National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for horizontal solar irradiance

  1. Measurement and modeling of solar irradiance components on horizontal and tilted planes

    SciTech Connect

    Padovan, Andrea; Col, Davide del

    2010-12-15

    In this work new measurements of global and diffuse solar irradiance on the horizontal plane and global irradiance on planes tilted at 20 and 30 oriented due South and at 45 and 65 oriented due East are used to discuss the modeling of solar radiation. Irradiance data are collected in Padova (45.4 N, 11.9 E, 12 m above sea level), Italy. Some diffuse fraction correlations have been selected to model the hourly diffuse radiation on the horizontal plane. The comparison with the present experimental data shows that their prediction accuracy strongly depends on the sky characteristics. The hourly irradiance measurements taken on the tilted planes are compared with the estimations given by one isotropic and three anisotropic transposition models. The use of an anisotropic model, based on a physical description of the diffuse radiation, provides a much better accuracy, especially when measurements of the diffuse irradiance on the horizontal plane are not available and thus transposition models have to be applied in combination with a diffuse fraction correlation. This is particularly significant for the planes oriented away from South. (author)

  2. Horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Larry E.; McInnes, Ian D.; Massey, John V.

    1988-01-01

    A horizontal, modular, dry, irradiated fuel storage system (10) includes a thin-walled canister (12) for containing irradiated fuel assemblies (20), which canister (12) can be positioned in a transfer cask (14) and transported in a horizontal manner from a fuel storage pool (18), to an intermediate-term storage facility. The storage system (10) includes a plurality of dry storage modules (26) which accept the canister (12) from the transfer cask (14) and provide for appropriate shielding about the canister (12). Each module (26) also provides for air cooling of the canister (12) to remove the decay heat of the irradiated fuel assemblies (20). The modules (26) can be interlocked so that each module (26) gains additional shielding from the next adjacent module (26). Hydraulic rams (30) are provided for inserting and removing the canisters (12) from the modules (26).

  3. ARM: Baseline Solar Radiation Network (BSRN): solar irradiances...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Baseline Solar Radiation Network (BSRN): solar irradiances Title: ARM: Baseline Solar Radiation Network (BSRN): solar irradiances Baseline Solar Radiation Network (BSRN): solar ...

  4. Global horizontal irradiance clear sky models : implementation and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Hansen, Clifford W.; Reno, Matthew J.

    2012-03-01

    Clear sky models estimate the terrestrial solar radiation under a cloudless sky as a function of the solar elevation angle, site altitude, aerosol concentration, water vapor, and various atmospheric conditions. This report provides an overview of a number of global horizontal irradiance (GHI) clear sky models from very simple to complex. Validation of clear-sky models requires comparison of model results to measured irradiance during clear-sky periods. To facilitate validation, we present a new algorithm for automatically identifying clear-sky periods in a time series of GHI measurements. We evaluate the performance of selected clear-sky models using measured data from 30 different sites, totaling about 300 site-years of data. We analyze the variation of these errors across time and location. In terms of error averaged over all locations and times, we found that complex models that correctly account for all the atmospheric parameters are slightly more accurate than other models, but, primarily at low elevations, comparable accuracy can be obtained from some simpler models. However, simpler models often exhibit errors that vary with time of day and season, whereas the errors for complex models vary less over time.

  5. A New Solar Irradiance Reference Spectrum

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Solar Irradiance Reference Spectrum Pilewskie, Peter University of Colorado ... We describe the development of a new solar reference spectrum for radiation and climate ...

  6. ARM: Baseline Solar Radiation Network (BSRN): solar irradiances (Dataset) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Data Explorer Baseline Solar Radiation Network (BSRN): solar irradiances Title: ARM: Baseline Solar Radiation Network (BSRN): solar irradiances Baseline Solar Radiation Network (BSRN): solar irradiances Authors: Mary Anderberg ; Ibrahim Reda ; Afshin Andreas ; Mark Kutchenreiter ; Aron Habte ; Mike Dooraghi Publication Date: 1993-07-01 OSTI Identifier: 1025163 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Dataset Data Type: Numeric Data Research Org: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement

  7. Improved Solar Power Plant Efficiency: Low Cost Solar Irradiance Sensor -

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Find More Like This Return to Search Improved Solar Power Plant Efficiency: Low Cost Solar Irradiance Sensor University of Colorado Contact CU About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication CU3117D (Irradiance Sensor) Marketing Summary.pdf (149 KB) Technology Marketing Summary A University of Colorado research group led

  8. Solar Radiometric Data Quality Assessment of SIRS, SKYRAD and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Science Country of Publication: United States Language: ... DIFFUSE HORIZONTAL IRRADIANCE; DIRECT NORMAL IRRADIANCE; Solar Energy - ...

  9. A Method of Correcting for Tilt From Horizontal in Downwelling Shortwave Irradiance Measurements on Moving Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Charles N.; Bucholtz, Anthony; Jonsson, Haf; Schmid, Beat; Vogelmann, A. M.; Wood, John

    2010-04-14

    Significant errors occur in downwelling shortwave irradiance measurements made on moving platforms due to tilt from horizontal because, when the sun is not completely blocked by overhead cloud, the downwelling shortwave irradiance has a prominent directional component from the direct sun. A-priori knowledge of the partitioning between the direct and diffuse components of the total shortwave irradiance is needed to properly apply a correction for tilt. This partitioning information can be adequately provided using a newly available commercial radiometer that produces reasonable measurements of the total and diffuse shortwave irradiance, and by subtraction the direct shortwave irradiance, with no moving parts and regardless of azimuthal orientation. We have developed methodologies for determining the constant pitch and roll offsets of the radiometers for aircraft applications, and for applying a tilt correction to the total shortwave irradiance data. Results suggest that the methodology is for tilt up to +/-10°, with 90% of the data corrected to within 10 Wm-2 at least for clear-sky data. Without a proper tilt correction, even data limited to 5° of tilt as is typical current practice still exhibits large errors, greater than 100 Wm-2 in some cases. Given the low cost, low weight, and low power consumption of the SPN1 total and diffuse radiometer, opportunities previously excluded for moving platform measurements such as small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and solar powered buoys now become feasible using our methodology. The increase in measurement accuracy is important, given current concerns over long-term climate variability and change especially over the 70% of the Earth’s surface covered by ocean where long-term records of these measurements are sorely needed and must be made on ships and buoys.

  10. Directly-irradiated Two-zone Solar Thermochemical Reactor for...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Directly-irradiated Two-zone Solar Thermochemical Reactor ...

  11. Evaluation of global horizontal irradiance to plane-of-array irradiance models at locations across the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lave, Matthew; Hayes, William; Pohl, Andrew; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2015-02-02

    We report an evaluation of the accuracy of combinations of models that estimate plane-of-array (POA) irradiance from measured global horizontal irradiance (GHI). This estimation involves two steps: 1) decomposition of GHI into direct and diffuse horizontal components and 2) transposition of direct and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) to POA irradiance. Measured GHI and coincident measured POA irradiance from a variety of climates within the United States were used to evaluate combinations of decomposition and transposition models. A few locations also had DHI measurements, allowing for decoupled analysis of either the decomposition or the transposition models alone. Results suggest that decomposition models had mean bias differences (modeled versus measured) that vary with climate. Transposition model mean bias differences depended more on the model than the location. Lastly, when only GHI measurements were available and combinations of decomposition and transposition models were considered, the smallest mean bias differences were typically found for combinations which included the Hay/Davies transposition model.

  12. Solar spectral irradiance changes during cycle 24 (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Solar spectral irradiance changes during cycle 24 We use solar spectra obtained by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the Aura satellite to detect and follow ...

  13. Evaluation of global horizontal irradiance to plane-of-array irradiance models at locations across the United States

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Hayes, William; Pohl, Andrew; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2015-02-02

    We report an evaluation of the accuracy of combinations of models that estimate plane-of-array (POA) irradiance from measured global horizontal irradiance (GHI). This estimation involves two steps: 1) decomposition of GHI into direct and diffuse horizontal components and 2) transposition of direct and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) to POA irradiance. Measured GHI and coincident measured POA irradiance from a variety of climates within the United States were used to evaluate combinations of decomposition and transposition models. A few locations also had DHI measurements, allowing for decoupled analysis of either the decomposition or the transposition models alone. Results suggest that decompositionmore » models had mean bias differences (modeled versus measured) that vary with climate. Transposition model mean bias differences depended more on the model than the location. Lastly, when only GHI measurements were available and combinations of decomposition and transposition models were considered, the smallest mean bias differences were typically found for combinations which included the Hay/Davies transposition model.« less

  14. Climatic change due to solar irradiance changes

    SciTech Connect

    Wigley, T.M.L.; Raper, S.C.B. )

    1990-11-01

    Solar irradiance reconstructions back to 1874 are used to estimate the effect of the Sun on global-mean temperature. The importance of the history effect of the Sun on global-mean temperature. The importance of the history effect, whereby recent temperature changes may be influenced significantly by past forcing changes, is evaluated. Modelled temperature changes are shown to be relatively insensitive to model uncertainties. The overall range of modelled temperature variations is extremely small, 0.05C.

  15. DOES THE VARIATION OF THE SOLAR INTRA-NETWORK HORIZONTAL FIELD FOLLOW THE SUNSPOT CYCLE?

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, C. L.; Wang, J. X.

    2015-07-01

    The ubiquitousness of the solar inter-network horizontal magnetic field has been revealed by space-borne observations with high spatial resolution and polarization sensitivity. However, no consensus has been achieved on the origin of the horizontal field among solar physicists. For a better understanding, in this study, we analyze the cyclic variation of the inter-network horizontal field by using the spectro-polarimeter observations provided by the Solar Optical Telescope on board Hinode, covering the interval from 2008 April to 2015 February. The method of wavelength integration is adopted to achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio. It is found that from 2008 to 2015 the inter-network horizontal field does not vary when solar activity increases, and the average flux density of the inter-network horizontal field is 87 ± 1 G, In addition, the imbalance between horizontal and vertical fields also keeps invariant within the scope of deviation, i.e., 8.7 ± 0.5, from the solar minimum to maximum of solar cycle 24. This result confirms that the inter-network horizontal field is independent of the sunspot cycle. The revelation favors the idea that a local dynamo is creating and maintaining the solar inter-network horizontal field.

  16. Improved Method to Measure Glare and Reflected Solar Irradiance - Energy

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Early Stage R&D Early Stage R&D Find More Like This Return to Search Improved Method to Measure Glare and Reflected Solar Irradiance Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (767 KB) Solar glare from aerial view Solar glare from aerial view Typical solar glare Typical solar glare

  17. Solar spectral irradiance changes during cycle 24

    SciTech Connect

    Marchenko, S. V.; DeLand, M. T.

    2014-07-10

    We use solar spectra obtained by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the Aura satellite to detect and follow long-term (years) and short-term (weeks) changes in the solar spectral irradiance (SSI) in the 265-500 nm spectral range. During solar Cycle 24, in the relatively line-free regions the SSI changed by ∼0.6% ± 0.2% around 265 nm. These changes gradually diminish to 0.15% ± 0.20% at 500 nm. All strong spectral lines and blends, with the notable exception of the upper Balmer lines, vary in unison with the solar 'continuum'. Besides the lines with strong chromospheric components, the most involved species include Fe I blends and all prominent CH, NH, and CN spectral bands. Following the general trend seen in the solar 'continuum', the variability of spectral lines also decreases toward longer wavelengths. The long-term solar cycle SSI changes are closely, to within the quoted 0.1%-0.2% uncertainties, matched by the appropriately adjusted short-term SSI variations derived from the 27 day rotational modulation cycles. This further strengthens and broadens the prevailing notion about the general scalability of the UV SSI variability to the emissivity changes in the Mg II 280 nm doublet on timescales from weeks to years. We also detect subtle deviations from this general rule: the prominent spectral lines and blends at λ ≳ 350 nm show slightly more pronounced 27 day SSI changes when compared to the long-term (years) trends. We merge the solar data from Cycle 21 with the current Cycle 24 OMI and GOME-2 observations and provide normalized SSI variations for the 170-795 nm spectral region.

  18. An Instrument Design Concept for Measuring Solar Diffuse Irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    An Instrument Design Concept for Measuring Solar Diffuse Irradiance Rutledge, Charles NASA Langley Research Center Schuster, Greg NASA Langley Research Center Category: Instruments ...

  19. Optimisation of buildings' solar irradiation availability

    SciTech Connect

    Kaempf, Jerome Henri; Montavon, Marylene; Bunyesc, Josep; Robinson, Darren; Bolliger, Raffaele

    2010-04-15

    In order to improve the sustainability of new and existing urban settlements it is desirable to maximise the utilisation of the solar energy incident on the building envelope, whether by passive or active means. To this end we have coupled a multi-objective optimisation algorithm with the backwards ray tracing program RADIANCE which itself uses a cumulative sky model for the computation of incident irradiation (W h/m{sup 2}) in a single simulation. The parameters to optimise are geometric (the height of buildings up to their facade and the height and orientation of roofs), but with the constraint of maintaining an overall built volume, and the objective function is heating season solar irradiation offset by envelope heat losses. This methodology has been applied to a range of urban typologies and produces readily interpretable results. The focus of this work is on the design of new urban forms but the method could equally be applied to examine the relative efficiency of existing urban settlements, by comparison of existing forms with the calculated optima derived from relevant specifications of the building envelope. (author)

  20. A method for estimating direct normal solar irradiation from satellite data for a tropical environment

    SciTech Connect

    Janjai, Serm

    2010-09-15

    In order to investigate a potential use of concentrating solar power technologies and select an optimum site for these technologies, it is necessary to obtain information on the geographical distribution of direct normal solar irradiation over an area of interest. In this work, we have developed a method for estimating direct normal irradiation from satellite data for a tropical environment. The method starts with the estimation of global irradiation on a horizontal surface from MTSAT-1R satellite data and other ground-based ancillary data. Then a satellite-based diffuse fraction model was developed and used to estimate the diffuse component of the satellite-derived global irradiation. Based on this estimated global and diffuse irradiation and the solar radiation incident angle, the direct normal irradiation was finally calculated. To evaluate its performance, the method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation at seven pyrheliometer stations in Thailand. It was found that values of monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation from the measurements and those estimated from the proposed method are in reasonable agreement, with a root mean square difference of 16% and a mean bias of -1.6%, with respect to mean measured values. After the validation, this method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation over Thailand by using MTSAT-1R satellite data for the period from June 2005 to December 2008. Results from the calculation were displayed as hourly and yearly irradiation maps. These maps reveal that the direct normal irradiation in Thailand was strongly affected by the tropical monsoons and local topography of the country. (author)

  1. University of Texas Panamerican (UTPA): Solar Radiation Lab (SRL); Edinburg, Texas (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Ramos, J.; Andreas, A.

    This measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location.

  2. University of Texas Panamerican (UTPA): Solar Radiation Lab (SRL); Edinburg, Texas (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Ramos, J.; Andreas, A.

    2011-09-01

    This measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location.

  3. Computation of glint, glare, and solar irradiance distribution

    DOEpatents

    Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Khalsa, Siri Sahib Singh

    2015-08-11

    Described herein are technologies pertaining to computing the solar irradiance distribution on a surface of a receiver in a concentrating solar power system or glint/glare emitted from a reflective entity. At least one camera captures images of the Sun and the entity of interest, wherein the images have pluralities of pixels having respective pluralities of intensity values. Based upon the intensity values of the pixels in the respective images, the solar irradiance distribution on the surface of the entity or glint/glare corresponding to the entity is computed.

  4. Measuring Broadband IR Irradiance in the Direct Solar Beam (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, I.; Konings, J.; Xie, Y.; Dooraghi, M.; Sengupta, M.

    2015-03-01

    Solar and atmospheric science radiometers, e.g. pyranometers, pyrheliometers, and photovoltaic cells are calibrated with traceability to a consensus reference, which is maintained by Absolute Cavity Radiometers (ACRs). The ACR is an open cavity with no window, developed to measure extended broadband direct solar irradiance beyond the ultraviolet and infrared bands below and above 0.2 micrometers and 50 micrometers, respectively. On the other hand, pyranometers and pyrheliometers are developed to measure broadband shortwave irradiance from approximately 0.3 micrometers to 3 micrcometers, while the present photovoltaic cells are limited to approximately 0.3 micrometers to 1 micrometers. The broadband mismatch of ACR versus such radiometers causes discrepancy in radiometers' calibration methods that has not been discussed or addressed in the solar and atmospheric science literature. Pyrgeometers are also used for solar and atmospheric science applications and calibrated with traceability to consensus reference, yet calibrated during nighttime only, because no consensus reference has yet been established for the daytime longwave irradiance. This poster shows a method to measure the broadband IR irradiance in the direct solar beam from 3 micrometers to 50 micrometers, as first step that might be used to help develop calibration methods to address the mismatch between broadband ACR and shortwave radiometers, and the lack of a daytime reference for pyrgeometers. The irradiance was measured from sunrise to sunset for 5 days when the sun disk was cloudless; the irradiance varied from approximately 1 Wm-2 to 16 Wm-2 for solar zenith angle from 80 degres to 16 degrees respectively; estimated uncertainty is 1.5 Wm-2.

  5. Measuring Broadband IR Irradiance in the Direct Solar Beam (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, I.

    2015-03-01

    Solar and atmospheric science radiometers, e.g. pyranometers, pyrheliometers, and photovoltaic cells are calibrated with traceability to a consensus reference, which is maintained by Absolute Cavity Radiometers (ACRs). The ACR is an open cavity with no window, developed to measure extended broadband direct solar irradiance beyond the ultraviolet and infrared bands below and above 0.2 um and 50 um, respectively. On the other hand, pyranometers and pyrheliometers are developed to measure broadband shortwave irradiance from approximately 0.3 um to 3 um, while the present photovoltaic cells are limited to approximately 0.3 um to 1 um. The broadband mismatch of ACR versus such radiometers causes discrepancy in radiometers' calibration methods that has not been discussed or addressed in the solar and atmospheric science literature. Pyrgeometers are also used for solar and atmospheric science applications and are calibrated with traceability to consensus reference, yet are calibrated during nighttime only, because no consensus reference has yet been established for the daytime longwave irradiance. This poster shows a method to measure the broadband IR irradiance in the direct solar beam from 3 um to 50 um, as a first step that might be used to help develop calibration methods to address the mismatch between broadband ACR and shortwave radiometers, and the lack of a daytime reference for pyrgeometers. The irradiance was measured from sunrise to sunset for 5 days when the sun disk was cloudless; the irradiance varied from approximately 1 Wm-2 to 16 Wm-2 for solar zenith angle from 80 degrees to 16 degrees respectively; estimated uncertainty is 1.5 Wm-2.

  6. Some Results of Joint Measurements of Aerosol Extinction of Solar Radiation on Horizontal and Slant Paths

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Results of Joint Measurements of Aerosol Extinction of Solar Radiation on Horizontal and Slant Paths S. M. Sakerin, D. M. Kabanov, Yu. A. Pkhalagov, and V. N. Uzhegov Institute of Atmospheric Optics Tomsk, Russia Introduction It's a well-known fact that the contribution atmospheric aerosol makes in the total extinction of radiation in calculations and models of radiation must be considered; the quantitative measure of this contribution is the aerosol optical thickness of the atmosphere. The

  7. A semiparametric spatio-temporal model for solar irradiance data

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Patrick, Joshua D.; Harvill, Jane L.; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2016-03-01

    Here, we evaluate semiparametric spatio-temporal models for global horizontal irradiance at high spatial and temporal resolution. These models represent the spatial domain as a lattice and are capable of predicting irradiance at lattice points, given data measured at other lattice points. Using data from a 1.2 MW PV plant located in Lanai, Hawaii, we show that a semiparametric model can be more accurate than simple interpolation between sensor locations. We investigate spatio-temporal models with separable and nonseparable covariance structures and find no evidence to support assuming a separable covariance structure. These results indicate a promising approach for modeling irradiance atmore » high spatial resolution consistent with available ground-based measurements. Moreover, this kind of modeling may find application in design, valuation, and operation of fleets of utility-scale photovoltaic power systems.« less

  8. Properties of solar gravity mode signals in total irradiance observations

    SciTech Connect

    Kroll, R.J.; Chen, J.; Hill, H.A.

    1988-01-01

    Further evidence has been found that a significant fraction of the gravity mode power density in the total irradiance observations appears in sidebands of classified eigenfrequencies. These sidebands whose amplitudes vary from year to year are interpreted as harmonics of the rotational frequencies of the nonuniform solar surface. These findings are for non axisymmetric modes and corroborate the findings of Kroll, Hill and Chen for axisymmetric modes. It is demonstrated the the generation of the sidebands lifts the usual restriction on the parity of the eigenfunctions for modes detectable in total irradiance observations. 14 refs.

  9. Method to Calculate Uncertainty Estimate of Measuring Shortwave Solar Irradiance using Thermopile and Semiconductor Solar Radiometers

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, I.

    2011-07-01

    The uncertainty of measuring solar irradiance is fundamentally important for solar energy and atmospheric science applications. Without an uncertainty statement, the quality of a result, model, or testing method cannot be quantified, the chain of traceability is broken, and confidence cannot be maintained in the measurement. Measurement results are incomplete and meaningless without a statement of the estimated uncertainty with traceability to the International System of Units (SI) or to another internationally recognized standard. This report explains how to use International Guidelines of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) to calculate such uncertainty. The report also shows that without appropriate corrections to solar measuring instruments (solar radiometers), the uncertainty of measuring shortwave solar irradiance can exceed 4% using present state-of-the-art pyranometers and 2.7% using present state-of-the-art pyrheliometers. Finally, the report demonstrates that by applying the appropriate corrections, uncertainties may be reduced by at least 50%. The uncertainties, with or without the appropriate corrections might not be compatible with the needs of solar energy and atmospheric science applications; yet, this report may shed some light on the sources of uncertainties and the means to reduce overall uncertainty in measuring solar irradiance.

  10. WHAT CAUSES THE INTER-SOLAR-CYCLE VARIATION OF TOTAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE?

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, N. B.; Kong, D. F.

    2015-12-15

    The Physikalisch Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos total solar irradiance (TSI), Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitoring TSI, and Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium TSI are three typical TSI composites. Magnetic Plage Strength Index (MPSI) and Mount Wilson Sunspot Index (MWSI) should indicate the weak and strong magnetic field activity on the solar full disk, respectively. Cross-correlation (CC) analysis of MWSI with three TSI composites shows that TSI should be weakly correlated with MWSI, and not be in phase with MWSI at timescales of solar cycles. The wavelet coherence (WTC) and partial wavelet coherence (PWC) of TSI with MWSI indicate that the inter-solar-cycle variation of TSI is also not related to solar strong magnetic field activity, which is represented by MWSI. However, CC analysis of MPSI with three TSI composites indicates that TSI should be moderately correlated and accurately in phase with MPSI at timescales of solar cycles, and that the statistical significance test indicates that the correlation coefficient of three TSI composites with MPSI is statistically significantly higher than that of three TSI composites with MWSI. Furthermore, the cross wavelet transform (XWT) and WTC of TSI with MPSI show that the TSI is highly related and actually in phase with MPSI at a timescale of a solar cycle as well. Consequently, the CC analysis, XWT, and WTC indicate that the solar weak magnetic activity on the full disk, which is represented by MPSI, dominates the inter-solar-cycle variation of TSI.

  11. Measurements and modeling of total solar irradiance in X-class solar flares

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Christopher Samuel; Chamberlin, Phillip Clyde; Hock, Rachel

    2014-05-20

    The Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) from NASA's SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment can detect changes in the total solar irradiance (TSI) to a precision of 2 ppm, allowing observations of variations due to the largest X-class solar flares for the first time. Presented here is a robust algorithm for determining the radiative output in the TIM TSI measurements, in both the impulsive and gradual phases, for the four solar flares presented in Woods et al., as well as an additional flare measured on 2006 December 6. The radiative outputs for both phases of these five flares are then compared to the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiance output from the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) in order to derive an empirical relationship between the FISM VUV model and the TIM TSI data output to estimate the TSI radiative output for eight other X-class flares. This model provides the basis for the bolometric energy estimates for the solar flares analyzed in the Emslie et al. study.

  12. Analysis of clear hour solar irradiation for seven Canadian stations

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, J.; Sahami, K.

    1995-12-31

    Hourly global and diffuse irradiation and corresponding surface meteorological data have been analyzed for the seven Canadian stations at Edmonton, Goose Bay, Montreal, Port Hardy, Resolute, Toronto, and Winnipeg. The variation of the most probable clear hour values of clearness index k{sub t}, diffuse index k{sub d}, direct beam index k{sub b}, and Angstrom turbidity coefficient {beta} with solar elevation, atmospheric precipitable water, and snow depth are obtained. Values of these quantities are presented which are consistent with the attenuation and scattering of solar radiation by the atmosphere which is expected. The most probable values of {beta} tend to be lower than the average values of {beta} recently reported by Gueymard. The data indicate a drift in the calibration of the instruments used for measurements of the irradiation data for the stations at Goose Bay and Resolute. The data for the other five stations indicate that the instrument calibration is maintained over the years of the data. 4 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Prediction of global solar irradiance based on time series analysis: Application to solar thermal power plants energy production planning

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Luis; Marchante, Ruth; Cony, Marco; Zarzalejo, Luis F.; Polo, Jesus; Navarro, Ana

    2010-10-15

    Due to strong increase of solar power generation, the predictions of incoming solar energy are acquiring more importance. Photovoltaic and solar thermal are the main sources of electricity generation from solar energy. In the case of solar thermal energy plants with storage energy system, its management and operation need reliable predictions of solar irradiance with the same temporal resolution as the temporal capacity of the back-up system. These plants can work like a conventional power plant and compete in the energy stock market avoiding intermittence in electricity production. This work presents a comparisons of statistical models based on time series applied to predict half daily values of global solar irradiance with a temporal horizon of 3 days. Half daily values consist of accumulated hourly global solar irradiance from solar raise to solar noon and from noon until dawn for each day. The dataset of ground solar radiation used belongs to stations of Spanish National Weather Service (AEMet). The models tested are autoregressive, neural networks and fuzzy logic models. Due to the fact that half daily solar irradiance time series is non-stationary, it has been necessary to transform it to two new stationary variables (clearness index and lost component) which are used as input of the predictive models. Improvement in terms of RMSD of the models essayed is compared against the model based on persistence. The validation process shows that all models essayed improve persistence. The best approach to forecast half daily values of solar irradiance is neural network models with lost component as input, except Lerida station where models based on clearness index have less uncertainty because this magnitude has a linear behaviour and it is easier to simulate by models. (author)

  14. Solar and Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, T

    2005-07-01

    The Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) provides continuous measurements of broadband shortwave (solar) and longwave (atmospheric or infrared) irradiances for downwelling and upwelling components. The following six irradiance measurements are collected from a network of stations to help determine the total radiative flux exchange within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility: Direct normal shortwave (solar beam) Diffuse horizontal shortwave (sky) Global horizontal shortwave (total hemispheric) Upwelling shortwave (reflected) Downwelling longwave (atmospheric infrared) Upwelling longwave (surface infrared)

  15. Interpretation of solar irradiance monitor measurements through analysis of 3D MHD simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Criscuoli, S.; Uitenbroek, H.

    2014-06-20

    Measurements from the Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM) on board the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment mission indicate that solar spectral irradiance at visible and IR wavelengths varies in counter phase with the solar activity cycle. The sign of these variations is not reproduced by most of the irradiance reconstruction techniques based on variations of surface magnetism employed so far, and it is not yet clear whether SIM calibration procedures need to be improved or if instead new physical mechanisms must be invoked to explain such variations. We employ three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the solar photosphere to investigate the dependence of solar radiance in SIM visible and IR spectral ranges on variations of the filling factor of surface magnetic fields. We find that the contribution of magnetic features to solar radiance is strongly dependent on the location on the disk of the features, which are negative close to disk center and positive toward the limb. If features are homogeneously distributed over a region around the equator (activity belt), then their contribution to irradiance is positive with respect to the contribution of HD snapshots, but decreases with the increase of their magnetic flux for average magnetic flux larger than 50 G in at least two of the visible and IR spectral bands monitored by SIM. Under the assumption that the 50 G snapshots are representative of quiet-Sun regions, we thus find that the Spectral Irradiance can be in counter-phase with the solar magnetic activity cycle.

  16. Lowry Range Solar Station: Arapahoe County, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Yoder, M.; Andreas, A.

    A partnership with industry and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location. The solar measurement instrumentation is also accompanied by meteorological monitoring equipment to provide scientists with a complete picture of the solar power possibilities.

  17. Lowry Range Solar Station: Arapahoe County, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Yoder, M.; Andreas, A.

    2008-05-30

    A partnership with industry and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location. The solar measurement instrumentation is also accompanied by meteorological monitoring equipment to provide scientists with a complete picture of the solar power possibilities.

  18. Solar Radiation Monitoring Station (SoRMS): Humboldt State University, Arcata, California (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Wilcox, S.; Andreas, A.

    A partnership with HSU and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location.

  19. Solar Radiation Monitoring Station (SoRMS): Humboldt State University, Arcata, California (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Wilcox, S.; Andreas, A.

    2007-05-02

    A partnership with HSU and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect solar data to support future solar power generation in the United States. The measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location.

  20. Measuring Broadband IR Irradiance in the Direct Solar Beam (Poster...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and infrared bands below and above 0.2 micrometers and 50 micrometers, respectively. ... the direct solar beam from 3 micrometers to 50 micrometers, as first step that might be ...

  1. Measuring Broadband IR Irradiance in the Direct Solar Beam (Presentati...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    beyond the ultraviolet and infrared bands below and above 0.2 um and 50 um, respectively. ... in the direct solar beam from 3 um to 50 um, as a first step that might be used to ...

  2. Solar Irradiances Measured using SPN1 Radiometers: Uncertainties and Clues for Development

    SciTech Connect

    Badosa, Jordi; Wood, John; Blanc, Philippe; Long, Charles N.; Vuilleumier, Laurent; Demengel, Dominique; Haeffelin, Martial

    2014-12-08

    The fast development of solar radiation and energy applications, such as photovoltaic and solar thermodynamic systems, has increased the need for solar radiation measurement and monitoring, not only for the global component but also the diffuse and direct. End users look for the best compromise between getting close to state-of-the-art measurements and keeping capital, maintenance and operating costs to a minimum. Among the existing commercial options, SPN1 is a relatively low cost solar radiometer that estimates global and diffuse solar irradiances from seven thermopile sensors under a shading mask and without moving parts. This work presents a comprehensive study of SPN1 accuracy and sources of uncertainty, which results from laboratory experiments, numerical modeling and comparison studies between measurements from this sensor and state-of-the art instruments for six diverse sites. Several clues are provided for improving the SPN1 accuracy and agreement with state-of-the-art measurements.

  3. Evaluation of Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Habte, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-02-01

    This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances. These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband radiometers, and a pyranometer with fixed internal shading and are all deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. Data from 32 global horizontal irradiance and 19 direct normal irradiance radiometers are presented. The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances.

  4. Narrowband filter radiometer for ground-based measurements of global ultraviolet solar irradiance and total ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Petkov, Boyan; Vitale, Vito; Tomasi, Claudio; Bonafe, Ubaldo; Scaglione, Salvatore; Flori, Daniele; Santaguida, Riccardo; Gausa, Michael; Hansen, Georg; Colombo, Tiziano

    2006-06-20

    The ultraviolet narrowband filter radiometer (UV-RAD) designed by the authors to take ground-based measurements of UV solar irradiance, total ozone, and biological dose rate is described, together with the main characteristics of the seven blocked filters mounted on it, all of which have full widths at half maxima that range 0.67 to 0.98 nm. We have analyzed the causes of cosine response and calibration errors carefully to define the corresponding correction terms, paying particular attention to those that are due to the spectral displacements of the filter transmittance peaks from the integer wavelength values. The influence of the ozone profile on the retrieved ozone at large solar zenith angles has also been examined by means of field measurements. The opportunity of carrying out nearly monochromatic irradiance measurements offered by the UV-RAD allowed us to improve the procedure usually followed to reconstruct the solar spectrum at the surface by fitting the computed results, using radiative transfer models with field measurements of irradiance. Two long-term comparison campaigns took place, showing that a mean discrepancy of+0.3% exists between the UV-RAD total ozone values and those given by the Brewer no. 63 spectroradiometer and that mean differences of+0.3% and-0.9% exist between the erythemal dose rates determined with the UV-RAD and those obtained with the Brewer no. 63 and the Brewer no. 104 spectroradiometers, respectively.

  5. Response of the upper atmosphere to variations in the solar soft x-ray irradiance. Ph.D. Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    Terrestrial far ultraviolet (FUV) airglow emissions have been suggested as a means for remote sensing the structure of the upper atmosphere. The energy which leads to the excitation of FUV airglow emissions is solar irradiance at extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray wavelengths. Solar irradiance at these wavelengths is known to be highly variable; studies of nitric oxide (NO) in the lower thermosphere have suggested a variability of more than an order of magnitude in the solar soft x-ray irradiance. To properly interpret the FUV airglow, the magnitude of the solar energy deposition must be known. Previous analyses have used the electron impact excited Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (LBH) bands of N2 to infer the flux of photoelectrons in the atmosphere and thus to infer the magnitude of the solar irradiance. This dissertation presents the first simultaneous measurements of the FUV airglow, the major atmospheric constituent densities, and the solar EUV and soft x-ray irradiances. The measurements were made on three flights of an identical sounding rocket payload at different levels of solar activity. The linear response in brightness of the LBH bands to variations in solar irradiance is demonstrated. In addition to the N2 LBH bands, atomic oxygen lines at 135.6 and 130.4 nm are also studied. Unlike the LBH bands, these emissions undergo radiative transfer effects in the atmosphere. The OI emission at 135.6 nm is found to be well modeled using a radiative transfer calculation and the known excitation processes. Unfortunately, the assumed processes leading to OI 130.4 nm excitation are found to be insufficient to reproduce the observed variability of this emission. Production of NO in the atmosphere is examined; it is shown that a lower than previously reported variability in the solar soft x-ray irradiance is required to explain the variability of NO.

  6. Solar Radiometric Data Quality Assessment of SIRS, SKYRAD and GNDRAD Measurements (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Habte, A.; Stoffel, T.; Reda, I.; Wilcox, S.; Kutchenreiter, M.; Gotseff, P.; Anderberg, M.

    2014-03-01

    Solar radiation is the driving force for the earth's weather and climate. Understanding the elements of this dynamic energy balance requires accurate measurements of broadband solar irradiance. Since the mid-1990's the ARM Program has deployed pyrheliometers and pyranometers for the measurement of direct normal irradiance (DNI), global horizontal irradiance (GHI), diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI), and upwelling shortwave (US) radiation at permanent and mobile field research sites. This poster summarizes the basis for assessing the broadband solar radiation data available from the SIRS, SKYRAD, and GNDRAD measurement systems and provides examples of data inspections.

  7. Evaluation of models for estimating solar irradiation on vertical surfaces at Valencia, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Utrillas, M.P.; Martinez-Lozano, J.A.; Casanovas, A.J. )

    1991-01-01

    Hourly irradiation data recorded on vertical surfaces at north, east, south, and west orientations during the winter period going from December 1989 to March 1990 in Valencia, Spain, have been compared with estimated solar irradiation from several tilted-surface models. The isotropic-, Temps' and Coulson's-, Klucher's-, Hay's-, Shartveit's and Olseth's, Gueymard's-, and Perez' (simplified) models have been considered for this comparison. Root-mean-square-difference (RMSD), mean-bias-difference (MBD) and mean-absolute-difference (MAD) estimators have been used to measure the departure of models from experimental data. Modeled values are evaluated with the original coefficients proposed by the authors. Results of comparison show that the south orientation is less prone to modeling errors. Perez' 25{degree} circumsolar simplified model being the less affected by errors in north, eat and south orientations; for west orientation Klucher's model gives a lesser error. These results are consistent with those reported in previous studies.

  8. Ground-level spectral distribution of solar direct-normal irradiance and marine aerosol attenuation coefficients at Reunion Island

    SciTech Connect

    Vaxelaire, P.; Leveau, J.; Baldy, S. ); Menguy, G. )

    1991-01-01

    The ground-level spectral distribution of direct solar irradiance at Reunion Island was measured for six bands covering the spectrum of solar radiation. The measurements, distributed over one year, were made under clear sky conditions with a pyrheliometer (Eppley, NIP) and six large pass-band flat filters. Good stability of spectral irradiances as a function of solar height allows us to propose approximate relationships which significantly characterize the irradiance into each spectral band. Measurements at Reunion vary significantly from data obtained with the same apparatus in a northern hemisphere continental area (Lyon). The determination of aerosol attenuation coefficients, for different spectral bands, allows the establish of a mean curve, for these coefficients as a function of wavelength, characteristic for marine aerosols.

  9. Variation of carrier concentration and interface trap density in 8MeV electron irradiated c-Si solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, Sathyanarayana Rao, Asha; Krishnan, Sheeja; Sanjeev, Ganesh; Suresh, E. P.

    2014-04-24

    The capacitance and conductance measurements were carried out for c-Si solar cells, irradiated with 8 MeV electrons with doses ranging from 5kGy – 100kGy in order to investigate the anomalous degradation of the cells in the radiation harsh environments. Capacitance – Voltage measurements indicate that there is a slight reduction in the carrier concentration upon electron irradiation due to the creation of radiation induced defects. The conductance measurement results reveal that the interface state densities and the trap time constant increases with electron dose due to displacement damages in c-Si solar cells.

  10. Spectral and temperature correction of silicon photovoltaic solar radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, J.J.; Perez, R.; Harrison, L. ); LeBaron, B.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Silicon photovoltaic sensors are an inexpensive alternative to standard thermopile sensors for the measurement of solar radiation. However, their temperature and spectral response render them less accurate for global horizontal irradiance and unsuitable for direct beam and diffuse horizontal irradiance unless they can be reliably corrected. A correction procedure for the rotating shadowband radiometer, which measures all three components, based on a three-way parameterization of the solar position and sky conditions is proposed. After correction, root-mean-square errors for the global and diffuse horizontal irradiance and the direct normal irradiance are about 10, 12, and 13 W/m{sup 2} in comparison with coincident, 5-minute thermopile measurements. While the numerical results are specific to the rotating shadowband instrument, the correction algorithm should apply universally.

  11. Using CAD software to simulate PV energy yield - The case of product integrated photovoltaic operated under indoor solar irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, N.H.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Sinke, W.C.

    2010-08-15

    In this paper, we show that photovoltaic (PV) energy yields can be simulated using standard rendering and ray-tracing features of Computer Aided Design (CAD) software. To this end, three-dimensional (3-D) sceneries are ray-traced in CAD. The PV power output is then modeled by translating irradiance intensity data of rendered images back into numerical data. To ensure accurate results, the solar irradiation data used as input is compared to numerical data obtained from rendered images, showing excellent agreement. As expected, also ray-tracing precision in the CAD software proves to be very high. To demonstrate PV energy yield simulations using this innovative concept, solar radiation time course data of a few days was modeled in 3-D to simulate distributions of irradiance incident on flat, single- and double-bend shapes and a PV powered computer mouse located on a window sill. Comparisons of measured to simulated PV output of the mouse show that also in practice, simulation accuracies can be very high. Theoretically, this concept has great potential, as it can be adapted to suit a wide range of solar energy applications, such as sun-tracking and concentrator systems, Building Integrated PV (BIPV) or Product Integrated PV (PIPV). However, graphical user interfaces of 'CAD-PV' software tools are not yet available. (author)

  12. Lanai high-density irradiance sensor network for characterizing solar resource variability of MW-scale PV system.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Johnson, Lars; Ellis, Abraham; Kuszmaul, Scott S.

    2012-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and SunPower Corporation (SunPower) have completed design and deployment of an autonomous irradiance monitoring system based on wireless mesh communications and a battery operated data acquisition system. The Lanai High-Density Irradiance Sensor Network is comprised of 24 LI-COR{reg_sign} irradiance sensors (silicon pyranometers) polled by 19 RF Radios. The system was implemented with commercially available hardware and custom developed LabVIEW applications. The network of solar irradiance sensors was installed in January 2010 around the periphery and within the 1.2 MW ac La Ola PV plant on the island of Lanai, Hawaii. Data acquired at 1 second intervals is transmitted over wireless links to be time-stamped and recorded on SunPower data servers at the site for later analysis. The intent is to study power and solar resource data sets to correlate the movement of cloud shadows across the PV array and its effect on power output of the PV plant. The irradiance data sets recorded will be used to study the shape, size and velocity of cloud shadows. This data, along with time-correlated PV array output data, will support the development and validation of a PV performance model that can predict the short-term output characteristics (ramp rates) of PV systems of different sizes and designs. This analysis could also be used by the La Ola system operator to predict power ramp events and support the function of the future battery system. This experience could be used to validate short-term output forecasting methodologies.

  13. Solar UV radiation exposure of seamen - Measurements, calibration and model calculations of erythemal irradiance along ship routes

    SciTech Connect

    Feister, Uwe; Meyer, Gabriele; Kirst, Ulrich

    2013-05-10

    Seamen working on vessels that go along tropical and subtropical routes are at risk to receive high doses of solar erythemal radiation. Due to small solar zenith angles and low ozone values, UV index and erythemal dose are much higher than at mid-and high latitudes. UV index values at tropical and subtropical Oceans can exceed UVI = 20, which is more than double of typical mid-latitude UV index values. Daily erythemal dose can exceed the 30-fold of typical midlatitude winter values. Measurements of erythemal exposure of different body parts on seamen have been performed along 4 routes of merchant vessels. The data base has been extended by two years of continuous solar irradiance measurements taken on the mast top of RV METEOR. Radiative transfer model calculations for clear sky along the ship routes have been performed that use satellite-based input for ozone and aerosols to provide maximum erythemal irradiance and dose. The whole data base is intended to be used to derive individual erythemal exposure of seamen during work-time.

  14. Multi-facet concentrator of solar setup for irradiating the objects placed in a target plane with solar light

    DOEpatents

    Lewandowski, Allan A.; Yampolskiy, Vladislav; Alekseev, Valerie; Son, Valentin

    2001-01-01

    According to the proposed invention, this technical result is achieved so that many-facet concentrator of a solar setup for exposure of objects, placed in a target plane, to the action of solar radiation containing a supporting frame and facets differing by that the facets of the concentrator are chosen with spherical focusing reflective surfaces of equal focal lengths and with selective coatings reflecting a desired spectral fraction of solar radiation, and are arranged on the supporting frame symmetrically with respect to the common axis of the concentrator, their optical axes being directed to the single point on the optical axis of the concentrator located before the nominal focus point of the concentrator and determining the position of arranging the target plane.

  15. A 24-h forecast of solar irradiance using artificial neural network: Application for performance prediction of a grid-connected PV plant at Trieste, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Mellit, Adel; Pavan, Alessandro Massi

    2010-05-15

    Forecasting of solar irradiance is in general significant for planning the operations of power plants which convert renewable energies into electricity. In particular, the possibility to predict the solar irradiance (up to 24 h or even more) can became - with reference to the Grid Connected Photovoltaic Plants (GCPV) - fundamental in making power dispatching plans and - with reference to stand alone and hybrid systems - also a useful reference for improving the control algorithms of charge controllers. In this paper, a practical method for solar irradiance forecast using artificial neural network (ANN) is presented. The proposed Multilayer Perceptron MLP-model makes it possible to forecast the solar irradiance on a base of 24 h using the present values of the mean daily solar irradiance and air temperature. An experimental database of solar irradiance and air temperature data (from July 1st 2008 to May 23rd 2009 and from November 23rd 2009 to January 24th 2010) has been used. The database has been collected in Trieste (latitude 45 40'N, longitude 13 46'E), Italy. In order to check the generalization capability of the MLP-forecaster, a K-fold cross-validation was carried out. The results indicate that the proposed model performs well, while the correlation coefficient is in the range 98-99% for sunny days and 94-96% for cloudy days. As an application, the comparison between the forecasted one and the energy produced by the GCPV plant installed on the rooftop of the municipality of Trieste shows the goodness of the proposed model. (author)

  16. Monthly average clear-sky broadband irradiance database for worldwide solar heat gain and building cooling load calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Gueymard, Christian A.; Thevenard, Didier

    2009-11-15

    This paper establishes the formulation of a new clear-sky solar radiation model appropriate for algorithms calculating cooling loads in buildings. The aim is to replace the ASHRAE clear-sky model of 1967, whose limitations are well known and are reviewed. The new model is derived in two steps. The first step consists of obtaining a reference irradiance dataset from the REST2 model, which uses a high-performance, validated, two-band clear-sky algorithm. REST2 requires detailed inputs about atmospheric conditions such as aerosols, water vapor, ozone, and ground albedo. The development of global atmospheric datasets used as inputs to REST2 is reviewed. For the most part, these datasets are derived from space observations to guarantee universality and accuracy. In the case of aerosols, point-source terrestrial measurements were also used as ground truthing of the satellite data. The second step of the model consists of fits derived from a REST2-based reference irradiance dataset. These fits enable the derivation of compact, but relatively accurate expressions, for beam and diffuse clear-sky irradiance. The fitted expressions require the tabulation of only two pseudo-optical depths for each month of the year. The resulting model, and its tabulated data, are expected to be incorporated in the 2009 edition of the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals. (author)

  17. Improved photovoltaic energy output for cloudy conditions with a solar tracking system

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Nelson A.; Gibson, Thomas L.

    2009-11-15

    This work describes measurements of the solar irradiance made during cloudy periods in order to improve the amount of solar energy captured during such periods. It is well-known that 2-axis tracking, in which solar modules are pointed at the sun, improves the overall capture of solar energy by a given area of modules by 30-50% versus modules with a fixed tilt. On sunny days the direct sunshine accounts for up to 90% of the total solar energy, with the other 10% from diffuse (scattered) solar energy. However, during overcast conditions nearly all of the solar irradiance is diffuse radiation that is isotropically-distributed over the whole sky. An analysis of our data shows that during overcast conditions, tilting a solar module or sensor away from the zenith reduces the irradiance relative to a horizontal configuration, in which the sensor or module is pointed toward the zenith (horizontal module tilt), and thus receives the highest amount of this isotropically-distributed sky radiation. This observation led to an improved tracking algorithm in which a solar array would track the sun during cloud-free periods using 2-axis tracking, when the solar disk is visible, but go to a horizontal configuration when the sky becomes overcast. During cloudy periods we show that a horizontal module orientation increases the solar energy capture by nearly 50% compared to 2-axis solar tracking during the same period. Improving the harvesting of solar energy on cloudy days is important to using solar energy on a daily basis for fueling fuel-cell electric vehicles or charging extended-range electric vehicles because it improves the energy capture on the days with the lowest hydrogen generation, which in turn reduces the system size and cost. (author)

  18. Solar

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ... Sciences Applications National Solar Thermal Test Facility Nuclear Energy ...

  19. Optimal measurement of surface shortwave irradiance using current instrumentation -- the ARM experience

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, J.; Rubes, M.; Stoffel, T.; Wesley, M.; Splitt, M.; DeLuisi, J.

    1997-03-01

    Shortwave (solar) measurements of surface irradiance for clear sky conditions disagree with a number of different models. Betts used the European Center for Medium-range Forecasts (ECMWF) shortwave model to calculate surface irradiance that were 5-10 percent higher than measurements. Wild used a different formulation of the ECMWF shortwave model, but found that the model overpredicted clear-sky shortwave and average of 3 percent. Ding and Wang used data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program and found that the GENESIS GCM shortwave model, likewise, overpredicted clear-sky irradiance by about 4 percent. To help resolve the measurement dilemma, reference instruments were deployed in April 1996 at the Southern Great Plains ARM site central facility very near the shortwave measurements. The rest of the paper describes the experiment undertaken to ascertain total horizontal shortwave irradiance at the surface, including a separation of the direct normal and diffuse horizontal components. Results and a discussion of same concludes the paper.

  20. NREL Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL): Baseline Measurement System (BMS); Golden, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

    1981-07-15

    The SRRL was established at the Solar Energy Research Institute (now NREL) in 1981 to provide continuous measurements of the solar resources, outdoor calibrations of pyranometers and pyrheliometers, and to characterize commercially available instrumentation. The SRRL is an outdoor laboratory located on South Table Mountain, a mesa providing excellent solar access throughout the year, overlooking Denver. Beginning with the basic measurements of global horizontal irradiance, direct normal irradiance and diffuse horizontal irradiance at 5-minute intervals, the SRRL Baseline Measurement System now produces more than 130 data elements at 1-min intervals that are available from the Measurement & Instrumentation Data Center Web site. Data sources include global horizontal, direct normal, diffuse horizontal (from shadowband and tracking disk), global on tilted surfaces, reflected solar irradiance, ultraviolet, infrared (upwelling and downwelling), photometric and spectral radiometers, sky imagery, and surface meteorological conditions (temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, precipitation, snow cover, wind speed and direction at multiple levels). Data quality control and assessment include daily instrument maintenance (M-F) with automated data quality control based on real-time examinations of redundant instrumentation and internal consistency checks using NREL's SERI-QC methodology. Operators are notified of equipment problems by automatic e-mail messages generated by the data acquisition and processing system. Radiometers are recalibrated at least annually with reference instruments traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR).

  1. NREL Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL): Baseline Measurement System (BMS); Golden, Colorado (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Stoffel, T.; Andreas, A.

    The SRRL was established at the Solar Energy Research Institute (now NREL) in 1981 to provide continuous measurements of the solar resources, outdoor calibrations of pyranometers and pyrheliometers, and to characterize commercially available instrumentation. The SRRL is an outdoor laboratory located on South Table Mountain, a mesa providing excellent solar access throughout the year, overlooking Denver. Beginning with the basic measurements of global horizontal irradiance, direct normal irradiance and diffuse horizontal irradiance at 5-minute intervals, the SRRL Baseline Measurement System now produces more than 130 data elements at 1-min intervals that are available from the Measurement & Instrumentation Data Center Web site. Data sources include global horizontal, direct normal, diffuse horizontal (from shadowband and tracking disk), global on tilted surfaces, reflected solar irradiance, ultraviolet, infrared (upwelling and downwelling), photometric and spectral radiometers, sky imagery, and surface meteorological conditions (temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, precipitation, snow cover, wind speed and direction at multiple levels). Data quality control and assessment include daily instrument maintenance (M-F) with automated data quality control based on real-time examinations of redundant instrumentation and internal consistency checks using NREL's SERI-QC methodology. Operators are notified of equipment problems by automatic e-mail messages generated by the data acquisition and processing system. Radiometers are recalibrated at least annually with reference instruments traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR).

  2. Physics-Based GOES Satellite Product for Use in NREL's National Solar Radiation Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, M.; Habte, A.; Gotseff, P.; Weekley, A.; Lopez, A.; Molling, C.; Heidinger, A.

    2014-07-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), University of Wisconsin, and National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration are collaborating to investigate the integration of the Satellite Algorithm for Shortwave Radiation Budget (SASRAB) products into future versions of NREL's 4-km by 4-km gridded National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB). This paper describes a method to select an improved clear-sky model that could replace the current SASRAB global horizontal irradiance and direct normal irradiances reported during clear-sky conditions.

  3. Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network operated from November 1985 through December 1996. The six-station network provided 5-minute averaged measurements of global and diffuse horizontal solar irradiance. The data were processed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to improve the assessment of the solar radiation resources in the southeastern United States. Three of the stations also measured the direct-normal solar irradiance with a pyrheliometer mounted in an automatic sun tracker. All data are archived in the Standard Broadband Format (SBF) with quality-assessment indicators. Monthly data summaries and plots are also available for each month. In January 1997 the HBCU sites became part of the CONFRRM solar monitoring network.

  4. ARM - Measurement - Horizontal wind

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    wind ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Horizontal wind The horizontal ...

  5. ARM Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR): irradiances

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hodges, Gary

    1993-07-04

    The multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) takes spectral measurements of direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. These measurements are at nominal wavelengths of 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm. The measurements are made at a user-specified time interval, usually about one minute or less. The sampling rate for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility MFRSRs is 20 seconds. From such measurements, one may infer the atmosphere's optical depth at the wavelengths mentioned above. In turn, these optical depths may be used to derive information about the column abundances of ozone and water vapor (Michalsky et al. 1995), as well as aerosol (Michalsky et al. 1994) and other atmospheric constituents. A silicon detector is also part of the MFRSR. This detector provides a measure of the broadband direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. A MFRSR head that is mounted to look vertically downward can measure upwelling spectral irradiances. In the ARM system, this instrument is called a multifilter radiometer (MFR). At the Southern Great Plains (SGP) there are two MFRs; one mounted at the 10-m height and the other at 25 m. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites, the MFRs are mounted at 10 m. MFRSR heads are also used to measure normal incidence radiation by mounting on a solar tracking device. These are referred to as normal incidence multi-filter radiometers (NIMFRs) and are located at the SGP and NSA sites. Another specialized use for the MFRSR is the narrow field of view (NFOV) instrument located at SGP. The NFOV is a ground-based radiometer (MFRSR head) that looks straight up.

  6. ARM Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR): irradiances

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hodges, Gary

    The multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) takes spectral measurements of direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. These measurements are at nominal wavelengths of 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm. The measurements are made at a user-specified time interval, usually about one minute or less. The sampling rate for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility MFRSRs is 20 seconds. From such measurements, one may infer the atmosphere's optical depth at the wavelengths mentioned above. In turn, these optical depths may be used to derive information about the column abundances of ozone and water vapor (Michalsky et al. 1995), as well as aerosol (Michalsky et al. 1994) and other atmospheric constituents. A silicon detector is also part of the MFRSR. This detector provides a measure of the broadband direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. A MFRSR head that is mounted to look vertically downward can measure upwelling spectral irradiances. In the ARM system, this instrument is called a multifilter radiometer (MFR). At the Southern Great Plains (SGP) there are two MFRs; one mounted at the 10-m height and the other at 25 m. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites, the MFRs are mounted at 10 m. MFRSR heads are also used to measure normal incidence radiation by mounting on a solar tracking device. These are referred to as normal incidence multi-filter radiometers (NIMFRs) and are located at the SGP and NSA sites. Another specialized use for the MFRSR is the narrow field of view (NFOV) instrument located at SGP. The NFOV is a ground-based radiometer (MFRSR head) that looks straight up.

  7. Solar

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Learn about the Energy Department's efforts to advance innovative technologies that drive down the cost of solar energy in America.

  8. CONFRRM Solar Energy Resource Data: Data from the Cooperative Network for Renewable Resource Measurements

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Cooperative Network for Renewable Resource Measurements (CONFRRM) is a cooperative effort between NREL and other agencies to conduct long-term solar radiation and wind measurements at selected locations in the United States. CONFRRM expands the geographic coverage of measurement locations and provides high quality data for determining site-specific resources, as well as data for the validation and testing of models to predict available resources based on meteorological or satellite data. Twelve sites are currently active in the CONFRRM network. CONFRRM complements and provides additional geographic coverage to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) Integrated Surface Irradiance Study (ISIS) network. Solar data elements measured and reported by the CONFRRM sites include global horizontal irradiance (GHI), direct normal irradiance (DNI), diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI), and global horizontal irradiance measured with a LI-COR pyranometer. Meteorological data include air temperature, relative humidity, pressure, wind speed, wind direction and peak wind speed. Data logger temperature and battery voltage may also be reported. Prior to January 1, 1996, five CONFRRM sites together with South Caroline State College in Orangeburg, South Carolina, made up the Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network, located in the Southeastern United States. In January 1997 the HBCU sites became part of CONFRRM.

  9. Solar

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Applications National Solar Thermal Test Facility ... EnergyWater Nexus EnergyWater History Water Monitoring & ... Market Transformation Fuel Cells Predictive Simulation of ...

  10. Solar

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas ...

  11. Horizontal Plate Plate

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Unknown Title: Horizontal Plate Plate GeospatialDataPresentationForm: vector digital data OnlineLinkage:

  12. Satellite-Based Solar Resource Data Sets for India 2002-2012

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, M.; Perez, R.; Gueymard, C.; Anderberg, M.; Gotseff, P.

    2014-02-01

    A new 10-km hourly solar resource product was created for India. This product was created using satellite radiances from the Meteosat series of satellites. The product contains global horizontal irradiances (GHI) and direct normal irradiances (DNI) for the period from 2002 to 2011. An additional solar resource data set covering the period from January 2012 to June 2012 was created solely for validation because this period overlaps ground measurements that were made available from the Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy's (MNRE's) National Institute for Solar Energy for five stations that are part of MNRE's solar resource network. These measurements were quality checked using the SERI QC software and used to validate the satellite product. A comparison of the satellite product to the ground measurements for the five stations shows good agreement. This report also presents a comparison of the new version of solar resource data to the previous version, which covered the period from 2002 to 2008.

  13. Evaluating Solar Resource Data Obtained from Multiple Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Andreas, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-09-01

    Solar radiation resource measurements from radiometers are used to predict and evaluate the performance of photovoltaic and concentrating solar power systems, validate satellite-based models for estimating solar resources, and advance research in solar forecasting and climate change. This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances (GHI) and direct normal irradiances (DNI). These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband irradiometers, and a pyranometer with a shading ring deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL). The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference GHI and DNI.

  14. Measuring solar reflectance Part I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul

    2010-05-14

    Solar reflectance can vary with the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight, which in turn depend on surface orientation, solar position and atmospheric conditions. A widely used solar reflectance metric based on the ASTM Standard E891 beam-normal solar spectral irradiance underestimates the solar heat gain of a spectrally selective 'cool colored' surface because this irradiance contains a greater fraction of near-infrared light than typically found in ordinary (unconcentrated) global sunlight. At mainland U.S. latitudes, this metric RE891BN can underestimate the annual peak solar heat gain of a typical roof or pavement (slope {le} 5:12 [23{sup o}]) by as much as 89 W m{sup -2}, and underestimate its peak surface temperature by up to 5 K. Using R{sub E891BN} to characterize roofs in a building energy simulation can exaggerate the economic value N of annual cool-roof net energy savings by as much as 23%. We define clear-sky air mass one global horizontal ('AM1GH') solar reflectance R{sub g,0}, a simple and easily measured property that more accurately predicts solar heat gain. R{sub g,0} predicts the annual peak solar heat gain of a roof or pavement to within 2 W m{sup -2}, and overestimates N by no more than 3%. R{sub g,0} is well suited to rating the solar reflectances of roofs, pavements and walls. We show in Part II that R{sub g,0} can be easily and accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer or version 6 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer.

  15. Measuring solar reflectance - Part I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul

    2010-09-15

    Solar reflectance can vary with the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight, which in turn depend on surface orientation, solar position and atmospheric conditions. A widely used solar reflectance metric based on the ASTM Standard E891 beam-normal solar spectral irradiance underestimates the solar heat gain of a spectrally selective ''cool colored'' surface because this irradiance contains a greater fraction of near-infrared light than typically found in ordinary (unconcentrated) global sunlight. At mainland US latitudes, this metric R{sub E891BN} can underestimate the annual peak solar heat gain of a typical roof or pavement (slope {<=} 5:12 [23 ]) by as much as 89 W m{sup -2}, and underestimate its peak surface temperature by up to 5 K. Using R{sub E891BN} to characterize roofs in a building energy simulation can exaggerate the economic value N of annual cool roof net energy savings by as much as 23%. We define clear sky air mass one global horizontal (''AM1GH'') solar reflectance R{sub g,0}, a simple and easily measured property that more accurately predicts solar heat gain. R{sub g,0} predicts the annual peak solar heat gain of a roof or pavement to within 2 W m{sup -2}, and overestimates N by no more than 3%. R{sub g,0} is well suited to rating the solar reflectances of roofs, pavements and walls. We show in Part II that R{sub g,0} can be easily and accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer or version 6 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer. (author)

  16. solar

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    2%2A en Solar power purchase for DOE laboratories http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasessolarpower

  17. Horizontal well planning

    SciTech Connect

    Schuh, F.J. )

    1991-03-01

    Interest in horizontal drilling has exploded at a rate well above even the most optimistic projections. Certainly, this technique will not end with the Bakken and Austin Chalk plays. However, future reservoirs will undoubtedly require much more complicated well designs and multi-disciplined technical interaction than has been used so far. The horizontal drilling costs are too high to permit resolving of all the technical issues by trial and error. A multi-disciplinary team approach will be required in order for horizontal drilling to achieve its economic potential.

  18. NREL: Energy Analysis - Concentrating Solar Power Results - Life...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... technologies. Solar Fraction is the percentage of electricity produced only from solar energy Direct Normal Irradiance is the amount of solar energy per unit area incident upon ...

  19. Horizontal drilling spurs optimism

    SciTech Connect

    Crouse, P.C. )

    1991-02-01

    1990 proved to be an exciting year for horizontal wells. This budding procedure appears to be heading for the mainstream oil and gas market, because it can more efficiently recover hydrocarbons from many reservoirs throughout the world. This paper reports on an estimated 1,000 wells that were drilled horizontally (all laterals) in 1990, with the Austin Chalk formation of Texas accounting for about 65% of all world activity. The Bakken Shale play in Montana and North Dakota proved to be the second most active area, with an estimated 90 wells drilled. Many operators in this play have indicated the bloom may be off the Bakken because of poor results outside the nose of the formation, further complicated by some of the harshest rock, reservoir and completion problems posed to horizontal technology.

  20. Horizontal Advanced Tensiometer

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    2004-06-22

    An horizontal advanced tensiometer is described that allows the monitoring of the water pressure of soil positions, particularly beneath objects or materials that inhibit the use of previous monitoring wells. The tensiometer includes a porous cup, a pressure transducer (with an attached gasket device), an adaptive chamber, at least one outer guide tube which allows access to the desired horizontal position, a transducer wire, a data logger and preferably an inner guide tube and a specialized joint which provides pressure on the inner guide tube to maintain the seal between the gasket of the transducer and the adaptive chamber.

  1. Solar tracking system

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2016-07-12

    Solar tracking systems, as well as methods of using such solar tracking systems, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the solar tracking systems include lateral supports horizontally positioned between uprights to support photovoltaic modules. The lateral supports may be raised and lowered along the uprights or translated to cause the photovoltaic modules to track the moving sun.

  2. Enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity of CuInS{sub 2} loaded TiO{sub 2} under solar light irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Changjiang; Xi, Zhenhao; Fang, Wenzhang; Xing, Mingyang; Zhang, Jinlong

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, p–n type CuInS{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} particles were prepared in ethylenediamine by the solvothermal method. The microstructural properties of the synthesized p–n type catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in order to confirm the existence of crystalline CuInS{sub 2} on the surface of TiO{sub 2}, which was also confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images provided the detailed morphological properties about the CuInS{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} heterostructure. UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–vis DRS) was used to investigate the optical properties of the CuInS{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} particles. The DRS results indicated that both the p–n type structure and CuInS{sub 2} acting as a sensitizer can enhance significantly the absorption of UV and visible light. The photocatalytic activities of the CuInS{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} particles were evaluated by hydrogen evolution reactions using Xe-lamp irradiation as a simulated solar light source. The greatly enhanced photocatalytic activity of hydrogen evolution under simulated solar light is about ~7 fold higher than that of pure commercial TiO{sub 2} (Degussa P25). - Graphical abstract: The heterojunction structure of CuInS{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} promoted the efficiency of photoinduced charge carrier transfer and highly inherited the recombination of activated electrons and holes. - Highlight: • CuInS{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} was prepared by a one-step solvothermal method. • 2.5% CuInS{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} has the highest activity and keeps the activity stable. • Heterojunction structure of sample promoted the separation of electrons and holes.

  3. Horizontal baffle for nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rylatt, John A. (Monroeville, PA)

    1978-01-01

    A horizontal baffle disposed in the annulus defined between the core barrel and the thermal liner of a nuclear reactor thereby physically separating the outlet region of the core from the annular area below the horizontal baffle. The horizontal baffle prevents hot coolant that has passed through the reactor core from thermally damaging apparatus located in the annulus below the horizontal baffle by utilizing the thermally induced bowing of the horizontal baffle to enhance sealing while accommodating lateral motion of the baffle base plate.

  4. Measuring solar reflectance - Part II: Review of practical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul

    2010-09-15

    A companion article explored how solar reflectance varies with surface orientation and solar position, and found that clear sky air mass 1 global horizontal (AM1GH) solar reflectance is a preferred quantity for estimating solar heat gain. In this study we show that AM1GH solar reflectance R{sub g,0} can be accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer, or an updated edition of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer (version 6). Of primary concern are errors that result from variations in the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight. Neglecting shadow, background and instrument errors, the conventional pyranometer technique can measure R{sub g,0} to within 0.01 for surface slopes up to 5:12 [23 ], and to within 0.02 for surface slopes up to 12:12 [45 ]. An alternative pyranometer method minimizes shadow errors and can be used to measure R{sub g,0} of a surface as small as 1 m in diameter. The accuracy with which it can measure R{sub g,0} is otherwise comparable to that of the conventional pyranometer technique. A solar spectrophotometer can be used to determine R{sub g,0}{sup *}, a solar reflectance computed by averaging solar spectral reflectance weighted with AM1GH solar spectral irradiance. Neglecting instrument errors, R{sub g,0}{sup *} matches R{sub g,0} to within 0.006. The air mass 1.5 solar reflectance measured with version 5 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer can differ from R{sub g,0}{sup *} by as much as 0.08, but the AM1GH output of version 6 of this instrument matches R{sub g,0}{sup *} to within about 0.01. (author)

  5. Measuring solar reflectance Part II: Review of practical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul

    2010-05-14

    A companion article explored how solar reflectance varies with surface orientation and solar position, and found that clear sky air mass 1 global horizontal (AM1GH) solar reflectance is a preferred quantity for estimating solar heat gain. In this study we show that AM1GH solar reflectance R{sub g,0} can be accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer, or an updated edition of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer (version 6). Of primary concern are errors that result from variations in the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight. Neglecting shadow, background and instrument errors, the conventional pyranometer technique can measure R{sub g,0} to within 0.01 for surface slopes up to 5:12 [23{sup o}], and to within 0.02 for surface slopes up to 12:12 [45{sup o}]. An alternative pyranometer method minimizes shadow errors and can be used to measure R{sub g,0} of a surface as small as 1 m in diameter. The accuracy with which it can measure R{sub g,0} is otherwise comparable to that of the conventional pyranometer technique. A solar spectrophotometer can be used to determine R*{sub g,0}, a solar reflectance computed by averaging solar spectral reflectance weighted with AM1GH solar spectral irradiance. Neglecting instrument errors, R*{sub g,0} matches R{sub g,0} to within 0.006. The air mass 1.5 solar reflectance measured with version 5 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer can differ from R*{sub g,0} by as much as 0.08, but the AM1GH output of version 6 of this instrument matches R*{sub g,0} to within about 0.01.

  6. Increasing the solar photovoltaic energy capture on sunny and cloudy days

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Nelson A.; Gibson, Thomas L.

    2011-01-15

    This report analyzes an extensive set of measurements of the solar irradiance made using four identical solar arrays and associated solar sensors (collectively referred to as solar collectors) with different tilt angles relative to the earth's surface, and thus the position of the sun, in order to determine an optimal tracking algorithm for capturing solar radiation. The study included a variety of ambient conditions including different seasons and both cloudy and cloud-free conditions. One set of solar collectors was always approximately pointed directly toward the sun (DTS) for a period around solar noon. These solar collectors thus captured the direct beam component of the solar radiation that predominates on sunny days. We found that on sunny days, solar collectors with a DTS configuration captured more solar energy in accordance with the well-known cosine dependence for the response of a flat-surfaced solar collector to the angle of incidence with direct beam radiation. In particular, a DTS orientation was found to capture up to twice as much solar energy as a horizontal (H) orientation in which the array is tilted toward the zenith. Another set of solar collectors always had an H orientation, and this best captured the diffuse component of the solar radiation that predominates on cloudy days. The dependence of the H/DTS ratio on the solar-collector tilt angle was in approximate agreement with the Isotropic Diffuse Model derived for heavily overcast conditions. During cloudy periods, we found that an H configuration increased the solar energy capture by nearly 40% compared to a DTS configuration during the same period, and we estimate the solar energy increase of an H configuration over a system that tracks the obscured solar disk could reach 50% over a whole heavily-overcast day. On an annual basis the increase is predicted to be much less, typically only about 1%, because the contribution of cloudy days to the total annual solar energy captured by a

  7. Solids irradiator

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Marvin E.; Pierce, Jim D.; Whitfield, Willis J.

    1979-01-01

    A novel facility for irradiation of solids embodying pathogens wherein solids are conveyed through an irradiation chamber in individual containers of an endless conveyor.

  8. Measuring solar reflectance Part II: Review of practical methods...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solar position, and found that clear sky air mass 1 global horizontal (AM1GH) solar ... Rsub g,0more to within 0.006. The air mass 1.5 solar reflectance measured with ...

  9. Solar Resource Measurements at FPL Energy … Equipment Only:...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Number: CRD-08-283 CRADA Title: Solar Resource Measurements at FPL Energy - Equipment Only Joint Work ... solar irradiance are important for developing renewable resource data. ...

  10. Solar Smart Grid: 1663 Science and Technology Magazine | Los...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    that gets a significant amount of power from a large solar photovoltaic (PV) array. ... Solar irradiance and wind are fluctuating sources, and their power output can drop ...

  11. Results of the Second Diffuse Horizontal Irradiance IOP

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Restrospective Regulatory Review Restrospective Regulatory Review On January 18, 2011, President Obama issued Executive Order 13563, Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review, which directs federal agencies, among other things, to review existing regulations and determine whether they are still necessary and crafted effectively to solve current problems. The Managing Director of the Federal Register wrote in a recent blog of the value of a commitment to retrospective regulatory review, using

  12. PHLUX: Photographic Flux Tools for Solar Glare and Flux

    SciTech Connect

    2010-12-02

    A web-based tool to a) analytically and empirically quantify glare from reflected light and determine the potential impact (e.g., temporary flash blindness, retinal burn), and b) produce flux maps for central receivers. The tool accepts RAW digital photographs of the glare source (for hazard assessment) or the receiver (for flux mapping), as well as a photograph of the sun for intensity and size scaling. For glare hazard assessment, the tool determines the retinal irradiance (W/cm2) and subtended source angle for an observer and plots the glare source on a hazard spectrum (i.e., low-potential for flash blindness impact, potential for flash blindness impact, retinal burn). For flux mapping, the tool provides a colored map of the receiver scaled by incident solar flux (W/m2) and unwraps the physical dimensions of the receiver while accounting for the perspective of the photographer (e.g., for a flux map of a cylindrical receiver, the horizontal axis denotes receiver angle in degrees and the vertical axis denotes vertical position in meters; for a flat panel receiver, the horizontal axis denotes horizontal position in meters and the vertical axis denotes vertical position in meters). The flux mapping capability also allows the user to specify transects along which the program plots incident solar flux on the receiver.

  13. PHLUX: Photographic Flux Tools for Solar Glare and Flux

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    2010-12-02

    A web-based tool to a) analytically and empirically quantify glare from reflected light and determine the potential impact (e.g., temporary flash blindness, retinal burn), and b) produce flux maps for central receivers. The tool accepts RAW digital photographs of the glare source (for hazard assessment) or the receiver (for flux mapping), as well as a photograph of the sun for intensity and size scaling. For glare hazard assessment, the tool determines the retinal irradiance (W/cm2)more » and subtended source angle for an observer and plots the glare source on a hazard spectrum (i.e., low-potential for flash blindness impact, potential for flash blindness impact, retinal burn). For flux mapping, the tool provides a colored map of the receiver scaled by incident solar flux (W/m2) and unwraps the physical dimensions of the receiver while accounting for the perspective of the photographer (e.g., for a flux map of a cylindrical receiver, the horizontal axis denotes receiver angle in degrees and the vertical axis denotes vertical position in meters; for a flat panel receiver, the horizontal axis denotes horizontal position in meters and the vertical axis denotes vertical position in meters). The flux mapping capability also allows the user to specify transects along which the program plots incident solar flux on the receiver.« less

  14. Solar variability datalogger

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Stein, Joshua; Smith, Ryan

    2016-07-28

    To address the lack of knowledge of local solar variability, we have developed and deployed a low-cost solar variability datalogger (SVD). While most currently used solar irradiance sensors are expensive pyranometers with high accuracy (relevant for annual energy estimates), low-cost sensors display similar precision (relevant for solar variability) as high-cost pyranometers, even if they are not as accurate. In this work, we present evaluation of various low-cost irradiance sensor types, describe the SVD, and present validation and comparison of the SVD collected data. In conclusion, the low cost and ease of use of the SVD will enable a greater understandingmore » of local solar variability, which will reduce developer and utility uncertainty about the impact of solar photovoltaic (PV) installations and thus will encourage greater penetrations of solar energy.« less

  15. Solar Radiation Empirical Quality Assessment

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    1994-03-01

    The SERIQC1 subroutine performs quality assessment of one, two, or three-component solar radiation data (global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal) obtained from one-minute to one-hour integrations. Included in the package is the QCFIT tool to derive expected values from historical data, and the SERIQC1 subroutine to assess the quality of measurement data.

  16. Nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Glenn J.

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint. Small gaps limit horizontal displacement of components during a seismic occurrence and therefore reduce dynamic loadings on the free lower end. The reactor vessel and reactor guard vessel use thicker section roll-forged rings welded between the vessel straight shell sections and the bottom hemispherical head sections. The inside of the reactor guard vessel ring forging contains local vertical dovetail slots and upper ledge pockets to mount and retain field fitted and installed blocks. As an option, the horizontal displacement of the reactor vessel core support cone can be limited by including shop fitted/installed local blocks in opposing alignment with the reactor vessel forged ring. Beams embedded in the wall of the reactor building protrude into apertures in the thermal insulation shell adjacent the reactor guard vessel ring and have motion limit blocks attached thereto to provide to a predetermined clearance between the blocks and reactor guard vessel ring.

  17. Measuring solar reflectance Part I: Defining a metric that accurately...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A widely used solar reflectance metric based on the ASTM Standard E891 beam-normal solar spectral irradiance underestimates the solar heat gain of a spectrally selective 'cool ...

  18. Statistical criteria for characterizing irradiance time series.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Ellis, Abraham; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2010-10-01

    We propose and examine several statistical criteria for characterizing time series of solar irradiance. Time series of irradiance are used in analyses that seek to quantify the performance of photovoltaic (PV) power systems over time. Time series of irradiance are either measured or are simulated using models. Simulations of irradiance are often calibrated to or generated from statistics for observed irradiance and simulations are validated by comparing the simulation output to the observed irradiance. Criteria used in this comparison should derive from the context of the analyses in which the simulated irradiance is to be used. We examine three statistics that characterize time series and their use as criteria for comparing time series. We demonstrate these statistics using observed irradiance data recorded in August 2007 in Las Vegas, Nevada, and in June 2009 in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  19. Measurement of the solar ultraviolet radiation at ground level in Bangi, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Aljawi, Ohoud; Gopir, Geri; Duay, Abdul Basit

    2015-04-24

    Understanding the amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation received by human, plant, and animal organisms near the earth’s surface is important to a wide range of fields such as cancer research, agriculture and forestry. The solar ultraviolet spectral irradiance at ground level was measured using the Avantes spectrometer for the period of January to March 2014 at Bangi (2°55´N, 101°46´E, 50 m above sea level) in Malaysia. These data were used to estimate the diurnal variation of UV irradiance (300 – 400 nm). The maximum irradiance of UV radiation was 45 W m{sup −2} on horizontal surface. The maximum irradiance of UV received in the local noon time, and the minimum values of UV irradiance was received in the local morning time. It is found a bigger value of UV radiation was observed on clear sky in January. The estimation of daily flux average of UV irradiance was (921± 91) kJ m{sup −2}.

  20. ARM - Measurement - Longwave narrowband upwelling irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    narrowband upwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Longwave narrowband upwelling irradiance The total radiant energy, in a narrow band of wavelengths longer than approximately 4 {mu}m, passing through a horizontal unit area in an upward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments.

  1. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband diffuse downwelling irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband diffuse downwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, that has been scattered in the atmosphere at least once, passes through a horizontal unit area in a downward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is

  2. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband diffuse upwelling irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    upwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband diffuse upwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, that has been scattered in the atmosphere at least once, passes through a horizontal unit area in an upward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is

  3. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband direct downwelling irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband direct downwelling irradiance The direct unscattered radiant energy from the Sun, in a narrow band of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, passing through a horizontal unit area in a downward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for

  4. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband total downwelling irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband total downwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, passes through a horizontal unit area in a downward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following

  5. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband total upwelling irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    upwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband total upwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, passes through a horizontal unit area in an upward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments.

  6. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave spectral diffuse downwelling irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    diffuse downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave spectral diffuse downwelling irradiance The rate at which spectrally resolved radiant energy at wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, that has been scattered in the atmosphere at least once, passes through a horizontal unit area in a downward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above

  7. Clear Sky Detection Paper for Solar Energy

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Renewable Energy, 31, 1253-1263. Badescu, V., 1997. Verification of some very simple clear and cloudy sky models to evaluate global solar irradiance. Solar Energy, 61, 251-264. ...

  8. Mapping Opportunities for U.S. Solar Exports to India | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ground stations measure solar irradiation at a specific location and point in time. Satellite data provides information on variations in solar radiation over a span of time. Used ...

  9. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband diffuse downwelling irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    diffuse downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband diffuse downwelling irradiance All of the solar radiation, across the wavelength range of 0.4 and 4 {mu}m, coming directly from the sky except for solar radiation coming directly from the sun and the circumsolar irradiance within approximately three degrees of the sun. Categories Radiometric Instruments

  10. Proton depth-dose distribution: 3-D calculation of dose distributions from solar-flare irradiation. Interim report, May-Nov 88

    SciTech Connect

    Leavitt, D.D.

    1990-11-01

    Relative depth-dose distribution to the head from 3 typical solar flare proton events were calculated for 3 different exposure geometries: (1) single directional radiation incident upon a fixed head; (2) single directional radiation incident upon head rotating axially (2-D rotation); and (3) omnidirectional radiation incident upon head (3-D rotation). Isodose distributions in the transverse plane intersecting isocenter are presented for each of the 3 solar flare events in all 3 exposure geometries. In all 3 calculation configurations the maximum predicted dose occurred on the surface of the head. The dose at the isocenter of the head relative to the surface dose for the 2-D and 3-D rotation geometries ranged from 2% to 19%, increasing with increasing energy of the event. The calculations suggest the superficially located organs (lens of the eye and skin) are at greatest risk for the proton events studied here.

  11. Industry survey for horizontal wells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.D.; Kaback, D.S. [CDM Federal Programs Corp., Denver, CO (United States); Denhan, M.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Watkins, D. [CDM Federal Programs Corp., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-07-01

    An international survey of horizontal environmental wells was performed during May and June of 1993. The purpose of the survey was to provide the environmental industry with an inventory of horizontal environmental wells and information pertaining to the extent of the use of horizontal environmental wells, the variety of horizontal environmental well applications, the types of geologic and hydrogeologic conditions within which horizontal environmental wells have been installed, and the companies that perform horizontal environmental well installations. Other information, such as the cost of horizontal environmental well installations and the results of tests performed on the wells, is not complete but is provided as general information with the caveat that the information should not be used to compare drilling companies. The result of the survey is a catalogue of horizontal environmental wells that are categorized by the objective or use of the wells, the vertical depth of the wells, and the drilling company contracted to install the wells.

  12. Sub-Hour Solar Data for Power System Modeling From Static Spatial Variability Analysis: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hummon, M.; Ibanez, E.; Brinkman, G.; Lew, D.

    2012-12-01

    High penetration renewable integration studies need high quality solar power data with spatial-temporal correlations that are representative of a real system. This paper will summarize the research relating sequential point-source sub-hour global horizontal irradiance (GHI) values to static, spatially distributed GHI values. This research led to the development of an algorithm for generating coherent sub-hour datasets that span distances ranging from 10 km to 4,000 km. The algorithm, in brief, generates synthetic GHI values at an interval of one-minute, for a specific location, using SUNY/Clean Power Research, satellite-derived, hourly irradiance values for the nearest grid cell to that location and grid cells within 40 km.

  13. Tissue irradiator

    DOEpatents

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-12-16

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in- vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood- carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170.

  14. Irradiation subassembly

    DOEpatents

    Seim, O.S.; Filewicz, E.C.; Hutter, E.

    1973-10-23

    An irradiation subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which includes a bundle of slender elongated irradiation -capsules or fuel elements enclosed by a coolant tube and having yieldable retaining liner between the irradiation capsules and the coolant tube. For a hexagonal bundle surrounded by a hexagonal tube the yieldable retaining liner may consist either of six segments corresponding to the six sides of the tube or three angular segments each corresponding in two adjacent sides of the tube. The sides of adjacent segments abut and are so cut that metal-tometal contact is retained when the volume enclosed by the retaining liner is varied and Springs are provided for urging the segments toward the center of the tube to hold the capsules in a closely packed configuration. (Official Gazette)

  15. 2016 Solar Forecasting Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Solar Forecasting Workshop 2016 Solar Forecasting Workshop On August 3, 2016, the SunShot Initiative's systems integration subprogram hosted the Solar Forecasting Workshop to convene experts in the areas of bulk power system operations, distribution system operations, weather and solar irradiance forecasting, and photovoltaic system operation and modeling. The goal was to identify the technical challenges and opportunities in solar forecasting as a capability that can significantly reduce the

  16. Solar collection

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, S.L.

    1984-08-01

    This report contains summaries and pictures of projects funded by the Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program which include the following solar technologies: solar dish; photovoltaics; passive solar building and solar hot water system; Trombe wall; hot air panel; hybrid solar heating system; solar grain dryer; solar greenhouse; solar hot water workshops; and solar workshops.

  17. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... by Subject solar energy (8) national renewable energy laboratory (5) nrel (4) direct normal irradiance (3) borcal (2) global horizontal irradiance (2) national solar radiation ...

  18. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Filter Results Filter by Subject solar energy (8) national renewable energy laboratory (4) direct normal irradiance (3) borcal (2) global horizontal irradiance (2) national solar ...

  19. Community Shared Solar with Solarize | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Community Shared Solar with Solarize Community Shared Solar with Solarize

  20. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave spectral direct normal irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    direct normal irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave spectral direct normal irradiance The narrow spectral range of measurements coming directly from the sun whose wavelength falls within the solar range of 0.4 and 4 {mu}m. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream

  1. Molecular Modeling of Hot Electron Transfer for Solar Energy...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar cell technology is one such technology and takes energy irradiated from the sun and converts it into usable electrical energy. At the heart of solar cell technology is ...

  2. Horizontal drilling improves recovery in Abu Dhabi

    SciTech Connect

    Muhairy, A.A. ); Farid, E.A. )

    1993-09-13

    Both onshore and offshore Abu Dhabi, horizontal wells have increased productivity three to four times more than that from vertical and deviated wells in the same reservoirs. Horizontal drilling technology was first applied in Abu Dhabi in February 1988, and through March 1993, 48 wells have been horizontally drilled. During the 5 years of horizontal drilling, the experience gained by both operating company and service company personnel has contributed to a substantial improvement in drilling rate, and hence, a reduction in drilling costs. The improvements in drilling and completions resulted from the following: The horizontal drilling and completion operations were analyzed daily, and these follow-up analyses helped optimize the planning of subsequent wells. The bits and bottom hole assemblies were continuously analyzed for optimum selections. Steerable drilling assemblies were found very effective in the upper sections of the wells. The paper describes drilling activities onshore and offshore, completion design, and the outlook for future well drilling.

  3. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Measuring Solar

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Irradiance from Space: The SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment Measuring Solar Irradiance from Space: The SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment Harder, Jerry LASP University of Colorado Fontenla, Juan LASP University of Colorado Kopp, Greg LASP University of Colorado Rottman, Gary University of Colorado Richard, Erik LASP University of Colorado Pilewskie, Peter University of Colorado The Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) was launched in January 2003 and has functioned

  4. Apparatus for collecting solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Wildenrotter, K.

    1981-08-18

    Apparatus is described for collecting solar energy comprises a collector having a solar-energy collector surface. The collector is mounted on a support and is pivotable between an exposed position in which the collector surface faces the sun and a substantially horizontal sheltered position in which the collector surface faces the earth, thereby protecting the collector surface from the elements and facilitating access thereto for maintenance.

  5. Bakken shale typifies horizontal drilling success

    SciTech Connect

    Leibman, P.R. )

    1990-12-01

    Given the favorable production response that has been obtained from horizontal drilling in vertical- fractured reservoirs such as the Bakken shale and, more recently, the Austin chalk, industry interest in this technology has mushroomed in the U.S. Indeed, it is difficult to find a good-sized oil company these days that is not involved in a horizontal drilling project or is giving it serious consideration. In response to growing evidence of successful field applications, the realization is dawning on the investment community that horizontal drilling represents a significant technological development with positive implications for both the exploration and production business, and the oilfield services industry.

  6. Consorcio Horizonte Asja | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    to: navigation, search Name: Consorcio Horizonte Asja Place: Brazil Product: Brazil-based joint venture between two subsidiaries of Asja.biz developing a 4.5MW biogas plant....

  7. Solar Newsletter

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ... Sciences Applications National Solar Thermal Test Facility Nuclear Energy ...

  8. Solar Energy

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ... Sciences Applications National Solar Thermal Test Facility Nuclear Energy ...

  9. Horizontal drilling techniques at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkirson, J.P.; Smith, J.H.; Stagg, T.O.; Walters, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Three extended departure horizontal wells have been drilled and completed at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska by Standard Alaska Production Company. Horizontal slotted liner completions of 1575 feet (480 m), 1637 feet (499 m), and 1163 feet (354 m) were accomplished at an average vertical depth of 9000 feet (2743 m). Improvements in technology and operating procedures have resulted in a cost per foot reduction of 40% over the three well program. When compared to conventional completions, initial production data indicates rate benefits of 300% and a major increase in ultimate recovery. This paper discusses the development of the techniques used to drill horizontal wells at Prudhoe Bay and reviews the drilling operations for each well.

  10. Successful horizontal completions require an integrated approach

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, B.; Smejkal, K.; Penberthy, W. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    While a perfect well completion may not exist, depleting a hydrocarbon resource at a sustained high rate--without a workover--is the ultimate goal. Unfortunately, many horizontal well completions fail to achieve this due to wellbore damage or loss of reservoir pressure. These conditions manifest themselves in reduced production rates, extended well life and reduced profitability. Standard completion techniques are not always compatible with each other for site specific well applications. The combination of two incompatible technologies or slight changes in a completion procedure may negatively impact productivity. Hence, the most successful horizontal completion results are obtained using a compatible integrated system approach--an approach that carefully combines the best completion tools and processes to deliver an undamaged well completed at the lowest possible cost. After studying the compatibilities of various drill-in fluids, screens, filter cakes and gravel packs, recommended procedures are presented for successfully completing horizontal wells.

  11. Solar Resource Measurements in Sacramento, California: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-06-205

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, Tom

    2013-10-01

    Site-specific, long-term, continuous, and high-resolution measurements of solar irradiance are important for developing renewable resource data. These data are used for several research and development activities consistent with the NREL mission: establish a national 30-year climatological database of measured solar irradiances; provide high quality ground-truth data for satellite remote sensingvalidation; support development of radiative transfer models for estimating solar irradiance from available meteorological observations; provide solar resource information needed for technology deployment and operations.

  12. ARM: Baseline Solar Radiation Network (BSRN): solar irradiances...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI Identifier: 1025163 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Dataset Data Type: Numeric Data Research Org: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Archive, Oak ...

  13. Validation of the National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) (2005-2012): Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, Manajit; Weekley, Andrew; Habte, Aron; Lopez, Anthony; Molling, Christine

    2015-09-15

    Publicly accessible, high-quality, long-term, satellite-based solar resource data is foundational and critical to solar technologies to quantify system output predictions and deploy solar energy technologies in grid-tied systems. Solar radiation models have been in development for more than three decades. For many years, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed and/or updated such models through the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). There are two widely used approaches to derive solar resource data from models: (a) an empirical approach that relates ground-based observations to satellite measurements and (b) a physics-based approach that considers the radiation received at the satellite and creates retrievals to estimate clouds and surface radiation. Although empirical methods have been traditionally used for computing surface radiation, the advent of faster computing has made operational physical models viable. The Global Solar Insolation Project (GSIP) is an operational physical model from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) that computes global horizontal irradiance (GHI) using the visible and infrared channel measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) system. GSIP uses a two-stage scheme that first retrieves cloud properties and then uses those properties in the Satellite Algorithm for Surface Radiation Budget (SASRAB) model to calculate surface radiation. NREL, the University of Wisconsin, and NOAA have recently collaborated to adapt GSIP to create a high temporal and spatial resolution data set. The product initially generates the cloud properties using the AVHRR Pathfinder Atmospheres-Extended (PATMOS-x) algorithms [3], whereas the GHI is calculated using SASRAB. Then NREL implements accurate and high-resolution input parameters such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) and precipitable water vapor (PWV) to compute direct normal irradiance (DNI) using the DISC model. The AOD and

  14. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (RSR); Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Maxey, C.; Andreas, A.

    This measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location.

  15. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (RSR); Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Maxey, C.; Andreas, A.

    2007-09-12

    This measurement station monitors global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal irradiance to define the amount of solar energy that hits this particular location.

  16. Long-period solar-terrestrial variability

    SciTech Connect

    Sonett, C.P. )

    1991-01-01

    Studies aimed at extending the record of solar-terrestrial variability to longer periods are discussed in a critical review of US research from the period 1987--1990. Sections are devoted to the sunspot index, radioactive carbon studies, a potential climate connection between radiocarbon changes and the solar irradiance cycle, Be-10 studies, geological laminae, solar neutrino counts, and the construction of data sets. Also included is a selective bibliography. 66 refs.

  17. Waterflooding in a system of horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Bedrikovetsky, P.G.; Magarshak, T.O.; Shapiro, A.A.

    1995-10-01

    An approximate analytical method for the simulation of waterflooding in a system of horizontal wells is developed. The method is based on an advanced stream-line concept. The essence of this new method is the exact solution for the 3D two-phase flow problem in the system of coordinates linked with the stream lines under the only assumption of the immobility of stream lines. A software based on this approach was developed for IBM-compatible PC. It allows one multivariant comparative studies of immiscible displacement in systems of horizontal, vertical and slant wells. The simulator has been used in order to optimize geometrical parameters of a regular well system and to predict recovery in conditions of Prirazlomnoye offshore oil field.

  18. Solar Easements

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Hampshire's "solar skyspace easement" provisions allow property owners to create solar easements in order to create and preserve a right to unobstructed access to solar energy. Easements remain...

  19. Solar trap

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, H.S.

    1990-01-09

    This patent describes a solar energy collecting apparatus. It comprises: a light funneling trough including two flat light reflecting surfaces disposed in a face-to-face arrangement having an oblique angle therebetween; a two dimensional Fresnel lens covering the opening of the light funneling trough at the diverging extremity thereof; a photovoltaic panel facing the two dimensional Fresnel lens disposed adjacent to the converging extremity of the light funneling trough; and at least one dual-sided light reflecting planar member disposed radially intermediate the two light reflecting surfaces. The dual-sided light reflecting planar member extending from the converging extremity of the light funneling trough towards the diverging extremity thereof and terminated at a substantial distance away from the plane including the opening of the light funneling trough. Wherein the sunlight entering the light funneling trough through the two-dimensional Fresnel lens is refracted by the two dimensional Fresnel lens and funneled by the light funneling trough towards the converging extremity of the light funneling trough and irradiates the photovoltaic panel.

  20. Horizontal subsea trees allow frequent deepwater workovers

    SciTech Connect

    Krenek, M.; Hall, G.; Sheng, W.Z.

    1995-05-01

    Horizontal subsea wellheads have found application in the Liuhua oil field in the South China Sea. These trees allow installation and retrieval of downhole equipment through the tree without having to disturb the tree or its external connections to flow lines, service lines, or control umbilicals. This access to the well is important because the Liuhua wells will be produced with electrical submersible pumps (ESPs), which may have relatively short intervals between maintenance, leading to frequent well work. The wells will be completed subsea in about 300 m of water. The large bore, horizontal trees allow all downhole equipment to be pulled without removal of the subsea tree. This wellhead configuration also provides well control and vertical access to downhole equipment through a conventional marine drilling riser and subsea blowout preventer (BOP), eliminating the need for costly specialized completion risers. Another benefit of the horizontal tree is its extremely compact profile with a low number of valves for well control. Valve size and spacing are decoupled from the size and bore spacing of the tubing hanger. The tree`s low profile geometry reduces costs of manufacturing the tree and framework and optimize load transfer to the wellhead.

  1. Solar Newsletter

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Newsletter pvworkshopoct24 Permalink Gallery Register for the PV Performance Modeling and Monitoring Workshop, October 24-25, 2016 News, News & Events, Photovoltaic, Solar, ...

  2. Solar Decathlon

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department's Solar Decathlon challenges collegiate teams to design, build and operate solar-powered houses that are cost effective, energy efficient and attractive.

  3. Solar collector assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, C. M.

    1985-12-24

    A solar collector assembly designed for installation in a southerly facing wall in order to heat the interior of an enclosed structure. The assembly comprises a transparent window combined with an outwardly extending fixed upper panel for blocking out the rays of the summer sun and an inwardly extending fixed lower panel with a reflective top surface for directing the rays of the sun inside during the cooler months. The window and fixed panels are situated in an open rectangular frame so that the window is tilted at an appropriate angle from the horizontal in order to maximize the thermal benefits of the sun. The frame provides both structural integrity and a means for mounting the solar assembly in the wall of the building. A hinged panel is attached to the outside of the assembly for shading the lower portion of the window when desired.

  4. First Solar Manufacturing Solar Modules

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this photograph, a First Solar associate handles photovoltaic materials at the company's Ohio manufacturing plant. First Solar is an industry partner with the U.S. Department of Energy Solar...

  5. Region Solar Inc Solar Inc California Renewable Energy Solar...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Point Drive Fort Collins Colorado Solar Solar cell passive solar architectural glass solar grid tie inverter semiconductor flat panel display data storage http www advanced...

  6. YPF uses horizontal reentry to aid thin bed production

    SciTech Connect

    Acosta, M.R.; Leiro, F.A.; Sesano, G.S.; Hill, D.

    1997-01-01

    Reentry and horizontal drilling/completion techniques have proven themselves useful in exploiting thin beds. A pilot horizontal reentry contracted by Yacimiento Petroliferos Fiscales (YPF) for a marginal well in its Lomita Sur field resulted in decreased water coning and production rates four times greater than expected. Further horizontal reentries in this thin-bed field are planned.

  7. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Praeg, W.F.

    1995-01-31

    An apparatus is disclosed for confining molten metal with a horizontal alternating magnetic field. In particular, this invention employs a magnet that can produce a horizontal alternating magnetic field to confine a molten metal at the edges of parallel horizontal rollers as a solid metal sheet is cast by counter-rotation of the rollers. 19 figs.

  8. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Pareg, Walter F.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for confining molten metal with a horizontal alternating magnetic field. In particular, this invention employs a magnet that can produce a horizontal alternating magnetic field to confine a molten metal at the edges of parallel horizontal rollers as a solid metal sheet is cast by counter-rotation of the rollers.

  9. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus for confining molten metal with a horizontal alternating magnetic field. In particular, this invention employs a magnet that can produce a horizontal alternating magnetic field to confine a molten metal at the edges of parallel horizontal rollers as a solid metal sheet is cast by counter-rotation of the rollers.

  10. Enhanced Oil Recovery by Horizontal Waterflooding

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Robinowitz; Dwight Dauben; June Schmeling

    2005-09-05

    Solar energy has become a major alternative for supplying a substantial fraction of the nation's future energy needs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports activities ranging from the demonstration of existing technology to research on future possibilities. At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), projects are in progress that span a wide range of activities, with the emphasis on research to extend the scientific basis for solar energy applications, and on preliminary development of new approaches to solar energy conversion. To assess various solar applications, it is important to quantify the solar resource. Special instruments have been developed and are now in use to measure both direct solar radiation and circum-solar radiation, i.e., the radiation from near the sun resulting from the scattering of sunlight by small particles in the atmosphere. These measurements serve to predict the performance of solar designs that use focusing collectors employing mirrors or lenses to concentrate the sunlight. Efforts have continued at a low level to assist DOE in demonstrating existing solar technology by providing the San Francisco Operations Office (SAN) with technical support for its management of commercial-building solar demonstration projects. Also, a hot water and space-heating system has been installed on an LBL building as part of the DOE facilities Solar Demonstration Program. LBL continues to provide support for the DOE Appropriate Energy Technology grants program. Evaluations are made of the program's effectiveness by, for example, estimating the resulting potential energy savings. LBL also documents innovative features and improvements in economic feasibility as compared to existing conventional systems or applications. In the near future, we expect that LBL research will have a substantial impact in the areas of solar heating and cooling. Conventional and new types of high-performance absorption air conditioners are being developed that are air-cooled and

  11. NREL: Dynamic Maps, GIS Data, and Analysis Tools - Solar Maps

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    MapSearch Searching for maps has never been easier. A screen capture of the MapSearch Map view option Solar Maps Solar maps provide monthly average daily total solar resource information on grid cells. The insolation values represent the resource available to a flat plate collector, such as a photovoltaic panel, oriented due south at an angle from horizontal to equal to the latitude of the collector location. This is typical practice for PV system installation, although other orientations are

  12. Solar Circuitry

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Circuitry" with the Solar Powered Energy Kit Curriculum: Solar Power- (light/electromagnetic radiation, electricity, circuitry, efficiency, energy transformation, subatomic particles) Grade Level: Middle or High School Size: Small groups, depending on ability level. Time: 4 to 5 class periods Summary: Students will learn how the solar cell changes light energy to electrical energy. Students will work in small groups and construct different solar panel configurations to see the

  13. Indoor and Outdoor Spectroradiometer Intercomparison for Spectral Irradiance Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Habte, A.; Andreas, A.; Ottoson, L.; Gueymard, C.; Fedor, G.; Fowler, S.; Peterson, J.; Naranen, R.; Kobashi, T.; Akiyama, A.; Takagi, S.

    2014-05-01

    This report details the global spectral irradiance intercomparison using spectroradiometers that was organized by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. The intercomparison was performed both indoors and outdoors on September 17, 2013. Five laboratories participated in the intercomparison using 10 spectroradiometers, and a coordinated measurement setup and a common platform were employed to compare spectral irradiances under both indoor and outdoor conditions. The intercomparison aimed to understand the performance of the different spectroradiometers and to share knowledge in making spectral irradiance measurements. This intercomparison was the first of its kind in the United States.

  14. Horizontal Air Bearing Experiment Number 1

    SciTech Connect

    Clauson, T.L.

    1999-08-31

    The Horizontal Air Bearing Experiment No.1 is a series of tests intended to further the understanding of rotational dynamics. A simple experimental assembly is rotated using the Horizontal Air Bearing and allowed to spin freely as the internal rotational damping is measured. The low friction of the bearing effectively isolates the test assembly, allowing the internal damping of the test object to be evaluated. The experimental assembly is composed of an aluminum ball within a spherical cavity. A flanged pipe section and an auxiliary adapter plate secure the assembly to the Air Bearing interface plate. Three aluminum balls are interchanged to vary test parameters. The aluminum balls are free to move independently as the entire assembly rotates. The aluminum balls vary in diameter and/or surface finish. While the diameter and surface finish is varied, the space between the ball and socket is dry. To examine the effect of viscosity, the space is filled with a lubricant while the ball diameter and surface finish is held constant.

  15. Reservoir visualization for geosteering of horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, I.D.; Baygun, B.; Frass, M.; Casco, R.

    1996-08-01

    Horizontal infill wells in the Lower Lagunillas reservoir of Bloque IV, Lake Maracaibo are being drilled in thin, oil-bearing zones that have been bypassed by gas. Steering the horizontal sections of these wells requires high resolution reservoir models that can be updated during drilling. An example from well VLD-1152 serves to illustrate how these models are generated and used. Resistivity images collected by wireline and logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools in the pilot well formed the basis of prejob, high resolution modeling of the formation properties. 3-D seismic data and data from an offset vertical seismic profile collected in the pilot well provided the structural model. During drilling information from cuttings and LWD tools was used to continuously update these models. After the well had been drilled, analysis of LWD resistivity images provided a detailed model of the relationship between the well trajectory and the dip of the formation. This information is used to improve interpretation of the LWD logs to provide a petrophysical evaluation of the well.

  16. Planning and well evaluations improve horizontal drilling results

    SciTech Connect

    Hovda, S. )

    1994-10-31

    A systematic approach, including better planning and performance evaluation, improved the horizontal drilling efficiency of a multiwell program in the Oseberg field in the North Sea. The horizontal drilling program in the Oseberg field is one of the most comprehensive horizontal drilling programs in the North Sea. The present horizontal drilling program consists of 14 oil producers from the C platform and 18 from the B platform. Total horizontal displacement varies from around 1,500 m to 5,540 m. The lengths of the horizontal section vary from 600 m to 1,500 m. The paper discusses will planning, directional drilling, drilling problems with coal seams and orientation, true vertical depth control, horizontal liner cement, spacer system, cement slurries, job execution, and results.

  17. Nevada Solar One Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Solar One Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Nevada Solar One Solar Power Plant Facility Nevada Solar One Sector Solar Facility Type Concentrating Solar Power...

  18. Mojave Solar Park Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Solar Park Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Mojave Solar Park Solar Power Plant Facility Mojave Solar Park Sector Solar Facility Type Concentrating Solar Power...

  19. Starwood Solar I Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Starwood Solar I Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Starwood Solar I Solar Power Plant Facility Starwood Solar I Sector Solar Facility Type Concentrating Solar...

  20. Solar Newsletter | Solar Research | NREL

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Market Pathways Solar Market Pathways The Solar Market Pathways program supports 15 SunShot projects that are advancing solar deployment across the United States. These projects take a variety of approaches to develop actionable strategic plans to expand solar electricity use for residential, community, and commercial properties. Awardees use a wide range of tools, including special financing mechanisms like commercial property assessed clean energy, and the integration of solar energy

  1. Microsoft Word - Kenya_10km_solar_country_report.doc

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    of 5x5 km. Figure 1: The solar irradiance data is derived from Meteosat a 0 (red circle) and at 63 East (orange circle). The brightened area marks the quantitatively...

  2. Microsoft Word - Nepal_10km_solar_country_report.doc

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    of 5x5 km. Figure 1: The solar irradiance data is derived from Meteosat a 0 (red circle) and at 63 East (orange circle). The brightened area marks the quantitatively...

  3. Microsoft Word - Ethiopia_10km_solar_country_report.doc

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    of 5x5 km. Figure 1: The solar irradiance data is derived from Meteosat a 0 (red circle) and at 63 East (orange circle). The brightened area marks the quantitatively...

  4. Microsoft Word - China_10km_solar_documentation.doc

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    of 5x5 km. Figure 1: The solar irradiance data is derived from Meteosat a 0 (red circle) and at 63 East (orange circle). The brightened area marks the quantitatively...

  5. Microsoft Word - Ghana_10km_solar_country_report.doc

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    of 5x5 km. Figure 1: The solar irradiance data is derived from Meteosat a 0 (red circle) and at 63 East (orange circle). The brightened area marks the quantitatively...

  6. NEUTRON-IRRADIATED STRUCTURES

    DOEpatents

    Ashley, E.L.; Ashley, J.W.; Bowker, H.W.; Hall, R.H.; Kendall, J.W.

    1959-02-01

    A moderator structure is described for a nuclear reactor of the heterogensous type wherein a large mass of moderator is provided with channels therethrough for the introduction of uranium serving as nuclear fuel and for the passage of a cooling fluid. The structure is comprised of blocks of moderator material in superposed horizontal layers, the blocks of each layer being tied together with spaces between them and oriented to have horizontal Wigner growth. The ties are strips of moderator material, the same as the blocks, with transverse Wigner growth, disposed horizontally along lines crossing at vertical axes of the blocks. The blocks are preferably rectangular with a larger or length dimension transverse to the directions of Wiguer growth and are stood on end to provide for horizontal growth.

  7. Solar Power

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Power Solar Power Project Opportunities Abound in the Region The WIPP site is receives abundant solar energy with 6-7 kWh/sq meter power production potential As the accompanying map of New Mexico shows, the WIPP site enjoys abundant year-round sunshine. With an average solar power production potential of 6-7 kWh/sq meter per day, one exciting project being studied for location at WIPP is a 30-50 MW Solar Power Tower: The American Solar Energy Society (ASES) is is a national trade

  8. Passive magnetic bearing for a horizontal shaft

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    2003-12-02

    A passive magnetic bearing is composed of a levitation element and a restorative element. The levitation element is composed of a pair of stationary arcuate ferromagnetic segments located within an annular radial-field magnet array. The magnet array is attached to the inner circumference of a hollow shaft end. An attractive force between the arcuate segments and the magnet array acts vertically to levitate the shaft, and also in a horizontal transverse direction to center the shaft. The restorative element is comprised of an annular Halbach array of magnets and a stationary annular circuit array located within the Halbach array. The Halbach array is attached to the inner circumference of the hollow shaft end. A repulsive force between the Halbach array and the circuit array increases inversely to the radial space between them, and thus acts to restore the shaft to its equilibrium axis of rotation when it is displaced therefrom.

  9. ImagineSolar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Workforce training, Corporate consulting - Solar projects, Solar sales, Solar marketing, Solar business development, Solar policy, Solar advocacy, Solar government...

  10. Solar desalination system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, C.L.

    1985-03-12

    A solar desalination system in which fresh water is derived from sea water by focussing solar ray energy from a collecting reflector onto an evaporator tube located at substantially the focal apex of the reflector. The reflector/evaporator tube assembly is mounted on a horizontal open grid platform which may support a plurality of parallel reflector/evaporator tube assemblies. The reflectors may serve as pontoons to support the desalination system unit on a body of sea water. The solar heat generated vapor is condensed in condenser tubes immersed in the sea water. Intermittently sea water concentrate is withdrawn from the evaporator tubes. Velocity of the vapor passing from the evaporator tubes to the condensers may be utilized for generating power.

  11. Solar Rights

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    A solar energy system is defined as "a system affixed to a building or buildings that uses solar devices, which are thermally isolated from living space or any other area where the energy is used...

  12. Solar Blog

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    96426 Solar Blog en Solar Energy Jobs Outpace U.S. Economy http:energy.govarticlessolar-energy-jobs-outpace-us-economy

  13. Solar Rights

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Cities and counties in North Carolina generally may not adopt ordinances prohibiting the installation of "a solar collector that gathers solar radiation as a substitute for traditional energy for...

  14. Solar Rights

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    In the context of this law, a solar energy device is a system "manufactured and sold for the sole purpose of facilitating the collection and beneficial use of solar energy, including passive...

  15. Solar Forecasting

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    On December 7, 2012, DOE announced $8 million to fund two solar projects that are helping utilities and grid operators better forecast when, where, and how much solar power will be produced at U.S....

  16. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-03-01

    This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer.

  17. Solar collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Cassidy, V.M.

    1981-11-01

    Practical applications of solar energy in commercial, industrial and institutional buildings are considered. Two main types of solar collectors are described: flat plate collectors and concentrating collectors. Efficiency of air and hydronic collectors among the flat plate types are compared. Also several concentrators are described, including their sun tracking mechanisms. Descriptions of some recent solar installations are presented and a list representing the cross section of solar collector manufacturers is furnished.

  18. Solar Decathlon

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon Sara Farrar-Nagy National Renewable Energy Laboratory sara.farrar-nagy@nrel.gov, 303-384-7514 April 3, 2013 Solar Decathlon 2009 Solar Decathlon 2011 Solar Decathlon 2013 & XPO Washington, D.C. Washington, D.C. Irvine, California 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: How to provide workforce training, improve building science instruction, foster innovation in whole-building design, and educate

  19. Built-in solar panel

    SciTech Connect

    Aloi, M.J.; Hancock, K.J.

    1981-06-16

    Disclosed herein is a solar panel assembly and method for fabrication of same. A portion of the rafters and roof sheeting is cut away to provide an orifice of suitable dimension within which a solar panel frame is to be disposed. A step portion is provided on an upper inner periphery thereof, and a frame lower portion is disposed upon the step. Conduits extend through the solar panel frame at upper and lower portions thereof in a substantially horizontal direction. These conduits are interconnected with a tubed collector plate. An insulative layer is provided underneath this tubed plate. A transparent panel is placed on top of the frame lower portion, and overlying the panel with a frame upper portion which connects the solar panel frame and the frame lower portion by suitable fasteners. Appropriate weather stripping is deployed between the frame upper portion and the solar panel frame, and the open area that exists between the solar panel frame and the roof is provided with a flashing so as to complete the sealing arrangement.

  20. Built-in solar panel

    SciTech Connect

    Aloi, M.J.; Hancock, K.J. II

    1983-07-12

    Disclosed herein is a solar panel assembly and method for fabrication of same including cutting away a portion of the rafters and roof sheeting to provide an orifice of suitable dimension within which a solar panel frame is to be disposed, providing a step portion on an upper inner periphery thereof, disposing a frame lower portion upon the step, installing conduits extending through the solar panel frame at upper and lower portions thereof in a substantially horizontal direction, interconnecting these conduits with a tubed collector plate, providing an insulative layer underneath this tubed plate, placing a transparent panel on top of the frame lower portion, and overlying the panel with a frame upper portion which connects the solar panel frame and the frame lower portion by suitable fasteners. Appropriate weather stripping is deployed between the frame upper portion and the solar panel frame, and the open area that exists between the solar panel frame and the roof is provided with a flashing so as to complete the sealing arrangement.

  1. MASSIVE LEAKAGE IRRADIATOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Szilard, L.; Christy, R.F.; Friedman, F.L.

    1961-05-30

    An irradiator designed to utilize the neutrons that leak out of a reactor around its periphery is described. It avoids wasting neutron energy and reduces interference with the core flux to a minimum. This is done by surrounding all or most of the core with removable segments of the material to be irradiated within a matrix of reflecting material.

  2. Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel

    DOEpatents

    Bauer, Roger E.; Straalsund, Jerry L.; Chin, Bryan A.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

  3. Irradiation Creep in Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

    2014-03-13

    An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

  4. MHK ISDB/Instruments/TRDI Workhorse Horizontal ADCP | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Horizontal ADCP < MHK ISDB Jump to: navigation, search MHK Instrumentation & Sensor Database Menu Home Search Add Instrument Add Sensor Add Company Community FAQ Help Under...

  5. MHK Technologies/Horizontal Axis Logarithmic Spiral Turbine ...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Horizontal Axis Logarithmic Spiral Turbine < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Technology Profile Primary Organization Golden...

  6. Zero Discharge Water Management for Horizontal Shale Gas Well...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    (fracking), coupled with horizontal drilling, has facilitated exploitation of huge natural gas (gas) reserves in the Devonian-age Marcellus Shale Formation (Marcellus) of...

  7. Horizontal well replaces hydraulic fracturing in North Sea gas well

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, D.A.; Seymour, K.P. )

    1991-11-25

    This paper reports on excessive water production from hydraulically fractured wells in a poor quality reservoir in the North SEa which prompted the drilling of a horizontal well. Gas production from the horizontal well reached six times that of the offset vertical wells, and no water production occurred. This horizontal well proved commercial the western section of the Anglia field. Horizontal drilling in the North SEa is as an effective technology to enhance hydrocarbon recovery from reservoirs that previously had proven uncommercial with other standard techniques. It is viable for the development of marginal reservoirs, particularly where conditions preclude stimulation from hydraulic fracturing.

  8. Purchasing Solar Collectively with Solarize

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This video provides an overview of the concept behind The Solarize Guidebook, which offers neighborhoods a plan for getting volume discounts when making group purchases of rooftop solar energy...

  9. Method and application of horizontal slice volumetrics to waterflood management and horizontal drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, A.; Flemings, P.B. ); Huang, J. )

    1996-01-01

    A computer mapping program was used to make horizontal slices of pore volume. The goal was to create maps that showed the distribution of pore volume vertically and laterally throughout the reservoir. That information was used for studying waterflood feasibility, monitoring an existing waterflood, and planning a horizontal well. This work was done at the United States Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills, CA. The reservoirs are the Miocene aged Northwest Stevens A sands and T N sands. These sands are a series of stacked deep water turbidites draped across the western nose of a plunging anticline. To determine the reservoir sensitivity to the approach used to calculate horizontal slice volume, two methods were tested. The first involves creation of four isochores, bounded above by the sand top or base and below by the slice top or base, whose volumes are combined to give the slice volume. The second involves creation of a grid of the slice itself from which slice volume is calculated.

  10. Method and application of horizontal slice volumetrics to waterflood management and horizontal drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, A.; Flemings, P.B.; Huang, J.

    1996-12-31

    A computer mapping program was used to make horizontal slices of pore volume. The goal was to create maps that showed the distribution of pore volume vertically and laterally throughout the reservoir. That information was used for studying waterflood feasibility, monitoring an existing waterflood, and planning a horizontal well. This work was done at the United States Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills, CA. The reservoirs are the Miocene aged Northwest Stevens A sands and T & N sands. These sands are a series of stacked deep water turbidites draped across the western nose of a plunging anticline. To determine the reservoir sensitivity to the approach used to calculate horizontal slice volume, two methods were tested. The first involves creation of four isochores, bounded above by the sand top or base and below by the slice top or base, whose volumes are combined to give the slice volume. The second involves creation of a grid of the slice itself from which slice volume is calculated.

  11. PHOTOIONIZATION IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Landi, E.; Lepri, S. T.

    2015-10-20

    In this work we investigate the effects of photoionization on the charge state composition of the solar wind. Using measured solar EUV and X-ray irradiance, the Michigan Ionization Code and a model for the fast and slow solar wind, we calculate the evolution of the charge state distribution of He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe with and without including photoionization for both types of wind. We find that the solar radiation has significant effects on the charge state distribution of C, N, and O, causing the ionization levels of these elements to be higher than without photoionization; differences are largest for oxygen. The ions commonly observed for elements heavier than O are much less affected, except in ICMEs where Fe ions more ionized than 16+ can also be affected by the solar radiation. We also show that the commonly used O{sup 7+}/O{sup 6+} density ratio is the most sensitive to photoionization; this sensitivity also causes the value of this ratio to depend on the phase of the solar cycle. We show that the O{sup 7+}/O{sup 6+} ratio needs to be used with caution for solar wind classification and coronal temperature estimates, and recommend the C{sup 6+}/C{sup 4+} ratio for these purposes.

  12. Solar Newsletter | Solar Research | NREL

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    an electronic newsletter that provides information on NREL's research and development of solar technologies. To receive new issues by email, subscribe to the Solar Newsletter. SUBSCRIBE Golden Rays - November 2016 Hot Topics Graphic of the DuraMAT logo New Consortium to Improve Solar Module Reliability and Performance NREL is leading the DuraMat Consortium to develop PV module materials for reliable, low-cost solar electricity. Photo of three individuals behind two clear beakers in a lab

  13. Yaw dynamics of horizontal axis wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, A.C. )

    1992-05-01

    Designers of a horizontal axis wind turbine yaw mechanism are faced with a difficult decision. They know that if they elect to use a yaw- controlled rotor then the system will suffer increased initial cost and increased inherent maintenance and reliability problems. On the other hand, if they elect to allow the rotor to freely yaw they known they will have to account for unknown and random, though bounded, yaw rates. They will have a higher-risk design to trade-off against the potential for cost savings and reliability improvement. The risk of a yaw-free system could be minimized if methods were available for analyzing and understanding yaw behavior. The complexity of yaw behavior has, until recently, discouraged engineers from developing a complete yaw analysis method. The objectives of this work are to (1) provide a fundamental understanding of free-yaw mechanics and the design concepts most effective at eliminating yaw problems, and (2) provide tested design tools and guidelines for use by free-yaw wind systems manufacturers. The emphasis is on developing practical and sufficiently accurate design methods.

  14. Comparative study of different solar cooling systems for buildings in subtropical city

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, K.F.; Chow, T.T.; Lee, C.K.; Lin, Z.; Chan, L.S.

    2010-02-15

    In recent years, more and more attention has been paid on the application potential of solar cooling for buildings. Due to the fact that the efficiency of solar collectors is generally low at the time being, the effectiveness of solar cooling would be closely related to the availability of solar irradiation, climatic conditions and geographical location of a place. In this paper, five types of solar cooling systems were involved in a comparative study for subtropical city, which is commonly featured with long hot and humid summer. The solar cooling systems included the solar electric compression refrigeration, solar mechanical compression refrigeration, solar absorption refrigeration, solar adsorption refrigeration and solar solid desiccant cooling. Component-based simulation models of these systems were developed, and their performances were evaluated throughout a year. The key performance indicators are solar fraction, coefficient of performance, solar thermal gain, and primary energy consumption. In addition, different installation strategies and types of solar collectors were compared for each kind of solar cooling system. Through this comparative study, it was found that solar electric compression refrigeration and solar absorption refrigeration had the highest energy saving potential in the subtropical Hong Kong. The former is to make use of the solar electric gain, while the latter is to adopt the solar thermal gain. These two solar cooling systems would have even better performances through the continual advancement of the solar collectors. It will provide a promising application potential of solar cooling for buildings in the subtropical region. (author)

  15. Combined solar tracking reflector and photovoltaic panel

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez, R.L.

    1986-11-04

    This patent describes a solar lighting reflector apparatus for illuminating the interior of a roofed building during daylight hours and adapted to track daily movements of the sun. The solar lighting reflector apparatus is further adapted to generate electrical power, the roofed building having a light transmissive opening in the roof therein. The apparatus comprises: (a) a lower frame member having a central opening substantially commensurate in size with the light transmissive opening, the lower frame member having opposing front and rear portions; (b) support means coupled to the roof of the building for supporting the lower frame member above the light transmissive opening in a generally horizontal position. The support means permits the lower frame member to rotate in a substantially horizontal plane; (c) a reflective surface for reflecting solar light through the light transmissive opening; and (d) an upper frame member for supporting the reflective surface, the upper frame member having opposing front and rear portions. The rear portion of the upper frame member is pivotally coupled to the rear portion of the lower frame member between a substantially horizontal closed position wherein the reflective surface overlies and shades the light transmissive opening and an upwardly extending opened position wherein the reflective surface reflects solar light through the light transmissive opening.

  16. Deming Solar Plant Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Deming Solar Plant Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Deming Solar Plant Solar Power Plant Facility Deming Solar Plant Sector Solar Facility Type Photovoltaic...

  17. SES Calico Solar One Project Solar Power Plant | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Calico Solar One Project Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name SES Calico Solar One Project Solar Power Plant Facility SES Calico Solar One Project Sector Solar...

  18. Nvision.Solar - Ravnishte Solar PV Plant | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Solar - Ravnishte Solar PV Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Nvision.Solar - Ravnishte Solar PV Plant Facility Ravishte roof and facade mounted solar power plant Sector Solar...

  19. Solar Millenium Palen Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Palen Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Solar Millenium Palen Solar Power Plant Facility Solar Millenium Palen Sector Solar Facility Type Concentrating Solar Power...

  20. SES Solar Two Project Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Two Project Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name SES Solar Two Project Solar Power Plant Facility SES Solar Two Project Sector Solar Facility Type Concentrating Solar...

  1. Carrizo Energy Solar Farm Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Carrizo Energy Solar Farm Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Carrizo Energy Solar Farm Solar Power Plant Facility Carrizo Energy Solar Farm Sector Solar Facility...

  2. Beacon Solar Energy Project Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Informatio...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Solar Energy Project Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Beacon Solar Energy Project Solar Power Plant Facility Beacon Solar Energy Project Sector Solar Facility...

  3. Prescott Airport Solar Plant Solar Power Plant | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Prescott Airport Solar Plant Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Prescott Airport Solar Plant Solar Power Plant Facility Prescott Airport Solar Plant Sector Solar...

  4. El Dorado Solar Project Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Solar Project Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name El Dorado Solar Project Solar Power Plant Facility El Dorado Solar Project Sector Solar Facility Type Photovoltaic...

  5. Solar | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Science & Innovation Energy Sources Renewable Energy Solar Solar How much do you know about solar power? Take our quiz and test your solar energy IQ. | Photo courtesy of ...

  6. Investigation of thermal stratification in horizontal storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.F.; Baughn, J.W.

    1981-11-01

    The thermal behavior of a horizontal storage tank has been investigated numerically and experimentally. The purpose of this paper is to compare a simple, one-dimensional model to the measured temperature stratification in this horizontal tank. For the test conditions used in these experiments, axial temperature gradients were found to be negligible compared to vertical temperature gradients. 7 refs.

  7. Mobile computing device configured to compute irradiance, glint, and glare of the sun

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, Vipin P; Ho, Clifford K; Khalsa, Siri Sahib

    2014-03-11

    Described herein are technologies pertaining to computing the solar irradiance distribution on a surface of a receiver in a concentrating solar power system or glint/glare emitted from a reflective entity. A mobile computing device includes at least one camera that captures images of the Sun and the entity of interest, wherein the images have pluralities of pixels having respective pluralities of intensity values. Based upon the intensity values of the pixels in the respective images, the solar irradiance distribution on the surface of the entity or glint/glare corresponding to the entity is computed by the mobile computing device.

  8. Steerable vertical to horizontal energy transducer for mobile robots

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Fischer, Gary J.; Feddema, John T.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a steerable vertical to horizontal energy transducer for mobile robots that less complex and requires less power than two degree of freedom tilt mechanisms. The present invention comprises an end effector that, when mounted with a hopping actuator, translates along axis (typically vertical) actuation into combined vertical and horizontal motion. The end effector, or foot, mounts with an end of the actuator that moves toward the support surface (typically a floor or the earth). The foot is shaped so that the first contact with the support surface is off the axis of the actuator. Off-axis contact with the support surface generates an on-axis force (typically resulting in vertical motion) and a moment orthogonal to the axis. The moment initiates a horizontal tumbling motion, and tilts the actuator so that its axis is oriented with a horizontal component and continued actuation generates both vertical and horizontal force.

  9. Choice of an equivalent black body solar temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Parrott, J.E. )

    1993-09-01

    In the course of modeling the performance of photovoltaic solar cells for space use, it became desirable to set up a black body spectrum equivalent to the standard Air Mass Zero (AMO) solar spectrum. A method of calculating the equivalent black body solar surface temperature, based on irradiance and photon number flux derived from the AMO spectrum, is presented. It does not require knowledge of the angle subtended by the sun at the earth's surface. The value obtained is 5730 +/- 90 K.

  10. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Concentrating Solar...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrating Solar Power Resource Maps These direct-normal solar radiation maps-filtered by solar resource and land availability-identify the most economically suitable lands ...

  11. Solar Car

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Des Moines Central Academy Middle School students compete in the Solar Car Challenge at the National Science Bowl, May 2 in Washington D.C.

  12. Solar Newsletter

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas ...

  13. Solar Mapper

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Interactive, online mapping tool providing access to spatial data related to siting utility-scale solar facilities in the southwestern United States.

  14. Solar Newsletter

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering ...

  15. Solar Rights

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ordinances, bylaws, or regulations may reasonably restrict the installation and use of solar energy devices to protect public health and safety, buildings from damage, historic/aesthetic values (...

  16. Horizontal oil well applications and oil recovery assessment. Volume 1: Success of horizontal well technology, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J.; Knoll, R.G.; Springer, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    Horizontal technology has been applied in over 110 formations in the USA. Volume I of this study addresses the overall success of horizontal technology, especially in less-publicized formations, i.e., other than the Austin Chalk, Bakken, and Niobrara. Operators in the USA. and Canada were surveyed on a formation-by-formation basis by means of a questionnaire. Response data were received describing horizontal well projects in 58 formations in the USA. and 88 in Canada. Operators responses were analyzed for trends in technical and economic success based on lithology (clastics and carbonates) and resource type (light oil, heavy oil, and gas). The potential impact of horizontal technology on reserves was also estimated. A forecast of horizontal drilling activity over the next decade was developed.

  17. Geologic aspects of horizontal drilling in self-sourcing reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Illich, H.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Horizontal drilling techniques provide a way to exploit hydrocarbon reserves that are either noneconomic or only marginally economic using vertical drilling techniques. A significant fraction of these reserves is contained in reservoirs that are self-sourcing or in reservoirs that are closely associated with their resources. Most formations drilled as horizontal targets are self-sourcing. The Austin Chalk, Niobrara, Mesaverde, and Bakken are examples of horizontally drilled, self-sourcing reservoir systems. In formations like the Bakken or Austin Chalk, the close relationship between reservoir and source makes risks associated with migration and accumulation less important. Reservoirs of this kind can contain oil or gas and often have little or no associated water. They can be matrix-dominated reservoirs, dual-porosity reservoirs (Mesaverde), or fractured reservoirs (Austin Chalk, Bakken, and Niobrara). Fractured, self-sourcing reservoirs also can possess matrix characteristics that contribute increased recovery efficiency. Most reservoirs drilled horizontally possess matrix characteristics that contribute increased recovery efficiency. Most reservoirs drilled horizontally possess highly heterogeneous reservoir systems. Characterization of the style of reservoir heterogeneity in self-sourcing systems is important if the favorable properties of horizontally oriented bore holes are to be realized. Production data and rock mechanics considerations are important in horizontal drilling ventures. Examples of the use of these data for the purpose of defining reservoir characteristics are discussed. Knowledge of lateral changes in reservoir properties is essential if we are to recover known reserves efficiently.

  18. Solar Newsletter | Solar Research | NREL

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    September 2016 Hot Topics NREL Researchers Leading Perovskite Research A method was developed to improve perovskite solar cells, making them more efficient and reliable with higher reproducibility. Supercomputing Model Provides Insights from Higher Solar Generation NREL Super Computing model provides insights from higher wind and solar generation in the Eastern Power Grid. How Much Storage to Achieve 50% PV in California? NREL analysis examines the role of flexibility and storage in new report.

  19. Solar Resource Measurements at FPL Energy - Equipment Only. Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-283

    SciTech Connect

    Dooraghi, Mike

    2015-05-07

    Site-specific, long-term, continuous, and high-resolution measurements of solar irradiance are important for developing renewable resource data. These data are used for several research and development activities consistent with the NREL mission: Establish a national 30-year climatological database of measured solar irradiances; Provide high quality ground-truth data for satellite remote sensing validation; Support development of radiative transfer models for estimating solar irradiance from available meteorological observations; Provide solar resource information needed for technology deployment and operations.

  20. Solar energy collection panel and method

    SciTech Connect

    Lemelson, J.H.

    1981-10-13

    A solar energy, concentrating and absorption panel is provided together with a method for converting solar energy to heat energy or electrical energy by the reflection and concentration of solar energy intersecting the panel. The panel is formed with a solar energy receiving portion thereof which is defined by a plurality of parallel channels extending horizontally across the panel, each of which contains at least two side wall portions which are highly reflective of light and which converge towards each other so that light entering such channels is reflected off the side wall portions thereof against the opposite side wall portions and continues to be directed toward the base of the channel, which base is coated with a light absorbing material such that the light directed thereagainst is concentrated and, as such, may be employed to heat either a fluid located in a passageway extending through the wall of the panel parallel and adjacent to the base of the channel.

  1. MWD resistivity tool guides bit horizontally in thin bed

    SciTech Connect

    Fagin, R.A. )

    1991-12-09

    This paper reports on the MWD dual processing resistivity (DPR) measurements and modelling which helped steer a horizontal well through a thin oil zone to avoid a nearby oil/water contact. The horizontal well came on-line flowing 380 bo/d with no water production. Offset vertical wells produce an average of 33 bo/d with an 83% saltwater cut. Until recently, horizontal drilling efforts have been focused on thick reservoirs in which the stratigraphic position of the well bore within the target formation was not critical. Navigation through much thinner reservoirs is now possible with a technique that uses an electromagnetic propagation resistivity tool.

  2. Unified Solar

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Unified Solar is an MIT startup that is commercializing an integrated circuit solution that eliminates most of the adverse effects caused by partial shading in photovoltaic power systems. With its patent-pending design, Unified Solar's solution is smaller, cheaper and more powerful than any competing power optimizer in the market.

  3. Sandia Energy - Solar Resource Assessment

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Resource Assessment Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Resource Assessment Solar Resource AssessmentTara...

  4. Sandia Energy - Solar Market Transformation

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Market Transformation Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Market Transformation Solar Market TransformationTara...

  5. Analysis of a four lamp flash system for calibrating multi-junction solar cells under concentrated light

    SciTech Connect

    Schachtner, Michael Prado, Marcelo Loyo; Reichmuth, S. Kasimir; Siefer, Gerald; Bett, Andreas W.

    2015-09-28

    It has been known for a long time that the precise characterization of multi-junction solar cells demands spectrally tunable solar simulators. The calibration of innovative multi-junction solar cells for CPV applications now requires tunable solar simulators which provide high irradiation levels. This paper describes the commissioning and calibration of a flash-based four-lamp simulator to be used for the measurement of multi-junction solar cells with up to four subcells under concentrated light.

  6. A Model For The Transient Temperature Effects Of Horizontal Fluid...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Transient Temperature Effects Of Horizontal Fluid Flow In Geothermal Systems Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: A Model For The...

  7. Determination of Elastic Twist in Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs)

    SciTech Connect

    Stoddard, F.; Nelson, V.; Starcher, K.; Andrews, B.

    2006-06-01

    This report presents the results of a project at the Alternative Energy Institute (AEI) which measured and calculated the elastic twist of three representative composite horizontal-axis blades: Carter 300, Gougeon ESI 54, and UTRC 8 kW.

  8. Pinellas Site Uses Horizontal Wells for Enhanced Bioremediation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Pinellas Site Uses Horizontal Wells for Enhanced Bioremediation Pinellas Site Uses Horizontal Wells for Enhanced Bioremediation January 14, 2016 - 5:44pm Addthis What does this project do? Goal 1. Protect Human Health and the Environment IMG_5034.jpg Directional drilling rig at the STAR Center. Operations to develop and manufacture components at the former Pinellas Plant in Florida during the nation's Cold War-era nuclear weapons program, released solvents to subsurface

  9. SATURATED-SUBCOOLED STRATIFIED FLOW IN HORIZONTAL PIPES

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Schultz

    2010-08-01

    Advanced light water reactor systems are designed to use passive emergency core cooling systems with horizontal pipes that provide highly subcooled water from water storage tanks or passive heat exchangers to the reactor vessel core under accident conditions. Because passive systems are driven by density gradients, the horizontal pipes often do not flow full and thus have a free surface that is exposed to saturated steam and stratified flow is present.

  10. FOOD IRRADIATION REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Leyse, C.F.; Putnam, G.E.

    1961-05-01

    An irradiation apparatus is described. It comprises a pressure vessel, a neutronic reactor active portion having a substantially greater height than diameter in the pressure vessel, an annular tank surrounding and spaced from the pressure vessel containing an aqueous indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution of approximately 600 grams per liter concentration, means for circulating separate coolants through the active portion and the space between the annular tank and the pressure vessel, radiator means adapted to receive the materials to be irradiated, and means for flowing the indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution through the radiator means.

  11. Fuel or irradiation subassembly

    DOEpatents

    Seim, O.S.; Hutter, E.

    1975-12-23

    A subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which incorporates a loose bundle of fuel or irradiation pins enclosed within an inner tube which in turn is enclosed within an outer coolant tube and includes a locking comb consisting of a head extending through one side of the inner sleeve and a plurality of teeth which extend through the other side of the inner sleeve while engaging annular undercut portions in the bottom portion of the fuel or irradiation pins to prevent movement of the pins.

  12. Ensemble Solar Forecasting Statistical Quantification and Sensitivity Analysis: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, WanYin; Zhang, Jie; Florita, Anthony; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Lu, Siyuan; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Sun, Qian; Lehman, Brad

    2015-12-08

    Uncertainties associated with solar forecasts present challenges to maintain grid reliability, especially at high solar penetrations. This study aims to quantify the errors associated with the day-ahead solar forecast parameters and the theoretical solar power output for a 51-kW solar power plant in a utility area in the state of Vermont, U.S. Forecasts were generated by three numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, including the Rapid Refresh, the High Resolution Rapid Refresh, and the North American Model, and a machine-learning ensemble model. A photovoltaic (PV) performance model was adopted to calculate theoretical solar power generation using the forecast parameters (e.g., irradiance, cell temperature, and wind speed). Errors of the power outputs were quantified using statistical moments and a suite of metrics, such as the normalized root mean squared error (NRMSE). In addition, the PV model's sensitivity to different forecast parameters was quantified and analyzed. Results showed that the ensemble model yielded forecasts in all parameters with the smallest NRMSE. The NRMSE of solar irradiance forecasts of the ensemble NWP model was reduced by 28.10% compared to the best of the three NWP models. Further, the sensitivity analysis indicated that the errors of the forecasted cell temperature attributed only approximately 0.12% to the NRMSE of the power output as opposed to 7.44% from the forecasted solar irradiance.

  13. Ensemble Solar Forecasting Statistical Quantification and Sensitivity Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, WanYin; Zhang, Jie; Florita, Anthony; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Lu, Siyuan; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Sun, Qian; Lehman, Brad

    2015-10-02

    Uncertainties associated with solar forecasts present challenges to maintain grid reliability, especially at high solar penetrations. This study aims to quantify the errors associated with the day-ahead solar forecast parameters and the theoretical solar power output for a 51-kW solar power plant in a utility area in the state of Vermont, U.S. Forecasts were generated by three numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, including the Rapid Refresh, the High Resolution Rapid Refresh, and the North American Model, and a machine-learning ensemble model. A photovoltaic (PV) performance model was adopted to calculate theoretical solar power generation using the forecast parameters (e.g., irradiance, cell temperature, and wind speed). Errors of the power outputs were quantified using statistical moments and a suite of metrics, such as the normalized root mean squared error (NRMSE). In addition, the PV model's sensitivity to different forecast parameters was quantified and analyzed. Results showed that the ensemble model yielded forecasts in all parameters with the smallest NRMSE. The NRMSE of solar irradiance forecasts of the ensemble NWP model was reduced by 28.10% compared to the best of the three NWP models. Further, the sensitivity analysis indicated that the errors of the forecasted cell temperature attributed only approximately 0.12% to the NRMSE of the power output as opposed to 7.44% from the forecasted solar irradiance.

  14. Photovoltaic Solar Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Photovoltaic Solar Projects Photovoltaic Solar Projects Photovoltaic Solar Projects Photovoltaic Solar Projects Photovoltaic Solar Projects Photovoltaic Solar Projects Photovoltaic Solar Projects Photovoltaic Solar Projects Photovoltaic Solar Projects Photovoltaic Solar Projects Photovoltaic Solar Projects Photovoltaic Solar Projects Photovoltaic Solar Projects Photovoltaic Solar Projects Photovoltaic Solar Projects Photovoltaic Solar Projects LPO_Utility-Scale_PV_Solar_Report_Thumbnail_180.png

  15. Solar Two

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-04-01

    Solar Two is a concentrating solar power plant that can supply electric power on demand to the local utility, Southern California Edison Company. It can do so because it operates not only during sunny parts of the day, but it can store enough thermal energy from the sun to operate during cloudy periods and after dark, for up to three hours, at its rated output of 10 megawatts (MW). For the first time ever, a utility scale solar power plant can supply electricity when the utility needs it most, to satisfy the energy requirements of its customers.

  16. Solar Millenium Ridgecrest Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Ridgecrest Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Solar Millenium Ridgecrest Solar Power Plant Facility Solar Millenium Ridgecrest Sector Solar Facility Type...

  17. SES Solar Three Project Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Three Project Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name SES Solar Three Project Solar Power Plant Facility SES Solar Three Project Sector Solar Facility Type Photovoltaics...

  18. Renewable Energy Concepts Solar Inc REC Solar | Open Energy Informatio...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Concepts Solar Inc REC Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Renewable Energy Concepts Solar Inc (REC Solar) Place: San Luis Obispo, California Zip: 93401 Sector: Solar Product:...

  19. Solar Ready Vets: Preparing Veterans for the Solar Workforce...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Solar Ready Vets: Preparing Veterans for the Solar Workforce Solar Ready Vets: Preparing Veterans for the Solar Workforce Addthis Description Solar Ready Vets, created by the ...

  20. Apparatus and method for the horizontal, crucible-free growth of silicon sheet crystals

    DOEpatents

    Ciszek, Theodore F.

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus for continuously forming a silicon crystal sheet from a silicon rod in a noncrucible environment. The rod is rotated and fed toward an RF coil in an inert atmosphere so that the upper end of the rod becomes molten and the silicon sheet crystal is pulled therefrom substantially horizontally in a continuous strip. A shorting ring may be provided around the rod to limit the heating to the upper end only. Argon gas can be used to create the inert atmosphere within a suitable closed chamber. By use of this apparatus and method, a substantially defect-free silicon crystal sheet is formed that can be used for microcircuitry chips or solar cells.

  1. Apparatus and method for the horizontal, crucible-free growth of silicon sheet crystals

    DOEpatents

    Ciszek, T.F.

    1984-09-12

    Apparatus is provided for continuously forming a silicon crystal sheet from a silicon rod in a non-crucible environment. The rod is rotated and fed toward an RF coil in an inert atmosphere so that the upper end of the rod becomes molten and the silicon sheet crystal is pulled therefrom substantially horizontally in a continuous strip. A shorting ring may be provided around the rod to limit the heating to the upper end only. Argon gas can be used to create the inert atmosphere within a suitable closed chamber. By use of this apparatus and method, a substantially defect-free silicon crystal sheet is formed which can be used for micro-circuitry chips or solar cells.

  2. NSUF Irradiated Materials Library

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, James Irvin

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Science User Facilities has been in the process of establishing an innovative Irradiated Materials Library concept for maximizing the value of previous and on-going materials and nuclear fuels irradiation test campaigns, including utilization of real-world components retrieved from current and decommissioned reactors. When the ATR national scientific user facility was established in 2007 one of the goals of the program was to establish a library of irradiated samples for users to access and conduct research through competitively reviewed proposal process. As part of the initial effort, staff at the user facility identified legacy materials from previous programs that are still being stored in laboratories and hot-cell facilities at the INL. In addition other materials of interest were identified that are being stored outside the INL that the current owners have volunteered to enter into the library. Finally, over the course of the last several years, the ATR NSUF has irradiated more than 3500 specimens as part of NSUF competitively awarded research projects. The Logistics of managing this large inventory of highly radioactive poses unique challenges. This document will describe materials in the library, outline the policy for accessing these materials and put forth a strategy for making new additions to the library as well as establishing guidelines for minimum pedigree needed to be included in the library to limit the amount of material stored indefinitely without identified value.

  3. Drilling Sideways - A Review of Horizontal Well Technology and Its Domestic Application

    Reports and Publications

    1993-01-01

    Focuses primarily on domestic horizontal drilling applications, past and present, and on salient aspects of current and near-future horizontal drilling and completion technology.

  4. Solar Rights

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    In June of 2015, SB 1626 was signed into law. It provides that during the development period, the developer may only prohibit  a property owner from installing solar in developments with 50 or...

  5. solar energy

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    8%2A en Solar power purchase for DOE laboratories http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasessolarpower

  6. solar power

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    9%2A en Solar power purchase for DOE laboratories http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasessolarpower

  7. Solar interior and atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, A.N.; Livingston, W.C.; Matthews, M.S. National Solar Observatory, Tucson, AZ )

    1991-01-01

    The present work discusses nuclear energy generation in the solar interior, solar neutrino experiments, solar premain-sequence evolution, the computation of standard solar models, radiative-zone mixing, solar element separation by atomic diffusion, the observation and theory of solar oscillations, the solar internal rotation and magnetism implications of oscillations, solar gravity modes, and solar oscillation-mode excitation. Also discussed are the solar spectrum, the role of the solar photosphere and a radiative boundary, high spatial-resolution techniques for solar study, high-resolution observations of the solar granulation, large-scale velocity fields, the solar activity cycle, the magnetic fields of active regions and sunspots, the physics of flux tubes and filigrees, the heating of the solar chromosphere, the fine structure of the solar transition region, coronal activity, the coronal origins of the solar winds, and postmain sequence solar evolution.

  8. Akeena Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Akeena Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Akeena Solar Name: Akeena Solar Address: 16005 Los Gatos Blvd. Place: Los Gatos, California Zip: 95032 Sector: Solar Product: Solar...

  9. Adobe Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Adobe Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Adobe Solar Name: Adobe Solar Place: Denver, Colorado Region: Rockies Area Sector: Solar Product: solar electric systems Phone Number:...

  10. Climatic Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Climatic Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Climatic Solar Name: Climatic Solar Address: 650 2nd Lane Place: Vero Beach, Florida Zip: 32962 Sector: Solar Product: solar energy...

  11. Tejas Solares | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Tejas Solares Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tejas Solares Place: Spain Sector: Solar Product: Tejas Solares is a Spain-based company focused on providing solar solutions for...

  12. Oxford Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Oxford Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Oxford Solar Place: Randolph, New Jersey Zip: 7869 Sector: Solar Product: Oxford Solar provides solar energy consulting and...

  13. SBM Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    search Name: SBM Solar Place: North Carolina Sector: Solar Product: SBM Solar is a solar panel manufacturer based in North Carolina. References: SBM Solar1 This article is...

  14. Solar Training | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Solar Business Innovation Networking and Solar Technical Assistance Solar Training Solar DATA ANALYSIS Solar jobs have risen rapidly since the start of the SunShot Initiative. ...

  15. Solar Resource Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    DOE solar resource research focuses on understanding historical solar resource patterns and making future predictions, both of which are needed to support reliable power system operation. As solar...

  16. NREL: Solar STAT Blog -

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Outreach Policy Basics Publications Request Assistance Technical Assistance Project Map Solar STAT Blog The Solar STAT blog discusses state and local efforts to develop solar...

  17. Long-Term Modeling of Solar Energy: Analysis of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) and PV Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yabei; Smith, Steven J.

    2007-08-16

    This report presents an overview of research conducted on solar energy technologies and their implementation in the ObjECTS framework. The topics covered include financing assumptions and selected issues related to the integration of concentrating thermal solar power (CSP) and photovoltaics PV technologies into the electric grid. A review of methodologies for calculating the levelized energy cost of capital-intensive technologies is presented, along with sensitivity tests illustrating how the cost of a solar plant would vary depending on financing assumptions. An analysis of the integration of a hybrid concentrating thermal solar power (CSP) system into the electric system is conducted. Finally a failure statistics analysis for PV plants illustrates the central role of solar irradiance uncertainty in determining PV grid integration characteristics.

  18. Microsoft Word - Sri_Lanka_10km_solar_country_report.doc

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    of 5x5 km. Figure 1: The solar irradiance data is derived from Meteosat a 0 (red circle) and at 63 East (orange circle). The brightened area marks the quantitatively...

  19. Automated Tracing of Horizontal Neuron Processes During Retinal Development

    SciTech Connect

    Kerekes, Ryan A [ORNL; Martins, Rodrigo [St. Jude Children's Research Hospital; Dyer, Michael A [ORNL; Gleason, Shaun Scott [ORNL; Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Davis, Denise [St. Jude Children's Research Hospital

    2011-01-01

    In the developing mammalian retina, horizontal neurons undergo a dramatic reorganization oftheir processes shortly after they migrate to their appropriate laminar position. This is an importantprocess because it is now understood that the apical processes are important for establishing theregular mosaic of horizontal cells in the retina and proper reorganization during lamination isrequired for synaptogenesis with photoreceptors and bipolar neurons. However, this process isdifficult to study because the analysis of horizontal neuron anatomy is labor intensive and time-consuming. In this paper, we present a computational method for automatically tracing the three-dimensional (3-D) dendritic structure of horizontal retinal neurons in two-photon laser scanningmicroscope (TPLSM) imagery. Our method is based on 3-D skeletonization and is thus able topreserve the complex structure of the dendritic arbor of these cells. We demonstrate theeffectiveness of our approach by comparing our tracing results against two sets of semi-automatedtraces over a set of 10 horizontal neurons ranging in age from P1 to P5. We observe an averageagreement level of 81% between our automated trace and the manual traces. This automatedmethod will serve as an important starting point for further refinement and optimization.

  20. A review of the solar energy database for the Banat plain

    SciTech Connect

    Turi, Gabriel Mihai; Marin, Cătălin Nicolae Paulescu, Marius

    2015-12-07

    The feasibility studies and the design of photovoltaic systems are generally based on the monthly mean values of solar irradiation. Such data are available for download from several online databases. The aim of this study is to assess the reliability of the data sets provided by different sources to design a photovoltaic system in the Banat region. For this, the monthly mean values of solar irradiation provided by five databases for Timisoara are assessed and compared.

  1. ELECTRON IRRADIATION OF SOLIDS

    DOEpatents

    Damask, A.C.

    1959-11-01

    A method is presented for altering physical properties of certain solids, such as enhancing the usefulness of solids, in which atomic interchange occurs through a vacancy mechanism, electron irradiation, and temperature control. In a centain class of metals, alloys, and semiconductors, diffusion or displacement of atoms occurs through a vacancy mechanism, i.e., an atom can only move when there exists a vacant atomic or lattice site in an adjacent position. In the process of the invention highenergy electron irradiation produces additional vacancies in a solid over those normally occurring at a given temperature and allows diffusion of the component atoms of the solid to proceed at temperatures at which it would not occur under thermal means alone in any reasonable length of time. The invention offers a precise way to increase the number of vacancies and thereby, to a controlled degree, change the physical properties of some materials, such as resistivity or hardness.

  2. Solar resources

    SciTech Connect

    Hulstrom, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Following the 1973 oil embargo, the US government initiated a program to develop and use solar energy. This led to individual programs devoted to developing various solar radiation energy conversion technologies: photovoltaic and solar-thermal conversion devices. Nearly concurrently, it was recognized that understanding the available insolation resources was required to develop and deploy solar energy devices and systems. It was also recognized that the insolation information available at that time (1973) was not adequate to meet the specific needs of the solar energy community. Federal efforts were initiated and conducted to produce new and more extensive information and data. The primary federal agencies that undertook such efforts were the Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). NOAA's efforts included activities performed by the National Weather Service (NWS) and the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). This book has two man objectives: to report some of the insolation energy data, information, and products produced by the federal efforts and to describe how they were produced. Products include data bases, models and algorithms, monitoring networks, instrumentation, and scientific techniques. The scope of products and results does not include all those produced by past federal efforts. The book's scope and subject matter are oriented to support the intent and purpose of the other volumes in this series. In some cases, other pertinent material is presented to provide a more complete coverage of a given subject. 385 refs., 149 figs., 50 tabs.

  3. BIOLOGICAL IRRADIATION FACILITY

    DOEpatents

    McCorkle, W.H.; Cern, H.S.

    1962-04-24

    A facility for irradiating biological specimens with neutrons is described. It includes a reactor wherein the core is off center in a reflector. A high-exposure room is located outside the reactor on the side nearest the core while a low-exposure room is located on the opposite side. Means for converting thermal neutrons to fast neutrons are movably disposed between the reactor core and the high and low-exposure rooms. (AEC)

  4. Coiled tubing buckling implication in drilling and completing horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; Juvkam-Wold, H.C.

    1995-03-01

    This paper discusses coiled tubing buckling and load transmission when drilling and completing horizontal wells. Comprehensive analyses and new equations are presented to predict buckling of coiled tubing, slack-off weight transmission, actual bit weight or packer load, and maximum horizontal length. Coiled tubing lock-up and yield due to buckling are also discussed. These equations can also be used for other coiled tubing operations, such as coiled tubing workover, coiled tubing well stimulation, and even for conventional joint-connected drill strings. Calculations based on the equations presented are also compared with the previous literature.

  5. Further discussion of productivity of a horizontal well

    SciTech Connect

    Suprunowicz, R.; Butler, R.M. )

    1993-05-01

    This paper is presented as a comment to an earlier paper entitled Productivity of a Horizontal Well' (Nov. 1992, SPE Reservoir Engineering). These authors attempt to refute the original authors conclusions regarding pressure gradients and boundary conditions in horizontal wells. These authors state that the pressure gradient proposed in the original paper which was parallel to the well bore and was required to maintain constant-flux distribution, are large and unrealistic. They also discuss the use of steady-state and pseudo-steady-state flow models and the interpretation of model results to help predict productivity.

  6. 2012 News | Solar | NREL

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL and Solar Junction outsmart the solar spectrum and set a world record with a 44%-efficient solar cell. December 4, 2012 NREL Teams with Berkeley Lab to Analyze Solar Pricing ...

  7. Solar Equipment Certification

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under the Solar Energy Standards Act of 1976, the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) is responsible for certifying all solar equipment sold in Florida. A manufacturer who wishes to have their solar...

  8. Solar Neutrinos

    DOE R&D Accomplishments

    Davis, R. Jr.; Harmer, D. S.

    1964-12-01

    The prospect of studying the solar energy generation process directly by observing the solar neutrino radiation has been discussed for many years. The main difficulty with this approach is that the sun emits predominantly low energy neutrinos, and detectors for observing low fluxes of low energy neutrinos have not been developed. However, experimental techniques have been developed for observing neutrinos, and one can foresee that in the near future these techniques will be improved sufficiently in sensitivity to observe solar neutrinos. At the present several experiments are being designed and hopefully will be operating in the next year or so. We will discuss an experiment based upon a neutrino capture reaction that is the inverse of the electron-capture radioactive decay of argon-37. The method depends upon exposing a large volume of a chlorine compound, removing the radioactive argon-37 and observing the characteristic decay in a small low-level counter.

  9. Solar Resource Measurements in El Paso, Texas (Equipment CRADA Only): Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-273

    SciTech Connect

    Andreas, A.

    2013-11-01

    Site-specific, long-term, continuous, and high-resolution measurements of solar irradiance are important for developing renewable resource data. These data are used for several research and development activities consistent with the NREL mission: establish a national 30-year climatological database of measured solar irradiances; provide high quality ground-truth data for satellite remote sensing validation; support development of radiative transfer models for estimating solar irradiance from available meteorological observations; provide solar resource information needed for technology deployment and operations.

  10. Aerosol optical depth derived from solar radiometry observations at northern mid-latitude sites

    SciTech Connect

    Laulainen, N.S.; Larson, N.R.; Michalsky, J.J.; Harrison, L.C.

    1994-01-01

    Routine, automated solar radiometry observations began with the development of the Mobile Automated Scanning Photometer (MASP) and its installation at the Rattlesnake Mountain Observatory (RMO). We have introduced a microprocessor controlled rotating shadowband radiometer (RSR), both the single detector and the multi-filter/detector (MFRSR) versions to replace the MASP. The operational mode of the RSRs is substantially different than the MASP or other traditional sun-tracking radiometers, because, by virtue of the automated rotating shadowband, the total and diffuse irradiance on a horizontal plane are measured and the direct-normal component deduced through computation from the total and diffuse components by the self-contained microprocessor. Because the three irradiance components are measured using the same detector for a given wavelength, the calibration coefficients are identical for each component, thus reducing errors when comparing them. The MFRSR is the primary radiometric instrument in the nine-station Quantitative Links Network (QLN) established in the eastern United States in late 1991. Data from this network are being used to investigate how cloud- and aerosol-induced radiative effects vary in time and with cloud structure and type over a mid-latitude continental region. This work supports the DOE Quantitative Links Program to quantify linkages between changes in atmospheric composition and climate forcing. In this paper we describe the setup of the QLN and present aerosol optical depth results from the on-going measurements at PNL/RMO, as well as preliminary results from the QLN. From the time-series of data at each site, we compare seasonal variability and geographical differences, as well as the effect of the perturbation to the stratosphere by Mt. Pinatubo. Analysis of the wavelength dependence of optical depth also provides information on the evolution and changes in the size distribution of the aerosols.

  11. Solar ADEPT: Efficient Solar Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Solar ADEPT Project: The 7 projects that make up ARPA-E's Solar ADEPT program, short for 'Solar Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,' aim to improve the performance of photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, which convert the sun's rays into electricity. Solar ADEPT projects are integrating advanced electrical components into PV systems to make the process of converting solar energy to electricity more efficient.

  12. Creating solar media nets solar tools, publicity

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, B.

    1980-01-01

    The utilization of locally produced solar tool to gain more access to commercial media is discussed. Central is a strategy of (1) giving commercial media something to report, (2) helping educate the media, and (3) simultaneously impacting that portion of the public which is likely to be most interested. Methods for reaching several target audiences include a Solar Calendar, a Passive Solar Film, a local Solar Directory, a local Solar Information Center, an Emergency Coolth brochure and a Conservation/Solar Retrofit Guide.

  13. Concentrating Solar Power

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-09-01

    Summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

  14. Solar Electric Propulsion

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ... Sciences Applications National Solar Thermal Test Facility Nuclear Energy ...

  15. Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ... Sciences Applications National Solar Thermal Test Facility Nuclear Energy ...

  16. Concentrating Solar Power

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ... Sciences Applications National Solar Thermal Test Facility Nuclear Energy ...

  17. VISUAL-SOLAR

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    003661IBMPC00 Visual-SOLAR: Modeling and Visualization of Solar Radiation Potential on Individual Building Rooftops

  18. Solar Energy Technologies Program: Concentrating Solar Power

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-26

    Fact sheet summarizing the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

  19. Solar Easements & Local Option Solar Rights Laws

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Utah's solar easement provision is similar to easement provisions in many other states. Parties may voluntarily enter into written solar easement contracts that are enforceable by law. An...

  20. Direct normal irradiance related definitions and applications: The circumsolar issue

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, P.; Espinar, B.; Geuder, N.; Gueymard, C.; Meyer, R.; Pitz-Paal, R.; Reinhardt, B.; Renne, D.; Segupta, M.; Wald, L.; Wilbert, S.

    2014-10-21

    The direct irradiance received on a plane normal to the sun, called direct normal irradiance (DNI), is of particular relevance to concentrated solar technologies, including concentrating solar thermal plants and concentrated photovoltaic systems. Following various standards from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the DNI definition is related to the irradiance from a small solid angle of the sky, centered on the position of the sun. Half-angle apertures of pyrheliometers measuring DNI have varied over time, up to ≈10°. The current recommendation of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for this half-angle is 2.5°. Solar concentrating collectors have an angular acceptance function that can be significantly narrower, especially for technologies with high concentration ratios. The disagreement between the various interpretations of DNI, from the theoretical definition used in atmospheric physics and radiative transfer modeling to practical definitions corresponding to specific measurements or conversion technologies is significant, especially in the presence of cirrus clouds or large concentration of aerosols. Under such sky conditions, the circumsolar radiation—i.e. the diffuse radiation coming from the vicinity of the sun—contributes significantly to the DNI ground measurement, although some concentrating collectors cannot utilize the bulk of it. These issues have been identified in the EU-funded projects MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate-Interim Implementation) and SFERA (Solar Facilities for the European Research Area), and have been discussed within a panel of international experts in the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) program of the International Energy Agency’s (IEA’s) Task 46 “Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting”. In accordance with these discussions, the terms of reference related to DNI are specified here. The important role of circumsolar radiation is evidenced

  1. Direct normal irradiance related definitions and applications: The circumsolar issue

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Blanc, P.; Espinar, B.; Geuder, N.; Gueymard, C.; Meyer, R.; Pitz-Paal, R.; Reinhardt, B.; Renne, D.; Segupta, M.; Wald, L.; et al

    2014-10-21

    The direct irradiance received on a plane normal to the sun, called direct normal irradiance (DNI), is of particular relevance to concentrated solar technologies, including concentrating solar thermal plants and concentrated photovoltaic systems. Following various standards from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the DNI definition is related to the irradiance from a small solid angle of the sky, centered on the position of the sun. Half-angle apertures of pyrheliometers measuring DNI have varied over time, up to ≈10°. The current recommendation of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for this half-angle is 2.5°. Solar concentrating collectors have an angular acceptancemore » function that can be significantly narrower, especially for technologies with high concentration ratios. The disagreement between the various interpretations of DNI, from the theoretical definition used in atmospheric physics and radiative transfer modeling to practical definitions corresponding to specific measurements or conversion technologies is significant, especially in the presence of cirrus clouds or large concentration of aerosols. Under such sky conditions, the circumsolar radiation—i.e. the diffuse radiation coming from the vicinity of the sun—contributes significantly to the DNI ground measurement, although some concentrating collectors cannot utilize the bulk of it. These issues have been identified in the EU-funded projects MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate-Interim Implementation) and SFERA (Solar Facilities for the European Research Area), and have been discussed within a panel of international experts in the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) program of the International Energy Agency’s (IEA’s) Task 46 “Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting”. In accordance with these discussions, the terms of reference related to DNI are specified here. The important role of circumsolar radiation is

  2. Potential for Development of Solar and Wind Resource in Bhutan

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, P.; Cowlin, S.; Heimiller, D.

    2009-09-01

    With support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) produced maps and data of the wind and solar resources in Bhutan. The solar resource data show that Bhutan has an adequate resource for flat-plate collectors, with annual average values of global horizontal solar radiation ranging from 4.0 to 5.5 kWh/m2-day (4.0 to 5.5 peak sun hours per day). The information provided in this report may be of use to energy planners in Bhutan involved in developing energy policy or planning wind and solar projects, and to energy analysts around the world interested in gaining an understanding of Bhutan's wind and solar energy potential.

  3. The spectral irradiance traceability chain at PTB

    SciTech Connect

    Sperfeld, P.; Pape, S.; Nevas, S.

    2013-05-10

    international intercomparisons among NMIs. Ultimately, the spectral irradiance can be realized with expanded measurement uncertainties of far less than 1 % over a wide spectral range. Thus, for customers with high demands on low measurement uncertainties, it is possible to calibrate their working standards directly against the blackbody-radiator, taking into account the higher necessary effort. In special cases it is possible to calibrate the customer's spectroradiometric facilities directly in front of the blackbody-radiator. In the context of the European Metrology Research Project Traceability for surface spectral solar ultraviolet radiation, the traceability chain will be improved and adapted.

  4. AV Solar Ranch I Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    AV Solar Ranch I Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name AV Solar Ranch I Solar Power Plant Facility AV Solar Ranch I Sector Solar Facility Type Photovoltaic Developer...

  5. Horizontal drilling the Bakken Formation, Williston basin: A new approach

    SciTech Connect

    Lefever, J.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Horizontal drilling is an attractive new approach to exploration and development of the Mississippian/Devonian Bakken Formation in the southwestern part of North Dakota. This drilling technique increases the probability of success, the profit potential, the effective drainage area maximizing recoverable reserves, and the productivity by encountering more natural occurring fractures. The target formation, the Mississippian/Devonian Bakken, consists of three members in an overlapping relationship, a lower organic-rich black shale, a middle siltstone/limestone, and an upper organic-rich black shale. It attains a maximum thickness of 145 ft and thins to a feather edge along its depositional limit. Considered to be a major source rock for the Williston basin, the Bakken is usually overpressured where productive. Overpressuring is attributed to intense hydrocarbon generation. Reservoir properties are poor with core fluid porosities being generally 5% or less and permeabilities ranging from 0.1 to 0.2 md. The presence of natural fractures in the shale are necessary for production. Two types of fractures are associated with Bakken reservoirs: large vertical fractures (of tectonic origin) and microfractures (probably related to hydrocarbon generation). An economic comparison between horizontal and vertical wells show that well completion costs are approximately two times higher (average costs; $1,500,000 for a horizontal to $850,000 for a vertical) with average payout for horizontal wells projected to occur in half the time (1.5 yr instead of 3.4 yr). Projected production and reserves are considered to be 2 to 4 times greater from a horizontal well.

  6. PROJECT PROFILE: Reducing PV Performance Uncertainty by Accurately...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    500,000 The procedures used today for prediction of the solar resource available to photovoltaic (PV) projects uses horizontal irradiance validated with thermopile radiometers. ...

  7. Montenegro: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    (bbl) 156 2010 CIA World Factbook Energy Maps featuring Montenegro Montenegro global irradiation and solar electricity potential (horizontally-mounted photovoltaic modules)...

  8. Craniospinal irradiation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Scarlatescu, Ioana Avram, Calin N.; Virag, Vasile

    2015-12-07

    In this paper we present one treatment plan for irradiation cases which involve a complex technique with multiple beams, using the 3D conformational technique. As the main purpose of radiotherapy is to administrate a precise dose into the tumor volume and protect as much as possible all the healthy tissues around it, for a case diagnosed with a primitive neuro ectoderm tumor, we have developed a new treatment plan, by controlling one of the two adjacent fields used at spinal field, in a way that avoids the fields superposition. Therefore, the risk of overdose is reduced by eliminating the field divergence.

  9. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    San Francisco, California: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Ann Arbor, Michigan: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar ...

  10. EIS-0449: Solar Millennium Blythe Solar Power Project in Riverside...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    9: Solar Millennium Blythe Solar Power Project in Riverside County, CA EIS-0449: Solar Millennium Blythe Solar Power Project in Riverside County, CA December 10, 2010 EIS-0449: ...

  11. EE Solar Energy Efficiency Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    EE Solar Energy Efficiency Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: EE Solar (Energy Efficiency Solar) Place: Ponoma, California Zip: 91768 Product: PV systems installer based in...

  12. Willard Kelsey Solar Group WK Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Willard Kelsey Solar Group WK Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Willard & Kelsey Solar Group (WK Solar) Place: Perrysburg, Ohio Zip: 43551 Product: Manufacturer of CdTe...

  13. Innotech Solar AS formerly known as Solar Cell Repower | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Innotech Solar AS formerly known as Solar Cell Repower Jump to: navigation, search Name: Innotech Solar AS (formerly known as Solar Cell Repower) Place: Narvik, Norway Zip: 8512...

  14. Wuxi Jiacheng Solar Energy Technology Co JC Solar | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    JC Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wuxi Jiacheng Solar Energy Technology Co (JC Solar) Place: Yixing, Jiangsu Province, China Zip: 214200 Sector: Solar Product: A Chinese...

  15. Innovative Systems Engineering Solar LLC ISE Solar LLC | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Systems Engineering Solar LLC ISE Solar LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Innovative Systems Engineering Solar LLC (ISE Solar LLC) Place: Warminster, Pennsylvania Zip:...

  16. First Solar Electric LLC formerly DT Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Electric LLC formerly DT Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: First Solar Electric LLC (formerly DT Solar) Place: Branchburg, New Jersey Zip: 8876 Sector: Solar Product: PV...

  17. Aide Solar Jiangsu Aide Solar Energy Technology Co Ltd | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Aide Solar Jiangsu Aide Solar Energy Technology Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Aide Solar (Jiangsu Aide Solar Energy Technology Co Ltd) Place: Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province,...

  18. AET Solar formerly solar division of GGAM Electrical Services...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Solar formerly solar division of GGAM Electrical Services Jump to: navigation, search Name: AET Solar (formerly solar division of GGAM Electrical Services) Place: Limassol, Cyprus...

  19. Creative Energy Solar Investments SA formerly Hellenic Solar...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Solar Investments SA formerly Hellenic Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Creative Energy Solar Investments SA (formerly Hellenic Solar) Place: 18538 Piraeus, Greece Product:...

  20. China Glass Solar aka CG Solar formerly Weihai Bluestar Terra...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Glass Solar aka CG Solar formerly Weihai Bluestar Terra Photovoltaic Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Glass Solar (aka CG Solar, formerly Weihai Bluestar Terra...

  1. Siemens Solar formerly ARCO Solar Corporation | Open Energy Informatio...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Solar formerly ARCO Solar Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Siemens Solar (formerly ARCO Solar Corporation) Place: Arizona Product: Built a 6MW CPV project in 1984,...

  2. Siemens Concentrated Solar Power Ltd previously Solel Solar Systems...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Siemens Concentrated Solar Power Ltd previously Solel Solar Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Siemens Concentrated Solar Power Ltd (previously Solel Solar Systems) Place:...

  3. Guodian Jintech Solar Energy formerly Yixing Jintech Solar Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jintech Solar Energy formerly Yixing Jintech Solar Energy Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Guodian Jintech Solar Energy (formerly Yixing Jintech Solar Energy Co Ltd) Place:...

  4. Shanghai Comtec Solar Technology Ltd aka Comtec Solar System...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Comtec Solar Technology Ltd aka Comtec Solar System Group Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shanghai Comtec Solar Technology Ltd (aka Comtec Solar System Group Ltd) Place:...

  5. Ecosystem Solar Electric Corp aka Solar MW Energy Inc | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Solar Electric Corp aka Solar MW Energy Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ecosystem Solar Electric Corp, aka Solar MW Energy Inc Place: Ontario, California Zip: 91761 Product:...

  6. ET Solar Group Formerly CNS Solar Industry | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Solar Group Formerly CNS Solar Industry Jump to: navigation, search Name: ET Solar Group (Formerly CNS Solar Industry) Place: Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China Zip: 210009 Sector:...

  7. Entech Solar Inc formerly WorldWater Solar Technologies | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Solar Inc formerly WorldWater Solar Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Name: Entech Solar Inc. (formerly WorldWater & Solar Technologies) Place: Fort Worth, Texas Zip: 76177...

  8. San Antonio, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Antonio, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) San Antonio, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, ...

  9. EA-1798: Abengoa Solar's Mojave Solar Project near Barstow, CA...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    8: Abengoa Solar's Mojave Solar Project near Barstow, CA EA-1798: Abengoa Solar's Mojave Solar Project near Barstow, CA July 1, 2011 EA-1798: Final Environmental Assessment Loan ...

  10. edition Not Available 14 SOLAR ENERGY; SOLAR ENERGY; EDUCATIONAL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Home economics: student activities. Field test edition Not Available 14 SOLAR ENERGY; SOLAR ENERGY; EDUCATIONAL TOOLS; CURRICULUM GUIDES; GLAZING; HOUSES; SOLAR COOKERS; SOLAR...

  11. Space Coast Next Generation Solar Energy Center Solar Power Plant...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Coast Next Generation Solar Energy Center Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Space Coast Next Generation Solar Energy Center Solar Power Plant Facility Space Coast...

  12. Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center Solar Power Plant...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Next Generation Solar Energy Center Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center Solar Power Plant Facility Martin Next Generation...

  13. Early solar mass loss, opacity uncertainties, and the solar abundance...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Early solar mass loss, opacity uncertainties, and the solar abundance problem Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Early solar mass loss, opacity uncertainties, and the solar ...

  14. Portland, Oregon: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Portland, Oregon: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Portland, Oregon: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, ...

  15. Solar Position Algorithm for Solar Radiation Applications (Revised...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Solar Position Algorithm for Solar Radiation Applications (Revised) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solar Position Algorithm for Solar Radiation Applications (Revised) ...

  16. Orlando, Florida: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Orlando, Florida: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Orlando, Florida: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities,...

  17. Denver, Colorado: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Denver, Colorado: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Denver, Colorado: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities,...

  18. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America ...

  19. Houston, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Houston, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Houston, Texas: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, ...

  20. Kings River Conservation District (KRCD) Solar Farm Solar Power...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    River Conservation District (KRCD) Solar Farm Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Kings River Conservation District (KRCD) Solar Farm Solar Power Plant Facility...

  1. PROJECT PROFILE: Solar Electric Power Association (Solar Market...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Electric Power Association (Solar Market Pathways) PROJECT PROFILE: Solar Electric Power Association (Solar Market Pathways) Title: Community Solar Design Models for Consumer, ...

  2. Seattle, Washington: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America...

    Energy Saver

    Seattle, Washington: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Seattle, Washington: Solar in Action (Brochure), Solar America ...

  3. Passive Solar Building Design and Solar Thermal Space Heating...

    Energy Saver

    Passive Solar Building Design and Solar Thermal Space Heating Webinar Passive Solar Building Design and Solar Thermal Space Heating Webinar Watch a recording of National Renewable ...

  4. Solar Impulse's Solar-Powered Plane

    ScienceCinema

    Moniz, Ernest; Piccard, Bertrand; Reicher, Dan

    2016-07-12

    Solar Impulse lands in Washington, DC at Washington Dulles International Airport as part of its journey across the United States. Secretary Ernest Moniz speaks about how advancements like those at the Department of Energy are leading the way for innovations like the solar-powered plane. Footage of the solar-powered plane courtesy of Solar Impulse.

  5. Solar Impulse's Solar-Powered Plane

    SciTech Connect

    Moniz, Ernest; Piccard, Bertrand; Reicher, Dan

    2013-07-08

    Solar Impulse lands in Washington, DC at Washington Dulles International Airport as part of its journey across the United States. Secretary Ernest Moniz speaks about how advancements like those at the Department of Energy are leading the way for innovations like the solar-powered plane. Footage of the solar-powered plane courtesy of Solar Impulse.

  6. Solar Newsletter Archives | Solar Research | NREL

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Newsletter Archives Find archives of the previous issues of the Solar Newsletters. September 2016 July 2016

  7. Concentrating Solar Power Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects

  8. Completion Design Considerations for a Horizontal Enhanced Geothermal System

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Jeffrey; Eustes, Alfred; Fleckenstein, William; Eker, Erdinc; Baker, Reed; Augustine, Chad

    2015-09-02

    The petroleum industry has had considerable success in recent decades in developing unconventional shale plays using horizontal drilling and multi-zonal isolation and stimulation techniques to fracture tight formations to enable the commercial production of oil and gas. Similar well completions could be used in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) to create multiple fractures from horizontal wells. This study assesses whether well completion techniques used in the unconventional shale industry to create multi-stage fractures can be applied to an enhanced geothermal system, with a focus on the completion of the EGS injection well. This study assumes an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) consisting of a central horizontal injection well flanked on each side by horizontal production wells, connected to the injection well by multiple fractures. The focus is on the design and completion of the horizontal well. For the purpose of developing design criteria, a reservoir temperature of 200 degrees C (392 degrees F) and an injection well flow rate of 87,000 barrels per day (160 kg/s), corresponding to production well flow rates of 43,500 barrels per day (80 kg/s) is assumed. The analysis found that 9-5/8 inches 53.5 pounds per foot (ppf) P110 casing string with premium connections meets all design criteria for the horizontal section of injection well. A P110 grade is fairly common and is often used in horizontal sections of shale development wells in petroleum operations. Next, several zonal isolation systems commonly used in the shale gas industry were evaluated. Three techniques were evaluated -- a 'plug and perf' design, a 'sand and perf' design, and a 'packer and port' design. A plug and perf system utilizes a cemented casing throughout the length of the injector wellbore. The sand and perf system is identical to the plug and perf system, but replaces packers with sand placed in the casing after stimulation to screen out the stimulated perforated zones and provide zonal

  9. Solar engineering 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, T.R. ); Watanabe, K. ); Klett, D.E. )

    1991-01-01

    This book contains paper presented at the second ASME-JSES-JSME international solar energy conference. It is organized under the following headings: Solar ponds, Energy fundamentals in solar systems, General solar energy, Solar powered cars, Distributed receiver components and systems, Central receiver components and systems, Chemical processes and waste destruction, High flux and innovative applications, Solar thermal space propulsion, Solar dynamic power systems, Analysis methods for monitored building use. Photovoltaics, Testing and measurement.

  10. Comparison of Historical Satellite-Based Estimates of Solar Radiation Resources with Recent Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Measurements: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D. R.

    2009-03-01

    The availability of rotating shadow band radiometer measurement data at several new stations provides an opportunity to compare historical satellite-based estimates of solar resources with measurements. We compare mean monthly daily total (MMDT) solar radiation data from eight years of NSRDB and 22 years of NASA hourly global horizontal and direct beam solar estimates with measured data from three stations, collected after the end of the available resource estimates.

  11. Solar collector with altitude tracking

    DOEpatents

    Barak, Amitzur Z.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for turning a solar collector about an east-west horizontal axis so that the collector is tilted toward the sun as the EWV altitude of the sun varies each day. It includes one or more heat responsive elements and a shading means aligned so that within a range of EWV altitudes of the sun during daylight hours the shading means shades the element or elements while during the rest of the daylight hours the elements or elements are heated by the sun to assume heated, stable states. Mechanical linkage between the collector and the element is responsive to the states of the element or elements to tilt the collector in accordance with variations in the EWV altitude of the sun.

  12. Solar collector

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1982-05-04

    The field of this invention is solar collectors, and more particularly, the invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame. A thin film window is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  13. Scaled Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Solar Product: Scaled Solar manufacturers and markets utility-grade, concentrated photovoltaic solar energy systems to commercial customers References: Scaled Solar1 This...

  14. Corona Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Corona Solar Place: Tholey-Theley, Germany Zip: D 66636 Sector: Solar Product: Engaged in solar passive large-size collectors. References:...

  15. Shell Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shell Solar Place: The Hague, Netherlands Zip: 2501 AN Sector: Solar Product: Shell Solar is developing non-crystalline PV technology,...

  16. Preussen Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Preussen Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Preussen Solar Place: Berlin, Germany Zip: 10711 Sector: Solar Product: Involved in solar projects. Coordinates: 52.516074,...

  17. AS Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: AS Solar Address: Am Tnniesberg 4A Place: Hannover, Germany Sector: Solar Product: PV, solar thermal Phone Number: +49 511 475578 - 0...

  18. Abengoa Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Abengoa Solar Name: Abengoa Solar Address: 11500 W 13th Ave Place: Lakewood, Colorado Zip: 80215 Region: Rockies Area Sector: Solar Product:...

  19. First Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    First Solar Name: First Solar Address: 350 West Washington Street, Suite 600 Place: Tempe, Arizona Zip: 85281 Sector: Solar Product: Solar energy systems Year Founded: 1999 Phone...

  20. Solar Systems | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Logo: Solar Systems Name: Solar Systems Address: 45 Grosvenor Street Place: Abbotsford, Australia Sector: Solar Product: Solar concentrators Phone Number: +61 3 9413 8000 Website:...

  1. Ascent Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Ascent Solar Name: Ascent Solar Address: 12300 Grant Street Place: Thornton, Colorado Zip: 80241 Region: Rockies Area Sector: Solar Product:...

  2. Borrego Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Borrego Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Borrego Solar Name: Borrego Solar Address: 2560 9th Street Place: Berkeley, California Zip: 94710 Region: Bay Area Sector: Solar...

  3. DPW Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    DPW Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: DPW Solar Name: DPW Solar Address: 4000 B Vassar Dr. NE Place: Albuquerque, New Mexico Zip: 87107 Sector: Solar Product: Renewable...

  4. Inovateus Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Inovateus Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Inovateus Solar Name: Inovateus Solar Address: 19890 State Line Rd. Place: South Bend, Indiana Zip: 46637 Sector: Solar Product:...

  5. Standard Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Standard Solar Name: Standard Solar Address: 202 Perry Parkway Place: Gaithersburg, Maryland Zip: 20877 Region: Northeast - NY NJ CT PA Area Sector: Solar Product: Solar...

  6. Wasatch Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wasatch Solar Address: 4417 S 2950 E Place: Salt Lake City, Utah Zip: 84124 Sector: Solar Product: Solar Year Founded: 2009 Phone...

  7. Solar Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Resource Library Solar Energy Solar Energy Below are resources for Tribes on solar energy technologies. A Guide to Community Solar: Utility, Private, and Nonprofit ...

  8. Sylcom Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Sylcom Solar provides the design, research, distribution, construction, operation, maintenance of products and of Photovoltaic Solar, Thermal Solar and Solar Thermoelectric...

  9. Apex Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Name: Apex Solar Place: Sofia, Bulgaria Zip: 1616 Sector: Solar Product: Bulgarian PV and solar thermal project developer and installer. References: Apex Solar1 This article is a...

  10. Atlantic Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    navigation, search Logo: Atlantic Solar Name: Atlantic Solar Place: Cape Town, South Africa Sector: Solar Product: Solar Thermal Technology Year Founded: 1985 Phone Number:...

  11. Declination Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    San Francisco, California Sector: Solar Product: San Francisco solar installation firm acquired by SolarCity in September 2006. References: Declination Solar1 This article...

  12. National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary PowerEnergy Conversion EfficiencySolar EnergyConcentrating Solar Power (CSP)National Solar Thermal Test Facility National Solar Thermal Test Facility admin ...

  13. Genesis Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Genesis Solar Facility Genesis Solar Sector Solar Facility Type Concentrating solar power Facility Status Under Construction Owner NextEra Developer NextEra Location Blythe,...

  14. Solarize Guidebook | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Solarize Guidebook Solarize Guidebook This guidebook is intended to be a roadmap for project planners and solar advocates who want to create their own successful Solarize ...

  15. Solar Easements | Department of Energy

    Energy Saver

    Process Heat Solar Photovoltaics Daylighting Solar Pool Heating Program Info Sector Name State State Kentucky Program Type SolarWind Access Policy Summary In Kentucky, solar ...

  16. Solar PST | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    search Name: Solar PST Place: Bergondo, Spain Zip: 15 165 Sector: Solar Product: Spanish company producing thermodynamic solar panels. References: Solar PST1 This article...

  17. Immodo Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Immodo Solar Place: Spain Sector: Solar Product: Spanish company which installs and maintains solar panels. References: Immodo Solar1 This...

  18. Solar cogeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    After a brief introduction to the operational principles and advantages of solar cogeneration, seven cogeneration studies are summarized covering such applications as sulfur mining, copper smelting, enhanced oil recovery, natural gas processing, sugar mill operations, and space heating and cooling. For each plant is given a brief site description, project summary, conceptual design, and functional description, including a picture of the facility and a flow chart. Also listed are the addresses of the companies involved for obtaining additional information. (LEW)

  19. Visual-SOLAR: Modeling and Visualization of Solar Radiation Potential on Individual Building Rooftops

    SciTech Connect

    2013-05-01

    We have developed a modeling framework for estimating solar radiation potentials on individual building rooftops that is suitable for utility-scale applications as well as building-specific applications. The framework uses light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data at approximately 1-meter horizontal resolution and 0.3-meter vertical resolution as input for modeling a large number of buildings quickly. One of the strengths of this framework is the ability to parallelize its implementation. Furthermore, the framework accounts for building specific characteristics, such as roof slope, roof aspect, and shadowing effects, that are critical to roof-mounted photovoltaic system. The resulting data has helped us to identify the so-called "solar panel sweet spots" on individual building rooftops and obtain accurate statistics of the variation in solar radiation as a function of time of year and geographical location.

  20. Visual-SOLAR: Modeling and Visualization of Solar Radiation Potential on Individual Building Rooftops

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    2013-05-01

    We have developed a modeling framework for estimating solar radiation potentials on individual building rooftops that is suitable for utility-scale applications as well as building-specific applications. The framework uses light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data at approximately 1-meter horizontal resolution and 0.3-meter vertical resolution as input for modeling a large number of buildings quickly. One of the strengths of this framework is the ability to parallelize its implementation. Furthermore, the framework accounts for building specificmore » characteristics, such as roof slope, roof aspect, and shadowing effects, that are critical to roof-mounted photovoltaic system. The resulting data has helped us to identify the so-called "solar panel sweet spots" on individual building rooftops and obtain accurate statistics of the variation in solar radiation as a function of time of year and geographical location.« less

  1. Solar Contractor Licensing | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    < Back Eligibility InstallersContractors Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Photovoltaics...

  2. Horizontal-well pilot waterflood tests shallow, abandoned field

    SciTech Connect

    McAlpine, J.L. ); Joshi, S.D. )

    1991-08-05

    This paper reports on the suitability of using horizontal wells in a waterflood of shallow, partially depleted sands which will be tested in the Jennings field in Oklahoma. The vertical wells drilled in the Jennings field intersect several well-known formations such as Red Fork, Misner, and Bartlesville sand. Most of these formations have been produced over a number of years, and presently no wells are producing in the field. In the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, wells were drilled on 10-acre spacing, and the last well was plugged in 1961. The field was produced only on primary production and produced approximately 1 million bbl of oil. Because the field was not waterflooded, a large potential exists to produce from the field using secondary methods. To improve the economics for the secondary process, a combination of horizontal and vertical wells was considered.

  3. Laminar mixed convection in a horizontal eccentric annulus

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, D. ); Karki, K. )

    1992-01-01

    Laminar fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena in cylindrical annuli are encountered in various applications. The purpose of this paper is to present a numerical study of laminar mixed convection in horizontal eccentric annuli. Axial flow and heat transfer in a horizontal cylindrical annulus can be influenced by eccentricity of the inner cylinder and the presence of buoyancy forces. A numerical study is presented for the combined forced and free convection for the fully developed flow and heat transfer to eccentric annuli of different eccentricities and radius ratios. The flow field is characterized by large cross-stream secondary currents and significant flow distortion. The Nusselt number increases significantly with the Rayleigh number; the corresponding increase in the friction factor is relatively small. The eccentricity introduces additional nonuniformity of the flow and temperature fields.

  4. Impact of Improved Solar Forecasts on Bulk Power System Operations in ISO-NE: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Brancucci Martinez-Anido, C.; Florita, A.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-09-01

    The diurnal nature of solar power is made uncertain by variable cloud cover and the influence of atmospheric conditions on irradiance scattering processes. Its forecasting has become increasingly important to the unit commitment and dispatch process for efficient scheduling of generators in power system operations. This study examines the value of improved solar power forecasting for the Independent System Operator-New England system. The results show how 25% solar power penetration reduces net electricity generation costs by 22.9%.

  5. The Impact of using different parameterizations of unresolved horizontal

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    variability of cloud water in the CCCma GCM The Impact of using different parameterizations of unresolved horizontal variability of cloud water in the CCCma GCM Cole, Jason Meteorological Service of Canada Barker, Howard Meteorological Service of Canada Li, Jiangnan Canadian Center for Climate Modelling von Salzen, Knut Category: Modeling A current area of research in atmospheric radiative transfer involves description and inclusion of unresolved cloud structure in radiative transfer models

  6. Horizontal film balance having wide range and high sensitivity

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, B.M.; Miyano, K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1981-03-05

    A thin-film, horizontal balance instrument is provided for measuring surface tension (surface energy) of thin films suspended on a liquid substrate. The balance includes a support bearing and an optical feedback arrangement for wide-range, high sensitivity measurements. The force on the instrument is balanced by an electromagnet, the current through the magnet providing a measure of the force applied to the instrument. A novel float construction is also disclosed.

  7. Horizontal film balance having wide range and high sensitivity

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Bernard M.; Miyano, Kenjiro; Ketterson, John B.

    1983-01-01

    A thin-film, horizontal balance instrument is provided for measuring surface tension (surface energy) of thin films suspended on a liquid substrate. The balance includes a support bearing and an optical feedback arrangement for wide-range, high sensitivity measurements. The force on the instrument is balanced by an electromagnet, the current through the magnet providing a measure of the force applied to the instrument. A novel float construction is also disclosed.

  8. Horizontal film balance having wide range and high sensitivity

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, B.M.; Miyano, K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-11-08

    A thin-film, horizontal balance instrument is provided for measuring surface tension (surface energy) of thin films suspended on a liquid substrate. The balance includes a support bearing and an optical feedback arrangement for wide-range, high sensitivity measurements. The force on the instrument is balanced by an electromagnet, the current through the magnet providing a measure of the force applied to the instrument. A novel float construction is also disclosed. 5 figs.

  9. 24 CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erik C. Westman

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method of emplacing the array in a long, horizontal borehole. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  10. Horizontal Pretreatment Reactor System (Poster), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Diff erent pretreatment chemistry/ residence time combinations are possible using these multiple horizontal-tube reactors * Each tube is indirectly and directly steam heated to temperatures of 150 0 C to 210 0 C * Residence time is varied by changing the speed of the auger that moves the biomass through each tube reactor * Tubes are used individually or in combination to achieve diff erent pretreatment residence times * Smaller tubes made from Hastelloy, an acid-resistant material, are used with

  11. Solar Innovator | Alta Devices

    ScienceCinema

    Mattos, Laila; Le, Minh

    2016-07-12

    Selected to participate in the Energy Department's SunShot Initiative, Alta Devices produces solar cells that convert sunlight into electricity at world record-breaking levels of efficiency. Through its innovative solar technology Alta is helping bring down the cost of solar. Learn more about the Energy Department's efforts to advance solar technology at energy.gov/solar .

  12. Solar energy collector

    DOEpatents

    Brin, Raymond L.; Pace, Thomas L.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a solar energy collector comprising solar energy absorbing material within chamber having a transparent wall, solar energy being transmitted through the transparent wall, and efficiently absorbed by the absorbing material, for transfer to a heat transfer fluid. The solar energy absorbing material, of generally foraminous nature, absorbs and transmits the solar energy with improved efficiency.

  13. Natural convection heat transfer within horizontal spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Canaan, R.E.

    1995-12-01

    Natural convection heat transfer is experimentally investigated in an enclosed horizontal rod bundle, which characterizes a spent nuclear fuel assembly during dry storage and/or transport conditions. The basic test section consists of a square array of sixty-four stainless steel tubular heaters enclosed within a water-cooled rectangular copper heat exchanger. The heaters are supplied with a uniform power generation per unit length while the surrounding enclosure is maintained at a uniform temperature. The test section resides within a vacuum/pressure chamber in order to subject the assembly to a range of pressure statepoints and various backfill gases. The objective of this experimental study is to obtain convection correlations which can be used in order to easily incorporate convective effects into analytical models of horizontal spent fuel systems, and also to investigate the physical nature of natural convection in enclosed horizontal rod bundles in general. The resulting data consist of: (1) measured temperatures within the assembly as a function of power, pressure, and backfill gas; (2) the relative radiative contribution for the range of observed temperatures; (3) correlations of convective Nusselt number and Rayleigh number for the rod bundle as a whole; and (4) correlations of convective Nusselt number as a function of Rayleigh number for individual rods within the array.

  14. Horizontal natural gas storage caverns and methods for producing same

    DOEpatents

    Russo, Anthony

    1995-01-01

    The invention provides caverns and methods for producing caverns in bedded salt deposits for the storage of materials that are not solvents for salt. The contemplated salt deposits are of the bedded, non-domed variety, more particularly salt found in layered formations that are sufficiently thick to enable the production of commercially usefully sized caverns completely encompassed by walls of salt of the formation. In a preferred method, a first bore hole is drilled into the salt formation and a cavity for receiving insolubles is leached from the salt formation. Thereafter, at a predetermined distance away from the first bore hole, a second bore hole is drilled towards the salt formation. As this drill approaches the salt, the drill assumes a slant approach and enters the salt and drills through it in a horizontal direction until it intersects the cavity for receiving insolubles. This produces a substantially horizontal conduit from which solvent is controlledly supplied to the surrounding salt formation, leaching the salt and producing a concentrated brine which is removed through the first bore hole. Insolubles are collected in the cavity for receiving insolubles. By controlledly supplying solvent, a horizontal cavern is produced with two bore holes extending therefrom.

  15. Solar Easements & Rights Laws

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Solar Recordation Act describes the procedures for filing a solar right through the County Clerk's Office. The property owner seeking the solar right must give advanced notice to the adjacent...

  16. Copper Mountain Solar Farm

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This b-roll shows a large-scale solar farm in Nevada that generates renewable solar energy using parabolic troughs, a form of concentrating solar power (CSP) technology, and photovoltaic technology.

  17. Solar Neutrino Problem

    DOE R&D Accomplishments

    Davis, R. Jr.; Evans, J. C.; Cleveland, B. T.

    1978-04-28

    A summary of the results of the Brookhaven solar neutrino experiment is given and discussed in relation to solar model calculations. A review is given of the merits of various new solar neutrino detectors that were proposed.

  18. 2009 News | Solar | NREL

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    9 News Below are news stories related to Solar. RSS Learn about RSS. October 21, 2009 Solar Technology Acceleration Center is Powering Up Members of the Solar Technology Acceleration Center (SolarTAC) and supporters convened in Aurora, Colo., today, to mark a milestone in "Powering Up" one of the world's largest solar test and demonstration facilities. Since announcing the initial launch of SolarTAC one year ago, the site infrastructure development has progressed to the point where

  19. Silicon Valley Solar Inc SV Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Solar Inc SV Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Silicon Valley Solar Inc (SV Solar) Place: Santa Clara, California Zip: 95051 Sector: Solar Product: A US-based manufacturer of...

  20. Compound Solar Technology CompSolar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Solar Technology CompSolar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Compound Solar Technology (CompSolar) Place: Jhunan, Taiwan Zip: 350 Sector: Solar Product: Producer of glass-based...

  1. First Solar AVSR Solar Ranch Technical Eligibility Re-Evaluation...

    Energy Saver

    First Solar AVSR Solar Ranch Technical Eligibility Re-Evaluation Memo First Solar AVSR Solar Ranch Technical Eligibility Re-Evaluation Memo FirstSolarAVSRSolarRanchOneTechnic...

  2. SunShot Solar PV | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Solar PV SunShot Solar PV

  3. Solar in Cold, Cloudy Climates

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation delivered by Chuck Marken during the 2009 Northeastern Solar Cities Conference Solar Survey session.

  4. TVA- Solar Solutions Initiative

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Solar Solutions Initiative (SSI) is a pilot program that offers additional financial incentives for Solar PV systems participating in the Renewable Standard Offer program. Applications for new...

  5. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    sunshot DOEGO-102012-3669 * September 2012 MOTIVATION All thermal concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar tracking, which involves moving large mirror surfaces...

  6. Solar Power Basics

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This video summarizes the process of generating solar electricity from photovoltaic and concentrating solar power technologies. Research, manufacturing, and usage across the United States is also...

  7. Concentrating Solar Power

    SciTech Connect

    Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2010-09-28

    The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

  8. Solar Contractor Licensing

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hawaii offers several specialty licenses for solar contractors through Hawaii’s Department of Commerce and Consumer Affairs. The following specialty licenses are available: Solar Power Systems...

  9. Tribal Solar Energy Partnerships

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    SOLAR ENERGY PARTNERSHIPS Chairman Timothy Williams - Fort Mojave Indian Tribe Perry Fontana - First Solar Fort Mojave Indian Reservation Fort Mojave Project Site Mohave Generating ...

  10. 2016 News | Solar | NREL

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... New Partnerships Help Utilities Break Down Solar Barriers ... modeling to leveraging community solar finance tools. ... critical questions and challenges to making their states ...

  11. Solar Thermoelectric Energy Conversion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Efficiencies of different types of solar thermoelectric generators were predicted using theoretical modeling and validated with measurements using constructed prototypes under different solar intensities

  12. Solar Energy in Alaska

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Solar Energy in Alaska Photo by: Cassandra Cerny, GVEA David Lockard, Solar Program Manager Alaska Energy Authority BIA Providers Conference December 2, 2015 Alaska Energy ...

  13. Your Solar Home

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Solar Schoolhouse Education supplement for the Sacramento Bee to introduce solar to elementary school children and introduce the design and AD contest for local students.

  14. Solar Energy Technologies Office

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In 2011, the Energy Department's Solar Energy Technologies Office (SETO) became the SunShot Initiative, a collaborative national effort that aggressively drives innovation to make solar energy...

  15. Concentrating Solar Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Concentrating Solar Power Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies use mirrors to focus and concentrate sunlight onto a receiver, from which a heat transfer fluid carries the ...

  16. Making a Solar Oven

    Education - Teach & Learn

    Students make solar ovens. Student background information is provided. The expected outcome is that students will learn about solar energy transfer.

  17. Solarity | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Solarity Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solarity Address: 200 Innovation Blvd Suite 260A Place: State College, Pennsylvania Zip: 16801 Region: Northeast - NY NJ CT PA Area...

  18. Solar Kit Lessons

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 1. Lamp and solar cell positioned as described ... morning. (Daily data on solar altitude vs. time of day for specified ... such hydrocarbons as coal, petroleum, and natural gas. ...

  19. Solar Two Tower System

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this photograph of a concentrating solar power (CSP) technology, stretched membrane heliostats with silvered polymer reflectors will be used as demonstration units at the Solar Two central...

  20. Solar skylight

    DOEpatents

    Adamson, James C.

    1984-01-01

    A reflective shutter rotates within a skylight housing in such a fashion as to control solar energy thereby providing a combination of heating, lighting, and ventilation. The skylight housing has three faces: a glazed southern face, a glazed northern face, and an open downwardly oriented face to the interior of the structure. Counter-weighted pivot arms support the shutter at either end causing the center of rotation to pass through the center of gravity. The shutter has three basic positions: In the first position, during the winter day, the shutter closes off the northern face, allowing solar energy to enter directly into the supporting structure providing heat gain and daylighting. In the second position, during the winter night, the shutter closes off the open face to the interior, providing insulation between the structure and the skylight housing. In the third position, during the non-heating season, the shutter closes off the southern face blocking unwanted heat gain but allowing diffuse northern light to penetrate for daylighting. In this last position, a means is provided for ventilating by natural convection. The apparatus can be operated either manually or by motor.

  1. Solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, William G.

    1982-01-01

    The field of this invention is solar collectors, and more particularly, the invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame (14). A thin film window (42) is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber (24) of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers (24a, 24b) that are sealed perimetrically. The layers (24a, 24b) define a fluid-tight planar envelope (24c) of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber (24) is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  2. Solar wind samples give insight into birth of solar system

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy and Wind Easements & Rights Laws & Local Option Solar Rights Law Solar and Wind Easements & Rights Laws & Local Option Solar Rights Law < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Federal Government Agricultural Institutional Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Photovoltaics Wind (All) Solar Pool Heating

  3. Solar Easements & Local Option Solar Rights Laws

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New York General City, Town, and Village codes also allow local zoning districts to make regulations regarding solar access that provide for "the accommodation of solar energy systems and...

  4. Apparatus and method for extracting focused solar radiant energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lenz, E.

    1990-12-18

    This patent describes an electricity generating system. It comprises: two closed fluid circuits. The first fluid circuit contains a first fluid and comprising solar heat collecting apparatus which comprises a solar collector panel having an operating surface; rotatable support means for rotatably supporting the solar collector panel about a horizontal axis and a vertical axis; drive means for rotating the panel about the two axes; movement limiting control means comprising first limiting means for limiting movement of the panel about the horizontal axis to less than 180{degrees}, such that the operating surface continuously faces skyward; second limiting means for limiting movement of the panel about the vertical axis to less than 270{degrees}; constant speed motor means for continuously rotatably moving the panel about the two axes when the motor is activated; and the programmable control means to set the initial angular position of the panel about the axes each day, and to activate the motor means at a predetermined time of day, such that the resultant movement of the panel about the two axes maintains the operating surface in positions substantially perpendicular to solar radiation during the entire daylight period; heat exchange mans comprising two fluid flow means, one fluid flow means being in recirculating fluid flow relationship to the solar heat collecting apparatus. The second fluid circuit contains a second fluid and comprises the second fluid flow means in the heat exchange means.

  5. Flix Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Flix Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Flix Solar Place: Spain Sector: Solar Product: Flix solar is developing a 12MW solar park in Flix, Tarragona, Spain. References: Flix...

  6. Modeling the irradiance and temperature rependence of photovoltaic modules in PVsyst

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Sauer, Kenneth J.; Roessler, Thomas; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2014-11-10

    In order to reliably simulate the energy yield of photovoltaic (PV) systems, it is necessary to have an accurate model of how the PV modules perform with respect to irradiance and cell temperature. Building on previous work that addresses the irradiance dependence, two approaches to fit the temperature dependence of module power in PVsyst have been developed and are applied here to recent multi-irradiance and -temperature data for a standard Yingli Solar PV module type. The results demonstrate that it is possible to match the measured irradiance and temperature dependence of PV modules in PVsyst. As a result, improvements inmore » energy yield prediction using the optimized models relative to the PVsyst standard model are considered significant for decisions about project financing.« less

  7. Modeling the irradiance and temperature rependence of photovoltaic modules in PVsyst

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, Kenneth J.; Roessler, Thomas; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2014-11-10

    In order to reliably simulate the energy yield of photovoltaic (PV) systems, it is necessary to have an accurate model of how the PV modules perform with respect to irradiance and cell temperature. Building on previous work that addresses the irradiance dependence, two approaches to fit the temperature dependence of module power in PVsyst have been developed and are applied here to recent multi-irradiance and -temperature data for a standard Yingli Solar PV module type. The results demonstrate that it is possible to match the measured irradiance and temperature dependence of PV modules in PVsyst. As a result, improvements in energy yield prediction using the optimized models relative to the PVsyst standard model are considered significant for decisions about project financing.

  8. EFFECT OF HORIZONTALLY INHOMOGENEOUS HEATING ON FLOW AND MAGNETIC FIELD IN THE CHROMOSPHERE OF THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Song, P.; Vasyli?nas, V. M.

    2014-12-01

    The solar chromosphere is heated by damped Alfvn waves propagating upward from the photosphere at a rate that depends on magnetic field strength, producing enhanced heating at low altitudes in the extended weak-field regions (where the additional heating accounts for the radiative losses) between the boundaries of the chromospheric network as well as enhanced heating per particle at higher altitudes in strong magnetic field regions of the network. The resulting inhomogeneous radiation and temperature distribution produces bulk flows, which in turn affect the configuration of the magnetic field. The basic flow pattern is circulation on the spatial scale of a supergranule, with upward flow in the strong-field region; this is a mirror image in the upper chromosphere of photospheric/subphotospheric convection widely associated with the formation of the strong network field. There are significant differences between the neutral and the ionized components of the weakly ionized medium: neutral flow streamlines can form closed cells, whereas plasma is largely constrained to flow along the magnetic field. Stresses associated with this differential flow may explain why the canopy/funnel structures of the network magnetic field have a greater horizontal extent and are relatively more homogeneous at high altitudes than is expected from simple current-free models.

  9. Productivity improvement by frontier horizontal drilling in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Schenato, A.

    1995-12-31

    Italian domestic activity on horizontal wells has been specially addressed to carbonate reservoir and specifically targeted to re-entry in existing wells. The speech will focus on the specific experience matured in frontier applications in Italy, from 1989 with the short radius drain holes in Sicily, throughout world record deep water short radius in the southern part of Adriatic sea and depth world record medium radius in a HP/HT reservoir in the Po Valley. Production results will be reported as well as the achieved technological aspects.

  10. Surface horizontal logging for radon at a Superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Gadeken, L.L.; Madigan, W.P.

    1996-06-01

    The Department of Energy sponsored an Expedited Site Characterization study performed by Ames Laboratory at the St. Louis (Missouri) Airport Site during August-September, 1994. Uranium processing occurred there during the Cold War and significant residual radioactive contamination now exists on site. This paper reports on continuous gamma ray spectroscopy measurements to identify the emitting isotopes and to quantify the amount of radioactivity present for each. An oilfield wireline gamma ray spectrometry sonde (the Compensated Spectral Natural Gamma instrument) was adapted to perform horizontal measurements with the detector section 3 ft above the soil surface. The results of the gamma ray spectroscopy measurements will be discussed.

  11. Solar reflector system

    SciTech Connect

    Melamed, A.M.

    1986-07-01

    A solar reflector system is described for reflecting solar energy to an elongated solar receiving area disposed generally in an east-west direction and for helping to optimize the performance versus cost ratios of concentrating solar collector systems utilizing the solar reflector system. The solar reflector system consists of an elongated side reflector panel means to be hinged relative to the solar receiving area, hinge means adjacent the solar receiving area for pivotally connecting the reflector panel means relative to the solar receiving area. The reflector panel means include a reflector surface comprised of a plurality of flat planar reflector panels that are each elongated parallel to the solar receiving area for about the length of the solar receiving area, with adjacent flat planar reflector panels comprising the reflector surface sharing a common edge that extends parallel to the solar receiving area and forming an angle appropriate to facilitate efficient performance of the overall reflector panel means in reflecting solar energy to the solar receiving area, means for adjusting one, some, or all of the angles formed by adjacent flat planar reflector panels comprising the reflector surface. The curvature of the overall reflector surface may be altered on a seasonal basis, and means for adjusting the entire reflector panel means relative to the solar receiving area about the hinge means, so as to improve year-round reflector panel means performance in reflecting solar energy to the solar receiving area.

  12. Solar Screening Application for Universities

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Rights Solar Rights < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Photovoltaics Daylighting Solar Pool Heating Program Info Sector Name State State Arizona Program Type Solar/Wind Access Policy Summary Arizona law protects individual homeowners' private property rights to solar access by dissolving any local covenant, restriction, or condition attached to a property deed that restricts the use of solar energy.

  13. Solar Easements | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    State Government Federal Government Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Photovoltaics Solar Pool Heating Program Info Sector Name State State Kansas Program Type Solar/Wind Access Policy Summary Parties may voluntarily enter into solar easement contracts for the purpose of ensuring adequate exposure of a solar energy system. An easement must be expressed in writing and recorded with the register of deeds for

  14. Solar Rights | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Rights Solar Rights < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Photovoltaics Daylighting Solar Pool Heating Program Info Sector Name State State Arizona Program Type Solar/Wind Access Policy Summary Arizona law protects individual homeowners' private property rights to solar access by dissolving any local covenant, restriction, or condition attached to a property deed that restricts the use of solar energy.

  15. Sunshot Rooftop Solar Challenge | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Sunshot Rooftop Solar Challenge Sunshot Rooftop Solar Challenge Sunshot Rooftop Solar Challenge

  16. Slag recycling of irradiated vanadium

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, P.K.

    1995-04-05

    An experimental inductoslag apparatus to recycle irradiated vanadium was fabricated and tested. An experimental electroslag apparatus was also used to test possible slags. The testing was carried out with slag materials that were fabricated along with impurity bearing vanadium samples. Results obtained include computer simulated thermochemical calculations and experimentally determined removal efficiencies of the transmutation impurities. Analyses of the samples before and after testing were carried out to determine if the slag did indeed remove the transmutation impurities from the irradiated vanadium.

  17. The influence of mixed and phase clouds on surface shortwave irradiance during the Arctic spring

    SciTech Connect

    Lubin D.; Vogelmann A.

    2011-10-13

    The influence of mixed-phase stratiform clouds on the surface shortwave irradiance is examined using unique spectral shortwave irradiance measurements made during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC), supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. An Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD, Inc.) spectroradiometer measured downwelling spectral irradiance from 350 to 2200 nm in one-minute averages throughout April-May 2008 from the ARM Climate Research Facility's North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site at Barrow. This study examines spectral irradiance measurements made under single-layer, overcast cloud decks having geometric thickness < 3000 m. Cloud optical depth is retrieved from irradiance in the interval 1022-1033 nm. The contrasting surface radiative influences of mixed-phase clouds and liquid-water clouds are discerned using irradiances in the 1.6-{micro}m window. Compared with liquid-water clouds, mixed-phase clouds during the Arctic spring cause a greater reduction of shortwave irradiance at the surface. At fixed conservative-scattering optical depth (constant optical depth for wavelengths {lambda} < 1100 nm), the presence of ice water in cloud reduces the near-IR surface irradiance by an additional several watts-per-meter-squared. This additional reduction, or supplemental ice absorption, is typically {approx}5 W m{sup -2} near solar noon over Barrow, and decreases with increasing solar zenith angle. However, for some cloud decks this additional absorption can be as large as 8-10 W m{sup -2}.

  18. Persistance of horizontal-pipe thermal-transient-induced flow stratification

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.M.; Kasza, K.E.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper focus is on Phase III simulated pipe stratification persistence resulting from a thermal transient passing through a horizontal pipe of the reactor system. Results presented here involve only the upstream leg of the two-pipe, horizontal elbow system used in the Phase III studies. Note that the orientation of the elbow at the end of a horizontal pipe (up, down, or in the horizontal plane) has an influence on the pipe stratification persistence time, t/sub p/. This matter is currently under investigation. For the purposes of this paper, only the horizontally disposed elbow data have been considered.

  19. Solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    The invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame. A thin film window is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  20. Crosswell Imaging Technology & Advanced DSR Navigation for Horizontal Directional Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Stolarczyk

    2008-08-08

    The objective of Phase II is to develop and demonstrate real-time measurement-while-drilling (MWD) for guidance and navigation of drill strings during horizontal drilling operations applicable to both short and long holes. The end product of Phase II is a functional drill-string assembly outfitted with a commercial version of Drill String Radar (DSR). Project Objectives Develop and demonstrate a dual-phase methodology of in-seam drilling, imaging, and structure confirmation. This methodology, illustrated in Figure 1, includes: (1) Using RIM to image between drill holes for seam thickness estimates and in-seam structures detection. Completed, February 2005; and (2) Using DSR for real-time MWD guidance and navigation of drillstrings during horizontal drilling operations. Completed, November 2008. As of November 2008, the Phase II portion of Contract DE-FC26-04NT42085 is about 99% complete, including milestones and tasks original outlined as Phase II work. The one percent deficiency results from MSHA-related approvals which have yet to be granted (at the time of reporting). These approvals are pending and are do not negatively impact the scope of work or project objectives.

  1. Using resistivity to assess Niobrara fracture patterns for horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.A.; Bartshe, R.T. )

    1991-09-02

    This paper reports on interest in U.S. horizontal drilling which has largely focused on vertically fractured plays such as the Bakken shale and Austin chalk. The Upper Cretaceous Niobrara formation, the chronological equivalent of the Austin chalk, has recently been targeted as a candidate for horizontal drilling in the Denver basin and other areas of the Rocky Mountains. A primary key to success in such plays is to predict the occurrence and distribution of oil bearing fracture systems. Much emphasis is placed on theoretical aspects of fracture origin and prediction. Remote sensing techniques (e.g., seismic, satellite image analysis) have gained wide use in the search for fractured reservoirs. While these methods are important elements of an integrated exploration effort, they lack the benefit of direct detection of open, oil saturated fracture systems. In the areas of the Denver basin in which the Niobrara is oil prone, certain resistivity responses are indicative of the proximity of oil bearing fractures to the well bore. This provides an extremely useful technique in areas of pre-existing well control penetrating the Niobrara section. As such, the Denver basin is an ideal area due to the large number of penetrations to the Lower Cretaceous D and J sandstones that underlie the Niobrara.

  2. Solar Policy Environment: Sacramento

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The City of Sacramento and the greater Sacramento region is the home of a long standing history of commitment to solar. Sacramento Solar Access seeks to further widespread adoption of solar energy by addressing current market barriers and preparing, through design guidelines and education, the infrastructure that will optimize solar production in the future.

  3. Solar Policy Environment: Houston

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of Houston is committed to achieving a sustainable solar infrastructure through strategic partnerships that address market barriers for solar energy through the Houston Solar Initiative. The initiative is dedicated to this long-term goal while focusing on near- and mid-term results that go beyond demonstration solar projects.

  4. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony; Clews, Peggy J.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2015-09-08

    A process including forming a photovoltaic solar cell on a substrate, the photovoltaic solar cell comprising an anchor positioned between the photovoltaic solar cell and the substrate to suspend the photovoltaic solar cell from the substrate. A surface of the photovoltaic solar cell opposite the substrate is attached to a receiving substrate. The receiving substrate may be bonded to the photovoltaic solar cell using an adhesive force or a metal connecting member. The photovoltaic solar cell is then detached from the substrate by lifting the receiving substrate having the photovoltaic solar cell attached thereto and severing the anchor connecting the photovoltaic solar cell to the substrate. Depending upon the type of receiving substrate used, the photovoltaic solar cell may be removed from the receiving substrate or remain on the receiving substrate for use in the final product.

  5. Irradiation hardening of pure tungsten exposed to neutron irradiation

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Hu, Xunxiang; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Fukuda, Makoto; Kumar, N. A. P. Kiran; Snead, Lance L.; Wirth, Brian D.; Katoh, Yutai

    2016-08-26

    In this paper, pure tungsten samples have been neutron irradiated in HFIR at 90–850 °C to 0.03–2.2 dpa. A dispersed barrier hardening model informed by the available microstructure data has been used to predict the hardness. Comparison of the model predictions and the measured Vickers hardness reveals the dominant hardening contribution at various irradiation conditions. For tungsten samples irradiated in HFIR, the results indicate that voids and dislocation loops contributed to the hardness increase in the low dose region (<0.3 dpa), while the formation of intermetallic second phase precipitation, resulting from transmutation, dominates the radiation-induced strengthening beginning with a relativelymore » modest dose (>0.6 dpa). Finally, the precipitate contribution is most pronounced for the HFIR irradiations, whereas the radiation-induced defect cluster microstructure can rationalize the entirety of the hardness increase observed in tungsten irradiated in the fast neutron spectrum of Joyo and the mixed neutron spectrum of JMTR.« less

  6. Solar Thermal Systems: Solar Heating R&D

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Technologies Solar Thermal Systems: Solar Heating R&D National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sandia National Laboratories U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Presentation Outline * Description of solar thermal R&D activities in: - Low-cost passive solar hot water systems * Polymer integral collector-storage (PICS) systems - Low-cost active solar systems * Cold-climate solar water heating systems * Combined heating and cooling (CHC) systems Solar Thermal Systems

  7. Solar Policy Environment: Pittsburgh

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this project, Pittsburgh plans to build on its reputation as a national leader in green practices. Its Solar America Cities project will develop a distributed approach to adoption of solar energy technologies. Pittsburgh’s partnership includes universities, non-profit organizations, and business, labor and foundation communities. The city plans to transform the solar energy market and stimulate early adoption of solar technology, to show that solar technology works in a northern city.

  8. Solar collector array

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, John Champlin; Martins, Guy Lawrence

    2015-09-06

    A method and apparatus for efficient manufacture, assembly and production of solar energy. In one aspect, the apparatus may include a number of modular solar receiver assemblies that may be separately manufactured, assembled and individually inserted into a solar collector array housing shaped to receive a plurality of solar receivers. The housing may include optical elements for focusing light onto the individual receivers, and a circuit for electrically connecting the solar receivers.

  9. NREL: Innovation Impact - Solar

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Menu Home Home Solar Solar Wind Wind Analysis Analysis Bioenergy Bioenergy Buildings Buildings Transportation Transportation Manufacturing Manufacturing Energy Systems Integration Energy Systems Integration What is a quantum dot? Close Quantum dots are tiny spheres of semiconductor material measuring only about 2-10 billionths of a meter in diameter. Quantum dots are a leading candidate for a third generation of solar-cell technologies. Close Achieving significant gains in solar

  10. Sandia Energy - Solar Glare Hazard Analysis Tool

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Glare Hazard Analysis Tool Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Market Transformation Solar Glare Hazard Analysis Tool Solar...

  11. Solar and Wind Rights | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Photovoltaics Wind (All) Wind (Small) Program Info Sector Name State State...

  12. Solar Easements & Rights Laws | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Federal Government Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process...

  13. Sun Shine Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Shine Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Sun Shine Solar Name: Sun Shine Solar Place: Norwich, United Kingdom Sector: Solar Product: Solar energy products Phone Number: 01508...

  14. Mohave Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Mohave Solar Power Plant Facility Mojave Solar Sector Solar Facility Type Concentrating Solar Power Facility Status Under...

  15. Ener Solar Technology srl | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Ener Solar Technology srl Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ener Solar Technology srl Place: Italy Sector: Solar Product: Solar project developer. References: Ener Solar Technology...

  16. Solar Energy Resource Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Renewable Energy Solar Solar Energy Resource Basics Solar Energy Resource Basics August 21, 2013 - 11:40am Addthis Solar radiation, often called the solar resource, is a ...

  17. Solar DATA ANALYSIS | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    DATA ANALYSIS Solar DATA ANALYSIS Solar Business Innovation Networking and Solar Technical Assistance Solar Training Solar DATA ANALYSIS To meet the goals of the SunShot ...

  18. Solar Business Innovation | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Business Innovation Solar Business Innovation Solar Business Innovation Networking and Solar Technical Assistance Solar Training Solar DATA ANALYSIS The SunShot Initiative is ...

  19. Solar Selective Absorption Coatings - Energy Innovation Portal

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Solar Selective Absorption Coatings Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL ...

  20. MSM Solar India | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Solar India Jump to: navigation, search Name: MSM Solar India Place: India Sector: Solar Product: JV company to develop solar projects. References: MSM Solar India1 This article...

  1. Vaillant Solar Systems | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Zip: 92075 Sector: Solar Product: California-based solar company specializing in solar water heating, solar pool heating and solar space heating systems for residential and...

  2. Solar Systems and Solutions Soluciones Sistemas Solares 3S |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Systems and Solutions Soluciones Sistemas Solares 3S Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Systems and Solutions Soluciones Sistemas Solares (3S) Place: Navarre, Spain Sector:...

  3. NREL: Solar Radiation Research - Solar Radiation Research Laboratory...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Radiation Research Laboratory Photographs The Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) houses more than 70 instruments to analyze and record solar radiation and surface ...

  4. 20 Years of Solar Measurements: The Solar Radiation Research...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Years of Solar Measurements: The Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) at NREL Tom ... * Continuous measurements of key solar radiation resources * Calibrations of instruments ...

  5. China Solar Clean Energy Solutions Inc formerly Deli Solar USA...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Inc formerly Deli Solar USA Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Solar & Clean Energy Solutions Inc ( formerly Deli Solar (USA) Inc) Place: Connecticut Zip: 6039 Sector:...

  6. EPOD Solar Wales Ltd formerly ICP Solar Technologies Ltd | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Wales Ltd formerly ICP Solar Technologies Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: EPOD Solar (Wales) Ltd (formerly ICP Solar Technologies Ltd) Place: Mid Glamorgan, United Kingdom...

  7. United Solar Systems Corp USSC aka Bekaert ECD Solar Systems...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Systems Corp USSC aka Bekaert ECD Solar Systems LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: United Solar Systems Corp (USSC) (aka Bekaert ECD Solar Systems LLC) Place: Middletown...

  8. Solar Energy Sources SES Solar Inc formerly Electric Network...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    SES Solar Inc formerly Electric Network com Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Energy Sources - SES Solar Inc (formerly Electric Network.com) Place: Vancouver, British...

  9. Amargosa Farm Road Solar Energy Project Solar Power Plant | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Sector Solar Facility Type Concentrating Solar Power Developer Solar Millenium, LLC, MAN Ferrostaal Inc Location Nye County, Nevada Coordinates 38.5807111, -116.0413889...

  10. Using the standard solar model to constrain solar composition...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Using the standard solar model to constrain solar composition and nuclear reaction S factors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Using the standard solar model to constrain ...

  11. Exploring changes in solar model physics to mitigate the solar...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Exploring changes in solar model physics to mitigate the solar abundance problem Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Exploring changes in solar model physics to mitigate the ...

  12. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Rice Solar Energy Project...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Rice Solar Energy Project This page provides information on Rice Solar Energy Project, a concentrating solar power (CSP) project, with data organized by background, participants, ...

  13. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Nevada Solar One | Concentrating...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Nevada Solar One This page provides information on Nevada Solar One, a concentrating solar power (CSP) project, with data organized by background, participants, and power plant ...

  14. Topaz Solar Farm Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Topaz Solar Farm Sector Solar Facility Type Photovoltaic Developer OptiSolar Location San Luis Obispo County, California Coordinates 35.3102296, -120.4357631 Show Map...

  15. SolarIsland aka Yinghua Taian Dazheng Hengyuan Solar Technology...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    China Zip: 271000 Sector: Solar Product: Manufacturer and exporter of solar passive water heating systems and PV-powered solar road lighting, torches and lamps. References:...

  16. DE-EE0005690 Developing Solar Friendly Communities Colorado Solar...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    EE0005690 Developing Solar Friendly Communities Colorado Solar Energy Industries ... A. PROJECT OBJECTIVES The goal of the Solar Friendly Communities project is to achieve ...

  17. Performance of a multifunctional PV/T hybrid solar window

    SciTech Connect

    Davidsson, Henrik; Perers, Bengt; Karlsson, Bjoern

    2010-03-15

    A building-integrated multifunctional PV/T solar window has been developed and evaluated. It is constructed of PV cells laminated on solar absorbers placed in a window behind the glazing. To reduce the cost of the solar electricity, tiltable reflectors have been introduced in the construction to focus radiation onto the solar cells. The reflectors render the possibility of controlling the amount of radiation transmitted into the building. The insulated reflectors also reduce the thermal losses through the window. A model for simulation of the electric and hot water production was developed. The model can perform yearly energy simulations where different features such as shading of the cells or effects of the glazing can be included or excluded. The simulation can be run with the reflectors in an active, up right, position or in a passive, horizontal, position. The simulation program was calibrated against measurements on a prototype solar window placed in Lund in the south of Sweden and against a solar window built into a single family house, Solgaarden, in Aelvkarleoe in the central part of Sweden. The results from the simulation shows that the solar window annually produces about 35% more electric energy per unit cell area compared to a vertical flat PV module. (author)

  18. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer. One minute averages of 3-second data for 12 months from the test instrument measurements were compared with the computed reference data set. Combined uncertainty in the computed reference irradiance is 1.8% {+-} 0.5%. Total uncertainty in the pyranometer comparisons is {+-}2.5%. We show mean percent difference between reference global irradiance and test pyranometer 1 minute data as a function of zenith angle, and percent differences between daily totals for the reference and test irradiances as a function of day number. We offer no explicit conclusion about the performance of instrument models, as a general array of applications with a wide range of instrumentation and accuracy requirements could be addressed with any of the radiometers.

  19. Oahu Solar Measurement Grid (1-Year Archive): 1-Second Solar Irradiance; Oahu, Hawaii (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sengupta, M.; Andreas, A.

    Seventeen measurement stations in the south western region of the island of Oahu collected data at 1-second intervals over the course of a year. The sensors are located in a 1-kilometer grid and the information then can be used to predict what PV outputs might be at 1-second intervals for medium-sized and large PV systems. This DOE-funded study by NREL supports the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI), a multifaceted program to substantially increase the use of renewable energy in Hawaii.

  20. Oahu Solar Measurement Grid (1-Year Archive): 1-Second Solar Irradiance; Oahu, Hawaii (Data)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sengupta, M.; Andreas, A.

    2010-03-16

    Seventeen measurement stations in the south western region of the island of Oahu collected data at 1-second intervals over the course of a year. The sensors are located in a 1-kilometer grid and the information then can be used to predict what PV outputs might be at 1-second intervals for medium-sized and large PV systems. This DOE-funded study by NREL supports the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI), a multifaceted program to substantially increase the use of renewable energy in Hawaii.

  1. Solar Easements | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Federal Government Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Photovoltaics Program Info Sector Name State State North Dakota Program Type Solar/Wind Access Policy Summary North Dakota's solar easement law is similar to those established by many other states. The law allows a property owner to obtain a solar easement from another property owner for the

  2. Solar Easements | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Residential Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Photovoltaics Program Info Sector Name State State Alaska Program Type Solar/Wind Access Policy Summary Alaska's solar easement provisions are similar to those in many other states. They do not create an automatic right to sunlight. Rather, they allow parties to voluntarily enter into solar easement contracts for the purpose of ensuring adequate exposure of a solar energy system. Source

  3. Solar Easements | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Photovoltaics Program Info Sector Name State State Georgia Program Type Solar/Wind Access Policy Summary In determining that the use of solar energy "can help reduce the nation's reliance upon imported fuels," Georgia encourages the development of solar-energy systems. Accordingly, under Georgia's Solar Easements Act of 1978, easements may be established to allow owners of solar-energy systems to

  4. Solar Technologies | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Place: Dubai, United Arab Emirates Sector: Solar Product: Dubai-based solar photovoltaic module manufacturing company. References: Solar Technologies1 This article is a...

  5. AEE Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    to: navigation, search Logo: AEE Solar Name: AEE Solar Address: 1155 Redway Drive PO Box 339 Place: Redway, California Zip: 95560 Region: Bay Area Sector: Solar Year Founded:...

  6. Trinity Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    search Name: Trinity Solar Place: Freehold, New Jersey Zip: 7728 Sector: Solar Product: A provider of solar energy systems to home and business owners. Coordinates: 42.376865,...

  7. Harvest Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Harvest Solar Energy Name: Harvest Solar Energy Address: 1571 East 22 Place Place: Tulsa, Oklahoma Zip: 74114 Sector: Solar Product: Renewable energy systems Phone Number:...

  8. Abound Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Abound Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Abound Solar Name: Abound Solar Address: 2695 Rocky Mountain Avenue, Suite 100 Place: Loveland, Colorado Zip: 80538 Region: Rockies...

  9. Select Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Solar Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Select Solar Name: Select Solar Address: Unit 5 Blakehill Business Park Chelworth Road Cricklade SN6 6JD Place: Cricklade, United Kingdom...

  10. Solar Community | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Community Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Community Address: 4704 E Cesar Chavez St Place: Austin, Texas Zip: 78702 Region: Texas Area Sector: Solar Product: Solar sales...

  11. Solar Monkey | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Monkey Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Monkey Place: Irvine, California Zip: 92618 Sector: Solar Product: Solar Monkey installs PV systems for commercial and industrial...

  12. Solar Power | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Gateway Edit History Solar Power (Redirected from Solar energy) Jump to: navigation, search Solar Energy...

  13. Solar Wind | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Wind Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Wind Place: Krasnodar, Romania Zip: 350000 Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: Russia-based PV product manufacturer. Solar Wind...

  14. Solar Junction | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Junction Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Junction Place: San Jose, California Zip: CA 95131 Sector: Efficiency, Solar Product: Solar Junction is developing high efficiency...

  15. Solar Power | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Gateway Edit History Solar Power (Redirected from Solar) Jump to: navigation, search Solar Energy Companies...

  16. Activ Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Activ Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Activ Solar Address: Vienna, Wipplingerstrasse 35 Place: Austria Zip: 1010 Sector: Solar Product: The company's main business areas...

  17. Agrupacion Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Agrupacion Solar Place: Spain Product: Spanish PV project developer, or finance arranger. References: Agrupacion Solar1 This article is a...

  18. EMPE Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    EMPE Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: EMPE Solar Place: Spain Product: Developing projects using new module technology, in Spain. References: EMPE Solar1 This article is a...

  19. Friends Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Friends Solar Name: Friends Solar Place: Kahuku, Hawaii Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Solar Energy Number of Employees: 11-50 Year Founded: 1988 Phone Number: 8086839550...

  20. Line-Focus Solar Collector

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Solar thermal electric technologies, such as this concentrating solar power parabolic trough, use highly reflective materials to capture the sun's energy and produce electricity. Shown is solar...

  1. Solar Mimizan | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Mimizan Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Mimizan Place: PARIS, France Zip: 75002 Sector: Solar Product: Paris-based, building-integrated solar power plant developer....

  2. Utah Solar Outlook March 2010

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This presentation provides an overview of Utah's solar market, policy initiatives, and progress to date on the Solar America Cities Project: Solar Salt Lake.

  3. Sereno Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Name: Sereno Solar Place: Monte Sereno, California Sector: Solar Product: Has developed a solar passive water heating panel to be installed under current roofing or siding...

  4. Phototaxis Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Cambridge, Massachusetts Sector: Solar Product: Solar start-up planning to construct solar-panel covered roofs over parking lots. Coordinates: 43.003745, -89.017499 Show...

  5. Himin Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    search Name: Himin Solar Place: Alicante, Spain Zip: 3201 Sector: Solar Product: Manufacturing, planning, development and distribution of projects of solar energy products....

  6. Webasto Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Webasto Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Webasto Solar Place: Germany Product: German module manufacturer. References: Webasto Solar1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  7. First Solar Corporate Template 2013

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Copyright 2013, First Solar, Inc. Why Are We Backtracking? 3 Copyright 2013, First Solar, Inc. Shading Response * First Solar modules are laid-out in landscape ...

  8. Tessera Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    search Logo: Tessera Solar Name: Tessera Solar Address: 2600 10th Street Place: Berkeley, California Zip: 94710 Region: Bay Area Sector: Solar Product: Developer of utility...

  9. Apros Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Apros Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Apros Solar Place: Prague 2, Czech Republic Zip: 120 00 Product: Czech developer of PV projects. References: Apros Solar1 This...

  10. Sun Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Sun Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sun Solar Place: San Diego, California Zip: 92019 Sector: Services, Solar Product: String representation "Established in ... e...

  11. Paz Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Paz Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Paz Solar Place: Israel Product: Israel-based engineering and installation contractor. References: Paz Solar1 This article is a stub....

  12. Aztec Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Rancho Cordova, California Zip: 95742 Sector: Solar Product: Installer of solar hot water and pool heating systems. References: Aztec Solar1 This article is a stub. You can...

  13. ESPEE Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Karnataka, India Zip: 560 091 Sector: Solar Product: Distributor of solar thermal water heating systems and PV lights. References: ESPEE Solar1 This article is a stub....

  14. Solar2 | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Germany Zip: 27472 Sector: Solar Product: Sells and installs PV, solar thermal and wood pellet powered heating systems. References: Solar21 This article is a stub. You can...

  15. 3-D laser patterning process utilizing horizontal and vertical patterning

    DOEpatents

    Malba, Vincent; Bernhardt, Anthony F.

    2000-01-01

    A process which vastly improves the 3-D patterning capability of laser pantography (computer controlled laser direct-write patterning). The process uses commercially available electrodeposited photoresist (EDPR) to pattern 3-D surfaces. The EDPR covers the surface of a metal layer conformally, coating the vertical as well as horizontal surfaces. A laser pantograph then patterns the EDPR, which is subsequently developed in a standard, commercially available developer, leaving patterned trench areas in the EDPR. The metal layer thereunder is now exposed in the trench areas and masked in others, and thereafter can be etched to form the desired pattern (subtractive process), or can be plated with metal (additive process), followed by a resist stripping, and removal of the remaining field metal (additive process). This improved laser pantograph process is simpler, faster, move manufacturable, and requires no micro-machining.

  16. High-frequency shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave sensor

    DOEpatents

    Branch, Darren W

    2013-05-07

    A Love wave sensor uses a single-phase unidirectional interdigital transducer (IDT) on a piezoelectric substrate for leaky surface acoustic wave generation. The IDT design minimizes propagation losses, bulk wave interferences, provides a highly linear phase response, and eliminates the need for impedance matching. As an example, a high frequency (.about.300-400 MHz) surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducer enables efficient excitation of shear-horizontal waves on 36.degree. Y-cut lithium tantalate (LTO) giving a highly linear phase response (2.8.degree. P-P). The sensor has the ability to detect at the pg/mm.sup.2 level and can perform multi-analyte detection in real-time. The sensor can be used for rapid autonomous detection of pathogenic microorganisms and bioagents by field deployable platforms.

  17. High-frequency shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave sensor

    DOEpatents

    Branch, Darren W

    2014-03-11

    A Love wave sensor uses a single-phase unidirectional interdigital transducer (IDT) on a piezoelectric substrate for leaky surface acoustic wave generation. The IDT design minimizes propagation losses, bulk wave interferences, provides a highly linear phase response, and eliminates the need for impedance matching. As an example, a high frequency (.about.300-400 MHz) surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducer enables efficient excitation of shear-horizontal waves on 36.degree. Y-cut lithium tantalate (LTO) giving a highly linear phase response (2.8.degree. P-P). The sensor has the ability to detect at the pg/mm.sup.2 level and can perform multi-analyte detection in real-time. The sensor can be used for rapid autonomous detection of pathogenic microorganisms and bioagents by field deployable platforms.

  18. New airfoils for small horizontal axis wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Giguere, P.; Selig, M.S.

    1997-12-31

    In a continuing effort to enhance the performance of small energy systems, one root airfoil and three primary airfoils were specifically designed for small horizontal axis wind turbines. These airfoils are intended primarily for 1-10 kW variable-speed wind turbines for both conventional (tapered/twisted) or pultruded blades. The four airfoils were wind-tunnel tested at Reynolds numbers between 100,000 and 500,000. Tests with simulated leading-edge roughness were also conducted. The results indicate that small variable-speed wind turbines should benefit from the use of the new airfoils which provide enhanced lift-to-drag ratio performance as compared with previously existing airfoils.

  19. IDENTIFYING BLUE HORIZONTAL BRANCH STARS USING THE z FILTER

    SciTech Connect

    Vickers, John J.; Grebel, Eva K.; Huxor, Avon P.

    2012-04-15

    In this paper we present a new method for selecting blue horizontal branch (BHB) candidates based on color-color photometry. We make use of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey z band as a surface gravity indicator and show its value for selecting BHB stars from quasars, white dwarfs, and main-sequence A-type stars. Using the g, r, i, and z bands, we demonstrate that extraction accuracies on a par with more traditional u, g, and r photometric selection methods may be achieved. We also show that the completeness necessary to probe major Galactic structure may be maintained. Our new method allows us to efficiently select BHB stars from photometric sky surveys that do not include a u-band filter such as the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System.

  20. Visual inspections of N Reactor horizontal control rod channels

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, E.M.

    1990-07-01

    This document describes the examination of thirteen horizontal control rod channels during the N Reactor Surveillance Program campaigns of 1987 and 1988. Traverses with miniature video cameras recorded the condition and relative positions of graphite blocks that form channel walls. The major conclusion confirms that no conditions exist that would prevent rod insertion. Where encroachment of broken filler block keys into the channel indicated a potential for rod motion impairment their removal by displacement into gaps between blocks was performed as preventive maintenance. In some locations a chisel was used in clearing keys lodged in gaps between tube blocks. Other observations include counts of safety balls observed in channels, breaks in tube blocks and Tee-bars and separations at Tee-bar junctions that results from axial graphite contraction. 15 refs., 18 figs., 6 tabs.