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Sample records for history angolan cabinda

  1. Angola-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Angola-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the Congo Basin Jump to: navigation, search Name Angola-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the Congo...

  2. Landed Costs of Imported Crude for Selected Crude Streams

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History Algerian Saharan Blend 65.95 81.78 115.82 114.02 113.45 2009-2013 Angolan Cabinda 1978-2008 Brazilian Marlim 58.94 76.63 107.13 114.32...

  3. F.O.B. Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude Streams

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History Angolan Cabinda 1978-2008 Canadian Bow River 1978-2008 Canadian Light Sour Blend 74.59 93.75 83.54 87.67 81.71 2010-2014 Canadian...

  4. Table 30. Landed Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Algerian Condensate Angolan Cabinda Canadian Lloydminster Cameroon Kole Marine Ecuadorian Oriente Mexican Isthmus Mexican Mayan 1978 Average ... W 14.07 - W 13.85 13.54 -...

  5. Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude Streams

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Algerian Condensate Angolan Cabinda Canadian Lloydminster Cameroon Kole Marine Ecuadorian Oriente Mexican Isthmus Mexican Mayan 1978 Average ... W 13.32 - W 12.87 13.24 -...

  6. F.O.B. Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude Streams

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    for Selected Crude Streams (Dollars per Barrel) Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Crude Stream Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Angolan Cabinda 1983-2010 Canadian Bow River 1996-2010 Canadian Light Sour Blend 29.95 36.13 39.21 43.32 43.16 41.48 2010-2016 Canadian Lloydminster 1983-2015 Ecuadorian Oriente 1983-2008 Gabon Rabi-Kouanga 1996-2008 Iraqi Basrah Light W W W W W W

  7. History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    History History Print Photos 20th Anniversary Kickoff Brunch, January 11, 2013 ALS 20th Anniversary Celebration, October 4, 2013 Videos ALS Dedication, October 22, 1993 (excerpts)...

  8. history

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    several contributions over SRS's history, including large-scale production of aluminum-lithium alloys; production of kilogram quantities of radioactive waste glass; materials...

  9. history

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Volume One Film Collection Volume Two 75th Anniversary Hydropower in the Northwest Woody Guthrie Videos Strategic Direction Branding & Logos Power of the River History Book...

  10. History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    History Over 100 Years of Collaborative Energy R&D A mine tunnel partially coated with light-colored rock duct (photo credit: National Archives and Records Administration NETL's long history of leadership in the research and development of fossil energy reaches back to the days of NETL's predecessor organization, the century-old U.S. Bureau of Mines. The Bureau of Mines was a leader in technological advancements that benefitted American industries and consumers. Commencing as a small agency

  11. History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Historical Resources Historical Resources Historical Resources New! Manhattan Project National Historical Park New! K-25 Virtual Museum The Department of Energy maintains and makes accessible to the general public a wide variety of historical resources. These include published and online histories of the Department and its predecessor agencies and records, exhibits, museums, and tours available online and at various locations both within and outside the Department. The Department's Office of

  12. Beam History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Beam History Print Beamline History Request Form To request a beam current histograph from the ALS storage ring beam histograph database, select the year, month, and day, then...

  13. Beam History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Beam Status Beam History Print Beamline History Request Form To request a beam current histograph from the ALS storage ring beam histograph database, select the year, month, and...

  14. History Images

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    History Images Los Alamos History in Images Los Alamos has a proud history and heritage of almost 70 years of science and innovation. The people of the Laboratory work on advanced technologies to provide the best scientific and engineering solutions to many of the nation's most crucial security challenges. Click thumbnails to enlarge. Photos arranged by most recent first, horizontal formats before vertical. See Flickr for more sizes and details. Back in the day Back in the day LA bridge in Los

  15. NERSC History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Interactive Timeline History of Systems NERSC Stakeholders Usage and User Demographics Careers Visitor Info Web Policies Home » About » NERSC History NERSC History Powering Scientific Discovery Since 1974 Contact: Jon Bashor, jbashor@lbl.gov, +1 510 486 4236 For more information, read "25 Years of Leadership," a historical perspective written at NERSC's quarter-century mark.»Download (PDF | 32MB) The oil crisis of 1973 did more than create long lines at the gas pumps - it

  16. Our History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Our History Our History The Lab has a proud history and heritage of more than 70 years of science and innovation. The people at the Laboratory work on advanced technologies to provide the best scientific and engineering solutions to the nation's most crucial security challenges. Los Alamos Gate 1942 Our primary responsibility throughout the decades: national security The primary responsibility of the Laboratory is assuring the safety and reliability of the nation's nuclear deterrent. Though the

  17. History Gallery

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    History Gallery History Gallery Exhibits in this gallery capture Laboratory's history of the secret town of Los Alamos and its role with the Manhattan Project. August 18, 2014 museum plan showing the history gallery Los Alamos, once the site of a boys' ranch school, became the focus of the secret project to develop a new weapon, one that derived its power from splitting the atom. The Atomic Age begins The conflict that darkened Europe in the late 1930s at first cast no shadow here on the sunny

  18. ESnet History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ESnet History About ESnet Our Mission The Network ESnet History Governance & Policies Career Opportunities ESnet Staff & Org Chart Contact Us Contact Us Technical Assistance: 1 800-33-ESnet (Inside US) 1 800-333-7638 (Inside US) 1 510-486-7600 (Globally) 1 510-486-7607 (Globally) Report Network Problems: trouble@es.net Provide Web Site Feedback: info@es.net ESnet History This year, ESnet celebrates 30 years of networking at the speed of science. Enjoy a 3D trip down memory lane with our

  19. Making History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    YGG 05-0181 Making History It's hard to imagine . . . . . . an entire city existing in secret. . . . 60,000 acres set aside for one, top-secret purpose. . . . a discovery so huge...

  20. ORISE: History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    History The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) is a national leader in science education and research, with programs dating back to 1946 and having served as an...

  1. Workshop History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Workshop History The 2014 event is the seventh joint workshop held by the EFCOG ESH Electrical Safety subgroup. The first "joint" Electrical Safety Workshop was held in the summer...

  2. History of Hydropower | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    History of Hydropower History of Hydropower

  3. National Women's History Month

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    NATIONAL WOMEN’S HISTORY MONTH is an annual declared month that highlights the contributions of women to events in history and contemporary society.

  4. Women's History Month | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Women's History Month

  5. Sandia National Laboratories: History: History Reports

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS About History Reports Building a Nuclear Ordnance Engineering Lab (slides from presentation to NSF Short Course "The Birthplace and Early...

  6. National Women's History Month

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    During Women's History Month, we recall that the pioneering legacy of our grandmothers and great-grandmothers is revealed not only in our museums and history books, but also in the fierce...

  7. LANSCE | About | History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    History The History of LANSCE Since 1972, the 800-million-electron-volt (MeV) accelerator and its attendant facilities at Technical Area 53 (TA-53, often referred to as "the Mesa")...

  8. BLACK HISTORY MONTH

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Black History Month is an annual celebration of achievements by black Americans and a time for recognizing the central role of African Americans in U.S. history. The event grew out of “Negro History Week,” created by historian Carter G. Woodson and other prominent African Americans. Other countries around the world, including Canada and the United Kingdom, also devote a month to celebrating black history.

  9. History of Wind Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    History of Wind Energy History of Wind Energy

  10. History of Wind Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    History of Wind Energy History of Wind Energy

  11. History | Argonne National Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy History of the Energy Department's Role in Nuclear Security History of the Energy Department's Role in Nuclear Security April 6, 2015 - 2:58pm Addthis Allison Lantero Allison Lantero Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Daniel Wood Daniel Wood Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Learn More Check out the cutting-edge nuclear research going on at the National Labs. Learn more about the history of the National Nuclear Security

  12. History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    About Us » History History The following is a short history recounting the evolution of the project management office within the Department of Energy: The project management office was originally called the Office of Field Management (FM) and was under the purview of the Office of the Chief Financial Officer in the 1990s. In the fiscal year 2000 Energy & Water Development Appropriations, the Senate initiated and the House concurred to eliminate funding for DOE's Office of Field Management.

  13. History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    About Energy.gov » History History What's New in History July 13, 2016: DOE Receives Chairman's Award for Achievement in Historic Preservation July 13, 2016: DOE Receives Chairman's Award for Achievement in Historic Preservation The ACHP presents DOE and two local partners with the Chairman's Award for Historic Preservation for their efforts to restore and reuse the historic Alexander Inn in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The "Guest House" was built to accommodate officials visiting the Oak

  14. Energy/Water History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    History - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion ...

  15. Microscale acceleration history discriminators

    DOEpatents

    Polosky, Marc A.; Plummer, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of micromechanical acceleration history discriminators is claimed. These discriminators allow the precise differentiation of a wide range of acceleration-time histories, thereby allowing adaptive events to be triggered in response to the severity (or lack thereof) of an external environment. Such devices have applications in airbag activation, and other safety and surety applications.

  16. History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    History History 2016 OCTOBER Powering New Markets: Energy Storage Poised for Growth report released JULY Supplement released to Title XVII Renewable Energy and Efficient Energy Projects solicitation clarifying electric vehicle charging infrastructure eligibility JANUARY Driving Economic Growth: Advanced Technology Vehicles Manufacturing report released 2015 DECEMBER Financing Innovation to Address Climate Change report released Desert Sunlight awarded Top Plant (Renewables) - POWER Magazine

  17. Black History Month

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    During National African American History Month, we pay tribute to the contributions of past generations and reaffirm our commitment to keeping the American dream alive for the next generation.  In...

  18. Departmental History Program

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1992-03-26

    The order describes the DOE history program and establishes policy and objectives for the preservation of historical records and institutional memory for DOE and its predecessor agencies. Cancels DOE 1324.7.

  19. PAFC History and Successes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    PAFC History and Successes John Ferro Manager Product Development john.ferro@utcpower.com 2 2 AGENDA Company overview and history System description and applications Failure modes and life analysis Summary 3 3 Research Center Hamilton Sundstrand Pratt & Whitney Sikorsky UTC Power Otis Carrier UTC Fire & Security UNITED TECHNOLOGIES CORPORATION 18 th largest U.S. manufacturer (2009 list, Industry Week) 37 th largest U.S. corporation (2009 list, Fortune) 61 st largest publicly held

  20. Laboratory History | NREL

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory History The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has a rich history of renewable energy and energy efficiency research and innovation that spans decades. NREL's Roots: The Creation of SERI NREL was designated a national laboratory by President George Bush on September 16, 1991. But the birth of the organization began more than two decades before. Learn about the global politics, energy landscape, and environmental drivers that led to the creation of NREL's predecessor, the Solar

  1. History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    History History The Better Buildings Neighborhood Program was first announced by Vice President Biden as "Retrofit Ramp-Up" on April 21, 2010. The program presented initial awards of $452 million in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA or Recovery Act) funding to 25 state and local governments to "ramp up" energy efficiency building retrofits. The Better Buildings Neighborhood Program then distributed a total of $508 million to support hundreds of communities served

  2. History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    History History This timeline features the key innovations that have advanced the solar industry in the United States. Learn more about these key events from 1955 to present. To see more details, either drag the timeline to the left or right or click the (+) icons. Solar Achievements Timeline INSTRUCTIONS Instructional graphic for mouse use. Click and drag screen or scroll mouse wheel to navigate through timeline. 2011 INDUSTRY Graphic of the U.S. Department of Energy logo. A yellow,

  3. History | Argonne National Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    History of SPR Releases History of SPR Releases The following provides a brief description of the times when crude oil has been released from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Emergency Drawdowns: The SPR exists, first and foremost, as an emergency response tool the President can use should the United States be confronted with an economically-threatening disruption in oil supplies. 2005 Hurricane Katrina Sale | 1991 Operation Desert Storm Sale Crude Oil Test Sales: The SPR has also

  4. ARM Orientation: Overview and History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM Orientation: ARM Orientation: Overview and History Overview and History Mar 2007 ARM Orientation 2 ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement ...

  5. History of Systems

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    History of Air Conditioning History of Air Conditioning July 20, 2015 - 3:15pm Addthis Paul Lester Paul Lester Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs MORE ON AIR CONDITIONING Check out our Energy Saver 101 infographic to learn how air conditioners work. Go to Energy Saver for more tips and advice on home cooling. Stay up-to-date on how the Energy Department is working to improve air conditioning technology. We take the air conditioner for granted, but imagine what life would be

  6. History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    History History On January 7, 2011, the President signed H.R. 6523 (111th), the Ike Skelton National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011 (http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/111/hr6523) which became Public Law 111-384. Section 3124 specifically states, "The Secretary of Energy may establish a program to permit the establishment of energy parks on former defense nuclear facilities" (50 U.S.C. 2814). In response, on February 17, 2011, the Department of Energy (DOE)

  7. History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    History History Although they are tiny, atoms have a large amount of energy holding their nuclei together. Certain isotopes of some elements can be split and will release part of their energy as heat. This splitting is called fission. The heat released in fission can be used to help generate electricity in powerplants. Uranium-235 (U-235) is one of the isotopes that fissions easily. During fission, U-235 atoms absorb loose neutrons. This causes U-235 to become unstable and split into two light

  8. History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    History History The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers began acquiring land, in the area that became Oak Ridge, in October 1942 for the Manhattan Project. By March 1943, 56,000 acres were sealed behind fences and major industrial facilities were under construction. The K-25, S-50, and Y-12 plants were all built to separate the fissile isotope uranium-235 from uranium-238, while the X-10 site was established as a pilot plant for the Graphite Reactor. Throughout the next six decades the three major

  9. Quantum histories without contrary inferences

    SciTech Connect

    Losada, Marcelo; Laura, Roberto

    2014-12-15

    In the consistent histories formulation of quantum theory it was shown that it is possible to retrodict contrary properties. We show that this problem do not appear in our formalism of generalized contexts for quantum histories. - Highlights: We prove ordinary quantum mechanics has no contrary properties. Contrary properties in consistent histories are reviewed. We prove generalized contexts for quantum histories have no contrary properties.

  10. History of Air Conditioning

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    We take it for granted but what would life be like without the air conditioner? Once considered a luxury, this invention is now an essential, allowing us to cool everything from homes, businesses, businesses, data centers, laboratories and other buildings vital to our daily lives. Explore this timeline to learn some of the key dates in the history of air conditioning.

  11. History - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    History Lawrence's original Cyclotron, for which he received a patent and the Nobel Prize. Lawrence's original cyclotron design was limited to energies where relativistic effects were not important. The third generation cyclotron included "sector-focusing" to allow higher energies to be obtained. The 88-Inch Cyclotron was based on Lawrence's design of a sector-focused cyclotron for the MTA project at Livermore. 1500 man-hours of work were necessary to assemble the trim coils which help

  12. Jefferson Lab Cryogenics History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    CEBAF/JLAB Liquefier History Page The cryogenic systems at Jefferson Laboratory (JLAB) consist of four 4 Kelvin and two 2 Kelvin helium refrigerators in three plant locations. The main machine is in the accelerator site and is located at the Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) facility. The CHL also houses the Standby Refrigerator (SBR). The End Station Refrigerator (ESR) is also in the accelerator site. The Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF) is located on the main JLAB campus behind the Test Lab. These

  13. A Brief History of CAMS

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    a brief history of cams A Brief History of CAMS The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) is the brainchild of Jay Davis, who envisioned the creation of a multi-purpose ...

  14. History Publications | Department of Energy

    Energy Saver

    ... Out of print, pdf version only. Atomic Shield, 1947-1952. A History of the Atomic Energy Commission, Volume II (pdf) - written by Richard G. Hewlett and Francis Duncan History of ...

  15. Summary_History.pdf

    Energy Saver

    3, 2016 - May 27, 2016 Summary of Decisions - May 23, 2016 - May 27, 2016 May 27, 2016 - 8:14am Addthis Personnel Security (10 CFR Part 710) On May 25, 2016, an OHA Administrative Judge issued a decision in which he determined that an individual's DOE access authorization should be restored. The local security office had alleged that the individual's history of three alcohol-related arrests, and an opinion by a DOE psychiatrist that he suffered from Alcohol Abuse/Alcohol Use Disorder, raised

  16. NTS_History.indd

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing 1951 - 1963 Battlefi eld of the Cold War The Nevada Test Site United States Department of Energy Volume I Of related interest: Origins of the Nevada Test Site by Terrence R. Fehner and F. G. Gosling The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb * by F. G. Gosling The United States Department of Energy: A Summary History, 1977 - 1994 * by Terrence R. Fehner and Jack M. Holl * Copies available from the U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave. S.W.,

  17. history | netl.doe.gov

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    history History In 2010, NETL celebrated its 100th anniversary. Here is a richly chronicled history of our organization over the past 100 years. Over the past century, fossil energy research and technology development has been advanced by NETL and its predecessor facilities as the energy needs of the Nation have grown and evolved. 1910 - The newly created Bureau of Mines in the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) opens the Pittsburgh Experiment Station in Bruceton, Pennsylvania, 12 miles south

  18. ARM - Climate Change Through History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Climate Change Through History Scientists know that there ...

  19. Our History | The Ames Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Our History Ames Laboratory was formally established in 1947 by the Atomic Energy Commission as a result of the Ames Project's successful development of the most efficient process ...

  20. Drop History? No! | Jefferson Lab

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Drop History? No! Drop History? No! February 29, 2012 When I was in high school in England, especially in the smaller country schools, teachers were scarce and schedules, therefore, constrained. Further, the English style is for students to choose directions, and therefore subjects, at a relatively early age. So, at age 13, I had to choose between Physics and Chemistry on the one hand, and Latin and History on the other. Of course, I chose Physics and Chemistry, but thereby lost two subjects in

  1. Y-12 and uranium history

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    did happen six days after he was given the assignment. The history of uranium at Y-12 began with that decision, which will be commemorated on September 19, 2012, at...

  2. Bartlesville History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Bartlesville History Bartlesville History The Bartlesville Energy Technology Center, Bartlesville, Oklahoma, circa 1937. The Bartlesville Energy Technology Center, Bartlesville, Oklahoma, circa 1937. Origins of the U.S. Government's First Petroleum Research Laboratory By 1916 the Bureau of Mines, which had been established six years earlier in the U.S. Department of the Interior, recognized the transforming role that petroleum was playing in American society. Across the country, the Bureau had

  3. Tag: History | Y-12 National Security Complex

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    History Tag: History Displaying 1 - 10 of 119... Category: About Deputy Secretary meets two calutron girls When the Deputy Secretary of Energy, Elizabeth Sherwood-Randall, was in...

  4. Heating Oil Reserve History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Heating Oil Reserve History Heating Oil Reserve History Creation of an emergency reserve of heating oil was directed by President Clinton on July 10, 2000, when he directed ...

  5. Sandia National Laboratories: About Sandia: History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    History View as list Resources Sandia's government ownedcontractor operated (GOCO) heritage Sandia history reports and publications AlwaysNever: The Quest for Safety, Control & ...

  6. Women in Los Alamos History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Women in Los Alamos History Women in Los Alamos History WHEN: Mar 03, 2016 5:30 PM - 8:00 PM WHERE: Los Alamos Golf Course Clubhouse SPEAKER: Jill Tietjen CONTACT: Sarah Terrill (505) 709-0089 CATEGORY: Community INTERNAL: Calendar Login Event Description Tietjen is a well-known speaker on the topic of gender issues in the work place, and a motivational speaker for young women working toward educations and careers in science, engineering, technology and math (STEM). The community is invited to

  7. The history of the LHC

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Abstract: From the civil engineering, to the manufacturing of the various magnet types, each building block of this extraordinary machine required ambitious leaps in innovation. This lecture will review the history of the LHC project, focusing on the many challenges -- scientific, technological, managerial -- that had to be met during the various phases of R&D;, industrialization, construction, installation and commissioning.

  8. The history of the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-11

    Abstract: From the civil engineering, to the manufacturing of the various magnet types, each building block of this extraordinary machine required ambitious leaps in innovation. This lecture will review the history of the LHC project, focusing on the many challenges -- scientific, technological, managerial -- that had to be met during the various phases of R&D;, industrialization, construction, installation and commissioning.

  9. History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Dedication, October 22, 1993 (excerpts) ALS Dedication, October 22, 1993 (full) The ALS Beamline Clock Articles BRIGHT BEAMS: The Advanced Light Source LBL Research Review ...

  10. history

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    the Albuquerque Operations Office with other NNSA operations offices into the NNSA Service Center located in Albuquerque. OTS was renamed the Office of Secure Transportation...

  11. History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    The Los Alamos program has supplied a wide range of radioisotopes to medical researchers ... This resulted in the Isotope Production Facility (IPF) construction project, which focused ...

  12. History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Research | Department of Energy Historically Black Colleges and Universities Receive Funds for Fossil Energy Research Historically Black Colleges and Universities Receive Funds for Fossil Energy Research August 15, 2013 - 1:18pm Addthis Washington, D.C. - Five fossil energy-related projects that will help maintain the nation's energy portfolio while also providing educational and research training opportunities for tomorrow's scientists and engineers have been selected for funding by

  13. History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has provided radioisotope thermoelectric generators for space applications since 1961. These generators provide electrical power for spacecraft by direct conversion of the heat generated by the decay of plutonium-238 (Pu-238) oxide to electrical energy. The first generator was used on the Navy Transit 4A spacecraft launched on June 29, 1961. Between 1961 and 1972, DOE provided power systems for six Navy navigational satellites. In addition, DOE provided power

  14. US Energy Service Company Industry: History and Business Models

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Information about the history of US Energy Service Company including industry history, setbacks, and lessons learned.

  15. Women's History Month 2015 | Argonne National Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... I get to study solar cells that can provide cost-effective renewable energy." Women&039;s History Month 2015: Kenley Pelzer 16 of 26 Women's History Month 2015: Kenley Pelzer ...

  16. ALS History: The First 20 Years

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    History: The First 20 Years Print Below is an interactive timeline covering highlights of the first 20 years of ALS history. By no means exhaustive, it is meant to provide a broad ...

  17. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- FRMAC History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    History NNSANFO Language Options U.S. DOENNSA - Nevada Field Office FRMAC History Photo of Three Mile Island Following the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant ...

  18. Well Record or History | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Record or History Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: Well Record or HistoryLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took...

  19. Introduction to Y-12's history

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Y-12's History This article marks the beginning of a series that will focus on the history of the Y-12 National Security Complex. Y-12 has employed from 22,000 at its peak to 8,000...

  20. History of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This timeline explores the history of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, or SPR, from conception through current events.

  1. The Manhattan Project National Security History Series

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    The Manhattan Project National Security History Series 5 Visit our Manhattan Project web site: http://www.cfo.doe.gov/me70/manhattan/index.htm 5 DOE/MA-0002 Revised F. G. Gosling Offce of History and Heritage Resources Executive Secretariat Offce of Management Department of Energy January 2010 The Manhattan Project National Security History Series 5 National Security History Series Volume I: The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb Volume II: Building the Nuclear Arsenal: Cold War Nuclear

  2. An analytical history of EIA

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, C.A. )

    1993-01-01

    This article traces the development of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) from 1974, the inception of its precursor, an office within the Federal Energy Administration, to its current form as an independent agency within the US Department of Energy (DOE). EIA amalgamated the energy-related activities of over 50 separate agencies, when it was chartered in DOE in 1977, [open quotes]to collect, evaluate, assemble, and analyze energy information...[close quotes] Six tensions have characterized the agency during its history: data quality, the role of modeling, confidentiality of data, resources and requirements, the independence of EIA, and timeliness vs. accuracy. 95 refs.

  3. history | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    history Keeping the "Spirit of '45 Alive" in Kansas City National Security Campus employees commemorated the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II by sharing stories of their loved ones, viewing photographs and documents with Truman Library historians and listening to WWII veteran Max DeWeese reminisce about his experience in the war. The August... Y-12 has almost 500 visitors from 23 states tour site during Secret City Festival B&W Y-12 employee and tour guide Bill Wilburn,

  4. History of ultrahigh carbon steels

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, J.; Sherby, O.D.

    1997-06-20

    The history and development of ultrahigh carbon steels (i.e., steels containing between 1 and 2.l percent C and now known as UHCS) are described. The early use of steel compositions containing carbon contents above the eutectoid level is found in ancient weapons from around the world. For example, both Damascus and Japanese sword steels are hypereutectoid steels. Their manufacture and processing is of interest in understanding the role of carbon content in the development of modern steels. Although sporadic examples of UHCS compositions are found in steels examined in the early part of this century, it was not until the mid-1970s that the modern study began. This study had its origin in the development of superplastic behavior in steels and the recognition that increasing the carbon content was of importance in developing that property. The compositions that were optimal for superplasticity involved the development of steels that contained higher carbon contents than conventional modern steels. It was discovered, however, that the room temperature properties of these compositions were of interest in their own right. Following this discovery, a period of intense work began on understanding their manufacture, processing, and properties for both superplastic forming and room temperature applications. The development of superplastic cast irons and iron carbides, as well as those of laminated composites containing UHCS, was an important part of this history.

  5. West Valley Demonstration Project: A Short History and Status...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Project: A Short History and Status West Valley Demonstration Project: A Short History and ... 2013 in Buffalo, NY. West Valley Demonstration Project: A Short History and Status ...

  6. Space Nuclear MIssion History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Power Systems » Space Nuclear MIssion History Space Nuclear MIssion History A HISTORY OF MISSION SUCCESSES For over fifty years, the Department of Energy has enabled space exploration on 27 missions by providing safe reliable radioistope power systems and radioisotope heater units for NASA, Navy, Air Force, DOE. Mission Year Launched Agency Regions Explored Transit 4a 1961 Navy Earth- Navy Navigation Satelitte Transit 4B 1961 Navy Earth - Navigation Satelitte Transit 5-BN-1 1963 Navy Earth -

  7. DOE History Timeline | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    DOE History Timeline DOE History Timeline DOE History Timeline The Department of Energy is one of the most interesting and diverse agencies in the Federal Government. Activated on October 1, 1977, the twelfth cabinet-level department brought together for the first time within one agency two programmatic traditions that had long coexisted within the Federal establishment: 1) defense responsibilities that included the design, construction, and testing of nuclear weapons dating from the Manhattan

  8. History of Regulatory Oversight at LANL

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    History of Regulatory Oversight History of Regulatory Oversight at LANL History of Regulatory Oversight at LANL 1943-1950: Manhattan Project Era Few environmental regulations Best available protection technologies employed, though rudimentary 1950s-1970s: Cold War Era Laboratory moved from townsite to current location Advent of national environmental protection laws Clean Air Act Clean Water Act Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 1980s-1990s: Non-proliferation/Stockpile Reduction LANL

  9. Brief History of Artificial Lighting Technology

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Applications National Solar Thermal Test Facility ... EnergyWater Nexus EnergyWater History Water Monitoring & ... Market Transformation Fuel Cells Predictive Simulation of ...

  10. Employee Women's History Month Celebration (DC)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Celebrate Women's History Month with the Department of Energy headquarters, and hear from remarkable game-changing women and leading DOE engagement programs.

  11. Power of the River History Book

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Power-of-the-River-BPA-History-Book Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand Projects &...

  12. History of Load Participation in ERCOT

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Mark

    2011-10-25

    Presentation on demand integration by ERCOT for a DOE Workshop. Covers history of load participation in ERCOT from 2002 to present.

  13. Tech Area II: A history

    SciTech Connect

    Ullrich, R.

    1998-07-01

    This report documents the history of the major buildings in Sandia National Laboratories` Technical Area II. It was prepared in support of the Department of Energy`s compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Technical Area II was designed and constructed in 1948 specifically for the final assembly of the non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons, and was the primary site conducting such assembly until 1952. Both the architecture and location of the oldest buildings in the area reflect their original purpose. Assembly activities continued in Area II from 1952 to 1957, but the major responsibility for this work shifted to other sites in the Atomic Energy Commission`s integrated contractor complex. Gradually, additional buildings were constructed and the original buildings were modified. After 1960, the Area`s primary purpose was the research and testing of high-explosive components for nuclear weapons. In 1994, Sandia constructed new facilities for work on high-explosive components outside of the original Area II diamond-shaped parcel. Most of the buildings in the area are vacant and Sandia has no plans to use them. They are proposed for decontamination and demolition as funding becomes available.

  14. Radioactivity and health: A history

    SciTech Connect

    Stannard, J.N.; Baalman, R.W. Jr.

    1988-10-01

    This book is designed to be primarily a history of research facts, measurements, and ideas and the people who developed them. ''Research'' is defined very broadly to include from bench-top laboratory experiments to worldwide environmental investigations. The book is not a monograph or a critical review. The findings and conclusions are presented largely as the investigators saw and reported them. Frequently, the discussion utilizes the terminology and units of the time, unless they are truly antiquated or potentially unclear. It is only when the work being reported is markedly iconoclastic or obviously wrong that I chose to make special note of it or to correct it. Nevertheless, except for direct quotations, the language is mine, and I take full responsibility for it. The working materials for this volume included published papers in scientific journals, books, published conferences and symposia, personal interviews with over 100 individuals, some of them more than once (see Appendix A), and particularly for the 1940--1950 decade and for the large government-supported laboratories to the present day, ''in-house'' reports. These reports frequently represent the only comprehensive archive of what was done and why. Unfortunately, this source is drying up because of storage problems and must be retrieved by ever more complex and inconvenient means. For this reason, special efforts have been taken to review and document these sources, though even now some sections of the field are partially inaccessible. Nevertheless, the volume of all materials available for this review was surprisingly large and the quality much better than might have been expected for so complex and disparate a fields approached under conditions of considerable urgency.

  15. History of western oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, P.L.

    1980-01-01

    The history of oil shale in the United States since the early 1900's is detailed. Research on western oil shale probably began with the work of Robert Catlin in 1915. During the next 15 years there was considerable interest in the oil shales, and oil shale claims were located, and a few recovery plants were erected in Colorado, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, and Montana. Little shale soil was produced, however, and the major oil companies showed little interest in producing shale oil. The early boom in shale oil saw less than 15 plants produce a total of less than 15,000 barrels of shale oil, all but about 500 barrels of which was produced by the Catlin Operation in Nevada and by the US Bureau of Mines Rulison, Colorado operation. Between 1930 and 1944 plentiful petroleum supplies at reasonable prices prevent any significant interest in shale oil, but oil shortages during World War II caused a resurgence of interest in oil shale. Between 1940 and 1969, the first large-scale mining and retorting operations in soil shale, and the first attempts at true in situ recovery of shale oil began. Only 75,000 barrels of shale oil were produced, but major advancements were made in developing mine designs and technology, and in retort design and technology. The oil embargo of 1973 together with a new offering of oil shale leases by the Government in 1974 resulted in the most concentrated efforts for shale oil production to date. These efforts and the future prospects for shale oil as an energy source in the US are discussed.

  16. PAFC History and Successes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    History and Successes PAFC History and Successes Presentation at the MCFC and PAFC R&D Workshop held Nov. 16, 2009, in Palm Springs, CA mcfc_pafc_workshop_ferro.pdf (1.83 MB) More Documents & Publications MCFC and PAFC R&D Workshop Summary Report PAFC Cost Challenges Fuel Cell Development Status

  17. Newmark-Hall synthetic history development

    SciTech Connect

    Aramayo, G.A.

    1990-11-01

    The methodology used to develop synthetic acceleration time histories with spectral content that envelopes the Newmark-Hall spectra is described. Six acceleration time histories are developed for two conditions of foundation and 3 critical damping factors. The target spectra corresponds to the mediam centered probability level.

  18. Atomic power in space: A history

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    ''Atomic Power in Space,'' a history of the Space Isotope Power Program of the United States, covers the period from the program's inception in the mid-1950s through 1982. Written in non-technical language, the history is addressed to both the general public and those more specialized in nuclear and space technologies. 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. History of Hanford Site Defense Production (Brief)

    SciTech Connect

    GERBER, M S

    2001-02-01

    This paper acquaints the audience with the history of the Hanford Site, America's first full-scale defense plutonium production site. The paper includes the founding and basic operating history of the Hanford Site, including World War II construction and operations, three major postwar expansions (1947-55), the peak years of production (1956-63), production phase downs (1964-the present), a brief production spurt from 1984-86, the end of the Cold War, and the beginning of the waste cleanup mission. The paper also delineates historical waste practices and policies as they changed over the years at the Hanford Site, past efforts to chemically treat, ''fractionate,'' and/or immobilize Hanford's wastes, and resulting major waste legacies that remain today. This paper presents original, primary-source research into the waste history of the Hanford Site. Finally, the paper places the current Hanford Site waste remediation endeavors in the broad context of American and world history.

  20. grid history | OpenEI Community

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Dc(266) Contributor 31 October, 2014 - 10:58 What do you know about the grid? black out brown out bulk power system electricity grid future grid grid history security Smart Grid...

  1. History of the DOE Human Genome Program

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    of the DOE Human Genome Program The following history is taken from the U.S. Department of Energy 1991-91 Human Genome Program Report (June 1992). This is an archived item. A brief ...

  2. Environmental Justice History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Justice History Environmental Justice History The exact start of the environmental justice movement in America is not clear. Local groups have complained about unwanted land uses for decades. Prior to the early eighties, these local protests were considered isolated and protesting communities were complaining by themselves and not associated with others similarly situated in other communities. This isolated protesting all changed in the early 1980's and the environmental justice movement became

  3. History of SPR Releases | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    History of SPR Releases History of SPR Releases The following provides a brief description of the times when crude oil has been released from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Emergency Drawdowns: The SPR exists, first and foremost, as an emergency response tool the President can use should the United States be confronted with an economically-threatening disruption in oil supplies. 2005 Hurricane Katrina Sale | 1991 Operation Desert Storm Sale Crude Oil Test Sales: The SPR has also

  4. SPEAR History | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    SPEAR History Experimental Facilities : The SPEAR Storage Ring Stanford University has a long history of involvement in the development and use of colliding-beam storage rings for particle physics research. The first such machine at Stanford was a small electron-electron collider, shaped like a figure eight, located on the main campus. A collaborative effort between physicists from Princeton and Stanford Universities, this project produced the first physics results ever obtained with the

  5. Race to Zero History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Residential Buildings » Zero Energy Ready Home » Student Competition » Race to Zero History Race to Zero History Since 2014, the U.S. Department of Energy Race to Zero Student Design Competition has inspired and developed the next generation of residential design and construction professionals. While advancing the building science curricula at universities, the competition provides the next generation of architects, engineers, construction managers, and entrepreneurs with the skills and

  6. Weatherization Assistance Program History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    History Weatherization Assistance Program History In 1976, the Weatherization Assistance Program was created under Title IV of the Energy Conservation and Production Act to assist low-income families. Not only has the Program helped millions of families, but the techniques and technologies developed by it over the years helped launch today's home performance industry. 1970s The 1973 oil crisis dramatically affected many Americans. Escalating home heating bills became a heavy burden on household

  7. History and Impacts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Appliance & Equipment Standards » About » History and Impacts History and Impacts Appliance and equipment efficiency standards have served as one of the nation's most effective policies for improving energy efficiency. The first standards were enacted at the state level in California in 1974. At the national level, the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) was enacted in 1975, and established a federal program consisting of test procedures, labeling, and energy targets for consumer

  8. Atomic Power in Space: A History

    DOE R&D Accomplishments

    1987-03-01

    "Atomic Power in Space," a history of the Space Isotope Power Program of the United States, covers the period from the program's inception in the mid-1950s through 1982. Written in non-technical language, the history is addressed to both the general public and those more specialized in nuclear and space technologies. Interplanetary space exploration successes and achievements have been made possible by this technology, for which there is no known substitue.

  9. DNA Origami: A History and Current Perspective

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Origami: A History and Current Perspective Authors: Nangreave, J., Han, D., Liu, Y., and Yan, H. Title: DNA Origami: A History and Current Perspective Source: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology Year: 2010 Volume: 14 Pages: 608-615 ABSTRACT: Researchers have been using DNA for the rational design and construction of nanoscale objects for nearly 30 years. Recently, [`]scaffolded DNA origami' has emerged as one of the most promising assembly techniques in DNA nanotechnology with a broad range of

  10. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: History of Bioenergy | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy History of Bioenergy BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: History of Bioenergy BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: History of Bioenergy This infographic was created by students from Nikola Tesla STEM High School in Redmond, WA

  11. Y-12 History Center | Y-12 National Security Complex

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Y-12 History Center Y-12 History Center Located within the New Hope Center at Y-12, the History Center houses a fascinating collection of informational materials and historical...

  12. 2016 Bioenergizeme Infographic Challenge: The History of Ethanol |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy The History of Ethanol 2016 Bioenergizeme Infographic Challenge: The History of Ethanol 2016 Bioenergizeme Infographic Challenge: The History of Ethanol This infographic was created by students from Smithtown High School East in St. James, NY

  13. Utah Division of State History | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    History Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Utah Division of State History Name: Utah Division of State History Address: 300 S. Rio Grande St. Place: Salt Lake City, Utah Zip: 84101...

  14. Labs and Field Site Histories | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Labs and Field Site Histories Labs and Field Site Histories Labs and Field Site Histories Note: Every effort is made to keep these links current and updated. Yet as many of the links below point to sites not under our direct control, some may stop working without warning . National Laboratories & Technology Centers Operations Offices & Field Sites Ames Laboratory (Iowa) -- History Chicago Office (Illinois) -- History Argonne National Laboratory (Illinois) -- Laboratory History and

  15. Bike-Sharing:History, Impacts, Models of Provision, and Future...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Bike-Sharing:History, Impacts, Models of Provision, and Future Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Bike-Sharing:History, Impacts, Models of Provision, and...

  16. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Nevada National Security Site History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Site History NNSANFO Language Options U.S. DOENNSA - Nevada Field Office Nevada National Security Site History Photo of NTS Following the Trinity test and the bombings of ...

  17. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library NNSS History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Nevada National Security Site History NNSANFO Language Options U.S. DOENNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Nevada National Security Site History The Nevada National ...

  18. OSTI History, Office of Scientific and Technical Information...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    OSTI History Accelerating Science Discovery: From the '40s to the Future Timeline History 1940 Answering the Call 1950s Expanding Internationally 1960s Supporting Education 1970s...

  19. Reionization history and CMB parameter estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Dizgah, Azadeh Moradinezhad; Kinney, William H.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y. E-mail: gnedin@fnal.edu

    2013-05-01

    We study how uncertainty in the reionization history of the universe affects estimates of other cosmological parameters from the Cosmic Microwave Background. We analyze WMAP7 data and synthetic Planck-quality data generated using a realistic scenario for the reionization history of the universe obtained from high-resolution numerical simulation. We perform parameter estimation using a simple sudden reionization approximation, and using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique proposed by Mortonson and Hu. We reach two main conclusions: (1) Adopting a simple sudden reionization model does not introduce measurable bias into values for other parameters, indicating that detailed modeling of reionization is not necessary for the purpose of parameter estimation from future CMB data sets such as Planck. (2) PCA analysis does not allow accurate reconstruction of the actual reionization history of the universe in a realistic case.

  20. History of Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    History of Air Conditioning History of Air Conditioning July 20, 2015 - 3:15pm Addthis Paul Lester Paul Lester Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs MORE ON AIR CONDITIONING Check out our Energy Saver 101 infographic to learn how air conditioners work. Go to Energy Saver for more tips and advice on home cooling. Stay up-to-date on how the Energy Department is working to improve air conditioning technology. We take the air conditioner for granted, but imagine what life would be

  1. A History of the Atomic Energy Commission | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Atomic Energy Commission A History of the Atomic Energy Commission A History of the Atomic Energy Commission - written by Alice L. Buck Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy, July 1983. 41 pp. AEC History.pdf (1.01 MB) More Documents & Publications The History of Nuclear Energy The Manhattan Project Hewlett and Holl - Atoms for Peace and War

  2. Women's History Month: Women of Geothermal

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    When it comes to equality in employment for women, EERE's Geothermal Technologies Office is leading the way, literally. Guided by Dr. Susan Hamm as acting director, the program has equal representation of women in the office's science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) positions. EERE celebrates the Women of Geothermal in Women's History Month.

  3. United States Department of Energy: a history

    SciTech Connect

    Holl, J.M.

    1982-11-01

    This pamphlet traces the origins of the Department of Energy and outlines the history of the Department as reflected in the energy policies of Presidents Nixon, Ford, Carter, and Reagan. It attempts to place recent energy policy into historical perspective by describing the evolution of the federal Government's role in energy research, development, and regulation.

  4. United States Department of Energy: A History

    DOE R&D Accomplishments

    Holl, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    This pamphlet traces the origins of the Department of Energy and outlines the history of the Department as reflected in the energy policies of Presidents Nixon, Ford, Carter, and Reagan. It attempts to place recent energy policy into historical perspective by describing the evolution of the federal Government's role in energy research, development, and regulation.

  5. Physics History Books in the Fermilab Library

    SciTech Connect

    Sara Tompson.

    1999-09-17

    Fermilab is a basic research high-energy physics laboratory operated by Universities Research Association, Inc. under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy. Fermilab researchers utilize the Tevatron particle accelerator (currently the worlds most powerful accelerator) to better understand subatomic particles as they exist now and as they existed near the birth of the universe. A collection review of the Fermilab Library monographs was conducted during the summers of 1998 and 1999. While some items were identified for deselection, the review proved most fruitful in highlighting some of the strengths of the Fermilab monograph collection. One of these strengths is history of physics, including biographies and astrophysics. A bibliography of the physics history books in the collection as of Summer, 1999 follows, arranged by author. Note that the call numbers are Library of Congress classification.

  6. Our History | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    History The NNSA was established by Congress in 2000 as a separately organized agency within the U.S. Department of Energy, responsible for the management and security of the nation's nuclear weapons, nuclear nonproliferation, and naval reactor programs. In 2002 NNSA reorganized, removing a layer of management by eliminating its regional operations offices in New Mexico, California and Nevada. Contract and project management oversight responsibility for NNSA's labs, plants and special facilities

  7. A History of the Southeastern Power Administration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Southeastern Power Administration 1990-2010 SERVING SOUTHEAST the Distribu teD by us Department of energy southeastern Power Administration 2012 A History of the Southeastern Power Administration 1990-2010 SERVING SOUTHEAST the ii Project contribu tors Sponsor us Department of energy, southeastern Power Administration Contracting Agency us Army corps of engineers, Mobile District Author Patricia stallings, brockington and Associates, inc. Design and Editing john cason and Alicia sullivan,

  8. Nuclear reactor characteristics and operational history

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Nuclear > U.S. reactor operation status tables Nuclear Reactor Operational Status Tables Release date: November 22, 2011 Next release date: TBD See also: Table 1. Capacity and Generation, Table 2. Ownership Data Table 3. Nuclear Reactor Characteristics and Operational History PDF XLS Plant Name Generator ID Type Reactor Supplier and Model Construction Start Grid Connection Original Expiration Date License Renewal Application License Renewal Issued Extended Expiration Arkansas Nuclear One 1

  9. Personal History of Nucleon Polarization Experiments

    DOE R&D Accomplishments

    Chamberlain, O.

    1984-09-01

    The history of nucleon scattering experiments is reviewed, starting with the observation of large proton polarizations in scattering from light elements such as carbon, and ending with the acceleration of polarized proton beams in high-energy synchrotrons. Special mention is made about significant contributions made by C.L. Oxley, L. Wolfenstein, R.D. Tripp, T. Ypsilantis, A. Abragam, M. Borghini, T. Niinikoski, Froissart, Stora, A.D. Krisch, and L.G. Ratner.

  10. Upper Bound on the First Star Formation History (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Upper Bound on the First Star Formation History Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Upper Bound on the First Star Formation History You are accessing a document from the ...

  11. Community Reflects on Pivotal Moment in History with B Reactor...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Reflects on Pivotal Moment in History with B Reactor Community Reflects on Pivotal Moment in History with B Reactor September 29, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis David Klaus, Deputy Under ...

  12. MLK Day/Black History Month DOE Celebration

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Join us as the Department honors both Dr. King and Black History Month with a dialogue on the history of civil rights for all. Secretary Ernest Moniz will open our program.

  13. New Book Updates INL's History, Documents a Decade of Transformation...

    Energy Saver

    Book Updates INL's History, Documents a Decade of Transformation New Book Updates INL's History, Documents a Decade of Transformation June 21, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts ...

  14. Request For Report Of Radiation Exposure History Form | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Request For Report Of Radiation Exposure History Form Request For Report Of Radiation Exposure History Form October 29, 2002 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) form to submit a...

  15. Geophysical logging case history of the Raft River geothermal...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    logging case history of the Raft River geothermal system, Idaho Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Geophysical logging case history of the...

  16. EECBG Success Story: HVAC Upgrade Saving Money, Protecting History...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    HVAC Upgrade Saving Money, Protecting History EECBG Success Story: HVAC Upgrade Saving Money, Protecting History November 2, 2010 - 5:37pm Addthis A new heating and cooling system...

  17. DOE - Fossil Energy: A Brief History of Natural Gas

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    History An Energy Lesson Natural Gas - Fueling the Blue Flame The History of Natural Gas Gaslight - One of the earliest uses of natural gas was to fuel street lights in the 1800s....

  18. What is the History of the NMMSS? | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    is the History of the NMMSS? U.S. Department of Energy U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Nuclear Materials Management & Safeguards System What is the History of the NMMSS? Early ...

  19. A History of the Energy Research and Development Administration |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Energy Research and Development Administration A History of the Energy Research and Development Administration A History of the Energy Research and Development Administration - written by Alice L. Buck Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy, March 1982. 22 pp ERDA History.pdf (316.52 KB) More Documents & Publications The Federal Energy Administration A History of the Atomic Energy Commission Basis for Identification of Disposal Options for R and D for Spent

  20. FY 2014 Funding History Detail Spreadsheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Budget » FY 2014 Budget Justification » FY 2014 Funding History Detail Spreadsheet FY 2014 Funding History Detail Spreadsheet FY 2014 Funding History Detail Spreadsheet (3.5 MB) (3.39 MB) More Documents & Publications COMMERCIAL CLOTHES WASHERS (APPENDIX J2) RESIDENTIAL CLOTHES WASHERS (APPENDIX J2) CONSUMER CLOTHES WASHERS (APPENDIX J2)

  1. Chronological History of Federal Energy-Efficient Product Procurement:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Executive, Legislative and Regulatory Requirements, Actions and Mandates | Department of Energy Chronological History of Federal Energy-Efficient Product Procurement: Executive, Legislative and Regulatory Requirements, Actions and Mandates Chronological History of Federal Energy-Efficient Product Procurement: Executive, Legislative and Regulatory Requirements, Actions and Mandates Document provides a chronological history of the legislative actions and executive orders that contribute to the

  2. Nuclear reactor characteristics and operational history

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    2. Ownership Data, Table 3. Characteristics and Operational History Table 1. Nuclear Reactor, State, Type, Net Capacity, Generation, and Capacity Factor PDF XLS Plant/Reactor Name Generator ID State Type 2009 Summer Capacity Net MW(e)1 2010 Annual Generation Net MWh2 Capacity Factor Percent3 Arkansas Nuclear One 1 AR PWR 842 6,607,090 90 Arkansas Nuclear One 2 AR PWR 993 8,415,588 97 Beaver Valley 1 PA PWR 892 7,119,413 91 Beaver Valley 2 PA PWR 885 7,874,151 102 Braidwood Generation Station 1

  3. Case histories of external microbiologically influenced corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Pikas, J.L.

    1997-05-01

    External microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a serious dilemma in the pipeline industry. Even today, it has not been recognized as such because it has been primarily mistaken for galvanic corrosion. Due to the type of coating materials used in the past, the cleaning process or lack of it, and application methods used, all coating systems have the propensity to develop defects and pinholes where disbondment and this type of microbial corrosion could occur. In addition, the pipeline may or may not have had cathodic protection initially and/or consistently applied. Given these factors and the interaction of bacteria from the soil, moisture availability, degree of cathodic protection, and temperature of the pipeline, this paper will discuss the role that microbes play in the disbondment process, thus resulting in corrosion of an underground pipeline. Several case histories, laboratory testing results, and field findings will be presented.

  4. A History of the Atomic Energy Commission

    DOE R&D Accomplishments

    Buck, Alice L.

    1983-07-01

    This pamphlet traces the history of the US Atomic Energy Commission's twenty-eight year stewardship of the Nation's nuclear energy program, from the signing of the Atomic Energy Act on August 1, 1946 to the signing of the Energy Reorganization Act on October 11, 1974. The Commission's early concentration on the military atom produced sophisticated nuclear weapons for the Nation's defense and made possible the creation of a fleet of nuclear submarines and surface ships. Extensive research in the nuclear sciences resulted in the widespread application of nuclear technology for scientific, medical and industrial purposes, while the passage of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 made possible the development of a nuclear industry, and enabled the United States to share the new technology with other nations.

  5. The Livermore Phantom History and Supplementation

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Traub, Richard J.

    2010-03-01

    In vivo monitoring facilities determine the absence or presence of internally entrained radionuclides. To be of greatest utility, the detection systems must detect and quantify the nuclides of interest at levels of interest. Phantoms have been developed to improve measurements at in vivo monitoring facilities. Since the 1970s, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL, or simply "Livermore") phantom continues to be a well-used tool at lung monitoring facilities, especially for the detection of low-energy emissions from transuranics. The history of its development from need, through design development and current availability, is summarized. The authors have taken the LLNL phantom one step further by scanning the phantom surface and announce the availability of the scan files on the internet.

  6. Hanford Natural Resource Trustee Council History & Accomplishments -

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Hanford Site History & Accomplishments About Us Hanford Natural Resource Trustee Council HNRTC Members HNRTC History & Accomplishments Memorandum of Agreement By-Laws Hanford Natural Resource Trustee Council History & Accomplishments Email Email Page | Print Print Page | Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font Size The first organizational meeting for the NRTC was held in Richland, WA, April 9, 1993, at the invitation of the U.S. Department of Energy - Richland Operations Office

  7. History | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC)

    History Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events Publications History Grand Challenges BES Reports Document Archives Contests Contact BES Home History Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page The EFRC program commenced in 2009; 46 Centers were selected based on scientific peer review and funded at $2-5 million per year for a five-year initial award period. Altogether, the DOE Office of Science invested $777 million in the first

  8. History | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC)

    History Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) BESAC Home Meetings Meeting Presentations History Logistics BESAC 2016-2017 Membership Charges/Reports Charter .pdf file (128KB) BES Committees of Visitors Federal Advisory Committees BES Home Meetings History Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page Given below are short descriptions of the historical Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee's activities. Click below on 1997 to Present for details on current activities. 1997 to Present

  9. History | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    About Energy.gov » History History What's New in History July 13, 2016: DOE Receives Chairman's Award for Achievement in Historic Preservation July 13, 2016: DOE Receives Chairman's Award for Achievement in Historic Preservation The ACHP presents DOE and two local partners with the Chairman's Award for Historic Preservation for their efforts to restore and reuse the historic Alexander Inn in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The "Guest House" was built to accommodate officials visiting the Oak

  10. Organizational History | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Chart Organizational Chart EA Organizational Chart (38.38 KB)

    Organizational Chart Organizational Chart AU Organizational Chart 10/2016 Full Resolution Version News

    Organizational History Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Organization Chart .pdf file (132KB) Staff BES Budget BES Committees of Visitors Directions Jobs Organizational History Germantown Natural History President Kennedy's AEC Briefings Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities

  11. Workers Make History by Demolishing Manhattan Project Facilities |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Workers Make History by Demolishing Manhattan Project Facilities Workers Make History by Demolishing Manhattan Project Facilities February 16, 2016 - 1:45pm Addthis Once K-27 is demolished, it will mark the first-ever cleanup of an entire gaseous diffusion complex anywhere. | Office of Environmental Management video David Sheeley David Sheeley Editor/Writer For the first time in history, workers will complete the demolition and cleanup of an entire gaseous diffusion

  12. History of Women at the Energy Department | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    History of Women at the Energy Department History of Women at the Energy Department March 27, 2014 - 5:55pm Addthis Dot Harris Dot Harris Director, Office of Economic Impact and Diversity Terry Fehner Terry Fehner Historian, Federal Preservation Officer Women have been making a significant impact in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields for centuries. Join the Energy Department in celebrating Women's History Month by viewing this timeline for a glimpse of the

  13. Russian Health Studies Program - Program History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    History Russian Health Studies Program - Program History History of the Program U.S./Russian cooperation was initiated in 1994 under a bi-national agreement. The work is conducted under the management of the Joint Coordinating Committee for Radiation Effects Research (JCCRER), of which DOE is the lead U.S. agency and the Federal Medical Biological Agency (FMBA) is the lead Russian agency. The bulk of the joint scientific work is conducted in Russia, with the U.S. researchers supplementing

  14. Generalized contexts and consistent histories in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Losada, Marcelo; Laura, Roberto

    2014-05-15

    We analyze a restriction of the theory of consistent histories by imposing that a valid description of a physical system must include quantum histories which satisfy the consistency conditions for all states. We prove that these conditions are equivalent to imposing the compatibility conditions of our formalism of generalized contexts. Moreover, we show that the theory of consistent histories with the consistency conditions for all states and the formalism of generalized context are equally useful representing expressions which involve properties at different times.

  15. Tectonic history of the southeastern North America

    SciTech Connect

    Hatcher, R.D. Jr. . Dept. of Geological Sciences Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1993-03-01

    The present-day configuration of the crust of southeastern North America (SENA) is the product of a lengthy history traceable through more than 1 billion yr. of geologic time. The Appalachians (AP) record complete Wilson cycles of opening and closing of several oceans from ca. 690 Ma to 245 M. The final event forming the AP was the collision of SENA with Gondwana to form the supercontinent Pangaea. The Ouachitas (OA) had a somewhat different history culminating with island-arc collision during the Pennsylvanian--before the final collision began in the AP. SENA faced the open lapetos ocean no earlier than the Early Cambrian. The AP and OA were built on an earlier margin formed by rifting of the Rodonia super-continent formed by construction of the 1.2 to 1.0 Ga Grenville orogen, and farther west, a crust formed by still earlier (1.3 and 1.8 Ga) events. Recent suggestions that part of the AP platform is in Argentina raises the possibility that a fragment was rifted from between the AP and OA during the early Paleozoic. The crust beneath the Mississippi Embayment is atypical of continental crust, and would have been rifted during the Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic. The Argentine fragment may have been removed along a transform that was reactivated several times since. Northern Pangaea was rifted during the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic and SENA once again faced open ocean-the nascent present Atlantic (AT) when spreading began. The Gulf of Mexico (GOM) also opened then forming extensive salt deposits. The AT opened partly along the old suture, but produced a failed rift in GA and FL leaving a piece of Africa forming the crust beneath the Coastal Plain as far south as central FL. The overlying sediments record recurrent uplift and decay of the AP and OA, cooling of new AT oceanic crust, eustatic sea-level changes during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, and uplift of the Rockies providing a new source of voluminous detritus that is still being deposited in the GOM.

  16. Recommendation 169: Establishment of an Oak Ridge Oral History Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The ORSSAB recommends DOE-ORO fully endorse the establishment of an Oak Ridge Oral History Program and provide necessary assistance.

  17. History of The Department of Energy's National Laboratories

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY'S National Laboratories Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Argonne National Laboratory History Celebrating Six Decades of Outstanding Scientific ...

  18. History by The Department of Energy's Other Major Laboratories...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    BY THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY'S Other Major Laboratories and Facilities Ames Laboratory Ames Laboratory-Shaping Science for 60 Years A History of Innovation Ames Achievements Listing ...

  19. Department of Energy, 1977-1994, A Summary History | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    More Documents & Publications Fehner and Holl, Department of Energy, 1977-1994: A Summary History RFA-14-0001 - In the Matter of Commonwealth Oil Refining Company, Inc....

  20. A History of Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    A History of Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States: Exploration 1976-2006 This report summarizes significant research projects performed by the ...

  1. A History of Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Reservoir Engineering 1976-2006 A History of Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States: Reservoir Engineering 1976-2006 This report summarizes significant ...

  2. A History or Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Drilling 1976-2006 A History or Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States: Drilling 1976-2006 This report summarizes significant research projects performed ...

  3. A History of Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Exploration 1976-2006 A History of Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States: Exploration 1976-2006 This report summarizes significant research projects ...

  4. COLLOQUIUM: Inherently Risky Designs? The History of Soviet Nuclear...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    The History of Soviet Nuclear Reactors and the Notion of Safety Professor Sonja Schmid Virginia Tech Presentation: PDF icon Presentation After the Chernobyl catastrophe in 1986, ...

  5. Rhapsody: I. Structural Properties and Formation History from...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    I. Structural Properties and Formation History from a Statistical Sample of Re-simulated Cluster-size Halos Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rhapsody: I. Structural...

  6. History of the superconducting-magnet bubble chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Derrick, M.; Hyman, L.G.; Pewitt, E.G.

    1980-01-01

    This review covers the development of superconducting magnets, small bubble chambers, and the early history of the 12-foot bubble chamber. (MOW)

  7. UPPER BOUND ON THE FIRST STAR FORMATION HISTORY (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: UPPER BOUND ON THE FIRST STAR FORMATION HISTORY Our understanding of the nature of the extragalactic background light (EBL) has improved ...

  8. History of velocimetry draft. (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: History of velocimetry draft. Abstract not provided. Authors: Jilek, Brook Anton Publication Date: 2012-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1116252 ...

  9. History of velocimetry 2. (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: History of velocimetry 2. Abstract not provided. Authors: Jilek, Brook Anton Publication Date: 2012-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1116267 Report ...

  10. A History or Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Energy Conversion 1976 - 2006 A History of Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States Cover Photo Credits The Geysers Geothermal Power Plant, Sonoma County, ...

  11. SCIENCE ON SATURDAY- "A Short History of Length" | Princeton...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    SCIENCE ON SATURDAY- "A Short History of Length" Professor Joel Langer Department of Mathematics, Case Western Reserve University Presentation: PDF icon SOS09MAR2013JLangerAShort...

  12. A uniform history for galaxy evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Steinhardt, Charles L.; Speagle, Josh S.

    2014-11-20

    Recent observations indicate a remarkable similarity in the properties of evolving galaxies at fixed mass and redshift, prompting us to consider the possibility that most galaxies may evolve with a common history encompassing star formation, quasar accretion, and eventual quiescence. We quantify this by defining a synchronization timescale for galaxies as a function of mass and redshift that characterizes the extent to which different galaxies of a common mass are evolving in the same manner at various cosmic epochs. We measure this synchronization timescale using nine different star-forming galaxy observations from the literature and Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasar observations spanning 0 < z ? 6. Surprisingly, this synchronization timescale is a constant, approximately 1.5 Gyr for all combinations of mass and time. We also find that the ratio between the stellar mass of galaxies turning off star formation and black hole mass of turnoff quasars is approximately 30:1, much lower than the 500:1 for quiescent galaxies at low redshift. As a result, we propose a model in which the star-forming 'main sequence', analogous quasar behavior, and other observations form a galactic evolution 'main sequence', in which star formation occurs earliest, followed by supermassive black hole accretion, and feedback between the two are dominated by deterministic rather than stochastic processes.

  13. Statistics of particle time-temperature histories.

    SciTech Connect

    Hewson, John C.; Lignell, David O.; Sun, Guangyuan

    2014-10-01

    Particles in non - isothermal turbulent flow are subject to a stochastic environment tha t produces a distribution of particle time - temperature histories. This distribution is a function of the dispersion of the non - isothermal (continuous) gas phase and the distribution of particles relative to that gas phase. In this work we extend the one - dimensional turbulence (ODT) model to predict the joint dispersion of a dispersed particle phase and a continuous phase. The ODT model predicts the turbulent evolution of continuous scalar fields with a model for the cascade of fluctuations to smaller sc ales (the 'triplet map') at a rate that is a function of the fully resolved one - dimens ional velocity field . Stochastic triplet maps also drive Lagrangian particle dispersion with finite Stokes number s including inertial and eddy trajectory - crossing effect s included. Two distinct approaches to this coupling between triplet maps and particle dispersion are developed and implemented along with a hybrid approach. An 'instantaneous' particle displacement model matches the tracer particle limit and provide s an accurate description of particle dispersion. A 'continuous' particle displacement m odel translates triplet maps into a continuous velocity field to which particles respond. Particles can alter the turbulence, and modifications to the stochastic rate expr ession are developed for two - way coupling between particles and the continuous phase. Each aspect of model development is evaluated in canonical flows (homogeneous turbulence, free - shear flows and wall - bounded flows) for which quality measurements are ava ilable. ODT simulations of non - isothermal flows provide statistics for particle heating. These simulations show the significance of accurately predicting the joint statistics of particle and fluid dispersion . Inhomogeneous turbulence coupled with the in fluence of the mean flow fields on particles of varying properties alter s particle dispersion. The

  14. History | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    History History 2016 OCTOBER Powering New Markets: Energy Storage Poised for Growth report released JULY Supplement released to Title XVII Renewable Energy and Efficient Energy Projects solicitation clarifying electric vehicle charging infrastructure eligibility JANUARY Driving Economic Growth: Advanced Technology Vehicles Manufacturing report released 2015 DECEMBER Financing Innovation to Address Climate Change report released Desert Sunlight awarded Top Plant (Renewables) - POWER Magazine

  15. Celebrating the History of Women in STEM | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    the History of Women in STEM Celebrating the History of Women in STEM March 1, 2016 - 11:30am Addthis Celebrating the History of Women in STEM Allison Lantero Allison Lantero Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Carly Wilkins Carly Wilkins Multimedia Designer How can I participate? Follow the Energy Department on Instagram. On Thursday mornings in March, we'll post a new illustrated portrait of an important woman in a STEM field. Guess who she is, then look for the answer at 3

  16. What is the History of the NMMSS? | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration | (NNSA) is the History of the NMMSS? U.S. Department of Energy / U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Nuclear Materials Management & Safeguards System What is the History of the NMMSS? Early History Nuclear material accounting data was generally kept in manual form between the early 1940s and the start of the Nuclear Materials Information System (NMIS), the system that preceded the NMMSS. Some of the larger U.S. facilities were using computers before the NMIS, a fact that

  17. The History of the Light Bulb | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    The History of the Light Bulb The History of the Light Bulb November 22, 2013 - 1:00pm Addthis Read more about the History of the Light Bulb. Rebecca Matulka Rebecca Matulka Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Daniel Wood Daniel Wood Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? Like all great inventions, the light bulb can't be credited to one inventor. It was a series of small improvements on the ideas of

  18. National Museum of Nuclear Science & History Opens WIPP Exhibit |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Museum of Nuclear Science & History Opens WIPP Exhibit National Museum of Nuclear Science & History Opens WIPP Exhibit November 22, 2011 - 3:17pm Addthis To celebrate the WIPP's 10,000th shipment of defense-related TRU waste, the National Museum of Nuclear Science & History added a new exhibit, which includes one the receptacles, pictured above, used by the Energy Department to ship transuranic (TRU) waste from sites located across the country to the Waste

  19. Y-12 History | Y-12 National Security Complex

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    About / Y-12 History Y-12 History Explore our pages on Y-12's history. You'll quickly understand why Y-12 is proud of its many contributions to securing our nation's freedom. On February 18, 1943, in the midst of the second World War, ground was broken in rural East Tennessee for the first production building at the Y-12 Electromagnetic Separation Plant. The plant's job was to make enough enriched uranium for a new kind of bomb, an atomic bomb. In a short time Bear Creek Valley, where the plant

  20. HVAC upgrade saving money, protecting history | Department of...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Societys history center is saving the organization about 27,500 a year. | ... According to CCHS, the system is expected to save the organization about 27,500 annually. ...

  1. Energy history chronology from World War II to the present

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, P.C.

    1982-08-01

    This report provides a basic guide to the major Presidential, Legislative, Judicial, and Federal agency actions relating to energy policy, research, development, and regulation in recent years. The chronology is arranged synoptically, allowing users to reference easily the historical context in which each event occurred. Summaries of Presidential, Legislative, and Judicial actions relating to energy, rosters of federal energy officials, and a genealogy of federal energy agencies are also provided in separate appendices. The Energy History Chronology was prepared in conjunction with the History Division's series of pamphlets on the Institutional Origins of the Department of Energy. The series includes concise histories of the Department of Energy, the Energy Research and Development Administration, the Federal Energy Administration, and the Atomic Energy Commission. All significant events and achievements noted in the institutional history are also listed.

  2. Upper Bound on the First Star Formation History (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Upper Bound on the First Star Formation History Citation Details ... Publication Date: 2014-11-20 OSTI Identifier: 1165908 Report Number(s): SLAC-PUB-16151 Journal ID: ISSN ...

  3. Upper Bound on the First Star Formation History (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Upper Bound on the First Star Formation History Citation Details ... Publication Date: 2014-01-09 OSTI Identifier: 1114151 Report Number(s): SLAC-PUB-15885 Journal ID: ISSN ...

  4. Download Energy.gov's Women's History Month Illustrations

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    During Women's History Month we rolled out some beautiful illustrations of Mae Jemison, Annie Easley, Chien-Shiung Wu and Ellen Ochoa. You can now download the poster-sized versions of these illustrations.

  5. NMOCD - Form G-107 - Geothermal Resources Well History | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library General: NMOCD - Form G-107 - Geothermal Resources Well History Author State of New Mexico Energy and Minerals...

  6. Maintaining History of the ARM Climate Research Facility Data

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    One of the goals of ARM is be able to provide a history of the DOD or datastream ... will be presented in the poster. http:science.arm.govtooldodshowdod.php

  7. History of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    History of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve History of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve July 1, 2015 - 11:34am Addthis Allison Lantero Allison Lantero Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs The Strategic Petroleum Reserve, or SPR, is a complex of four locations that stockpile emergency oil in deep underground storage caverns created in salt domes along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coasts. Although the idea of stockpiling emergency oil arose as early as 1944, it took the oil embargo

  8. Legislative History | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Legislative History Laboratory Policy (LP) LP Home About Laboratory Appraisal Process Laboratory Planning Process Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Frequently Asked Questions Impact Legislative History Program Contacts Management & Operating (M&O) Contracts Technology Transfer Strategic Partnership Projects (SPP) Contact Information Laboratory Policy U.S. Department of Energy SC-32/Forrestal Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (202) 586-5447 F:

  9. The Brief History and Future Development of Earth System Models:

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Brief History and Future Development of Earth System Models: Resolution and Complexity Warren M. Washington National Center for Atmospheric Research NERSC Lecture Series at Berkeley Lab May, 2014 Overview * Brief history of climate modeling * Brief discussion of computational methods * Environmental Justice connected to climate change * Behind the scenes White House origin of the U. S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) * The future of the USGCRP and National Climate Assessment The next two

  10. A History of the Southeastern Power Administration (1990 - 2010) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy A History of the Southeastern Power Administration (1990 - 2010) A History of the Southeastern Power Administration (1990 - 2010) Southeastern Power Administration was established in 1950 by the Secretary of the Interior to carry out the functions assigned to the Secretary by the Flood Control Act of 1944. In 1977, Southeastern was transferred to the newly created United States Department of Energy. Southeastern, headquartered in Elberton, Georgia, is responsible for

  11. Microsoft Word - S04932 History final.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    FUSRAP History of the Chupadera Mesa, NM, Site December 2008 Doc. No. S0493200 (FUSRAP NM.04-5) Page 1 of 9 FUSRAP History of the Chupadera Mesa, NM, Site The following historical summary is provided to document the inclusion of the Chupadera Mesa, NM, Site into the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Although no remedial action was required, the site met eligibility criterion and was included under FUSRAP, under which the final radiological surveys were performed.

  12. Celebrating Black History Month with DOE's Christopher Smith | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Energy Black History Month with DOE's Christopher Smith Celebrating Black History Month with DOE's Christopher Smith February 16, 2011 - 12:08pm Addthis Christopher A. Smith Christopher A. Smith Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy Throughout the month of February, we've been introducing remarkable African Americans who are working to advance the President's clean energy agenda. This week we're highlighting Christopher Smith, the Department's Deputy Assistant Secretary for Oil and

  13. Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR) History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    History Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve (NEHHOR) History Creation of an emergency reserve of heating oil was directed by President Clinton on July 10, 2000, when he directed then-Energy Secretary Bill Richardson to establish a two million barrel home heating oil component of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve in the Northeast. The intent was to create a buffer large enough to allow commercial companies to compensate for interruptions in supply during severe winter weather, but not so large as to

  14. DOE Project Management Workshop History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    DOE Project Management Workshop History DOE Project Management Workshop History What is the DOE Project Management Workshop? The PM Workshop continues the tradition of providing the project management community with the opportunity to discuss projects and project challenges with senior leadership, share lessons learned, and recognize excellence in project management from across the complex. Held either annually (or bi-annually), these workshops help the Department build a strong project

  15. The History and Evolution of America's Weatherization Network |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy The History and Evolution of America's Weatherization Network The History and Evolution of America's Weatherization Network August 19, 2016 - 1:19pm Addthis John Coggin John Coggin Communications Specialist, Weatherization and Intergovernmental Programs Emiley Mallory Emiley Mallory Communications Specialist, Weatherization Assistance Program What are the key facts? This month marks the 40th anniversary of the Energy Department's Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP),

  16. Dismantling History: The Final W62 Warhead | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Dismantling History: The Final W62 Warhead Dismantling History: The Final W62 Warhead August 12, 2010 - 12:33pm Addthis John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Yesterday, Secretary Chu and National Nuclear Security Administration Administrator Tom D'Agostino traveled to Amarillo, Texas, to visit NNSA's Pantex Plant, where the nation's nuclear stockpile is maintained and weapons are assembled and dismantled. Pantex plays a vital role in President Obama's

  17. Black History Month: Former Energy Secretary Broke Barriers and Advanced

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Clean Energy | Department of Energy Black History Month: Former Energy Secretary Broke Barriers and Advanced Clean Energy Black History Month: Former Energy Secretary Broke Barriers and Advanced Clean Energy February 19, 2015 - 1:30pm Addthis Former Energy Secretary Hazel O'Leary greets contestants of the Solar Car Challenge Competition in 1995. O’Leary was the first Energy Secretary to link energy policy decisions to the health and quality of the environment. | Photo by Warren Gretz,

  18. Mentor Protege Overview and History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Overview and History Mentor Protege Overview and History Overview The Department of Energy (DOE) Mentor-Protégé Program is designed to encourage DOE prime contractors to assist small disadvantaged firms certified by the Small Business Administration (SBA) under Section 8(a) of the Small Business Act 8(a), other small disadvantaged businesses, women-owned small businesses, Historically Black Colleges and Universities, and other minority institutions of higher learning, and small business

  19. Fehner and Holl, Department of Energy, 1977-1994: A Summary History...

    Energy Saver

    History Terrence R. Fehner and Jack M. Holl. Department of Energy, 1977-1994: A Summary History. DOEHR-0098. Washington, D.C.: Department of Energy, 1994. 142 pp. History Office...

  20. The history of nuclear weapon safety devices (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The history of nuclear weapon safety devices Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The history of nuclear weapon safety devices You are accessing a document from the ...

  1. History of the Energy Department's Role in Nuclear Security | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy History of the Energy Department's Role in Nuclear Security History of the Energy Department's Role in Nuclear Security

  2. History dependent quantum random walks as quantum lattice gas automata

    SciTech Connect

    Shakeel, Asif E-mail: dmeyer@math.ucsd.edu Love, Peter J. E-mail: dmeyer@math.ucsd.edu; Meyer, David A. E-mail: dmeyer@math.ucsd.edu

    2014-12-15

    Quantum Random Walks (QRW) were first defined as one-particle sectors of Quantum Lattice Gas Automata (QLGA). Recently, they have been generalized to include history dependence, either on previous coin (internal, i.e., spin or velocity) states or on previous position states. These models have the goal of studying the transition to classicality, or more generally, changes in the performance of quantum walks in algorithmic applications. We show that several history dependent QRW can be identified as one-particle sectors of QLGA. This provides a unifying conceptual framework for these models in which the extra degrees of freedom required to store the history information arise naturally as geometrical degrees of freedom on the lattice.

  3. Cosmic expansion histories in massive bigravity with symmetric matter coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Enander, Jonas; Mrtsell, Edvard [Oskar Klein Center, Stockholm University, Albanova University Center, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Solomon, Adam R. [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Rd., Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Akrami, Yashar, E-mail: enander@fysik.su.se, E-mail: a.r.solomon@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: yashar.akrami@astro.uio.no, E-mail: edvard@fysik.su.se [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2015-01-01

    We study the cosmic expansion history of massive bigravity with a viable matter coupling which treats both metrics on equal footing. We derive the Friedmann equation for the effective metric through which matter couples to the two metrics, and study its solutions. For certain parameter choices, the background cosmology is identical to that of ?CDM. More general parameters yield dynamical dark energy, which can still be in agreement with observations of the expansion history. We study specific parameter choices of interest, including minimal models, maximally-symmetric models, and a candidate partially-massless theory.

  4. Energy Department Announces Largest Energy Efficiency Standard in History |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Largest Energy Efficiency Standard in History Energy Department Announces Largest Energy Efficiency Standard in History December 17, 2015 - 12:43pm Addthis New efficiency standards expected to save more energy than any other standard issued by the Energy Department to date. New efficiency standards expected to save more energy than any other standard issued by the Energy Department to date. News Media Contact: (202) 586-4940 DOENews@hq.doe.gov The U.S. Department of

  5. Tribal Energy Project Funding History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Funding History Tribal Energy Project Funding History The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funds a wide variety of renewable energy and energy efficiency projects in an effort to assist tribes in realizing their energy visions. From 2002 to 2014, DOE awarded a total of $48.1 million to fund 183 tribal energy projects. During that same period, tribes contributed a total of $45.6 million in cost sharing to advance their energy projects. (Note: Per statute only development and deployment type awards

  6. The History of Nuclear Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    History of Nuclear Energy The History of Nuclear Energy Although they are tiny, atoms have a large amount of energy holding their nuclei together. Certain isotopes of some elements can be split and will release part of their energy as heat. This splitting is called fission. The heat released in fission can be used to help generate electricity in powerplants. Uranium-235 (U-235) is one of the isotopes that fissions easily. During fission, U-235 atoms absorb loose neutrons. This causes U-235 to

  7. The History of Nuclear Power in Space | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    The History of Nuclear Power in Space The History of Nuclear Power in Space June 9, 2015 - 11:42am Addthis Marissa Newhall Marissa Newhall Director of Digital Strategy and Communications How can I participate? It's Space Week on Energy.gov -- and we're highlighting the contributions of the Energy Department and our National Labs to the U.S. space program. Join us for "The Energy of Star Wars: A Google+ Hangout" on Friday June 12 at 2 p.m. EDT. Ask questions now and during the Hangout

  8. We the Geeks: Celebrating Black History Month | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    the Geeks: Celebrating Black History Month We the Geeks: Celebrating Black History Month February 24, 2014 - 9:40am Addthis President Barack Obama talks with Evan Jackson, 10, Alec Jackson, 8, and Caleb Robinson, 8, from McDonough, Ga., while looking at exhibits at the White House Science Fair in the State Dining Room, April 22, 2013. The sports-loving grade-schoolers created a new product concept to keep athletes cool and helps players maintain safe body temperatures on the field. | Official

  9. Fehner and Holl, Department of Energy, 1977-1994: A Summary History |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Holl, Department of Energy, 1977-1994: A Summary History Fehner and Holl, Department of Energy, 1977-1994: A Summary History Terrence R. Fehner and Jack M. Holl. Department of Energy, 1977-1994: A Summary History. DOE/HR-0098. Washington, D.C.: Department of Energy, 1994. 142 pp. History Office publication. Summary_History.pdf (5.2 MB) More Documents & Publications Department of Energy, 1977-1994, A Summary History A History of the Southeastern Power Administration

  10. A quantitative method for measuring the quality of history matches

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, T.S.; Knapp, R.M.

    1997-08-01

    History matching can be an efficient tool for reservoir characterization. A {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} history matching job can generate reliable reservoir parameters. However, reservoir engineers are often frustrated when they try to select a {open_quotes}better{close_quotes} match from a series of history matching runs. Without a quantitative measurement, it is always difficult to tell the difference between a {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} and a {open_quotes}better{close_quotes} matches. For this reason, we need a quantitative method for testing the quality of matches. This paper presents a method for such a purpose. The method uses three statistical indices to (1) test shape conformity, (2) examine bias errors, and (3) measure magnitude of deviation. The shape conformity test insures that the shape of a simulated curve matches that of a historical curve. Examining bias errors assures that model reservoir parameters have been calibrated to that of a real reservoir. Measuring the magnitude of deviation assures that the difference between the model and the real reservoir parameters is minimized. The method was first tested on a hypothetical model and then applied to published field studies. The results showed that the method can efficiently measure the quality of matches. It also showed that the method can serve as a diagnostic tool for calibrating reservoir parameters during history matching.

  11. Chronological History of Federal Energy-Efficient Product

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Chronological History of Federal Energy-Efficient Product Procurement: Executive, Legislative and Regulatory Requirements, Actions and Mandates Introduction The National Energy Conservation Policy Act (NECPA), signed into law in 1978, is the foundational authority for federal energy management requirements. Various legislative actions and Executive Orders (EOs) have developed purchasing requirements that encompass all areas of federal procurement. Federal agencies have been required to purchase

  12. History of the ZGS 500 MeV booster.

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.; Martin; R.; Kustom, R.

    2006-05-09

    The history of the design and construction of the Argonne 500 MeV booster proton synchrotron from 1969 to 1982 is described. This accelerator has since been in steady use for the past 25 years to power the Argonne Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS).

  13. A Chronological History of Federal Fleet Actions and Mandates

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-22

    This chronological history of Federal fleet actions and mandates provides a year-by-year timeline of the acts, amendments, executive orders, and other regulations that affect Federal fleets. The fleet actions and mandates included in the timeline span from 1988 to 2009.

  14. Chronological History of Federal Fleet Actions and Mandates (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-04-01

    This chronological history of Federal fleet actions and mandates provides a year-by-year timeline of the acts, amendments, executive orders, and other regulations that affect Federal fleets. The fleet actions and mandates included in the timeline span from 1988 to 2009.

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Minneapolis Makes EV-Charging History Record

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Minneapolis Makes EV-Charging History Record to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Minneapolis Makes EV-Charging History Record on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Minneapolis Makes EV-Charging History Record on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Minneapolis Makes EV-Charging History Record on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Minneapolis Makes EV-Charging History Record on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Minneapolis

  16. A history of the Building Energy Standards Program

    SciTech Connect

    Shankle, D.L.; Merrick, J.A.; Gilbride, T.L.

    1994-02-01

    This report describes the history of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL`s) work in development of energy standards for commercial and residential construction in the United States. PNL`s standards development efforts are concentrated in the Building Energy Standards Program (the Program), which PNL conducts for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Codes and Standards. The Program has worked with DOE, the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE), and other building codes and standards organizations to develop, evaluate, and promulgate energy standards in all sectors of the building industry. This report describes the recent history of U.S. code development and PNL`s contributions through the 1980s and early 1990s, up to the passage of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Impacts to standards development resulting from the passage of this act will be described in other reports.

  17. Inaugural History of the National Center for Photovoltaics | Photovoltaic

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Research | NREL Inaugural History of the National Center for Photovoltaics In November of 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced the newly formed National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) to be the focal point for developing technology and disseminating information about photovoltaics (PV) in the United States. When created, the NCPV's long-term goals were for PV modules and systems to reach still higher efficiencies with improved reliability, while lowering costs. Then, as now,

  18. NNSA Celebrates Women's History Month 2016 | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration | (NNSA) Celebrates Women's History Month 2016 Wednesday, April 6, 2016 - 11:10am From left, Amanda Quiones of the Department of Energy's Office of Diversity and Inclusion, Joyce Kim of DOE's Office of Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability, Anne Harrington of NNSA's Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation, and Dr. Sara Richardson of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. NNSA Blog Department of Energy employees celebrated the legacy of women trailblazers, past and

  19. History of the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource | Stanford

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource History of the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource SPEAR Based on new applications of synchrotron radiation, SSRL began in 1973 as the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Project (SSRP). The first synchrotron scientific user activities were originally attached to the SPEAR ring and were operated in "parasitic mode" on the SPEAR high-energy physics program. SSRL/SSRP was the first multi-GeV storage ring based synchrotron radiation source in the

  20. RTG-History, the Curiosity, Voyager, and New Horizons

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    RTG -- History, the Curiosity, Voyager, and New Horizons Curiosity * New Horizons * Voyager * Resources with Additional Information RTG Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) Courtesy of DOE Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs), called "space batteries" or "nuclear batteries", have provided spacecraft power for many years. "RTGs provided by DOE have enabled American scientists to explore the solar system for

  1. History and Status of the CIS Customs Union

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, T.M.; Erickson, S.A.

    1999-08-31

    This report explores the history of the CIS Customs Union and the major obstacles the Union faces in its implementation. Investigation of the Customs Union is necessary as its implementation could effect the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Program. Russian Customs contends that radiation detectors should not be installed along the Customs Union members borders of as the borders will be dissolved when the Union is implemented.

  2. Site A Plot M History Fact Sheet.indd

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Site A/Plot M, Illinois, Decommissioned Reactor Site History Defending our nation during World War II meant that many sacrifi ces would need to be made. In addition to the sacrifi ces made by the American people, natural resource areas were also yielded to support defense activities. A portion of the Palos Forest Preserve outside of Chicago, Illinois, was one of those areas. The land would be changed to accommodate experimental laboratories, nuclear reactor research, and radioactive waste

  3. COLLOQUIUM: Atomic Tracings: The History of Radioisotopes in Science and

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Medicine | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab 14, 2015, 4:00pm to 5:30pm MBG AUDITORIUM COLLOQUIUM: Atomic Tracings: The History of Radioisotopes in Science and Medicine Professor Angela N. H. Creager Princeton University After detonating the first nuclear weapons in Japan, to devastating effects, the U.S. government turned swiftly to promoting the peaceable dividends of atomic energy. The first such benefit took the form of radioactive isotopes, produced in a former Manhattan Project reactor and

  4. COLLOQUIUM: History, Applications, Numerical Values and Problems with the

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Calculation of EROI - Energy Return on (Energy) Investment | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab March 2, 2016, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: History, Applications, Numerical Values and Problems with the Calculation of EROI - Energy Return on (Energy) Investment Professor Charles Hall State University of NY College of Environmental Science and Forestry Plants and animals are subjected to fierce selective pressure to do the "right thing" energetically, that is to

  5. Can f(T) gravity theories mimic ?CDM cosmic history

    SciTech Connect

    Setare, M.R.; Mohammadipour, N. E-mail: N.Mohammadipour@uok.ac.ir

    2013-01-01

    Recently the teleparallel Lagrangian density described by the torsion scalar T has been extended to a function of T. The f(T) modified teleparallel gravity has been proposed as the natural gravitational alternative for dark energy to explain the late time acceleration of the universe. In order to reconstruct the function f(T) by demanding a background ?CDM cosmology we assume that, (i) the background cosmic history provided by the flat ?CDM (the radiation ere with ?{sub eff} = (1/3), matter and de Sitter eras with ?{sub eff} = 0 and ?{sub eff} = ?1, respectively) (ii) the radiation dominate in the radiation era with ?{sub 0r} = 1 and the matter dominate during the matter phases when ?{sub 0m} = 1. We find the cosmological dynamical system which can obey the ?CDM cosmic history. In each era, we find a critical lines that, the radiation dominated and the matter dominated are one points of them in the radiation and matter phases, respectively. Also, we drive the cosmologically viability condition for these models. We investigate the stability condition with respect to the homogeneous scalar perturbations in each era and we obtain the stability conditions for the fixed points in each eras. Finally, we reconstruct the function f(T) which mimics cosmic expansion history.

  6. History & Reflections of Engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lafranchi, E

    2002-04-18

    I thought it was important to relate how this project began. Jens Mahler, Mechanical Engineering Deputy Associate Director, recalls that during a discussion between him and Wally Decker, Wally suggested that he document the significant events and the organization of the Mechanical Engineering Department since 1952, i.e., write a history of Mechanical Engineering. Jens agreed that Wally should begin this effort. Upon learning of this, Dave Pehrson, Deputy Associate Director for Engineering, suggested that the History be expanded to include Electronics Engineering and that it be called A History of Engineering. Dave asked me to join Wally on this effort and, unfortunately, Wally died shortly after I started. In the first part of this History, I have attempted to capture the important contributions that Engineering has made to the Programs, since Engineering's primary mission is to provide ''support to the Laboratory Programs.'' In the later parts you will find views discussing the development and application of Engineering's technology base. While Engineering's direct programmatic support had first priority, Engineering had other responsibilities as well. Some of these were to hire and train a competent technical and leadership staff, to anticipate and develop engineering technologies for future use by the Programs, to provide support to institutional activities, to be the vehicle for internal technology transfer, to provide for the movement of personnel between Programs, to groom individuals to assume programmatic and institutional leadership positions, and to develop, operate, and maintain facilities. Engineering developed the reputation as ''the flywheel of the Laboratory.'' It was also known as willing to provide people for tasks broader than just primarily technical roles, such as membership on salary review committees, and members and chairs of the student policy committees and safety groups. This History is not a compilation of facts only but a reflection by

  7. A Brief History of Los Alamos National Laboratory, rev. 2 (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: A Brief History of Los Alamos National Laboratory, rev. 2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Brief History of Los Alamos National Laboratory, rev. 2 ...

  8. DOE - Fossil Energy: A Brief History of Coal Use in the United...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    History Fossil Energy Study Guides A Brief History of Coal Use Steam Locomotive - In the 1800s, one of the primary uses of coal was to fuel steam engines used to power locomotives. ...

  9. A Case History of Injection Through 1991 at Dixie Valley, Nevada...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    History of Injection Through 1991 at Dixie Valley, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: A Case History of Injection Through...

  10. West Valley Site History, Cleanup Status, and Role of the West...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Site History, Cleanup Status, and Role of the West Valley Citizen Task Force West Valley Site History, Cleanup Status, and Role of the West Valley Citizen Task Force Presentation...

  11. A brief History of Neutron Scattering at the Oak Ridge High Flux...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A brief History of Neutron Scattering at the Oak Ridge High Flux Isotope Reactor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A brief History of Neutron Scattering at the Oak Ridge ...

  12. History and derivation of the Schrödinger equation | Princeton Plasma

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    History Publications History Publications History Publications Since its establishment in 1957, the Office of History and Heritage Resources (OHHR) has consistently sought to maintain a level of excellence in its publications that meets all scholarly standards and yet is accessible to the general public. At the same time, OHHR has partnered with DOE program offices and field sites to provide historical products that are useful and fill specific departmental needs. In this effort, OHHR has

  13. Oak Ridge DOE oral histories to be preserved at OSTI | OSTI, US Dept of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information DOE oral histories to be preserved at OSTI Back to the OSTI News Listing for 2009 An initiative is underway for Oak Ridge DOE oral histories to be documented and preserved. The DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI), through the Networking Oak Ridge Oral History (NOROH) initiative, is the intended repository for oral histories from those involved in over 60 years of federal operations in the once Secret City. "The

  14. Germantown Site History | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC)

    History » Germantown Site History Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Organization Chart .pdf file (132KB) Staff BES Budget BES Committees of Visitors Directions Jobs Organizational History Germantown Natural History President Kennedy's AEC Briefings Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building

  15. Evolution and History of the Department of Energy and the Office of Environmental Management

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    An overview of the Evolution and History of the Department of Energy and the Office of Environmental Management.

  16. Department of Energy 1977--1994: A summary history

    SciTech Connect

    Fehner, T.R.; Holl, J.M.

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 created perhaps the most interesting and diverse agency in the Federal Government. The new department brought together for the first time not only most of the government`s energy programs but also defense responsibilities that included the design, construction, and testing of nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy incorporated a score of organizational entities from a dozen departments and agencies, each with its own history and traditions. Uniting these seemingly disparate entities and programs was a common commitment to performing first rate science and technology. The Department of Energy sought--and continues to seek--to be one of the Nation`s premier science and technology organizations. The Department of Energy, 1977--1994, is a summary history of the origins, goals, and achievements of the Department and selected major programs. Beginning with the various fuels policies on the energy side and the Manhattan project on the defense side, the study details how the Department was born of the energy crisis of the early and mid-1970s. The history then surveys the Department and its programs from the Carter through the Clinton administrations. As the energy crisis eased, the Department played a central role on issues as dissimilar as the Strategic Defense Initiative and the Superconducting Super Collider. With the end of the Cold War, the Department of Energy further transformed itself, moving from the building of bombs to partial dismantlement of the nuclear weapons complex and to an increased emphasis on environmental activities and technology transfer efforts.

  17. Department of Energy 1977--1994: A Summary History

    DOE R&D Accomplishments

    Fehner, T. R.; Holl, J. M.

    1994-11-00

    The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 created perhaps the most interesting and diverse agency in the Federal Government. The new department brought together for the first time not only most of the government`s energy programs but also defense responsibilities that included the design, construction, and testing of nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy incorporated a score of organizational entities from a dozen departments and agencies, each with its own history and traditions. Uniting these seemingly disparate entities and programs was a common commitment to performing first rate science and technology. The Department of Energy sought--and continues to seek--to be one of the Nation`s premier science and technology organizations. The Department of Energy, 1977--1994, is a summary history of the origins, goals, and achievements of the Department and selected major programs. Beginning with the various fuels policies on the energy side and the Manhattan project on the defense side, the study details how the Department was born of the energy crisis of the early and mid-1970s. The history then surveys the Department and its programs from the Carter through the Clinton administrations. As the energy crisis eased, the Department played a central role on issues as dissimilar as the Strategic Defense Initiative and the Superconducting Super Collider. With the end of the Cold War, the Department of Energy further transformed itself, moving from the building of bombs to partial dismantlement of the nuclear weapons complex and to an increased emphasis on environmental activities and technology transfer efforts.

  18. BioenergizeME Virtual Science Fair: History of Biomass | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy History of Biomass BioenergizeME Virtual Science Fair: History of Biomass BioenergizeME Virtual Science Fair: History of Biomass This infographic was created by students from Daniel Boone Area High School in Birdsboro, PA, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Virtual Science

  19. Activities of the O&M committee history & future perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Poulis, D.S.

    1996-12-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Committee on Operation and Maintenance of Nuclear Power Plants, hereafter referred to as the O&M Committee, formed in June 1975 when the American National Standard Institute`s Committee on Reactor Plants and their Maintenance was disbanded. The O&M Committee`s history, structure, current focus and future perspectives will be presented. The purpose of this paper is to give information to industry and the public of the Committee`s on-going effort to make accurate and timely responses to the needs of the nuclear industry.

  20. Examples of the Zeroth Theorem of the History of Science

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.D.

    2007-08-24

    The zeroth theorem of the history of science, enunciated byE. P. Fischer, states that a discovery (rule,regularity, insight) namedafter someone (often) did not originate with that person. I present fiveexamples from physics: the Lorentz condition partial muAmu = 0 definingthe Lorentz gauge of the electromagnetic potentials; the Dirac deltafunction, delta(x); the Schumann resonances of the earth-ionospherecavity; the Weizsacker-Williams method of virtual quanta; the BMTequation of spin dynamics. I give illustrated thumbnail sketches of boththe true and reputed discoverers and quote from their "discovery"publications.

  1. History of the Energy Research and Development Administration

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, A.L.

    1982-03-01

    Congress created the Energy Research and Development Administration on October 11, 1974 in response to the Nation's growing need for additional sources of energy. The new agency would coordinate energy programs formerly scattered among many federal agencies, and serve as the focus point for a major effort by the Federal Government to expand energy research and development efforts. New ways to conserve existing supplies as well as the commercial demonstration of new technologies would hopefully be the fruit of the Government's first significant effort to amalgamate energy resource development programs. This history briefly summarizes the accomplishments of the agency.

  2. COLLOQUIUM: Inherently Risky Designs? The History of Soviet Nuclear

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Reactors and the Notion of Safety | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab April 13, 2016, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium, PPPL (284 cap.) COLLOQUIUM: Inherently Risky Designs? The History of Soviet Nuclear Reactors and the Notion of Safety Professor Sonja Schmid Virginia Tech Presentation: PDF icon Presentation After the Chernobyl catastrophe in 1986, many asked the question why Soviet nuclear experts chose the RBMK (the "Chernobyl-type reactor") as a standard design for

  3. History of Sandia National Laboratories` auxiliary closure mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Weydert, J.C.; Ponder, G.M.

    1993-12-01

    An essential component of a horizontal, underground nuclear test setup at the Nevada Test Site is the auxiliary closure system. The massive gates that slam shut immediately after a device has been detonated allow the prompt radiation to pass, but block debris and hot gases from continuing down the tunnel. Thus, the gates protect experiments located in the horizontal line-of-sight steel pipe. Sandia National Laboratories has been the major designer and developer of these closure systems. This report records the history of SNL`s participation in and contributions to the technology of auxiliary closure systems used in horizontal tunnel tests in the underground test program.

  4. A History of the Energy Research and Development Administration [ERDA

    DOE R&D Accomplishments

    Buck, Alice L.

    1982-03-01

    Congress created the Energy Research and Development Administration on October 11, 1974 in response to the Nation's growing need for additional sources of energy. The new agency would coordinate energy programs formerly scattered among many federal agencies, and serve as the focus point for a major effort by the Federal Government to expand energy research and development efforts. New ways to conserve existing supplies as well as the commercial demonstration of new technologies would hopefully be the fruit of the Government's first significant effort to amalgamate energy resource development programs. This history briefly summarizes the accomplishments of the agency.

  5. A History of Building 828, Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Ullrich, Rebecca

    1999-08-01

    This report documents the history of Building 828 in Sandia National Laboratories' Technical Area I. Building 828 was constructed in 1946 as a mechanical test laboratory for Los Alamos' Z-Division (later Sandia) as it moved to Sandia Base. The building has undergone significant remodeling over the years and has had a variety of occupants. The building was evaluated in compliance with the National Historic Preservation Act, but was not eligible for the National Register of Historic Places. Nevertheless, for many Labs employees, it was a symbol of Sandia's roots in World War II and the Manhattan Project.

  6. Geothermal regime and thermal history of the Llanos Basin, Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Bachu, S.; Underschultz, J.R.; Ramon, J.C.; Villegas, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    The Llanos basin is a siliciclastic foreland sub-Andean sedimentary basin located in Columbia between the Cordillera Oriental and the Guyana Precambrian shield. Data on bottom-hole temperature, lithology, porosity, and vitrinite reflectance from all 318 wells drilled in the central and southern parts of the basin were used to analyze its geothermal regime and thermal history. Average geothermal gradients in the Llanos basin decrease generally with depth and westward toward the fold and thrust belt. The geothermal regime is controlled by a moderate, generally westward-decreasing basement heat flow, by depositional and compaction factors, and, in places, by advection by formation waters. Compaction leads to increased thermal conductivity with depth, whereas westward downdip flow in deep sandstone formations may exert a cooling effect in the central-western part of the basin. Vitrinite reflectance variation with depth shows a major discontinuity at the pre-Cretaceous unconformity. Areally, vitrinite reflectance increases southwestward in Paleozoic strata and northwestward in post-Paleozoic strata. These patterns indicate that the thermal history of the basin probably includes three thermal events that led to peaks in oil generation: a Paleozoic event in the southwest, a failed Cretaceous rifting event in the west, and an early Tertiary back-arc event in the west. Rapid cooling since the last thermal event is possibly caused by subhorizontal subduction of cold oceanic lithospheric plate.

  7. Thermal history of Bakken shale in Williston basin

    SciTech Connect

    Gosnold, W.D. Jr.; Lefever, R.D.; Crashell, J.J. )

    1989-12-01

    Stratigraphic and thermal conductivity data were combined to analyze the thermostratigraphy of the Williston basin. The present thermostratigraphy is characterized by geothermal gradients of the order of 60 mK/m in the Cenozoic and Mesozoic units, and 30 mK/m in the Paleozoic units. The differences in geothermal gradients are due to differences in thermal conductivities between the shale-dominated Mesozoic and Cenozoic units and the carbonate-dominated Paleozoic units. Subsidence and compaction rates were calculated for the basin and were used to determine models for time vs. depth and time vs. thermal conductivity relationships for the basin. The time/depth and time/conductivity relationships include factors accounting for thermal conductivity changes due to compaction, cementation, and temperature. The thermal history of the Bakken shale, a primary oil source rock in the Williston basin, was determined using four different models, and values for Lopatin's time-temperature index (TTI) were calculated for each model. The first model uses a geothermal gradient calculated from bottom-hole temperature data, the second uses present-day thermostratigraphy, the third uses the thermostratigraphic relationship determined in this analysis, and the fourth modifies the third by including assumed variations in continental heat flow. The thermal histories and the calculated TTI values differ markedly among the models with TTI values differing by a factor of about two between some models.

  8. A history of central collisions at the Bevalac

    SciTech Connect

    Poskanzer, A.M.

    1989-07-01

    You have heard a great deal about Plastic Ball results at this conference. There were talks on the first morning by Hans-Georg Ritter and Karl-Heinz Kampert on the Plastic Ball at Berkeley, there will be a talk next week by Rudi Schmidt on the Plastic Ball at CERN, and many other speakers have mentioned Plastic Ball results. The young students may think that when the new field of relativistic heavy ion physics opened up, an ideal detector was designed and built, data immediately analyzed, and results produced. The theme of my talk is to show that this is incorrect. The experiments proceeded in logical stages, one building upon the other, increasing in complexity and sophistication. The analysis techniques and the theory developed along with the experiments. If the more senior people in the audience easily remember this history of the development of the relativistic heavy ion field, they may spend their time during this talk thinking about what is happening now and what will happen in the future in the ultrarelativistic heavy ion field, where I believe history is repeating itself. 18 refs., 18 figs.

  9. Delivering Insight The History of the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Larzelere II, A R

    2007-01-03

    The history of the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) tells of the development of computational simulation into a third fundamental piece of the scientific method, on a par with theory and experiment. ASCI did not invent the idea, nor was it alone in bringing it to fruition. But ASCI provided the wherewithal - hardware, software, environment, funding, and, most of all, the urgency - that made it happen. On October 1, 2005, the Initiative completed its tenth year of funding. The advances made by ASCI over its first decade are truly incredible. Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, and Sandia National Laboratories, along with leadership provided by the Department of Energy's Defense Programs Headquarters, fundamentally changed computational simulation and how it is used to enable scientific insight. To do this, astounding advances were made in simulation applications, computing platforms, and user environments. ASCI dramatically changed existing - and forged new - relationships, both among the Laboratories and with outside partners. By its tenth anniversary, despite daunting challenges, ASCI had accomplished all of the major goals set at its beginning. The history of ASCI is about the vision, leadership, endurance, and partnerships that made these advances possible.

  10. The Science of Optics; The History of Art

    ScienceCinema

    Falco, Charles [University of Arizona, Tuscon, Arizona, United States

    2016-07-12

    Recently, renowned artist David Hockney observed that certain drawings and paintings from as early as the Renaissance seemed almost 'photographic' in detail. Following an extensive visual investigation of western art of the past 1000 years, he made the revolutionary claim that artists even of the prominence of van Eyck and Bellini must have used optical aids. However, many art historians insisted there was no supporting evidence for such a remarkable assertion. In this talk I show a wealth of optical evidence for his claim that Hockney and I subsequently discovered during an unusual, and remarkably-productive, collaboration between an artist and a scientist. I also discuss the unique properties of the 'mirror lens,' and some of the implications this work has for the history of science as well as the history of art (and the modern fields of machine vision and computerized image analysis). These discoveries convincingly demonstrate optical instruments were in use - by artists, not scientists - nearly 200 years earlier than previously even thought possible, and account for the remarkable transformation in the reality of portraits that occurred early in the 15th century.

  11. Overpressure history of fractures, West Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Vrolijk, P.J.; Pottorf, R.J.; Maze, W.B.

    1996-08-01

    Prediction of density of natural fractures in reservoir rocks requires evaluation of many factors, including the effective stress and thus fluid pressure conditions through time. In this study we use analyses of fluid inclusions in calcite-filled fractures with burial and thermal history models to assess the fluid pressure history and the causes of overpressure in the West Maracaibo Basin. We analyzed abundant oil-filled and rare aqueous fluid inclusions in calcite-filled fractures in the La Luna Formation source rock and in the underlying Cogollo Gp. carbonate reservoir. Our analyses of fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures and fluorescence properties lead us to the interpretation of near-lithostatic paleo-fluid pressures in La Luna Formation and near-lithostatic to hydrostatic fluid pressures in the Cogollo, Gp. fractures. Maturation and expulsion of oil from the La Luna Formation source rock is required to generate the large inferred excess pressures as compaction disequilibrium and thermal expansion of pore fluids from rapid Miocene burial are insufficient to achieve near-lithostatic conditions. This hypothesis is supported by the observation of decreasing paleo- and modern fluid pressures with depth beneath the La Luna Formation. Thus based on the wide occurrence of oil-filled inclusions in calcite-filled fractures and the high fluid pressures associated with trapped oils, we infer extensive rock fracture under overpressured conditions near maximum Miocene burial, during inferred late source rock yield, and during Miocene growth of structural traps.

  12. The Jasons: The Secret History of Science's Postwar Elite

    SciTech Connect

    Finkbeiner, Ann

    2006-04-10

    This book is a history/profile of the group, called Jason, of academic scientists who advise the government. The book starts where the Manhattan Project ends -- with physicists trying to decide, having let the genie out of the bottle, how to get it back in again. One result of their attempts was Jason. Jason is 30 to 50 scientists who meet for six weeks every summer to answer questions for the government -- usually for the defense department or the intelligence community -- about national security issues. They specialize in studies for the Department of Energy on the technical backing for treaties to ban the bomb. Jason is unique, not only in this country, but in the world. The book is about the group's attempts to hold onto their scientific souls, remain independent, and still stay in business.

  13. Case history of the Cormorant field single satellite well

    SciTech Connect

    Brommer, J.J.; Fernandinho, C.M.M.S.; Liles, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    A case history of the development of specifically tailor-made equipment and the experience gained from the installation and production from the first subsea well in the central area of the Cormorant field is presented. Emphasis is placed on development concepts and the equipment uniquely manufactured to meet special needs. A one-year onshore integrated system test of the equipment is described along with the interface problems identified and resolved prior to going offshore. Actual installation and commissioning activities are fully covered including drilling, completion, and production from the well. The study describes the major reasons for the success of the subsea well to date as being extensive onshore testing, detailed planning, and the early involvement of operating personnel.

  14. PUREX/UO{sub 3} facilities deactivation lessons learned history

    SciTech Connect

    Hamrick, D.G.; Gerber, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility operated from 1956-1972, from 1983-1988, and briefly during 1989-1990 to produce for national defense at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The Uranium Trioxide (UO{sub 3}) Facility operated at the Hanford Site from 1952-1972, 1984-1988, and briefly in 1993. Both plants were ordered to permanent shutdown by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in December 1992, thus initiating their deactivation phase. Deactivation is that portion of a facility`s life cycle that occurs between operations and final decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). This document details the history of events, and the lessons learned, from the time of the PUREX Stabilization Campaign in 1989-1990, through the end of the first full fiscal year (FY) of the deactivation project (September 30, 1994).

  15. Tank 41-H salt level fill history 1985 to 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, R.H.

    1996-05-16

    The fill rate of the evaporator drop waste tank (i.e., salt tank) at Savannah River Site contained in the Waste Management Technology (WMT) monthly data record is based upon a simple formula that apportioned 10 percent of the evaporator output concentrate to the salt fill volume. Periodically, the liquid level of the salt tank would be decanted below the salt level surface and a visual inspection of the salt profile would be accomplished. The salt volume of the drop tank would then be corrected, if necessary, based upon the visual elevation of the salt formation. This correction can erroneously indicate an excess amount of salt fill occurred in a short time period. This report established the correct fill history for Tank 41H.

  16. Case histories of external microbiologically influenced corrosion underneath disbonded coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Pikas, J.L.

    1996-08-01

    External microbiological influenced corrosion (MIC) underneath disbanded pipeline coating systems is a serious dilemma in the industry. In the past and even today, it has not been recognized as such because it has been primarily mistaken for galvanic corrosion. Due to the type of coating materials used in the past, the cleaning process or lack of it, and application methods used, all coating systems have the propensity to develop defects and pinholes where disbandment and this type of microbial corrosion could occur. In addition, the pipeline may or may not have had cathodic protection initially and/or consistently applied. Given these factors and the interaction of bacteria from the soil, moisture availability, and temperature of the pipeline, this paper will discuss the role that microbes play in the disbandment process, thus resulting in corrosion of an underground pipeline. Several case histories, laboratory results, and field findings will be presented.

  17. A History of Classified Activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Quist, A.S.

    2001-01-30

    The facilities that became Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) were created in 1943 during the United States' super-secret World War II project to construct an atomic bomb (the Manhattan Project). During World War II and for several years thereafter, essentially all ORNL activities were classified. Now, in 2000, essentially all ORNL activities are unclassified. The major purpose of this report is to provide a brief history of ORNL's major classified activities from 1943 until the present (September 2000). This report is expected to be useful to the ORNL Classification Officer and to ORNL's Authorized Derivative Classifiers and Authorized Derivative Declassifiers in their classification review of ORNL documents, especially those documents that date from the 1940s and 1950s.

  18. Understanding the unique assembly history of central group galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Vulcani, Benedetta; Bundy, Kevin; Lackner, Claire; Leauthaud, Alexie; Treu, Tommaso; Mei, Simona; Coccato, Lodovico; Kneib, Jean Paul; Auger, Matthew; Nipoti, Carlo

    2014-12-10

    Central galaxies (CGs) in massive halos live in unique environments with formation histories closely linked to that of the host halo. In local clusters, they have larger sizes (R{sub e} ) and lower velocity dispersions (?) at fixed stellar mass M {sub *}, and much larger R{sub e} at a fixed ? than field and satellite galaxies (non-CGs). Using spectroscopic observations of group galaxies selected from the COSMOS survey, we compare the dynamical scaling relations of early-type CGs and non-CGs at z ? 0.6 to distinguish possible mechanisms that produce the required evolution. CGs are systematically offset toward larger R{sub e} at fixed ? compared to non-CGs with similar M {sub *}. The CG R{sub e} -M {sub *} relation also shows differences, primarily driven by a subpopulation (?15%) of galaxies with large R{sub e} , while the M {sub *}-? relations are indistinguishable. These results are accentuated when double Srsic profiles, which better fit light in the outer regions of galaxies, are adopted. They suggest that even group-scale CGs can develop extended components by these redshifts that can increase total R{sub e} and M {sub *} estimates by factors of ?2. To probe the evolutionary link between our sample and cluster CGs, we also analyze two cluster samples at z ? 0.6 and z ? 0. We find similar results for the more massive halos at comparable z, but much more distinct CG scaling relations at low-z. Thus, the rapid, late-time accretion of outer components, perhaps via the stripping and accretion of satellites, would appear to be a key feature that distinguishes the evolutionary history of CGs.

  19. UPPER BOUND ON THE FIRST STAR FORMATION HISTORY

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Madejski, Grzegorz M.; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.; Domnguez, Alberto

    2014-02-01

    Our understanding of the nature of the extragalactic background light (EBL) has improved with the recent development of gamma-ray observation techniques. An open subject in the context of the EBL is the reionization epoch, which is an important probe of the formation history of first stars, the so-called Population III (Pop III) stars. Although the mechanisms for the formation of PopIII stars are rather well understood on theoretical grounds, their formation history is still veiled in mystery because of their faintness. To shed light on this matter, we study jointly the gamma-ray opacity of distant objects and the reionization constraints from studies of intergalactic gas. By combining these studies, we obtain a sensitive upper bound on the PopIII star formation rate density of ?-dot {sub ?}(z)<0.01[(1+z)/(1+7.0)]{sup 3.4}(f{sub esc}/0.2){sup ?1}(C/3.0)M{sub ?}yr{sup ?1}Mpc{sup ?3} at z ? 7, where f {sub esc} and C are the escape fraction of ionizing photons from galaxies and the clumping factor of the intergalactic hydrogen gas. This limit is a ?10times tighter constraint compared with previous studies that take into account gamma-ray opacity constraints only. Even if we do not include the current gamma-ray constraints, the results do not change. This is because the detected gamma-ray sources are still at z ? 4.35 where the reionization has already finished.

  20. The Pahrump Valley Museum Yucca Mountain History Exhibit - 12389

    SciTech Connect

    Voegele, Michael; McCracken, Robert; Herrera, Troy

    2012-07-01

    As part of its management of the Yucca Mountain project, the Department of Energy maintained several information centers to provide public access to information about the status of the Yucca Mountain project. Those information centers contained numerous displays, historical information, and served as the location for the Department's outreach activities. As the Department of Energy dealt with reduced budgets in 2009 following the Obama Administration's intent to terminate the program, it shut down its information centers. Nye County considered it important to maintain a public information center where people would be able to find information about what was happening with the Yucca Mountain project. Initially the Nye County assumed responsibility for the information center in Pahrump; eventually the County made a decision to move that information center into an expansion of the existing Pahrump Valley Museum. Nye County undertook an effort to update the information about the Yucca Mountain project and modernize the displays. A parallel effort to create a source of historical information where people could find out about the Yucca Mountain project was undertaken. To accompany the Yucca Mountain exhibits in the Pahrump Valley Museum, Nye County also sponsored a series of interviews to document, through oral histories, as much information about the Yucca Mountain project as could be found in these interviews. The paper presents an overview of the Yucca Mountain exhibits in the Pahrump Valley Museum, and the accompanying oral histories. An important conclusion that can be drawn from the interviews is that construction of a repository in Nevada should have been conceptualized as but the first step in transforming the economy of central Nevada by turning part of the Nevada National Security Site and adjoining area into a world-class energy production and energy research center. (authors)

  1. Germantown Natural History | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC)

    History Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Organization Chart .pdf file (132KB) Staff BES Budget BES Committees of Visitors Directions Jobs Organizational History Germantown Natural History President Kennedy's AEC Briefings Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW

  2. A Natural History | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC)

    A Natural History Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Organization Chart .pdf file (132KB) Staff BES Budget BES Committees of Visitors Directions Jobs Organizational History Germantown Natural History President Kennedy's AEC Briefings Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence

  3. A History or Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States: Drilling 1976-2006

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Drilling 1976 - 2006 A History of Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States Cover Photo Credits Pumpernickel Geothermal Site, Pumpernickel, Nevada (Courtesy: Nevada Geothermal Power Inc.) A History of Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States | Drilling i DRILLING This history of the U.S. Department of Energy's Geothermal Technologies Program is dedicated to the many government employees at Headquarters and at offices in the field who worked diligently

  4. History of the Energy Department's Role in Nuclear Security | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy History of the Energy Department's Role in Nuclear Security History of the Energy Department's Role in Nuclear Security April 6, 2015 - 2:58pm Addthis Allison Lantero Allison Lantero Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Daniel Wood Daniel Wood Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Learn More Check out the cutting-edge nuclear research going on at the National Labs. Learn more about the history of the National Nuclear Security

  5. OSTI History | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the early days at OSTI. exit federal site Detailed History Video: Sharing Scientific Knowledge, Then and Now Video: Accelerating Science Discovery: From the '40s to the Future ...

  6. Navy legend Carl Brashear speaks at JLab's Black History Month event |

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab Navy legend Carl Brashear speaks at JLab's Black History Month event Carl Brashear poster Carl Brashear will speak at JLab's Black History Month event on Wednesday, February 19 at 2p.m. Navy legend Carl Brashear speaks at JLab's Black History Month event February 6, 2003 U.S. Naval legend Carl Brashear will be at Jefferson Lab on Wednesday, February 19, as the Lab's guest speaker for Black History Month Directions to the Lab Enter through Onnes Dr. from Jefferson Ave. Anyone 16

  7. EM’s West Valley Cleanup Finds Success in History-Making Waste Relocation

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    WEST VALLEY, N.Y. – For the first time in U.S. history, high-level waste (HLW) was placed in long-term, outdoor storage.

  8. Mandatory petroleum price and allocation regulations: a history and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, W.C. Jr.

    1981-05-05

    This study is a history and analysis of Federal controls over petroleum price and allocation decisions throughout the 1970's. It relies in large part on the many analyses and comments written by academics, government officials and others who have studied the topic over the past nine years. The first part of this study outlines the conditions in the domestic petroleum market that led to the imposition of first price, and then allocation controls on the oil industry. The second part explores the operation and effectiveness of the regulations during periods of oil supply disruptions - the Arab embargo of 1973-1974 and the 1979 shortfall attendant to the revolution in Iran. The third part describes many of the more important changes made to the regulations during non-disrupted periods, and examines the effect the regulations had on the operation and structure of the domestic oil industry. The last part analyzes the overall effects of the regulations on consumer prices and national welfare.

  9. The Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC) - A Brief History

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, G J; Miller, E K; Poggio, A J

    2004-01-20

    The Numerical Electromagnetics Code, NEC as it is commonly known, continues to be one of the more widely used antenna modeling codes in existence. With several versions in use that reflect different levels of capability and availability, there are now 450 copies of NEC4 and 250 copies of NEC3 that have been distributed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to a limited class of qualified recipients, and several hundred copies of NEC2 that had a recorded distribution by LLNL. These numbers do not account for numerous copies (perhaps 1000s) that were acquired through other means capitalizing on the open source code, the absence of distribution controls prior to NEC3 and the availability of versions on the Internet. In this paper we briefly review the history of the code that is concisely displayed in Figure 1. We will show how it capitalized on the research of prominent contributors in the early days of computational electromagnetics, how a combination of events led to the tri-service-supported code development program that ultimately led to NEC and how it evolved to the present day product. The authors apologize that space limitations do not allow us to provide a list of references or to acknowledge the numerous contributors to the code both of which can be found in the code documents.

  10. Case history: Effectively operating an RTO with batch VOC spikes

    SciTech Connect

    Hohl, H.M.

    1999-07-01

    The problem at a foam packaging plant in Texas was periodic spikes of expanded foam blowing agent to atmosphere. The amount of butane blowing agent released is a function of the thickness of the packaging foam desired. As the facility changed products on the multiple extrusion lines, volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions varied widely. The Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) requires abatement of the blowing agent. If the abatement device was not designed for the wide variation in VOCs, the abatement device could shut down under high temperature conditions. With the abatement device shutdown, the manufacturing operation must also be shut down. Two methods were used in the past to address the widely varied operating conditions. One was to operate an abatement device with a less thermally efficient recuperative style oxidizer. These units had thermal efficiencies in the range of 50 to 70%. The second method of dealing with the different operating conditions was to oversize the abatement device for the maximum VOC concentration. In this case a very large regenerative thermal oxidizer (RTO) was used to minimize operating costs. This paper will provide case history information on an innovative way to deal with effective operation in dealing with VOC spikes in an expanded foam packaging application. A hot gas bypass system was designed and installed to address the VOC spikes. As a result the system operates with lower overall operating costs than previous systems. The design, operation, and environmental performance for this unit will be reviewed during this presentation.

  11. PSM case history: Regulatory compliance can prevent catastrophic incidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kiihne, E.J.; Mannan, M. [RMT/Jones and Neuse, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    As mandated by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration promulgated on February 24, 1992 the Process Safety Management (PSM) rule: 29 CFR 1910.119. The PSM rule represents a holistic program which requires facilities to develop, implement and practice 14 different elements. Each of the 14 elements are significant in the protection of health and safety of all employees and personnel working in and around the plant site. PSM programs developed in compliance with the PSM rule are expected to reduce the probability and consequence of occurrence of hazardous incidents. This paper presents a real life incident that occurred in a plant before a PSM program was put in place. A detailed description of the incident is provided with appropriate discussions of non compliance with the PSM rule. Finally, the paper provides a theoretical scenario where a fully operational PSM program would have prevented the incident. The case history and discussion provided in this paper also reinforces the concept of maintaining process and equipment integrity through multiple barriers of safety. A fully operational PSM program represents such a multiple barrier safety system.

  12. Lantana landfill: A history of environmental management 1965--96

    SciTech Connect

    Statom, R.A.

    1997-08-01

    The Lantana Sanitary Landfill (LSL) is located in central Palm Beach County, Florida. The history of this landfill is a case study of the changes in environmental law, demography, solid waste management, hydrogeology, and public opinion in south Florida in the last 30 years. In 1983 Palm Beach County transferred ownership of the LSL to the Palm Beach County Solid Waste Authority (SWA). Environmental regulation enacted by Florida in the mid 1980`s resulted in negotiations to close the LSL. Closure was completed in 1988 utilizing a synthetic top liner, a landfill gas extraction/flare system, and a stormwater management system. In 1990 a groundwater mitigation system was installed to remediate the eastern plume. Closure of the LSL, extension of municipal water to local residents, and extensive public education by the SWA all served to answer most of the complaints of the local residents. In 1996 the LSL fell under a new series of air regulations and was required to apply for a Title V permit.

  13. A Short History of Waste Management at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gephart, Roy E.

    2010-03-31

    "The worlds first full-scale nuclear reactors and chemical reprocessing plants built at the Hanford Site in the desert of eastern Washington State produced two-thirds of the plutonium generated in the United States for nuclear weapons. Operating these facilities also created large volumes of radioactive and chemical waste, some of which was released into the environment exposing people who lived downwind and downstream. Hanford now contains the largest accumulation of nuclear waste in the Western Hemisphere. Hanfords last reactor shut down in 1987 followed by closure of the last reprocessing plant in 1990. Today, Hanfords only mission is cleanup. Most onsite radioactive waste and nuclear material lingers inside underground tanks or storage facilities. About half of the chemical waste remains in tanks while the rest persists in the soil, groundwater, and burial grounds. Six million dollars each day, or nearly two billion dollars each year, are spent on waste management and cleanup activities. There is significant uncertainty in how long cleanup will take, how much it will cost, and what risks will remain for future generations. This paper summarizes portions of the waste management history of the Hanford Site published in the book Hanford: A Conversation about Nuclear Waste and Cleanup.(1) "

  14. The History of X-ray Free-Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrini, C.; /UCLA /SLAC

    2012-06-28

    The successful lasing at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory of the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the first X-ray free-electron laser (X-ray FEL), in the wavelength range 1.5 to 15 {angstrom}, pulse duration of 60 to few femtoseconds, number of coherent photons per pulse from 10{sup 13} to 10{sup 11}, is a landmark event in the development of coherent electromagnetic radiation sources. Until now electrons traversing an undulator magnet in a synchrotron radiation storage ring provided the best X-ray sources. The LCLS has set a new standard, with a peak X-ray brightness higher by ten orders of magnitudes and pulse duration shorter by three orders of magnitudes. LCLS opens a new window in the exploration of matter at the atomic and molecular scales of length and time. Taking a motion picture of chemical processes in a few femtoseconds or less, unraveling the structure and dynamics of complex molecular systems, like proteins, are some of the exciting experiments made possible by LCLS and the other X-ray FELs now being built in Europe and Asia. In this paper, we describe the history of the many theoretical, experimental and technological discoveries and innovations, starting from the 1960s and 1970s, leading to the development of LCLS.

  15. Microstructure evolution during tensile loading histories of a polyurea

    SciTech Connect

    Rinaldi, R.G.; Boyce, M.C.; Weigand, S.J.; Londono, D.J.; Guise, M.W.

    2012-02-07

    The evolution in the hard/soft domain microstructure of an elastomeric-like polyurea during different tensile loading histories was studied using in situ small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS). The nonlinear stress-strain behavior is initially stiff with a rollover yield to a more compliant response; unloading is highly nonlinear showing substantial hysteresis while also exhibiting significant recovery. Reloading reveals a substantially more compliant 'softened' behavior and dramatically reduced hysteresis. WAXS peaks monitor characteristic dimensions of regular features within the hard domains; the peak location remains unchanged with tensile deformation indicating no separation of the internal structure within a domain, but the peak intensity becomes anisotropic with deformation evolving in a reversible manner consistent with orientation due to stretch. The SAXS profiles provide information between major hard domains. SAXS peaks are found to shift with tensile loading in a relatively affine manner up to a tensile true strain of {approx}0.4, which, using a Bragg reduction to aid interpretation, reveals an axial increase and a transverse decrease in interdomain spacings; this evolution is reversible for strains less than {approx}0.4. Increasing axial strain beyond a true strain of {approx}0.4 is accompanied by a dramatic, progressive, and irreversible reduction in axial Bragg spacing, indicating a breakdown in the hard domain aggregate network structure. A four-point pattern is seen to develop during stretching. The breakdown in networked structure during a first load cycle gives a new structure for subsequent load cycles, which is seen to evolve in a reversible manner for strains less than or equal to the prior maximum strain. However, for strains exceeding the prior maximum strain excursion, additional breakdown is found. These SAXS results show that a breakdown in the hard domain aggregate network structure is a governing mechanism for the large

  16. Legendary Tuskegee Airmen to Speak at Jefferson Lab's Black History Month

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Event | Jefferson Lab Legendary Tuskegee Airmen to Speak at Jefferson Lab's Black History Month Event Legendary Tuskegee Airmen to Speak at Jefferson Lab's Black History Month Event February 3, 2004 Three members of the legendary, World War II era Tuskegee Airmen will speak at Jefferson Lab's Black History Month celebration at 2:30 p.m. on Thursday, Feb. 19. The public is invited to the event. The program will start with footage from the 1996 movie based on the true story of the Tuskegee

  17. A History or Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    States: Energy Conversion 1976-2006 | Department of Energy Energy Conversion 1976-2006 A History or Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States: Energy Conversion 1976-2006 A history of geothermal energy R&D in the U.S., 1976-2006 geothermal_history_4_conversion.pdf (3.87 MB) More Documents & Publications Water Use in the Development and Operations of Geothermal Power Plants Water Use in the Development and Operations of Geothermal Power Plants Air-Cooled

  18. Women's (in DOE Science) History Month info at OSTI | OSTI, US Dept of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information Women's (in DOE Science) History Month info at OSTI Back to the OSTI News Listing for 2011 Do you need info for Women's History Month? Think Women in DOE Science History. Ada Yonath, 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Barbara McClintock, 1983 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; and Maria Goeppert-Mayer, 1963 Nobel Prize in Physics, are featured at the DOE R&D Accomplishments website. Yonath counts as a double bonus if you also need

  19. The Laboratory at 70: A proud history, leaning forward to shape...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    The Laboratory at 70: A proud history, leaning forward to shape the future Seventy years ... Seventy years ago on the Pajarito Plateau, the U.S. Army and the University of California ...

  20. Insights On The Thermal History Of The Valles Caldera, New Mexico...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Insights On The Thermal History Of The Valles Caldera, New Mexico- Evidence From Zircon Fission-Track Analysis Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  1. An early history of pure shear in the upper plate of the raft...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    early history of pure shear in the upper plate of the raft river metamorphic core complex- black pine mountains, southern Idaho Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  2. C.R.S. 24-80 - State History, Archives, and Emblems | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: C.R.S. 24-80 - State History, Archives, and EmblemsLegal Abstract This Colorado Statute governs the protection...

  3. Energy History Chronology from World War II to the Present [1982

    DOE R&D Accomplishments

    Dean, P. C.

    1982-08-01

    This report provides a basic guide to the major Presidential, Legislative, Judicial, and Federal agency actions relating to energy policy, research, development, and regulation in recent years. The chronology is arranged synoptically, allowing users to reference easily the historical context in which each event occurred. Summaries of Presidential, Legislative, and Judicial actions relating to energy, rosters of federal energy officials, and a genealogy of federal energy agencies are also provided in separate appendices. The Energy History Chronology was prepared in conjunction with the History Division's series of pamphlets on the Institutional Origins of the Department of Energy. The series includes concise histories of the Department of Energy, the Energy Research and Development Administration, the Federal Energy Administration, and the Atomic Energy Commission. All significant events and achievements noted in the institutional history are also listed.

  4. Y-12's history captured in short film | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    To close out the celebration of Y-12's 70th anniversary, a short film capturing highlights of the site's history now is available for viewing on the Y-12 public Web site at http:...

  5. A History of Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States: Exploration 1976-2006

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Exploration 1976 - 2006 A History of Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States Cover Photo Credit Photomicrograph of quartz sampled from a depth of 948 feet in Lake City Observation Hole-1, Lake City geothermal system, California. The image was taken under crossed nicols. The vibrant birefringence colors are due to the section being extra thick. The field of view is 0.07 inches across. (Courtesy: Joseph N. Moore) A History of Geothermal Energy Research and Development in

  6. Live Q&A: Celebrating Black History Month and STEM Education | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Energy Live Q&A: Celebrating Black History Month and STEM Education Live Q&A: Celebrating Black History Month and STEM Education February 22, 2013 - 3:14pm Q&A What questions do you have about STEM education & careers? Ask our experts Addthis Join our Google+ Hangout on increasing diversity in science, technology, engineering & math disciplines. | Infographic by Sarah Gerrity. Join our Google+ Hangout on increasing diversity in science, technology, engineering &

  7. A History of Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    States: Exploration 1976-2006 | Department of Energy Exploration 1976-2006 A History of Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States: Exploration 1976-2006 This report summarizes significant research projects performed by the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE)1 over 30 years to overcome challenges inexploration and to make generation of electricity from geothermal resourcesmore cost-competitive. geothermal_history_1_exploration.pdf (10.8 MB) More Documents & Publications

  8. A History of Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    States: Reservoir Engineering 1976-2006 | Department of Energy Reservoir Engineering 1976-2006 A History of Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States: Reservoir Engineering 1976-2006 This report summarizes significant research projects performed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) over 30 years to overcome challenges in reservoir engineering and to make generation of electricity from geothermal resources more cost-competitive. geothermal_history_3_engineering.pdf

  9. A History or Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    States: Drilling 1976-2006 | Department of Energy Drilling 1976-2006 A History or Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States: Drilling 1976-2006 This report summarizes significant research projects performed by the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE)1 over 30 years to overcome challenges inexploration and to make generation of electricity from geothermal resourcesmore cost-competitive. geothermal_history_2_drilling.pdf (8.43 MB) More Documents & Publications Retrospective

  10. History of Met Lab Section C-I, May 1945 to May 1946

    SciTech Connect

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1980-06-01

    This is the final volume of a history of the research work of Seaborg and associates in the University of Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory, Chemistry Section C-1. The work was concerned with the development of chemical procedures for the extraction of plutonium, for the purification of plutonium and, in the later phases, for research on the isotopes of other heavy elements including other transuranium elements. The style of the history is that of a diary with footnotes giving additional information.

  11. Virtual Museum Captures Ohio Plant History: Web-based Project Preserves

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Plant's Uranium Enrichment Legacy | Department of Energy Virtual Museum Captures Ohio Plant History: Web-based Project Preserves Plant's Uranium Enrichment Legacy Virtual Museum Captures Ohio Plant History: Web-based Project Preserves Plant's Uranium Enrichment Legacy May 21, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis An online museum on the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant went live earlier this year. An online museum on the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant went live earlier this year. PIKETON, Ohio - Do

  12. Sandia signs MOU with New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) signs MOU with New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Saturday, November 22, 2014 - 3:27pm Sandia National Laboratories President and Labs Director Paul Hommert signs a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science's executive director Charles Walter and foundation executive director Jotina Trussell. In the MOU, Sandia agrees to serve as a technical resource in identifying and developing

  13. PUREX/UO3 Facilities deactivation lessons learned history

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.S.

    1996-09-19

    objectives of the project in mind can guide decisions that reduce risks with minimal manipulation of physical materials, minimal waste generation, streamline regulations and safety requirements where possible, and separate the facility from ongoing entanglements with operating systems. Thus, the ``parked car`` state is achieved quickly and directly. The PUREX Deactivation Lessons Learned History was first issued in January 1995. Since then, several key changes have occurred in the project, making it advisable to revise and update the document. This document is organized with the significant lessons learned captured at the end of each section, and then recounted in Section 11.0, ``Lessons Consolidated.`` It is hoped and believed that the lessons learned on the PUREX Deactivation Project will have value to other facilities both inside and outside the DOE complex.

  14. HISTORY OF THE ENGINEERING PHYSICS AND MATHEMATICS DIVISION 1955-1993

    SciTech Connect

    Maskewitz, B.F.

    2001-09-14

    A review of division progress reports noting significant events and findings of the Applied Nuclear Physics, Neutron Physics, Engineering Physics, and then Engineering Physics and Mathematics divisions from 1955 to 1993 was prepared for use in developing a history of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in celebration of its 50th year. The research resulted in an accumulation of historic material and photographs covering 38 years of effort, and the decision was made to publish a brief history of the division. The history begins with a detailed account of the founding of the Applied Nuclear Physics Division in 1955 and continues through the name change to the Neutron Physics Division in the late 1950s. The material thereafter is presented in decades--the sixties, seventies, and eighties--and ends as we enter the nineties.

  15. Crashworthiness Assessment of Auto-body Members Considering the Fabrication Histories

    SciTech Connect

    Huh, Hoon; Song, Jung-Han; Kim, Kee-Poong; Kim, Hyun-Sub

    2005-08-05

    This paper is concerned with crashworthiness of auto-body members considering the effect of fabrication. Most auto-body members are fabricated with sheet metal forming process and welding process that induce fabrication histories such as the plastic work hardening, non-uniform thickness distribution and residual stress. Crash simulation is carried out for auto-body members with LS-DYNA3D in order to identify the fabrication effect on the crashworthiness. The analysis calculated crash mode, the reaction force and the energy absorption for crashworthiness assessment with the forming effect. The result shows that the crash analysis with considering the forming history leads to a different result from that without considering the forming effect. The analysis results demonstrate that the design of auto-body members should be carried out considering the forming history for accurate assessment of the crashworthiness.

  16. Paducah Site Makes History with First Public Tours | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Makes History with First Public Tours Paducah Site Makes History with First Public Tours May 16, 2016 - 12:20pm Addthis PADUCAH, Ky. – For the first time, EM is conducting guided public tours of its Paducah Site. PADUCAH, Ky. - For the first time, EM is conducting guided public tours of its Paducah Site. PADUCAH, Ky. - For the first time, EM is conducting guided public tours of its Paducah Site. Shown, participants stop for a picture in Paducah's C-300 Central Control Facility during the

  17. Celebrating Women's History Month with the White House Council on Women and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Girls | Department of Energy History Month with the White House Council on Women and Girls Celebrating Women's History Month with the White House Council on Women and Girls March 4, 2014 - 1:56pm Addthis Valerie Jarrett Senior Advisor to President Barack Obama Editor's note: This blog is cross-posted from www.whitehouse.gov On March 11, 2009, not long after taking office, President Obama signed an Executive Order creating the inter-agency White House Council on Women and Girls (CWG), and

  18. Extended Community: An Oral History of the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP), 1989 - 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Susan DeSilva

    2004-07-01

    Studying the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) provides a unique opportunity to trace a concept created by two nuclear industry originators from inception, as it transitioned through several stewardship agencies, to management by a non-profit organization. This transition is informed not only by changes over two decades in the views of the general populace toward nuclear testing but also by changing political climates and public policies. Several parallel histories accompanied the development of the CEMP: an administrative history, an environmental history, and a history of changing public perception of not only nuclear testing, but other activities involving radiation such as waste transportation, as well. Although vital, those histories will be provided only as background to the subject of this study, the oral histories gathered in this project. The oral histories collected open a window into the nuclear testing history of Nevada and Utah that has not heretofore been opened. The nuclear industry has generated a great deal of positive and negative reaction since its inception. The CEMP emerged with specific objectives. It was designed to provide information to potential downwind communities and counter negative perceptions by creating more community involvement and education about the testing. The current objectives of the program are to: (1) Manage and maintain the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) offsite monitoring program including 26 radiation and environmental monitoring stations with associated equipment. Provide air sample collection and analysis, radiological and meteorological data collection, interpretation and reporting. (2) Facilitate independent operation of radiological monitoring stations and data verification by private citizens living in communities in proximity to the Nevada Test Site (NTS). (3) Hire and initiate training of local citizens to serve as Community

  19. Women's History Month Twitter Chat on Changing the Face of Leadership in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    STEM | Department of Energy Women's History Month Twitter Chat on Changing the Face of Leadership in STEM Women's History Month Twitter Chat on Changing the Face of Leadership in STEM March 18, 2016 - 2:45pm Addthis On Tuesday March 22, 2016 we're hosting a twitter chat on Women in STEM. | Energy Department photo. On Tuesday March 22, 2016 we're hosting a twitter chat on Women in STEM. | Energy Department photo. Allison Lantero Allison Lantero Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public

  20. In Celebration of Black History Month, Energy Secretary Moniz and Director

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of the National Museum of African Art Dr. Cole Discuss the Art of Science | Department of Energy In Celebration of Black History Month, Energy Secretary Moniz and Director of the National Museum of African Art Dr. Cole Discuss the Art of Science In Celebration of Black History Month, Energy Secretary Moniz and Director of the National Museum of African Art Dr. Cole Discuss the Art of Science February 23, 2015 - 1:50am Addthis News Media Contact 202 586 4940 RSVP@hq.doe.gov In Celebration of

  1. Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Life History Investigations, Annual Report 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Connor, William P.; Bellgraph, Brian J.

    2009-09-15

    This study was initiated to provide empirical data and analyses on the dam passage timing, travel rate, survival, and life history variation of fall Chinook salmon that are produced in the Clearwater River. The area of interest for this study focuses on the lower four miles of the Clearwater River and its confluence with the Snake River because this is an area where many fish delay their seaward migration. The goal of the project is to increase our understanding of the environmental and biological factors that affect juvenile life history of fall Chinook salmon in the Clearwater River. The following summaries are provided for each of the individual chapters in this report.

  2. Early social history of Los Alamos focus of 70th anniversary lecture at

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Bradbury Science Museum 70th anniversary lecture Early social history of Los Alamos focus of 70th anniversary lecture at Bradbury Science Museum The early social history of Los Alamos during the Manhattan Project beginnings will be discussed at a talk by Jon Hunner. May 2, 2013 Cars stopped at the main guard gate to Los Alamos looking east. Cars stopped at the main guard gate to Los Alamos looking east. Contact Steve Sandoval Communications Office (505) 665-9206 Email Hunner heads the

  3. EM Launches First-Ever Interactive Timeline on Cleanup’s History

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, D.C. – In honor of its 25th anniversary, EM launched a new timeline this week that offers stakeholders and other members of the public a first-of-a-kind opportunity to view the nuclear cleanup program’s achievements and related Cold War history in an interactive online platform.

  4. Women’s History Month: Ebony Vauss, Solar Energy Technologies Office

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Celebrating Women's History Month, we recognize Ebony Vauss, of EERE's Solar Energy Technologies Office, who brings exceptional oversight to one of our most productive programs. She has channeled a lifelong interest in science with a deep education in policy to achieve great distinction in her career, and is a firm believer in finding ways to engage young women in the sciences.

  5. A reduced model for the ICF gamma-ray reaction history diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, Mark J; Wilson, Douglas C; Hoffman, Nelson M; Langenbrunner, Jamie R; Hermann, H W; Kim, Y H; Young, C S; Evans, S C; Cerjan, C J; Stoeffl, Wolfgang; Munro, D H; Dauffy, L S; Miller, K M; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S

    2009-01-01

    An analytic model for the gamma reaction history (GRH) diagnostic to be fielded on the National Ignition Facility is described. The application of the GRH diagnostic for the measurement of capsule rho-R during burn using 4.4 MeV carbon gamma rays is demonstrated by simulation.

  6. SCADA History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... How to Partner Small Business Vouchers Pilot at ... Before SCADA, "you had to send people around the plants to ... operational systems in hydroelectric dams; water treatment ...

  7. A History

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of the United States Atomic Energy Commission Volume II 1947/1952 Morale /Meld Richard G. Hewlett / Francis Duncan 1972 U.S. Atomic Energy Commission CONTENTS FOREWORD BY THE CHAIRMAN, HISTORICAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE xi PREFACE xiii 1 THE TERRIBLE RESPONSIBILITY 1 Historical setting; the confirmation hearings, Janu- ary-March 1947. 2 UNCERTAIN MANDATE 15 Initial organization and staffing; initial policy con- siderations in weapons, production, and research; the report to the President, April 3,

  8. Our History

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Hearings and Appeals is the central adjudicative forum for the Department of Energy.  The Secretary of Energy has delegated to the OHA Director the authority to act for him in many...

  9. Tag: History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    http:www.y12.doe.govnewsy-12-reporthunch-about-hunley

  10. NERSC History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Console 19 BACK TO NERSC.GOV About this timeline Search Enter search term Go Displaying: All storiesX1 stories matching '' (clear) Close Category Filter Close View Type Standard...

  11. A History

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    of the United States Atomic Energy Commission Volume II 19471952 Morale Meld Richard G. Hewlett Francis Duncan 1972 U.S. Atomic Energy Commission CONTENTS FOREWORD BY THE ...

  12. LANL History

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Since its inception in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project, Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) primary mission has been nuclear weapons research and development. In executing this mission,...

  13. Cosmology with hybrid expansion law: scalar field reconstruction of cosmic history and observational constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Akarsu, Özgür; Kumar, Suresh; Myrzakulov, R.; Sami, M.; Xu, Lixin E-mail: sukuyd@gmail.com E-mail: samijamia@gmail.com

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a simple form of expansion history of Universe referred to as the hybrid expansion law - a product of power-law and exponential type of functions. The ansatz by construction mimics the power-law and de Sitter cosmologies as special cases but also provides an elegant description of the transition from deceleration to cosmic acceleration. We point out the Brans-Dicke realization of the cosmic history under consideration. We construct potentials for quintessence, phantom and tachyon fields, which can give rise to the hybrid expansion law in general relativity. We investigate observational constraints on the model with hybrid expansion law applied to late time acceleration as well as to early Universe a la nucleosynthesis.

  14. Depositional history of sediments near a major submarine municipal wastewater outfall system

    SciTech Connect

    Eganhouse, R.P.

    1996-10-01

    Sediments deposited near the Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts` submarine outfall system contain a variety of contaminants, and the history of waste emissions is recorded in vertical concentration profiles of waste-specific molecular markers. Using cores collected in 1991 and 1992 we reconstructed the depositional history of shelf sediments by comparing distributions of three classes of hydrophobic organic compounds (DDTs, PCBs, and the long-chain alkylbenzenes) with information about their release from the outfall system and/or domestic usage patterns. These data show that the average sedimentation rate at this site during the period 1981-92 was nearly double that observed during the previous 25 years. The recent increase in sedimentation is attributable to activation of a local landslide and the occurrence of several large storms during the 1980s. Together these events have acted to mobilize a large mass of sediment for transport to offshore sediments resulting in enhanced burial of the most heavily contaminated sediments.

  15. The natural history of Enewetak Atoll: Volume 1, The ecosystem: Environments, biotas, and processes

    SciTech Connect

    Devaney, D.M.; Reese, E.S.; Burch, B.L.; Helfrich, P.

    1987-01-01

    The two volumes of The Natural History of Enewetak Atoll summarize research done at the Mid-Pacific Research Laboratory from 1954 to 1984 under the auspices of the Department of Energy. The history of the laboratory and the reasons for its support by the United States Department of Energy are described in Chapter 1 of Volume 1. Volume 1 provides a synthesis of the research carried out under the subject headings of the respective chapters. Certain of the chapters, e.g., those on geology, subtidal and intertidal environments and ecology, and those on reef processes and trophic relationships, summarize a great diversity of research carried out by many scientists for many years. In contrast, the chapters on meteorology and oceanography summarize research carried out under one integrated program involving fewer scientists working over a shorter period. Individual chapters are processed separately for the data base.

  16. In celebration of Women's History Month, Lab recognizes notable firsts by

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Los Alamos women Women scientists and engineers make notable firsts In celebration of Women's History Month, Lab recognizes notable firsts by Los Alamos women Women scientist and engineers at Los Alamos make notable impacts in their fields and in the Lab's mission. March 24, 2016 Women scientists/engineers make notable firsts at Laboratory Darleane Hoffman is one of many remarkable women who have set "firsts" for women in science and engineering at the Laboratory. She is pictured

  17. OSTIblog Articles in the history of science Topic | OSTI, US Dept of Energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information history of science Topic World Wide Information: The Other Side of the Coin by Kristin Bingham 29 Mar, 2011 in Products and Content Much has been written in this blog about WorldWideScience.org. As regular readers well know, it is a global gateway to scientific and technical databases conceived, developed, and operated by the US Department of Energy's Office of Scientific and Technical Information. WorldWideScience.org accelerates scientific

  18. A comparison of measured wind park load histories with the WISPER and WISPERX load spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    The blade-loading histories from two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines are compared with the variable-amplitude test-loading histories known as the WISPER and WISPERX spectra. These standardized loading sequences were developed from blade flapwise load histories taken from nine different horizontal-axis wind turbines operating under a wide range of conditions in Europe. The subject turbines covered a broad spectrum of rotor diameters, materials, and operating environments. The final loading sequences were developed as a joint effort of thirteen different European organizations. The goal was to develop a meaningful loading standard for horizontal-axis wind turbine blades that represents common interaction effects seen in service. In 1990, NREL made extensive load measurements on two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines in simultaneous operation in the very turbulent environment of a large wind park. Further, before and during the collection of the loads data, comprehensive measurements of the statistics of the turbulent environment were obtained at both the turbines under test and at two other locations within the park. The trend to larger but lighter wind turbine structures has made an understanding of the expected lifetime loading history of paramount importance. Experience in the US has shown that the turbulence-induced loads associated with multi-row wind parks in general are much more severe than for turbines operating individually or within widely spaced environments. Multi-row wind parks are much more common in the US than in Europe. In this paper we report on our results in applying the methodology utilized to develop the WISPER and WISPERX standardized loading sequences using the available data from the Micon turbines. While the intended purpose of the WISPER sequences were not to represent a specific operating environment, we believe the exercise is useful, especially when a turbine design is likely to be installed in a multi-row wind park.

  19. We create materials and energy solutions. Our 60+ year history of doing great

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    create materials and energy solutions. Our 60+ year history of doing great science has had a significant impact on our nation. Our research programs reflect our multi-disciplinary, cross-cutting approach to scientific discovery. Chemical and Biological Sciences: We conduct fundamental and applied studies of how to control and manipulate chemicals and biological materials, with expertise in developing new tools and advanced computational methods to understand what drives chemical and biological

  20. SRP engineering and design history, Vol III, 200 F and H Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Banick, C.J.

    2000-04-17

    This volume combines the record of events relating to the development of design for both the 200-F and H Areas. Chronologically, the definition of plant facilities was first established for the 200-F Area. The second area, 200-H, was projected initially to be a supplementary plutonium separations facility. This history explains the differences in character and capacity of the manufacturing facilities in both areas as production requirements and experience with separations processes advanced.

  1. Molecular evolution meets biophysics: the history of the RubisCO enzyme and

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex | MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics evolution meets biophysics: the history of the RubisCO enzyme and the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex February 9, 2016 at 3:00pm/36-428* Romain Studer, The European Bioinformatics Institute, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL-EBI) studer_romain_web Ancestral sequence reconstruction allows the inference of a protein's past characteristics at a particular point during its evolution. The inferred ancestral

  2. COLLOQUIUM: Probing the History and Dynamics of the Universe with Polarized

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Signatures in the Cosmic Microwave Background | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab September 23, 2015, 4:00pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: Probing the History and Dynamics of the Universe with Polarized Signatures in the Cosmic Microwave Background Professor Suzane Staggs Princeton University Presentation: PDF icon WC23SEP2015SStaggs.pdf The cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation reports the initial conditions in the universe for the formation of large scale structures

  3. VOLUME I A HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    VOLUME I A HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION THE NEW WORLD, 1939 /1946 RICHARD G. HEWLETT AND OSCAR E. ANDERSON, JR. 1962 UNIVERSITY PARK, PENNSYLVANIA THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY PRESS Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 62-14633 Designed by Marilyn Shobaken CONTENTS FOREWORD BY THE CHAIRMAN, v HISTORICAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ix PREFACE 1 THE INHERITANCE Historical setting, January, 1947; summary of AEC inheritance. 2 IN THE BEGINNING Discovery of fission; first

  4. The natural history of Enewetak Atoll: Volume 2, Biogeography and systematics

    SciTech Connect

    Devaney, D.M.; Reese, E.S.; Burch, B.L.; Helfrich, P.

    1987-01-01

    The two volumes of The Natural History of Enewetak Atoll summarize research done at the Mid-Pacific Research Laboratory from 1954 to 1984 under the auspices of the Department of Energy. Volume 2 of The Natural History of Enewetak Atoll provides information on the taxonomy of animals and plants known to occur at Enewetak Atoll. The collections on which the checklists in each chapter are based are housed at the Bernice P. Bishop Museum in Honolulu and the US National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. In addition to the species checklists, each chapter in Volume 2 provides a succinct summary of the biota with respect to endemism, range extensions, and other features that set the Enewetak biota apart from those one might expect to find on equivalent Indo-Pacific islands. This compendium of taxonomic information for an atoll should prove of immense value to scientists interested in biogeography and evolutionary biology of island ecosystems for years to come. Individual chapters are processed separately for the data base.

  5. CARDS - comprehensive aerological reference data set. Station history, Version 2.1

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-01

    The possibility of anthropogenic climate change has reached the attention of Government officials and researchers. However, one cannot study climate change without climate data. The CARDS project will produce high-quality upper-air data for the research community and for policy-makers. The authors intend to produce a dataset which is: easy to use, as complete as possible, as free of random errors as possible. They will also attempt to identify biases and remove them whenever possible. In this report, they relate progress toward their goal. They created a robust new format for archiving upper-air data, and designed a relational database structure to hold them. The authors have converted 13 datasets to the new format and have archived over 10,000,000 individual soundings from 10 separate data sources. They produce and archive a metadata summary of each sounding they load. They have researched station histories, and have built a preliminary upper-air station history database. They have converted station-sorted data from their primary database into synoptic-sorted data in a parallel database. They have tested and will soon implement an advanced quality-control procedure, capable of detecting and often repairing errors in geopotential height, temperature, humidity, and wind. This unique quality-control method uses simultaneous vertical, horizontal, and temporal checks of several meteorological variables. It can detect errors other methods cannot. This report contains the station histories for the CARDS data set.

  6. ACCURATE UNIVERSAL MODELS FOR THE MASS ACCRETION HISTORIES AND CONCENTRATIONS OF DARK MATTER HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, D. H.; Jing, Y. P.; Mo, H. J.; Boerner, G.

    2009-12-10

    A large amount of observations have constrained cosmological parameters and the initial density fluctuation spectrum to a very high accuracy. However, cosmological parameters change with time and the power index of the power spectrum dramatically varies with mass scale in the so-called concordance LAMBDACDM cosmology. Thus, any successful model for its structural evolution should work well simultaneously for various cosmological models and different power spectra. We use a large set of high-resolution N-body simulations of a variety of structure formation models (scale-free, standard CDM, open CDM, and LAMBDACDM) to study the mass accretion histories, the mass and redshift dependence of concentrations, and the concentration evolution histories of dark matter halos. We find that there is significant disagreement between the much-used empirical models in the literature and our simulations. Based on our simulation results, we find that the mass accretion rate of a halo is tightly correlated with a simple function of its mass, the redshift, parameters of the cosmology, and of the initial density fluctuation spectrum, which correctly disentangles the effects of all these factors and halo environments. We also find that the concentration of a halo is strongly correlated with the universe age when its progenitor on the mass accretion history first reaches 4% of its current mass. According to these correlations, we develop new empirical models for both the mass accretion histories and the concentration evolution histories of dark matter halos, and the latter can also be used to predict the mass and redshift dependence of halo concentrations. These models are accurate and universal: the same set of model parameters works well for different cosmological models and for halos of different masses at different redshifts, and in the LAMBDACDM case the model predictions match the simulation results very well even though halo mass is traced to about 0.0005 times the final mass

  7. Hydrologic filtering of fish life history strategies across the United States: implications for stream flow alteration

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    McManamay, Ryan A.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2015-01-01

    Lotic fish have developed life history strategies adapted to the natural variation in stream flow regimes. The natural timing, duration, and magnitude of flow events has contributed to the diversity, production, and composition of fish assemblages over time. Studies evaluating the role of hydrology in structuring fish assemblages have been more common at the local or regional scale with very few studies conducted at the continental scale. Furthermore, quantitative linkages between natural hydrologic patterns and fish assemblages are rarely used to make predictions of ecological consequences of hydrologic alterations. We ask two questions: (1) what is the relative role ofmore » hydrology in structuring fish assemblages at large scales? and (2) can relationships between fish assemblages and natural hydrology be utilized to predict fish assemblage responses to hydrologic disturbance? We developed models to relate fish life histories and reproductive strategies to landscape and hydrologic variables separately and then combined. Models were then used to predict the ecological consequences of altered hydrology due to dam regulation. Although hydrology plays a considerable role in structuring fish assemblages, the performance of models using only hydrologic variables was lower than that of models constructed using landscape variables. Isolating the relative importance of hydrology in structuring fish assemblages at the continental scale is difficult since hydrology is interrelated to many landscape factors. By applying models to dam-regulated hydrologic data, we observed some consistent predicted responses in fish life history strategies and modes of reproduction. In agreement with existing literature, equilibrium strategists are predicted to increase following dam regulation, whereas opportunistic and periodic species are predicted to decrease. In addition, dam regulation favors the selection of reproductive strategies with extended spawning seasons and preference for

  8. Hydrologic filtering of fish life history strategies across the United States: implications for stream flow alteration

    SciTech Connect

    McManamay, Ryan A.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2015-01-01

    Lotic fish have developed life history strategies adapted to the natural variation in stream flow regimes. The natural timing, duration, and magnitude of flow events has contributed to the diversity, production, and composition of fish assemblages over time. Studies evaluating the role of hydrology in structuring fish assemblages have been more common at the local or regional scale with very few studies conducted at the continental scale. Furthermore, quantitative linkages between natural hydrologic patterns and fish assemblages are rarely used to make predictions of ecological consequences of hydrologic alterations. We ask two questions: (1) what is the relative role of hydrology in structuring fish assemblages at large scales? and (2) can relationships between fish assemblages and natural hydrology be utilized to predict fish assemblage responses to hydrologic disturbance? We developed models to relate fish life histories and reproductive strategies to landscape and hydrologic variables separately and then combined. Models were then used to predict the ecological consequences of altered hydrology due to dam regulation. Although hydrology plays a considerable role in structuring fish assemblages, the performance of models using only hydrologic variables was lower than that of models constructed using landscape variables. Isolating the relative importance of hydrology in structuring fish assemblages at the continental scale is difficult since hydrology is interrelated to many landscape factors. By applying models to dam-regulated hydrologic data, we observed some consistent predicted responses in fish life history strategies and modes of reproduction. In agreement with existing literature, equilibrium strategists are predicted to increase following dam regulation, whereas opportunistic and periodic species are predicted to decrease. In addition, dam regulation favors the selection of reproductive strategies with extended spawning seasons and preference for stable

  9. Verification of the history-score moment equations for weight-window variance reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, Clell J; Sood, Avneet; Booth, Thomas E; Shultis, J. Kenneth

    2010-12-06

    The history-score moment equations that describe the moments of a Monte Carlo score distribution have been extended to weight-window variance reduction, The resulting equations have been solved deterministically to calculate the population variance of the Monte Carlo score distribution for a single tally, Results for one- and two-dimensional one-group problems are presented that predict the population variances to less than 1% deviation from the Monte Carlo for one-dimensional problems and between 1- 2% for two-dimensional problems,

  10. History of ancient copper smelting pollution during Roman and Medieval times recorded in Greenland ice

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Sungmin; Candelone, J.P.; Patterson, C.C.; Boultron, C.F.

    1996-04-12

    Determination of copper concentrations in Greenland ice dated from seven millennia ago to the present showed values exceeding natural levels, beginning about 2500 years ago. This early large-scale pollution of the atmosphere of the Northern Hemisphere is attributed to emissions from the crude, highly polluting smelting technologies used for copper production during Roman and medieval times, especially in Europe and China. This study opens the way to a quantitative assessment of the history of early metal production, which was instrumental in the development of human cultures during ancient eras. 27 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. Effect of thermal history on Mossbauer signature and hyperfine interaction parameters of copper ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Modi, K. B. Raval, P. Y.; Dulera, S. V.; Kathad, C. R.; Shah, S. J.; Trivedi, U. N.; Chandra, Usha

    2015-06-24

    Two specimens of copper ferrite, CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, have been synthesized by double sintering ceramic technique with different thermal history i.e. slow cooled and quenched. X-ray diffractometry has confirmed single phase fcc spinel structure for slow cooled sample while tetragonal distortion is present in quenched sample. Mossbauer spectral analysis for slow-cooled copper ferrite reveals super position of two Zeeman split sextets along with paramagnetic singlet in the centre position corresponds to delafossite (CuFeO{sub 2}) phase that is completely absent in quenched sample. The hyperfine interaction parameters are highly influenced by heat treatment employed.

  12. Time history analysis of laminated composite plates by p-FEM

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, P.K.; Basu, P.K.

    1998-12-31

    This paper reports the application of the p-version finite element method to the dynamic analysis of thin/thick composite laminate systems. The principle of dimensional reduction is used in the formulation to accurately model the three-dimensional behavior so that the geometrically two-dimensional character of the problem is maintained. A computer program was developed using FORTRAN to calculate the time history using Newmark`s direct integration scheme. The accuracy of the results have been evaluated with reference to closed form analytical solutions and excellent agreement is noted.

  13. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE SERVICE HISTORY AND CORROSION SUSCEPTIBILITY OF TYPE IV WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B

    2008-09-18

    Type IV waste tanks were designed and built to store waste that does not require auxiliary cooling. Each Type IV tank is a single-shell tank constructed of a steel-lined pre-stressed concrete tank in the form of a vertical cylinder with a concrete domed roof. There are four such tanks in F-area, Tanks 17-20F, and four in H-Area, Tanks 21-24H. Leak sites were discovered in the liners for Tanks 19 and 20F in the 1980's. Although these leaks were visually observed, the investigation to determine the mechanism by which the leaks had occurred was not completed at that time. Therefore, a concern was raised that the same mechanism which caused the leak sites in the Tanks in F-area may also be operable in the H-Area tanks. Data from the construction of the tanks (i.e., certified mill test reports for the steel, no stress-relief), the service history (i.e., waste sample data, temperature data), laboratory tests on actual wastes and simulants (i.e., electrochemical testing), and the results of the visual inspections were reviewed. The following observations and conclusions were made: (1) Comparison of the compositional and microstructural features indicate that the A212 material utilized for construction of the H-Area tanks are far more resistant to SCC than the A285 materials used for construction of the F-Area tanks. (2) A review of the materials of construction, temperature history, service histories concluded that F-Area tanks likely failed by caustic stress corrosion cracking. (3) The environment in the F-Area tanks was more aggressive than that experienced by the H-Area tanks. (4) Based on a review of the service history, the H-Area tanks have not been exposed to an environment that would render the tanks susceptible to either nitrate stress corrosion cracking (i.e., the cause of failures in the Type I and II tanks) or caustic stress corrosion cracking. (5) Due to the very dilute and uninhibited solutions that have been stored in Tank 23H, vapor space corrosion has

  14. A brief history of the T Plant facility at the Hanford Site. Addendum 1

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.S.

    1994-05-16

    T Plant (221-T) was the first and largest of the early chemical separations plants at the Hanford Engineer Works (HEW) (World War II name for the Hanford Site). Officially designated as a Cell Building by the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) of the Army Corps of Engineers (agency responsible for HEW), T Plant served as the headquarters of chemical processing operations at Hanford from its construction until the opening of the REDOX Plant in January 1952. Because it formed a crucial link in the first full-scale plutonium production operations in world history, it meets criteria established in the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 as a National Historic Structure.

  15. Case histories portraying different methods of installing liners for verticle barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, G.K.; Crockford, R.M.; Achhorner, F.N.

    1997-12-31

    The installation of liners for vertical barriers is difficult and has been a learning experience for every contractor making the attempt. Soil stratigraphy and hydrogeologic conditions can vary over short distances, creating a variety of problems. This is particularly so when working near landfills and documentation of the as-built condition is poor. Successful installation requires detailed planning and knowledge of what to expect, as well as alternate plans for potential problems. Several successful methods of panel connection will be presented as well as a variety of installation techniques. Project case histories will be reviewed, highlighting the challenges associated with specific construction techniques.

  16. The climatic and hydrologic history of southern Nevada during the late Quaternary

    SciTech Connect

    Forester, R.M.; Bradbury, J.P.; Carter, C.; Elvidge-Tuma, A.B.; Hemphill, M.L.; Lundstrom, S.C.; Mahan, S.A.; Marshall, B.D.; Neymark, L.A.; Paces, J.B.; Sharpe, S.E.; Whelan, J.F.; Wigand, P.E.

    1999-09-21

    Understanding climate change during the expected life span of a potential high-level nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires estimates of future climate boundary conditions. These climate boundary conditions are governed by changes in the Earth's orbital properties (eccentricity, obliquity, precession) that determine insolation. Subcycles of the 400,000 year insolation-controlled climate cycles last approximately 100,000 years. This report describes the changes which have occurred in the climatic history of Southern Nevada during the past 400,000 years. These changes provide a basis for understanding the changes which may occur during the long-term future in this area.

  17. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Florida)

    SciTech Connect

    Zale, A.V.; Merrifield, S.G. )

    1989-07-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, habitats, and environmental requirements of coastal species of fishes and aquatic invertebrates. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The tarpon and ladyfish are popular gamefishes. Adults spawn offshore. Larval and juvenile stages inhabit coastal marshes and mangroves. Both species are thermophilic (preferring warm water), euryhaline (tolerant of a wide range of salinity), and are capable of surviving at low oxygen concentrations. Wetlands destruction and degradation negatively affect these species by reducing nursery areas. 3 figs.

  18. Public agency partnership: Hanford`s history artifacts as a communications tool

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.S.

    1994-02-01

    The Hanford Site in eastern Washington state currently is engaged in the largest waste cleanup in world history. In order to make informed decisions about remediation options, the public throughout the Pacific Northwest and the nation needs to understand the wastes that are present, their sources of generation, their composition, and their behavior in the environment. The fact that Hanford operations` were conducted in secret for over four decades presents a unique public information challenge to those who currently are responsible for communicating with the public.

  19. COLLOQUIUM: "The Usefulness of Useless Knowledge": The History of the

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Institute for Advanced Study | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab January 29, 2014, 4:00pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: "The Usefulness of Useless Knowledge": The History of the Institute for Advanced Study Christine Di Bella Institute for Advanced Study Abstract: PDF icon COLL.01.29.14.pdf A private, independent academic institution in Princeton, New Jersey, the Institute for Advanced Study is one of the world's leading centers for theoretical research and intellectual

  20. A Brief History in Time of Ion Traps and their Achievements in Science

    DOE R&D Accomplishments

    Holzscheiter, M. H.

    1994-01-01

    A short history of the development of the ion storage technique for precision experiments is given. This is by no means meant to be a complete review of the field, but the intend is to use a few specific examples to describe how the persistence, ingenuity, and experimental skill of a few people has generated the core of a field which is now growing at an ever faster pace, spreading into new areas, developing sub fields, and allowing a view at nature, using very modest experimental equipment, which by far rivals even the most ambitious dreams of high energy physics.

  1. Star formation histories across the interacting galaxy NGC 6872, the largest-known spiral

    SciTech Connect

    Eufrasio, Rafael T.; De Mello, Duilia F.; Dwek, Eli; Arendt, Richard G.; Benford, Dominic J.; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Urrutia-Viscarra, Fernanda; De Oliveira, Claudia Mendes

    2014-11-01

    NGC 6872, hereafter the Condor, is a large spiral galaxy that is interacting with its closest companion, the S0 galaxy IC 4970. The extent of the Condor provides an opportunity for detailed investigation of the impact of the interaction on the current star formation rate and its history across the galaxy, on the age and spatial distribution of its stellar population, and on the mechanism that drives the star formation activity. To address these issues we analyzed the far-ultraviolet (FUV) to near-infrared (near-IR) spectral energy distribution of seventeen 10 kpc diameter regions across the galaxy, and derived their star formation history, current star formation rate, and stellar population and mass. We find that most of the star formation takes place in the extended arms, with very little star formation in the central 5 kpc of the galaxy, in contrast to what was predicted from previous numerical simulations. There is a trend of increasing star formation activity with distance from the nucleus of the galaxy, and no evidence for a recent increase in the current star formation rate due to the interaction. The nucleus itself shows no significant current star formation activity. The extent of the Condor also provides an opportunity to test the applicability of a single standard prescription for conversion of the FUV + IR (22 ?m) intensities to a star formation rate for all regions. We find that the conversion factor differs from region to region, arising from regional differences in the stellar populations.

  2. History of HERMES III diode to z-pinch breakthrough and beyond :

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, Thomas Williamlou.

    2013-04-01

    HERMES III and Z are two flagship accelerators of Sandias pulsed-power program developed to generate intense -ray fields for the study of nuclear radiation effects, and to explore high energy-density physics (including the production of intense x-ray fields for Inertia Confinement Fusion [ICF]), respectively. A diode at the exit of HERMES III converts its 20-MeV electron beam into -rays. In contrast, at the center of Z, a z-pinch is used to convert its 20-MA current into an intense burst of x-rays. Here the history of how the HERMES III diode emerged from theoretical considerations to actual hardware is discussed. Next, the reverse process of how the experimental discovery of wire-array stabilization in a z-pinch, led to a better theory of wirearray implosions and its application to one of the ICF concepts on Z--the DH (Dynamic Hohlraum) is reviewed. Lastly, the report concludes with how the unexpected axial radiation asymmetry measured in the DH is understood. The first discussion illustrates the evolution of physics from theory-to-observationto- refinement. The second two illustrate the reverse process of observationto- theory-to refinement. The histories are discussed through the vehicle of my research at Sandia, illustrating the unique environment Sandia provides for personal growth and development into a scientific leader.

  3. Morphological homoplasy, life history evolution, and historical biogeography of plethodontid salamanders inferred from complete mitochondrial genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Rachel Lockridge; Macey, J. Robert; Jaekel, Martin; Wake, David B.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-08-01

    The evolutionary history of the largest salamander family (Plethodontidae) is characterized by extreme morphological homoplasy. Analysis of the mechanisms generating such homoplasy requires an independent, molecular phylogeny. To this end, we sequenced 24 complete mitochondrial genomes (22 plethodontids and two outgroup taxa), added data for three species from GenBank, and performed partitioned and unpartitioned Bayesian, ML, and MP phylogenetic analyses. We explored four dataset partitioning strategies to account for evolutionary process heterogeneity among genes and codon positions, all of which yielded increased model likelihoods and decreased numbers of supported nodes in the topologies (PP > 0.95) relative to the unpartitioned analysis. Our phylogenetic analyses yielded congruent trees that contrast with the traditional morphology-based taxonomy; the monophyly of three out of four major groups is rejected. Reanalysis of current hypotheses in light of these new evolutionary relationships suggests that (1) a larval life history stage re-evolved from a direct-developing ancestor multiple times, (2) there is no phylogenetic support for the ''Out of Appalachia'' hypothesis of plethodontid origins, and (3) novel scenarios must be reconstructed for the convergent evolution of projectile tongues, reduction in toe number, and specialization for defensive tail loss. Some of these novel scenarios imply morphological transformation series that proceed in the opposite direction than was previously thought. In addition, they suggest surprising evolutionary lability in traits previously interpreted to be conservative.

  4. Rigless multizone recompletion using a cement packer placed with coiled tubing: A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, T.W.; Patout, T.S.

    1997-12-01

    Cement packers have been used for some time when reserve estimates have not justified the cost of major rig remedial work. They typically provide a means of zonal isolation of the last reserves in an existing wellbore. The success of these operations has historically been low. This is predominantly because of poor cement bonding in the annulus between the tubing and production casing. Because of the minimal amount of equipment on location and lack of upfront design work involved, most cement packers are doomed to failure before they are even placed. Cement packers have been placed using a large number of methods. In the Ship Shoal 181 field, Well B-4 would not economically justify a major rig workover, even though there were several uphole gas sands capable of producing in this well. With proper upfront planning and design, it would be economical; however, all these reserves could be produced in a through-tubing process using a cement packer. This case history presents a refined look at existing technology involving placement of a cement packer and reviews problems common to cement-packer completions, including a case history. Solutions are also discussed for successfully completing and recovering reserves from not one but several remaining gas intervals. This paper reviews the design considerations and precautions, along with the production results and economics, for placing what is believed to be the largest cement packer placed through coiled tubing.

  5. NEPTUNE ON TIPTOES: DYNAMICAL HISTORIES THAT PRESERVE THE COLD CLASSICAL KUIPER BELT

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, Schuyler; Dawson, Rebekah I.; Murray-Clay, Ruth A. E-mail: rdawson@cfa.harvard.edu

    2012-02-20

    The current dynamical structure of the Kuiper Belt was shaped by the orbital evolution of the giant planets, especially Neptune, during the era following planet formation when the giant planets may have undergone planet-planet scattering and/or planetesimal-driven migration. Numerical simulations of this process, while reproducing many properties of the Belt, fail to generate the high inclinations and eccentricities observed for some objects while maintaining the observed dynamically 'cold' population. We present the first of a three-part parameter study of how different dynamical histories of Neptune sculpt the planetesimal disk. Here we identify which dynamical histories allow an in situ planetesimal disk to remain dynamically cold, becoming today's cold Kuiper Belt population. We find that if Neptune undergoes a period of elevated eccentricity and/or inclination, it secularly excites the eccentricities and inclinations of the planetesimal disk. We demonstrate that there are several well-defined regimes for this secular excitation, depending on the relative timescales of Neptune's migration, the damping of Neptune's orbital inclination and/or eccentricity, and the secular evolution of the planetesimals. We model this secular excitation analytically in each regime, allowing for a thorough exploration of parameter space. Neptune's eccentricity and inclination can remain high for a limited amount of time without disrupting the cold classical belt. In the regime of slow damping and slow migration, if Neptune is located (for example) at 20 AU, then its eccentricity must stay below 0.18 and its inclination below 6 Degree-Sign .

  6. Cylinder-averaged histories of nitrogen oxide in a D.I. diesel with simulated turbocharging

    SciTech Connect

    Donahue, R.J.; Borman, G.L.; Bower, G.R.

    1994-10-20

    An experimental study was conducted using the dumping technique (total cylinder sampling) to produce cylinder mass-averaged nitric oxide histories. Data were taken using a four stroke diesel research engine employing a quiescent chamber, high pressure direct ijection fuel system, and simulated turbocharging. Two fuels were used to determine fuel cetane number effects. Two loads were run, one at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 and the other at a ratio of 0.3. The engine speed was held constant at 1500 rpm. Under the turbocharged and retarded timing conditions of this study, nitric oxide was produced up to the point of about 85% mass burned. Two different models were used to simulate the engine mn conditions: the phenomenological Hiroyasu spray-combustion model, and the three dimensional, U.W.-ERO modified KIVA-lI computational fluid dynamic code. Both of the models predicted the correct nitric oxide trend. Although the modified KIVA-lI combustion model using Zeldovich kinetics correctly predicted the shapes of the nitric oxide histories, it did not predict the exhaust concentrations without arbitrary adjustment based on experimental values.

  7. Shrub-Steppe Seasons A Natural History of the Mid-Columbia Basin

    SciTech Connect

    LE Rogers

    1995-08-01

    This book collects and updates a series of articles about the natural history of the Mid-Columbia region. The articles first appeared as a monthly column titled ''Natural History'' in the Tri-City Herald, beginning in May 1991. My approach has been to condense the best of what is known about the ecology of the region to a manageable length with little in the way of technical language and terms. Admittedly, there is a bias toward those topics and species on which I have either been personally involved or observed as part of the ecology research programs conducted on the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve. The ALE Reserve is situated on the northeast-facing flank of the Rattlesnake Hills. Rattlesnake Mountain with a crest of over 3,600 feet is visible throughout much of the Mid-Columbia. Shrub-steppe grasslands once covered a large part of the western United States but most have been converted to other uses. The ALE site is the only remaining sizeable acreage (120 square miles) that is in near pristine condition and provides the only clear indication as to what the early trappers, traders, pioneers, and tribal members may have encountered in their day-to-day activities. In this respect, ALE provides a visible touchstone linking the past with the present for all of us.

  8. Ten case history studies of energy efficiency improvements in pulp and paper mills. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The ten technologies chosen for case history development are: sonic sootblowing in boilers, boiler operation on oil-water emulsified fuel, energy efficient motors, computerized control of excess air for boilers, boiler control and load allocation, driving of waste-activated sludge by multiple effect evaporation, pre-drying of hog fuel, lime kiln computerization, heat wheel for process heat recovery, and organic Rankine bottoming cycle for thermomechanical pulping heat recovery. For each case study, there is given: the company name, employee contact, plant summary, a description of the energy consuming process and of the energy-saving action, an assessment of energy savings, and the decision process leading to the adoption of the measure. A data summary for discounted cash flow analysis is tabulated for each case. (LEW)

  9. Case history studies of energy conservation improvements in the meat industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    Presented are case histories for ten energy-efficient technologies implemented by the meat industry. For each case is presented: the name and location of the plant, name of plant employee contact with address and telephone number, energy consumption and costs at the plant before and after implementation of energy-conserving technology, description of the investment decision process, and changes in production or product quality as a result of the new equipment. The measures presented are: continuous rendering, high-pressure return on the boiler, heat recovery from condensate return and flash steam, continuous whole blood processing, preheating of process water with recovered refrigeration waste heat, continuous rendering of poultry scraps, electrical stimulation of beef, preheating and storing process water with recovered refrigeration waste heat, microcomputer control system, and housekeeping improvements. (LEW)

  10. Overview of the gamma reaction history diagnostic for the national ignition facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yong Ho; Evans, Scott C; Herrmann, Hans W; Mack, Joseph M; Young, Carl S; Malone, Robert M; Cox, Brian C; Frogget, Brent C; Kaufman, Morris I; Tunnell, Thomas W; Tibbitts, Aric; Palagi, Martin J

    2010-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) has a need for measuring gamma radiation as part of a nuclear diagnostic program. A new gamma-detection diagnostic uses 900 off-axis parabolic mirrors to rel ay Cherenkov light from a volume of pressurized gas. This non imaging optical system has the high-speed detector placed at a stop position with the Cherenkov light delayed until after the prompt gammas have passed through the detector. Because of the wavelength range (250 to 700 nm), the optical element surface finish was a key design constraint. A cluster of four channels (each set to a different gas pressure) will collect the time histories for different energy ranges of gammas.

  11. Effect of Control Blade History, and Axial Coolant Density and Burnup Profiles on BWR Burnup Credit

    SciTech Connect

    Ade, Brian J; Marshall, William BJ J; Martinez-Gonzalez, Jesus S

    2015-05-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have initiated a multiyear project to investigate the application of burnup credit (BUC) for boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel in storage and transportation systems (often referred to as casks) and spent fuel pools (SFPs). This work is divided into two main phases. The first phase investigated the applicability of peak reactivity methods currently used in SFPs to transportation and storage casks and the validation of reactivity calculations and spent fuel compositions within these methods. The second phase focuses on extending BUC beyond peak reactivity. This paper documents the analysis of the effects of control blade insertion history, and moderator density and burnup axial profiles for extended BWR BUC.

  12. Searching history and looking beyond next week: the nuclear imperative. [Pamphlet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Oil dependence, which made the US vulnerable to OPEC export decisions, is both an economic and a security liability. Nearly a decade after the 1973 oil embargo, an economic-energy policy still eludes the US. Energy self-sufficiency and peaceful nuclear programs were sidetracked in the late 1960s as the environmental and consumer movements created a new vision of America's future that would dump the nuclear option. A growing workforce requiring more, not less, energy was not served by the new policy. Coal and nuclear power are the only two options able to produce the bulk of energy required for US industry until alternative sources are available. Future planning must question whether electricity capacity will be sufficient, what kind of capacity is needed, and what steps to take to ensure electric supplies that meet economic and security as well as environmental goals. We can profit from a review of history to avoid past errors and exploit past successes. (DCK)

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION MONITORING IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - HISTORY AND RESULTS 25 YEARS AFTER

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes results of the radiation environmental monitoring performed in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) during the period following the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. This article presents a brief overview of five comprehensive reports generated under Contract No. DE-AC09-96SR18500 (Washington Savannah River Company LLC, Subcontract No. AC55559N, SOW No. ON8778) and summarizes characteristics of the ChEZ and its post-accident status and the history of development of the radiation monitoring research in the ChEZ is described. This article addresses characteristics of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ, its major goals and objectives, and changes of these goals and objectives in the course of time, depending on the tasks associated with the phase of mitigation of the ChNPP accident consequences. The results of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ during the last 25 years are also provided.

  14. A brief history of geospatial science in the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a rich history of significant contributions to geospatial science spanning the past four decades. In the early years, work focused on basic research, such as development of algorithms for processing geographic data and early use of LANDSAT imagery. The emphasis shifted in the mid-1970s to development of geographic information system (GIS) applications to support programs such as the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE), and later to issue-oriented GIS applications supporting programs such as environmental restoration and management (mid-1980s through present). Throughout this period, the DOE national laboratories represented a strong chorus of voices advocating the importance of geospatial science and technology in the decades to come. The establishment of a Geospatial Science Program by the DOE Office of the Chief Information Officer in 2005 reflects the continued potential of geospatial science to enhance DOE's science, projects, and operations, as is well demonstrated by historical analysis.

  15. A brief history of the PUREX and UO{sub 3} facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.S.

    1993-11-01

    The Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant, conceived during the early Cold War years, was a vehicle to increase significantly US nuclear weapons production capacity. The original PUREX Plant was a concrete rectangle 1,005 feet long and 61.5 feet wide. The shielding capacity of the concrete was designed so that personnel in non-regulated service areas would not receive radiation in excess of 0.1 millirem per hour. This report discusses the design of the PUREX Plant, the production chronology, projects and equipment changes, equipment decontamination and reuse, waste management, and contamination events that have occurred during the operation of the plant. Additionally, the development and history of the Uranium Trioxide Plant are also covered.

  16. The origin and history of alteration and carbonatization of the Yucca Mountain ignimbrites. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Szymanski, J.S.

    1992-04-01

    This document contains Volume I of the report entitled The Origin and History of Alteration and Carbonatization of the Yucca Mountain Ignimbrites by Jerry S. Szymanski and a related correspondence with comments by Donald E. Livingston. In the Great Basin, the flow of terrestrial heat through the crust is affected in part by the flow of fluids. At Yucca Mountain, the role of fluids in crustal heat transport is manifested at the surface by youthful calcretes, sinters, bedrock veins, hydrothermal eruption breccias and hydrothermal alteration. This report discusses evidence for recent metasomatism high in the stratigraphic section at Yucca Mountain. Over the last several hundred years, episodes of calcite emplacement contemporaneous with local mafic volcanism have occurred at intervals that are not long in comparison with the isolation time required for a High-Level Radioactive Waste repository.

  17. The Western Pond Turtle; Habitat and History, 1993-1994 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, Dan C.

    1994-08-01

    The western pond turtle is known from many areas of Oregon. The majority of sightings and other records occur in the major drainages of the Klamath, Rogue, Umpqua, Willamette and Columbia River systems. A brief overview is presented of the evolution of the Willamette-Puget Sound hydrographic basin. A synopsis is also presented of the natural history of the western pond turtle, as well as, the status of this turtle in the Willamette drainage basin. The reproductive ecology and molecular genetics of the western pond turtle are discussed. Aquatic movements and overwintering of the western pond turtle are evaluated. The effect of introduced turtle species on the status of the western pond turtle was investigated in a central California Pond. Experiments were performed to determine if this turtle could be translocated as a mitigation strategy.

  18. Sealable joint steel sheet piling for groundwater control and remediation: Case histories

    SciTech Connect

    Smyth, D.; Jowett, R.; Gamble, M.

    1997-12-31

    The Waterloo Barrier{trademark} steel sheet piling (patents pending) incorporates a cavity at each interlocking joint that is flushed clean and injected with sealant after the piles have been driven into the ground to form a vertical cutoff wall. The installation and sealing procedures allow for a high degree of quality assurance and control. Bulk wall hydraulic conductivities of 10{sup -8} to 10{sup -10} cm/sec have been demonstrated at field installations. Recent case histories are presented in which Waterloo Barrier{trademark} cutoff walls are used to prevent off-site migration of contaminated groundwater or soil gases to adjacent property and waterways. Full enclosures to isolate DNAPL source zones or portions of contaminated aquifers for pilot-scale remediation testing will also be described. Monitoring data will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the Waterloo Barrier{trademark} in these applications.

  19. THE CORRELATED FORMATION HISTORIES OF MASSIVE GALAXIES AND THEIR DARK MATTER HALOS

    SciTech Connect

    Tinker, Jeremy L.; George, Matthew R.; Leauthaud, Alexie; Bundy, Kevin; Finoguenov, Alexis; Massey, Richard; Rhodes, Jason; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2012-08-10

    Using observations in the COSMOS field, we report an intriguing correlation between the star formation activity of massive ({approx}10{sup 11.4} M{sub Sun }) central galaxies, their stellar masses, and the large-scale ({approx}10 Mpc) environments of their group-mass ({approx}10{sup 13.6} M{sub Sun }) dark matter halos. Probing the redshift range z = [0.2, 1.0], our measurements come from two independent sources: an X-ray-detected group catalog and constraints on the stellar-to-halo mass relation derived from a combination of clustering and weak lensing statistics. At z = 1, we find that the stellar mass in star-forming (SF) centrals is a factor of two less than in passive centrals at the same halo mass. This implies that the presence or lack of star formation in group-scale centrals cannot be a stochastic process. By z = 0, the offset reverses, probably as a result of the different growth rates of these objects. A similar but weaker trend is observed when dividing the sample by morphology rather than star formation. Remarkably, we find that SF centrals at z {approx} 1 live in groups that are significantly more clustered on 10 Mpc scales than similar mass groups hosting passive centrals. We discuss this signal in the context of halo assembly and recent simulations, suggesting that SF centrals prefer halos with higher angular momentum and/or formation histories with more recent growth; such halos are known to evolve in denser large-scale environments. If confirmed, this would be evidence of an early established link between the assembly history of halos on large scales and the future properties of the galaxies that form inside them.

  20. Land-use history alters contemporary insect herbivore community composition and decouples plant-herbivore relationships.

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Philip G.; Orrock, John L.

    2015-04-01

    1. Past land use can create altered soil conditions and plant communities that persist for decades, although the effects of these altered conditions on consumers are rarely investigated. 2. Using a large-scale field study at 36 sites in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) woodlands, we examined whether historic agricultural land use leads to differences in the abundance and community composition of insect herbivores (grasshoppers, families Acrididae and Tettigoniidae). 3. We measured the cover of six plant functional groups and several environmental variables to determine whether historic agricultural land use affects the relationships between plant cover or environmental conditions and grasshopper assemblages. 4. Land-use history had taxa-specific effects and interacted with herbaceous plant cover to alter grasshopper abundances, leading to significant changes in community composition. Abundance of most grasshopper taxa increased with herbaceous cover in woodlands with no history of agriculture, but there was no relationship in post-agricultural woodlands. We also found that grasshopper abundance was negatively correlated with leaf litter cover. Soil hardness was greater in post-agricultural sites (i.e. more compacted) and was associated with grasshopper community composition. Both herbaceous cover and leaf litter cover are influenced by fire frequency, suggesting a potential indirect role of fire on grasshopper assemblages. 5. Our results demonstrate that historic land use may create persistent differences in the composition of grasshopper assemblages, while contemporary disturbances (e.g. prescribed fire) may be important for determining the abundance of grasshoppers, largely through the effect of fire on plants and leaf litter. Therefore, our results suggest that changes in the contemporary management regimes (e.g. increasing prescribed fire) may not be sufficient to shift the structure of grasshopper communities in post-agricultural sites towards communities in

  1. Virtual impact: visualizing the potential effects of cosmic impact in human history

    SciTech Connect

    Masse, W Bruce; Janecky, David R; Forte, Maurizio; Barrientos, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    Current models indicate that catastrophic impacts by asteroids and comets capable of killing more than one quarter of Earth's human population have occurred on average once every million years; smaller impacts, such the 1908 Tunguska impact that leveled more than 2,000 square km of Siberian forest, occur every 200-300 years. Therefore, cosmic impact likely significantly affected hominine evolution and conceivably played a role in Holocene period human culture history. Regrettably, few archaeologists are trained to appreciate the nature and potential effects of cosmic impact. We have developed a conceptual model for an extensible set of educational and research tools based on virtual reality collaborative environments to engage archaeologists and the general public on the topic of the role of cosmic impact in human history. Our initial focus is on two documented asteroid impacts in Argentina during the period of 4000 to 1000 B.C. Campo del Cicio resulted in an energy release of around 2-3 megatons (100-150 times the Hiroshima atomic weapon), and left several craters and a strewn field covering 493 km{sup 2} in northeastern Argentina. Rio Cuarto was likely more than 1000 megatons and may have devastated an area greater than 50,000 km{sup 2} in central Argentina. We are focusing on reconstructions of these events and their potential effects on contemporary hunter and gatherers. Our vinual reality tools also introduce interactive variables (e.g., impactor physical properties, climate, vegetation, topography, and social complexity) to allow researchers and students to better investigate and evaluate the factors that significantly influence cosmic impact effects.

  2. Smoky ol' town: the significance of Pittsburgh in U.S. air pollution history

    SciTech Connect

    James Longhurst

    2007-06-15

    Pittsburgh came to be - and came to be dirtybecause of location, location, and location. Two navigable rivers met in the middle of a forest, and combined to form a third river. This was an irresistible meeting point for settlement, trade, and industry. It was an added bonus that this meeting point was at the center of the 'Pittsburgh seam' of coal. While the natural advantages of geography and geology initiated development, Pittsburgh's growth soon attracted man-made transportation networks to import resources from its hinterland and spread finished materials through the Midwest. As the city boomed into an industrial metropolis - the Iron City, the Steel City - through the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the smoke only became worse, and Pittsburgh became known, nationally and even internationally, for its dirt, grime, and filth. For many of the city's workers and businessmen, smoke was a sign of progress and economic success. From small-scale iron production, to the process of refining coal into 'coke,' to the Bessemer steel process, to J.P. Morgan and Andrew Carnegie's creation of the vertically-integrated U.S. Steel corporation, to the pioneering use of 'byproduct' coke ovens, Pittsburgh was home to successive technologies for transforming raw materials into finished or refined goods. Pittsburgh is both singular and representative; its story is at the forefront of pollution history, but the forces, trends, and events the city witnessed were the same in many cities across the nation. So while it is true that A&WMA's headquarters are in Pittsburgh for a reason, it is also true that its membership is spread across the nation and the world. That membership will most likely find something in these four themes from Pittsburgh's history that is representative of their own study. 7 refs., 3 photos.

  3. An exact solution for the history-dependent material and delamination behavior of laminated plates subjected to cylindrical bending

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Todd O

    2009-01-01

    The exact solution for the history-dependent behavior of laminated plates subjected to cylindrical bending is presented. The solution represents the extension of Pagano's solution to consider arbitrary types of constitutive behaviors for the individual lamina as well as arbitrary types of cohesive zones models for delamination behavior. Examples of the possible types of material behavior are plasticity, viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, and damaging. Examples of possible CZMs that can be considered are linear, nonlinear hardening, as well as nonlinear with softening. The resulting solution is intended as a benchmark solution for considering the predictive capabilities of different plate theories. Initial results are presented for several types of history-dependent material behaviors. It is shown that the plate response in the presence of history-dependent behaviors can differ dramatically from the elastic response. These results have strong implications for what constitutes an appropriate plate theory for modeling such behaviors.

  4. REVERSAL OF FORTUNE: INCREASED STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCIES IN THE EARLY HISTORIES OF DWARF GALAXIES?

    SciTech Connect

    Madau, Piero; Weisz, Daniel R.; Conroy, Charlie

    2014-08-01

    On dwarf galaxy scales, the different shapes of the galaxy stellar mass function and the dark halo mass function require a star-formation efficiency (SFE) in these systems that is currently more than 1 dex lower than that of Milky Way-size halos. Here, we argue that this trend may actually be reversed at high redshift. Specifically, by combining the resolved star-formation histories of nearby isolated dwarfs with the simulated mass-growth rates of dark matter halos, we show that the assembly of these systems occurs in two phases: (1) an early, fast halo accretion phase with a rapidly deepening potential well, characterized by a high SFE; and (2) a late, slow halo accretion phase where, perhaps as a consequence of reionization, the SFE is low. Nearby dwarfs have more old stars than predicted by assuming a constant or decreasing SFE with redshift, a behavior that appears to deviate qualitatively from the trends seen among more massive systems. Taken at face value, the data suggest that at sufficiently early epochs, dwarf galaxy halos above the atomic cooling mass limit can be among the most efficient sites of star formation in the universe.

  5. A NEW CHEMICAL EVOLUTION MODEL FOR DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES BASED ON OBSERVED LONG STAR FORMATION HISTORIES

    SciTech Connect

    Homma, Hidetomo; Murayama, Takashi; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki

    2015-02-01

    We present a new chemical evolution model for dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) in the local universe. Our main aim is to explain both their observed star formation histories and metallicity distribution functions simultaneously. Applying our new model for the four local dSphs, that is, Fornax, Sculptor, LeoII, and Sextans, we find that our new model reproduces the observed chemical properties of the dSphs consistently. Our results show that the dSphs have evolved with both a low star formation efficiency and a large gas outflow efficiency compared with the Milky Way, as suggested by previous works. Comparing the observed [?/Fe]-[Fe/H] relation of the dSphs with the model predictions, we find that our model favors a longer onset time of TypeIa supernovae (i.e., 0.5Gyr) than that suggested in previous studies (i.e., 0.1Gyr). We discuss the origin of this discrepancy in detail.

  6. Generation of Stationary Non-Gaussian Time Histories with a Specified Cross-spectral Density

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Smallwood, David O.

    1997-01-01

    The paper reviews several methods for the generation of stationary realizations of sampled time histories with non-Gaussian distributions and introduces a new method which can be used to control the cross-spectral density matrix and the probability density functions (pdfs) of the multiple input problem. Discussed first are two methods for the specialized case of matching the auto (power) spectrum, the skewness, and kurtosis using generalized shot noise and using polynomial functions. It is then shown that the skewness and kurtosis can also be controlled by the phase of a complex frequency domain description of the random process. The general casemore » of matching a target probability density function using a zero memory nonlinear (ZMNL) function is then covered. Next methods for generating vectors of random variables with a specified covariance matrix for a class of spherically invariant random vectors (SIRV) are discussed. Finally the general case of matching the cross-spectral density matrix of a vector of inputs with non-Gaussian marginal distributions is presented.« less

  7. A COMPLETE HISTORY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE PLANT AT THE WEST VALLEY DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Petkus, Lawrence L.; Paul, James; Valenti, Paul J.; Houston, Helene; May, Joseph

    2003-02-27

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) vitrification melter was shut down in September 2002 after being used to vitrify High Level Waste (HLW) and process system residuals for six years. Processing of the HLW occurred from June 1996 through November 2001, followed by a program to flush the remaining HLW through to the melter. Glass removal and shutdown followed. The facility and process equipment is currently in a standby mode awaiting deactivation. During HLW processing operations, nearly 24 million curies of radioactive material were vitrified into 275 canisters of HLW glass. At least 99.7% of the curies in the HLW tanks at the WVDP were vitrified using the melter. Each canister of HLW holds approximately 2000 kilograms of glass with an average contact dose rate of over 2600 rem per hour. After vitrification processing ended, two more cans were filled using the Evacuated Canister Process to empty the melter at shutdown. This history briefly summarizes the initial stages of process development and earlier WVDP experience in the design and operation of the vitrification systems, followed by a more detailed discussion of equipment availability and failure rates during six years of operation. Lessons learned operating a system that continued to function beyond design expectations also are highlighted.

  8. U. S. safeguards history and the evolution of safeguards research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, L.M.; McDowell, S.C.T. )

    1989-07-01

    In discussing the U.S. safeguards history and the evolution of safeguards research and development, five significant eras are identified. The period ending January 1, 1947, may be called the first era. Safeguards as known today did not exist and the classic military approach of security protection applied. The second era covers the period from 1947 to 1954 (when the Atomic Energy Act was completely rewritten to accommodate the then foreseen Civil uses Program and international cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy), and the first steps were taken by the Atomic Energy Commission to establish material accounting records for all source and fissionable materials on inventory. The third era covers the period 1954 through 1968, which focused on nuclear safeguards in its domestic activities and made major policy changes in its approach to material control and accountability. The fourth era, 1968 to 1972 saw a quantum jump in the recognition and need for a significant safeguards research and development program, answered by the formation of a safeguards technical support organization at Brookhaven National Laboratory and a safeguards Laboratory at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory for the development and application of non-destructive assay technology. The fifth era had its beginning in 1972 with the burgeoning of international terrorism. The corresponding need for a strong physical protection research and development support program was responded to by the Sandia National Laboratory.

  9. The massive star population in M101. II. Spatial variations in the recent star formation history

    SciTech Connect

    Grammer, Skyler; Humphreys, Roberta M. E-mail: roberta@umn.edu

    2014-09-01

    We investigate star formation history (SFH) as a function of radius in M101 using archival Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys photometry. We derive the SFH from the resolved stellar populations in five 2' wide annuli. Binning the SFH into time frames corresponding to stellar populations traced by Hα, far-ultraviolet, and near-ultraviolet emission, we find that the fraction of stellar populations young enough to contribute in Hα is 15%-35% in the inner regions, compared to less than 5% in the outer regions. This provides a sufficient explanation for the lack of Hα emission at large radii. We also model the blue to red supergiant ratio in our five annuli, examine the effects that a metallicity gradient and variable SFH have on the predicted ratios, and compare to the observed values. We find that the radial behavior of our modeled blue to red supergiant ratios is highly sensitive to both spatial variations in the SFH and metallicity. Incorporating the derived SFH into modeled ratios, we find that we are able to reproduce the observed values at large radii (low metallicity), but at small radii (high metallicity) the modeled and observed ratios are discrepant.

  10. Summary history of domestic uranium procurement under US Atomic Energy Commission contracts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Albrethsen, H. Jr.; McGinley, F.E.

    1982-09-01

    During the period 1947 through 1970, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) fostered the rapid development and expansion of the domestic uranium mining and milling industry by providing a market for uranium. Some thirty-two mills were constructed during that period to produce U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ concentrates for sale to the AEC. In addition, there were various pilot plants, concentrators, upgraders, heap leach, and solution mining facilities that operated during the period. The purpose of this report is to compile a short narrative history of the AEC's uranium concentrate procurement program and to describe briefly each of the operations that produced uranium for sale to the AEC. Contractual arrangements are described and data are given on quantities of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ purchased and prices paid. Similar data are included for V/sub 2/O/sub 5/, where applicable. Mill and other plant operating data were also compiled from old AEC records. These latter data were provided by the companies, as a contractual requirement, during the period of operation under AEC contracts. Additionally, an effort was made to determine the present status of each facility by reference to other recently published reports. No sites were visited nor were the individual reports reviewed by the companies, many of which no longer exist. The authors relied almost entirely on published information for descriptions of facilities and milling processes utilized.

  11. Thermal-history dependent magnetoelastic transition in (Mn,Fe){sub 2}(P,Si)

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, X. F. Dijk, N. H. van; Brück, E.; Caron, L.; Gercsi, Z.; Daoud-Aladine, A.

    2015-07-27

    The thermal-history dependence of the magnetoelastic transition in (Mn,Fe){sub 2}(P,Si) compounds has been investigated using high-resolution neutron diffraction. As-prepared samples display a large difference in paramagnetic-ferromagnetic (PM-FM) transition temperature compared to cycled samples. The initial metastable state transforms into a lower-energy stable state when the as-prepared sample crosses the PM-FM transition for the first time. This additional transformation is irreversible around the transition temperature and increases the energy barrier which needs to be overcome through the PM-FM transition. Consequently, the transition temperature on first cooling is found to be lower than on subsequent cycles characterizing the so-called “virgin effect.” High-temperature annealing can restore the cycled sample to the high-temperature metastable state, which leads to the recovery of the virgin effect. A model is proposed to interpret the formation and recovery of the virgin effect.

  12. Cosmic histories of star formation and reionization: an analysis with a power-law approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Yun-Wei; Cheng, K.S.; Chu, M.C.; Yeung, S. E-mail: hrspksc@hku.hk E-mail: terryys@gmail.com

    2012-07-01

    With a simple power-law approximation of high-redshift (?>3.5) star formation history, i.e., ?-dot {sub *}(z)?[(1+z)/4.5]{sup ??}, we investigate the reionization of intergalactic medium (IGM) and the consequent Thomson scattering optical depth for cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons. A constraint on the evolution index ? is derived from the CMB optical depth measured by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) experiment, which reads ? ? 2.18 lg N{sub ?}?3.89, where the free parameter N{sub ?} is the number of the escaped ionizing ultraviolet photons per baryon. At the same time, the redshift z{sub f} at which the IGM is fully ionized can also be expressed as a function of ? as well as N{sub ?}. By further taking into account the implication of the Gunn-Peterson trough observations to quasars for the full reionization redshift, i.e., 6?

  13. History of transcontinental railroads and coal mining on the Northern Plains to 1920

    SciTech Connect

    Bryans, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    This history examines the symbiotic relationship between three transcontinental railroads-the Union Pacific, Northern Pacific, and Great Northern-and coal mining in Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming through 1920. Throughout their dual existence, American railroads and the coal industry enjoyed a mutually beneficial association. On the Northern Plains, however, this partnership assumed new dimensions. There, the coal and rails exerted unique influences upon one another. The location of deposits determined many of the transcontinentals' early decisions, especially route selection. The native fuel also was used to promote settlement on railroad lands. Two of the roads, the Union Pacific and Northern Pacific, held land grants containing valuable deposits. The Great Northern, having no such subsidy, acquired coal lands in northern Montana. On these properties, the three railroads pioneered the region's commercial coal mining industry. Eventually, each formed subsidiaries to direct their coal operations. While much of their production supplied steam locomotives, some was sold to the public. Furthermore, the policies of the Northern Pacific and Great Northern especially enabled their coal to stimulate non-railroad enterprises. In addition, all three provided the transportation which made exploitation by others economically feasible.

  14. Egypt`s first subsea completion: A Gulf of Suez case history

    SciTech Connect

    El Hawary, A.; Hoffman, J.G.

    1996-06-01

    A case history of the Gulf of Suez Petroleum Co.`s (Gupco) first subsea completion is provided. The first completion was for Well GS 373-2, a previously drilled and tested exploration well located in the south portion of the gulf of Suez. Subsea technology was used to economically justify development of this one-well marginal field, which was discovered in 1978. Traditional methods proved to be too costly for development, therefore application of a low-cost subsea tree was used to capture the resources. In the Gulf of Suez, many fields have been discovered but have not been developed because of low reserves. These marginal projects can have a profound impact on the revenue and shareholder value if an economic method is used to exploit these opportunities. Platform installation was not feasible because of reserve size, hence the well has remained abandoned until recently. This paper presents a summarized look at subsea completion technology. The cost comparison of traditional development methods will be made, given the local cost structure in Egypt. The application of this technology has some limitations and constraints that will be discussed in the paper. Furthermore, the actual field installation of Egypt`s first subsea tree will be summarized. Also included is a discussion on simple remote controls and offshore installation operations.

  15. Chickamauga Hydro Unit 3: History of problems, application of new technology and corrective actions

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.J. III; Thompson, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    Chickamauga Unit 3 was placed in commercial operation in 1940 and has been in operation for over fifty years. During the history of the dam, concrete growth has been the source of alignment problems with all of the turbines and generators. This problem has resulted in difficulty in the maintenance of the minimum clearance between the rotating and stationary components of the unit. Disassembly of the units has been necessary to restore these minimum clearances. Over the years several potentially damaging problems have plagued this unit. In November of 1992 a Rotor Mounted Scanner (RMS) manufactured by MCM Enterprise Limited of Bellevue, Washington was installed on this unit. The use of state of the art technology has provided information which allowed operators to prevent an in-service failure when the air gap became dangerously small. Adjustments were made in the operation of the unit to minimize the temperature cycles. This change allowed the continued operation of the unit for an additional seven months to a planned outage. The turbine was scheduled to be replaced due to worn bushings in the trunion of the Kaplan type turbine. The information from the RMS was also used to formulate corrective actions that were taken during the planned outage. The findings made during the outage and corrective actions for continued dependable service will be discussed.

  16. THE STAR FORMATION HISTORY OF THE MILKY WAY'S NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Pfuhl, O.; Fritz, T. K.; Eisenhauer, F.; Genzel, R.; Gillessen, S.; Ott, T.; Dodds-Eden, K.; Zilka, M.; Sternberg, A.; Maness, H.

    2011-11-10

    We present spatially resolved imaging and integral field spectroscopy data for 450 cool giant stars within 1 pc from Sgr A*. We use the prominent CO bandheads to derive effective temperatures of individual giants. Additionally we present the deepest spectroscopic observation of the Galactic center (GC) so far, probing the number of B9/A0 main-sequence stars (2.2-2.8 M{sub sun}) in two deep fields. From spectrophotometry we construct a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of the red giant population and fit the observed diagram with model populations to derive the star formation history of the nuclear cluster. We find (1) that the average nuclear star formation rate dropped from an initial maximum {approx}10 Gyr ago to a deep minimum 1-2 Gyr ago and increased again during the last few hundred Myrs, (2) that roughly 80% of the stellar mass formed more than 5 Gyr ago, and (3) that mass estimates within R {approx} 1 pc from Sgr A* favor a dominant star formation mode with a 'normal' Chabrier/Kroupa initial mass function for the majority of the past star formation in the GC. The bulk stellar mass seems to have formed under conditions significantly different from the young stellar disks, perhaps because at the time of the formation of the nuclear cluster the massive black hole and its sphere of influence were much smaller than today.

  17. Statistics of particle time-temperature histories : progress report for June 2013.

    SciTech Connect

    Hewson, John C.; Gin, Craig; Lignell, David O.; Sun, Guangyuan

    2013-10-01

    Progress toward predictions of the statistics of particle time-temperature histories is presented. These predictions are to be made using Lagrangian particle models within the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model. In the present reporting period we have further characterized the performance, behavior and capabilities of the particle dispersion models that were added to the ODT model in the first period. We have also extended the capabilities in two manners. First we provide alternate implementations of the particle transport process within ODT; within this context the original implementation is referred to as the type-I and the new implementations are referred to as the type-C and type-IC interactions. Second we have developed and implemented models for two-way coupling between the particle and fluid phase. This allows us to predict the reduced rate of turbulent mixing associated with particle dissipation of energy and similar phenomena. Work in characterizing these capabilities has taken place in homogeneous decaying turbulence, in free shear layers, in jets and in channel flow with walls, and selected results are presented.

  18. Time history prediction of direct-drive implosions on the Omega facility

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Laffite, S.; Bourgade, J. L.; Caillaud, T.; Delettrez, J A; Frenje, J. A.; Girard, F.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Joshi, Tirtha Raj; Landoas, O.; Legay, G.; et al

    2016-01-14

    We present in this article direct-drive experiments that were carried out on the Omega facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. Two different pulse shapes were tested in order to vary the implosion stability of the same target whose parameters, dimensions and composition, remained the same. The direct-drive configuration on the Omega facility allows the accurate time-resolvedmeasurement of the scattered light. We show that, provided the laser coupling is well controlled, the implosion time history, assessed by the “bang-time” and the shell trajectory measurements, can be predicted. This conclusion is independent on the pulse shape. Inmore » contrast, we show that the pulse shape affects the implosion stability, assessed by comparing the target performances between prediction and measurement. For the 1-ns square pulse, the measuredneutron number is about 80% of the prediction. Lastly, for the 2-step 2-ns pulse, we test here that this ratio falls to about 20%.« less

  19. Ecological perspectives of land use history: The Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Hinds, N R; Rogers, L E

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this study was to gather information on the land use history of the Arid Land Ecology (ALE) Reserve so that current ecological research could be placed within a historical perspective. The data were gathered in the early 1980s by interviewing former users of the land and from previously published research (where available). Interviews with former land users of the ALE Reserve in Benton County, Washington, revealed that major land uses from 1880 to 1940 were homesteading, grazing, oil/gas production, and road building. Land use practices associated with grazing and homesteading have left the greatest impact on the landscape. Disturbed sites where succession is characterized by non-native species, plots where sagebrush was railed away, and sheep trails are major indications today of past land uses. Recent estimates of annual bunchgrass production do ALE do not support the widespread belief that bunchgrass were more productive during the homesteading era, though the invasion of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), Jim Hill mustard (Sisymbrium altissium), and other European alien plant species has altered pre-settlement succession patterns. 15 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. The Momotombo Geothermal Field, Nicaragua: Exploration and development case history study

    SciTech Connect

    1982-07-01

    This case history discusses the exploration methods used at the Momotombo Geothermal Field in western Nicaragua, and evaluates their contributions to the development of the geothermal field models. Subsequent reservoir engineering has not been synthesized or evaluated. A geothermal exploration program was started in Nicaragua in 1966 to discover and delineate potential geothermal reservoirs in western Nicaragua. Exploration began at the Momotombo field in 1970 using geological, geochemical, and geophysical methods. A regional study of thermal manifestations was undertaken and the area on the southern flank of Volcan Momotombo was chosen for more detailed investigation. Subsequent exploration by various consultants produced a number of geotechnical reports on the geology, geophysics, and geochemistry of the field as well as describing production well drilling. Geological investigations at Momotombo included photogeology, field mapping, binocular microscope examination of cuttings, and drillhole correlations. Among the geophysical techniques used to investigate the field sub-structure were: Schlumberger and electromagnetic soundings, dipole mapping and audio-magnetotelluric surveys, gravity and magnetic measurements, frequency domain soundings, self-potential surveys, and subsurface temperature determinations. The geochemical program analyzed the thermal fluids of the surface and in the wells. This report presents the description and results of exploration methods used during the investigative stages of the Momotombo Geothermal Field. A conceptual model of the geothermal field was drawn from the information available at each exploration phase. The exploration methods have been evaluated with respect to their contributions to the understanding of the field and their utilization in planning further development. Our principal finding is that data developed at each stage were not sufficiently integrated to guide further work at the field, causing inefficient use of

  1. History of transportation in Chicago: Its impact on the urban landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, A.V.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper the author presents some of his thoughts on the relationship between transportation and how Chicago used its land. He has chosen to do this by looking at the question from a historical perspective. He attempts to do this by tracking the link between transportation and the use of land. This linkage actually involves only a few simple human factors such as a desire to pay the least amount for land, getting from place to place as swiftly as possible, being paid the most for work done and living in a country-like setting with all of the serenity that image conjures. The author argues these factors are what brought Chicago to where it is, and makes no attempt to judge this as good or bad. The author argues that energy consumption or scarcity, like railroad or transit strikes, have had little long-term effect on how people travel and therefore how they use land. The notion that resources were inexhaustible permeated Chicago`s early history. Human factors appear to the author to have had and probably will continue to have a more profound effect on transportation than anything else. He does not believe society knows what individuals will pay in energy costs to maintain their real or perceived mobility. The real cost of fuel and vehicles is much higher (and so is transit usage) in Europe, but VMT and vehicle ownership still are growing at an astounding rate. Mobility is perceived as good, not bad. How does one convince people to limit their mobility when it is good?

  2. Egypt`s first remotely controlled subsea completion -- A Gulf of Suez case history

    SciTech Connect

    El Hawary, A.; Hoffman, J.G.

    1995-11-01

    A case history of the Gulf of Suez Petroleum Company`s (GUPCO) first remotely controlled subsea completion is provided. The first completion was for well GS 373-2, a previously drilled and tested exploration well located in the south portion of the Gulf of Suez. Subsea technology was utilized to economically justify development of this one well marginal field which was discovered in 1978. Traditional methods proved to be too costly for development, therefore application of a low cost subsea tree was utilized to capture the resources. In the Gulf of Suez many fields have been discovered by have not been developed due to low reserves. These marginal projects can have a profound impact on the revenue and shareholder value if any economic method is used to exploit these opportunities. Platform installation was not feasible due to reserve size, hence the well has remained abandoned until recently. Capturing the experience of Amoco in the Gulf of Mexico and in the Dutch North Sea, GUPCO was able to build a low cost subsea system which would allow for the economic development of the marginal fields discovered in the past. This paper presents a summarized look at subsea completion technology. The cost comparison of traditional development methods will be made, given the local cost structure in Egypt. The application of this technology has some limitations and constraints which will be discussed in the paper. Furthermore the actual field installation of Egypt`s first remotely controlled subsea tree will be summarized. Also included is a discussion on simple remote controls,and offshore installation operations.

  3. Case history of pressure maintenance by gas injection in the 26R gravity drainage reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, M.H.; Yu, J.P.; Moore, D.M.; Ezekwe, N. ); Querin, M.E. ); Williams, L.L. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper is a field case history on the performance of the 26R Reservoir. This is a gravity drainage reservoir under pressure maintenance by crestal gas injection. The 26R Reservoir is a highly layered Stevens turbidite sandstone. The reservoir is located in the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR{number sign}1) in Elk Hills, Kern County, California. The 26R Reservoir is contained within the steeply dipping southwestern limb of the 31S Anticline. The reservoir had an initial oil column of 1800 feet. Original oil-in-place (OOIP) was estimated at 424 million barrels. Pressure maintenance by crestal gas injection was initiated immediately after production began in October 1976. The total volume of gas injected is about 586 BCF. This exceeds one reservoir pore volume. Reservoir pressure has declined from 3030 psi to 2461 psi. This pressure decline believe to be due to migration of injected gas into the overlaying shale reservoirs. Under the gas injection pressure maintenance strategy, reserves are estimated to be approximately 212 million barrels. Reservoir studies have concluded that the aquifer at the base of the reservoir has been relatively inactive. Well recompletions, deepenings, and horizontal wells are used to improve oil recovery. An aggressive program of controlling gas production began in the mid 1980's by the installation of multiple packers and sleeves. As the gas-oil contact (GOC) has dropped, sand intervals have subsequently been isolated behind packers. A cased hole logging program was recently undertaken to identify possible remaining reserves in the gas cap. 15 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Case history of pressure maintenance by gas injection in the 26R gravity drainage reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, M.H.; Yu, J.P.; Moore, D.M.; Ezekwe, N.; Querin, M.E.; Williams, L.L.

    1992-02-01

    This paper is a field case history on the performance of the 26R Reservoir. This is a gravity drainage reservoir under pressure maintenance by crestal gas injection. The 26R Reservoir is a highly layered Stevens turbidite sandstone. The reservoir is located in the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR{number_sign}1) in Elk Hills, Kern County, California. The 26R Reservoir is contained within the steeply dipping southwestern limb of the 31S Anticline. The reservoir had an initial oil column of 1800 feet. Original oil-in-place (OOIP) was estimated at 424 million barrels. Pressure maintenance by crestal gas injection was initiated immediately after production began in October 1976. The total volume of gas injected is about 586 BCF. This exceeds one reservoir pore volume. Reservoir pressure has declined from 3030 psi to 2461 psi. This pressure decline believe to be due to migration of injected gas into the overlaying shale reservoirs. Under the gas injection pressure maintenance strategy, reserves are estimated to be approximately 212 million barrels. Reservoir studies have concluded that the aquifer at the base of the reservoir has been relatively inactive. Well recompletions, deepenings, and horizontal wells are used to improve oil recovery. An aggressive program of controlling gas production began in the mid 1980`s by the installation of multiple packers and sleeves. As the gas-oil contact (GOC) has dropped, sand intervals have subsequently been isolated behind packers. A cased hole logging program was recently undertaken to identify possible remaining reserves in the gas cap. 15 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste management in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the 1980s to ensure the safe disposal of low-level waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61, Licensing Requirements for the Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, and steps taken by states and regional compacts to establish additional disposal sites. 42 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Constraints on the diagenetic history of the Capitan shelf margin (Upper Permian) from magnetic and diagenetic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Darke, G. )

    1991-03-01

    Assemblages of magnetic minerals in sedimentary rocks are of depositional or diagenetic origin. Magnetic, diagenetic, and outcrop studies in rocks from the Capitan shelf margin (U. Permian), West Texas and New Mexico, show that the diagenetic history of these rocks was dominated by anhydrite cementation until uplift from Tertiary times onwards and that the magnetic minerals are of diagenetic origin. Diagenetic studies, including petrographic, cathodoluminescence and electron microprobe analysis, show that the diagenetic history can be divided into three main phases: (1) Pre-burial - cementation by calcium carbonate contemporary with deposition followed by anhydrite cementation and dolomitization. (2) Burial - continued cementation and replacement of some carbonate by anhydrite; accompanied by dolomitization. (3) uplift - minor calcitization of anhydrite accompanied by kaolinite formation. The mineralogy of magnetic particles and the age of remanence acquisition was deduced from thermal and alternating field demagnetization, despite the low magnetic mineral content of most samples. Pyrrhotite acquired remanence at around 190 Ma and from around 45 Ma to recent times. The formation of the oxides, hematite and geothite, from the oxidation of preexisting sulfides and by authigenic processes accompanied the dissolution of anhydrite and the precipitation of the calcite spar cements. These results shed new light on the diagenetic history of the Capitan shelf margin and illustrate the value of magnetic studies of sedimentary rocks when magnetic data are integrated with accompanying diagenetic studies.

  7. ON STAR FORMATION RATES AND STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF GALAXIES OUT TO z {approx} 3

    SciTech Connect

    Wuyts, Stijn; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Lutz, Dieter; Nordon, Raanan; Berta, Stefano; Genzel, Reinhard; Magnelli, Benjamin; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Altieri, Bruno; Andreani, Paola; Aussel, Herve; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Cimatti, Andrea; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Maiolino, Roberto; McGrath, Elizabeth J.

    2011-09-01

    We compare multi-wavelength star formation rate (SFR) indicators out to z {approx} 3 in the GOODS-South field. Our analysis uniquely combines U to 8 {mu}m photometry from FIREWORKS, MIPS 24 {mu}m and PACS 70, 100, and 160 {mu}m photometry from the PEP, and H{alpha} spectroscopy from the SINS survey. We describe a set of conversions that lead to a continuity across SFR indicators. A luminosity-independent conversion from 24 {mu}m to total infrared luminosity yields estimates of L{sub IR} that are in the median consistent with the L{sub IR} derived from PACS photometry, albeit with significant scatter. Dust correction methods perform well at low-to-intermediate levels of star formation. They fail to recover the total amount of star formation in systems with large SFR{sub IR}/SFR{sub UV} ratios, typically occuring at the highest SFRs (SFR{sub UV+IR} {approx}> 100 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) and redshifts (z {approx}> 2.5) probed. Finally, we confirm that H{alpha}-based SFRs at 1.5 < z < 2.6 are consistent with SFR{sub SED} and SFR{sub UV+IR} provided extra attenuation toward H II regions is taken into account (A{sub V,neb} = A{sub V,continuum}/0.44). With the cross-calibrated SFR indicators in hand, we perform a consistency check on the star formation histories inferred from spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling. We compare the observed SFR-M relations and mass functions at a range of redshifts to equivalents that are computed by evolving lower redshift galaxies backward in time. We find evidence for underestimated stellar ages when no stringent constraints on formation epoch are applied in SED modeling. We demonstrate how resolved SED modeling, or alternatively deep UV data, may help to overcome this bias. The age bias is most severe for galaxies with young stellar populations and reduces toward older systems. Finally, our analysis suggests that SFHs typically vary on timescales that are long (at least several 100 Myr) compared to the galaxies' dynamical time.

  8. THE STAR FORMATION HISTORY AND CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES IN THE NEARBY UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Torres-Papaqui, J. P.; Coziol, R.; Ortega-Minakata, R. A.; Neri-Larios, D. M. E-mail: rcoziol@astro.ugto.mx E-mail: daniel@astro.ugto.mx

    2012-08-01

    We have determined the metallicity (O/H) and nitrogen abundance (N/O) of a sample of 122,751 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) from the Data Release 7 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. For all these galaxies we have also determined their morphology and obtained a comprehensive picture of their star formation history (SFH) using the spectral synthesis code STARLIGHT. The comparison of the chemical abundance with the SFH allows us to describe the chemical evolution of the SFGs in the nearby universe (z {<=} 0.25) in a manner consistent with the formation of their stellar populations and morphologies. A high fraction (45%) of the SFGs in our sample show an excess abundance of nitrogen relative to their metallicity. We also find this excess to be accompanied by a deficiency of oxygen, which suggests that this could be the result of effective starburst winds. However, we find no difference in the mode of star formation of the nitrogen-rich and nitrogen-poor SFGs. Our analysis suggests that they all form their stars through a succession of bursts of star formation extended over a period of few Gyr. What produces the chemical differences between these galaxies seems therefore to be the intensity of the bursts: the galaxies with an excess of nitrogen are those that are presently experiencing more intense bursts or have experienced more intense bursts in their past. We also find evidence relating the chemical evolution process to the formation of the galaxies: the galaxies with an excess of nitrogen are more massive, and have more massive bulges and earlier morphologies than those showing no excess. Contrary to expectation, we find no evidence that the starburst wind efficiency decreases with the mass of the galaxies. As a possible explanation we propose that the loss of metals consistent with starburst winds took place during the formation of the galaxies, when their potential wells were still building up, and consequently were weaker than today, making starburst winds more

  9. Coolant Density and Control Blade History Effects in Extended BWR Burnup Credit

    SciTech Connect

    Ade, Brian J; Marshall, William BJ J; Bowman, Stephen M; Gauld, Ian C; Ilas, Germina; Martinez-Gonzalez, Jesus S

    2015-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission have initiated a multiyear project to investigate the application of burnup credit (BUC) for boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel in storage and transportation casks. This project includes two phases. The first phase investigates the applicability of peak reactivity methods currently used for spent fuel pools to spent fuel storage and transportation casks and the validation of reactivity (keff) calculations and predicted spent fuel compositions. The second phase focuses on extending BUC beyond peak reactivity. This paper documents work performed to date investigating some aspects of extended BUC. (The technical basis for application of peak reactivity methods to BWR fuel in storage and transportation systems is presented in a companion paper.) Two reactor operating parameters are being evaluated to establish an adequate basis for extended BWR BUC: (1) the effect of axial void profile and (2) the effect of control blade utilization during operation. A detailed analysis of core simulator data for one cycle of a modern operating BWR plant was performed to determine the range of void profiles and the variability of the profile experienced during irradiation. Although a single cycle does not provide complete data, the data obtained are sufficient to determine the primary effects and to identify conservative modeling approaches. These data were used in a study of the effect of axial void profile. The first stage of the study was determination of the necessary moderator density temporal fidelity in depletion modeling. After the required temporal fidelity was established, multiple void profiles were used to examine the effect on cask reactivity. The results of these studies are being used to develop recommendations for conservatively modeling the void profile effects for BWR depletion calculations. The second operational parameter studied was control blade history. Control blades are inserted in

  10. Complex history of admixture during citrus domestication revealed by genome analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, G. Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Auré lio,; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Fabbro, Cristian Del; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco; Estornell, Leandro H.; Mu?oz-Sanz, Juan V.; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; Pé rez, Juliá n Pé rez,; Ramon, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, Francois; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G.; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astua, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-06-30

    Although Citrus is the most globally significant tree fruit, its domestication history is poorly understood. Cultivated citrus types are believed to comprise selections from and/or hybrids of several wild progenitor species, but the identities of these progenitors, and their contribution to modern cultivars, remain controversial. Here we report the genomes of a collection of mandarins, pummelos, and oranges, including a high quality reference sequence from a haploid Clementine mandarin. By comparative genome analysis we show that these cultivated types can be derived from two progenitor species. Cultivated pummelos represent selections from a single progenitor species C. maxima. Unexpectedly, however, we find that cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into a distinct second population that we identify with the ancestral wild mandarin species C. reticulata. Sweet and sour oranges are found to be interspecific hybrids. Sweet orange, the most widely cultivated citrus, arose as the offspring of previously admixed individuals. In contrast, sour (or Seville) orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. Surprisingly, we also find that a wild Chinese mandarin from Mangshan, China shows substantial sequence divergence from C. reticulata and appears to represent a distinct taxon. Understanding the relationships and phylogeny of cultivated citrus through genome analysis will clarify taxonomic relationships and enable previously inconceivable opportunities for sequence-directed genetic improvement. Citrus are widely consumed worldwide as juice or fresh fruit, providing important sources of vitamin C and other health-promoting compounds. Global production in 2012 exceeded 86 million metric tons, with an estimated value of US$9 billion (http://www.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/circulars/citrus.pdf). The very narrow genetic diversity of cultivated citrus makes it highly

  11. Plague: The Emergence of a Highly Fit Clonal Pathogen that Altered the History of Mankind ( 7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    ScienceCinema

    Keim, Paul [Northern Arizona University

    2016-07-12

    Paul Keim on "Plague: A Highly Fit Clonal Pathogen Emerges and Shapes Human History" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  12. Plague: The Emergence of a Highly Fit Clonal Pathogen that Altered the History of Mankind ( 7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Keim, Paul

    2012-06-01

    Paul Keim on "Plague: A Highly Fit Clonal Pathogen Emerges and Shapes Human History" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  13. Isotope Geochemistry of Calcite Coatings and the Thermal History of the Unsaturated Zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    B.D. Marshall; J.F. Whelan

    2000-07-27

    Calcite and opal coatings found on fracture footwalls and lithophysal cavity bottoms in the volcanic section at Yucca Mountain (exposed in a tunnel) contain a record of gradual chemical and isotopic changes that have occurred in the unsaturated zone. The thin (less than 6 cm) coatings are composed primarily of calcite, opal, chalcedony, and quartz. Fluid inclusions in calcite that homogenize at greater than ambient temperatures provide impetus for geochronologic studies in order to determine the thermal history. In the welded Topopah Spring Tuff (12.7 Ma), U-Pb ages of opal and chalcedony layers provide evidence of a long history of deposition throughout the past 10 m.y. However, these ages can constrain the ages of associated calcite layers only in samples with an easily interpretable microstratigraphy. Strontium isotope ratios in calcite increase with microstratigraphic position from the base up to the outermost surface of the coatings. The strontium incorporated in these coatings records the systematic change in pore-water isotopic composition due to water-rock interaction primarily in the overlying nonwelded tuffs. A one-dimensional advection-reaction model simulates strontium isotope ratios measured in pore water extracted from core in three vertical boreholes adjacent to the tunnel. By calculating the strontium isotope compositions of the rocks at various past times, the model predicts a history of the strontium isotope ratios in the water that matches the record in the calcite and therefore provides approximate ages. Oxygen isotope ratios measured in calcite gradually increase with decreasing model strontium age. Assuming that the oxygen isotope ratio of the percolating water was relatively constant, this trend indicates a gradual cooling of the rocks over millions of years, in agreement with thermal modeling of magma beneath the 12-Ma Timber Mountain caldera just north of Yucca Mountain. This model predicts that temperatures significantly exceeding current

  14. Land-Use History and Contemporary Management Inform an Ecological Reference Model for Longleaf Pine Woodland Understory Plant Communities.

    SciTech Connect

    Brudvig, Lars A.; Orrock, John L.; Damschen, Ellen I.; et al, et al

    2014-01-23

    Ecological restoration is frequently guided by reference conditions describing a successfully restored ecosystem; however, the causes and magnitude of ecosystem degradation vary, making simple knowledge of reference conditions insufficient for prioritizing and guiding restoration. Ecological reference models provide further guidance by quantifying reference conditions, as well as conditions at degraded states that deviate from reference conditions. Many reference models remain qualitative, however, limiting their utility. We quantified and evaluated a reference model for southeastern U.S. longleaf pine woodland understory plant communities. We used regression trees to classify 232 longleaf pine woodland sites at three locations along the Atlantic coastal plain based on relationships between understory plant community composition, soils lol(which broadly structure these communities), and factors associated with understory degradation, including fire frequency, agricultural history, and tree basal area. To understand the spatial generality of this model, we classified all sites together. and for each of three study locations separately. Both the regional and location-specific models produced quantifiable degradation gradients–i.e., progressive deviation from conditions at 38 reference sites, based on understory species composition, diversity and total cover, litter depth, and other attributes. Regionally, fire suppression was the most important degrading factor, followed by agricultural history, but at individual locations, agricultural history or tree basal area was most important. At one location, the influence of a degrading factor depended on soil attributes. We suggest that our regional model can help prioritize longleaf pine woodland restoration across our study region; however, due to substantial landscape-to-landscape variation, local management decisions should take into account additional factors (e.g., soil attributes). Our study demonstrates the utility

  15. X-ray bang-time and fusion reaction history at ~ps resolution using RadOptic detection

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, S P; Lowry, M E; Baker, K L; Bennett, C V; Celeste, J R; Cerjan, C; Haynes, S; Hernandez, V J; Hsing, W W; London, R A; Moran, B; von Wittenau, A S; Steele, P T; Stewart, R E

    2012-05-01

    We report recent progress in the development of RadOptic detectors, radiation to optical converters, that rely upon x-ray absorption induced modulation of the optical refractive index of a semiconductor sensor medium to amplitude modulate an optical probe beam. The sensor temporal response is determined by the dynamics of the electron-hole pair creation and subsequent relaxation in the sensor medium. Response times of a few ps have been demonstrated in a series of experiments conducted at the LLNL Jupiter Laser Facility. This technology will enable x-ray bang-time and fusion burn-history measurements with {approx} ps resolution.

  16. West Valley glass product qualification durability studies, FY 1987--1988: Effects of composition, redox state, thermal history, and groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Piepel, G.F.; Mellinger, G.B.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1988-11-01

    The product qualification subtask of the West Valley Support Task (WVST) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provides support for the waste form qualification efforts at West Valley Nuclear Services Co. Testing is being conducted to determine waste form chemical durability in support of these efforts. The effects of composition, ferrous/ferric ratio (redox state), thermal history, and groundwater are being investigated. Glasses were tested using modified Materials Characterization Center (MCC) -3 and MCC-1 test methods. Results obtained in fiscal years (FY) 1987 and 1988 are presented here. 13 refs., 27 figs., 36 tabs.

  17. Climate and lake-level history of the northern Altiplano, Bolivia, as recorded in Holocene sediments of the Rio Desaguadero

    SciTech Connect

    Baucom, P.C.; Rigsby, C.A.

    1999-05-01

    Strata exposed in terraces and modern cutbanks along the Rio Desaguadero contain a variety of lithofacies that were deposited in four distinct facies associations. These facies associations document a history of aggradation and downcutting that is linked to Holocene climate change on the Altiplano. Braided-stream, meandering-stream, deltaic and shoreline, and lacustrine sediments preserved in multi-level terraces in the northern Rio Desaguadero valley record two high-water intervals: one between 4,500 and 3,900 yr BP and another between 2,000 and 2,200 yr BP. These wet periods were interrupted by three periods of fluvial downcutting, centered at approximately 4,000 yr BP, 3,600 yr BP, and after 2,000 yr BP. Braided-river sediments preserved in a single terrace level in the southern Rio Desaguadero valley record a history of nearly continuous fluvial sedimentation from at least 7,000 yr BP until approximately 3,200 yr BP that was followed by a single episode (post-3,210 yr BP) of down-cutting and lateral migration. The deposition and subsequent fluvial downcutting of the northern strata was controlled by changes in effective moisture that can be correlated to Holocene water-level fluctuations of Lake Titicaca. The deposition and dissection of braided-stream sediments to the south are more likely controlled by a combination of base-level change and sediment input from the Rio Mauri.

  18. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Southwest): Coho salmon. [Oncorhynchus kisutch

    SciTech Connect

    Hassler, T.J.

    1987-08-01

    This species profile summarizes taxonomy, morphology, distribution, abundance, life history, and environmental requirements of coho salmon in the Pacific Southwest (California). Coho salmon are anadromous and enter freshwater in fall to spawn, after liver in the ocean for two growing seasons. Spawning peaks in November to January. The fry hatch in spring and migrate to the ocean in about a year. Juvenile coho require a mixture of pools and riffles, abundant instream and bank cover, water temperatures of 10 to 15/sup 0/C in summer, dissolved oxygen near saturation, and riffles with relatively little sediment and with abundant aquatic and terrestrial insects for food. Coho salmon support an extensive commercial and sport fishery. Habitats that support coho salmon are continually being destroyed or degraded; state, federal, and private agencies are working to restore and enhance these habitats.

  19. Genetic Analysis of Oncorhynchus Nerka : Life History and Genetic Analysis of Redfish Lake Oncorhynchus Nerka, 1993-1994 Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, E.L.; Thorgaard, G.H.; Cummings, S.A.

    1994-10-01

    The study has shown through life history examination and DNA analysis that three forms of O. nerka are present in Redfish Lake. The three forms are closely related, but may be sufficiently different to be considered three separate stocks. Fishhook Creek kokanee are temporally isolated from the beach spawners, and may represent the gene pool most similar to the historic sockeye population that once spawned there. Fishhook Creek offers the best spawning area available in the lake system, and should be considered for use in reestablishing an anadromous Fishhook Creek sockeye swain. The resident beach spawning strain of O. nerka is likewise the most similar genetic form of the companion anadromous beach spawning O. nerka, and needs to be considered the most appropriate genetic source to help minimize reduced fitness of the sockeye from inbreeding.

  20. The history of NATO TNF policy: The role of studies, analysis and exercises conference proceedings. Volume 1, Introduction and summary

    SciTech Connect

    Rinne, R.L.

    1994-02-01

    This conference was organized to study and analyze the role of simulation, analysis, modeling, and exercises in the history of NATO policy. The premise was not that the results of past studies will apply to future policy, but rather that understanding what influenced the decision process -- and how -- would be of value. The structure of the conference was built around discussion panels. The panels were augmented by a series of papers and presentations focusing on particular TNF events, issues, studies or exercise. The conference proceedings consist of three volumes. This volume, Volume 1, contains the conference introduction, agenda, biographical sketches of principal participants, and analytical summary of the presentations and discussion panels. Volume 2 contains a short introduction and the papers and presentations from the conference. Volume 3 contains selected papers by Brig. Gen. Robert C. Richardson III (Ret.).

  1. The history of NATO TNF policy: The role of studies, analysis and exercises conference proceedings. Volume 2: Papers and presentations

    SciTech Connect

    Rinne, R.L.

    1994-02-01

    This conference was organized to study and analyze the role of simulation, analysis, modeling, and exercises in the history of NATO policy. The premise was not that the results of past studies will apply to future policy, but rather that understanding what influenced the decision process -- and how -- would be of value. The structure of the conference was built around discussion panels. The panels were augmented by a series of papers and presentations focusing on particular TNF events, issues, studies, or exercises. The conference proceedings consist of three volumes. Volume 1 contains the conference introduction, agenda, biographical sketches of principal participants, and analytical summary of the presentations and panels. This volume contains a short introduction and the papers and presentations from the conference. Volume 3 contains selected papers by Brig. Gen. Robert C. Richardson III (Ret.). Individual papers in this volume were abstracted and indexed for the database.

  2. PEAT ACCRETION HISTORIES DURING THE PAST 6000 YEARS IN MARSHES OF THE SACRAMENTO - SAN JOAQUIN DELTA, CALIFORNIA, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Drexler, J Z; de Fontaine, C S; Brown, T A

    2009-07-20

    Peat cores were collected in 4 remnant marsh islands and 4 drained, farmed islands throughout the Sacramento - San Joaquin Delta of California in order to characterize the peat accretion history of this region. Radiocarbon age determination of marsh macrofossils at both marsh and farmed islands showed that marshes in the central and western Delta started forming between 6030 and 6790 cal yr BP. Age-depth models for three marshes were constructed using cubic smooth spline regression models. The resulting spline fit models were used to estimate peat accretion histories for the marshes. Estimated accretion rates range from 0.03 to 0.49 cm yr{sup -1} for the marsh sites. The highest accretion rates are at Browns Island, a marsh at the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. Porosity was examined in the peat core from Franks Wetland, one of the remnant marsh sites. Porosity was greater than 90% and changed little with depth indicating that autocompaction was not an important process in the peat column. The mean contribution of organic matter to soil volume at the marsh sites ranges from 6.15 to 9.25% with little variability. In contrast, the mean contribution of inorganic matter to soil volume ranges from 1.40 to 8.45% with much greater variability, especially in sites situated in main channels. These results suggest that marshes in the Delta can be viewed as largely autochthonous vs. allochthonous in character. Autochthonous sites are largely removed from watershed processes, such as sediment deposition and scour, and are dominated by organic production. Allochthonous sites have greater fluctuations in accretion rates due to the variability of inorganic inputs from the watershed. A comparison of estimated vertical accretion rates with 20th century rates of global sea-level rise shows that currently marshes are maintaining their positions in the tidal frame, yet this offers little assurance of sustainability under scenarios of increased sea-level rise in

  3. THE STAR FORMATION HISTORY AND METAL CONTENT OF THE GREEN PEAS. NEW DETAILED GTC-OSIRIS SPECTROPHOTOMETRY OF THREE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Amorin, R.; Perez-Montero, E.; Vilchez, J. M.

    2012-04-20

    We present deep broadband imaging and long-slit spectroscopy of three compact, low-mass starburst galaxies at redshift z {approx} 0.2-0.3, also referred to as Green Peas (GP). We measure physical properties of the ionized gas and derive abundances for several species with high precision. We find that the three GPs display relatively low extinction, low oxygen abundances, and remarkably high nitrogen-to-oxygen ratios. We also report on the detection of clear signatures of Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars in these galaxies. We carry out a pilot spectral synthesis study using a combination of both population and evolutionary synthesis models. Their outputs are in qualitative agreement, strongly suggesting a formation history dominated by starbursts. In agreement with the presence of W-R stars, these models show that these GPs currently undergo a major starburst producing between {approx}4% and {approx}20% of their stellar mass. However, as models imply, they are old galaxies that formed most of their stellar mass several Gyr ago. The presence of old stars has been spectroscopically verified in one of the galaxies by the detection of Mg I {lambda}{lambda}5167, 5173 absorption lines. Additionally, we perform a surface photometry study based on Hubble Space Telescope data, which indicates that the three galaxies possess an exponential low surface brightness envelope. If due to stellar emission, the latter is structurally compatible with the evolved hosts of luminous blue compact dwarf (BCD)/H II galaxies, suggesting that GPs are identifiable with major episodes in the assembly history of local BCDs. These conclusions highlight the importance of these objects as laboratories for studying galaxy evolution at late cosmic epochs.

  4. Salmon Life Histories, Habitat, and Food Webs in the Columbia River Estuary: An Overview of Research Results, 2002-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Bottom, Daniel L.; Anderson, Greer; Baptisa, Antonio

    2008-08-01

    From 2002 through 2006 we investigated historical and contemporary variations in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha life histories, habitat associations, and food webs in the lower Columbia River estuary (mouth to rkm 101). At near-shore beach-seining sites in the estuary, Chinook salmon occurred during all months of the year, increasing in abundance from January through late spring or early summer and declining rapidly after July. Recently emerged fry dispersed throughout the estuary in early spring, and fry migrants were abundant in the estuary until April or May each year. Each spring, mean salmon size increased from the tidal freshwater zone to the estuary mouth; this trend may reflect estuarine growth and continued entry of smaller individuals from upriver. Most juvenile Chinook salmon in the mainstem estuary fed actively on adult insects and epibenthic amphipods Americorophium spp. Estimated growth rates of juvenile Chinook salmon derived from otolith analysis averaged 0.5 mm d-1, comparable to rates reported for juvenile salmon Oncorhynchus spp. in other Northwest estuaries. Estuarine salmon collections were composed of representatives from a diversity of evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) from the lower and upper Columbia Basin. Genetic stock groups in the estuary exhibited distinct seasonal and temporal abundance patterns, including a consistent peak in the Spring Creek Fall Chinook group in May, followed by a peak in the Western Cascades Fall Chinook group in July. The structure of acanthocephalan parasite assemblages in juvenile Chinook salmon from the tidal freshwater zone exhibited a consistent transition in June. This may have reflected changes in stock composition and associated habitat use and feeding histories. From March through July, subyearling Chinook salmon were among the most abundant species in all wetland habitat types (emergent, forested, and scrub/shrub) surveyed in the lower 100 km of the estuary. Salmon densities

  5. Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, Annual Report 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Skalski, J. R.; Dawley, Earl M.; Coleman, Andre M.; Ostrand, Kenneth G.; Hanson, Kyle C.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Donley, Erin E.; Ke, Yinghai; Buenau, Kate E.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Townsend, Richard L.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the 2010 research conducted under the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) project EST-P-09-1, titled Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, and known as the 'Salmon Benefits' study. The primary goal of the study is to establish scientific methods to quantify habitat restoration benefits to listed salmon and trout in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) in three required areas: habitat connectivity, early life history diversity, and survival (Figure ES.1). The general study approach was to first evaluate the state of the science regarding the ability to quantify benefits to listed salmon and trout from habitat restoration actions in the LCRE in the 2009 project year, and then, if feasible, in subsequent project years to develop quantitative indices of habitat connectivity, early life history diversity, and survival. Based on the 2009 literature review, the following definitions are used in this study. Habitat connectivity is defined as a landscape descriptor concerning the ability of organisms to move among habitat patches, including the spatial arrangement of habitats (structural connectivity) and how the perception and behavior of salmon affect the potential for movement among habitats (functional connectivity). Life history is defined as the combination of traits exhibited by an organism throughout its life cycle, and for the purposes of this investigation, a life history strategy refers to the body size and temporal patterns of estuarine usage exhibited by migrating juvenile salmon. Survival is defined as the probability of fish remaining alive over a defined amount of space and/or time. The objectives of the 4-year study are as follows: (1) develop and test a quantitative index of juvenile salmon habitat connectivity in the LCRE incorporating structural, functional, and hydrologic components; (2) develop

  6. Spatially-resolved mapping of history-dependent coupled electrochemical and electronical behaviors of electroresistive NiO

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Sugiyama, Issei; Kim, Yunseok; Jesse, Stephen; Strelcov, Evgheni; Kumar, Amit; Tselev, Alexander; Rahani, Ehasan Kabiri; Shenoy, Vivek B.; Yamamoto, Takahisa; Shibata, Naoya; et al

    2014-10-22

    Bias-induced oxygen ion dynamics underpins a broad spectrum of electroresistive and memristive phenomena in oxide materials. Although widely studied by device-level and local voltage-current spectroscopies, the relationship between electroresistive phenomena, local electrochemical behaviors, and microstructures remains elusive. Here, the interplay between history-dependent electronic transport and electrochemical phenomena in a NiO single crystalline thin film with a number of well-defined defect types is explored on the nanometer scale using an atomic force microscopy-based technique. A variety of electrochemically-active regions were observed and spatially resolved relationship between the electronic and electrochemical phenomena was revealed. The regions with pronounced electroresistive activity were furthermore » correlated with defects identified by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Using fully coupled mechanical-electrochemical modeling, we illustrate that the spatial distribution of strain plays an important role in electrochemical and electroresistive phenomena. In conclusion, these studies illustrate an approach for simultaneous mapping of the electronic and ionic transport on a single defective structure level such as dislocations or interfaces, and pave the way for creating libraries of defect-specific electrochemical responses.« less

  7. The ACS LCID project. X. the star formation history of IC 1613: Revisiting the over-cooling problem

    SciTech Connect

    Skillman, Evan D.; Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Monelli, Matteo; Gallart, Carme; Aparicio, Antonio E-mail: shidalgo@iac.es E-mail: carme@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofsica de Canarias, Va Lctea s and others

    2014-05-01

    We present an analysis of the star formation history (SFH) of a field near the half-light radius in the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy IC 1613 based on deep Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging. Our observations reach the oldest main sequence turn-off, allowing a time resolution at the oldest ages of ?1 Gyr. Our analysis shows that the SFH of the observed field in IC 1613 is consistent with being constant over the entire lifetime of the galaxy. These observations rule out an early dominant episode of star formation in IC 1613. We compare the SFH of IC 1613 with expectations from cosmological models. Since most of the mass is in place at early times for low-mass halos, a naive expectation is that most of the star formation should have taken place at early times. Models in which star formation follows mass accretion result in too many stars formed early and gas mass fractions that are too low today (the 'over-cooling problem'). The depth of the present photometry of IC 1613 shows that, at a resolution of ?1 Gyr, the star formation rate is consistent with being constant, at even the earliest times, which is difficult to achieve in models where star formation follows mass assembly.

  8. Engineered materials characterization report for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 1, Introduction, history, and current candidates

    SciTech Connect

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D.; Roy, A.K.; Jones, D.A.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is to evaluate Yucca Mountain for its suitability as a potential site for the nation`s first high-level nuclear waste repository. As part of this effort, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been occupied for a number of years with developing and evaluating the performance of waste packages for the potential repository. In recent years this work has been carried out under the guidance of and in collaboration with the Management and Operating contractor for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System, TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc., which in turn reports to the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management of the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes the history of the selection and characterization of materials to be used in the engineered barrier system for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, describes the current candidate materials, presents a compilation of their properties, and summarizes available corrosion data and modeling. The term ``engineered materials`` is intended to distinguish those materials that are used as part of the engineered barrier system from the natural, geologic materials of the site.

  9. Case histories in the Europe/Africa area demonstrate improved capabilities of fiber-optic video camera technology

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, J.E.; Kristensen, R.; Taylor, R.W.

    1995-10-01

    Cost constraints in the oilfield restrict the performance of remedial services unless a high probability of success can be assured. Unfortunately, a method that could accurately diagnose wellbore problems in a broad scope of oilfield environments was not available, and until the 90`s, accuracy of problem assessment was compromised to the point that estimates of remedial success could not be determined. During the 90`s, however, a downhole video system that showed promise of providing the sought-after diagnostic accuracy for today`s operational conditions was introduced to the oilfield. With the combined capabilities of fiber-optic signal transmission and downhole video camera technology, the system can now provide the oil and gas industry with a diagnostic tool that is rapidly becoming invaluable in oilfield services and is proving the worth of the old adage, seeing is believing. This paper will present a brief overview of the use of the downhole video (DHV) camera technique from its first documented usage until early 1992. The enhancements that have been instrumental in enlarging the scope of its usage since that time will then be discussed. Case histories recorded by the video camera operation in the Europe/Africa area will be presented and analyzed to demonstrate usage and benefits of the system.

  10. Columbia River White Sturgeon Genetics and Early Life History: Population Segregation and Juvenile Feeding Behavior, 1987 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, Ernest L.

    1988-06-01

    The geographic area of the genetics study broadly covered the distribution range of sturgeon in the Columbia from below Bonneville Dam at Ilwaco at Lake Roosevelt, the Upper Snake River, and the Kootenai River. The two remote river sections provided data important for enhancement considerations. There was little electrophoretic variation seen among individuals from the Kootenai River. Upper Snake river sturgeon showed a higher percentage of polymorphic loci than the Kootenai fish, but lower than the other areas in the Columbia River we sampled. Sample size was increased in both Lake Roosevelt and at Electrophoretic variation was specific to an individual sampling area in several cases and this shaped our conclusions. The 1987 early life history studies concentrated on the feeding behavior of juvenile sturgeon. The chemostimulant components in prey attractive to sturgeon were examined, and the sensory systems utilized by foraging sturgeon were determined under different environmental conditions. These results were discussed with regard to the environmental changes that have occurred in the Columbia River. Under present river conditions, the feeding mechanism of sturgeon is more restricted to certain prey types, and their feeding range may be limited. In these situations, enhancement measures cannot be undertaken without consideration given to the introduction of food resources that will be readily available under present conditions. 89 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Case History of a Clean Water Act Compliance Agreement at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site near Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.S.

    1995-08-01

    A major Clean Water Act (CWA) Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement was signed on March 25, 1991 by the US Department of Energy, Rocky Flats Field Office (DOE, RFFO) and the Water Enforcement Division of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region VIII. The agreement revised the Rocky Flats Plant`s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit and arose from pemittee-requested changes in effluent monitoring points and permit violations, most notably the February 22, 1989 Chromic Acid Incident. The Rocky Flats Plant, now called the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) near Golden Colorado was operated at that time by Rockwell International Corporation, who later plead guilty to six misdemeanor and felony counts of the CWA (the aforementioned NPDES permit violations) and paid a $4 million fine on March 26, 1992. The Compliance Agreement, hereafter referred to as the NPDES FFCA, called for three separate remedial action plans and contained a schedule for their submittal to the EPA. The compliance plans focussed on: (1) Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) performance upgrades, (2) source control and surface water protection, and (3) characterization of the impacts from past sludge disposal practices. Projects that implemented the compliance plans were initiated soon after submittal to the EPA and are forecast to complete in 1997 at a total cost of over $35 million. This paper presents a case history of NPDES FFCA compliance projects and highlights the successes, failures, and lessons learned.

  12. History of Systems

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    208 16 3,328 3,328 1.0 GB IBM Colony 3,052 (2) 4,992 JWatson 1999 Cray Y-MP J90 Cray CMOS 100 MHz 1 32 32 8 250 MB SMP 6.4 FCrick 1999 Cray Y-MP J90 Cray CMOS 100 MHz 1 32 32 8...

  13. History of Hydropower

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Humans have been harnessing water to perform work for thousands of years. The Greeks used water wheels for grinding wheat into flour more than 2,000 years ago. The evolution of the modern...

  14. NTS_History.indd

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    NSF Perspective DOE Composites Workshop 13 January 2014 Steven McKnight Directorate for Engineering About the National Science Foundation 2 The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent federal agency created by Congress in 1950 "to promote the progress of science; to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare; to secure the national defense..." More info at www.nsf.gov Advanced Manufacturing Research Our role in the "ecosystem" * NSF supports fundamental

  15. Ribbon cutting makes history

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    being built at the nation's capital were enlightening. I am sure Lawler Wood and Turner Construction personnel in the room must have swelled with pride to hear such grand...

  16. History of the Bevatron

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This 1993 documentary chronicles the Bevatron at Berkeley Lab. During its operation from 1954 until 1993, the Bevatron was among the world's leading particle accelerators, and during the 1950s and 1960s, four Nobel Prizes were awarded for work conducted in whole or in part there. The accelerator made major contributions in four distinct areas of research: high-energy particle physics, nuclear heavy-ion physics, medical research and therapy, and space-related studies of radiation damage and heavy particles in space.

  17. History of Cern

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Cérémonie à l'occasion de l'apparition du premier volume du livre sur l'histoire du Cern, avec plusieurs personnes présentes qui jouaient un rôle important dans cette organisation européenne couronnée de succès grâce à l'esprit des membres fondateurs qui est et restera essentiel

  18. Sandia Energy - SCADA History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    to make decisions as well as human support to maintain the information system. In other words, they were expensive. At the same time, SCADA systems were not as expensive as...

  19. The History of DEER

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

  20. History of Radiocarbon Dating

    DOE R&D Accomplishments

    Libby, W. F.

    1967-08-15

    The development is traced of radiocarbon dating from its birth in curiosity regarding the effects of cosmic radiation on Earth. Discussed in historical perspective are: the significance of the initial measurements in determining the course of developments; the advent of the low-level counting technique; attempts to avoid low-level counting by the use of isotopic enrichment; the gradual appearance of the environmental effect due to the combustion of fossil fuel (Suess effect); recognition of the atmosphere ocean barrier for carbon dioxide exchange; detailed understanding of the mixing mechanism from the study of fallout radiocarbon; determination of the new half-life; indexing and the assimilation problem for the massive accumulation of dates; and the proliferation of measurement techniques and the impact of archaeological insight on the validity of radiocarbon dates. (author)

  1. About SRNL - Our History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    In support of these efforts, the Savannah River Laboratory was created. In August 1950, a top secret letter regarding the scope of work for the site included the directive that ...

  2. RECOUNTING HISTORY THROUGH RADIOASSAY

    SciTech Connect

    JASEN, W.G.

    2005-12-21

    This paper describes a proposed method for using historical documentation to identify unknown wastes resulting from retrieving suspect transuranic (TRU) waste. Identification is accomplished by a historical review of radionuclides identified by radioassay, along with the project controls used to ensure an accurate segregation of TRU from low-level waste (LLW). This paper presents an historical perspective on the identification of radionuclides at the Hanford Site from various waste generators of suspect TRU waste with an emphasis on the Data Quality Objectives (DQO's) and project controls used to ensure the waste is properly classified as TRU or LLW.

  3. Mound History and Information

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    weapons, devel- opment of radioisotopic thermoelectric generators used to provide electrical power for space exploration, and other non-nuclear research and development activities. ...

  4. History of the Bevatron

    ScienceCinema

    LBNL

    2016-07-12

    This 1993 documentary chronicles the Bevatron at Berkeley Lab. During its operation from 1954 until 1993, the Bevatron was among the world's leading particle accelerators, and during the 1950s and ... This 1993 documentary chronicles the Bevatron at Berkeley Lab. During its operation from 1954 until 1993, the Bevatron was among the world's leading particle accelerators, and during the 1950s and 1960s, four Nobel Prizes were awarded for work conducted in whole or in part there. The accelerator made major contributions in four distinct areas of research: high-energy particle physics, nuclear heavy-ion physics, medical research and therapy, and space-related studies of radiation damage and heavy particles in space.

  5. Energy Doubler History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    the Tevatron Personal Recollections Peter Limon June 11, 2012

  6. Hanford History - Hanford Site

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Beginning in 1943, the site was used to produce plutonium for the bomb that brought an end to World War II. After a short lull, production was ramped up in 1947 to meet the ...

  7. HISTORY OF BUILDING 828

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ......... 13 5. Laboratory equipment of the mechanical test group, ... Grant Clive in charge of the laboratory equipment and building design work. 4 A ...

  8. ESnet IPv6 History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    support of IPv6. In anticipation of the scalability problems with IPv4 (the current Internet Protocol), the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has produced a comprehensive...

  9. History of Weak Interactions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments

    Lee, T. D.

    1970-07-01

    While the phenomenon of beta-decay was discovered near the end of the last century, the notion that the weak interaction forms a separate field of physical forces evolved rather gradually. This became clear only after the experimental discoveries of other weak reactions such as muon-decay, muon-capture, etc., and the theoretical observation that all these reactions can be described by approximately the same coupling constant, thus giving rise to the notion of a universal weak interaction. Only then did one slowly recognize that the weak interaction force forms an independent field, perhaps on the same footing as the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, and the strong nuclear and sub-nuclear forces.

  10. SR Fill History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    systems recovered with troubleshooting 2 1008 08:33 To 1008 17:02 8.49   S26 Cab.3 Gespac PS 1.27 Investigation, standarize, refilled 3 1008 18:18 To 1013 08:00...

  11. Delayed star formation in isolated dwarf galaxies: Hubble space telescope star formation history of the Aquarius dwarf irregular

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Andrew A.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Skillman, Evan D.; McConnachie, Alan W.; Brooks, Alyson M.; Leaman, Ryan E-mail: drw@ucsc.edu E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu E-mail: abrooks@physics.rutgers.edu

    2014-11-01

    We have obtained deep images of the highly isolated (d = 1 Mpc) Aquarius dwarf irregular galaxy (DDO 210) with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys. The resulting color-magnitude diagram (CMD) reaches more than a magnitude below the oldest main-sequence turnoff, allowing us to derive the star formation history (SFH) over the entire lifetime of the galaxy with a timing precision of ?10% of the lookback time. Using a maximum likelihood fit to the CMD we find that only ?10% of all star formation in Aquarius took place more than 10 Gyr ago (lookback time equivalent to redshift z ? 2). The star formation rate increased dramatically ?6-8 Gyr ago (z ? 0.7-1.1) and then declined until the present time. The only known galaxy with a more extreme confirmed delay in star formation is Leo A, a galaxy of similar M {sub H} {sub I}/M {sub *}, dynamical mass, mean metallicity, and degree of isolation. The delayed stellar mass growth in these galaxies does not track the mean dark matter accretion rate from CDM simulations. The similarities between Leo A and Aquarius suggest that if gas is not removed from dwarf galaxies by interactions or feedback, it can linger for several gigayears without cooling in sufficient quantity to form stars efficiently. We discuss possible causes for the delay in star formation including suppression by reionization and late-time mergers. We find reasonable agreement between our measured SFHs and select cosmological simulations of isolated dwarfs. Because star formation and merger processes are both stochastic in nature, delayed star formation in various degrees is predicted to be a characteristic (but not a universal) feature of isolated small galaxies.

  12. Standardization of chemical analytical techniques for pyrolysis bio-oil: history, challenges, and current status of methods

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Ferrell, Jack R.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Christensen, Earl D.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Connatser, Raynella M.; Stankovikj, Filip; Meier, Dietrich; Paasikallio, Ville

    2016-07-05

    Here, we discuss the standardization of analytical techniques for pyrolysis bio-oils, including the current status of methods, and our opinions on future directions. First, the history of past standardization efforts is summarized, and both successful and unsuccessful validation of analytical techniques highlighted. The majority of analytical standardization studies to-date has tested only physical characterization techniques. In this paper, we present results from an international round robin on the validation of chemical characterization techniques for bio-oils. Techniques tested included acid number, carbonyl titrations using two different methods (one at room temperature and one at 80 °C), 31P NMR for determination ofmore » hydroxyl groups, and a quantitative gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Both carbonyl titration and acid number methods have yielded acceptable inter-laboratory variabilities. 31P NMR produced acceptable results for aliphatic and phenolic hydroxyl groups, but not for carboxylic hydroxyl groups. As shown in previous round robins, GC-MS results were more variable. Reliable chemical characterization of bio-oils will enable upgrading research and allow for detailed comparisons of bio-oils produced at different facilities. Reliable analytics are also needed to enable an emerging bioenergy industry, as processing facilities often have different analytical needs and capabilities than research facilities. We feel that correlations in reliable characterizations of bio-oils will help strike a balance between research and industry, and will ultimately help to -determine metrics for bio-oil quality. Lastly, the standardization of additional analytical methods is needed, particularly for upgraded bio-oils.« less

  13. Impact of purification conditions and history on A2A adenosine receptor activity: The role of CHAPS and lipids

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Naranjo, Andrea N.; McNeely, Patrick M.; Katsaras, John; Skaja Robinson, Anne

    2016-05-27

    The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) is a much-studied class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). For biophysical studies, A2AR is commonly purified in a detergent mixture of dodecylmaltoside (DDM), 3-(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammoniopropane sulfonate (CHAPS), and cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHS). Here we studied the effects of CHAPS on the ligand binding activity and stability of wild type, full-length human A2AR. We also tested the cholesterol requirement for maintaining the active conformation of the receptor when solubilized in detergent micelles. To this end, the receptor was purified using DDM, DDM/CHAPS, or the short hydrocarbon chain lipid 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC, di-6:0PC). After solubilization in DDM, DDM/CHAPS, ormore » DHPC micelles, although A2AR was found to retain its native-like fold, its binding ability was significantly compromised compared to DDM or DDM/CHAPS with CHS. It therefore appears that although cholesterol is not needed for A2AR to retain a native-like, α-helical conformation, it may be a critical component for high affinity ligand binding. Further, this result suggests that the conformational differences between the active and inactive protein may be so subtle that commonly used spectroscopic methods are unable to differentiate between the two forms, highlighting the need for activity measurements. Furthermore, the studies presented in this paper also underline the importance of the protein’s purification history; i.e., detergents that interact with the protein during purification affect the ligand binding properties of the receptor in an irreversible manner.« less

  14. History of the 185-/189-D thermal hydraulics laboratory and its effects on reactor operations at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.S.

    1994-09-01

    The 185-D deaeration building and the 189-D refrigeration building were constructed at Hanford during 1943 and 1944. Both buildings were constructed as part of the influent water cooling system for D reactor. The CMS studies eliminated the need for 185-D function. Early gains in knowledge ended the original function of the 189-D building mission. In 1951, 185-D and 189-D were converted to a thermal-hydraulic laboratory. The experiments held in the thermal-hydraulic lab lead to historic changes in Hanford reactor operations. In late 1951, the exponential physics experiments were moved to the 189-D building. In 1958, new production reactor experiments were begun in 185/189-D. In 1959, Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor experiments were added to the 185/189-D facility. By 1960, the 185/189-D thermal hydraulics laboratory was one of the few full service facilities of its type in the nation. During the years 1961--1963 tests continued in the facility in support of existing reactors, new production reactors, and the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor. In 1969, Fast Flux Test Facility developmental testings began in the facility. Simulations in 185/189-D building aided in the N Reactor repairs in the 1980`s. In 1994 the facility was nominated to the National Register of Historic Places, because of its pioneering role over many years in thermal hydraulics, flow studies, heat transfer, and other reactor coolant support work. During 1994 and 1995 it was demolished in the largest decontamination and decommissioning project thus far in Hanford Site history.

  15. Diagenetic history and hydrocarbon potential of Upper Permian carbonate buildups, Wegener Halvoe area, Jameson Land basin, east Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Scholle, P.A.; Ulmer, D.S. ); Stemmerik, L. )

    1991-04-01

    The Upper Permian of Jameson Land includes two carbonate sequences, the Karstryggen and Wegener Halvoe formations. The Karstryggen Formation contains hypersaline carbonates and localized evaporites that were heavily weathered and dissected prior to deposition of the overlying strata. The overlying Wegener Halvoe Formation represents an abrupt and extensive marine inundation over the underlying karstified Karstryggen surface. Bryozoan-brachiopod-algal-cement buildups of the Wegener Halvoe Formation are localized on karstic highs, and show up to 150 m of depositional relief. The diagenetic histories of the core and flank facies are very different. Core facies porosity was initially obliterated by marine cements, but repeated meteoric exposure altered unstable core facies constituents. This alteration produced extensive secondary porosity through grain and cement leaching with local collapse brecciation. Flank strata, however, underwent little sea-floor diagenesis, and low permeability and mineralogically stable grain composition protected these strata from meteoric alteration. Subsequent fracturing and hydrothermal fluid flow, however, flushed hydrocarbons and filled pores with ferroan calcite, barite, fluorite, galena, and baroque dolomite. This heating and flushing is thought to have been especially intense in the Wegener Halvoe region; thus, more basinal areas may still have reservoirs containing significant oil in equivalent Upper Permian limestones. If, as is likely, the sea level changes affecting the Greenland Permian were eustatic, then this study may provide significant clues to porosity development throughout the largely unexplored northern Zechstein basin and the Arctic basin of the Barent Sea. This study also provides some important connections to the probably time-equivalent Guadalupian carbonate reservoir rocks of west Texas-New Mexico and Wyoming.

  16. Process Description and Operating History for the CPP-601/-640/-627 Fuel Reprocessing Complex at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    E. P. Wagner

    1999-06-01

    The Fuel Reprocessing Complex (FRC) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was used for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel from the early 1950's until 1992. The reprocessing facilities are now scheduled to be deactivated. As part of the deactivation process, three Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status units located in the complex must be closed. This document gathers the historical information necessary to provide a rational basis for the preparation of a comprehensive closure plan. Included are descriptions of process operations and the operating history of the FRC. A set of detailed tables record the service history and present status of the process vessels and transfer lines.

  17. Failure of cap-rock seals as determined from mechanical stratigraphy, stress history, and tensile-failure analysis of exhumed analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, E. S.; Evans, J. P.; Bauer, S. J.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the sedimentologic and tectonic histories of clastic cap rocks and their inherent mechanical properties control the nature of permeable fractures within them. The migration of fluid through mm- to cm-scale fracture networks can result in focused fluid flow allowing hydrocarbon production from unconventional reservoirs or compromising the seal integrity of fluid traps. To understand the nature and distribution of subsurface fluid-flow pathways through fracture networks in cap-rock seals we examine four exhumed Paleozoic and Mesozoic seal analogs in Utah. We combine these outcrop analyses with subsidence analysis, paleoloading histories, and rock-strength testing data in modified Mohr–Coulomb–Griffith analyses to evaluate the effects of differential stress and rock type on fracture mode.

  18. Failure of cap-rock seals as determined from mechanical stratigraphy, stress history, and tensile-failure analysis of exhumed analogs

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Petrie, E. S.; Evans, J. P.; Bauer, S. J.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the sedimentologic and tectonic histories of clastic cap rocks and their inherent mechanical properties control the nature of permeable fractures within them. The migration of fluid through mm- to cm-scale fracture networks can result in focused fluid flow allowing hydrocarbon production from unconventional reservoirs or compromising the seal integrity of fluid traps. To understand the nature and distribution of subsurface fluid-flow pathways through fracture networks in cap-rock seals we examine four exhumed Paleozoic and Mesozoic seal analogs in Utah. We combine these outcrop analyses with subsidence analysis, paleoloading histories, and rock-strength testing data in modified Mohr–Coulomb–Griffith analysesmore » to evaluate the effects of differential stress and rock type on fracture mode.« less

  19. An Investigation of Enhanced Formability in AA5182-O Al During High-Rate Fre-Forming at Room-Temperature: Quantification of Deformation History

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, Aashish; Soulami, Ayoub; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Davies, Richard W.; Smith, Mark T.

    2014-03-01

    Following the two prior publication of PNNL Pulse-Pressure research in the Journal of Materials Processing Technology, this manuscript continues to describe PNNLs advances in getting a better understanding of sheet metal formability under high strain-rate conditions. Specifically, using a combination of numerical modeling and novel experiments, we quantitatively demonstrate the deformation history associated with enhanced formability (~2.5X) in Al under room temperature forming.

  20. Tracing the 4000 year history of organic thin films: From monolayers on liquids to multilayers on solids

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, J. E.

    2015-03-15

    The recorded history of organic monolayer and multilayer thin films spans approximately 4000 years. Fatty-acid-based monolayers were deposited on water by the ancients for applications ranging from fortune telling in King Hammurabi's time (∼1800 BC, Mesopotamia) to stilling choppy waters for sailors and divers as reported by the Roman philosopher Pliny the Elder in ∼78 AD, and then much later (1774) by the peripatetic American statesman and natural philosopher Benjamin Franklin, to Japanese “floating-ink” art (suminagashi) developed ∼1000 years ago. The modern science of organic monolayers began in the late-1800s/early-1900s with experiments by Lord Rayleigh and the important development by Agnes Pockels, followed two decades later by Irving Langmuir, of the tools and technology to measure the surface tension of liquids, the surface pressure of organic monolayers deposited on water, interfacial properties, molecular conformation of the organic layers, and phase transitions which occur upon compressing the monolayers. In 1935, Katherine Blodgett published a landmark paper showing that multilayers can be synthesized on solid substrates, with controlled thickness and composition, using an apparatus now known as the Langmuir-Blodgett (L-B) trough. A disadvantage of LB films for some applications is that they form weak physisorbed bonds to the substrate. In 1946, Bigelow, Pickett, and Zisman demonstrated, in another seminal paper, the growth of organic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) via spontaneous adsorption from solution, rather than from the water/air interface, onto SiO{sub 2} and metal substrates. SAMs are close-packed two-dimensional organic crystals which exhibit strong covalent bonding to the substrate. The first multicomponent adsorbed monolayers and multilayer SAMs were produced in the early 1980s. Langmuir monolayers, L-B multilayers, and self-assembled mono- and multilayers have found an extraordinarily broad range of applications including

  1. HANDBOOK FOR CONDUCTING ORAL HISTORY INTERVIEWS RELATED TO TRIBAL AND INDIAN PARTICIPATION IN THE CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION AND CLEANUP OF THE NUCLEAR WEAPONS COMPLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Cristann Gibson; Mervyn L. Tano; Albert Wing

    1999-08-31

    There were three major projects undertaken at the outset of the DOE/EM 22 Cooperative Agreement back in September 1995. There was a project relating to Tribal oral histories. Another project of the Cooperative Agreement related to technology and Tribal values and needs. This project by analogy could apply to issues of technology, environmental cleanup and other indigenous peoples internationally. How can Indian Tribes participate in defining the need for technology development rather than merely learning to adapt themselves and their situations and values to technology developed by others with differing needs, values and economic resources? And the third project was the placement of a Tribal intern in EM-22.

  2. Shut-off of a geopressured water channel behind casing via coiled tubing utilizing a dual slurry cement system: A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, T.W.; Lange, K.J.; Grant, W.H.; Patout, T.S.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a case history involving a unique dual cement system to shut off a geopressured water channel behind casing utilizing coiled tubing. The channeling problem was identified and documented using water flow logging techniques. Logging indicated the lower gravel packed selective could produce salt water if perforated without eliminating the suspected water channel. Reserves did not warrant a major rig workover, making a non-rig workover via coiled tubing the only viable option to repair the well. A unique dual cement system tested on a hesitation squeeze schedule pumped through coiled tubing with extremely limited thickening time was necessary to repair the primary cement job.

  3. Combined stochastic and deterministic reservoir characterization leads to faster history matching of a horizontal well in a complex fluvio-lacustrine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Calatayud, P.M.; Petit, F.M.; Tessier, P.; Norris, R.J.; Coffin, P.; Alabert, F.G.

    1994-12-31

    An example of how to treat a complex fluvio-lacustrine reservoir, characterized by both continuous and discontinuous multi-scaled heterogeneities is presented. A detailed geological description was prepared, the heterogeneities were described and quantified, and discriminated in correlatable or discontinuous levels. The discontinuous levels were geostatistically modeled and up-scaled, while the correlatable ones were deterministically represented. The history matching process was very rapid, allowing greater time and confidence in sensitivity studies. The whole study is clearly a multidisciplinary project, involving geology, geostatistics, up-scaling and simulation.

  4. Use of time history speckle pattern and pulsed photoacoustic techniques to detect the self-accommodating transformation in a Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Arevalo, F.M.; Aldama-Reyna, W.; Lara-Rodriguez, A.G.; Garcia-Fernandez, T.; Pulos, G.; Trivi, M.; Villagran-Muniz, M.

    2010-05-15

    Continuous and pulsed electromagnetic radiation was used to detect the self-accommodation mechanism on a polycrystalline Cu-13.83 wt.%Al-2.34 wt.%Ni shape memory alloy. Rectangular samples of this alloy were mechanically polished to observe the austenite and martensite phases. The samples were cooled in liquid nitrogen prior to the experiments to obtain the martensite phase. Using a dynamic speckle technique with a continuous wave laser we obtained the time history of the speckle pattern image and monitored the surface changes caused by the self-accommodation mechanism during the inverse (martensitic to austenitic) transformation. Using a photoacoustic technique based on a pulsed laser source it was also possible to detect the self-accommodation phenomena in a bulk sample. For comparison purposes, we used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to detect the critical temperatures of transformation and use these as reference to evaluate the performance of the optical and photoacoustical techniques. In all cases, the same range of temperature was obtained during the inverse transformation. From these results, we conclude that time history speckle pattern (THSP) and pulsed photoacoustic are complementary techniques; they are non-destructive and useful to detect surface and bulk martensitic transformation induced by a temperature change.

  5. Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal program summary report compilation. Volume 2-A: Resource description, program history, wells tested, university and company based research, site restoration

    SciTech Connect

    John, C.J.; Maciasz, G.; Harder, B.J.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy established a geopressured-geothermal energy program in the mid 1970`s as one response to America`s need to develop alternate energy resources in view of the increasing dependence on imported fossil fuel energy. This program continued for 17 years and approximately two hundred million dollars were expended for various types of research and well testing to thoroughly investigate this alternative energy source. This volume describes the following studies: Geopressured-geothermal resource description; Resource origin and sediment type; Gulf Coast resource extent; Resource estimates; Project history; Authorizing legislation; Program objectives; Perceived constraints; Program activities and structure; Well testing; Program management; Program cost summary; Funding history; Resource characterization; Wells of opportunity; Edna Delcambre No. 1 well; Edna Delcambre well recompletion; Fairfax Foster Sutter No. 2 well; Beulah Simon No. 2 well; P.E. Girouard No. 1 well; Prairie Canal No. 1 well; Crown Zellerbach No. 2 well; Alice C. Plantation No. 2 well; Tenneco Fee N No. 1 well; Pauline Kraft No. 1 well; Saldana well No. 2; G.M. Koelemay well No. 1; Willis Hulin No. 1 well; Investigations of other wells of opportunity; Clovis A. Kennedy No. 1 well; Watkins-Miller No. 1 well; Lucien J. Richard et al No. 1 well; and the C and K-Frank A. Godchaux, III, well No. 1.

  6. Fish Individual-based Numerical Simulator (FINS): A particle-based model of juvenile salmonid movement and dissolved gas exposure history in the Columbia River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Scheibe, Timothy D.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2002-01-30

    This paper describes a numerical model of juvenile salmonid migration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers. The model, called the Fish Individual-based Numerical Simulator or FINS, employs a discrete, particle-based approach to simulate the migration and history of exposure to dissolved gases of individual fish. FINS is linked to a two-dimensional (vertically-averaged) hydrodynamic simulator that quantifies local water velocity, temperature, and dissolved gas levels as a function of river flow rates and dam operations. Simulated gas exposure histories can be input to biological mortality models to predict the effects of various river configurations on fish injury and mortality due to dissolved gas supersaturation. Therefore, FINS serves as a critical linkage between hydrodynamic models of the river system and models of biological impacts. FINS was parameterized and validated based on observations of individual fish movements collected using radiotelemetry methods during 1997 and 1998. A quasi-inverse approach was used to decouple fish swimming movements from advection with the local water velocity, allowing inference of time series of non-advective displacements of individual fish from the radiotelemetry data. Statistical analyses of these displacements are presented, and confirm that strong temporal correlation of fish swimming behavior persists in some cases over several hours. A correlated random-walk model was employed to simulate the observed migration behavior, and parameters of the model were estimated that lead to close correspondence between predictions and observations.

  7. The Discovery of the Tau Lepton: Part 1, The Early History Through 1975; Part 2, Confirmation of the Discovery and Measurement of Major Properties, 1976--1982

    DOE R&D Accomplishments

    Perl, M. L.

    1994-08-01

    Several previous papers have given the history of the discovery of the {tau} lepton at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). These papers emphasized (a) the experiments which led to our 1975 publication of the first evidence for the existence of the {tau}, (b) the subsequent experiments which confirmed the existence of the r, and (c) the experiments which elucidated the major properties of the {tau}. That history will be summarized in Part 2 of this talk. In this Part 1, I describe the earlier thoughts and work of myself and my colleagues at SLAC in the 1960's and early 1970's which led to the discovery. I also describe the theoretical and experimental events in particle physics in the 1960's in which our work was immersed. I will also try to describe for the younger generations of particle physicists, the atmosphere in the 1960's. That was before the elucidation of the quark model of hadrons, before the development of the concept of particle generations The experimental paths to program we hot as clear as they are today and we had to cast a wide experimental net.

  8. Angola: a great future

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The companies represented in Angola and their concessions by area are tabulated, including offshore leases. The government of this only recently independent country puts great emphasis on petroleum development and welcomes foreign companies. The major portion of the production comes from the fields in the Cabinda area. In the future, the reserves in the Congo basin will become more important. Exploration activity is intense and concentrated on the near offshore area of the country. The gas reserves are still not entirely known; present production serves only the needs of petroleum production, including a gas injection project in the Cabinda area and the production of LPG. A map of the offshore concession blocks also is shown.

  9. Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, Annual Report 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Skalski, John R.; Dawley, Earl M.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2010-08-01

    This report describes the 2009 research conducted under the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE or Corps) project EST-09-P-01, titled “Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary.” The research was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Marine Science Laboratory and Hydrology Group, in partnership with the University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, Columbia Basin Research, and Earl Dawley (NOAA Fisheries, retired). This Columbia River Fish Mitigation Program project, referred to as “Salmonid Benefits,” was started in FY 2009 to evaluate the state-of-the science regarding the ability to quantify the benefits to listed salmonids1 of habitat restoration actions in the lower Columbia River and estuary.

  10. Columbia River White Sturgeon (Acipenser Transmontanus) Early Life History and Genertics Study, August 1, 1984 to December 31, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, Ernest L.

    1985-12-01

    Research on Columbia River white sturgeon has been directed at their early life history as it may apply to production and enhancement strategies for management of the species. The river environment in which sturgeon historically migrated, spawned, and reared has changed through development. Habitat changes are expected to precipitate genetic changes in the fish, as well as reduce the fitness in populations. Genetic analysis of samples taken from various locations over the length of the Columbia River have indicated that observed gene frequencies in all areas sampled were not in Hardy-Weinburg equilibrium, which could suggest that the general population is experiencing perturbation in the system. Analysis thus far has exposed few differences between samples from the lower, middle, and upper portions of the system. Allelic differences were identified in fish from the Roosevelt Lake, which may be evidence of unique characteristics among fish from that general area.

  11. CombinePlt and CombineThs user manual: Merging multiple, processor-local plot and time-history data bases produced during a parallel calculation. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Procassini, R.J.; DeGroot, A.J.

    1995-09-21

    The CombinePlt and CombineThs post-processing utilities are designed to merge the data in multiple, processor-local plot and time-history data bases produced by the parallel versions of the analysis codes DYNA3D, NIKE3D or PING into a serial database which is compatible with the existing versions of the GRIZ and THUG visualization tools. These utilities make use of the partition assignment file produced by the PartMesh suite for pre-processing utilities to map the data from the processor-local order to global order. These utilities are also capable of translating 64-bit IEEE data bases into 32-bit IEEE data bases which are required for post-processing with GRIZ or THUG on an SGI workstation.

  12. CombinePlt and CombineThs user manual: Merging multiple, processor-local plot and time-history data bases produced during a parallel calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Procassini, R.J.; DeGroot, A.J.

    1995-06-01

    The CombinePlt and CombineThs post-processing utilities are designed to merge the data in multiple, processor-local plot and time-history data bases produced by the parallel versions of the analysis codes DYNA3D, NIKE3D or PING into a serial data base which is compatible with the existing versions of the GRIZ and THUG visualization tools. These utilities make use of the partition assignment file produced by the PartMesh suite of pre-processing utilities to map the data from the processor-local order to global order. These utilities are also capable of translating 64-bit IEEE data bases into 32-bit IEEE data bases which are required for post-processing with GRIZ or THUG on an SGI workstation.

  13. The history of NATO TNF policy: The role of studies, analysis and exercises conference proceedings. Volume 3: Papers by Gen. Robert C. Richardson III (Ret.)

    SciTech Connect

    Rinne, R.L.

    1994-02-01

    This conference was organized to study and analyze the role of simulation, analysis, modeling, and exercises in the history of NATO policy. The premise was not that the results of past studies will apply to future policy, but rather that understanding what influenced the decision process-and how-would be of value. The structure of the conference was built around discussion panels. The panels were augmented by a series of papers and presentations focusing on particular TNF events, issues, studies, or exercises. The conference proceedings consist of three volumes. Volume 1 contains the conference introduction, agenda, biographical sketches of principal participants, and analytical summary of the presentations and discussion panels. Volume 2 contains a short introduction and the papers and presentations from the conference. This volume contains selected papers by Brig. Gen. Robert C. Richardson III (Ret.).

  14. Investigation of the thermal regime and geologic history of the Cascade volcanic arc: First phase of a program for scientific drilling in the Cascade Range

    SciTech Connect

    Priest, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    A phased, multihole drilling program with associated science is proposed as a means of furthering our understanding of the thermal regime and geologic history of the Cascade Range of Washington, Oregon, and northern California. The information obtained from drilling and ancillary geological and geophysical investigations will contribute to our knowledge in the following general areas: (1) the magnitude of the regional background heat flow of parts of the Quaternary volcanic belt dominated by the most abundant volcanic rock types, basalt and basaltic andesite; (2) the nature of the heat source responsible for the regional heat-flow anomaly; (3) the characteristics of the regional hydrothermal and cold-water circulation; the rates of volcanism for comparison with models for the rate and direction of plate convergence of the Cascades; (5) the history of deformation and volcanism in the volcanic arc that can be related to subduction; (6) the present-day stress regime of the volcanic arc and the relation of these stresses to plate interactions and possible large earthquakes; and the current geometry of the subducted oceanic plate below the Cascade Range and the relationship of the plate to the distribution of heat flow, Quaternary volcanism, and Quaternary deformation. Phase I research will be directed toward a detailed investigation of the Santiam Pass segment. In concert with the Santiam Pass research, a detailed study of the nearby Breitenbush Hot Springs area is also recommended as a component of Phase I. The object of the Breitenbush research is to study one of the hottest known Cascade hydrothermal systems, which coincidentally also has a good geological and geophysical data base. A coordinated program of drilling, sampling, subsurface measurements, and surface surveys will be associated with the drilling of several holes.

  15. A TALE OF A RICH CLUSTER AT z ? 0.8 AS SEEN BY THE STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF ITS EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Ferr-Mateu, Anna; Snchez-Blzquez, Patricia; Vazdekis, Alexandre; De la Rosa, Ignacio G.

    2014-12-20

    We present a detailed stellar population analysis for a sample of 24 early-type galaxies (ETGs) belonging to the rich cluster RX J0152.7-1357 at z = 0.83. We have derived the age, metallicity, abundance pattern, and star formation history (SFH) for each galaxy individually to further characterize this intermediate-z reference cluster. We then study how these stellar population parameters depend on the local environment. This provides a better understanding on the formation timescales and subsequent evolution of the substructures in this cluster. We have also explored the evolutionary link between z ? 0.8 ETGs and those in the local universe by comparing the trends that the stellar population parameters followed with galaxy velocity dispersion at each epoch. We find that the ETGs in Coma are consistent with being the (passively evolving) descendants of the ETG population in RX J10152.7-1357. Furthermore, our results favor a downsizing picture, where the subclumps centers were formed first. These central parts contain the most massive galaxies, which formed the bulk of their stars in a short, burst-like event at high z. On the contrary, the cluster outskirts are populated with less-massive, smaller galaxies that show a wider variety of SFHs. In general, they present extended star formation episodes over cosmic time, which seems to be related to their posterior incorporation into the cluster around 4 Gyr after the initial event of formation.

  16. The tale of a modern animal plague: Tracing the evolutionary history and determining the time-scale for foot and mouth disease virus

    SciTech Connect

    Tully, Damien C. Fares, Mario A.

    2008-12-20

    Despite significant advances made in the understanding of its epidemiology, foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is among the most unexpected agricultural devastating plagues. While the disease manifests itself as seven immunologically distinct strains their origin, population dynamics, migration patterns and divergence times remain unknown. Herein we have assembled a comprehensive data set of gene sequences representing the global diversity of the disease and inferred the time-scale and evolutionary history for FMDV. Serotype-specific rates of evolution and divergence times were estimated using a Bayesian coalescent framework. We report that an ancient precursor FMDV gave rise to two major diversification events spanning a relatively short interval of time. This radiation event is estimated to have taken place towards the end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th century giving us the present circulating Euro-Asiatic and South African viral strains. Furthermore our results hint that Europe acted as a possible hub for the disease from where it successfully dispersed elsewhere via exploration and trading routes.

  17. A PUBLIC CATALOG OF STELLAR MASSES, STAR FORMATION AND METALLICITY HISTORIES, AND DUST CONTENT FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY USING VESPA

    SciTech Connect

    Tojeiro, Rita; Wilkins, Stephen; Heavens, Alan F.; Panter, Ben; Jimenez, Raul

    2009-11-01

    We applied the VESPA algorithm to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey final data release of the Main Galaxies and Luminous Red Galaxies samples. The result is a catalog of stellar masses, detailed star formation and metallicity histories and dust content of nearly 800,000 galaxies. We make the catalog public via a T-SQL database, which is described in detail in this paper. We present the results using a range of stellar population and dust models, and will continue to update the catalog as new and improved models are made public. We also present a brief exploration of the catalog, and show that the quantities derived are robust: luminous red galaxies can be described by one to three populations, whereas a main galaxy sample galaxy needs on average two to five; red galaxies are older and less dusty; the dust values we recover are well correlated with measured Balmer decrements and star formation rates are also in agreement with previous measurements. We find that whereas some derived quantities are robust to the choice of modelling, many are still not.

  18. Analysis of the Costs of a Backlog Project in Response to Recommendation 2 of the 2004 Archives and History Office Program Review Committee Report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, Laura; /SLAC

    2007-12-21

    SLAC Archives and History Office (AHO) backlog of unprocessed material is over 3,000 cubic feet and growing. Because much of this material was directly transferred to off-site storage, the provenance and contents are a mystery. The costs of off-site storage, lack of knowledge of the contents, and the impending federal regulations in 2009 concerning storage facilities all suggest the need for a long-term plan for the backlog. AHO presents these options to SLAC management: (1) Continue with the status quo, adding new accessions to OffSite Records Management, LLC (hereinafter referred to as OffSite) storage; (2) Pull the backlog back a segment at a time for box-level processing, determine what is in each box, get rid of extraneous material, and return what is left to OffSite storage; (3) Gradually retrieve the backlog for thorough, folder-level processing and then transfer to the Federal Records Center in San Bruno (hereinafter referred to as FRC) or the Archives side of the operations at the National Archives and Records Administration in San Bruno (hereinafter referred to as NARA); and (4) Gradually retrieve the backlog for a combination of box-level processing with return to OffSite storage and thorough folder-level processing with transfer to FRC or NARA.

  19. THE STAR FORMATION HISTORY OF THE VERY METAL-POOR BLUE COMPACT DWARF I Zw 18 FROM HST/ACS DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Annibali, F.; Cignoni, M.; Tosi, M.; Clementini, G.; Contreras Ramos, R.; Fiorentino, G.; Van der Marel, R. P.; Aloisi, A.; Marconi, M.; Musella, I.

    2013-12-01

    We have derived the star formation history (SFH) of the blue compact dwarf galaxy I Zw 18 through comparison of deep HST/ACS data with synthetic color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). A statistical analysis was implemented for the identification of the best-fit SFH and relative uncertainties. We confirm that I Zw 18 is not a truly young galaxy, having started forming stars earlier than ?1 Gyr ago, and possibly at epochs as old as a Hubble time. In I Zw 18's main body we infer a lower limit of ?2 10{sup 6} M {sub ?} for the mass locked up in old stars. I Zw 18's main body has been forming stars very actively during the last ?10 Myr, with an average star formation rate (SFR) as high as ?1 M {sub ?} yr{sup 1} (or ?2 10{sup 5} M {sub ?} yr{sup 1} pc{sup 2}). On the other hand, the secondary body was much less active at these epochs, in agreement with the absence of significant nebular emission. The high current SFR can explain the very blue colors and the high ionized gas content in I Zw 18, resembling primeval galaxies in the early universe. Detailed chemical evolution models are required to quantitatively check whether the SFH from the synthetic CMDs can explain the low measured element abundances, or if galactic winds with loss of metals are needed.

  20. Pulling History from the Waste Stream: Identification and Collection of Manhattan Project and Cold War Era Artifacts on the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Marceau, Thomas E.; Watson, Thomas L.

    2013-11-13

    One man's trash is another man's treasure. Not everything called "waste" is meant for the refuse pile. The mission of the Curation Program is at direct odds with the remediation objectives of the Hanford Site. While others are busily tearing down and burying the Site's physical structures and their associated contents, the Curation Program seeks to preserve the tangible elements of the Site's history from these structures for future generations before they flow into the waste stream. Under the provisions of a Programmatic Agreement, Cultural Resources staff initiated a project to identify and collect artifacts and archives that have historic or interpretive value in documenting the role of the Hanford Site throughout the Manhattan Project and Cold War Era. The genesis of Hanford's modern day Curation Program, its evolution over nearly two decades, issues encountered, and lessons learned along the way -- particularly the importance of upper management advocacy, when and how identification efforts should be accomplished, the challenges of working within a radiological setting, and the importance of first hand information -- are presented.

  1. ARM Orientation: Overview and History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Warren Wiscombe ARM Chief Scientist Brookhaven & NASA ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement 2 Mar 2006 ARM Orientation You want me to be Chief ...

  2. Our History | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    TD staff worked with the newly-established U.S.Canada Power System Outage Task Force to analyze the causes of the blackout and recommend future steps to avoid a reoccurrence. In ...

  3. Long History of IAM Comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Kejun, Jiang; Kriegler, Elmar; Masui, Toshihiko; Riahi, Keywan; Shukla, Priyadarshi R.; Tavoni, Massimo; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Weyant, John

    2015-04-23

    Correspondence to editor: We agree with the editors that the assumptions behind models of all types, including integrated assessment models (IAMs), should be as transparent as possible. The editors were in error, however, when they implied that the IAM community is just “now emulating the efforts of climate researchers by instigating their own model inter-comparison projects (MIPs).” In fact, model comparisons for integrated assessment and climate models followed a remarkably similar trajectory. Early General Circulation Model (GCM) comparison efforts, evolved to the first Atmospheric Model Inter-comparison Project (AMIP), which was initiated in the early 1990s. Atmospheric models evolved to coupled atmosphere-ocean models (AOGCMs) and results from the first Coupled Model Inter-Comparison Project (CMIP1) become available about a decade later. Results of first energy model comparison exercise, conducted under the auspices of the Stanford Energy Modeling Forum, were published in 1977. A summary of the first comparison focused on climate change was published in 1993. As energy models were coupled to simple economic and climate models to form IAMs, the first comparison exercise for IAMs (EMF-14) was initiated in 1994, and IAM comparison exercises have been on-going since this time.

  4. FTCP History | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    In 1993, the Board issued Recommendation 93-3, Improving DOE Technical Capability in Defense Nuclear Facilities. This recommendation resulted in DOE's establishing the Federal ...

  5. History | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Leadership Computing The Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) was established at Argonne National Laboratory in 2004 as part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiative dedicated to enabling leading-edge computational capabilities to advance fundamental discovery and understanding in a broad range of scientific and engineering disciplines. Supported by the Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) program within DOE's Office of Science, the ALCF is one half of the DOE Leadership

  6. History | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Timeline Fusion Basics DOE and Fusion Links Speakers Bureau Tours 10 Facts About Fusion Energy Contract Documents News Events Research Education Organization Contact Us Overview ...

  7. Our History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... When several Persian Gulf nations of the Organization for Petroleum Exporting Countries temporarily ceased oil shipments to the United States and sent world oil prices ...

  8. ARM Orientation: Overview and History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Warren Wiscombe ARM Chief Scientist Brookhaven & NASA ARM Orientation: ARM Orientation: ... tectonic motions, radon, validation for NASA satellites Mar 2009 ARM Orientation 19 Mar ...

  9. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Bioenergy History

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This infographic was created by students from Sun Valley High School in Aston, PA, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME Infographic...

  10. WIPP Driver Makes History, Again

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    CARLSBAD, N.M. - A brand-new shipping package arrived at the Department of Energy’s Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during the early evening hours of August 25, but an all-too familiar face was behind the wheel of the vehicle carrying the package.

  11. NEPA History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    These amendments incorporate changes primarily related to DOE's power marketing activities, based on DOE's experience in applying the current NEPA regulations. The revised ...

  12. bartlesville_history_appendices.pdf

    Energy Saver

    Architect and Designer Partnership Agreement ZERH Architect and Designer Partnership Agreement What is expected of partners? Every type of partner has its own role. Review the partnership agreement package below for more information on partner expectations. Architect and designer partners may be any company, person or entity that designs single-family homes, multifamily buildings, affordable housing, or manufactured homes. ZERH Architect and Designer Partnership Agreement (235.94 KB) More

  13. PNNL: About PNNL - Laboratory History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    courageous discovery and innovation-or you also may download this brochure. (If the animation does not start automatically, please right click and select play.) Get Adobe Flash...

  14. History of VOLTTRON - VOLTTRON 2016

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    : 1.0 - 4.0 and Beyond BORA AKYOL JEREME HAACK August 11, 2016 1 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory VOLTTRON TM 2016 PNNL-SA-119835 August 11, 2016 2 VOLTTRON(tm) Team Software Development Team ► Bora Akyol ► Jereme Haack ► Kyle Monson ► Craig Allwardt ► Poorva Sharma ► Robert Lutes ► Michael Roup ► Chandrika Sivaramakrishnan ► Zach Beech ► Joe Chapman ► Leif Carlsen Application Development Team ► Srinivas Katipamula ► Robert Lutes ► Wooyun Kim ► Rick Pratt ►

  15. PNNL: About PNNL - Laboratory History

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Literature Below are a few informational and news fliers highlighting our work. Subscribe to receive ongoing, periodic updates from PNNL. Discovery in Action through the Years...

  16. Water Power Program Budget History

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-19

    On this page you can learn more about the Program's budget for this current fiscal year, as well as budgets in previous fiscal years.

  17. A New Appraisal- Lessons from the History of Efforts to Value Green and High-Performance Home Attributes in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan

    2015-10-21

    Rigorous consideration of green and high-performance (“green/HP”) features is rarely included in the property valuation process._ To help illuminate why this is the case, this report takes stock of the history of efforts to improve practices, and identifies barriers that have emerged and opportunities for overcoming them. Particular emphasis is placed on what energy and environmental policymakers and other stakeholders outside the appraisal community can contribute to the broader effort to advance professional practices. The history has unfolded in parallel with turbulent periods in the housing market for which appraisers and their customers are deemed to share responsibility, followed by cycles of regulations, siloing of appraisers in the name of professional integrity, and commoditization of the valuation process itself. This pattern has important ramifications for aspirations that appraisers engage more fully in identifying and valuing the green/HP characteristics of homes. On the one hand, it is legally and ethically incumbent on appraisers to do so, yet on the other hand it is perceived as a risky avenue to follow. Risks arise where findings can be challenged as either over- or under-stating value, together with a market environment in which the complexity of their assignments increases despite downward pressure on appraiser fees. While efforts to address green/HP considerations date back to the early 1980s, the vast majority of activity has taken place within the past five years. Many players have engaged in the efforts to promote improved valuation practices. These include the Appraisal Foundation, The Appraisal Institute, Colorado Energy Office, Earth Advantage, EcoBroker, Elevate Energy, Fannie Mae, Federal Housing Administration, Home Innovation Research Labs, The Institute for Market Transformation, Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance, National Association of Homebuilders, National Association of State Energy Officials, National Association of

  18. THE STAR-FORMING HISTORIES OF THE NUCLEUS, BULGE, AND INNER DISK OF NGC5102: CLUES TO THE EVOLUTION OF A NEARBY LENTICULAR GALAXY {sup ,} {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Davidge, T. J.

    2015-01-20

    Long slit spectra recorded with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph on Gemini South are used to examine the star-forming history (SFH) of the lenticular galaxy NGC5102. Structural and supplemental photometric information are obtained from archival Spitzer [3.6] images. Absorption features at blue and visible wavelengths are traced out along the minor axis to galactocentric radii ?60 arcsec (?0.9 kpc), sampling the nucleus, bulge, and disk components. Comparisons with model spectra point to luminosity-weighted metallicities that are consistent with the colors of resolved red giant branch stars in the disk. The nucleus has a luminosity-weighted age at visible wavelengths of ?1{sub ?0.1}{sup +0.2}Gyr, and the integrated light is dominated by stars that formed over a time period of only a few hundred Myr. For comparison, the luminosity-weighted ages of the bulge and disk are ?2{sub ?0.2}{sup +0.5}Gyr and 10{sub ?2}{sup +2}Gyr, respectively. The g' [3.6] colors of the nucleus and bulge are consistent with the spectroscopically based ages. In contrast to the nucleus, models that assume star-forming activity spanning many Gyr provide a better match to the spectra of the bulge and disk than simple stellar population models. Isophotes in the bulge have a disky shape, hinting that the bulge was assembled from material with significant rotational support. The SFHs of the bulge and disk are consistent with the bulge forming from the collapse of a long-lived bar, rather than from the collapse of a transient structure that formed as the result of a tidal interaction. It is thus suggested that the progenitor of NGC5102 was a barred disk galaxy that morphed into a lenticular galaxy through the buckling of its bar.

  19. Bakken and other Devonian-Mississippian petroleum source rocks, northern Rocky Mtns.-Williston basin: Depositional and burial history and maturity estimations

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.A.

    1996-06-01

    The three-member Devonian-Mississippian Bakken-Exshaw organic-rich shaly facies is widely distributed in the northern U.S. and southern Canadian Cordillera. Equivalent facies are also present as far south as Utah and Nevada. Paleogeographically, these rocks thin markedly or pinchout to the west approximately along the Devonian-Mississippian carbonate reef-mound belt of the Cordilleran shelf margin. Although these rocks reach maximum organic richness approximately at the Devonian-Carboniferous transition, similar but somewhat less organic-rich Bakken-like beds are also present in underlying Upper Devonian and overlying Lower Carboniferous carbonate depositional cycles. At least ten cycles are identified in the underlying Duperow and Jefferson Formations, characterized by basal organic-rich Bakken-like shale or shaly carbonate that grades upward into carbonate mound or reefal beds, overlain by evaporite or solution breccia. Cycles in the overlying Lodgepole and Mission Canyon Formations, as many as 10-12 in number, are similar except that the carbonates are composed of algal-oolith, crinoid, or mixed skeletal beds, and end-cycle evaporitic units are less prevalent in the lower cycles. These dark shaly beds are the most important source of hydrocarbon reserves in Montana and the Williston basin. Maximum net thickness of the Devonian-Mississippian organic-rich facies is in the Williston basin. However, variable thicknesses of these potential source rocks is present in parts of Montana as far west as the thrust belt. Burial history studies suggest that in some areas these rocks are probably thermally immature. However, in much of the area original burial depths are sufficient for them to reach the thermally mature stage, and therefore are of importance to further exploration efforts in the Devonian-Mississippian Madison-Duperow-Jefferson Formations.

  20. Fish Research Project Oregon; Aspects of Life History and Production of Juvenile Oncorhynchus Mykiss in the Grande Ronde River Basin, Northeast Oregon, 1995-1999 Summary Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dyke, Erick S.; Jonnasson, Brian C.; Carmichael, Richard W.

    2001-07-01

    Rotary screw traps, located at four sites in the Grande Ronde River basin, were used to characterize aspects of early life history exhibited by juvenile Onchorhychus mykiss during migration years 1995-99. The Lostine, Catherine Creek and upper Grande Ronde traps captured fish as they migrated out of spawning areas into valley rearing habitats. The Grande Ronde Valley trap captured fish as they left valley habitats downstream of Catherine Creek and upper Grande Ronde River rearing habitats. Dispersal downstream of spawning areas was most evident in fall and spring, but movement occurred during all seasons that the traps were fished. Seaward migration occurred primarily in spring when O. mykiss smolts left overwintering area located in both spawning area and valley habitats. Migration patterns exhibited by O. mykiss suggest that Grande Ronde Valley habitats are used for overwintering and should be considered critical rearing habitat. We were unable to positively differentiate anadromous and resident forms of O. mykiss in the Grande Ronde River basin because both forms occur in our study area. The Grande Ronde Valley trap provided the best information on steelhead production in the basin because it fished below valley habitats where O. mykiss overwinter. Length frequency histograms of O. mykiss captured below upper spawning and rearing habitats showed a bimodal distribution regardless of the season of capture. Scale analyses suggested that each mode represents a different brood year. Length frequency histograms of O. mykiss captured in the Grande Ronde Valley trap were not bimodal, and primarily represented a size range consistent with other researchers' accounts of anadromous smolts.

  1. Columbia River White Sturgeon (Acipenser Transmontanus) Population Genetics and Early Life History Study, January 1, 1986 to December 31, 1986, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, Ernest L.

    1986-12-01

    The 1986 Columbia River white sturgeon investigations continued to assess genetic variability of sturgeon populations isolated in various areas of the Columbia River, and to examine environmental factors in the habitat that may affect early life history success. Baseline data have been collected for three character sets. Twenty-eight loci have been analyzed for differences using electrophoresis, snout shapes were assessed for multivariate distinction, and scute counts have been examined as an index of variability. Fish that reside in the mid-Columbia and lower river have been sufficiently characterized by electrophoresis to compare with up-river areas. To date, few electrophoretic differences have been identified. However, Lake Roosevelt sturgeon sample size will be increased to determine if some of the observed differences from lower river fish are significant. Snout shape has been shown to be easily quantifiable using the digitizing technique. Scute count data initially indicate that variability exists within as well as between areas. Patterns of differentiation of one or more of these data sets may be used to formulate stock transplant guidelines essential for proper management or enhancement of this species. The historical habitat available to sturgeon in the Columbia River has changed through the development of hydroelectric projects. Dams have reduced the velocity and turbulence, and increased light penetration in the water column from less silt. These changes have affected the ability of sturgeon to feed and have made them more vulnerable to predation, which appear to have altered the ability of populations isolated in the reservoirs to sustain themselves. Present studies support the theory that both the biological and physical habitat characteristics of the Columbia River are responsible for reduced sturgeon survival, and justify consideration of enhancement initiatives above Bonneville to improve sturgeon reproductive success.

  2. THE COS/UVES ABSORPTION SURVEY OF THE MAGELLANIC STREAM. II. EVIDENCE FOR A COMPLEX ENRICHMENT HISTORY OF THE STREAM FROM THE FAIRALL 9 SIGHTLINE

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, Philipp; Fechner, Cora [Institut fuer Physik und Astronomie, Universitaet Potsdam, Haus 28, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24/25, D-14476 Golm (Potsdam) (Germany); Fox, Andrew J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wakker, Bart P. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Lehner, Nicolas; Howk, J. Christopher [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Bland-Hawthorn, Joss [Institute of Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Ben Bekhti, Nadya [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    We present a multi-wavelength study of the Magellanic Stream (MS), a massive gaseous structure in the Local Group that is believed to represent material stripped from the Magellanic Clouds. We use ultraviolet, optical and radio data obtained with HST/COS, VLT/UVES, FUSE, GASS, and ATCA to study metal abundances and physical conditions in the Stream toward the quasar Fairall 9. Line absorption in the MS from a large number of metal ions and from molecular hydrogen is detected in up to seven absorption components, indicating the presence of multi-phase gas. From the analysis of unsaturated S II absorption, in combination with a detailed photoionization model, we obtain a surprisingly high {alpha} abundance in the Stream toward Fairall 9 of [S/H] = -0.30 {+-} 0.04 (0.50 solar). This value is five times higher than what is found along other MS sightlines based on similar COS/UVES data sets. In contrast, the measured nitrogen abundance is found to be substantially lower ([N/H] = -1.15 {+-} 0.06), implying a very low [N/{alpha}] ratio of -0.85 dex. The substantial differences in the chemical composition of MS toward Fairall 9 compared to other sightlines point toward a complex enrichment history of the Stream. We favor a scenario, in which the gas toward Fairall 9 was locally enriched with {alpha} elements by massive stars and then was separated from the Magellanic Clouds before the delayed nitrogen enrichment from intermediate-mass stars could set in. Our results support (but do not require) the idea that there is a metal-enriched filament in the Stream toward Fairall 9 that originates in the LMC.

  3. THE AVERAGE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF THE UV-BRIGHTEST STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z {approx} 3.7

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Glikman, Eilat; Dey, Arjun; Reddy, Naveen; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Cooper, Michael C.; Fan Xiaohui; Bian Fuyan; Stern, Daniel; Brodwin, Mark; Cooray, Asantha

    2011-06-01

    We investigate the average physical properties and star formation histories (SFHs) of the most UV-luminous star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 3.7. Our results are based on the average spectral energy distributions (SEDs), constructed from stacked optical-to-infrared photometry, of a sample of the 1913 most UV-luminous star-forming galaxies found in 5.3 deg{sup 2} of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. We find that the shape of the average SED in the rest optical and infrared is fairly constant with UV luminosity, i.e., more UV-luminous galaxies are, on average, also more luminous at longer wavelengths. In the rest UV, however, the spectral slope {beta} ({identical_to} dlogF{sub {lambda}}/dlog{lambda}; measured at 0.13 {mu}m < {lambda}{sub rest} < 0.28 {mu}m) rises steeply with the median UV luminosity from -1.8 at L {approx} L* to -1.2 (L {approx} 4-5L*). We use population synthesis analyses to derive their average physical properties and find that (1) L{sub UV} and thus star formation rates (SFRs) scale closely with stellar mass such that more UV-luminous galaxies are also more massive, (2) the median ages indicate that the stellar populations are relatively young (200-400 Myr) and show little correlation with UV luminosity, and (3) more UV-luminous galaxies are dustier than their less-luminous counterparts, such that L {approx} 4-5L* galaxies are extincted up to A(1600) = 2 mag while L {approx} L* galaxies have A(1600) = 0.7-1.5 mag. We argue that the average SFHs of UV-luminous galaxies are better described by models in which SFR increases with time in order to simultaneously reproduce the tight correlation between the UV-derived SFR and stellar mass and their universally young ages. We demonstrate the potential of measurements of the SFR-M{sub *} relation at multiple redshifts to discriminate between simple models of SFHs. Finally, we discuss the fate of these UV-brightest galaxies in the next 1-2 Gyr and their possible connection to the most massive galaxies at

  4. Human KZNF Gene Catalog - A comprehensive catalog of human KRAB-associated zinc finger genes: insights into the evolutionary history of a large family of transcriptional repressors

    DOE Data Explorer

    Huntley, S; Baggott, D. M.; Hamilton, A. T.; Tran-Gyamfi, M.; Yang, S.; Kim, J.; Gordon, L.; Branscomb, E.; Stubbs, L.

    Kruppel-type zinc finger (ZNF) motifs are prevalent components of transcription factor proteins in all eukaryotes. KRAB-ZNF proteins, in which a potent repressor domain is attached to a tandem array of DNA-binding zinc-finger motifs, are specific to tetrapod vertebrates and represent the largest class of ZNF proteins in mammals. To define the full repertoire of human KRAB-ZNF proteins, we searched the genome sequence for key motifs and then constructed and manually curated gene models incorporating those sequences. The resulting gene catalog contains 423 KRAB-ZNF protein-coding loci, yielding alternative transcripts that altogether predict at least 742 structurally distinct proteins. Active rounds of segmental duplication, involving single genes or larger regions and including both tandem and distributed duplication events, have driven the expansion of this mammalian gene family. Comparisons between the human genes and ZNF loci mined from the draft mouse, dog, and chimpanzee genomes not only identified 103 KRAB-ZNF genes that are conserved in mammals but also highlighted a substantial level of lineage-specific change; at least 136 KRAB-ZNF coding genes are primate specific, including many recent duplicates. KRAB-ZNF genes are widely expressed and clustered genes are typically not coregulated, indicating that paralogs have evolved to fill roles in many different biological processes. To facilitate further study, we have developed a Web-based public resource with access to gene models, sequences, and other data, including visualization tools to provide genomic context and interaction with other public data sets. [This abstract was copied from: S Huntley, DM Baggott, AT Hamilton, M Tran-Gyamfi, S Yang, J Kim, L Gordon, E Branscomb, and L Stubbs. 2006. A comprehensive catalog of human KRAB-associated zinc finger genes: insights into the evolutionary history of a large family of transcriptional repressors, Genome Research 16(5):669 - 677] The website provides the

  5. Response measurement of single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond radiation detector for intense X-rays aiming at neutron bang-time and neutron burn-history measurement on an inertial confinement fusion with fast ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Shimaoka, T. Kaneko, J. H.; Tsubota, M.; Arikawa, Y.; Nagai, T.; Kojima, S.; Abe, Y.; Sakata, S.; Fujioka, S.; Nakai, M.; Shiraga, H.; Azechi, H.; Isobe, M.; Sato, Y.; Chayahara, A.; Umezawa, H.; Shikata, S.

    2015-05-15

    A neutron bang time and burn history monitor in inertial confinement fusion with fast ignition are necessary for plasma diagnostics. In the FIREX project, however, no detector attained those capabilities because high-intensity X-rays accompanied fast electrons used for plasma heating. To solve this problem, single-crystal CVD diamond was grown and fabricated into a radiation detector. The detector, which had excellent charge transportation property, was tested to obtain a response function for intense X-rays. The applicability for neutron bang time and burn history monitor was verified experimentally. Charge collection efficiency of 99.5% 0.8% and 97.1% 1.4% for holes and electrons were obtained using 5.486 MeV alpha particles. The drift velocity at electric field which saturates charge collection efficiency was 1.1 0.4 10{sup 7} cm/s and 1.0 0.3 10{sup 7} cm/s for holes and electrons. Fast response of several ns pulse width for intense X-ray was obtained at the GEKKO XII experiment, which is sufficiently fast for ToF measurements to obtain a neutron signal separately from X-rays. Based on these results, we confirmed that the single-crystal CVD diamond detector obtained neutron signal with good S/N under ion temperature 0.51 keV and neutron yield of more than 10{sup 9} neutrons/shot.

  6. A brief history of Sandia National Laboratories and the Department of Energy%3CU%2B2019%3Es Office of Science : interplay between science, technology, and mission.

    SciTech Connect

    Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Myers, Samuel Maxwell, Jr.; Simmons, Jerry Alvon; McIlroy, Andrew; Vook, Frederick L.; Collis, Samuel Scott; Picraux, Samuel Thomas

    2011-08-01

    In 1957, Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) initiated its first programs in fundamental science, in support of its primary nuclear weapons mission. In 1974, Sandia initiated programs in fundamental science supported by the Department of Energy's Office of Science (DOE-SC). These latter programs have grown to the point where, today in 2011, support of Sandia's programs in fundamental science is dominated by that Office. In comparison with Sandia's programs in technology and mission applications, however, Sandia's programs in fundamental science are small. Hence, Sandia's fundamental science has been strongly influenced by close interactions with technology and mission applications. In many instances, these interactions have been of great mutual benefit, with synergies akin to a positive 'Casimir's spiral' of progress. In this report, we review the history of Sandia's fundamental science programs supported by the Office of Science. We present: (a) a technical and budgetary snapshot of Sandia's current programs supported by the various suboffices within DOE-SC; (b) statistics of highly-cited articles supported by DOE-SC; (c) four case studies (ion-solid interactions, combustion science, compound semiconductors, advanced computing) with an emphasis on mutually beneficial interactions between science, technology, and mission; and (d) appendices with key memos and reminiscences related to fundamental science at Sandia.

  7. Joint Genome Institute's Automation Approach and History

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Simon

    2006-07-05

    Department of Energy/Joint Genome Institute (DOE/JGI) collaborates with DOE national laboratories and community users, to advance genome science in support of the DOE missions of clean bio-energy, carbon cycling, and bioremediation.

  8. The History of Metals and Ceramics Division

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    The division was formed in 1946 at the suggestion of Dr. Eugene P. Wigner to attack the problem of the distortion of graphite in the early reactors due to exposure to reactor neutrons, and the consequent radiation damage. It was called the Metallurgy Division and assembled the metallurgical and solid state physics activities of the time which were not directly related to nuclear weapons production. William A. Johnson, a Westinghouse employee, was named Division Director in 1946. In 1949 he was replaced by John H Frye Jr. when the Division consisted of 45 people. He was director during most of what is called the Reactor Project Years until 1973 and his retirement. During this period the Division evolved into three organizational areas: basic research, applied research in nuclear reactor materials, and reactor programs directly related to a specific reactor(s) being designed or built. The Division (Metals and Ceramics) consisted of 204 staff members in 1973 when James R. Weir, Jr., became Director. This was the period of the oil embargo, the formation of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) by combining the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) with the Office of Coal Research, and subsequent formation of the Department of Energy (DOE). The diversification process continued when James O. Stiegler became Director in 1984, partially as a result of the pressure of legislation encouraging the national laboratories to work with U.S. industries on their problems. During that time the Division staff grew from 265 to 330. Douglas F. Craig became Director in 1992.

  9. Space Nuclear MIssion History | Department of Energy

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    NASA Moon Surface Pioneer 11 1973 NASA Jupiter, Saturn Viking 1 1975 NASA Mars Surface Viking 2 1975 NASA Mars Surface Lincoln Experimental Satelitte 8 1976 Air Force Earth - ...

  10. Human factors in nuclear technology - a history

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.B. )

    1992-01-01

    Human factors, human factors engineering (HFE), or ergonomics did not receive much formal attention in nuclear technology prior to the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) incident. Three principal reasons exist for this lack of concern. First, emerging technologies show little concern with how people will use a new system. Making the new technology work is considered more important than the people who will use it. Second, the culture of the users of nuclear power did not recognize a need for human factors. Traditional utilities had well established and effective engineering designs for control of electric power generation, while medicine considered the use of nuclear isotopes another useful tool, not requiring special ergonomics. Finally, the nuclear industry owed much to Admiral Rickover. He was definitely opposed.

  11. History of Electricity at the White House

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The White House has only been electrified for a little over a century. Check out our timeline to read more about what it takes to power 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue.

  12. FFTF A History of Safety & Operational Excellence

    SciTech Connect

    NIELSEN, D L

    2002-06-26

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is a 400-megawatt, sodium-cooled, fast neutron flux reactor owned by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) at the Hanford Site. The reactor was designed and built in the late 1970s and brought on line in 1982 during a period when world interest in development of a liquid metal breeder reactor was high. For approximately 10 years, FFTF operated successfully as a national research facility testing advanced nuclear fuels, materials, components, active and passive reactor safety technologies, and gaining operating experience for the next generation of nuclear reactors. FFTF also produced a wide variety of high purity medical isotopes, made tritium for the U.S. fusion research program, and provided international testing support. The reactor was last operated in 1992 and is proceeding with deactivation.

  13. History and Evolution of the Johnson Criteria.

    SciTech Connect

    Sjaardema, Tracy A.; Smith, Collin S.; Birch, Gabriel Carisle

    2015-07-01

    The Johnson Criteria metric calculates probability of detection of an object imaged by an optical system, and was created in 1958 by John Johnson. As understanding of target detection has improved, detection models have evolved to better model additional factors such as weather, scene content, and object placement. The initial Johnson Criteria, while sufficient for technology and understanding at the time, does not accurately reflect current research into target acquisition and technology. Even though current research shows a dependence on human factors, there appears to be a lack of testing and modeling of human variability.

  14. A Brief History of Spectroscopy on EBIT

    SciTech Connect

    Beiersdorfer, P

    2007-02-28

    In the autumn of 1986, the first electron beam ion trap, EBIT, was put into service as a light source for the spectroscopy of highly charged ions. On the occasion of the twentieth anniversary of EBIT, we review its early uses for spectroscopy, from the first measurements of x rays from L-shell xenon ions in 1986 to its conversion to SuperEBIT in 1992 and rebirth as EBIT-I in 2001. Together with their sibling, EBIT-II, these machines have been used at Livermore to perform a multitude of seminal studies of the physics of highly charged ions.

  15. The Manhattan Project National Security History Series

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Optimization | Department of Energy deer12_szybist.pdf (3.46 MB) More Documents & Publications High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable Super Premium" Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Regimes Economics of Photovoltaic Systems | Department of Energy

    analysis uses simulated building data, simulated solar photovoltaic (PV) data, and actual electric utility

  16. A Brief History of the Electricity Industry

    Annual Energy Outlook

    timing" problem sold coal and nuke plants at the wrong time Average Retail Price of Electricity, 1960-2005 Source: EIA, http:www.eia.doe.govemeuaerpdfpagessec838.pdf. ...

  17. The history of HDR research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Duchane, D.

    1998-12-31

    An energy source rivaling the sun exists in the form of the heat emanating from the interior of the earth. Although limited quantities of this geothermal energy are produced today by bringing natural hot fluids to the surface, most of the earth`s heat is trapped in hot dry rock (HDR). The application of hydraulic fracturing technology to tap this vast HDR resource was pioneered by Los Alamos National Laboratory beginning in 1970. Since that time, engineered geothermal reservoirs have been constructed and operated at numerous locations around the world. Major work at the US HDR facility at Fenton Hill, NM, and at the British HDR site in Cornwall, UK, has been completed, but advanced HDR field work continues at two sites on the island of Honshu in Japan and at Soultz in northeastern France. In addition, plans are currently being completed for the construction of an HDR system on the continent of Australia. Over the past three decades the worldwide research and development effort has taken HDR from its early conceptual stage to its present state as a demonstrated technology that is on the verge of becoming commercially feasible. Extended flow tests in the United States, Japan, and Europe have proven that sustained operation of HDR reservoirs is possible. In support of these field tests, an international body of scientists and engineers have pursued a variety of innovative approaches for assessing HDR resources, constructing and characterizing engineered geothermal reservoirs, and operating HDR systems. Taken together, these developments form a strong base upon which to build the practical HDR systems that will provide clean energy for the world in the 21st century.

  18. Passive absolute age and temperature history sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Alex; Vianco, Paul T.

    2015-11-10

    A passive sensor for historic age and temperature sensing, including a first member formed of a first material, the first material being either a metal or a semiconductor material and a second member formed of a second material, the second material being either a metal or a semiconductor material. A surface of the second member is in contact with a surface of the first member such that, over time, the second material of the second member diffuses into the first material of the first member. The rate of diffusion for the second material to diffuse into the first material depends on a temperature of the passive sensor. One of the electrical conductance, the electrical capacitance, the electrical inductance, the optical transmission, the optical reflectance, or the crystalline structure of the passive sensor depends on the amount of the second material that has diffused into the first member.

  19. A brief history of the Biology Complex

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Complex Most of the "Biology" buildings were constructed in early 1945 and were built as expansion capability for the uranium preparation operations being conducted across the...

  20. History of IEC Qualification Standards (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlhgemuth, J.

    2011-07-01

    This talk will provide a summary of how the IEC PV module qualification tests were developed and review their strengths and limitations.