Effect of flash lamp annealing on electrical activation in boron-implanted polycrystalline Si thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Do, Woori; Jin, Won-Beom; Choi, Jungwan; Bae, Seung-Muk; Kim, Hyoung-June; Kim, Byung-Kuk; Park, Seungho; Hwang, Jin-Ha

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Intensified visible light irradiation was generated via a high-powered Xe arc lamp. • The disordered Si atomic structure absorbs the intensified visible light. • The rapid heating activates electrically boron-implanted Si thin films. • Flash lamp heating is applicable to low temperature polycrystalline Si thin films. - Abstract: Boron-implanted polycrystalline Si thin films on glass substrates were subjected to a short duration (1 ms) of intense visible light irradiation generated via a high-powered Xe arc lamp. The disordered Si atomic structure absorbs the intense visible light resulting from flash lamp annealing. The subsequent rapid heating results in the electrical activation of boron-implanted Si thin films, which is empirically observed using Hall measurements. The electrical activation is verified by the observed increase in the crystalline component of the Si structures resulting in higher transmittance. The feasibility of flash lamp annealing has also been demonstrated via a theoretical thermal prediction, indicating that the flash lamp annealing is applicable to low-temperature polycrystalline Si thin films.

  4. Remote Sensing and In-Situ Observations of Arctic Mixed-Phase and Cirrus Clouds Acquired During Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Uninhabited Aerospace Vehicle Participation

    SciTech Connect

    McFarquhar, G.M.; Freer, M.; Um, J.; McCoy, R.; Bolton, W.

    2005-03-18

    The Atmospheric Radiation Monitor (ARM) uninhabited aerospace vehicle (UAV) program aims to develop measurement techniques and instruments suitable for a new class of high altitude, long endurance UAVs while supporting the climate community with valuable data sets. Using the Scaled Composites Proteus aircraft, ARM UAV participated in Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), obtaining unique data to help understand the interaction of clouds with solar and infrared radiation. Many measurements obtained using the Proteus were coincident with in-situ observations made by the UND Citation. Data from M-PACE are needed to understand interactions between clouds, the atmosphere and ocean in the Arctic, critical interactions given large-scale models suggest enhanced warming compared to lower latitudes is occurring.

  5. Controlled fabrication of Si nanocrystal delta-layers in thin SiO{sub 2} layers by plasma immersion ion implantation for nonvolatile memories

    SciTech Connect

    Bonafos, C.; Ben-Assayag, G.; Groenen, J.; Carrada, M.; Spiegel, Y.; Torregrosa, F.; Normand, P.; Dimitrakis, P.; Kapetanakis, E.; Sahu, B. S.; Slaoui, A.

    2013-12-16

    Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) is a promising alternative to beam line implantation to produce a single layer of nanocrystals (NCs) in the gate insulator of metal-oxide semiconductor devices. We report herein the fabrication of two-dimensional Si-NCs arrays in thin SiO{sub 2} films using PIII and rapid thermal annealing. The effect of plasma and implantation conditions on the structural properties of the NC layers is examined by transmission electron microscopy. A fine tuning of the NCs characteristics is possible by optimizing the oxide thickness, implantation energy, and dose. Electrical characterization revealed that the PIII-produced-Si NC structures are appealing for nonvolatile memories.

  6. Dose calculation for permanent prostate implants incorporating spatially anisotropic linearly time-resolving edema

    SciTech Connect

    Monajemi, T. T.; Clements, Charles M.; Sloboda, Ron S.

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: The objectives of this study were (i) to develop a dose calculation method for permanent prostate implants that incorporates a clinically motivated model for edema and (ii) to illustrate the use of the method by calculating the preimplant dosimetry error for a reference configuration of {sup 125}I, {sup 103}Pd, and {sup 137}Cs seeds subject to edema-induced motions corresponding to a variety of model parameters. Methods: A model for spatially anisotropic edema that resolves linearly with time was developed based on serial magnetic resonance imaging measurements made previously at our center to characterize the edema for a group of n=40 prostate implant patients [R. S. Sloboda et al., ''Time course of prostatic edema post permanent seed implant determined by magnetic resonance imaging,'' Brachytherapy 9, 354-361 (2010)]. Model parameters consisted of edema magnitude, {Delta}, and period, T. The TG-43 dose calculation formalism for a point source was extended to incorporate the edema model, thus enabling calculation via numerical integration of the cumulative dose around an individual seed in the presence of edema. Using an even power piecewise-continuous polynomial representation for the radial dose function, the cumulative dose was also expressed in closed analytical form. Application of the method was illustrated by calculating the preimplant dosimetry error, RE{sub preplan}, in a 5x5x5 cm{sup 3} volume for {sup 125}I (Oncura 6711), {sup 103}Pd (Theragenics 200), and {sup 131}Cs (IsoRay CS-1) seeds arranged in the Radiological Physics Center test case 2 configuration for a range of edema relative magnitudes ({Delta}=[0.1,0.2,0.4,0.6,1.0]) and periods (T=[28,56,84] d). Results were compared to preimplant dosimetry errors calculated using a variation of the isotropic edema model developed by Chen et al. [''Dosimetric effects of edema in permanent prostate seed implants: A rigorous solution,'' Int. J. Radiat. Oncol., Biol., Phys. 47, 1405-1419 (2000

  7. Fe ion-implanted TiO{sub 2} thin film for efficient visible-light photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Impellizzeri, G. Scuderi, V.; Sanz, R.; Privitera, V.; Romano, L.; Sberna, P. M.; Arcadipane, E.; Scuderi, M.; Nicotra, G.; Bayle, M.; Carles, R.; Simone, F.

    2014-11-07

    This work shows the application of metal ion-implantation to realize an efficient second-generation TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst. High fluence Fe{sup +} ions were implanted into thin TiO{sub 2} films and subsequently annealed up to 550?C. The ion-implantation process modified the TiO{sub 2} pure film, locally lowering its band-gap energy from 3.2?eV to 1.61.9?eV, making the material sensitive to visible light. The measured optical band-gap of 1.61.9?eV was associated with the presence of effective energy levels in the energy band structure of the titanium dioxide, due to implantation-induced defects. An accurate structural characterization was performed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV/VIS spectroscopy. The synthesized materials revealed a remarkable photocatalytic efficiency in the degradation of organic compounds in water under visible light irradiation, without the help of any thermal treatments. The photocatalytic activity has been correlated with the amount of defects induced by the ion-implantation process, clarifying the operative physical mechanism. These results can be fruitfully applied for environmental applications of TiO{sub 2}.

  8. The Effects of Metallic Implants on Electroporation Therapies: Feasibility of Irreversible Electroporation for Brachytherapy Salvage

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, Robert E.; Smith, Ryan L.; Kavnoudias, Helen; Rosenfeldt, Franklin Ou, Ruchong; Mclean, Catriona A.; Davalos, Rafael V.; Thomson, Kenneth R.

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Electroporation-based therapies deliver brief electric pulses into a targeted volume to destabilize cellular membranes. Nonthermal irreversible electroporation (IRE) provides focal ablation with effects dependent on the electric field distribution, which changes in heterogeneous environments. It should be determined if highly conductive metallic implants in targeted regions, such as radiotherapy brachytherapy seeds in prostate tissue, will alter treatment outcomes. Theoretical and experimental models determine the impact of prostate brachytherapy seeds on IRE treatments. Materials and Methods: This study delivered IRE pulses in nonanimal, as well as in ex vivo and in vivo tissue, with and in the absence of expired radiotherapy seeds. Electrical current was measured and lesion dimensions were examined macroscopically and with magnetic resonance imaging. Finite-element treatment simulations predicted the effects of brachytherapy seeds in the targeted region on electrical current, electric field, and temperature distributions. Results: There was no significant difference in electrical behavior in tissue containing a grid of expired radiotherapy seeds relative to those without seeds for nonanimal, ex vivo, and in vivo experiments (all p > 0.1). Numerical simulations predict no significant alteration of electric field or thermal effects (all p > 0.1). Histology showed cellular necrosis in the region near the electrodes and seeds within the ablation region; however, there were no seeds beyond the ablation margins. Conclusion: This study suggests that electroporation therapies can be implemented in regions containing small metallic implants without significant changes to electrical and thermal effects relative to use in tissue without the implants. This supports the ability to use IRE as a salvage therapy option for brachytherapy.

  9. Local mode spectroscopy of oxygen-implanted GaAs MBE layers

    SciTech Connect

    Alt, H.C.; Muessig, H.; Brugger, H.

    1996-12-31

    Defects introduced by oxygen implantation in silicon-doped GaAs layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) have been investigated by Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy at low temperatures. After rapid thermal annealing in the temperature range between 630 and 880 C a local mode is observed at 641 cm{sup {minus}1}. The line shows a shift with both the Si and O isotope ({sup 28}Si/{sup 29}Si and {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O, respectively) mass. Experimental evidence is presented that the silicon-oxygen defect giving rise to this line is responsible for the high-resistive behavior of the MBE layer.

  10. The Efficacy of Ultraviolet Radiation for Sterilizing Tools Used for Surgically Implanting Transmitters into Fish

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Ricardo W.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Colotelo, Alison HA; Gay, Marybeth E.; Woodley, Christa M.; Brown, Richard S.

    2013-02-28

    Telemetry is frequently used to examine the behavior of fish, and the transmitters used are normally surgically implanted into the coelom of fish. Implantation requires the use of surgical tools such as scalpels, forceps, needle holders, and sutures. When several fish are implanted consecutively for large telemetry studies, it is common for surgical tools to be sterilized or, at minimum, disinfected between each use so that pathogens that may be present are not spread among fish. However, autoclaving tools can take a long period of time, and chemical sterilants or disinfectants can be harmful to both humans and fish and have varied effectiveness. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is commonly used to disinfect water in aquaculture facilities. However, this technology has not been widely used to sterilize tools for surgical implantation of transmitters in fish. To determine its efficacy for this application, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers used UV radiation to disinfect surgical tools (i.e., forceps, needle holder, stab scalpel, and suture) that were exposed to one of four aquatic organisms that typically lead to negative health issues for salmonids. These organisms included Aeromonas salmonicida, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Renibacterium salmoninarum, and Saprolegnia parasitica. Surgical tools were exposed to the bacteria by dipping them into a confluent suspension of three varying concentrations (i.e., low, medium, high). After exposure to the bacterial culture, tools were placed into a mobile Millipore UV sterilization apparatus. The tools were then exposed for three different time periods—2, 5, or 15 min. S. parasitica, a water mold, was tested using an agar plate method and forceps-pinch method. UV light exposures of 5 and 15 min were effective at killing all four organisms. UV light was also effective at killing Geobacillus stearothermophilus, the organism used as a biological indicator to verify effectiveness of steam sterilizers. These

  11. Effect of charge imbalance parameter on LEKW in ion-implanted quantum semiconductor plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhary, Sandhya; Yadav, Nishchhal; Ghosh, S.

    2015-07-31

    In this study we present an analytical investigation on the propagation characteristics of electro-kinetic wave modified through quantum correction term and charge imbalance parameter using quantum hydrodynamic model for an ion-implanted semiconductor plasma. The dispersion relation has been analyzed in two distinct velocity regimes. We found that as the number of negative charges resides on the colloids increases, their role become increasing effective. The present investigation is important for understanding of wave and instability phenomena and can be put to various interesting applications.

  12. On the dynamics of the damage growth in 5 MeV oxygen-implanted lithium niobate

    SciTech Connect

    Bianconi, M.; Argiolas, N.; Bazzan, M.; Bentini, G.G.; Chiarini, M.; Cerutti, A.; Mazzoldi, P.; Pennestri, G.; Sada, C.

    2005-08-15

    The damage induced by 5 MeV oxygen ion implantation in x-cut congruent LiNbO{sub 3} has been investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry channeling technique. The dynamics of the damage growth has been described by an analytical formula considering the separate contributions of nuclear and electronic energy deposition. It has been hypothesized that the nuclear damage provides the localization of the energy released to the electronic subsystem necessary for the conversion into atomic displacements. The strong influence of the preexisting defects on the damage pileup, foreseen by the analytical formula, has been experimentally verified by pre-implanting the samples with 500 keV oxygen ions. It has been shown that a subsequent 5 MeV oxygen implantation step gives rise to an impressive damage accumulation, eventually leading to the total amorphization of the surface, even at moderate fluences.

  13. Predicting Low Energy Dopant Implant Profiles in Semiconductors using Molecular Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Beardmore, K.M.; Gronbech-Jensen, N.

    1999-05-02

    The authors present a highly efficient molecular dynamics scheme for calculating dopant density profiles in group-IV alloy, and III-V zinc blende structure materials. Their scheme incorporates several necessary methods for reducing computational overhead, plus a rare event algorithm to give statistical accuracy over several orders of magnitude change in the dopant concentration. The code uses a molecular dynamics (MD) model to describe ion-target interactions. Atomic interactions are described by a combination of 'many-body' and pair specific screened Coulomb potentials. Accumulative damage is accounted for using a Kinchin-Pease type model, inelastic energy loss is represented by a Firsov expression, and electronic stopping is described by a modified Brandt-Kitagawa model which contains a single adjustable ion-target dependent parameter. Thus, the program is easily extensible beyond a given validation range, and is therefore truly predictive over a wide range of implant energies and angles. The scheme is especially suited for calculating profiles due to low energy and to situations where a predictive capability is required with the minimum of experimental validation. They give examples of using the code to calculate concentration profiles and 2D 'point response' profiles of dopants in crystalline silicon and gallium-arsenide. Here they can predict the experimental profile over five orders of magnitude for <100> and <110> channeling and for non-channeling implants at energies up to hundreds of keV.

  14. Beam energy tracking system on Optima XEx high energy ion implanter

    SciTech Connect

    David, Jonathan; Satoh, Shu; Wu Xiangyang; Geary, Cindy; Deluca, James

    2012-11-06

    The Axcelis Optima XEx high energy implanter is an RF linac-based implanter with 12 RF resonators for beam acceleration. Even though each acceleration field is an alternating, sinusoidal RF field, the well known phase-focusing principle produces a beam with a sharp quasi-monoenergetic energy spectrum. A magnetic energy filter after the linac further attenuates the low energy continuum in the energy spectrum often associated with RF acceleration. The final beam energy is a function of the phase and amplitude of the 12 resonators in the linac. When tuning a beam, the magnetic energy filter is set to the desired energy, and each linac parameter is tuned to maximize the transmission through the filter. Once a beam is set up, all the parameters are stored in a recipe, which can be easily tuned and has proven to be quite repeatable. The magnetic field setting of the energy filter selects the beam energy from the RF Linac accelerator, and in-situ verification of beam energy in addition to the magnetic energy filter setting has long been desired. An independent energy tracking system was developed for this purpose, using the existing electrostatic beam scanner as a deflector to construct an in-situ electrostatic energy analyzer. This paper will describe the system and performance of the beam energy tracking system.

  15. Production and characterization of a nitrogen-implanted Fe standard to calibrate PIGE measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, C. L.; Silva, T. F.; Added, N.; Santos, H. C.; Tabacniks, M. H.

    2014-11-11

    Three calibration standard was produced by ion implantation of nitrogen in samples of Armco iron (99.7% iron). The samples was irradiated with nitrogen ion beams at several different energies (between 4 keV and 40 keV), and the ion doses were adjusted to obtain an uniform depth profile, using simulations with SRIM code. Two standards, one thick and other a foil (1.62mg/cm{sup 2}), was irradiated at same time with total nominal dose of 6.6×10{sup −16} atoms/cm{sup 2} distributed in a region of 100 nm in depth, with an average concentration of 9.0% nitrogen in iron. The third sample uses the same profile, but with a small dose, 1.1×10{sup −16} atoms/cm{sup 2} and average concentration of 1.5% nitrogen. The characterization of the implanted samples was done using RBS and NRA techniques to quantification of nitrogen.

  16. Synthesis, optical properties, and microstructure of semiconductor nanocrystals formed by ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Budai, J.D.; White, C.W.; Withrow, S.P.; Zuhr, R.A.; Zhu, J.G.

    1996-12-01

    High-dose ion implantation, followed by annealing, has been shown to provide a versatile technique for creating semiconductor nanocrystals encapsulated in the surface region of a substrate material. The authors have successfully formed nanocrystalline precipitates from groups IV (Si, Ge, SiGe), III-V (GaAs, InAs, GaP, InP, GaN), and II-VI (CdS, CdSe, CdS{sub x}Se{sub 1{minus}x}, CdTe, ZnS, ZnSe) in fused silica, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Si substrates. Representative examples will be presented in order to illustrate the synthesis, microstructure, and optical properties of the nanostructured composite systems. The optical spectra reveal blue-shifts in good agreement with theoretical estimates of size-dependent quantum-confinement energies of electrons and holes. When formed in crystalline substrates, the nanocrystal lattice structure and orientation can be reproducibly controlled by adjusting the implantation conditions.

  17. Inhibitive formation of nanocavities by introduction of Si atoms in Ge nanocrystals produced by ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, R. S.; Shang, L.; Liu, X. H.; Zhang, Y. J.; Wang, Y. Q. E-mail: barba@emt.inrs.ca; Ross, G. G.; Barba, D. E-mail: barba@emt.inrs.ca

    2014-05-28

    Germanium nanocrystals (Ge-nc) were successfully synthesized by co-implantation of Si and Ge ions into a SiO{sub 2} film thermally grown on (100) Si substrate and fused silica (pure SiO{sub 2}), respectively, followed by subsequent annealing at 1150 °C for 1 h. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examinations show that nanocavities only exist in the fused silica sample but not in the SiO{sub 2} film on a Si substrate. From the analysis of the high-resolution TEM images and electron energy-loss spectroscopy spectra, it is revealed that the absence of nanocavities in the SiO{sub 2} film/Si substrate is attributed to the presence of Si atoms inside the formed Ge-nc. Because the energy of Si-Ge bonds (301 kJ·mol{sup −1}) are greater than that of Ge-Ge bonds (264 kJ·mol{sup −1}), the introduction of the Si-Ge bonds inside the Ge-nc can inhibit the diffusion of Ge from the Ge-nc during the annealing process. However, for the fused silica sample, no crystalline Si-Ge bonds are detected within the Ge-nc, where strong Ge outdiffusion effects produce a great number of nanocavities. Our results can shed light on the formation mechanism of nanocavities and provide a good way to avoid nanocavities during the process of ion implantation.

  18. XPS and SIMS study of the surface and interface of aged C+ implanted uranium

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Donald, Scott B.; Siekhaus, Wigbert J.; Nelson, Art J.

    2016-09-08

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in combination with secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling were used to investigate the surface and interfacial chemistry of C+ ion implanted polycrystalline uranium subsequently oxidized in air for over 10 years at ambient temperature. The original implantation of 33 keV C+ ions into U238 with a dose of 4.3 × 1017 cm–3 produced a physically and chemically modified surface layer that was characterized and shown to initially prevent air oxidation and corrosion of the uranium after 1 year in air at ambient temperature. The aging of the surface and interfacial layers were examined by using themore » chemical shift of the U 4f, C 1s, and O 1s photoelectron lines. In addition, valence band spectra were used to explore the electronic structure of the aged carbide surface and interface layer. Moreover, the time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling results for the aged sample confirmed an oxidized uranium carbide layer over the carbide layer/U metal interface.« less

  19. Laser annealing of ion implanted CZ silicon for solar cell junction formation. Quarterly report No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Katzeff, J. S.

    1980-07-01

    A project to evaluate the merits of large spot size pulsed laser annealing of ion implanted silicon wafers for junction formation on solar cells is described. A Q-switched Nd:Glass laser system is used operating in the 1064 (regular) and 532 (with frequency doubler) nm wavelengths. The laser output is in excess of 30 joules with a 20 to 50 ns pulse duration. Material used in this investigation is 3-inch diameter CZ silicon, P-type 0.014 inches thick, 10..cap omega..-cm resistivity, <100> orientation. Three wafer surface conditions are being evaluated in this pulse annealing investigation: chem-polished, texture etched, and flash etched. Annealing was performed with and without beam homogenization. Both modes showed excellent lattice recovery from the implant-induced damage as analyzed using Rutherford backscattering techniques. Homogenization of the beam was performed using a fused silica rod configured with a 90/sup 0/ bend. The unhomogenized annealing was performed using a plano-concave lens. Fabrication of laser annealed cells using both modes is forthcoming.

  20. Fourth-generation plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition facility for hybrid surface modification layer fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Langping; Huang Lei; Xie Zhiwen; Wang Xiaofeng; Tang Baoyin

    2008-02-15

    The fourth-generation plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID) facility for hybrid and batch treatment was built in our laboratory recently. Comparing with our previous PIIID facilities, several novel designs are utilized. Two multicathode pulsed cathodic arc plasma sources are fixed on the chamber wall symmetrically, which can increase the steady working time from 6 h (the single cathode source in our previous facilities) to about 18 h. Meanwhile, the inner diameter of the pulsed cathodic arc plasma source is increased from the previous 80 to 209 mm, thus, large area metal plasma can be obtained by the source. Instead of the simple sample holder in our previous facility, a complex revolution-rotation sample holder composed of 24 shafts, which can rotate around its axis and adjust its position through revolving around the center axis of the vacuum chamber, is fixed in the center of the vacuum chamber. In addition, one magnetron sputtering source is set on the chamber wall instead of the top cover in the previous facility. Because of the above characteristic, the PIIID hybrid process involving ion implantation, vacuum arc, and magnetron sputtering deposition can be acquired without breaking vacuum. In addition, the PIIID batch treatment of cylinderlike components can be finished by installing these components on the rotating shafts on the sample holder.

  1. Quasi-two-dimensional Ag nanoparticle formation in silica by Xe ion irradiation and subsequent Ag ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jun; Jia, Guangyi; Mu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Changlong

    2013-04-01

    Ag nanoparticles were fabricated in silica by Xe ion irradiation and subsequent Ag ion implantation, which distributed in a depth range from 4.8 to 14.3 nm, rather than dispersed from surface to a depth of 24.7 nm when no irradiation was made in advance. In addition, the suppression of Ag implants' sputtering loss was also evidenced by a greatly increased Ag content in the prepared sample. These results are mainly due to the defect-enhanced in-beam particle growth. Further, formation of polycrystalline Ag nanoparticles was revealed, whose effect on optical absorption was discussed according to the electron mean-free-path mode.

  2. Photoluminescence spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering channeling evaluation of various capping techniques for rapid thermal annealing of ion-implanted ZnSe

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, E.L.; Zach, F.X.; Yu, K.M.; Bourret, E.D.

    1994-05-01

    We report on the effectiveness of proximity caps and PECVD Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}caps during annealing of implanted ZnSe films. OMVPE ZnSe films were grown using diisopropylselenide (DIPSe) and diethylzinc (DEZn) precursors, then ion-implanted with 1 {times} 10{sup 14} cm{sup {minus}2} N (33 keV) or Ne (45 keV) at room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature, and rapid thermal annealed at temperatures between 200C and 850C. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in the channeling orientation was used to investigate damage recovery, and photoluminescence spectroscopy was used to investigate crystal quality and the formation of point defects. Low temperature implants were found to have better luminescence properties than room temperature implants, and results show that annealing, time and temperature may be more important than capping material in determining the optical properties. Effects of various caps, implant and annealing temperature are discussed in terms of photoluminescence spectra.

  3. Malfunctions of Implantable Cardiac Devices in Patients Receiving Proton Beam Therapy: Incidence and Predictors

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Daniel R., E-mail: dgomez@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Poenisch, Falk [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Pinnix, Chelsea C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Sheu, Tommy [Department of Experimental Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Chang, Joe Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Memon, Nada [Department of Cardiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rozner, Marc A. [Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dougherty, Anne H. [Department of Cardiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: Photon therapy has been reported to induce resets of implanted cardiac devices, but the clinical sequelae of treating patients with such devices with proton beam therapy (PBT) are not well known. We reviewed the incidence of device malfunctions among patients undergoing PBT. Methods and Materials: From March 2009 through July 2012, 42 patients with implanted cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED; 28 pacemakers and 14 cardioverter-defibrillators) underwent 42 courses of PBT for thoracic (23, 55%), prostate (15, 36%), liver (3, 7%), or base of skull (1, 2%) tumors at a single institution. The median prescribed dose was 74 Gy (relative biological effectiveness; range 46.8-87.5 Gy), and the median distance from the treatment field to the CIED was 10 cm (range 0.8-40 cm). Maximum proton and neutron doses were estimated for each treatment course. All CIEDs were checked before radiation delivery and monitored throughout treatment. Results: Median estimated peak proton and neutron doses to the CIED in all patients were 0.8 Gy (range 0.13-21 Gy) and 346 Sv (range 11-1100 mSv). Six CIED malfunctions occurred in 5 patients (2 pacemakers and 3 defibrillators). Five of these malfunctions were CIED resets, and 1 patient with a defibrillator (in a patient with a liver tumor) had an elective replacement indicator after therapy that was not influenced by radiation. The mean distance from the proton beam to the CIED among devices that reset was 7.0 cm (range 0.9-8 cm), and the mean maximum neutron dose was 655 mSv (range 330-1100 mSv). All resets occurred in patients receiving thoracic PBT and were corrected without clinical incident. The generator for the defibrillator with the elective replacement indicator message was replaced uneventfully after treatment. Conclusions: The incidence of CIED resets was about 20% among patients receiving PBT to the thorax. We recommend that PBT be avoided in pacing-dependent patients and that patients with any type of CIED receiving

  4. The “accumulation effect” of positrons in the stack of foils, detected by measurements of the positron implantation profile

    SciTech Connect

    Dryzek, Jerzy; Siemek, Krzysztof

    2013-12-14

    The profiles of positrons implanted from the radioactive source {sup 22}Na into a stack of foils and plates are the subject of our experimental and theoretical studies. The measurements were performed using the depth scanning of positron implantation profile method, and the theoretical calculations using the phenomenological multi-scattering model (MSM). Several stacks consisting of silver, gold and aluminum foils, and titanium and germanium plates were investigated. We notice that the MSM describes well the experimental profiles; however when the stack consisting of silver and gold foils, the backscattering and linear absorption coefficients differ significantly from those reported in the literature. We suggest the energy dependency of the backscattering coefficient for silver and gold. In the stacks which comprise titanium and germanium plates, there were observed the features, which indicate the presence of the “accumulation effect” in the experimental implantation profile. This effect was previously detected in implantation profiles in Monte Carlo simulations using the GEANT4 tool kit, and it consists in higher localization of positrons close the interface. We suppose that this effect can be essential for positron annihilation in any heterogeneous materials.

  5. Electrochemical polishing of thread fastener test specimens of nickel-chromium iron alloys

    DOEpatents

    Kephart, Alan R.

    1991-01-01

    An electrochemical polishing device and method for selective anodic dissolution of the surface of test specimens comprised, for example, of nickel-chromium-iron alloys, which provides for uniform dissolution at the localized sites to remove metal through the use of a coiled wire electrode (cathode) placed in the immediate proximity of the working, surface resulting in a polished and uniform grain boundary.

  6. Dotiki saves money and time with power tool and belt fasteners

    SciTech Connect

    Bargo, K.

    2009-11-15

    The use of a Hilti power tool to improve belt splice installations to minimise downtime is described. 3 photos.

  7. Development of Steel Fastener Nano-Ceramic Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Magnesium Parts (AMD-704)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  8. Impurity gettering in silicon using cavities formed by helium implantation and annealing

    DOEpatents

    Myers, S.M. Jr.; Bishop, D.M.; Follstaedt, D.M.

    1998-11-24

    Impurity gettering in silicon wafers is achieved by a new process consisting of helium ion implantation followed by annealing. This treatment creates cavities whose internal surfaces are highly chemically reactive due to the presence of numerous silicon dangling bonds. For two representative transition-metal impurities, copper and nickel, the binding energies at cavities were demonstrated to be larger than the binding energies in precipitates of metal silicide, which constitutes the basis of most current impurity gettering. As a result the residual concentration of such impurities after cavity gettering is smaller by several orders of magnitude than after precipitation gettering. Additionally, cavity gettering is effective regardless of the starting impurity concentration in the wafer, whereas precipitation gettering ceases when the impurity concentration reaches a characteristic solubility determined by the equilibrium phase diagram of the silicon-metal system. The strong cavity gettering was shown to induce dissolution of metal-silicide particles from the opposite side of a wafer. 4 figs.

  9. Impurity gettering in silicon using cavities formed by helium implantation and annealing

    DOEpatents

    Myers, Jr., Samuel M.; Bishop, Dawn M.; Follstaedt, David M.

    1998-01-01

    Impurity gettering in silicon wafers is achieved by a new process consisting of helium ion implantation followed by annealing. This treatment creates cavities whose internal surfaces are highly chemically reactive due to the presence of numerous silicon dangling bonds. For two representative transition-metal impurities, copper and nickel, the binding energies at cavities were demonstrated to be larger than the binding energies in precipitates of metal silicide, which constitutes the basis of most current impurity gettering. As a result the residual concentration of such impurities after cavity gettering is smaller by several orders of magnitude than after precipitation gettering. Additionally, cavity gettering is effective regardless of the starting impurity concentration in the wafer, whereas precipitation gettering ceases when the impurity concentration reaches a characteristic solubility determined by the equilibrium phase diagram of the silicon-metal system. The strong cavity gettering was shown to induce dissolution of metal-silicide particles from the opposite side of a wafer.

  10. C ion-implanted TiO{sub 2} thin film for photocatalytic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Impellizzeri, G. Scuderi, V.; Sanz, R.; Privitera, V.; Romano, L.; Napolitani, E.; Carles, R.

    2015-03-14

    Third-generation TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts were prepared by implantation of C{sup +} ions into 110 nm thick TiO{sub 2} films. An accurate structural investigation was performed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, Raman-luminescence spectroscopy, and UV/VIS optical characterization. The C doping locally modified the TiO{sub 2} pure films, lowering the band-gap energy from 3.3 eV to a value of 1.8 eV, making the material sensitive to visible light. The synthesized materials are photocatalytically active in the degradation of organic compounds in water under both UV and visible light irradiation, without the help of any additional thermal treatment. These results increase the understanding of the C-doped titanium dioxide, helpful for future environmental applications.

  11. A 3D approximate maximum likelihood solver for localization of fish implanted with acoustic transmitters

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Li, Xinya; Deng, Z. Daniel; USA, Richland Washington; Sun, Yannan; USA, Richland Washington; Martinez, Jayson J.; USA, Richland Washington; Fu, Tao; USA, Richland Washington; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; et al

    2014-11-27

    Better understanding of fish behavior is vital for recovery of many endangered species including salmon. The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was developed to observe the out-migratory behavior of juvenile salmonids tagged by surgical implantation of acoustic micro-transmitters and to estimate the survival when passing through dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. A robust three-dimensional solver was needed to accurately and efficiently estimate the time sequence of locations of fish tagged with JSATS acoustic transmitters, to describe in sufficient detail the information needed to assess the function of dam-passage design alternatives. An approximate maximum likelihood solver was developedmore » using measurements of time difference of arrival from all hydrophones in receiving arrays on which a transmission was detected. Field experiments demonstrated that the developed solver performed significantly better in tracking efficiency and accuracy than other solvers described in the literature.« less

  12. Late Pseudocoarctation Syndrome After Stent-Graft Implantation For Traumatic Aortic Rupture

    SciTech Connect

    Letocart, Vincent Fau, Georges Tirouvanziam, Ashok; Toquet, Claire; Al Habash, Oussama Guerin, Patrice; Rousseau, Herve; Crochet, Dominique

    2013-06-15

    The present observation illustrates an unusual complication occurring after stent-grafting (S-graft) for aortic isthmus rupture. A 22-year-old patient, treated by S-graft in the emergency department for traumatic aortic rupture, was readmitted 10 months later with pseudocoarctation syndrome. A membrane was found inside the stent-graft that had induced a pseudo-dissection, which caused the pseudocoarctation syndrome. Surgical treatment consisted of removing the stent-graft and membrane and replacing it with a vascular implant. The patient's clinical course was fair. The suggested mechanism was circumferential neoendothelialization of the stent-graft. Dehiscence caused the superior part of the membrane to drop into the lumen of the stent-graft creating a 'false channel' that compressed the 'true lumen' and induced 'pseudocoarctation' syndrome. The cause of the extensive neointimalization remains unexplained. Thoracic aortic stent-grafts require regular follow-up monitoring by angioscan or angio-magnetic resonance imaging.

  13. Bone regeneration by implantation of adipose-derived stromal cells expressing BMP-2

    SciTech Connect

    Li Huiwu; Dai Kerong . E-mail: krdai@163.com; Tang Tingting; Zhang Xiaoling; Yan Mengning; Lou Jueren

    2007-05-18

    In this study, we reported that the adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) genetically modified by bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) healed critical-sized canine ulnar bone defects. First, the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential of the ADSCs derived from canine adipose tissue were demonstrated. And then the cells were modified by the BMP-2 gene and the expression and bone-induction ability of BMP-2 were identified. Finally, the cells modified by BMP-2 gene were applied to a {beta}-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) carrier and implanted into ulnar bone defects in the canine model. After 16 weeks, radiographic, histological, and histomorphometry analysis showed that ADSCs modified by BMP-2 gene produced a significant increase of newly formed bone area and healed or partly healed all of the bone defects. We conclude that ADSCs modified by the BMP-2 gene can enhance the repair of critical-sized bone defects in large animals.

  14. Performance Assessment of Suture Type in Juvenile Chinook Salmon Surgically Implanted with Acoustic Transmitters

    SciTech Connect

    Deters, Katherine A.; Brown, Richard S.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Boyd, James W.

    2009-02-27

    The objective of this study was to determine the best overall suture material to close incisions from the surgical implantation of Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic microtransmitters in subyearling Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. The effects of seven suture materials, four surgeons, and two water temperatures on suture retention, incision openness, tag retention, tissue inflammation, and tissue ulceration were quantified. The laboratory study, conducted by researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, supports a larger effort under way for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, aimed at determining the suitability of acoustic telemetry for estimating short- and longer-term (30-60 days) juvenile-salmonid survival at Columbia and Snake River dams and through the lower Columbia River.

  15. A 3D approximate maximum likelihood solver for localization of fish implanted with acoustic transmitters

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xinya; Deng, Z. Daniel; USA, Richland Washington; Sun, Yannan; USA, Richland Washington; Martinez, Jayson J.; USA, Richland Washington; Fu, Tao; USA, Richland Washington; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; USA, Richland Washington; Carlson, Thomas J.; USA, Richland Washington

    2014-11-27

    Better understanding of fish behavior is vital for recovery of many endangered species including salmon. The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was developed to observe the out-migratory behavior of juvenile salmonids tagged by surgical implantation of acoustic micro-transmitters and to estimate the survival when passing through dams on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. A robust three-dimensional solver was needed to accurately and efficiently estimate the time sequence of locations of fish tagged with JSATS acoustic transmitters, to describe in sufficient detail the information needed to assess the function of dam-passage design alternatives. An approximate maximum likelihood solver was developed using measurements of time difference of arrival from all hydrophones in receiving arrays on which a transmission was detected. Field experiments demonstrated that the developed solver performed significantly better in tracking efficiency and accuracy than other solvers described in the literature.

  16. A high voltage pulse power supply for metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Salvadori, M. C.; Teixeira, F. S.; Araujo, W. W. R.; Sgubin, L. G.; Sochugov, N. S.; Spirin, R. E.; Brown, I. G.

    2010-12-15

    We describe the design and implementation of a high voltage pulse power supply (pulser) that supports the operation of a repetitively pulsed filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition facility in plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (Mepiiid) mode. Negative pulses (micropulses) of up to 20 kV in magnitude and 20 A peak current are provided in gated pulse packets (macropulses) over a broad range of possible pulse width and duty cycle. Application of the system consisting of filtered vacuum arc and high voltage pulser is demonstrated by forming diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films with and without substrate bias provided by the pulser. Significantly enhanced film/substrate adhesion is observed when the pulser is used to induce interface mixing between the DLC film and the underlying Si substrate.

  17. A comparison of implantation methods for large PIT tags or injectable acoustic transmitters in juvenile Chinook salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Katrina V.; Brown, Richard S.; Deng, Zhiqun; Klett, Ryan S.; Li, Huidong; Seaburg, Adam; Eppard, M. B.

    2014-04-15

    The miniaturization of acoustic transmitters may allow greater flexibility in terms of the size and species of fish available to tag. New downsized injectable acoustic tags similar in shape to passive integrated transponder tags can be rapidly injected rather than surgically implanted through a sutured incision, as is current practice. Before wide-scale field use of these injectable transmitters, standard protocols to ensure the most effective and least damaging methods of implantation must be developed. Three implantation methods were tested in various sizes of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha. Methods included a needle bevel-down injection, a needle bevel-up injection with a 90-degree rotation, and tag implantation through an unsutured incision. Tagged fish were compared to untagged control groups. Weight and wound area were measured at tagging and every week for 3 weeks; holding tanks were checked daily for mortalities and tag losses. No differences among treatments were found in growth, tag loss, or survival, but wound area was significantly reduced among incision-treated fish. The bevel-up injection had the worst results in terms of tag loss and wound area and also had high mortality. Implantation through an incision resulted in the lowest tag loss but the highest mortality. Fish from the bevel-down treatment group had the least mortality; wound areas also were smaller than the bevel-up treatment group. Cumulatively, the data suggest that the unsutured incision and bevel-down injection methods were the most effective; the drawbacks of both methods are described in detail. However, we further recommend larger and longer studies to find more robust thresholds for tagging size that include more sensitive measures.

  18. Measurement and image processing evaluation of surface modifications of dental implants G4 pure titanium created by different techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Bulutsuz, A. G.; Demircioglu, P. Bogrekci, I.; Durakbasa, M. N.

    2015-03-30

    Foreign substances and organic tissue interaction placed into the jaw in order to eliminate tooth loss involves a highly complex process. Many biological reactions take place as well as the biomechanical forces that influence this formation. Osseointegration denotes to the direct structural and functional association between the living bone and the load-bearing artificial implant's surface. Taking into consideration of the requirements in the manufacturing processes of the implants, surface characterizations with high precise measurement techniques are investigated and thus long-term success of dental implant is emphasized on the importance of these processes in this study. In this research, the detailed surface characterization was performed to identify the dependence of the manufacturing techniques on the surface properties by using the image processing methods and using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) for morphological properties in 3D and Taylor Hobson stylus profilometer for roughness properties in 2D. Three implant surfaces fabricated by different manufacturing techniques were inspected, and a machined surface was included into the study as a reference specimen. The results indicated that different surface treatments were strongly influenced surface morphology. Thus 2D and 3D precise inspection techniques were highlighted on the importance for surface characterization. Different image analyses techniques such as Dark-light technique were used to verify the surface measurement results. The computational phase was performed using image processing toolbox in Matlab with precise evaluation of the roughness for the implant surfaces. The relationship between the number of black and white pixels and surface roughness is presented. FFT image processing and analyses results explicitly imply that the technique is useful in the determination of surface roughness. The results showed that the number of black pixels in the image increases with increase in surface

  19. SU-E-T-546: Use of Implant Volume for Quality Assurance of Low Dose Rate Brachytherapy Treatment Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, D; Kolar, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To analyze the application of volume implant (V100) data as a method for a global check of low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy plans. Methods: Treatment plans for 335 consecutive patients undergoing permanent seed implants for prostate cancer and for 113 patients treated with plaque therapy for ocular melanoma were analyzed. Plaques used were 54 COMS (10 to 20 mm, notched and regular) and 59 Eye Physics EP917s with variable loading. Plots of treatment time x implanted activity per unit dose versus v100 ^.667 were made. V100 values were obtained using dose volume histograms calculated by the treatment planning systems (Variseed 8.02 and Plaque Simulator 5.4). Four different physicists were involved in planning the prostate seed cases; two physicists for the eye plaques. Results: Since the time and dose for the prostate cases did not vary, a plot of implanted activity vs V100 ^.667 was made. A linear fit with no intercept had an r{sup 2} = 0.978; more than 94% of the actual activities fell within 5% of the activities calculated from the linear fit. The greatest deviations were in cases where the implant volumes were large (> 100 cc). Both COMS and EP917 plaque linear fits were good (r{sup 2} = .967 and .957); the largest deviations were seen for large volumes. Conclusions: The method outlined here is effective for checking planning consistency and quality assurance of two types of LDR brachytherapy treatment plans (temporary and permanent). A spreadsheet for the calculations enables a quick check of the plan in situations were time is short (e.g. OR-based prostate planning)

  20. Local Arsenic Structure in Shallow Implants in Si following SPER: an EXAFS and MEIS study

    SciTech Connect

    Pepponi, G.; Giubertoni, D.; Gennaro, S.; Bersani, M.; Anderle, M.; Grisenti, R.; Werner, M.; Berg, J. A. van den

    2006-11-13

    Solid phase epitaxial regrowth (SPER) has been investigated in the last few years as a possible method to form ultra shallow dopant distributions in silicon with a high level of electrical. Despite the interest for this process, few investigations were related to arsenic. Apart from the fact that it is easier to form shallow distribution with arsenic than with boron, it is also well known that at the moderate temperatures implied by SPER (500-700 deg. C) arsenic easily deactivates, probably by forming inactive clusters around point defects in silicon. In order to have a better understanding of the SPER process for arsenic implanted silicon in shallow regime, an EXAFS (extended x-ray absorption fine structure) and MEIS (medium energy ion scattering) study is reported in this paper. Silicon samples were implanted at 3 keV with arsenic ions (dose was 2E15 at/cm2 producing a 11 nm amorphous layer) and then annealed in nitrogen at temperatures ranging from 500 to 700 deg. C to have different levels of recrystallisation. From the comparison of the recrystallised fraction as measured by MEIS with the electrical activation measured by Hall effect it results evident that a full regrowth of the lattice is not reflected by a high electrical activation. The activated arsenic corresponds to less than one third of the apparently substitutional dopant for all the samples analyzed. This lack of activation was further investigated by EXAFS: the samples that according to MEIS are fully recrystallised do not reveal a clear local order around As atoms suggesting that either the As atoms are not yet completely relocated within the lattice sites or a deactivation occurred resulting in a more disordered local structure.

  1. Boron Ion Implantation into Silicon by Use of the Boron Vacuum-Arc Plasma Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J. M.; Klepper, C. C.; Chivers, D. J.; Hazelton, R. C.; Moschella, J. J.; Keitz, M. D.

    2006-11-13

    This paper continues with presentation of experimental work pertaining to use of the boron vacuum arc (a.k.a. cathodic arc) plasma generator for boron doping in semiconductor silicon, particularly with a view to the problems associated with shallow junction doping. Progress includes development of an excellent and novel macroparticle filter and subsequent ion implantations. An important perceived issue for vacuum arc generators is the production of copious macroparticles from cathode material. This issue is more important for cathodes of materials such as carbon or boron, for which the particles are not molten or plastic, but instead are elastic, and tend to recoil from baffles used in particle filters. The present design starts with two vanes of special orientation, so as to back reflect the particles, while steering the plasma between the vanes by use of high countercurrents in the vanes. Secondly, behind and surrounding the vanes is a complex system of baffles that has been designed by a computer-based strategy to ultimately trap the particles for multiple bounces. The statistical transmittance of particles is less than 5 per coulomb of boron ions transmitted at a position just a few centimeters outside the filter. This value appears adequate for the silicon wafer application, but improvement is easily visualized as wafers will be situated much further away when they are treated in systems. A total of 11 silicon samples, comprising an area of 250 cm2, have been implanted. Particles were not detected. Sample biases ranged from 60 to 500 V. Boron doses ranged from 5 x 1014 to 5 x 1015/cm2. Exposure times ranged from 20 to 200 ms for average transmitted boron current values of about 125 mA. SIMS concentration profiles from crystalline material are presented. The results appear broadly favorable in relation to competitive techniques and will be discussed. It is concluded that doubly charged boron ions are not present in the plume.

  2. Composite structures 4; Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference, Paisley College of Technology, Scotland, July 27-29, 1987. Volume 1 - Analysis and design studies

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, I.H.

    1987-01-01

    Various papers on analysis and design studies in composite structures are presented. The general topics addressed include: space studies, mechanical fasteners, buckling and postbuckling of platework structures, aerospace structures, wind turbine design, pipes and pressure vessels, analysis and buckling of shell-type structures. Also considered are: structural sections and optimization, thermal loading, vibration of platework structures and shell-type structures, dynamic loading, and finite element analysis.

  3. Moving metal artifact reduction in cone-beam CT scans with implanted cylindrical gold markers

    SciTech Connect

    Toftegaard, Jakob Fledelius, Walther; Worm, Esben S.; Poulsen, Per R.; Seghers, Dieter; Huber, Michael; Brehm, Marcus; Elstrøm, Ulrik V.

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: Implanted gold markers for image-guided radiotherapy lead to streaking artifacts in cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans. Several methods for metal artifact reduction (MAR) have been published, but they all fail in scans with large motion. Here the authors propose and investigate a method for automatic moving metal artifact reduction (MMAR) in CBCT scans with cylindrical gold markers. Methods: The MMAR CBCT reconstruction method has six steps. (1) Automatic segmentation of the cylindrical markers in the CBCT projections. (2) Removal of each marker in the projections by replacing the pixels within a masked area with interpolated values. (3) Reconstruction of a marker-free CBCT volume from the manipulated CBCT projections. (4) Reconstruction of a standard CBCT volume with metal artifacts from the original CBCT projections. (5) Estimation of the three-dimensional (3D) trajectory during CBCT acquisition for each marker based on the segmentation in Step 1, and identification of the smallest ellipsoidal volume that encompasses 95% of the visited 3D positions. (6) Generation of the final MMAR CBCT reconstruction from the marker-free CBCT volume of Step 3 by replacing the voxels in the 95% ellipsoid with the corresponding voxels of the standard CBCT volume of Step 4. The MMAR reconstruction was performed retrospectively using a half-fan CBCT scan for 29 consecutive stereotactic body radiation therapy patients with 2–3 gold markers implanted in the liver. The metal artifacts of the MMAR reconstructions were scored and compared with a standard MAR reconstruction by counting the streaks and by calculating the standard deviation of the Hounsfield units in a region around each marker. Results: The markers were found with the same autosegmentation settings in 27 CBCT scans, while two scans needed slightly changed settings to find all markers automatically in Step 1 of the MMAR method. MMAR resulted in 15 scans with no streaking artifacts, 11 scans with 1–4 streaks, and 3 scans

  4. Co-implantation of group VI elements and N for formation of non-alloyed ohmic contacts for n-type semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Yu, Kin M.

    2004-07-06

    Non-alloyed, low resistivity contacts for semiconductors using Group III-V and Group II-VI compounds and methods of making are disclosed. Co-implantation techniques are disclosed.

  5. Tunable photoluminescence of self-assembled GeSi quantum dots by B{sup +} implantation and rapid thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yulu; Wu, Shan; Ma, Yinjie; Fan, Yongliang; Yang, Xinju; Zhong, Zhenyang; Jiang, Zuimin

    2014-06-21

    The layered GeSi quantum dots (QDs) are grown on (001) Si substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. The photoluminescence (PL) peak of the as-grown GeSi quantum dots has obvious blue shift and enhancement after processed by ion implantation and rapid thermal annealing. It is indicated that the blue shift is originated from the interdiffusion of Ge and Si at the interface between QDs and the surrounding matrix. The dependence of PL intensity on the excitation power shows that there are the nonradiative centers of shallow local energy levels from the point defects caused by the ion implantation, but not removed by the rapid thermal annealing. The tunable blue shift of the PL position from the 1300 nm to 1500 nm region may have significant application value in the optical communication.

  6. Stress influenced trapping processes in Si based multi-quantum well structures and heavy ions implanted Si

    SciTech Connect

    Ciurea, Magdalena Lidia Lazanu, Sorina

    2014-10-06

    Multi-quantum well structures and Si wafers implanted with heavy iodine and bismuth ions are studied in order to evaluate the influence of stress on the parameters of trapping centers. The experimental method of thermostimullatedcurrents without applied bias is used, and the trapping centers are filled by illumination. By modeling the discharge curves, we found in multilayered structures the parameters of both 'normal' traps and 'stress-induced' ones, the last having a Gaussian-shaped temperature dependence of the cross section. The stress field due to the presence of stopped heavy ions implanted into Si was modeled by a permanent electric field. The increase of the strain from the neighborhood of I ions to the neighborhood of Bi ions produces the broadening of some energy levels and also a temperature dependence of the cross sections for all levels.

  7. Direct observation and mechanism for enhanced field emission sites in platinum ion implanted/post-annealed ultrananocrystalline diamond films

    SciTech Connect

    Panda, Kalpataru E-mail: phy.kalpa@gmail.com; Inami, Eiichi; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki; Sankaran, Kamatchi J.; Tai, Nyan Hwa; Lin, I-Nan

    2014-10-20

    Enhanced electron field emission (EFE) properties for ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films upon platinum (Pt) ion implantation and subsequent post-annealing processes is reported, viz., low turn-on field of 4.17?V/?m with high EFE current density of 5.08?mA/cm{sup 2} at an applied field of 7.0?V/?m. Current imaging tunneling spectroscopy (CITS) mode in scanning tunneling spectroscopy directly revealed the increased electron emission sites density for Pt ion implanted/post-annealed UNCD films than the pristine one. The high resolution CITS mapping and local currentvoltage characteristic curves demonstrated that the electrons are dominantly emitted from the diamond grain boundaries and Pt nanoparticles.

  8. In situ ion irradiation/implantation studies in the HVEM-Tandem Facility at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, C.W.; Funk, L.L.; Ryan, E.A.; Taylor, A.

    1988-09-01

    The HVEM-Tandem User Facility at Argonne National Laboratory interfaces two ion accelerators, a 2 MV tandem accelerator and a 650 kV ion implanter, to a 1.2 MV high voltage electron microscope. This combination allows experiments involving simultaneous ion irradiation/ion implantation, electron irradiation and electron microscopy/electron diffraction to be performed. In addition the availability of a variety of microscope sample holders permits these as well as other types of in situ experiments to be performed at temperatures ranging from 10-1300 K, with the sample in a stressed state or with simultaneous determination of electrical resistivity of the specimen. This paper summarizes the details of the Facility which are relevant to simultaneous ion beam material modification and electron microscopy, presents several current applications and briefly describes the straightforward mechanism for potential users to access this US Department of Energy supported facility. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. High power impulse magnetron sputtering and related discharges: scalable plasma sources for plasma-based ion implantation and deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2009-09-01

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) and related self-sputtering techniques are reviewed from a viewpoint of plasma-based ion implantation and deposition (PBII&D). HIPIMS combines the classical, scalable sputtering technology with pulsed power, which is an elegant way of ionizing the sputtered atoms. Related approaches, such as sustained self-sputtering, are also considered. The resulting intense flux of ions to the substrate consists of a mixture of metal and gas ions when using a process gas, or of metal ions only when using `gasless? or pure self-sputtering. In many respects, processing with HIPIMS plasmas is similar to processing with filtered cathodic arc plasmas, though the former is easier to scale to large areas. Both ion implantation and etching (high bias voltage, without deposition) and thin film deposition (low bias, or bias of low duty cycle) have been demonstrated.

  10. Improve the corrosion and cytotoxic behavior of NiTi implants with use of the ion beam technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Meisner, L. L. Meisner, S. N.; Matveeva, V. A.; Matveev, A. L.

    2015-11-17

    The corrosion resistance behavior and cytotoxicity of binary NiTi-base alloy specimens subjected to surface modification by silicon ion beams and the proliferative ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) of rat marrow on an ion-implanted surface of the alloy have been studied. The silicon ion beam processing of specimen surfaces is shown to bring about a nearly two-fold improvement in the corrosion resistance of the material to attack by acqueous solutions of NaCl and human plasma and a drastic decrease in the nickel concentration after immersion of the specimens into the solutions for ∼3400 and ∼6000 h, respectively. It is found that MSC proliferation strongly depends on the surface structure, roughness and chemical condition of NiTi implants.

  11. Investigation Of Plasma Produced By High-Energy Low-Intensity Laser Pulses For Implantation Of Ge Ions Into Si And Sio2 Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Rosinski, M.; Wolowski, J.; Badziak, J.; Parys, P.; Boody, F. P.; Gammino, S.; Krasa, J.; Laska, L.; Pfeifer, M.; Rohlena, K.; Ullschmied, J.; Mezzasalma, A.; Torrisi, L.

    2006-01-15

    The development of implantation techniques requires investigation of laser plasma as a potential source of multiply charged ions. The laser ion source delivers ions with kinetic energy and a charge state dependent on the irradiated target material and the parameters of the laser radiation used. By the focusing the laser beam on the solid target the higher current densities of ions than by using other currently available ion sources can be produced. The crucial issue for efficiency of the ion implantation technology is selection of proper laser beam characteristics. Implantation of different kinds of laser-produced ions into metals and organic materials were performed recently at the PALS Research Center in Prague, in cooperative experiments using 0.4-ns iodine laser pulses having energies up to 750 J at wavelength of 1315 nm or up to 250 J at wavelength of 438 nm. In this contribution we describe the characterization and optimization of laser-produced Ge ion streams as well as analysis of the direct implantation of these ions into Si and SiO2 substrates. The Ge target was irradiated with the use of laser pulses of energy up to 50 J at radiation intensities of {approx}1011 W/cm2 and {approx}2'1013 W/cm2. The implanted samples were placed along the target normal at distances of 17, 31 and 83 cm from the target surface. The ion stream parameters were measured using the time-of-fight method. The depth of ion implantation was determined by the Rutherford backscattering method (RBS). The maximum depth of implantation of Ge ions was {approx}450 nm. These investigations were carried out for optimization of low and medium energy laser-generated Ge ion streams, suitable for specific implantation technique, namely for fabrication of semiconductor nanostructures within the SRAP 'SEMINANO' project.

  12. Characteristic properties of Raman scattering and photoluminescence on ZnO crystals doped through phosphorous-ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, T. S.; Yu, J. H.; Mo, H. S.; Kim, T. S.; Lim, K. Y.; Youn, C. J.; Hong, K. J.

    2014-02-07

    P-doped ZnO was fabricated by means of the ion-implantation method. At the Raman measurement, the blue shift of the E{sub 2}{sup high} mode and A{sub 1}(LO) phonon of the inactive mode were observed after the P-ion implantation. It suggested to be caused by the compressive stress. Thus, Hall effect measurement indicates that the acceptor levels exists in P-doped ZnO while still maintaining n-type ZnO. From the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the chemical bond formation of the P2p{sub 3/2} spectrum consisted of 2(P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) molecules. Therefore, the implanted P ions were substituted to the Zn site in ZnO. From the photoluminescence (PL) spectra, P-related PL peaks were observed in the energy ranges of 3.1 and 3.5 eV, and its origin was analyzed at P{sub Zn}-2V{sub Zn} complexes, acting as a shallow acceptor. With increasing temperatures, the neutral-acceptor bound-exciton emission, (A{sup 0}, X), shows a tendency to quench the intensity and extend the emission linewidth. From the relations of the intensity and the linewidth as a function of temperature, the broadening of linewidth was believed to the result that the vibration mode of E{sub 2}{sup high} participates in the broadening process of (A{sup 0}, X) and the change of luminescent intensity was attributed to the partial dissociation of (A{sup 0}, X). Consequently, these facts indicate that the acceptor levels existed in P-doped ZnO layer by the ion implantation.

  13. Method for enhancing growth of SiO.sub.2 in Si by the implantation of germanium

    DOEpatents

    Holland, Orin W.; Fathy, Dariush; White, Clark W.

    1990-04-24

    A method for enhancing the conversion of Si to SiO.sub.2 in a directional fashion wherein steam or wet oxidation of Si is enhanced by the prior implantation of Ge into the Si. The unique advantages of the Ge impurity include the directional enhancement of oxidation and the reduction in thermal budget, while at the same time, Ge is an electrically inactive impurity.

  14. Surface analysis of Zircaloy-2 implanted with carbon before and after oxidation in air at 500 deg. C

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, D.Q. . E-mail: pdq01@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn; Bai, X.D.; Pan, F.; Sun, H.; Chen, B.S.

    2006-03-15

    Zircaloy-2 specimens were implanted with carbon ions in the fluence range from 1 x 10{sup 16} to 1 x 10{sup 18} ions/cm{sup 2}, using a MEVVA source at an extraction voltage of 40 kV at a maximum temperature of 380 deg. C. The valences and depth profiles of elements in the implanted surface of Zircaloy-2 were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the micro-morphology of samples. The color of the oxidized samples was checked with an optical scanner. Glancing-angle X-ray diffraction at 0.3{sup o} incident angles was employed to examine the phase transformations of implanted samples before and after oxidation in the air at 500 deg. C for 2 h. Before oxidation, at fluences less than 5 x 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}, hexagonal zirconia (H-ZrO{sub 0.35}) was present. At a fluence of 1 x 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}, rhombohedral zirconia (R-Zr{sub 3}O) appeared. When the fluence reached 1 x 10{sup 18} ions/cm{sup 2}, cubic zirconium carbide was produced. There are many pits, both deep and shallow, in the sample surfaces, both prior to oxidation and after oxidation. Oxidation in the air at 500 deg. C gave rise to black surfaces on all samples. The X-ray diffraction results showed that monoclinic and tetragonal zirconia were present in the surface of as-received sample. For implanted samples, monoclinic and tetragonal zirconia are still present, while cubic zirconium carbide is produced at all fluences. The presence of ZrC is attributed to the high-temperature, long-time (2 h) exposure.

  15. Long-term Outcome of Peripherally Implanted Venous Access Ports in the Forearm in Female Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Klösges, Laura Meyer, Carsten Boschewitz, Jack Andersson, Magnus; Rudlowski, Christian; Schild, Hans H.; Wilhelm, Kai

    2015-06-15

    PurposeThe aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the long-term outcome of peripherally implanted venous access ports in the forearm at our institution in a female patient collective.MethodsBetween June 2002 and May 2011, a total of 293 female patients with an underlying malignancy had 299 forearm ports implanted in our interventional radiology suite. The mean age of the cohort was 55 ± 12 years (range 26–81 years). The majority of women suffered from breast (59.5 %) or ovarian cancer (28.1 %). Complications were classified as infectious complications, thrombotic and nonthrombotic catheter dysfunction (dislocation of the catheter or port chamber, fracture with/without embolization or kinking of the catheter, port occlusion), and others.ResultsWe analyzed a total of 90,276 catheter days in 248 port systems (47 patients were lost to follow-up). The mean device service interval was 364 days per catheter (range 8–2,132, median 223 days, CI 311–415, SD 404). Sixty-seven early (≤30 days from implantation) or late complications (>30 days) occurred during the observation period (0.74/1,000 catheter days). Common complications were port infection (0.18/1,000 days), thrombotic dysfunction (0.12/1,000 days), and skin dehiscence (0.12/1,000 days). Nonthrombotic dysfunction occurred in a total of 21 cases (0.23/1,000 days) and seemed to cumulate on the venous catheter entry site on the distal upper arm.ConclusionPeripherally implanted venous access ports in the forearm are a safe alternative to chest or upper-arm ports in female oncology patients. Special attention should be paid to signs of skin dehiscence and nonthrombotic dysfunction, especially when used for long-term treatment.

  16. Stability, Visibility, and Histologic Analysis of a New Implanted Fiducial for Use as a Kilovoltage Radiographic or Radioactive Marker for Patient Positioning and Monitoring in Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Neustadter, David; Tune, Michal; Zaretsky, Asaph; Shofti, Rona; Kushnir, Arnon; Harel, Tami; Carmi-Yinon, Dafna; Corn, Ben M.S.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To analyze the stability, visibility, and histology of a novel implantable soft-tissue marker (nonradioactive and radioactive) implanted in dog prostate and rabbit liver. Methods and Materials: A total of 34 nonradioactive and 35 radioactive markers were implanted in 1 dog and 16 rabbits. Stability was assessed by measuring intermarker distance (IMD) variation relative to IMDs at implantation. The IMDs were measured weekly for 4 months in the dog and biweekly for 2-4 weeks in the rabbits. Ultrasound and X-ray imaging were performed on all subjects. Computed tomography and MRI were performed on the dog. Histologic analysis was performed on the rabbits after 2 or 4 months. Results: A total of 139 measurements had a mean ({+-} SD) absolute IMD variation of 1.1 {+-} 1.1 mm. These IMD variations are consistent with those reported in the literature as due to random organ deformation. The markers were visible, identifiable, and induced minimal or no image artifacts in all tested imaging modalities. Histologic analysis revealed that all pathologic changes were highly localized and not expected to be clinically significant. Conclusions: The markers were stable from the time of implantation. The markers were found to be compatible with all common medical imaging modalities. The markers caused no significant histologic effects. With respect to marker stability, visibility, and histologic analysis these implanted fiducials are appropriate for soft-tissue target positioning in radiotherapy.

  17. Effect of 200 keV Ar{sup +} implantation on optical and electrical properties of polyethyleneterepthalate (PET)

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Rajiv Goyal, Meetika Sharma, Ambika; Aggarwal, Sanjeev; Sharma, Annu; Kanjilal, D.

    2015-05-15

    In the present paper we have discussed the effect of 200 keV Ar{sup +} ions on the electrical and optical properties of PET samples. PET samples were implanted with 200 keV Ar{sup +} ions to various doses ranging from 1×10{sup 15} to 1×10{sup 17} Ar{sup +} cm{sup 2}. The changes in the electrical and optical properties of pristine and implanted PET specimens have been studied by using Keithley electrometer and UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. The electrical conductivity has found to be increased with increasing ion dose. The optical studies have revealed the drastic alterations in optical band gap from 3.63 eV to 1.48 eV and also increase in number of carbon atoms per cluster from 215 to 537. Further, the change in the electrical conductivity and optical band gap has also been correlated with the formation of conductive islands in the implanted layers of PET.

  18. Performance Assessment of Suture Type, Water Temperature, and Surgeon Skill in Juvenile Chinook Salmon Surgically Implanted with Acoustic Transmitters

    SciTech Connect

    Deters, Katherine A.; Brown, Richard S.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Boyd, James W.; Eppard, M. B.; Seaburg, Adam

    2010-08-01

    Size reductions of acoustic transmitters implanted in migrating juvenile salmonids have resulted in the use of a shorter incision - one that may warrant only one suture for closure. However, it is not known if a single suture will sufficiently hold the incision closed when fish are decompressed and outward pressure is placed on the surgical site during passage of hydroelectric dams. The objectives of this study were to evaluate five response variables in juvenile Chinook salmon subjected to simulated turbine passage. Fish were implanted with an acoustic transmitter (0.43 g in air) and a passive integrated transponder tag (0.10 g in air); incisions (6 mm) were closed with either one or two sutures. Following exposure, no transmitters were expelled. In addition, suture and incision tearing and mortal injury did not differ between treatment and control fish. Viscera expulsion was higher in treatment (12%) than control (1%) fish. The higher incidence of viscera expulsion through single-suture incisions warrants concern. Consequently, the authors do not recommend using one suture to close 6-mm incisions associated with acoustic transmitter implantation when juvenile salmonids may be exposed to turbine passage.

  19. Elastic Deformation Properties of Implanted Endobronchial Wire Stents in Benign and Malignant Bronchial Disease: A Radiographic In Vivo Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hautmann, Hubert; Rieger, Johannes; Huber, Rudolf M.; Pfeifer, Klaus J.

    1999-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term mechanical behavior in vivo of expandable endobronchial wire stents, we imaged three different prostheses in the treatment of tracheobronchial disease. Methods: Six patients with bronchial stenoses (three benign, three malignant) underwent insertion of metallic stents. Two self-expandable Wallstents, two balloon-expandable tantalum Strecker stents and two self-expandable nitinol Accuflex stents were used. Measurements of deformation properties were performed during voluntary cough by means of fluoroscopy, at 1 month and 7-10 months after implantation. The procedures were videotaped, their images digitized and the narrowing of stent diameters calculated at intervals of 20 msec. Results: After stent implantation all patients improved with respect to ventilatory function. Radial stent narrowing during cough reached 53% (Wallstent), 59% (tantalum Strecker stent), and 52% (nitinol Accuflex stent) of the relaxed post-implantation diameter. Stent compression was more marked in benign compared with malignant stenoses. In the long term permanent deformation occurred with the tantalum Strecker stents; the other stents were unchanged. Conclusion: Endobronchial wire stents can be helpful in the treatment of major airway collapse and obstructing bronchial lesions. However, evidence of material fatigue as a possible effect of exposure to recurrent mechanical stress on the flexible mesh tube may limit their long-term use. This seems to be predominantly important in benign bronchial collapse.

  20. Delaminations of thin layers by high dose hydrogen ion implantation in silicon. Formation of thin silicon on insulator silicon layers

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, Tohru; Onda, Takayuki; Kakizaki, Yasuo; Oshima, Sotaro; Kitamura, Taira; Kajiyama, Kenji; Yoneda, Tomoaki; Sekine, Kohei; Inoue, Morio

    1996-08-01

    The delamination of a thin layer from a Si wafer by high dose H{sup +} implantation has been studied. This process is applicable to the manufacture of Si on insulator wafers. Hydrogen ions are implanted into (100) p-Si through a 100 nm thick oxide layer at 100 keV with doses of 1.0 {times} 10{sup 16} and 1.0 {times} 10{sup 17} ion/cm{sup 2}. The implanted layer is measured by 1.5 MeV He{sup +} Rutherford backscattering spectrometry aligned spectra and by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy after annealing. With annealing at 600 C, delamination of the Si layer, which occurred parallel to the surface, could be observed clearly at a depth of 0.85 {micro}m for a dose of 1.0 {times} 10{sup 17} ion/cm{sup 2}. The gap of the split Si layer is 20--30 nm wide. The roughness of the split layer surface is 7.5 nm. Point defects at the split layer surface decreased with annealing at high temperatures.

  1. N-type doping of Ge by As implantation and excimer laser annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Milazzo, R.; Napolitani, E. De Salvador, D.; Mastromatteo, M.; Carnera, A.; Impellizzeri, G.; Boninelli, S.; Priolo, F.; Privitera, V.; Fisicaro, G.; Italia, M.; La Magna, A.; Cuscunà, M.; Fortunato, G.

    2014-02-07

    The diffusion and activation of arsenic implanted into germanium at 40 keV with maximum concentrations below and above the solid solubility (8 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}) have been studied, both experimentally and theoretically, after excimer laser annealing (λ = 308 nm) in the melting regime with different laser energy densities and single or multiple pulses. Arsenic is observed to diffuse similarly for different fluences with no out-diffusion and no formation of pile-up at the maximum melt depth. The diffusion profiles have been satisfactorily simulated by assuming two diffusivity states of As in the molten Ge and a non-equilibrium segregation at the maximum melt depth. The electrical activation is partial and decreases with increasing the chemical concentration with a saturation of the active concentration at 1 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}, which represents a new record for the As-doped Ge system.

  2. Bioactive glass coatings with hydroxyapatite and Bioglass (registered) particles on Ti-based implants. 1. Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Vega, J.M.; Saiz, E.; Tomsia, A.P.; Marshall, G.W.; Marshall, S.J.

    1999-06-01

    Silicate-based glasses with thermal expansion coefficients that match those of Ti6Al4V were prepared and used to coat Ti6Al4V by a simple enameling technique. Bioglass (BG) (registered) or hydroxyapatite (HA) particles were embedded on the coatings in order to enhance their bioactivity. HA particles were partially embedded during heating and remained firmly embedded on the coating after cooling. There was no apparent reaction at the glass/HA interface at the temperatures used in this work (800-840 degrees C). In contrast, BG particles softened and some infiltration into the glass coating took place during heat treatment. In this case, particles with sizes over 45 (mu)m were required, otherwise the particles became hollow due to the infiltration and crystallization of the glass surface. The concentration of the particles on the coating was limited to 20% of surface coverage. Concentrations above this value resulted in cracked coatings due to excessive induced stress. Cracks did not prop agate along the interfaces when coatings were subjected to Vickers indentation tests, indicating that the particle/glass and glass/metal interfaces exhibited strong bonds. Enameling, producing excellent glass/metal adhesion with well-attached bioactive particles on the surface, is a promising method of forming reliable and lasting implants which can endure substantial chemical and mechanical stresses.

  3. Surface studies and implanted helium measurements following NOVA high-yield DT experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyer, M.A.; Hudson, G.B.

    1997-02-18

    This paper presents the results of three March 6, 1996 direct-drive high-yield DT NOVA experiments and provides `proof-of-principal` results for the quantitative measurement of energetic He ions. Semiconductor quality Si wafers and an amorphous carbon wafer were exposed to NOVA high-yield implosions. Surface damage was sub-micron in general, although the surface ablation was slightly greater for the carbon wafer than for the Si wafers. Melting of a thin ({approx} 0.1{mu}) layer of Si was evident from microscopic investigation. Electron microscopy indicated melted blobs of many different metals (e.g. Al, Au, Ta, Fe alloys, Cu and even Cd) on the surfaces. The yield measured by determining the numbers of atoms of implanted {sup 4}He and {sup 3}He indicate the number of DT fusions to be 9.1({plus_minus}2.3) X 10{sup 12} and DD fusions to be 4.8({plus_minus}1.0) x 10{sup 10}, respectively. The helium DT fusion yield is slightly lower than that of the Cu activation measurement, which was 1.3({plus_minus}0.l) x 10{sup 13} DT fusions.

  4. Performance improvement of gadolinium oxide resistive random access memory treated by hydrogen plasma immersion ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jer-Chyi Hsu, Chih-Hsien; Ye, Yu-Ren; Ai, Chi-Fong; Tsai, Wen-Fa

    2014-03-15

    Characteristics improvement of gadolinium oxide (Gd{sub x}O{sub y}) resistive random access memories (RRAMs) treated by hydrogen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) was investigated. With the hydrogen PIII treatment, the Gd{sub x}O{sub y} RRAMs exhibited low set/reset voltages and a high resistance ratio, which were attributed to the enhanced movement of oxygen ions within the Gd{sub x}O{sub y} films and the increased Schottky barrier height at Pt/Gd{sub x}O{sub y} interface, respectively. The resistive switching mechanism of Gd{sub x}O{sub y} RRAMs was dominated by Schottky emission, as proved by the area dependence of the resistance in the low resistance state. After the hydrogen PIII treatment, a retention time of more than 10{sup 4} s was achieved at an elevated measurement temperature. In addition, a stable cycling endurance with the resistance ratio of more than three orders of magnitude of the Gd{sub x}O{sub y} RRAMs can be obtained.

  5. Ferromagnetic and paramagnetic magnetization of implanted GaN:Ho,Tb,Sm,Tm films

    SciTech Connect

    Maryško, M. Hejtmánek, J.; Laguta, V.; Sofer, Z.; Sedmidubský, D.; Šimek, P.; Veselý, M.; Mikulics, M.; Buchal, C.; Macková, A.; Malínský, P.; Wilhelm, R. A.

    2015-05-07

    The SQUID magnetic measurements were performed on the GaN films prepared by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy and implanted by Tb{sup 3+}, Tm{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}, and Ho{sup 3+} ions. The sapphire substrate was checked by the electron paramagnetic resonance method which showed a content of Cr{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 3+} impurities. The samples 5 × 5 mm{sup 2} were positioned in the classical straws and within an estimated accuracy of 10{sup −6 }emu, no ferromagnetic moment was detected in the temperature region of 2–300 K. The paramagnetic magnetization was studied for parallel and perpendicular orientation. In the case of GaN:Tb sample, at T = 2 K, a pronounced anisotropy with the easy axis perpendicular to the film was observed which can be explained by the lowest quasi-doublet state of the non-Kramers Tb{sup 3+} ion. The Weiss temperature deduced from the susceptibility data using the Curie-Weiss (C-W) law was found to depend substantially on the magnetic field.

  6. Mr. Andy Wall0 The Aerospace Corporation

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    authority review documents for Gardinler, Inc., Tampa, Florida; Conserv (formerly Virginia-Carolina Chemical Co.), Nichols, Florida; and Blockson Chemical co., Joliet, Illinois. ...

  7. THE AEROSPACE CORPORA-iION

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... NE SFMP New Brunswick Laboratory New Brunswick, NJ SFMP U.S. Radium Corporation Orange, NJ Super Funa Site LASL Land Parcels (9) Los Al amos, NM Note 2 Project Gnome Site Carlsbad, ...

  8. Mr. Andrew Wallo The Aerospace Corporation

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    please prepare the appropriate draft letters of notification to the EPA and State. 2. ... N-11 Division of Facility and Site Decommissioning Projects Office of Nuclear Energy . ...

  9. Mr. Andrew Wallo The Aerospace'Corporaticn

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    please prepare the appropriate draft letters of notification to the EPA and State. 2. ... Whitman Division of Facility and Site Decommissioning Projects Office of Nuclear Energy

  10. An implantable instrument for studying the long-term flight biology of migratory birds

    SciTech Connect

    Spivey, Robin J. E-mail: c.bishop@bangor.ac.uk; Bishop, Charles M. E-mail: c.bishop@bangor.ac.uk

    2014-01-15

    The design of an instrument deployed in a project studying the high altitude Himalayan migrations of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) is described. The electronics of this archival datalogger measured 22 14 6.5 mm, weighed 3 g, was powered by a AA-sized battery weighing 10 g and housed in a transparent biocompatible tube sealed with titanium electrodes for electrocardiography (ECG). The combined weight of 32 g represented less than 2% of the typical bodyweight of the geese. The primary tasks of the instrument were to continuously record a digitised ECG signal for heart-rate determination and store 12-bit triaxial accelerations sampled at 100 Hz with 15% coverage over each 2 min period. Measurement of atmospheric pressure provided an indication of altitude and rate of ascent or descent during flight. Geomagnetic field readings allowed for latitude estimation. These parameters were logged twice per minute along with body temperature. Data were stored to a memory card of 8 GB capacity. Instruments were implanted in geese captured on Mongolian lakes during the breeding season when the birds are temporarily flightless due to moulting. The goal was to collect data over a ten month period, covering both southward and northward migrations. This imposed extreme constraints on the design's power consumption. Raw ECG can be post-processed to obtain heart-rate, allowing improved rejection of signal interference due to strenuous activity of locomotory muscles during flight. Accelerometry can be used to monitor wing-beat frequency and body kinematics, and since the geese continued to flap their wings continuously even during rather steep descents, act as a proxy for biomechanical power. The instrument enables detailed investigation of the challenges faced by the geese during these arduous migrations which typically involve flying at extreme altitudes through cold, low density air where oxygen availability is significantly reduced compared to sea level.

  11. Gas swelling and deuterium distribution in beryllium implanted with deuterium ions

    SciTech Connect

    Chernikov, V.N.; Alimov, V.Kh.; Zakharov, A.P.

    1995-09-01

    An extensive TEM study of the microstructure of Be TIP-30 irradiated with 3 and 10 keV D ions up to fluences, {Phi}, in the range from 3 x 10{sup 20} to 8 x 10{sup 21} D/m{sup 2} at temperatures T{sub irr} = 300 K, 500 K and 700 K has been carried out. Depth distributions of deuterium in the form of separate D atoms and D{sub 2} molecules have been investigated by means of SIMS and RGA methods, correspondingly. D ion irradiation is accompanied by blistering and gives rise to different kind of destructions depending mainly on the irradiation temperature. Irradiation with D ions at 300 K leads to the formation of tiny highly pressurized D{sub 2} bubbles reminiscent of He bubbles in Be. Under 3 keV D ion irradiation D{sub 2} bubbles ({bar r}{sub b} {approx} 0.7 nm) appear at a fluence as low as 3x10{sup 20} D/m{sup 2}. Irradiation at 500 K results in the development, along with relatively small facetted bubbles, of larger oblate gas-filled cavities accumulating most of injected D atoms and providing for much higher gas swelling values as compared to irradiation at 300 K. The increase of D and/or T{sub irr}, to 700 K causes the further coarsening of large cavities which are transformed into sub-surface labyrinth structures. D and He ion implantation leads to the enhanced growth of porous microcrystalline layers of c.p.h.-BeO oxide with a microstructure which differs considerably from that of oxide layers on electropolished surfaces of Be. Based on the analysis of experimental data questions of deuterium reemission, thermal desorption and trapping in Be have been discussed in detail.

  12. Supersaturating silicon with transition metals by ion implantation and pulsed laser melting

    SciTech Connect

    Recht, Daniel; Aziz, Michael J.; Smith, Matthew J.; Gradečak, Silvija; Charnvanichborikarn, Supakit; Williams, James S.; Sullivan, Joseph T.; Winkler, Mark T.; Buonassisi, Tonio; Mathews, Jay; Warrender, Jeffrey M.

    2013-09-28

    We investigate the possibility of creating an intermediate band semiconductor by supersaturating Si with a range of transition metals (Au, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pd, Pt, W, and Zn) using ion implantation followed by pulsed laser melting (PLM). Structural characterization shows evidence of either surface segregation or cellular breakdown in all transition metals investigated, preventing the formation of high supersaturations. However, concentration-depth profiling reveals that regions of Si supersaturated with Au and Zn are formed below the regions of cellular breakdown. Fits to the concentration-depth profile are used to estimate the diffusive speeds, v{sub D,} of Au and Zn, and put lower bounds on v{sub D} of the other metals ranging from 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 4} m/s. Knowledge of v{sub D} is used to tailor the irradiation conditions and synthesize single-crystal Si supersaturated with 10{sup 19} Au/cm{sup 3} without cellular breakdown. Values of v{sub D} are compared to those for other elements in Si. Two independent thermophysical properties, the solute diffusivity at the melting temperature, D{sub s}(T{sub m}), and the equilibrium partition coefficient, k{sub e}, are shown to simultaneously affect v{sub D}. We demonstrate a correlation between v{sub D} and the ratio D{sub s}(T{sub m})/k{sub e}{sup 0.67}, which is exhibited for Group III, IV, and V solutes but not for the transition metals investigated. Nevertheless, comparison with experimental results suggests that D{sub s}(T{sub m})/k{sub e}{sup 0.67} might serve as a metric for evaluating the potential to supersaturate Si with transition metals by PLM.

  13. Recoil-Implantation Of Multiple Radioisotopes Towards Wear Rate Measurements And Particle Tracing In Prosthetic Joints

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, Jacob A.; Timmers, Heiko; Smith, Paul N.; Scarvell, Jennifer M.; Gladkis, Laura

    2011-06-01

    This study demonstrates a new method of radioisotope labeling of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene inserts in prosthetic joints for wear studies. The radioisotopes {sup 97}Ru, {sup 100}Pd, {sup 100}Rh, and {sup 101m}Rh are produced in fusion evaporation reactions induced by {sup 12}C ions in a {sup 92}Zr target foil. The fusion products recoil-implant into ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene plugs, machined to fit into the surface of the inserts. During laboratory simulations of the joint motion, a wear rate of the labeled polyethylene may be measured and the pathways of wear debris particles can be traced by detecting characteristic gamma-rays. The concentration profiles of the radioisotopes extend effectively uniformly from the polyethylene surface to a depth of about 4 {mu}m. The multiplicity of labeling and the use of several gamma-ray lines aids with avoiding systematic measurement uncertainties. Two polyethylene plugs were labeled and one was fitted into the surface of the tibial insert of a knee prosthesis, which had been worn in. Actuation over close to 100,000 cycles with a 900 N axial load and a 24 deg. flexion angle removed (14{+-}1)% of the gamma-ray activity from the plug. Most of this activity dispersed into the serum lubricant identifying this as the important debris pathway. Less than 1% activity was transferred to the femoral component of the prosthesis and the measured activity on the tibial tray was insignificant. Assuming uniform wear across the superior surface of the insert, a wear rate of (12{+-}3) mm{sup 3}/Megacycle was determined. This is consistent with wear rate measurements under similar conditions using other techniques.

  14. Surgically Implanted JSATS Micro-Acoustic Transmitters Effects on Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Tag Expulsion and Survival, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Woodley, Christa M.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Wagner, Katie A.; Royer, Ida M.; Knox, Kasey M.; Kim, Jin A.; Gay, Marybeth E.; Weiland, Mark A.; Brown, Richard S.

    2011-09-16

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate survival model assumptions associated with a concurrent study - Acoustic Telemetry Evaluation of Dam Passage Survival and Associated Metrics at John Day, The Dalles, and Bonneville Dams, 2010 by Thomas Carlson and others in 2010 - in which the Juvenile Salmonid Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was used to estimate the survival of yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The micro-acoustic transmitter used in these studies is the smallest acoustic transmitter model to date (12 mm long x 5 mm wide x 4 mm high, and weighing 0.43 g in air). This study and the 2010 study by Carlson and others were conducted by researchers from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the University of Washington for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, to meet requirements set forth by the 2008 FCRPS Biological Opinion. In 2010, we compared survival, tag burden, and tag expulsion in five spring groups of yearling Chinook salmon (YCH) and steelhead (STH) and five summer groups of subyearling Chinook salmon (SYC) to evaluate survival model assumptions described in the concurrent study. Each tagging group consisted of approximately 120 fish/species, which were collected and implanted on a weekly basis, yielding approximately 600 fish total/species. YCH and STH were collected and implanted from late April to late May (5 weeks) and SYC were collected and implanted from mid-June to mid-July (5 weeks) at the John Day Dam Smolt Monitoring Facility. The fish were collected once a week, separated by species, and assigned to one of three treatment groups: (1) Control (no surgical treatment), (2) Sham (surgical implantation of only a passive integrated transponder [PIT] tag), and (3) Tagged (surgical implantation of JSATS micro-acoustic transmitter [AT] and PIT tags). The test fish were held for 30 days in indoor

  15. The local environment of cobalt in amorphous, polycrystalline and epitaxial anatase TiO{sub 2}:Co films produced by cobalt ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Yildirim, O.; Cornelius, S.; Hübner, R.; Potzger, K.; Smekhova, A.; Zykov, G.; Gan'shina, E. A.; Granovsky, A. B.; Bähtz, C.

    2015-05-14

    Amorphous, polycrystalline anatase and epitaxial anatase TiO{sub 2} films have been implanted with 5 at. % Co{sup +}. The magnetic and structural properties of different microstructures of TiO{sub 2}:Co, along with the local coordination of the implanted Co atoms within the host lattice are investigated. In amorphous TiO{sub 2}:Co film, Co atoms are in the (II) oxidation state with a complex coordination and exhibit a paramagnetic response. However, for the TiO{sub 2}:Co epitaxial and polycrystalline anatase films, Co atoms have a distorted octahedral (II) oxygen coordination assigned to a substitutional environment with traces of metallic Co clusters, which gives a rise to a superparamagnetic behavior. Despite the incorporation of the implanted atoms into the host lattice, high temperature ferromagnetism is absent in the films. On the other hand, it is found that the concentration and size of the implantation-induced nanoclusters and the magnetic properties of TiO{sub 2}:Co films have a strong dependency on the initial microstructure of TiO{sub 2}. Consequently, metallic nanocluster formation within ion implantation prepared transition metal doped TiO{sub 2} can be suppressed by tuning the film microstructure.

  16. Determine the Influence of Time Held in “Knockdown” Anesthesia on Survival and Stress of Surgically Implanted Juvenile Salmonids

    SciTech Connect

    Woodley, Christa M.; Wagner, Katie A.; Knox, Kasey M.

    2012-01-31

    The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was developed for the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers Portland District (USACE) to address questions related to survival and performance measures of juvenile salmonids as they pass through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). Researchers using JSATS acoustic transmitters (ATs) were tasked with standardizing the surgical implantation procedure to ensure that the stressors of handling and surgery on salmonids were consistent and less likely to cause effects of tagging in survival studies. Researchers questioned whether the exposure time in 'knockdown' anesthesia (or induction) to prepare fish for surgery could influence the survival of study fish (CBSPSC 2011). Currently, fish are held in knockdown anesthesia after they reach Stage 4 anesthesia until the completion of the surgical implantation of a transmitter, varies from 5 to 15 minutes for studies conducted in the Columbia Basin. The Columbia Basin Surgical Protocol Steering Committee (CBSPSC ) expressed concern that its currently recommended 10-minute maximum time limit during which fish are held in anesthetic - tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222, 80 mg L-1 water) - could increase behavioral and physiological costs, and/or decrease survival of outmigrating juvenile salmonids. In addition, the variability in the time fish are held at Stage 4 could affect the data intended for direct comparison of fish within or among survival studies. Under the current recommended protocol, if fish exceed the 10-minute time limit, they are to be released without surgical implantation, thereby increasing the number of fish handled and endangered species 'take' at the bypass systems for FCRPS survival studies.

  17. Method and means of directing an ion beam onto an insulating surface for ion implantation or sputtering

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Krauss, Alan R.; Siskind, Barry

    1981-01-01

    A beam of ions is directed under control onto an insulating surface by supplying simultaneously a stream of electrons directed at the same surface in a quantity sufficient to neutralize the overall electric charge of the ion beam and result in a net zero current flow to the insulating surface. The ion beam is adapted particularly both to the implantation of ions in a uniform areal disposition over the insulating surface and to the sputtering of atoms or molecules of the insulator onto a substrate.

  18. Facile synthesis of highly stable a-Si by ion implantation of low-keV H isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Moutanabbir, O.; Scholz, R.; Goesele, U.; Terreault, B.

    2009-06-15

    It is experimentally shown that silicon is 'easily' amorphized by low-keV H ions at the relatively high temperature of 150 K and for an ion fluence equivalent to <1 DPA (displacement per atom). The a-Si layer is much more stable against recrystallization than a-Si produced by other ions and more stable against chemical modification than c-Si that is H-implanted at room temperature. These results are unexplained by the current atomic collision theory, including molecular-dynamics simulations, but they demonstrate the stabilizing effect of dangling bond passivation by H atoms in postulated, metastable, amorphous droplets.

  19. Advanced process control and novel test methods for PVD silicon and elastomeric silicone coatings utilized on ion implant disks, heatsinks and selected platens

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, J.; Allen, B.; Wriggins, W.; Kuzbyt, R.; Sinclair, R.

    2012-11-06

    Coatings play multiple key roles in the proper functioning of mature and current ion implanters. Batch and serial implanters require strategic control of elemental and particulate contamination which often includes scrutiny of the silicon surface coatings encountering direct beam contact. Elastomeric Silicone Coatings must accommodate wafer loading and unloading as well as direct backside contact during implant plus must maintain rigid elemental and particulate specifications. The semiconductor industry has had a significant and continuous effort to obtain ultra-pure silicon coatings with sustained process performance and long life. Low particles and reduced elemental levels for silicon coatings are a major requirement for process engineers, OEM manufacturers, and second source suppliers. Relevant data will be presented. Some emphasis and detail will be placed on the structure and characteristics of a relatively new PVD Silicon Coating process that is very dense and homogeneous. Wear rate under typical ion beam test conditions will be discussed. The PVD Silicon Coating that will be presented here is used on disk shields, wafer handling fingers/fences, exclusion zones of heat sinks, beam dumps and other beamline components. Older, legacy implanters can now provide extended process capability using this new generation PVD silicon - even on implanter systems that were shipped long before the advent of silicon coating for contamination control. Low particles and reduced elemental levels are critical performance criteria for the silicone elastomers used on disk heatsinks and serial implanter platens. Novel evaluation techniques and custom engineered tools are used to investigate the surface interaction characteristics of multiple Elastomeric Silicone Coatings currently in use by the industry - specifically, friction and perpendicular stiction. These parameters are presented as methods to investigate the critical wafer load and unload function. Unique tools and test

  20. Training considerations for the intracoelomic implantation of electronic tags in fish with a summary of common surgical errors

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Steven J.; Wagner, Glenn N.; Brown, Richard S.; Deters, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Training is a fundamental part of all scientific and technical disciplines. This is particularly true for all types of surgeons. For surgical procedures, a number of skills are necessary to reduce mistakes. Trainees must learn an extensive yet standardized set of problem-solving and technical skills to handle challenges as they arise. There are currently no guidelines or consistent training methods for those intending to implant electronic tags in fish; this is surprising, considering documented cases of negative consequences of fish surgeries and information from studies having empirically tested fish surgical techniques. Learning how to do fish surgery once is insufficient for ensuring the maintenance or improvement of surgical skill. Assessment of surgical skills is rarely incorporated into training, and is needed. Evaluation provides useful feedback that guides future learning, fosters habits of self-reflection and self-remediation, and promotes access to advanced training. Veterinary professionals should be involved in aspects of training to monitor basic surgical principles. We identified attributes related to knowledge, understanding, and skill that surgeons must demonstrate prior to performing fish surgery including a “hands-on” assessment using live fish. Included is a summary of common problems encountered by fish surgeons. We conclude by presenting core competencies that should be required as well as outlining a 3-day curriculum for training surgeons to conduct intracoelomic implantation of electronic tags. This curriculum could be offered through professional fisheries societies as professional development courses.

  1. Does UV disinfection compromise sutures? An evaluation of tissue response and suture retention in salmon surgically implanted with transmitters

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Ricardo W.; Brown, Richard S.; Deters, Katherine A.; Eppard, M. B.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2013-10-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) can be used as a tool to disinfect surgery tools used for implanting transmitters into fish. However, the use of UVR could possibly degrade monofilament suture material used to close surgical incisions. This research examined the effect of UVR on monofilament sutures to determine if they were compromised and negatively influenced tag and suture retention, incision openness, or tissue reaction. Eighty juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were surgically implanted with an acoustic transmitter and a passive integrated transponder. The incision was closed with a single stitch of either a suture exposed to 20 doses of UV radiation (5 minute duration per dose) or a new, sterile suture. Fish were then held for 28 d and examined under a microscope at day 7, 14, 21 and 28 for incision openness, ulceration, redness, and the presence of water mold. There was no significant difference between treatments for incision openness, redness, ulceration or the presence of water mold on any examination day. On day 28 post-surgery, there were no lost sutures; however, 2 fish lost their transmitters (one from each treatment). The results of this study do not show any differences in negative influences such as tissue response, suture retention or tag retention between a new sterile suture and a suture disinfected with UVR.

  2. Quantitative characterization of collagen in the fibrotic capsule surrounding implanted polymeric microparticles through second harmonic generation imaging

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Akilbekova, Dana; Bratlie, Kaitlin M.; Abraham, Thomas

    2015-06-30

    The collagenous capsule formed around an implant will ultimately determine the nature of its in vivo fate. To provide a better understanding of how surface modifications can alter the collagen orientation and composition in the fibrotic capsule, we used second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy to evaluate collagen organization and structure generated in mice subcutaneously injected with chemically functionalized polystyrene particles. SHG is sensitive to the orientation of a molecule, making it a powerful tool for measuring the alignment of collagen fibers. Additionally, SHG arises from the second order susceptibility of the interrogated molecule in response to the electric field. Variationmore » in these tensor components distinguishes different molecular sources of SHG, providing collagen type specificity. Here, we demonstrated the ability of SHG to differentiate collagen type I and type III quantitatively and used this method to examine fibrous capsules of implanted polystyrene particles. Data presented in this work shows a wide range of collagen fiber orientations and collagen compositions in response to surface functionalized polystyrene particles. Dimethylamino functionalized particles were able to form a thin collagenous matrix resembling healthy skin. These findings have the potential to improve the fundamental understanding of how material properties influence collagen organization and composition quantitatively.« less

  3. Quantitative characterization of collagen in the fibrotic capsule surrounding implanted polymeric microparticles through second harmonic generation imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Akilbekova, Dana; Bratlie, Kaitlin M.; Abraham, Thomas

    2015-06-30

    The collagenous capsule formed around an implant will ultimately determine the nature of its in vivo fate. To provide a better understanding of how surface modifications can alter the collagen orientation and composition in the fibrotic capsule, we used second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy to evaluate collagen organization and structure generated in mice subcutaneously injected with chemically functionalized polystyrene particles. SHG is sensitive to the orientation of a molecule, making it a powerful tool for measuring the alignment of collagen fibers. Additionally, SHG arises from the second order susceptibility of the interrogated molecule in response to the electric field. Variation in these tensor components distinguishes different molecular sources of SHG, providing collagen type specificity. Here, we demonstrated the ability of SHG to differentiate collagen type I and type III quantitatively and used this method to examine fibrous capsules of implanted polystyrene particles. Data presented in this work shows a wide range of collagen fiber orientations and collagen compositions in response to surface functionalized polystyrene particles. Dimethylamino functionalized particles were able to form a thin collagenous matrix resembling healthy skin. These findings have the potential to improve the fundamental understanding of how material properties influence collagen organization and composition quantitatively.

  4. Crystallographic analysis of the implanted TiNi monocrystal containing misoriented localized shear mesobands in its near-surface layer [001]{sub B2}

    SciTech Connect

    Meisner, L. L. Meisner, S. N.; Tverdokhlebova, A. V. Poletika, T. M. Girsova, S. L.

    2015-10-27

    The study was carried on for the implanted single TiNi crystal containing misoriented localized shear mesobands in its near-surface layer [001] B2. Due to the response of material to the Si ion implantation treatment of the single TiNi crystal, deformation mesobands would form in its near-surface layer. Specially designed software tools were employed for the treatment of experimental data obtained from X-ray and electron diffraction patterns. The 3D crystallographic orientations were calculated for the localized shear regions, which were displaced relative to one another and with respect to the original monocrystal orientation.

  5. In vivo corrosion, tumor outcome, and microarray gene expression for two types of muscle-implanted tungsten alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, B.E.; Roszell, L.E.; Murr, L.E.; Ramirez, D.A.; Demaree, J.D.; Klotz, B.R.; Rosencrance, A.B.; Dennis, W.E.; Bao, W.; Perkins, E.J.; Dillman, J.F.; Bannon, D.I.

    2012-11-15

    Tungsten alloys are composed of tungsten microparticles embedded in a solid matrix of transition metals such as nickel, cobalt, or iron. To understand the toxicology of these alloys, male F344 rats were intramuscularly implanted with pellets of tungsten/nickel/cobalt, tungsten/nickel/iron, or pure tungsten, with tantalum pellets as a negative control. Between 6 and 12 months, aggressive rhabdomyosarcomas formed around tungsten/nickel/cobalt pellets, while those of tungsten/nickel/iron or pure tungsten did not cause cancers. Electron microscopy showed a progressive corrosion of the matrix phase of tungsten/nickel/cobalt pellets over 6 months, accompanied by high urinary concentrations of nickel and cobalt. In contrast, non-carcinogenic tungsten/nickel/iron pellets were minimally corroded and urinary metals were low; these pellets having developed a surface oxide layer in vivo that may have restricted the mobilization of carcinogenic nickel. Microarray analysis of tumors revealed large changes in gene expression compared with normal muscle, with biological processes involving the cell cycle significantly up‐regulated and those involved with muscle development and differentiation significantly down‐regulated. Top KEGG pathways disrupted were adherens junction, p53 signaling, and the cell cycle. Chromosomal enrichment analysis of genes showed a highly significant impact at cytoband 7q22 (chromosome 7) which included mouse double minute (MDM2) and cyclin‐dependant kinase (CDK4) as well as other genes associated with human sarcomas. In conclusion, the tumorigenic potential of implanted tungsten alloys is related to mobilization of carcinogenic metals nickel and cobalt from corroding pellets, while gene expression changes in the consequent tumors are similar to radiation induced animal sarcomas as well as sporadic human sarcomas. -- Highlights: ► Tungsten/nickel/cobalt, tungsten/nickel/iron, and pure tungsten were studied. ► Male Fischer rats implanted with

  6. Back-junction back-contact n-type silicon solar cell with diffused boron emitter locally blocked by implanted phosphorus

    SciTech Connect

    Mller, Ralph Schrof, Julian; Reichel, Christian; Benick, Jan; Hermle, Martin

    2014-09-08

    The highest energy conversion efficiencies in the field of silicon-based photovoltaics have been achieved with back-junction back-contact (BJBC) silicon solar cells by several companies and research groups. One of the most complex parts of this cell structure is the fabrication of the locally doped p- and n-type regions, both on the back side of the solar cell. In this work, we introduce a process sequence based on a synergistic use of ion implantation and furnace diffusion. This sequence enables the formation of all doped regions for a BJBC silicon solar cell in only three processing steps. We observed that implanted phosphorus can block the diffusion of boron atoms into the silicon substrate by nearly three orders of magnitude. Thus, locally implanted phosphorus can be used as an in-situ mask for a subsequent boron diffusion which simultaneously anneals the implanted phosphorus and forms the boron emitter. BJBC silicon solar cells produced with such an easy-to-fabricate process achieved conversion efficiencies of up to 21.7%. An open-circuit voltage of 674?mV and a fill factor of 80.6% prove that there is no significant recombination at the sharp transition between the highly doped emitter and the highly doped back surface field at the device level.

  7. Gold nanoparticle formation in diamond-like carbon using two different methods: Gold ion implantation and co-deposition of gold and carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Salvadori, M. C.; Teixeira, F. S.; Araujo, W. W. R.; Sgubin, L. G.; Cattani, M.; Spirin, R. E.; Brown, I. G.

    2012-10-01

    We describe work in which gold nanoparticles were formed in diamond-like carbon (DLC), thereby generating a Au-DLC nanocomposite. A high-quality, hydrogen-free DLC thin film was formed by filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition, into which gold nanoparticles were introduced using two different methods. The first method was gold ion implantation into the DLC film at a number of decreasing ion energies, distributing the gold over a controllable depth range within the DLC. The second method was co-deposition of gold and carbon, using two separate vacuum arc plasma guns with suitably interleaved repetitive pulsing. Transmission electron microscope images show that the size of the gold nanoparticles obtained by ion implantation is 3-5 nm. For the Au-DLC composite obtained by co-deposition, there were two different nanoparticle sizes, most about 2 nm with some 6-7 nm. Raman spectroscopy indicates that the implanted sample contains a smaller fraction of sp{sup 3} bonding for the DLC, demonstrating that some sp{sup 3} bonds are destroyed by the gold implantation.

  8. Formation and photoluminescence of GaAs{sub 1−x}N{sub x} dilute nitride achieved by N-implantation and flash lamp annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Kun Helm, M.; Prucnal, S.; Skorupa, W.; Zhou, Shengqiang

    2014-07-07

    In this paper, we present the fabrication of dilute nitride semiconductor GaAs{sub 1−x}N{sub x} by nitrogen-ion-implantation and flash lamp annealing (FLA). N was implanted into the GaAs wafers with atomic concentration of about x{sub imp1} = 0.38% and x{sub imp2} = 0.76%. The GaAs{sub 1−x}N{sub x} layer is regrown on GaAs during FLA treatment in a solid phase epitaxy process. Room temperature near band-edge photoluminescence (PL) has been observed from the FLA treated GaAs{sub 1−x}N{sub x} samples. According to the redshift of the near band-edge PL peak, up to 80% and 44% of the implanted N atoms have been incorporated into the lattice by FLA for x{sub imp1} = 0.38% and x{sub imp2} = 0.76%, respectively. Our investigation shows that ion implantation followed by ultrashort flash lamp treatment, which allows for large scale production, exhibits a promising prospect on bandgap engineering of GaAs based semiconductors.

  9. SU-E-J-214: MR Protocol Development to Visualize Sirius MRI Markers in Prostate Brachytherapy Patients for MR-Based Post-Implant Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, T; Wang, J; Frank, S; Stafford, R; Bruno, T; Bathala, T; Mahmood, U; Pugh, T; Ibbott, G; Kudchadker, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The current CT-based post-implant dosimetry allows precise seed localization but limited anatomical delineation. Switching to MR-based post-implant dosimetry is confounded by imprecise seed localization. One approach is to place positive-contrast markers (Sirius) adjacent to the negative-contrast seeds. This patient study aims to assess the utility of a 3D fast spoiled gradient-recalled echo (FSPGR) sequence to visualize Sirius markers for post-implant dosimetry. Methods: MRI images were acquired in prostate implant patients (n=10) on Day 0 (day-of-implant) and Day 30. The post-implant MR protocol consisted of 3D T2-weighted fast-spin-echo (FSE), T2-weighted 2D-FSE (axial) and T1-weighted 2D-FSE (axial/sagittal/coronal). We incorporated a 3D-FSPGR sequence into the post-implant MR protocol to visualize the Sirius markers. Patients were scanned with different number-of-excitations (6, 8, 10), field-of-view (10cm, 14cm, 18cm), slice thickness (1mm, 0.8mm), flip angle (14 degrees, 20 degrees), bandwidth (122.070 Hz/pixel, 325.508 Hz/pixel, 390.625 Hz/pixel), phase encoding steps (160, 192, 224, 256), frequency-encoding direction (right/left, anterior/posterior), echo-time type (minimum-full, out-of-phase), field strength (1.5T, 3T), contrast (with, without), scanner vendor (Siemens, GE), coil (endorectal-coil only, endorectal-and-torso-coil, torsocoil only), endorectal-coil filling (30cc, 50cc) and endorectal-coil filling type (air, perfluorocarbon [PFC]). For post-implant dosimetric evaluation with greater anatomical detail, 3D-FSE images were fused with 3D-FSPGR images. For comparison with CT-based post-implant dosimetry, CT images were fused with 3D-FSPGR images. Results: The 3D-FSPGR sequence facilitated visualization of markers in patients. Marker visualization helped distinguish signal voids as seeds versus needle tracks for more definitive MR-based post-implant dosimetry. On the CT-MR fused images, the distance between the seed on CT to MR images was 3

  10. High dose Xe ion irradiation of yttria stabilized zirconia : influence of sputtering on implanted ion profile and retained damage /.

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasyev, I. V.; Sickafus, K.

    2001-01-01

    Fully-stabilized zirconia is known as a radiation resistant material. The objective of many experinients on zirconia has been to test the susceptibility of this material to amorphization. Because zirconia exhibits high radiation tolerance, this has made very high fluence ion irradiation experiments a necessity and so, additional iiradiation-inducetl effects such as surface sputtering become important. In this paper, we present results from 340 keV Xe' irradiations of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) to fluences ranging froiri 1.10' to 1.5.1OZ1 ions/m2. No iunorphization of YSZ was observed after irradiation to even the highest ion fluences. To assess sputtering effects at high fluence, an analytical model was developed, using ion range and damage distribulions calculated using Monte Carlo simulations for ion-solid interactions. Analysis results and experimental data revealed that at high fluences, the implanted ion and damago distribution profiles are significantly modified by sputtering.

  11. Dispersion and absorption of longitudinal electro-kinetic wave in ion-implanted GaN semiconductor plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Soni, Dilip; Sharma, Giriraj; Saxena, Ajay; Jadhav, Akhilesh

    2015-07-31

    An analytical study on propagation characteristics of longitudinal electro-kinetic (LEK) waves is presented. Based on multi-fluid model of plasma, we have derived a dispersion relation for LEK waves in colloid laden GaN semiconductor plasmas. It is assumed that ions are implanted to form colloids in the GaN sample. The colloids are continuously bombarded by the plasma particles and stick on them, but they acquire a net negative charge due to relatively higher mobility of electrons. It is found from the dispersion relation that the presence of charged colloids not only modifies the existing modes but also supports new novel modes of LEKWs. It is hoped that the study would enhance understanding on dispersion and absorption of LEKWs and help in singling out the appropriate configurations in which GaN crystal would be better suited for fabrication of microwave devices.

  12. SU-E-J-58: Dosimetric Verification of Metal Artifact Effects: Comparison of Dose Distributions Affected by Patient Teeth and Implants

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M; Kang, S; Lee, S; Suh, T; Lee, J; Park, J; Park, H; Lee, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Implant-supported dentures seem particularly appropriate for the predicament of becoming edentulous and cancer patients are no exceptions. As the number of people having dental implants increased in different ages, critical dosimetric verification of metal artifact effects are required for the more accurate head and neck radiation therapy. The purpose of this study is to verify the theoretical analysis of the metal(streak and dark) artifact, and to evaluate dosimetric effect which cause by dental implants in CT images of patients with the patient teeth and implants inserted humanoid phantom. Methods: The phantom comprises cylinder which is shaped to simulate the anatomical structures of a human head and neck. Through applying various clinical cases, made phantom which is closely allied to human. Developed phantom can verify two classes: (i)closed mouth (ii)opened mouth. RapidArc plans of 4 cases were created in the Eclipse planning system. Total dose of 2000 cGy in 10 fractions is prescribed to the whole planning target volume (PTV) using 6MV photon beams. Acuros XB (AXB) advanced dose calculation algorithm, Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm (AAA) and progressive resolution optimizer were used in dose optimization and calculation. Results: In closed and opened mouth phantom, because dark artifacts formed extensively around the metal implants, dose variation was relatively higher than that of streak artifacts. As the PTV was delineated on the dark regions or large streak artifact regions, maximum 7.8% dose error and average 3.2% difference was observed. The averaged minimum dose to the PTV predicted by AAA was about 5.6% higher and OARs doses are also 5.2% higher compared to AXB. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that AXB dose calculation involving high-density materials is more accurate than AAA calculation, and AXB was superior to AAA in dose predictions beyond dark artifact/air cavity portion when compared against the measurements.

  13. SciFri PM: Topics 02: Evaluation of Dosimetric Variations in Partial Breast Seed Implant (PBSI) due to Patient Arm Position (Up vs. Down)

    SciTech Connect

    Watt, E; Long, K; Husain, S; Meyer, T

    2014-08-15

    The planning for PBSI is done with the patient's ipsilateral arm raised, however, anatomical changes and variations are unavoidable as the patient resumes her daily activities, potentially resulting in significant deviations in implant geometry from the treatment plan. This study aims to quantify the impact of the ipsilateral arm position on the geometry and dosimetry of the implant at eight weeks, evaluated on post-plans using the MIM Symphony software (MIM Software, Cleveland, OH). The average dose metrics for the three patients treated at the TBCC thus far using rigid fusion and contour transfer for the arms up position were 76% for the CTV V100, 61% for the PTV V100, and 37% for the PTV V200; and for the arms down position 81% for the CTV V100, 64% for the PTV V100, and 42% for the PTV V200. Qualitative analysis of the post-implant CT for one of the three patients showed poor agreement between the seroma contour transferred from the pre-implant CT and the seroma visible on the post-implant CT. To obtain a clinically accurate plan for that patient, contour modifications were used, yielding improved dose metric averages for the arms-up position for all three patients of 87% for the CTV V100, 68% for the PTV V100, and 39% for the PTV V200. Overall, the data available shows that dosimetric parameters increase with the patient's arm down, both in terms of coverage and in terms of the hot spot, and accrual of more patients may confirm this in a larger population.

  14. Poster — Thur Eve — 77: Implanted Brachythearpy Seed Movement due to Transrectal Ultrasound Probe-Induced Prostate Deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, D; Usmani, N; Sloboda, R; Meyer, T; Husain, S; Angyalfi, S; Kay, I

    2014-08-15

    The study investigated the movement of implanted brachytherapy seeds upon transrectal US probe removal, providing insight into the underlying prostate deformation and an estimate of the impact on prostate dosimetry. Implanted seed distributions, one obtained with the prostate under probe compression and another with the probe removed, were reconstructed using C-arm fluoroscopy imaging. The prostate, delineated on ultrasound images, was registered to the fluoroscopy images using seeds and needle tracks identified on ultrasound. A deformation tensor and shearing model was developed to correlate probe-induced seed movement with position. Changes in prostate TG-43 dosimetry were calculated. The model was used to infer the underlying prostate deformation and to estimate the location of the prostate surface in the absence of probe compression. Seed movement patterns upon probe removal reflected elastic decompression, lateral shearing, and rectal bending. Elastic decompression was characterized by expansion in the anterior-posterior direction and contraction in the superior-inferior and lateral directions. Lateral shearing resulted in large anterior movement for extra-prostatic seeds in the lateral peripheral region. Whole prostate D90 increased up to 8 Gy, mainly due to the small but systematic seed movement associated with elastic decompression. For selected patients, lateral shearing movement increased prostate D90 by 4 Gy, due to increased dose coverage in the anterior-lateral region at the expense of the posterior-lateral region. The effect of shearing movement on whole prostate D90 was small compared to elastic decompression due to the subset of peripheral seeds involved, but is expected to have greater consequences for local dose coverage.

  15. Optical characterizations of doped silicon nanocrystals grown by co-implantation of Si and dopants in SiO₂

    SciTech Connect

    Frégnaux, M.; Khelifi, R.; Muller, D.; Mathiot, D.

    2014-10-14

    Co-implantation, with overlapping implantation projected ranges, of Si and doping species (P, As, and B) followed by a thermal annealing step is a viable route to form doped Si nanocrystals (NCs) embedded in silica (SiO₂). In this paper, we investigate optical characterizations of both doped and un-doped Si-NCs prepared by this method. The effective NC presence in the oxide layer and their crystallinity is verified by Raman spectrometry. Photoluminescence (PL) and PL excitation measurements reveal quantum confinement effects and a gradual PL quenching with increasing dopant concentrations. In un-doped NC, the measured Stokes shift remains constant and its value ~0.2 eV is almost twice the Si–O vibration energy. This suggests that a possible radiative recombination path is a fundamental transition assisted by a local phonon. PL lifetime investigations show that PL time-decays follow a stretched exponential. Using a statistical model for luminescence quenching, a typical NC diameter close to 2 nm is obtained for As- and P-doped samples, consistent with our previous atomic probe tomography (APT) analyses. APT also demonstrated that n-type dopant (P and As) are efficiently introduced in the NC core, whereas p-type dopant (B) are located at the NC/SiO₂ interface. This last observation could explain the failure of the luminescence-quenching model to determine NC size in B-doped samples. All together, these experimental observations question on possible different carrier recombination paths in P or As doped NC compared to B one's.

  16. Evaluation of Tumor Shape Variability in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients Over the Course of Radiation Therapy Using Implanted Gold Markers

    SciTech Connect

    Hamming-Vrieze, Olga; Kranen, Simon Robert van; Beek, Suzanne van; Heemsbergen, Wilma; Herk, Marcel van; Brekel, Michiel Wilhelmus Maria van den; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Rasch, Coenraad Robert Nico

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: This study quantifies tumor shape variability in head-and-neck cancer patients during radiation therapy using implanted markers. Methods and Materials: Twenty-seven patients with oropharyngeal tumors treated with (chemo)radiation were included. Helical gold markers (0.35 Multiplication-Sign 2 mm, 3-10/patient, average 6) were implanted around the tumor. Markers were identified on planning computed tomography (CT) and daily cone beam CT (CBCT). After bony anatomy registration, the daily vector length on CBCT in reference to the planning CT and daily marker movement perpendicular to the gross tumor volume (GTV) surface at planning CT (d{sub normal}) of each marker were analyzed. Time trends were assessed with linear regression of the {sub markers}. In 2 patients, 2 markers were implanted in normal tissue to evaluate migration by measuring intermarker distances. Results: Marker implantation was feasible without complications. Three-dimensional vectors (4827 measurements, mean 0.23 cm, interquartile ratio 0.24 cm) were highest in base of tongue sublocalization (P<.001) and bulky tumors (vectors exceeded 0.5 cm in 5.7% [0-20 mL], 12.0% [21-40 mL], and 21.7% [{>=}41 mL], respectively [P<.001] of measurements). The measured inward time trend in 11/27 patients correlated with the visual observed marker pattern. In patients with an outward trend (5/27) or no trend (11/27), visual observation showed predominantly an inhomogeneous pattern. Remarkably, in 6 patients, outward marker movement was observed in the posterior pharyngeal wall. The difference in distance between normal tissue markers (1 SD) was 0.05-0.06 cm without time trend, indicating that implanted markers did not migrate. Conclusions: During head-and-neck radiation therapy, normal tissue markers remained stable. Changes in position of tumor markers depended on sublocalization and tumor volume. Large differences in marker patterns between patients as well as within patients were observed

  17. Proposed mechanism to represent the suppression of dark current density by four orders with low energy light ion (H{sup ?}) implantation in quaternary alloy-capped InAs/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors

    SciTech Connect

    Mandal, A.; Ghadi, H.; Mathur, K.L.; Basu, A.; Subrahmanyam, N.B.V.; Singh, P.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: Here we propose a carrier transport mechanism for low energy H{sup ?} ions implanted InAs/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors supportive of the experimental results obtained. Dark current density suppression of up to four orders was observed in the implanted quantum dot infrared photodetectors, which further demonstrates that they are effectively operational. We concentrated on determining how defect-related material and structural changes attributed to implantation helped in dark current density reduction for InAs/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors. This is the first study to report the electrical carrier transport mechanism of H{sup ?} ion-implanted InAs/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors.

  18. SU-E-J-79: Evaluation of Prostate Volume Changes During Radiotherapy Using Implanted Markers and On-Board Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ispir, B; Akdeniz, Y; Ugurluer, G; Eken, A; Arpaci, T; Serin, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate prostate volume changes during radiation therapy using implanted gold markers and on-board imaging. Methods: Twenty-five patients were included who underwent an implantation of three gold markers. Cartesian coordinates of markers were assessed in kV-images. The coordinates of centers of two markers were measured on kV-images from the center of the marker at the apex which was reference. The distances between the markers were extrapolated from the coordinates using the Euclid formula. The radius of the sphere through markers was calculated using sinus theorem. The prostate volume for the first and last fraction was substituted with a sphere model and was calculated for each patient. The t-test was used for analysis. Results: The mean prostate volume for first and last fraction was 24.65 and 20.87 cc, respectively (p≤0.05). The prostate volume was smaller for 23 patients, whereas there was an expansion for 2 patients. Fifteen patients had androgen deprivation during radiotherapy (H group) and ten did not (NH group). The mean prostate volume for the first and last fraction for the NH group was 30.73 cc and 24.89 cc and for the H group 20.84 cc and 18.19 cc, respectively. There was a 15.8% volume change during treatment for the NH group and 12.2% for the H group, but the difference was not statistically significant. The radius difference of the theoretical sphere for the first and last fraction was 0.98 mm (range, 0.09–2.95 mm) and remained below 2 mm in 88% of measurements. Conclusion: There was a significant volume change during prostate radiotherapy. The difference between H group and NH group was not significant. The radius changes did not exceed 3 mm and it was below adaptive treatment requirements. Our results indicate that prostate volume changes during treatment should be taken into account during contouring and treatment planning.

  19. SU-E-J-39: Dosimetric Benefit of Implanted Marker-Based CBCT Setup for Definitive Prostatic Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhen, H; Wu, Z; Bluemenfeld, P; Chu, J; Wang, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose Daily setup for definitive prostatic radiotherapy is challenged by suboptimal visibility of the prostate boundary and daily variation of rectum shape and position. For patients with improved bowel preparation, we conducted a dosimetric comparison between prostate implanted marker (IM)-based daily setup and anterior rectal wall (ARW)-based setup, with the hypothesis that the former leads to adequate target coverage with better rectal sparing. Methods Five IMRT/VMAT prostate cases with implanted markers were selected for analysis. Daily CBCT showed improvement of the rectal volume compared to planning CT. For each patient, the prostate and rectum were contoured on three CBCT images (fraction 5/15/25) with subsequent physician review. The CBCTs were then registered to a planning CT using IM-based registration. The deviation of ARW positions from planning CT to CBCT were analyzed at various sup-inf levels (−1.8 cm to 1.8 cm from level of prostate center). To estimate the potential dosimetric impact from ARW-based setup, the treatment plans were recalculated using A-P shifts ranging from −1mm to +6mm. Clinically important rectum DVH values including Dmax, D3cc and Dmean were computed. Results For the studied patients, we observed on average 32% rectum volume reduction from planning CT to CBCT. As a Results, the ARW on average shifts posteriorly by −1mm to +5mm, depending on the sup-inf level of observation, with larger shifts observed at more superior levels. Recalculation shows that when ARW shifts 1mm posteriorly, ARW-based CBCT setup leads to a 1.0%, 4.2%, and 3.2% increase in rectum Dmax, D3cc, and Dmean, respectively, compared to IM-based setup. The dosimetric deviations increase to 4.7%, 25.8% and 24.7% when ARW shifts 6mm posteriorly. No significant prostate-only dose difference was observed. Conclusion For patients with improved bowel preparation, IM-based CBCT setup leads to accurate prostate coverage along with significantly lower rectal dose

  20. Study of non-linear Hall effect in nitrogen-grown ZnO microstructure and the effect of H{sup +}-implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Yogesh Bern, Francis; Barzola-Quiquia, Jose; Lorite, Israel; Esquinazi, Pablo

    2015-07-13

    We report magnetotransport studies on microstructured ZnO film grown by pulsed laser deposition in N{sub 2} atmosphere on a-plane Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates and the effect of low energy H{sup +}-implantation. Non-linearity has been found in the magnetic field dependent Hall resistance, which decreases with temperature. We explain this effect with a two-band model assuming the conduction through two different parallel channels having different types of charge carriers. Reduced non-linearity after H{sup +}-implantation in the grown film is due to the shallow-donor effect of hydrogen giving rise to an increment in the electron density, reducing the effect of the other channel.

  1. Green, red and infrared Er-related emission in implanted GaN:Er and GaN:Er,O samples

    SciTech Connect

    Monteiro, T.; Soares, J.; Correia, M. R.; Alves, E.

    2001-06-01

    Er-related luminescence near 1.54 {mu}m ({similar_to}805 meV) is observed under below band gap excitation at 4.2 K in GaN:Er and GaN:Er,O implanted samples. The spectrum of the recovered damage samples is a multiline structure. So far, these lines are the sharpest ones reported for GaN. Well-resolved green and red luminescences are observed in implanted samples. The dependence of luminescence on the excitation energy as well as the influence of different nominal fluence and annealing conditions is discussed. Combining the results obtained from photoluminescence and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, different lattice sites for the optical active Er-related centers are identified. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  2. Effects of phosphorus doping by plasma immersion ion implantation on the structural and optical characteristics of Zn{sub 0.85}Mg{sub 0.15}O thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, S.; Nagar, S.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2014-08-11

    ZnMgO thin films deposited on ?100? Si substrates by RF sputtering were annealed at 800, 900, and 1000?C after phosphorus plasma immersion ion implantation. X-ray diffraction spectra confirmed the presence of ?101{sup }0? and ?101{sup }3? peaks for all the samples. However, in case of the annealed samples, the ?0002? peak was also observed. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed the variation in surface morphology caused by phosphorus implantation. Implanted and non-implanted samples were compared to examine the effects of phosphorus implantation on the optical properties of ZnMgO. Optical characteristics were investigated by low-temperature (15?K) photoluminescence experiments. Inelastic excitonexciton scattering and localized, and delocalized excitonic peaks appeared at 3.377, 3.42, and 3.45?eV, respectively, revealing the excitonic effect resulting from phosphorus implantation. This result is important because inelastic excitonexciton scattering leads to nonlinear emission, which can improve the performance of many optoelectronic devices.

  3. Characterization of Defects in N-type 4H-SiC After High-Energy N Ion Implantation by RBS-Channeling and Raman Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kummari, Venkata C.; Reinert, Tilo; Jiang, Weilin; McDaniel, Floyd D.; Rout, Bibhudutta

    2014-08-01

    Implantation with 1 MeV N ions was performed at room temperature in n-type 4H-SiC(0001) to four implantation fluences (or doses in dpa (displacements per atom) at the damage peak) of 1.5×1013(0.0034), 7.8×1013(0.018), 1.5×1014(0.034), and 7.8×1014(0.18) ions/cm2, respectively. The evolution of disorder was studied using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channeling mode (RBS-C) and Raman spectroscopy. The disorder in the Si sub-lattice was found to be less than 10% for the dpa of 0.0034 and 0.0178 and increased to 40% and 60% for the dpa of 0.034 and 0.178 respectively. Raman Spectroscopy was performed using a green laser of wavelength 532 nm as excitation source. The normalized Raman Intensity, In shows disorder of 41%, 69%, 77% and 100% for the dpa of 0.0034, 0.017, 0.034 and 0.178 respectively. In this paper, the characterizations of the defects produced due to the Nitrogen implantation in 4H-SiC are presented and the results are discussed.

  4. Gain analysis of higher-order-mode amplification in a dielectric-implanted multi-beam traveling wave structure

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Anthony; Shin, Young-Min

    2013-01-01

    A multi-beam traveling wave amplifier designed with an overmoded staggered double grating array was examined by small signal analysis combined with simulation. Eigenmode and S-parameter analyses show that the 2cm long slow wave structure (SWS) has 1-5dB insertion loss over the passband (TM31 mode) with ~28% cold bandwidth. Analytic gain calculation indicates that in the SWS, TM31-mode is amplified with 15–20 dB/beam at 64–84GHz with three elliptical beams of 10kV and 150mA/beam, which was compared with particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. PIC analysis on the analysis of instability with zero-input driving excitations demonstrated that background noises and non-operating lower order modes are noticeably suppressed by implanting equidistant dielectric absorbers; the overmoded structure only allowed the desired 3rd order mode to propagate in the structure. The designed circuit structure can be widely applied to multi-beam devices for high power RF generation.

  5. Multicycle rapid thermal annealing optimization of Mg-implanted GaN: Evolution of surface, optical, and structural properties

    SciTech Connect

    Greenlee, Jordan D.; Feigelson, Boris N.; Anderson, Travis J.; Hite, Jennifer K.; Mastro, Michael A.; Eddy, Charles R.; Hobart, Karl D.; Kub, Francis J.; Tadjer, Marko J.

    2014-08-14

    The first step of a multi-cycle rapid thermal annealing process was systematically studied. The surface, structure, and optical properties of Mg implanted GaN thin films annealed at temperatures ranging from 900 to 1200?C were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, UV-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Nomarski microscopy. The GaN thin films are capped with two layers of in-situ metal organic chemical vapor deposition -grown AlN and annealed in 24 bar of N{sub 2} overpressure to avoid GaN decomposition. The crystal quality of the GaN improves with increasing annealing temperature as confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy and the full widths at half maximums of the E{sub 2} and A{sub 1} (LO) Raman modes. The crystal quality of films annealed above 1100?C exceeds the quality of the as-grown films. At 1200?C, Mg is optically activated, which is determined by photoluminescence measurements. However, at 1200?C, the GaN begins to decompose as evidenced by pit formation on the surface of the samples. Therefore, it was determined that the optimal temperature for the first step in a multi-cycle rapid thermal anneal process should be conducted at 1150?C due to crystal quality and surface morphology considerations.

  6. Outcomes of Children With Favorable Histology Wilms Tumor and Peritoneal Implants Treated in National Wilms Tumor Studies-4 and -5

    SciTech Connect

    Kalapurakal, John A.; Green, Daniel M.; Haase, Gerald; Anderson, James R.; Dome, Jeffrey S.; Grundy, Paul E.

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: There are no published reports on the optimal management and survival rates of children with Wilms tumor (WT) and peritoneal implants (PIs). Methods and Materials: Among favorable histology WT patients enrolled in the National Wilms Tumor Study (NWTS)-4 and NWTS-5, 57 children had PIs at the time of nephrectomy. The median age was 3 years 5 months (range, 3 months to 14 years). The majority of children (42 of 57 [74%)] had Stage III tumors; 15 had Stage IV disease. All patients received multimodality therapy. Of 56 children who underwent primary surgery, 48 (84%) had gross total resection of all tumors. All patients received 3-drug chemotherapy with vincristine, dactinomycin, and doxorubicin. Whole-abdomen radiotherapy (RT) was used in 47 patients (82%), and in 50 patients (88%) the RT dose was 10.5 Gy. Results: After a median follow-up of 7.5 years, the overall abdominal and systemic tumor control rates were 97% and 93%, respectively. A comparative analysis between children with PIs and those without PIs showed no significant differences in the clinical characteristics between the two groups. The 5-year event-free survival rates with and without PIs were 90% (95% confidence interval, 78-96%) and 83% (95% confidence interval, 81-85%) respectively (p = 0.20). Conclusions: Multimodality therapy with surgery, whole-abdomen RT, and three-drug chemotherapy delivered according to the NWTS-4 and -5 protocols resulted in excellent abdominal and systemic tumor control rates. All children should be monitored in long-term surveillance programs for the early detection and management of therapy-related toxicities.

  7. SU-E-T-602: Beryllium Seeds Implant for Photo-Neutron Yield Using External Beam Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Koren, S; Veltchev, I; Furhang, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the Neutron yield obtained during prostate external beam irradiation. Methods: Neutrons, that are commonly a radiation safety concern for photon beams with energy above 10 MV, are induced inside a PTV from Beryllium implemented seeds. A high megavoltage photon beam delivered to a prostate will yield neutrons via the reaction Be-9(?,n)2?. Beryllium was chosen for its low gamma,n reaction cross-section threshold (1.67 MeV) to be combined with a high feasible 25 MV photon beam. This beam spectra has a most probable photon energy of 2.5 to 3.0 MeV and an average photon energy of about 5.8 MeV. For this feasibility study we simulated a Beryllium-made common seed dimension (0.1 cm diameter and 0.5 cm height) without taking into account encapsulation. We created a 0.5 cm grid loading pattern excluding the Urethra, using Variseed (Varian inc.) A total of 156 seeds were exported to a 4cm diameter prostate sphere, created in Fluka, a particle transport Monte Carlo Code. Two opposed 25 MV beams were simulated. The evaluation of the neutron dose was done by adjusting the simulated photon dose to a common prostate delivery (e.g. 7560 cGy in 42 fractions) and finding the corresponding neutron dose yield from the simulation. A variance reduction technique was conducted for the neutrons yield and transported. Results: An effective dose of 3.65 cGy due to neutrons was found in the prostate volume. The dose to central areas of the prostate was found to be about 10 cGy. Conclusion: The neutron dose yielded does not justify a clinical implant of Beryllium seeds. Nevertheless, one should investigate the Neutron dose obtained when a larger Beryllium loading is combined with commercially available 40 MeV Linacs.

  8. SU-E-T-570: Management of Radiation Oncology Patients with Cochlear Implant and Other Bionic Devices in the Brain and Head and Neck Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, F.Q; Chen, Z; Nath, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the current status of clinical usage of cochlear implant (CI) and other bionic devices (BD) in the brain and head and neck regions (BH and N) and their management in patients during radiotherapy to ensure patient health and safety as well as optimum radiation delivery. Methods: Literature review was performed with both CIs and radiotherapy and their variants as keywords in PubMed, INSPEC and other sources. The focus was on CIs during radiotherapy, but it also included other BDs in BHȦN, such as auditory brainstem implant, bionic retinal implant, and hearing aids, among others. Results: Interactions between CIs and radiation may cause CIs malfunction. The presence of CIs may also cause suboptimum dose distribution if a treatment plan was not well designed. A few studies were performed for the hearing functions of CIs under irradiations of 4 MV and 6 MV x-rays. However, x-rays with higher energies (10 to 18 MV) broadly used in radiotherapy have not been explored. These higher energetic beams are more damaging to electronics due to strong penetrating power and also due to neutrons generated in the treatment process. Modern CIs are designed with more and more complicated integrated circuits, which may be more susceptible to radiation damage and malfunction. Therefore, careful management is important for safety and treatment outcomes. Conclusion: Although AAPM TG-34, TG-63, and TG-203 (update of TG-34, not published yet) reports may be referenced for management of CIs and other BDs in the brain and H and N regions, a site- and device-specified guideline should be developed for CIs and other BDs. Additional evaluation of CI functions under clinically relevant set-ups should also be performed to provide clinicians with better knowledge in clinical decision making.

  9. Ion-implanted Si-nanostructures buried in a SiO{sub 2} substrate studied with soft-x-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.; Rubensson, J.E.; Eisebitt, S.

    1997-04-01

    In recent years silicon nanostructures have gained great interest because of their optical luminescence, which immediately suggests several applications, e.g., in optoelectronic devices. Nanostructures are also investigated because of the fundamental physics involved in the underlying luminescence mechanism, especially attention has been drawn to the influence of the reduced dimensions on the electronic structure. The forming of stable and well-defined nanostructured materials is one goal of cluster physics. For silicon nanostructures this goal has so far not been reached, but various indirect methods have been established, all having the problem of producing less well defined and/or unstable nanostructures. Ion implantation and subsequent annealing is a promising new technique to overcome some of these difficulties. In this experiment the authors investigate the electronic structure of ion-implanted silicon nanoparticles buried in a stabilizing SiO{sub 2} substrate. Soft X-ray emission (SXE) spectroscopy features the appropriate information depth to investigate such buried structures. SXE spectra to a good approximation map the local partial density of occupied states (LPDOS) in broad band materials like Si. The use of monochromatized synchrotron radiation (MSR) allows for selective excitation of silicon atoms in different chemical environments. Thus, the emission from Si atom sites in the buried structure can be separated from contributions from the SiO{sub 2} substrate. In this preliminary study strong size dependent effects are found, and the electronic structure of the ion-implanted nanoparticles is shown to be qualitatively different from porous silicon. The results can be interpreted in terms of quantum confinement and chemical shifts due to neighboring oxygen atoms at the interface to SiO{sub 2}.

  10. Fe-implanted 6H-SiC: Direct evidence of Fe{sub 3}Si nanoparticles observed by atom probe tomography and {sup 57}Fe Mssbauer spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Diallo, M. L.; Fnidiki, A. Lard, R.; Cuvilly, F.; Blum, I.; Lechevallier, L.; Debelle, A.; Thom, L.; Viret, M.; Marteau, M.; Eyidi, D.; Declmy, A.

    2015-05-14

    In order to understand ferromagnetic ordering in SiC-based diluted magnetic semiconductors, Fe-implanted 6H-SiC subsequently annealed was studied by Atom Probe Tomography, {sup 57}Fe Mssbauer spectroscopy and SQUID magnetometry. Thanks to its 3D imaging capabilities at the atomic scale, Atom Probe Tomography appears as the most suitable technique to investigate the Fe distribution in the 6H-SiC host semiconductor and to evidence secondary phases. This study definitely evidences the formation of Fe{sub 3}Si nano-sized clusters after annealing. These clusters are unambiguously responsible for the main part of the magnetic properties observed in the annealed samples.

  11. An origin of orange (2 eV) photoluminescence in SiO{sub 2} films implanted with high Si{sup +}-ion doses

    SciTech Connect

    Tyschenko, I. E.

    2015-09-15

    The photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectra of SiO{sub 2} films implanted with high (3 at %) Si{sup +}-ion doses are studied in relation to the temperature of postimplantation annealing. It is shown that two photoluminescence bands with peaks at 2.7 and 2 eV are dominant in the spectra. As the annealing temperature is increased, the relation between the intensities of the 2.7 and 2 eV bands changes in favor of the former one. Both of the photoluminescence bands have their main excitation peak at the energy 5.1 eV. The excitation spectrum of the ∼2-eV band exhibits also peaks at 3.8 and 4.6 eV. It is concluded that, in the implanted SiO{sub 2} films, the orange photoluminescence band originates from radiative transitions between levels of centers associated with a deficiency of oxygen (≡Si–Si≡ or =Si:) and the levels of nonbridging oxygen (≡Si–O•)

  12. Liquid phase epitaxy of binary III–V nanocrystals in thin Si layers triggered by ion implantation and flash lamp annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Wutzler, Rene Rebohle, Lars; Prucnal, Slawomir; Bregolin, Felipe L.; Hübner, Rene; Voelskow, Matthias; Helm, Manfred; Skorupa, Wolfgang

    2015-05-07

    The integration of III–V compound semiconductors in Si is a crucial step towards faster and smaller devices in future technologies. In this work, we investigate the formation process of III–V compound semiconductor nanocrystals, namely, GaAs, GaSb, and InP, by ion implantation and sub-second flash lamp annealing in a SiO{sub 2}/Si/SiO{sub 2} layer stack on Si grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford Backscattering spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy were performed to identify the structural and optical properties of these structures. Raman spectra of the nanocomposites show typical phonon modes of the compound semiconductors. The formation process of the III–V compounds is found to be based on liquid phase epitaxy, and the model is extended to the case of an amorphous matrix without an epitaxial template from a Si substrate. It is shown that the particular segregation and diffusion coefficients of the implanted group-III and group-V ions in molten Si significantly determine the final appearance of the nanostructure and thus their suitability for potential applications.

  13. Use of Xenon Difluoride to Clean Hazardous By-Products in Ion Implanter Source Housings, Turbo Pumps, and Fore-Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Despres, J.; Chambers, B.; Bishop, S.; Kaim, R.; Letaj, S.; Sergi, S.; Sweeney, J.; Tang, Y.; Wilson, S.; Yedave, S.

    2011-01-07

    This paper describes the use of xenon difluoride to clean deposits in the source housing, source turbo pump, and source turbo pump fore-line of ion implanters. Xenon difluoride has previously been shown to be effective in increasing the lifetime of the ion source{sup 1,2} and this paper presents an extension of the technology to other areas within the tool. Process by-products that are deposited in the source housing, turbo pump, and turbo pump fore-line can not only pose productivity issues, in the case of coatings on insulators, but can also be flammable and toxic in the case of deposits formed within the turbo pump and fore-line. The results presented in this paper detail the initial successful examples of using xenon difluoride to clean these deposits.ATMI has shown that xenon difluoride is capable of cleaning an insulator in an ion implanter. Typically during use an insulator will become increasingly coated with deposits that could lead to productivity problems. By introducing xenon difluoride into the source housing the insulator residues were effectively cleaned in-situ, thereby extending the maintenance interval and resulting in significant consumable savings.Similar deposits that form in the turbo pump and fore-line could not only lead to production problems due to turbo pump failure or fore-line build-up, but pose significant health risks during the ex-situ cleaning process. Through internal testing ATMI has shown that xenon difluoride is able to clean phosphorus and germanium deposits located within a turbo pump. Additionally, testing has demonstrated that the turbo pump fore-line can be cleaned in-situ without the need to remove these components, thereby virtually eliminating the possibility of fires. The cleaning reaction progress and by-products were monitored using FTIR spectrometry and thermocouples.In order to efficiently clean the source housing, turbo pump, and turbo pump fore-line xenon difluoride delivery must be optimized. This paper also

  14. Advancing the surgical implantation of electronic tags in fish: a gap analysis and research agenda based on a review of trends in intracoelomic tagging effects studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Steven J.; Woodley, Christa M.; Eppard, M. B.; Brown, Richard S.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2011-03-08

    Early approaches to surgical implantation of electronic tags in fish were often through trial and error, however, in recent years there has been an interest in using scientific research to identify techniques and procedures that improve the outcome of surgical procedures and determine the effects of tagging on individuals. Here we summarize the trends in 108 peer-reviewed electronic tagging effect studies focused on intracoleomic implantation to determine opportunities for future research. To date, almost all of the studies have been conducted in freshwater, typically in laboratory environments, and have focused on biotelemetry devices. The majority of studies have focused on salmonids, cyprinids, ictalurids and centrarchids, with a regional bias towards North America, Europe and Australia. Most studies have focused on determining whether there is a negative effect of tagging relative to control fish, with proportionally fewer that have contrasted different aspects of the surgical procedure (e.g., methods of sterilization, incision location, wound closure material) that could advance the discipline. Many of these studies included routine endpoints such as mortality, growth, healing and tag retention, with fewer addressing sublethal measures such as swimming ability, predator avoidance, physiological costs, or fitness. Continued research is needed to further elevate the practice of electronic tag implantation in fish in order to ensure that the data generated are relevant to untagged conspecifics (i.e., no long-term behavioural or physiological consequences) and the surgical procedure does not impair the health and welfare status of the tagged fish. To that end, we advocate for i) rigorous controlled manipulations based on statistical designs that have adequate power, account for inter-individual variation, and include controls and shams, ii) studies that transcend the laboratory and the field with more studies in marine waters, iii) incorporation of knowledge and

  15. The impact of low-Z and high-Z metal implants in IMRT: A Monte Carlo study of dose inaccuracies in commercial dose algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Spadea, Maria Francesca; Verburg, Joost Mathias; Seco, Joao; Baroni, Guido

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the dosimetric impact of low-Z and high-Z metallic implants on IMRT plans. Methods: Computed tomography (CT) scans of three patients were analyzed to study effects due to the presence of Titanium (low-Z), Platinum and Gold (high-Z) inserts. To eliminate artifacts in CT images, a sinogram-based metal artifact reduction algorithm was applied. IMRT dose calculations were performed on both the uncorrected and corrected images using a commercial planning system (convolution/superposition algorithm) and an in-house Monte Carlo platform. Dose differences between uncorrected and corrected datasets were computed and analyzed using gamma index (P?{sub <1}) and setting 2 mm and 2% as distance to agreement and dose difference criteria, respectively. Beam specific depth dose profiles across the metal were also examined. Results: Dose discrepancies between corrected and uncorrected datasets were not significant for low-Z material. High-Z materials caused under-dosage of 20%25% in the region surrounding the metal and over dosage of 10%15% downstream of the hardware. Gamma index test yielded P?{sub <1}>99% for all low-Z cases; while for high-Z cases it returned 91% < P?{sub <1}< 99%. Analysis of the depth dose curve of a single beam for low-Z cases revealed that, although the dose attenuation is altered inside the metal, it does not differ downstream of the insert. However, for high-Z metal implants the dose is increased up to 10%12% around the insert. In addition, Monte Carlo method was more sensitive to the presence of metal inserts than superposition/convolution algorithm. Conclusions: The reduction in terms of dose of metal artifacts in CT images is relevant for high-Z implants. In this case, dose distribution should be calculated using Monte Carlo algorithms, given their superior accuracy in dose modeling in and around the metal. In addition, the knowledge of the composition of metal inserts improves the accuracy of the Monte

  16. Composite multilayer insulations for thermal protection of aerospace vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kourtides, D.A.; Pitts, W.C.

    1989-02-01

    Composite flexible multilayer insulation systems (MLI), consisting of alternating layers of metal foil and scrim cloth or insulation quilted together using ceramic thread, were evaluated for thermal performance and compared with a silica fibrous (baseline) insulation system. The systems studied included: (1) alternating layers of aluminoborosilicate (ABS) scrim cloth and stainless steel foil, with silica, ABS, or alumina insulation; (2) alternating layers of scrim cloth and aluminum foil, with silica or ABS insulation; (3) alternating layers of alumininum foil and silica or ABS insulation; and (4) alternating layers of aluminum-coated polyimide placed on the bottom of the silica insulation. The MLIs containing aluminum were the most efficient, measuring as little as half the backface temperature increase of the baseline system.

  17. Stirling engines. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning fuel consumption, engine design and testing, computerized simulation, and lubrication systems relative to the Stirling cycle engine. Solar energy conversion research, thermodynamic efficiency, economics, and utilization for power generation and automobile engines are included. Materials used in Stirling engines are briefly evaluated. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. THE AEROSPACE CORPORATION Suite X00, 955 L'

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... Operations Office revealed five additional colleges and universities that performed research in support of.Hanford's Division of Biology and Medicine and Division of Research. ...

  19. I I THE AEROSPACE CORPORATION I I,W. I

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... Operations Office revealed five additional colleges and universities that performed research in support of Hanford's Division of Biology and Medicine and Division of Research. ...

  20. Review: laser ignition for aerospace propulsion (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 5; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2212-540X Publisher: Elsevier Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: Country unknown...

  1. Stirling engines. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Solar energy conversion research, thermodynamic efficiency, economics, and utilization for power generation and automobile engines are included. Materials used in Stirling engines ...

  2. Power generation from nuclear reactors in aerospace applications

    SciTech Connect

    English, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Power generation in nuclear powerplants in space is addressed. In particular, the states of technology of the principal competitive concepts for power generation are assessed. The possible impact of power conditioning on power generation is also discussed. For aircraft nuclear propulsion, the suitability of various technologies is cursorily assessed for flight in the Earth's atmosphere. A program path is suggested to ease the conditions of first use of aircraft nuclear propulsion.

  3. German Aerospace Center (DLR)Feed | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    (CER) The Children's Investment Fund Foundation (CIFF) Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN) Climate Technology Initiative (CTI) ClimateWorks Foundation Coalition...

  4. Materials for defense/aerospace applications (NON-SV)

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, A. R.

    2012-03-01

    Through this effort, Sandia and Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LM Aero) sought to assess the feasibility of (1) applying special materials to a defense application; (2) developing a piezoelectric-based micro thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cell; and (3) building and delivering a prototype laboratory emission measurement system. This project supported the Stockpile Research & Development Program by contributing to the development of radio frequency (RF) MEMS- and optical MEMS-based components - such as switches, phase shifters, oscillators, and filters - with improved performance and reduced weight and size. Investigation of failure mechanisms and solutions helped to ensure that MEMS-based technology will meet performance requirements and long term reliability goals in the specified environments dictated by Lockheed Martin's commercial and defense applications. The objectives of this project were to (1) fabricate and test materials for military applications; (2) perform a feasibility study of a piezoelectric-based micro TPV cell; and (3) build and deliver a prototype laboratory emission measurement system. Sandia fabricated and tested properties of materials, studied options for manufacturing scale-up, and delivered a prototype IR Emissometer. LM Aero provided material requirements and designs. Both participated in the investigation of attachment methods and environmental effects on material performance, a feasibility study of piezoelectric TPV cells, an investigation and development of new approaches to implement the required material functionality, and analysis and validation of material performance physics, numerical models, and experimental metrology.

  5. Beijing Jinfeng Aerospace S T Developments Company | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Company Place: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100000 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: Producer of hydrogen storing metals and one of 13 manufacturers which have a...

  6. Superplastic Forming of Duplex Stainless Steel for Aerospace Part

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ho-Sung; Yoon, Jong-Hoon; Yoo, Joon-Tae; Yi, Young-Moo

    2011-08-22

    In this study, the high temperature forming behavior of duplex stainless steel has been characterized and the outer shell of a combustion chamber was fabricated with pressure difference of hot gas. It consists of two parts which are the outer skin made of stainless steel to sustain the internal pressure and the inner shell made of copper alloy for regenerative cooling channels. Two outer skins partitioned to half with respect to the symmetric axis was prepared by hot gas forming process with a maximum pressure of 7 MPa following to FEM analysis. For inner layer, copper alloy was machined for cooling channels and then placed in the gas pressure welding fixture. It is shown that the optimum condition of gas pressure welding is 7 MPa at 890 deg. C, for one hour. EDX analysis and scanning electron microscope micrograph confirm the atomic diffusion process is observed at the interface and copper atoms diffuse into steel, while iron and chrome atoms diffuse into copper. The result shows that the manufacturing method with superplastic forming and gas pressure welding of steel and copper alloy has been successful for near net shape manufacturing of scaled combustion chamber of launch vehicle.

  7. Case Study: Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Brackets (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ORNL Lockheed Martin, Aeronautics Company Publication Date: 2013-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1069333 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource ...

  8. An introduction to the practical and ethical perspectives on the need to advance and standardize the intracoelomic surgical implantation of electronic tags in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Eppard, M. B.; Murchie, Karen J.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    The intracoelomic surgical implantation of electronic tags (including radio and acoustic telemetry transmitters, passive integrated transponders and archival biologgers) is frequently used for conducting studies on fish. Electronic tagging studies provide information on the spatial ecology, behavior and survival of fish in marine and freshwater systems. However, any surgical procedure, particularly one where a laparotomy is performed and the coelomic cavity is opened, has the potential to alter the survival, behavior or condition of the animal which can impair welfare and introduce bias. Given that management, regulatory and conservation decisions are based on the assumption that fish implanted with electronic tags have similar fates and behavior relative to untagged conspecifics, it is critical to ensure that best surgical practices are being used. Also, the current lack of standardized surgical procedures and reporting of specific methodological details precludes cross-study and cross-year analyses which would further progress the field of fisheries science. This compilation of papers seeks to identify the best practices for the entire intracoelomic tagging procedure including pre- and post-operative care, anesthesia, wound closure, and use of antibiotics. Although there is a particular focus on salmonid smolts given the large body of literature available on that group, other life-stages and species of fish are discussed where there is sufficient knowledge. Additional papers explore the role of the veterinarian in fish surgeries, the need for minimal standards in the training of fish surgeons, providing a call for more complete and transparent procedures, and identifying trends in procedures and research needs. Collectively, this body of knowledge should help to improve data quality (including comparability and repeatability), enhance management and conservation strategies, and maintain the welfare status of tagged fish.

  9. SU-E-J-215: Towards MR-Only Image Guided Identification of Calcifications and Brachytherapy Seeds: Application to Prostate and Breast LDR Implant Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Elzibak, A; Fatemi-Ardekani, A; Soliman, A; Mashouf, S; Safigholi, H; Ravi, A; Morton, G; Song, WY; Han, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To identify and analyze the appearance of calcifications and brachytherapy seeds on magnitude and phase MRI images and to investigate whether they can be distinguished from each other on corrected phase images for application to prostate and breast low dose rate (LDR) implant dosimetry. Methods: An agar-based gel phantom containing two LDR brachytherapy seeds (Advantage Pd-103, IsoAid, 0.8mm diameter, 4.5mm length) and two spherical calcifications (large: 7mm diameter and small: 4mm diameter) was constructed and imaged on a 3T Philips MR scanner using a 16-channel head coil and a susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) sequence (2mm slices, 320mm FOV, TR/ TE= 26.5/5.3ms, 15 degree flip angle). The phase images were unwrapped and corrected using a 32×32, 2D Hanning high pass filter to remove background phase noise. Appearance of the seeds and calcifications was assessed visually and quantitatively using Osirix (http://www.osirix-viewer.com/). Results: As expected, calcifications and brachytherapy seeds appeared dark (hypointense) relative to the surrounding gel on the magnitude MRI images. The diameter of each seed without the surrounding artifact was measured to be 0.1 cm on the magnitude image, while diameters of 0.79 and 0.37 cm were measured for the larger and smaller calcifications, respectively. On the corrected phase images, the brachytherapy seeds and the calcifications appeared bright (hyperintense). The diameter of the seeds was larger on the phase images (0.17 cm) likely due to the dipole effect. Conclusion: MRI has the best soft tissue contrast for accurate organ delineation leading to most accurate implant dosimetry. This work demonstrated that phase images can potentially be useful in identifying brachytherapy seeds and calcifications in the prostate and breast due to their bright appearance, which helps in their visualization and quantification for accurate dosimetry using MR-only. Future work includes optimizing phase filters to best identify

  10. A permanent breast seed implant as partial breast radiation therapy for early-stage patients: A comparison of palladium-103 and iodine-125 isotopes based on radiation safety considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Brian; Sankreacha, Raxa; Rakovitch, Eileen; O'Brien, Peter; Pignol, Jean-Philippe . E-mail: Jean-Philippe.Pignol@sw.ca

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: A permanent breast seed implant (PBSI) technique has been developed as a new form of partial adjuvant radiation therapy for early-stage breast cancer. This study compares iodine-125 ({sup 125}I) and palladium-103 ({sup 103}Pd) isotopes by examining the exposure and effective dose (ED) to a patient's partner.Methods and Materials: A low-energy survey meter was used to measure exposure rates as a function of bolus thickness placed over {sup 103}Pd or {sup 125}I seeds. A general mathematical expression for the initial exposure rate at 1 m (x{sub o,1m}) from the skin surface as a function of the implant size, R, and the distance between the skin surface and the implant, d, was derived. Also, a second general equation is proposed to calculate the ED to the patient's partner.Results: The initial exposure rate at 1 meter and the ED are calculated as follows: x{sub o,1m} = (3{alpha})/2R{sup 3}{center_dot}{beta}{sup 3} [e{sup -{beta}}{sup (2R+d)}({beta}R + 1) + e{sup -{beta}}{sup {center_dot}}{sup d}({beta}R - 1)], and ED = aR{sup b} {center_dot} [e{sup -c(2R+d)} {center_dot} (cR + 1) + e{sup -cd} -bar (cR - 1)]. For {sup 125}I, the parameters are: {alpha} = 0.154409, {beta} = 0.388460, a = 197, b = -0.95, and c = 0.38846. For {sup 103}Pd, they are: {alpha} = 0.06877, {beta} = 0.421098, a = 18.6, b -0.78, and c = 0.421098. For implant diameters varying from 2 to 6 cm and skin-to-implant distances varying from 0.7 to 4 cm, the ED is consistently below 2.6 mSv using the {sup 103}Pd isotope, but more than 5 mSv in many instances and possibly up to 20 mSv using {sup 125}I.Conclusions: PBSI using {sup 103}Pd seeds appears safe because the patient's partner ED is consistently below 5 mSv. The{sup 125}I isotope is not recommended for PBSI.

  11. Discrimination and quantification of contamination and implanted solar wind in Genesis collector shards using grazing incidence synchrotron x-ray techniqies: Initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Kitts, K.; Sutton, S.; Eng, P.; Ghose, S.; Burnett, D.

    2006-12-13

    Grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence is a non-destructive technique that can differentiate the embedded solar wind component from surface contamination and collector background in the Genesis shards. Initial solar Fe abundance in D30554 is 8 x 10{sup 12}/cm{sup 2}. Accurate knowledge of the composition of the Sun provides a baseline, which allows an understanding of how the solar system has evolved over time and how solar processes and solar wind mechanics behave. Unfortunately, the errors in photospheric abundances are too large for many planetary science problems and this hampers our understanding of these different processes. Analyses of solar wind implanted in meteorites or lunar soils have provided more precise data but alteration processes on these bodies may complicate such information. In response to this need for pristine solar wind samples, NASA developed and launched the Genesis Probe. Unfortunately, the probe smashed into the Utah desert shattering the 300 collector plates into 15,000+ pieces all of which are now coated in a both a fine terrestrial dust and Si and Ge powder from the disrupted collectors themselves. The solar wind penetration depth is 100-200 nm and the superposed contamination layers are typically 40-50 nm. Stringent cleaning regimes have the potential of removing the solar wind itself. The best solution is to have sufficient spatial resolution to separately analyze the surface contamination and penetrated solar wind. To that end, three Genesis collector array shards and their appropriate flight spares were characterized via grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence and x-ray reflectivity. The goals were (1) to evaluate the various cleaning methods used to eliminate contamination, (2) to identify the collector substrates most suited for this technique, (3) to determine whether the solar wind signature could be deconvolved from the collector background signature, and (4) to measure the relative abundances of Ca to Ge in the embedded solar

  12. SU-E-T-145: Effects of Temporary Tachytherapy Inhibition Magnet On MOSFET Dose Measurements of Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices (CIED) in Radiation Therapy Patients

    SciTech Connect

    P, Joshi; Salomons, G; Kerr, A; Peters, C; Lalonde, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the effects of temporary tachytherapy inhibition magnet on MOSFET dose measurements of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIED) in radiation therapy patients. Methods: Infield and peripheral MOSFET dose measurements with 6MV photon beams were performed to evaluate dose to a CIED in the presence of a doughnut shaped temporary tachytherapy inhibition magnet. Infield measurements were done to quantify the effects of the magnetic field alone and shielding by the magnet. MOSFETs were placed inside a 2020cm{sup 2} field at a depth of 3cm in the isocentre plane in the presence and absence of the magnet. Peripheral dose measurements were done to determine the impact of the magnet on dose to the CIED in a clinical setting. These measurements were performed at the centre, under the rim and half way between a 1010cm{sup 2} field edge and the magnet with MOSFETS placed at the surface, 0.5cm and 1cm depths in the presence and absence of the magnet. Results: Infield measurements showed that effects of magnetic field on the MOSFET readings were within the 2% MOSFET dose measurement uncertainty; a 20% attenuation of dose under the magnet rim was observed. Peripheral dose measurements at the centre of the magnet show an 8% increase in surface dose and a 6% decrease in dose at 1cm depth. Dose under the magnet rim was reduced by approximately 68%, 45% and 25% for MOSFET placed at 0.0, 0.5 and 1.0cm bolus depths, respectively. Conclusions: The magnetic field has an insignificant effect on MOSFET dose measurements. Dose to the central region of CIED represented by centre of the magnet doughnut increases at the surface, and decreases at depths due to low energy scattering contributions from the magnet. Dose under the magnet rim, representing CIED edges, decreased significantly due to shielding.

  13. Oxygen-Atom Defects In 6H Silicon Carbide Implanted Using 24- MeV O{sup 3+} Ions Measured Using Three-Dimensional Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy System (3DPASS)

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Christopher S.; Petrosky, James C.; Burggraf, Larry W.

    2011-06-01

    Three dimensional electron-positron (e{sup -}-e{sup +}) momentum distributions were measured for single crystal 6H silicon carbide (SiC); both virgin and having implanted oxygen-atom defects. 6H SiC samples were irradiated by 24- MeV O{sup 3+} ions at 20 particle-nanoamps at the Sandia National Laboratory's Ion Beam Facility. O{sup 3+} ions were implanted 10.8 {mu}m deep normal to the (0001) face of one side of the SiC samples. During positron annihilation measurements, the opposite face of the 254.0-{mu}m thick SiC samples was exposed to positrons from a {sup 22}Na source. This technique reduced the influence on the momentum measurements of vacancy-type defects resulting from knock-on damage by the O{sup 3+} ions. A three-dimensional positron annihilation spectroscopy system (3DPASS) was used to measure e{sup -}-e{sup +} momentum distributions for virgin and irradiated 6H SiC crystal both before and following annealing. 3DPASS simultaneously measures coincident Doppler-broadening (DBAR) and angular correlation of annihilation radiation (ACAR) spectra. DBAR ratio plots and 2D ACAR spectra are presented. Changes in the momentum anisotropies relative to crystal orientation observed in 2D ACAR spectra for annealed O-implanted SiC agree with the local structure of defect distortion predicted using Surface Integrated Molecular Orbital/Molecular Mechanics (SIMOMM). Oxygen atoms insert between Si and C atoms increasing their separation by 0.9 A forming a Si-O-C bond angle of {approx}150 deg.

  14. A comparison of single-suture and double-suture incision closures in seaward-migrating juvenile Chinook salmon implanted with acoustic transmitters: implications for research in river basins containing hydropower structures

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Deters, Katherine A.; Cook, Katrina V.; Eppard, M. B.

    2013-07-15

    Reductions in the size of acoustic transmitters implanted in migrating juvenile salmonids have resulted in the ability to make shorter incisions that may warrant using only a single suture for closure. However, it is not known if one suture will sufficiently hold the incision closed, particularly when outward pressure is placed on the surgical site such as when migrating fish experience pressure changes associated with passage at hydroelectric dams. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of single-suture incision closures on juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Juvenile Chinook salmon were surgically implanted with a 2012 Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) transmitter (0.30 g) and a passive integrated transponder tag (0.10 g) and incisions were closed with either one suture or two sutures. Mortality and tag retention were monitored and fish were examined after 7 and 14 days to evaluate tissue responses. In a separate experiment, surgically implanted fish were exposed to simulated turbine passage and then examined for expulsion of transmitters, expulsion of viscera through the incision, and mortal injury. With incisions closed using a single suture, there was no mortality or tag loss and similar or reduced tissue reaction compared to incisions closed with two sutures. Further, surgery time was significantly reduced when one suture was used, which leads to less handling and reduced stress. No tags were expelled during pressure scenarios and expulsion of viscera only occurred in two non-mortally injured fish (5%) with single sutures that were also exposed to very high pressure changes. No viscera expulsion was present in fish exposed to pressure scenarios likely representative of hydroturbine passage at many Columbia River dams (e.g. <2.7 ratio of pressure change; an acclimation pressure of 146.2 absolute kpa and a lowest exposure pressure of ~ 53.3 absolute kpa). Based on these results, we recommend the use of a

  15. Two-sided friction stir riveting by extrusion: A process for joining dissimilar materials

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Evans, William T.; Cox, Chase D.; Strauss, Alvin M.; Cook, George E.; Gibson, Brian T.

    2016-06-25

    Two-sided friction stir riveting (FSR) by extrusion is an innovative process developed to rapidly, efficiently, and securely join dissimilar materials. This process extends a previously developed one sided friction stir extrusion process to create a strong and robust joint by producing a continuous, rivet-like structure through a preformed hole in one of the materials with a simultaneous, two-sided friction stir spot weld. The two-sided FSR by extrusion process securely joins the dissimilar materials together and effectively locks them in place without the use of any separate materials or fasteners. Lastly, in this paper we demonstrate the process by joining aluminummore » to steel and illustrate its potential application to automotive and aerospace manufacturing processes.« less

  16. Headquarters Facilities Work Planning and Control Program

    Energy Saver

    Headmark List of Suspect Counterfeit Fasteners 1992 Headmark List of Suspect Counterfeit Fasteners 1992 October 26, 2010 Headmark List of Suspect Counterfeit Fasteners 1992. A resource aid for identifying legacy fasteners. Headmark List of Suspect Counterfeit Fasteners 1992 (283.79 KB) More Documents & Publications Suspect/Counterfeit Items Awareness Training Manual DOE-HDBK-1221-2016 National Historic Preservation Act Documents - Portsmouth

    Headquarters Awards Headquarters Awards

  17. Implementation of Title V requirements at an aerospace manufacturing and rework facility

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, W.T.; Ayers, M.F.; Reed, J.T.

    1998-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 forced many sources to apply for permits and be subject to both state and federal oversight through the operating permit programs implemented under Title V. In order to comply with new permit provisions, many sources were forced to develop and implement complex programs that would both ensure compliance and allow maximum operating flexibility. Although no material tracking or reporting system existed before the Learjet facility became subject to Title V, careful planning and use of the proper tools and procedures allowed the implementation of a facility-wide data management and compliance reporting system that is not process dependent, allows maximum operating flexibility, and adds relatively few inconveniences to operations personnel. Also, as new requirements become effective in the coming years, the flexibility of the system allows it to be easily modified by facility personnel.

  18. THE A.EROSPACE CORPORATION Suite 4000, 955 L'Enfk Plaza, S. W...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... capital cost of money. (CAS-414) Article 13. NEGOTIATED OVERHEAD RATES - PREDETERMINED a. ... seeking, as a legal right. the payment of money, adjustment or interpretation of contract ...

  19. Solar energy conversion: Technological forecasting. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning current forecasting of Earth surface-bound solar energy conversion technology. Topics consider research, development and utilization of this technology in relation to electric power generation, heat pumps, bioconversion, process heat and the production of renewable gaseous, liquid, and solid fuels for industrial, commercial, and domestic applications. Some citations concern forecasts which compare solar technology with other energy technologies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Solar energy conversion: Technological forecasting. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning current forecasting of Earth surface-bound solar energy conversion technology. Topics consider research, development and utilization of this technology in relation to electric power generation, heat pumps, bioconversion, process heat and the production of renewable gaseous, liquid, and solid fuels for industrial, commercial, and domestic applications. Some citations concern forecasts which compare solar technology with other energy technologies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Monitoring of bolted joints using piezoelectric active-sensing for aerospace applications

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Gyuhae; Farrar, Charles R; Park, Chan - Yik; Jun, Seung - Moon

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a report of an initial investigation into tracking and monitoring the integrity of bolted joints using piezoelectric active-sensors. The target application of this study is a fitting lug assembly of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), where a composite wing is mounted to a UAV fuselage. The SHM methods deployed in this study are impedance-based SHM techniques, time-series analysis, and high-frequency response functions measured by piezoelectric active-sensors. Different types of simulated damage are introduced into the structure, and the capability of each technique is examined and compared. Additional considerations encountered in this initial investigation are made to guide further thorough research required for the successful field deployment of this technology.

  2. Hydrogen storage as a hydride. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the storage of hydrogen in various metal hydrides. Binary and intermetallic hydrides are considered. Specific alloys discussed are iron-titanium, lanthanum-nickel, magnesium-copper, and magnesium-nickel among others. (Contains a minimum of 220 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Improved medical implants comes from nanostructuring

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    However, cobalt-chromium superalloys, stainless steels, and titanium alloys-the most commonly used materials in today's orthopedic devices- have the potential to present serious ...

  4. Dosimetry of an Implantable 252 Californium Source

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, G.D. Jr.

    2001-08-29

    The radiation dose from 252 Californium needles designed for use as a source of neutrons for radiotherapy has been measured. The dosimetry information presented in this paper will enable clinical studies of neutron radiotherapy with 252 Californium needles to be planned and begun.

  5. 120-Channel, Chronically Implantable, Wireless, Polymer Neural...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  6. Charge neutralization apparatus for ion implantation system

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Kunkel, Wulf B.; Williams, Malcom D.; McKenna, Charles M.

    1992-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for neutralization of a workpiece such as a semiconductor wafer in a system wherein a beam of positive ions is applied to the workpiece. The apparatus includes an electron source for generating an electron beam and a magnetic assembly for generating a magnetic field for guiding the electron beam to the workpiece. The electron beam path preferably includes a first section between the electron source and the ion beam and a second section which is coincident with the ion beam. The magnetic assembly generates an axial component of magnetic field along the electron beam path. The magnetic assembly also generates a transverse component of the magnetic field in an elbow region between the first and second sections of the electron beam path. The electron source preferably includes a large area lanthanum hexaboride cathode and an extraction grid positioned in close proximity to the cathode. The apparatus provides a high current, low energy electron beam for neutralizing charge buildup on the workpiece.

  7. Multi-part mask for implanting workpieces

    DOEpatents

    Webb, Aaron P.; Carlson, Charles T.

    2016-05-10

    A multi-part mask has a pattern plate, which includes a planar portion that has the desired aperture pattern to be used during workpiece processing. The multi-part mask also has a mounting frame, which is used to hold the pattern plate. Prior to assembly, the pattern plate has an aligning portion, which has one or more holes through which reusable alignment pins are inserted. These alignment pins enter kinematic joints disposed on the mounting frame, which serve to precisely align the pattern plate to the mounting frame. After the pattern plate has been secured to the mounting frame, the aligning portion can be detached from the pattern plate. The alignment pins can be reused at a later time. In some embodiments, the pattern plate can later be removed from the mounting frame, so that the mounting frame may be reused.

  8. 120-Channel, Chronically Implantable, Wireless, Polymer Neural...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: Neuroscience 2012, New Orleans, LA, United States, Oct 13 - Oct 17, 2012 ...

  9. Biomedical device potential for robust, implantable product

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Light-emitting nanocrystal diodes go ultraViolet Light-emitting nanocrystal diodes go ultraviolet A team of scientists has developed a process for creating glass-based, inorganic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) that produce light in the ultraviolet range. February 24, 2012 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to

  10. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    A hybrid ceramic/metallic fastener (bolt) includes a headed ceramic shank carrying a metallic end termination fitting. A conventional cap screw threadably engages the termination fitting to apply tensile force to the fastener.

  11. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    A hybrid ceramic/metallic fastener (bolt) includes a headed ceramic shank carrying a metallic end termination fitting. A conventional cap screw threadably engages the termination fitting to apply tensile force to the fastener.

  12. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT SUMMARY...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; BUCKLING; CAPACITY; CONCRETES; CORROSION; CREEP; DENSITY; DESIGN; FASTENERS; REINFORCED CONCRETE; SEISMIC EVENTS; SENSITIVITY; SOILS; STORAGE ...

  13. http://www.ornl.gov/Procurement.PDF

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    8/93 1. All Grade 5 and Grade 8 fasteners of foreign origin which do not bear any manufacturer's headmarks: Grade 5 Grade 8 2. Grade 5 fasteners with the following manufacturers' headmarks: J Jinn Her (TW) KS Kosaka Kogyo (JP) J KS 3. Grade 8 fasteners with the following manufacturers' headmarks: A Asahi Mfg (JP) KS Kosaka Kogyo (JP) A KS NF RT NF Nippon Fasteners (JP) RT Takai Ltd (JP) H Hinomoto Metal (JP) FM Fastener Co (of JP) H FM J M MS KY M Minamida Sieybo (JP) KY Kyoei (JP) MS Minato

  14. Transient loads identification for a standoff metallic thermal protection system panel.

    SciTech Connect

    Hundhausen, R. J.; Adams, Douglas E.; Derriso, Mark; Kukuchek, Paul; Alloway, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Standoff thermal protection system (TPS) panels are critical structural components in future aerospace vehicles because they protect the vehicle from the hostile environment encountered during space launch and reentry. Consequently, the panels are exposed to a variety of loads including high temperature thermal stresses, thermal shock, acoustic pressure, and foreign object impacts. Transient impacts are especially detrimental because they can cause immediate and severe degradation of the panel in the form of, for example, debonding and buckling of the face sheet, cracking of the fasteners, or deformation of the standoffs. Loads identification methods for determining the magnitude and location of impact loads provide an indication of TPS components that may be more susceptible to failure. Furthermore, a historical database of impact loads encountered can be retained for use in the development of statistical models that relate impact loading to panel life. In this work, simulated inservice transient loads are identified experimentally using two methods: a physics-based approach and an inverse Frequency Response Function (FRF) approach. It is shown that by applying the inverse FRF method, the location and magnitude of these simulated impacts can be identified with a high degree of accuracy. The identified force levels vary significantly with impact location due to the differences in panel deformation at the impact site indicating that resultant damage due to impacts would vary with location as well.

  15. Environmental effects on composite airframes: A study conducted for the ARM UAV Program (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle)

    SciTech Connect

    Noguchi, R.A.

    1994-06-01

    Composite materials are affected by environments differently than conventional airframe structural materials are. This study identifies the environmental conditions which the composite-airframe ARM UAV may encounter, and discusses the potential degradation processes composite materials may undergo when subjected to those environments. This information is intended to be useful in a follow-on program to develop equipment and procedures to prevent, detect, or otherwise mitigate significant degradation with the ultimate goal of preventing catastrophic aircraft failure.

  16. Preliminary reentry safety assessment of the General Purpose Heat Source module for the Cassini mission: Aerospace Nuclear Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, D.W.; Brenza, P.T.

    1993-04-01

    As asked by the U. S. Department of Energy/Office of Special Applications, and in support of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Cassini mission, The Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) has conducted preliminary one-dimensional ablation and thermal analyses of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS). The predicted earth entry conditions provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for a Cassini Venus-Venus-Earth-Jupiter Gravity Assist (VVEJGA) trajectory were used as initial conditions. The results of this study which constitute the initial reentry analysis assessment leading to the Cassini Updated Safety, Analysis Report (USAR) are discussed in this document.

  17. 1

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Measurement Program Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle Applications to ... Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle program currently ...

  18. Flow rate--pressure drop relation for deformable shallow microfluidic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Normale Superieure de Cachan Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan; Stone, Howard A Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering,...

  19. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Normale Superieure de Cachan Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan; Stone, Howard A Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering,...

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: Working with Sandia: Just in Time...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    CABLE ELECTRICAL WIRE CABLE CONDUIT GROUNDING TELE COMMSPEC BOXES FASTENERS NUTS BOLTS SCREWS KEENSERTS QUICK RELEASE PINS FILTERS HEPA FILTERS & SUPPORT...

  1. Treasury, Energy Surpass $1 Billion Milestone in Recovery Act...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... Also participating were several renewables manufacturers who supply these developers, including Cardinal Fastener, GE Energy, Gamesa, Solyndra, and Vestas Americas. At a site in ...

  2. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... liquid wastes (4) safety analysis (4) seismic effects (4) buckling (3) fasteners (3) ... aging (2) concretes (2) corrections (2) design (2) engineering (2) height (2) Filter by ...

  3. AMD 405: Improved Automotive Suspension Components Cast with...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    More Documents & Publications Development of Steel Fastener Nano-Ceramic Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Magnesium Parts (AMD-704) 2011 Annual Progress Report for ...

  4. CD

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Square Footage, and Number of Workers in the Building.) Metal Panel: A wall construction panel made of aluminum or galvanized steel fabricated in factories and fastened to the...

  5. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Rigid Insulation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... Double Bending Linear (10 Cantilever) Linear (10 Double Bending) Cladding Attachment ... Compression Strut Function of fastener tension and insulation compression Measured ...

  6. Savings Project: Insulate and Air Seal Floors Over Unconditioned...

    Energy Saver

    Blanket insulation Wire fasteners Tape measure Sharp utility knife Caulk and foam sealant Caulk gun Stepladder Straightedge Respirator or dust mask Eye protection Protective ...

  7. Photothermal Superheating of Water with Ion-Implanted Silicon Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Roder, Paden B.; Manandhar, Sandeep; Smith, Bennett E.; Zhou, Xuezhe; Shutthanandan, V.; Pauzauskie, Peter J.

    2015-07-21

    Nanoparticle-mediated photothermal (PT) cancer therapy has been a major focus in nanomedicine due to its potential as an effective, non-invasive, and targeted alternative to traditional cancer therapy based on small-molecule pharmaceuticals[1,2]. Gold nanocrystals have been a primary focus of PT research[3], which can be attributed to their size tunability[4], well understood conjugation chemistry[5], and efficient absorption of NIR radiation in the tissue transparency window (800 nm – 1 μm) due to their size-dependent localized surface plasmon resonances[6].

  8. Ion implantation for manufacturing bent and periodically bent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Galilei, University of Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy) Dipertimento di Economia e Tecnologia, Universit degli Studi della Repubblica di San Marino, Salita alla ...

  9. Ion Implanted Passivated Contacts for Interdigitated Back Contacted...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research Org: NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)) Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Solar ...

  10. Impact of implanted phosphorus on the diffusivity of boron and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... OSTI Identifier: 22494672 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 118; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: (c) ...

  11. TEM observations of hydrogen nanobubbles in implanted amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.M.; Al-Jassim, M.M.; Williamson, D.L.; Acco, S.

    1996-12-31

    Over the last two decades extensive studies on the optical and electrical properties of hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si:H) have been reported. However, less attention was given to the structural characterization of this material partly due to the insensitivity to hydrogen of structural probes such as x-rays and electron diffraction. From a recent set of experiments, results on the solubility limit of hydrogen in a special type of a-Si:H and the characterization of hydrogen induced complexes or nanobubbles has been reported. In this study, we report TEM observations of the structural morphology of hydrogen related defects that support these recent measurements obtained by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS).

  12. Triangulating the Position of Antimony Donors Implanted in Silicon

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    silicon device with donors * What is an offset? * Using experimental data to estimate ... through dot H| observed Transport through dot is blockaded LAG (V) What is an offset? ...

  13. From plasma immersion ion implantation to deposition: A historical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Anders, Andre Publication Date: 2001-06-14 OSTI Identifier: 783495 Report Number(s): LBNL--47591 R&D Project: Z2C084; TRN: US200310%%130 DOE Contract Number: ...

  14. Dynamical implantation of objects in the Kuiper Belt

    SciTech Connect

    Brasil, P. I. O.

    2014-09-01

    Several models have been suggested in the past to describe the dynamical formation of hot Kuiper Belt objects (hereafter Hot Classicals or HCs for short). Here, we discuss a dynamical mechanism that allows orbits to evolve from the primordial planetesimal disk at ≲ 35 AU to reach the orbital region now occupied by HCs. We performed three different sets of numerical simulations to illustrate this mechanism. Two of these simulations were based on modern theories for the early evolution of the solar system (the Nice and jumping-Jupiter models). The third simulation was performed with the purpose of increasing the resolution at 41-46 AU. The common aspect of these simulations is that Neptune scatters planetesimals from ≲ 35 AU to >40 AU and then undergoes a long phase of slow residual migration. Our results show that to reach an HC orbit, a scattered planetesimal needs to be captured in a mean motion resonance (MMR) with Neptune where the perihelion distance rises due to the Kozai resonance (which occurs in MMRs even for moderate inclinations). Finally, while Neptune is still migrating, the planetesimal is released from the MMR on a stable HC orbit. We show that the orbital distribution of HCs expected from this process provides a reasonable match to observations. The capture efficiency and the mass deposited into the HC region appears to be sensitive to the maximum eccentricity reached by Neptune during the planetary instability phase. Additional work will be needed to resolve this dependency in detail.

  15. University of Maryland 2016 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Maryland 2016 University of Maryland 2016 Team roster: Andrew Dallas, Aerospace Engineering; Mario Mondal, Aerospace Engineering; Atif Salahudeen, Aerospace Engineering; Matt Shumate, Aerospace Engineering; Emily Love, Mechanical Engineering; Austin Jacobson, Mechanical Engineering; Natalie Tham, Aerospace Engineering; Angelina Bingei, Finance and Marketing; Shriya Gupta, Finance and Information Systems; Jessica Ting, Marketing and Information Systems; Njeri Warrington, Marketing and Supply

  16. Final Report: Global Change Research with Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles UAV Applications for Studying the Radiation and Optical Properties of Upper Tropospheric Clouds, February 1, 1995 - March 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    1998-01-31

    This paper describes the design and characteristics of a scanning spectral polarimeter which is capable of measuring spectral radiances and fluxes in the range between 0.4 rm to 4.0 pm. The instrument characteristics are described and a discussion of the procedures to calibrate the unpolarized radiances and fluxes are prescribed along the detailed error analyses of this calibration.

  17. ARM-00-006 Site Scientific Mission

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... NOTATION (Cont.) TWP Tropical Western Pacific UAV Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (Program) ... Experiment II) follow-on activity of the UAV (Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle) Program ...

  18. The Future of Information Storage. (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Conference: IEEE Aerospace Conference held March 2-9, 2013 in Big Sky, MT.; Related Information: Proposed for presentation at the IEEE Aerospace Conference held ...

  19. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    aerospace OR nasa OR "european space agency" OR "spacecraft" Creator Author: Name Name ... Search for: All records Bibliographic Data contains: aerospace OR nasa OR "european space ...

  20. Orise

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ...AerospaceChemical Engineer - Experimental Study of Detonation Combustion in Natural Gas and Coal-Derived Syngas Faculty - MechanicalAerospaceChemical Engineer - ...

  1. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan Stone Howard A Mechanical Aerospace Engineering Princeton University Mechanical Aerospace Engineering...

  2. Toxicity of materials used in the manufacture of lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1994-05-01

    The growing interest in battery systems has led to major advances in high-energy and/or high-power-density lithium batteries. Potential applications for lithium batteries include radio transceivers, portable electronic instrumentation, emergency locator transmitters, night vision devices, human implantable devices, as well as uses in the aerospace and defense programs. With this new technology comes the use of new solvent and electrolyte systems in the research, development, and production of lithium batteries. The goal is to enhance lithium battery technology with the use of non-hazardous materials. Therefore, the toxicity and health hazards associated with exposure to the solvents and electrolytes used in current lithium battery research and development is evaluated and described.

  3. Porosity of additive manufacturing parts for process monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Slotwinski, J. A.; Garboczi, E. J.

    2014-02-18

    Some metal additive manufacturing processes can produce parts with internal porosity, either intentionally (with careful selection of the process parameters) or unintentionally (if the process is not well-controlled.) Material porosity is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants, since surface-breaking pores allow for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part's porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the process. We are developing an ultrasonic sensor for detecting changes in porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system, for use as a process monitor. This paper will describe our work to develop an ultrasonic-based sensor for monitoring part porosity during an additive build, including background theory, the development and detailed characterization of reference additive porosity samples, and a potential design for in-situ implementation.

  4. Tamper indicating bolt

    DOEpatents

    Blagin, Sergei V.; Barkanov, Boris P.

    2004-09-14

    A tamper-indicating fastener has a cylindrical body with threads extending from one end along a portion of the body, and a tamper indicating having a transducer for converting physical properties of the body into electronic data; electronics for recording the electronic data; and means for communicating the recorded information to a remote location from said fastener. The electronics includes a capacitor that varies as a function of force applied by the fastener, and non-volatile memory for recording instances when the capacitance varies, providing an indication of unauthorized access.

  5. Quick-sealing design for radiological containment

    DOEpatents

    Rampolia, Donald S.; Speer, Elmer

    1990-01-01

    A quick-sealing assembly and method for forming an adhesive seal on opposite sides of a mechanical seal for a flexible containment bag of the type used for working with radioactively contaminated objects. The assembly includes an elongated mechanical fastener having opposing engaging members affixed at a predetermined distance from each of the elongated edges, with an adhesive layer formed between the mechanical fastener and the elongated edge such that upon engagement of the mechanical fastener and adhesive layers to opposing containment fabric, a neat triple hermetic seal is formed.

  6. Quick-sealing design for radiological containment

    DOEpatents

    Rampolla, Donald S.; Speer, Elmer

    1991-01-01

    A quick-sealing assembly and method for forming an adhesive seal on opposite sides of a mechanical seal for a flexible containment bag of the type used for working with radioactively contaminated objects. The assembly includes an elongated mechanical fastener having opposing engaging members affixed at a predetermined distance from each of the elongated edges, with an adhesive layer formed between the mechanical fastener and the elongated edge such that upon engagement of the mechanical fastener and adhesive layers to opposing containment fabric, a neat triple hermetic seal is formed.

  7. Measurement of Real-World Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles: The State-of-the-Art

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    2003 DEER Conference Presentation: West Virginia University - Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

  8. Project Profile: Development and Productization of High-Efficiency, Low-Cost Building-Integrated PV Shingles Using Monocrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solexel-OC team is developing a BIPV roofing shingle product that includes low-profile solar modules and a unique attachment system that will be fastened directly to the roof and incorporates...

  9. Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The apparatus include two plates and some means of fastening one plate to the other. The apparatus may be interfaced with a fiber optic or microscope objective, and a spectrometer ...

  10. Splineless coupling means

    DOEpatents

    Heitmann, Arnold M.; Lord, Jr., Richard E.

    1982-01-01

    In the first embodiment, the invention comprises an imperforate turbine wheel having a hub of polygonal cross-section engageable with a hollow shaft of polygonal conformation, and a thrust collar and bolt for fastening the shaft and wheel together.

  11. Commercial Grade Dedication Survey and Training

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Elongation Reduction of Area Hardness 7-4 Example: FASTENERS (cont) Acceptance Methods: Dimensional testing in accordance with ASME B18.18.2M is performed Chemical analysis and...

  12. #LabChat: What is Dark Energy? Oct 25 at 2pm ET | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... Greg Nielson holds a solar cell test prototype with a microscale lens array fastened to it. Together, the cell and lens help create a concentrated photovoltaic unit that when ...

  13. #LabChat: Particle Accelerators, Lasers and Discovery Science...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... Greg Nielson holds a solar cell test prototype with a microscale lens array fastened to it. Together, the cell and lens help create a concentrated photovoltaic unit that when ...

  14. Ion implantation method for preparing polymers having oxygen erosion resistant surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Lee, E.H.; Mansur, L.K.; Heatherly, L. Jr.

    1995-04-18

    Hard surfaced polymers and the method for making them are generally described. Polymers are subjected to simultaneous multiple ion beam bombardment, that results in a hardening of the surface, improved wear resistance, and improved oxygen erosion resistance. 8 figs.

  15. Ion implantation method for preparing polymers having oxygen erosion resistant surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Eal H.; Mansur, Louis K.; Heatherly, Jr., Lee

    1995-01-01

    Hard surfaced polymers and the method for making them are generally described. Polymers are subjected to simultaneous multiple ion beam bombardment, that results in a hardening of the surface, improved wear resistance, and improved oxygen erosion resistance.

  16. Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Xe-Implanted Uranium Dioxide Thick Films using Multilayer Laser Flash Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Andrew T.

    2012-08-30

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program's Advanced Fuels campaign is currently pursuing use of ion beam assisted deposition to produce uranium dioxide thick films containing xenon in various morphologies. To date, this technique has provided materials of interest for validation of predictive fuel performance codes and to provide insight into the behavior of xenon and other fission gasses under extreme conditions. In addition to the structural data provided by such thick films, it may be possible to couple these materials with multilayer laser flash analysis in order to measure the impact of xenon on thermal transport in uranium dioxide. A number of substrate materials (single crystal silicon carbide, molybdenum, and quartz) containing uranium dioxide films ranging from one to eight microns in thickness were evaluated using multilayer laser flash analysis in order to provide recommendations on the most promising substrates and geometries for further investigation. In general, the uranium dioxide films grown to date using ion beam assisted deposition were all found too thin for accurate measurement. Of the substrates tested, molybdenum performed the best and looks to be the best candidate for further development. Results obtained within this study suggest that the technique does possess the necessary resolution for measurement of uranium dioxide thick films, provided the films are grown in excess of fifty microns. This requirement is congruent with the material needs when viewed from a fundamental standpoint, as this length scale of material is required to adequately sample grain boundaries and possible second phases present in ceramic nuclear fuel.

  17. Structure-Assisted Functional Anchor Implantation in Robust Metal-Organic Frameworks with Ultra large Pores

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J; Feng, DW; Zhou, HC

    2015-02-04

    A facile functionalization assisted by the structural attributes of PCN-333 has been studied while maintaining the integrity of the parent MOF including ultralarge pores, chemical robustness, and crystallinity. Herein we thoroughly analyzed ligand exchange phenomena in PCN-333 and demonstrate that the extent of exchange can be tailored by varying the exchange conditions as potential applications may require. Through this method a variety of functional groups are incorporated into PCN-333. To further show the capabilities of this system introduction of a BODIPY fluorophore as a secondary functionality was performed to the functionalized framework via a click reaction. We anticipate the PCN-333 with functional anchor can serve as a stable platform for further chemistry to be explored in future applications

  18. Structure-Assisted Functional Anchor Implantation in Robust Metal–Organic Frameworks with Ultralarge Pores

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jihye; Feng, Dawei; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2015-02-04

    A facile functionalization assisted by the structural attributes of PCN-333 has been studied while maintaining the integrity of the parent MOF including ultralarge pores, chemical robustness, and crystallinity. Herein we thoroughly analyzed ligand exchange phenomena in PCN-333 and demonstrate that the extent of exchange can be tailored by varying the exchange conditions as potential applications may require. Through this method a variety of functional groups are incorporated into PCN-333. To further show the capabilities of this system introduction of a BODIPY fluorophore as a secondary functionality was performed to the functionalized framework via a click reaction. We anticipate the PCN-333 with functional anchor can serve as a stable platform for further chemistry to be explored in future applications.

  19. Suppressed gross erosion of high-temperature lithium via rapid deuterium implantation

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Abrams, T.; Jaworski, M. A.; Chen, M.; Carter, E. A.; Kaita, R.; Stotler, D. P.; De Temmerman, G.; Morgan, T. W.; van den Berg, M. A.; van der Meiden, H. J.

    2015-12-17

    Lithium-coated high-Z substrates are planned for use in the NSTX-U divertor and are a candidate plasma facing component (PFC) for reactors, but it remains necessary to characterize the gross Li erosion rate under high plasma fluxes (>1023 m-2 s-1), typical for the divertor region. In this work, a realistic model for the compositional evolution of a Li/D layer is developed that incorporates first principles molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of D diffusion in liquid Li. Predictions of Li erosion from a mixed Li/D material are also developed that include formation of lithium deuteride (LiD). The erosion rate of Li from LiDmore » is predicted to be significantly lower than from pure Li. This prediction is tested in the Magnum-PSI linear plasma device at ion fluxes of 1023-1024 m-2 s-1 and Li surface temperatures. ≤800 °C. Li/LiD coatings ranging in thickness from 0.2 to 500 μm are studied. The dynamic D/Li concentrations are inferred via diffusion simulations. The pure Li erosion rate remains greater than Langmuir Law evaporation, as expected. For mixed-material Li/LiD surfaces, the erosion rates are reduced, in good agreement with modelling in almost all cases. Lastly, these results imply that the temperature limit for a Li-coated PFC may be significantly higher than previously imagined.« less

  20. Single Ion Implant of Self-Aligned Poly-Silicon Nanostructures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Proposed for presentation at the International workshop on Silicon Quantum electronics held February 7-8, 2013 in Villard-de-Lans, France

  1. Single Ion Implant of Self-Aligned Poly-Silicon Nanostructures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    France.; Related Information: Proposed for presentation at the International workshop on Silicon Quantum electronics held February 7-8, 2013 in Villard-de-Lans, France. ...

  2. Short-range ordering of ion-implanted nitrogen atoms in SiC-graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Willke, P.; Druga, T.; Wenderoth, M.; Amani, J. A.; Weikert, S.; Hofsss, H.; Thakur, S.; Maiti, K.

    2014-09-15

    We perform a structural analysis of nitrogen-doped graphene on SiC(0001) prepared by ultra low-energy ion bombardment. Using scanning tunneling microscopy, we show that nitrogen atoms are incorporated almost exclusively as graphitic substitution in the graphene honeycomb lattice. With an irradiation energy of 25?eV and a fluence of approximately 5??10{sup 14?}cm{sup ?2}, we achieve a nitrogen content of around 1%. By quantitatively comparing the position of the N-atoms in the topography measurements with simulated random distributions, we find statistically significant short-range correlations. Consequently, we are able to show that the dopants arrange preferably at lattice sites given by the 6??6-reconstruction of the underlying substrate. This selective incorporation is most likely triggered by adsorbate layers present during the ion bombardment. This study identifies low-energy ion irradiation as a promising method for controlled doping in epitaxial graphene.

  3. Formation and incorporation of SiF{sub 4} molecules in F-implanted preamorphized Si

    SciTech Connect

    De Salvador, D.; Bisognin, G.; Napolitani, E.; Mastromatteo, M.; Baggio, N.; Carnera, A.; Boscherini, F.; Cristiano, F.

    2009-09-07

    The local structure of fluorine incorporated in crystalline silicon following solid phase epitaxial regrowth was investigated by means of x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the F K-edge. We clearly demonstrate that most F is found in SiF{sub 4} molecules in the crystalline matrix. A kinetic pathway, which explains our observation and which is also able to rationalize previous results in a common and coherent framework, is proposed.

  4. New phenotypic aspects of the decidual spiral artery wall during early post-implantation mouse pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Elia, Artemis; Charalambous, Fotini; Georgiades, Pantelis

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spiral artery (SA) wall remodeling (SAR) is ill-defined and clinically important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA muscular phenotype prior to and during SAR in mice is underexplored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA muscular wall consists of contractile and non-contractile components. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SA wall non-contractile component may be synthetic smooth muscle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Timing and extent of SA wall contractile component loss is revealed. -- Abstract: During pregnancy the walls of decidual spiral arteries (SAs) undergo clinically important structural modifications crucial for embryo survival/growth and maternal health. However, the mechanisms of SA remodeling (SAR) are poorly understood. Although an important prerequisite to this understanding is knowledge about the phenotype of SA muscular wall prior to and during the beginning of mouse SAR, this remains largely unexplored and was the main aim of this work. Using histological and immunohistochemical techniques, this study shows for the first time that during early mouse gestation, from embryonic day 7.5 (E7.5) to E10.5, the decidual SA muscular coat is not a homogeneous structure, but consists of two concentric layers. The first is a largely one cell-thick sub-endothelial layer of contractile mural cells (positive for {alpha}-smooth muscle actin, calponin and SM22{alpha}) with pericyte characteristics (NG2 positive). The second layer is thicker, and evidence is presented that it may be of the synthetic/proliferative smooth muscle phenotype, based on absence ({alpha}-smooth muscle actin and calponin) or weak (SM22{alpha}) expression of contractile mural cell markers, and presence of synthetic smooth muscle characteristics (expression of non-muscle Myosin heavy chain-IIA and of the cell proliferation marker PCNA). Importantly, immunohistochemistry and morphometrics showed that the contractile mural cell layer although prominent at E7.5-E8.5, becomes drastically reduced by E10.5 and is undetectable by E12.5. In conclusion, this study reveals novel aspects of the decidual SA muscular coat phenotype prior to and during early SAR that may have important implications for understanding the mechanisms of SAR.

  5. Improving Alpha Spectrometry Energy Resolution by Ion Implantation with ICP-MS

    SciTech Connect

    Dion, Michael P.; Liezers, Martin; Farmer, Orville T.; Miller, Brian W.; Morley, Shannon M.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Eiden, Gregory C.

    2015-01-01

    We report results of a novel technique using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) as a method of source preparation for alpha spectrometry. This method produced thin, contaminant free 241Am samples which yielded extraordinary energy resolution which appear to be at the lower limit of the detection technology used in this research.

  6. Comparison of CT and MR-CT Fusion for Prostate Post-Implant Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Maletz, Kristina L.; Ennis, Ronald D.; Ostenson, Jason; Pevsner, Alexander; Kagen, Alexander; Wernick, Iddo

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: The use of T2 MR for postimplant dosimetry (PID) after prostate brachytherapy allows more anatomically accurate and precise contouring but does not readily permit seed identification. We developed a reproducible technique for performing MR-CT fusion and compared the resulting dosimetry to standard CT-based PID. Methods and Materials: CT and T1-weighted MR images for 45 patients were fused and aligned based on seed distribution. The T2-weighted MR image was then fused to the aligned T1. Reproducibility of the fusion technique was tested by inter- and intraobserver variability for 13 patients. Dosimetry was computed for the prostate as a whole and for the prostate divided into anterior and posterior sectors of the base, mid-prostate, and apex. Results: Inter- and intraobserver variability for the fusion technique showed less than 1% variation in D90. MR-CT fusion D90 and CT D90 were nearly equivalent for the whole prostate, but differed depending on the identification of superior extent of the base (p = 0.007) and on MR/CT prostate volume ratio (p = 0.03). Sector analysis showed a decrease in MR-CT fusion D90 in the anterior base (ratio 0.93 {+-}0.25, p < 0.05) and an increase in MR-CT fusion D90 in the apex (p < 0.05). The volume of extraprostatic tissue encompassed by the V100 is greater on MR than CT. Factors associated with this difference are the MR/CT volume ratio (p < 0.001) and the difference in identification of the inferior extent of the apex (p = 0.03). Conclusions: We developed a reproducible MR-CT fusion technique that allows MR-based dosimetry. Comparing the resulting postimplant dosimetry with standard CT dosimetry shows several differences, including adequacy of coverage of the base and conformity of the dosimetry around the apex. Given the advantage of MR-based tissue definition, further study of MR-based dosimetry is warranted.

  7. Si?-implanted Si-wire waveguide photodetectors for the mid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    KC0403020 GrantContract Number: SC00112704 Type: Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Optics Express Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 22; Journal Issue: 22; Journal...

  8. Tracking tumor boundary in MV-EPID images without implanted markers: A feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaoyong Homma, Noriyasu; Ichiji, Kei; Takai, Yoshihiro; Yoshizawa, Makoto

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: To develop a markerless tracking algorithm to track the tumor boundary in megavoltage (MV)-electronic portal imaging device (EPID) images for image-guided radiation therapy. Methods: A level set method (LSM)-based algorithm is developed to track tumor boundary in EPID image sequences. Given an EPID image sequence, an initial curve is manually specified in the first frame. Driven by a region-scalable energy fitting function, the initial curve automatically evolves toward the tumor boundary and stops on the desired boundary while the energy function reaches its minimum. For the subsequent frames, the tracking algorithm updates the initial curve by using the tracking result in the previous frame and reuses the LSM to detect the tumor boundary in the subsequent frame so that the tracking processing can be continued without user intervention. The tracking algorithm is tested on three image datasets, including a 4-D phantom EPID image sequence, four digitally deformable phantom image sequences with different noise levels, and four clinical EPID image sequences acquired in lung cancer treatment. The tracking accuracy is evaluated based on two metrics: centroid localization error (CLE) and volume overlap index (VOI) between the tracking result and the ground truth. Results: For the 4-D phantom image sequence, the CLE is 0.23 0.20 mm, and VOI is 95.6% 0.2%. For the digital phantom image sequences, the total CLE and VOI are 0.11 0.08 mm and 96.7% 0.7%, respectively. In addition, for the clinical EPID image sequences, the proposed algorithm achieves 0.32 0.77 mm in the CLE and 72.1% 5.5% in the VOI. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the authors proposed method both in tumor localization and boundary tracking in EPID images. In addition, compared with two existing tracking algorithms, the proposed method achieves a higher accuracy in tumor localization. Conclusions: In this paper, the authors presented a feasibility study of tracking tumor boundary in EPID images by using a LSM-based algorithm. Experimental results conducted on phantom and clinical EPID images demonstrated the effectiveness of the tracking algorithm for visible tumor target. Compared with previous tracking methods, the authors algorithm has the potential to improve the tracking accuracy in radiation therapy. In addition, real-time tumor boundary information within the irradiation field will be potentially useful for further applications, such as adaptive beam delivery, dose evaluation.

  9. Nanopowder molding method for creating implantable high-aspect-ratio electrodes on thin flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Zhiyu; Thundat, Thomas George

    2006-03-01

    Metal nanoparticles and a nanopowder molding process were used to fabricate 2D and 3D patternable structures having a height-to-width ratio of up to 10:1. By means of this process, an entire neural stimulation circuit, including stimulating electrode, connection trace, and contact pad, can be fused into one continuous, integrated structure where different sections can have different heights, widths, and shapes. The technique is suitable for mass production, and the fabricated electrode is robust and very flexible. More importantly for biomedical applications, the entire fabricated structure can be packed at room temperature onto a biocompatible flexible substrate, such as polydimethylsiloxane, parylene, and polyimide as well as other temperature-sensitive or vacuum-sensitive materials. The electrodes and wires have about the same electrical resistivities as bulk materials and desirable electrochemical properties, including low impedance.

  10. Implantation, Activation, Characterization and Prevention/Mitigation of Internal Short Circuits in Lithium-Ion Cells

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  11. Suppressed gross erosion of high-temperature lithium via rapid deuterium implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, T.; Jaworski, M. A.; Chen, M.; Carter, E. A.; Kaita, R.; Stotler, D. P.; De Temmerman, G.; Morgan, T. W.; van den Berg, M. A.; van der Meiden, H. J.

    2015-12-17

    Lithium-coated high-Z substrates are planned for use in the NSTX-U divertor and are a candidate plasma facing component (PFC) for reactors, but it remains necessary to characterize the gross Li erosion rate under high plasma fluxes (>1023 m-2 s-1), typical for the divertor region. In this work, a realistic model for the compositional evolution of a Li/D layer is developed that incorporates first principles molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of D diffusion in liquid Li. Predictions of Li erosion from a mixed Li/D material are also developed that include formation of lithium deuteride (LiD). The erosion rate of Li from LiD is predicted to be significantly lower than from pure Li. This prediction is tested in the Magnum-PSI linear plasma device at ion fluxes of 1023-1024 m-2 s-1 and Li surface temperatures. ≤800 °C. Li/LiD coatings ranging in thickness from 0.2 to 500 μm are studied. The dynamic D/Li concentrations are inferred via diffusion simulations. The pure Li erosion rate remains greater than Langmuir Law evaporation, as expected. For mixed-material Li/LiD surfaces, the erosion rates are reduced, in good agreement with modelling in almost all cases. Lastly, these results imply that the temperature limit for a Li-coated PFC may be significantly higher than previously imagined.

  12. Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Materials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Purdue University Qian, Xiaoping (Xiaoping Qian) - Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering Department, Illinois Institute of Technology Qiao, Chunming (Chunming ...

  13. Since 1949, Sandia National Laboratories has

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    you may be working on: Mechanical Engineering SKILLS & KNOWLEDGE DESIRED: * Aerospace Systems * Computational Theory * Control Theory * Design for Manufacturability * Design,...

  14. Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Geosciences...

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    Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University Carter, Kenneth (Kenneth Carter) - Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of ...

  15. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... A diverse range of industries, including aerospace, automotive, electronics, pharmaceutical, biomedical, semiconductor, and foodbeverage, etc., have benefited from recent advances ...

  16. DOE-Funded Researchers Honored by R&D Magazine | Department of...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... The software has applications in aerospace engineering, animation and special effects, computational fluid dynamics, automotive design, pharmaceutical processing and homeland ...

  17. Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Physics...

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    ... Harsh Deep (Harsh Deep Chopra) - Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, State University of New ... Engineering, Compaq Water Resources Simulations ...

  18. Nuclear Nonproliferation,

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Signal Processing System Identification Controls Embedded systems Aerospace Systems Robotics Structural Health Monitoring Thinking Telescopes Machine Learning Los Alamos Dynamics...

  19. Latching Micro Optical Switch - Energy Innovation Portal

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    and Aerospace Communications Electronics Industrial Machinery Medical Devices Microelectronics Transportation and Automotive Patents and Patent Applications ID Number Title and...

  20. Method and apparatus for spraying molten materials

    DOEpatents

    Glovan, Ronald J. (Butte, MT); Tierney, John C. (Butte, MT); McLean, Leroy L. (Butte, MT); Johnson, Lawrence L. (Butte, MT); Nelson, Gordon L. (Butte, MT); Lee, Ying-Ming (Butte, MT)

    1996-01-01

    A metal spray apparatus is provided with a supersonic nozzle. Molten metal is injected into a gas stream flowing through the nozzle under pressure. By varying the pressure of the injected metal, the droplet can be made in various selected sizes with each selected size having a high degree of size uniformity. A unique one piece graphite heater provides easily controlled uniformity of temperature in the nozzle and an attached tundish which holds the pressurized molten metal. A unique U-shaped gas heater provides extremely hot inlet gas temperatures to the nozzle. A particularly useful application of the spray apparatus is coating of threads of a fastener with a shape memory alloy. This permits a fastener to be easily inserted and removed but provides for a secure locking of the fastener in high temperature environments.

  1. Method and apparatus for spraying molten materials

    DOEpatents

    Glovan, R.J.; Tierney, J.C.; McLean, L.L.; Johnson, L.L.; Nelson, G.L.; Lee, Y.M.

    1996-06-25

    A metal spray apparatus is provided with a supersonic nozzle. Molten metal is injected into a gas stream flowing through the nozzle under pressure. By varying the pressure of the injected metal, the droplet can be made in various selected sizes with each selected size having a high degree of size uniformity. A unique one piece graphite heater provides easily controlled uniformity of temperature in the nozzle and an attached tundish which holds the pressurized molten metal. A unique U-shaped gas heater provides extremely hot inlet gas temperatures to the nozzle. A particularly useful application of the spray apparatus is coating of threads of a fastener with a shape memory alloy. This permits a fastener to be easily inserted and removed but provides for a secure locking of the fastener in high temperature environments. 12 figs.

  2. Metal spray apparatus with a U-shaped electric inlet gas heater and a one-piece electric heater surrounding a nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Glovan, Ronald J.; Tierney, John C.; McLean, Leroy L.; Johnson, Lawrence L.; Verbael, David J.

    1995-01-01

    An electrically heated metal spray apparatus is provided with a supersonic nozzle. Molten metal is injected into a gas stream flowing through the nozzle under pressure. By varying the pressure of the injected metal, the droplet can be made in various selected sizes with each selected size having a high degree of size uniformity. A unique one piece graphite heater provides easily controlled uniformity of temperature in the nozzle and an attached tundish which holds the pressurized molten metal. A unique U-shaped gas heater provides extremely hot inlet gas temperatures to the nozzle. A particularly useful application of the spray apparatus is coating of threads of a fastener with a shape memory alloy. This permits a fastener to be easily inserted and removed but provides for a secure locking of the fastener in high temperature environments.

  3. Metal spray apparatus with a U-shaped electric inlet gas heater and a one-piece electric heater surrounding a nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Glovan, R.J.; Tierney, J.C.; McLean, L.L.; Johnson, L.L.; Verbael, D.J.

    1995-10-17

    An electrically heated metal spray apparatus is provided with a supersonic nozzle. Molten metal is injected into a gas stream flowing through the nozzle under pressure. By varying the pressure of the injected metal, the droplet can be made in various selected sizes with each selected size having a high degree of size uniformity. A unique one piece graphite heater provides easily controlled uniformity of temperature in the nozzle and an attached tundish which holds the pressurized molten metal. A unique U-shaped gas heater provides extremely hot inlet gas temperatures to the nozzle. A particularly useful application of the spray apparatus is coating of threads of a fastener with a shape memory alloy. This permits a fastener to be easily inserted and removed but provides for a secure locking of the fastener in high temperature environments. 12 figs.

  4. Mechanical connection for a tubular assembly

    DOEpatents

    Grover, J.M.

    1984-09-12

    Disclosed is a mechanical connection assembly for connecting two telescopically related parts together in a fluidtight relation. The system uses snap-in fasteners having flexible barbed tangs which are snapped into receiving holes formed in the parts being attached together. A locking pin can be inserted into a central aperture through the snap-in fastener to secure the fastener in the receiving holes. The system also includes a seal having sealing surfaces at least one of which is formed at an angle inclined relative to a true vertical. a metallic sealing element is interposed between the sealing surfaces. The geometry of the sealing surfaces is capable of compensating for the differential thermal growth rates occurring when the two parts are made from dissimilar metals.

  5. Photovoltaic module kit including connector assembly for non-penetrating array installation

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Danning, Matt; Culligan, Matthew

    2011-11-22

    A PV module kit for non-penetrating rooftop installation, including a plurality of PV modules and a plurality of connectors. Each of the PV modules includes a PV laminate and a frame forming a mounting region assembled thereto. The connectors include a male connector having a male fastener extending from a head, and a female connector having a female fastener assembled within a head. The heads are entirely formed of plastic. The kit provides a mounted array state including a junction at which the mounting region of at least two of the PV modules are aligned and interconnected by engagement of the male connector with the female connector. The so-formed junction is substantially electrically insulated. The plurality of connectors can further include a spacer connector including a head forming a bore sized to slidably receive the male fastener, with all of the connector heads being identical.

  6. Photovoltaic module kit including connector assembly for non-penetrating array installation

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Danning, Matt; Culligan, Matthew

    2012-10-23

    A PV module kit for non-penetrating rooftop installation, including a plurality of PV modules and a plurality of connectors. Each of the PV modules includes a PV laminate and a frame forming a mounting region assembled thereto. The connectors include a male connector having a male fastener extending from a head, and a female connector having a female fastener assembled within a head. The heads are entirely formed of plastic. The kit provides a mounted array state including a junction at which the mounting region of at least two of the PV modules are aligned and interconnected by engagement of the male connector with the female connector. The so-formed junction is substantially electrically insulated. The plurality of connectors can further include a spacer connector including a head forming a bore sized to slidably receive the male fastener, with all of the connector heads being identical.

  7. Photovoltaic module kit including connector assembly for non-penetrating array installation

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Danning, Matt; Culligan, Matthew

    2013-12-31

    A PV module kit for non-penetrating rooftop installation, including a plurality of PV modules and a plurality of connectors. Each of the PV modules includes a PV laminate and a frame forming a mounting region assembled thereto. The connectors include a male connector having a male fastener extending from a head, and a female connector having a female fastener assempbled within a head. The heads are entirely formed of plastic. The kit provides a mounted array state including a junction at which the mounting regions of at least two of the PV modules are aligned and interconnected by engagement of the male connector with the female connector. The so-formed junction is substantially electrically insulated. The plurality of connectors can further include a spacer connector including a head forming a bore sized slidably receive the male fastener, with all of the connector heads being identical.

  8. Photovoltaic array mounting apparatus, systems, and methods

    DOEpatents

    West, Jack Raymond; Atchley, Brian; Hudson, Tyrus Hawkes; Johansen, Emil

    2016-01-05

    A photovoltaic array, including: (a) supports laid out on a surface in rows and columns; (b) photovoltaic modules positioned on top of the supports; and (c) fasteners connecting the photovoltaic modules to the supports, wherein the supports have an upper pedestal surface and a lower pedestal surface such that the photovoltaic modules are positioned at a non-horizontal angle when edges of the photovoltaic modules are positioned on top of the upper and lower pedestal surfaces, and wherein a portion of the fasteners rotate to lock the photovoltaic modules onto the supports.

  9. Micro-Sized Photovoltaic Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This photograph features Greg Nielson, a project leader at Sandia National Laboratoies. He holds a solar cell test prototype with a microscale lens array fastened above it. Together, the cell and lens help create a concentrated photovoltaic unit. The tiny cells could turn a person into a walking solar battery charger if they were fastened to flexible substrates molded around unusual shapes, such as clothing. The solar particles, fabricated of crystalline silicon, hold the potential for a variety of new applications. They are expected eventually to be less expensive and have greater efficiencies than current photovoltaic collectors that are pieced together with 6-inch- square solar wafers.

  10. Photovoltaic array mounting apparatus, systems, and methods

    SciTech Connect

    West, Jack Raymond; Atchley, Brian; Hudson, Tyrus Hawkes; Johansen, Emil

    2015-04-14

    A photovoltaic array, including: (a) supports laid out on a surface in rows and columns; (b) photovoltaic modules positioned on top of the supports; and (c) fasteners connecting the photovoltaic modules to the supports, wherein the supports have an upper pedestal surface and a lower pedestal surface such that the photovoltaic modules are positioned at a non-horizontal angle when edges of the photovoltaic modules are positioned on top of the upper and lower pedestal surfaces, and wherein a portion of the fasteners rotate to lock the photovoltaic modules onto the supports.

  11. Mechanical coupling for a rotor shaft assembly of dissimilar materials

    DOEpatents

    Shi, Jun; Bombara, David; Green, Kevin E.; Bird, Connic; Holowczak, John

    2009-05-05

    A mechanical coupling for coupling a ceramic disc member to a metallic shaft includes a first wedge clamp and a second wedge clamp. A fastener engages a threaded end of a tie-bolt to sandwich the ceramic disc between the wedge clamps. An axial spring is positioned between the fastener and the second wedge clamp to apply an axial preload along the longitudinal axis. Another coupling utilizes a rotor shaft end of a metallic rotor shaft as one wedge clamp. Still another coupling includes a solid ceramic rotor disc with a multiple of tie-bolts radially displaced from the longitudinal axis to exert the preload on the solid ceramic rotor disc.

  12. Material-dependent amorphization and epitaxial crystallization in ion-implanted AlAs/GaAs layer structures

    SciTech Connect

    Cullis, A.G.; Chew, N.G.; Whitehouse, C.R. ); Jacobson, D.C.; Poate, J.M.; Pearton, S.J.

    1989-09-18

    When AlAs/GaAs layer samples are subjected to Ar{sup +} ion bombardment at liquid-nitrogen temperature, it is shown that very different damage structures are produced in the two materials. While the GaAs is relatively easily amorphized, the AlAs is quite resistant to damage accumulation and remains crystalline for the ion doses employed in these investigations. Epitaxial regrowth of buried amorphous GaAs layers of thicknesses up to 150 nm can be induced by rapid thermal annealing. It is demonstrated that differences in the initial damage state have a strong influence upon the nature of lattice defects produced by annealing.

  13. Fabrication and characterization of a co-planar detector in diamond for low energy single ion implantation

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Abraham, John Bishoy Sam; Pacheco, Jose L.; Aguirre, Brandon Adrian; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Bielejec, Edward S.

    2016-08-09

    We demonstrate low energy single ion detection using a co-planar detector fabricated on a diamond substrate and characterized by ion beam induced charge collection. Histograms are taken with low fluence ion pulses illustrating quantized ion detection down to a single ion with a signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 10. We anticipate that this detection technique can serve as a basis to optimize the yield of single color centers in diamond. In conclusion, the ability to count ions into a diamond substrate is expected to reduce the uncertainty in the yield of color center formation by removing Poisson statistics from the implantationmore » process.« less

  14. Diffusion of Ag, Au and Cs implants in MAX phase Ti3SiC2 (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 462; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0022-3115 Publisher: Elsevier Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and ...

  15. Splineless coupling means

    DOEpatents

    Heitmann, A.M.; Lord, R.E. Jr.

    1982-07-20

    In the first embodiment, the invention comprises an imperforate turbine wheel having a hub of polygonal cross-section engageable with a hollow shaft of polygonal conformation, and a thrust collar and bolt for fastening the shaft and wheel together. 4 figs.

  16. Rigid indented cylindrical cathode for X-ray tube

    DOEpatents

    Hudgens, Claude R.

    1985-01-01

    A cathode assembly for a vacuum tube includes a wire filament, a straight bular anode parallel to and surrounding the wire filament, and insulating spacers for rigidly fastening the filament with respect to the anode, and with one side of the anode indented or flattened such that only one portion of the anode is heated to emitting temperatures by the filament.

  17. Protective interior wall and attaching means for a fusion reactor vacuum vessel

    DOEpatents

    Phelps, R.D.; Upham, G.A.; Anderson, P.M.

    1985-03-01

    The wall basically consists of an array of small rectangular plates attached to the existing walls with threaded fasteners. The protective wall effectively conceals and protects all mounting hardware beneath the plate array, while providing a substantial surface area that will absorb plasma energy.

  18. Rigid indented cylindrical cathode for x-ray tube

    DOEpatents

    Hudgens, C.R.

    1983-06-03

    A cathode assembly for a vacuum tube includes a wire filament, a straight tubular anode parallel to and surrounding the wire filament, insulating spacers for rigidly fastening the filament with respect to the anode, and with one side of the anode indented or flattened such that only one portion of the anode is heated to emitting temperatures by the filament.

  19. DPF heater attachment mechanisms

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-04-26

    An exhaust filter system includes a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream from an engine. The PF filters particulates within an exhaust from the engine. A heating element heats particulate matter in the PF. A fastener limits expansion movement of the heating element relative to the PF.

  20. Permanent magnet energy conversion machine with magnet mounting arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.; Adams, Donald J.

    1999-01-01

    A hybrid permanent magnet dc motor includes three sets of permanent magnets supported by the rotor and three sets of corresponding stators fastened to the surrounding frame. One set of magnets operates across a radial gap with a surrounding radial gap stator, and the other two sets of magnets operate off the respective ends of the rotor across respective axial gaps.

  1. Double resonator cantilever accelerometer

    DOEpatents

    Koehler, D.R.

    1982-09-23

    A digital quartz accelerometer includes a pair of spaced double-ended tuning forks fastened at one end to a base and at the other end through a spacer mass. Transverse movement of the resonator members stresses one and compresses the other, providing a differential frequency output which is indicative of acceleration.

  2. Double resonator cantilever accelerometer

    DOEpatents

    Koehler, Dale R.

    1984-01-01

    A digital quartz accelerometer includes a pair of spaced double-ended tuning forks fastened at one end to a base and at the other end through a spacer mass. Transverse movement of the resonator members stresses one and compresses the other, providing a differential frequency output which is indicative of acceleration.

  3. Pv-Thermal Solar Power Assembly

    DOEpatents

    Ansley, Jeffrey H.; Botkin, Jonathan D.; Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2001-10-02

    A flexible solar power assembly includes a flexible photovoltaic device attached to a flexible thermal solar collector. The solar power assembly can be rolled up for transport and then unrolled for installation on a surface, such as the roof or side wall of a building or other structure, by use of adhesive and/or other types of fasteners.

  4. Suspect/Counterfeit Items Awareness Training Manual

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The manual discusses definitions, the DOE S/CI process, DOE Directives and Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP), and the DOE S/CI website. Appendices cover fasteners, components and product information, suspect indications list, suspect/counterfeit items (S/CI) found at DOE facilities, references, and resources.

  5. ARM - Field Campaign - ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The ARM Program sponsored the ground-based measurements, ARM-UAV (Unmanned Aerospace ... ARM SGP Site Manager Tim Tooman, UAV Coordinator DSIT Contacts ARM Data and ...

  6. 1

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... (DOE) ARM Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (UAV) program, accompanied the MCSE. During ... Case Study 2: ARMUAV Spring Flight Series in Kauai The ARMUAV Spring Flight Series (SFS) ...

  7. Working Group Reports Summary of Single-Column Model Intensive...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Cloud Sensing IOP and several collaborative campaigns such as ARM unmanned aerospace vehicle (UAV) and verification of the origins of rotation in tornadoes experiment (VORTEX). ...

  8. ARM-99-005 Science and Experiment Plan Spring 1999 Flight Series

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM - UAV Atmospheric Radiation Measurement - Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle Science and Experiment Plan Spring 1999 Flight Series Robert Ellingson and Tim Tooman, eds. Version 1.2 - ...

  9. ARM Aerial Facility

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Field Campaigns AAF Campaigns 2007 - UAV Campaigns 1993 - 2006, 2015 Other Aircraft ... Program, which was the successor to the ARM Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (UAV) Program

  10. 1

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    (ARM) uninhabited aerospace vehicle (UAV) program aims to develop measurement ... Using the Scaled Composites Proteus aircraft, ARM UAV participated in Mixed-Phase Arctic ...

  11. Sintering Kinetics of Inkjet Printed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    circuits for functional applications envisioned by automotive and aerospace industries. ... Figure 1 illustrates the types of printed line instabilities generally encountered when ...

  12. MAY

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    you. Sincerely, prigin Siljil2U uj- William E. ott, Dlrector Envlronsental Control Technology Division Office of Environment bee : (..T Aerospace .'- '.) dist: ' Subject EV-lRF...

  13. Ethiopia-DLR Resource Assessments | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    to 2004 the German Aerospace Center (DLR) worked with Ethiopia on solar resource and GIS analysis as part of UNEP's Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) Programme....

  14. Bangladesh-DLR Resource Assessments | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    to 2004 the German Aerospace Center (DLR) worked with Bangladesh on solar resource and GIS analysis as part of UNEP's Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) Programme....

  15. Boeing Co | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    search Name: Boeing Co Place: Chicago, Illinois Zip: 60606 Product: US-based civil and military aerospace technology manufacturer. The firm is involved in PV technology...

  16. Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Geosciences...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Chemistry, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology Kirby, Brian J. (Brian J. Kirby) - Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell ...

  17. The discovery of cometary activity in near-Earth asteroid (3552...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Institute of Planetary Research, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Rutherfordstr. 2, D-12489 Berlin (Germany) Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, ...

  18. Energy Efficient Thermoplastic Composite Manufacturing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    thermoplastic composite aerospace structure with cycle ... produce due to material lay-down constraints and ... per lineal foot part to engineering accuracy; +- .030" per ...

  19. Nanocoatings for High-Efficiency Industrial Hydraulic and Tooling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    from microstructural engineering of the constituent phases. ... This project is focusing on materials degradation resistance ... the Blades of an Aerospace Industry Titanium ...

  20. Friction Stir Additive Manufacturing for High Structural Performance...

    Energy Saver

    of other potential applications for aerospace & energy industries Laser-FSAM hybrid & mini-sample testing capabilites 2 3 Chronological evolution of metal based additive...

  1. Erdemir receives patent for ultra-fast surface hardening technology...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... This includes automobiles, with parts that bear the burden of heavy loads, erosion and corrosion. In the aerospace industry, many components are made of titanium, which would be ...

  2. Friction Stir Additive Manufacturing for High Structural Performance...

    Energy Saver

    for aerospace & energy industries Laser-FSAM hybrid & mini-sample testing ... Design, 65 (2015), 934-952 Friction Stir- Laser Hybrid Machine at CFSP 5 Hardness- 135 ...

  3. TE Connectivity Finds Answers in Tomography

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    healthcare, aerospace, and defense industries. TE Connectivity has a long-standing commitment to innovation and engineering excellence. Their products help address challenges...

  4. Document

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: James Delisio, Aerospace Engineer, Airframe and Mechanical Systems Branch, ANE-171, FAA, New York Aircraft Certification Office (ACO), 1600 Stewart ...

  5. Safety, Codes and Standards - Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Safety, Codes and Standards - Basics Hydrogen has a long history of safe use in the chemical and aerospace industries. An understanding of hydrogen properties, proper safety ...

  6. Optimal Energy Systems | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Energy Systems Place: Torrance, California Zip: 90505 Product: Manufacturer of flywheel power system, specialising in aerospace and defence sector. Coordinates: 40.417285,...

  7. Title: Author(s):

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fuel cells have been successfully demonstrated in a number of aerospace, utility and military applications, however, the high cost of fuel cells compared to conventional power ...

  8. Foreword: Additive Manufacturing: Interrelationships of Fabrication...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Moreover, a variety of fields such as aerospace, military, automotive, and biomedical are employing this manufacturing technique as a way to decrease costs, increase manufacturing ...

  9. Stephane Ethier | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Previously, he was a postdoctoral researcher in the Applied Physics group of the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department of Princeton University, a computer...

  10. 1

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Data to Evaluate Satellite Surface Solar Flux Retrievals L.M. Hinkelman National Institute of Aerospace Hampton, Virginia P.W. Stackhouse ...

  11. Structural Testing of 9 m Carbon Fiber Wind Turbine Research...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Joshua Paquette Sandia National Laboratories Scott Hughes and Jeroen van Dam National Renewable Energy Laboratory Jay Johnson Georgia Institute of Technology 46th AIAA Aerospace ...

  12. Evans Capacitor Company | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Place: East Providence, Rhode Island Zip: 2914 Product: Mmanufacturer of high energy density capacitors. Specialises in the defense and aerospace sectors. References: Evans...

  13. Review of using gallium nitride for ionizing radiation detection...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA, Department of Radiology, Stanford University, ...

  14. High-fidelity Modeling

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    fidelity Modeling of Local Effects of Damage for Derated Offshore Wind Turbines Phillip W. Richards Graduate Research Assistant, Daniel Guggenheim School of Aerospace Engineering. ...

  15. Axisymmetric flows from fluid injection into a confined porous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, ...

  16. Effect of isoelectronic substitution on phase transition and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China) Publication ...

  17. Volodymyr Yefremenko | Argonne National Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Kharkov Aviation Institute (now Zhukovsky National Aerospace University of Ukraine) Ukraine, 1987. PhD thesis: "Superconducting bolometric detectors for sub-millimeter wave ...

  18. L3:THM.CFD.P6.02 Hydra-TH Milestone Report Yidong Xia and Hong...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Yidong Xia and Hong Luo Computational Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering North Carolina State University Engineering Bldg 3, Campus Box ...

  19. Ryan Coe

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Ryan has a bachelor's degree in ocean engineering and a doctorate in aerospace engineering from Virginia Tech. Visit Ryan Coe's Google Scholar profile Energy & Climate Programs ...

  20. OSTIblog Articles in the additive manufacturing Topic | OSTI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This technology is expected to exert a profound impact on an increasing array of applications in architecture, engineering, construction, industrial design, automotive, aerospace, ...