National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for herb toor csaba

  1. Csaba Horvath - Scholar, Scientist, Mentor, Friend

    SciTech Connect

    Beaver, Lois; Guiochon, Georges A

    2005-09-01

    At Farbwerke Hoechst, Csaba did research and development work on the surface chemistry of organic pigment dyes and learned about the practical aspects of surface chemistry. During his doctoral research, Csaba invented and developed porous-layer open tubular columns which offers remarkable advantages over wall-coated OTC, e.g., a higher loadability and the ability to use all retention mechanisms afforded by adsorption. He also prepared surface-treated beads, an approach that he used later in the context of HPLC. Working with S.R. Lipsky on the development of analytical methodologies for lunar samples, searching for trace compounds which could show the presence of life on the moon in a distant past, he imagined applying to LC the same principles that he had used earlier in GC, and built the first instrument for high pressure liquid chromatography. Very early, he understood the potential of this new separation method to revolutionize biochemistry and molecular biology. Working for Picker-Nuclear, Csaba developed the first commercial instrument for HPLC, which was also the first instrument to use microbore HPLC columns (for ion-exchange separations of biological compounds). From the beginning, Csaba focused his interests on the separation of samples of biological origin, becoming the pioneer of modern bioanalytical chemistry. He devoted considerable attention to the development of the theory and applications of reversed-phase liquid chromatography, the most widely applied chromatographic method of analysis, pioneered the use of displacement chromatography for preparative HPLC, and innumerable applications of HPLC to the separation of samples of biological origin. He developed the solvophobic theory of retention in RPLC, the use of entropy-enthalpy compensation in the study of retention mechanisms, and the fundamentals of electrochromatography. The importance of his spearheading HPLC, RPLC, and their applications in the life sciences, fields in which these new methods

  2. Validation of the fast neutron spectrum in the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE

    SciTech Connect

    Avdic, S.; Pesic, M.; Marinkovic, P.

    1995-12-31

    Methods applied in the calculation and interpretation of the measurements of the fast neutron spectrum in the NERBE coupled fast-thermal system are validated in this paper. When advantages and disadvantages of a He-filled semi-conductor-sandwich detector are compared to other neutron detectors, the former is found more appropriate. The neutron detection is based on the reaction {sup 3}He(n,p)T + 0.764 MeV and simultaneous detection of the reaction products in the silicon diodes. The pulses from the diodes are amplified and shaped in separate {open_quotes}energy{close_quotes} channels and summed to produce a single pulse with height proportional to the energy of the incident neutron plus the Q value of the reaction. A well-known measuring system of the He neutron spectrometer is used for the HERBE fast neutron spectrum measurement and calibration in a thermal neutron field.

  3. The roles of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in phytoremediation and tree-herb interactions in Pb contaminated soil

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Yang, Yurong; Liang, Yan; Han, Xiaozhen; Chiu, Tsan-Yu; Ghosh, Amit; Chen, Hui; Tang, Ming

    2016-02-04

    Understanding the roles of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in plant interaction is essential for optimizing plant distribution to restore degraded ecosystems. Here, our study investigated the effects of AMF and the presence of legume or grass herbs on phytoremediation with a legume tree, Robinia pseudoacacia, in Pb polluted soil. In monoculture, mycorrhizal dependency of legumes was higher than that of grass, and AMF benefited the plant biomass of legumes but had no effect on grass. Mycorrhizal colonization of plant was enhanced by legume neighbors but inhibited by grass neighbor in co-culture system. N, P, S and Mg concentrations of mycorrhizalmore » legumes were larger than these of non-mycorrhizal legumes. Legume herbs decreased soil pH and thereby increased the Pb concentrations of plants. The neighbor effects of legumes shifted from negative to positive with increasing Pb stress levels, whereas grass provided a negative effect on the growth of legume tree. AMF enhanced the competition but equalized growth of legume-legume under unpolluted and Pb stress conditions, respectively. In conclusion, (1) AMF mediate plant interaction through directly influencing plant biomass, and/or indirectly influencing plant photosynthesis, macronutrient acquisition, (2) legume tree inoculated with AMF and co-planted with legume herbs provides an effective way for Pb phytoremediation.« less

  4. Identification of nevadensin as an important herb-based constituent inhibiting estragole bioactivation and physiology-based biokinetic modeling of its possible in vivo effect

    SciTech Connect

    Alhusainy, W.; Paini, A.; Punt, A.; Louisse, J.; Spenkelink, A.; Vervoort, J.; Delatour, T.; Scholz, G.; Schilter, B.; Adams, T.; Bladeren, P.J. van; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2010-06-01

    Estragole is a natural constituent of several herbs and spices including sweet basil. In rodent bioassays, estragole induces hepatomas, an effect ascribed to estragole bioactivation to 1'-sulfooxyestragole resulting in DNA adduct formation. The present paper identifies nevadensin as a basil constituent able to inhibit DNA adduct formation in rat hepatocytes exposed to the proximate carcinogen 1'-hydroxyestragole and nevadensin. This inhibition occurs at the level of sulfotransferase (SULT)-mediated bioactivation of 1'-hydroxyestragole. The Ki for SULT inhibition by nevadensin was 4 nM in male rat and human liver fractions. Furthermore, nevadensin up to 20 {mu}M did not inhibit 1'-hydroxyestragole detoxification by glucuronidation and oxidation. The inhibition of SULT by nevadensin was incorporated into the recently developed physiologically based biokinetic (PBBK) rat and human models for estragole bioactivation and detoxification. The results predict that co-administration of estragole at a level inducing hepatic tumors in vivo (50 mg/kg bw) with nevadensin at a molar ratio of 0.06, representing the ratio of their occurrence in basil, results in almost 100% inhibition of the ultimate carcinogen 1'-sulfooxyestragole when assuming 100% uptake of nevadensin. Assuming 1% uptake, inhibition would still amount to more than 83%. Altogether these data point at a nevadensin-mediated inhibition of the formation of the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of estragole, without reducing the capacity to detoxify 1'-hydroxyestragole via glucuronidation or oxidation. These data also point at a potential reduction of the cancer risk when estragole exposure occurs within a food matrix containing SULT inhibitors compared to what is observed upon exposure to pure estragole.

  5. Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Environmenta...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    - Finnish Forest Research Institute Toor, Saqib (Saqib Toor) - Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University Go back to Individual Researchers Collections: A B C D E F G H I...

  6. Spin wave eigenmodes in single and coupled sub-150 nm rectangular...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ...anni.carlotti@fisica.unipg.it ; Madami, M. 1 ; Tacchi, S. 2 ; Gubbiotti, G. ; Dey, H. ; Csaba, G. ; Porod, W. 3 + Show Author Affiliations Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, ...

  7. Well Herb Oils Pvt Ltd | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jaipur, Rajasthan, India Zip: 302 001 Product: Rajasthan-based firm focusing on jatropha cultivation. Coordinates: 26.89876, 75.79636 Show Map Loading map......

  8. Progress & Frontiers in PV Performance, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    & Frontiers in PV Performance Chris Deline, Nick DiOrio, Dirk Jordan, NREL Fatima Toor, University of Iowa September 12, 2016 Solar Power International 2016 Las Vegas, Nevada NREL/PR-5J00-67174 2 Outline 8:00 Workshop introduction Chris Deline (NREL) 8:15 SAM introduction and battery modeling Nick DiOrio (NREL) 9:15 Bifacial modules and modeling Fatima Toor (University of Iowa) 10:00 Break 10:15 Shade modeling and MLPE Chris Deline (NREL) 11:00 Degradation rates Dirk Jordan (NREL) 11:30

  9. Microsoft PowerPoint - Herb_Presentation 6-10-09 (2).ppt

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Southeastern Power Administration 4 5 System Overview ... Pump Storage Facilities 8 Location : Upper Savannah River ... Units 75 MW 2002 Maximum Plant Capability: 648 MW ...

  10. PPPO News Archive | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... January 27, 2015 Herb Tyler, David Cassibry, and Roger Nelson review items for characterization. (Photo by Dylan Nichols, LATA Kentucky) Warehouse Cleanup Project Completed at ...

  11. Fermilab Today

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    marinated pork tenderloin with pineapple salsa - Green rice - Margarita cake with key lime cream cheese frosting Friday, March 6 Dinner - Avgolemono soup - Herb-crusted lamb...

  12. Microsoft Word - Meeting Agenda.Draft.090814(Clean Version)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Federal Officer * Rick Provencher, Manager, Idaho Operations Office * Jack Zimmerman, Deputy Manager, Idaho Cleanup Project * Herb Bohrer, INL CAB Chair 8:25 am - 8:30 am ...

  13. THANKSGIVING ACROSS, AMERICA

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    reserved) Salt and freshly ground pepper Stuffing (if desired; if not, use onion, apple and herbs for the cavity) Z tablespoons dark unsulfured molasses 2 tablespoons soy...

  14. Structure of Chinese Herbal-based Medicine Captured by ATP on a Human tRNA

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Synthetase | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Structure of Chinese Herbal-based Medicine Captured by ATP on a Human tRNA Synthetase Thursday, October 31, 2013 For thousands of years the Chinese have been using the Chang Shan herb (Dichroa febrifuga Lour) to treat malaria-induced fevers (1). The active ingredient in the herb was eventually shown to be a small molecule known as febrifugine. A halogenated derivative of febrifugine, called halofuginone (HF), has been tested in clinical

  15. Synchronized Biological Knowledge and Data Management: A Hybrid Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Eric G.; Chin, George; Corrigan, Abbie L.; Klicker, Kyle R.; Sofia, Heidi J.

    2004-06-23

    The new systems approach to biology has created a great need for innovative database technologies. Biologists need new ways to integrate large scale data and concepts they form about the data during experimental and computational research. The Heuristic Entity Relationship Building Environment (HERBE) is a new prototypical architecture fusing data management technologies with knowledge management components. This hybrid approach enables the scientist to manage both their concepts and related data in a synchronized fashion. HERBE is currently being used for microbial research and in this paper we will describe how HERBE is used to capture microbial protein concepts grouped by organism, how the microbial proteins are reengineered into a combined knowledge on multiple microbial organisms, and how the data associated with the organisms can be mined. This paper also describes how the scientist’s evolving knowledge can be annotated by connecting the biologist’s knowledge to community resources such as the Gene Ontology.

  16. Wind Development on the Rosebud

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    And as I looked and wept, I saw that there stood on the north side of the starving camp a sacred man who was painted red all over his body, and he held a spear as he walked into the center of the people, and there he lay down and rolled. And when he got up, it was a fat bison standing there, and where the bison stood a sacred herb sprang up right where the tree had been in the center of the nation's hoop. The herb grew and bore four blossoms on a single stem while I was looking - a blue, a

  17. The U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board Status Update

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    And as I looked and wept, I saw that there stood on the north side of the starving camp a sacred man who was painted red all over his body, and he held a spear as he walked into the center of the people, and there he lay down and rolled. And when he got up, it was a fat bison standing there, and where the bison stood, a sacred herb sprang up right where the tree had been in the center of the nation's hoop. The herb grew and bore four blossoms on a single stem while I was looking - a blue, a

  18. Douglas-fir/white spirea habitat type in central Idaho: Succession and management. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, R.; Geier-Hayes, K.

    1994-04-01

    The report describes a taxonomic system for classifying plant succession in the Douglas-fir/white spirea habitat type in central Idaho. A total of 10 potential tree layer types, 35 shrub types, and 45 herb layer types are categorized. Diagonostic keys based on indicator species assist field identification of the types. Discussion of management implications includes pocket gopher populations, success of planted and natural tree seedlings, big-game and livestock forage preferences, and responses of major shrub and herb layer species to disturbances.

  19. Overstory and understory relationships in longleaf pine plantations 14 years after thinning and woody control.

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, Timothy, B.

    2011-09-09

    To develop silvicultural strategies for restoring longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) savannas, mortality and growth of overstory pines and midstory hardwoods and abundance and species richness of herbs were studied for 14 years after pine thinning and nonpine woody control. Pine cover in thinned stands was about half of that in nonthinned stands through year 5, but it lagged by only 8% and 3% in years 9 and 14, respectively, because of vigorous crown responses. Despite a cumulative mortality of 64% of hardwood stems from prescribed fires in years 0, 4, and 9, hardwood basal area in thinned stands (2.1 m2/ha) was three times that in nonthinned stands (0.7 m2/ha) in year 14. Thinning was associated with 13%-22% more cover and six to eight more species of herbs in years 3-8 but only 6% more cover and two more species in year 14 because of accelerated growth of pine cover and hardwood basal area. However, similar increases in cover and richness of herb species in the woody control treatment were retained through year 14 because it had sustained reductions in hardwood and shrub abundance. Silvicultural strategies that substantially delay encroachment by pines, hardwoods, and shrubs will be those most effective at retaining herb species in longleaf pine savannas, including planting pines at wide spacing, periodic thinning and woody control, and frequent burning.

  20. Cost Competitive Electricity from Photovoltaic Concentrators Called

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    'Imminent' - News Releases | NREL Cost Competitive Electricity from Photovoltaic Concentrators Called 'Imminent' July 13, 2005 Golden, Colo. - Solar concentrators using highly efficient photovoltaic solar cells will reduce the cost of electricity from sunlight to competitive levels soon, attendees were told at a recent international conference on the subject. Herb Hayden of Arizona Public Service (APS) and Robert McConnell and Martha Symko-Davies of the U.S. Department of Energy's National

  1. Beyond Pluto: The Search for the Edge of the Solar System focus of upcoming

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Frontiers in Science lectures Frontiers in Science lectures Beyond Pluto: The Search for the Edge of the Solar System focus of upcoming Frontiers in Science lectures Herb Funsten will explore the edge of the solar system and anticipate its future as it moves through our galactic neighborhood. July 30, 2015 IBEX spacecraft. Photo courtesy of NASA IBEX spacecraft. Photo courtesy of NASA Contact Los Alamos National Laboratory Steve Sandoval Communications Office (505) 665-9206 Email "In

  2. hybridTalk.ppt

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Despite continued "packing" of transistors, performance is flatlining * New Constraints - 15 years of exponential clock rate growth has ended * But Moore's Law continues! - How do we use all of those transistors to keep performance increasing at historical rates? - Industry Response: #cores per chip doubles every 18 months instead of clock frequency! Figure courtesy of Kunle Olukotun, Lance Hammond, Herb Sutter, and Burton Smith NERSC Users Group Meeting 2009 3 Supercomputers are

  3. EM SSAB CHAIRS Bi-Monthly Conference Call

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    June 18, 2013 Participants Board Chairs/Representatives Site Staff Hanford Steve Hudson, Susan Leckband Shelley Cimon, Kim Ballinger, Sharon Braswell, Michael Turner Idaho Herb Bohrer, Harry Griffith, Peggy Hinman Nevada Kathleen Bienenstein Barbara Ulmer Northern New Mexico Carlos Valdez Lee Bishop, Menice Santistevan Oak Ridge David Martin, David Hemelright Melyssa Noe, Spencer Gross, Pete Osborne, Dave Adler Paducah Buz Smith, Eric Roberts Portsmouth Will Henderson Greg Simonton, Julie

  4. EM SSAB CHAIRS Bi-Monthly Conference Call

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    August 27, 2013 Participants Board Chairs/Representatives Site Staff Hanford Steve Hudson, Susan Leckband Kim Ballinger, Michael Turner Idaho Herb Bohrer Peggy Hinman Nevada Donna Hruska Kelly Snyder, Barbara Ulmer Northern New Mexico Carlos Valdez Lee Bishop, Menice Santistevan Oak Ridge David Hemelright Melyssa Noe, Spencer Gross, Pete Osborne Paducah Ralph Young Buz Smith, Eric Roberts Portsmouth Greg Simonton, Julie Galloway Savannah River Donald Bridges Gerri Flemming, Ashley Whitaker

  5. EM SSAB CHAIRS Bi-Monthly Conference Call

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    1/15/14 Chairs/Representatives: Hanford Steve Hudson, Susan Leckband, Kim Ballinger, Sharon Braswell Idaho Herb Bohrer, Lori McNamara Nevada Kathleen Bienenstein, Donna Hruska, Barbara Ulmer NNM Carlos Valdez, Doug Sayre, Lee Bishop, Christina Houston, Menice Santistevan Oak Ridge David Hemelright, Bruce Hicks, Melyssa Noe, Spencer Gross, Pete Osborne Paducah Ben Peterson, Ralph Young, Buz Smith, Eric Roberts, Jim Ethridge Portsmouth Will Henderson, Greg Simonton, Julie Galloway, Rick Greene

  6. EM SSAB CHAIRS Bi-Monthly Conference Call

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    December 15, 2014 Participants Board Chairs/Representatives Site Staff Hanford Steve Hudson, Susan Leckband Kristen Skopeck, Sharon Braswell Idaho Herb Bohrer, Harry Griffith Ann Riedesel Nevada Donna Hruska, Janice Keiserman Kelly Snyder, Barbara Ulmer Northern New Mexico Doug Sayre, Allison Majure Menice Santistevan Oak Ridge David Hemelright Pete Osborne, Dave Adler, Spencer Gross, Melyssa Noe Paducah Ben Peterson Robert Smith, Eric Roberts, Jim Ethridge Portsmouth Greg Simonton Savannah

  7. EM SSAB Chairs Conference Call

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Chairs Conference Call December 17, 2015 Participants Board Chairs/Representatives Site Staff Hanford Steve Hudson, Susan Leckband Kristen Skopeck, Sharon Braswell, Joni Grindstaff Idaho Herb Bohrer Jordan Davies Nevada Donna Hruska, Janice Keiserman Kelly Snyder, Barbara Ulmer Northern New Mexico Doug Sayre, Gerard Martinez Menice Santistevan, Mike Gardipe Oak Ridge Belinda Price, Alfreda Cook David Adler, Pete Osborne, Spencer Gross, Paducah Doreen (Renie) Barger Buz Smith, Eric Roberts

  8. EM SSAB Chairs Conference Call

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Chairs Conference Call March 23, 2016 Participants Board Chairs/Representatives Site Staff Hanford Steve Hudson, Susan Leckband Kristen Holmes Idaho Herb Bohrer Jordan Davies Nevada Donna Hruska, Janice Keiserman Kelly Snyder, Barbara Ulmer Northern New Mexico Doug Sayre, Gerard Martinez Menice Santistevan, Mike Gardipe Oak Ridge Alfreda Cook Pete Osborne Paducah Doreen (Renie) Barger Buz Smith, Eric Roberts, Mike Kemp Portsmouth Bob Berry Rick Greene, Julie Galloway Savannah River Harold Simon

  9. EM SSAB Chairs Conference Call

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    August 11, 2015 Participants Board Chairs/Representatives Site Staff Hanford Steve Hudson, Susan Leckband Kristen Skopeck, Sharon Braswell, Joni Grindstaff Idaho Herb Bohrer Melvin "Keith" Branter Nevada Donna Hruska, Janice Keiserman Kelly Snyder, Barbara Ulmer Northern New Mexico Doug Sayre Menice Santistevan Oak Ridge David Hemelright Pete Osborne, Spencer Gross, Paducah Ben Peterson Eric Roberts Portsmouth Will Henderson Savannah River Harold Simon de'Lisa Carrico DOE-HQ

  10. LANL, Sandia National Lab recognize New Mexico small businesses for

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    innovation 2 » April » LANL, Sandia National Lab recognize New Mexico small businesses for innovation LANL, Sandia recognized New Mexico small businesses for innovation Businesses include the Pueblo of Zia; Herbs, Etc.; Musicode Innovations; SAVSU Technologies; and Albuquerque Delicate Dentistry Inc. April 30, 2012 Aerial view of Los Alamos National Laboratory Aerial view of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Contact Steve Sandoval Communications Office (505) 665-9206 Email LOS ALAMOS, NEW

  11. LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Dec. 15, 2014-The Los Alamos National Laboratory Fellows list

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Fellows for 2014 December 15, 2014 Honorees span sciences in physics, astrophysics, chemistry LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Dec. 15, 2014-The Los Alamos National Laboratory Fellows list expands by five this week as a new group of high achievers is named. The honorees this year are Christopher L. Fryer, Herbert O. Funsten, John C. Gordon, Jaqueline L. Kiplinger and David S. Moore. "The sustained scientific excellence demonstrated by the work of Chris, Herb, John, Jaqueline and David

  12. Honey Creek Middle School Wins National Science Competition - News Releases

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    | NREL Honey Creek Middle School Wins National Science Competition July 13, 2005 Golden, Colo. - Solar concentrators using highly efficient photovoltaic solar cells will reduce the cost of electricity from sunlight to competitive levels soon, attendees were told at a recent international conference on the subject. Herb Hayden of Arizona Public Service (APS) and Robert McConnell and Martha Symko-Davies of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) organized

  13. Herbert Glaser | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Herbert Glaser About Us Herbert Glaser - Chief Counsel Herb Glaser_Leadership Page.jpg Prior to joining DOE's Loan Programs Office as Chief Counsel in November 2015, Herbert A. Glaser was in private practice with the international law firm of Haynes and Boone, LLP. Mr. Glaser previously served as managing partner of the firm's Washington, D.C. office and head of the firm-wide Projects practice. He previously served as Executive Vice President and General Counsel of OptiGlobe, Inc., a leading

  14. A new method for measurement of safety rod drop times

    SciTech Connect

    Pesic, M.; Stefanovic, D. ); Marinkovic, P. )

    1992-10-01

    In this paper, a new method for the accurate measurement of safety rod drop times is proposed. It is based on a fast electromagnetic transducer and an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) conected to a computer system. Evaluation of recorded data is conducted by a developed computer code. The first measurements performed at the HERBE fast-thermal RB reactor show that a relative uncertainty (confidence level 95%) of less than 6% can be achieved in determination of rod drop time (with time intervals ranging from 0.4-10.0 s). Further improvements in accuracy are possible.

  15. AmeriFlux US-Var Vaira Ranch- Ione

    DOE Data Explorer

    Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Var Vaira Ranch- Ione. Site Description - Located in the lower foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains on privately owned land, the Vaira Ranch site is classified as a grassland dominated by C3 annual grasses. Managed by local rancher, Fran Vaira, brush has been periodically removed for cattle grazing. Species include a variety of grasses and herbs, including purple false brome, smooth cat's ear, and rose clover. Growing season is confined to the wet season only, typically from October to early May.

  16. Pueblo of Jemez Geothermal Feasibility Study Fianl Report

    SciTech Connect

    S.A. Kelley; N. Rogers; S. Sandberg; J. Witcher; J. Whittier

    2005-03-31

    This project assessed the feasibility of developing geothermal energy on the Pueblo of Jemez, with particular attention to the Red Rocks area. Geologic mapping of the Red Rocks area was done at a scale of 1:6000 and geophysical surveys identified a potential drilling target at a depth of 420 feet. The most feasible business identified to use geothermal energy on the reservation was a greenhouse growing culinary and medicinal herbs. Space heating and a spa were identified as two other likely uses of geothermal energy at Jemez Pueblo. Further geophysical surveys are needed to identify the depth to the Madera Limestone, the most likely host for a major geothermal reservoir.

  17. Operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    LA-UR-14-26830 Los Alamos in Space Intelligence and Space Research Division Herb Funsten, ISR Division Chief Scientist Aug. 26, 2014 Operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA UNCLASSIFIED LA-UR-14-26830 Precipitating Events Slide 2 § 1952-1964 Advances in Nuclear Weapons - 1 st US (1952) and Soviet (1953) thermonuclear devices - Britain, France, and China join the club § 1958 Unilateral US & Russia moratoriums § 1959 US DARPA &

  18. Strengthening the Loan Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    the Loan Program Strengthening the Loan Program February 10, 2012 - 4:08pm Addthis Damien LaVera Damien LaVera Deputy Director, Office of Public Affairs Today, the White House issued its Independent Review on the health of the Department's clean energy loan portfolio. The following is Secretary Chu's statement thanking Herb Allison for his review: "I appreciate the work Mr. Allison and his team have done to review the health of our clean energy loan portfolio. I will carefully review the

  19. Beyond Pluto: The Search for the Edge

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Beyond Pluto: The Search for the Edge of the Solar System focus of upcoming Frontiers in Science lectures July 30, 2015 First talk is Aug. 5 in Los Alamos LOS ALAMOS, N.M., July 30, 2015-Los Alamos National Laboratory Fellow and physicist Herb Funsten will explore the edge of the solar system and anticipate its future as it moves through our galactic neighborhood in a series of three Frontiers in Science lectures beginning Aug. 5 in the Duane Smith Auditorium at Los Alamos High School on Diamond

  20. Structureinhibition relationship of ginsenosides towards UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs)

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Zhong-Ze; Cao, Yun-Feng; Hu, Cui-Min; Hong, Mo; Sun, Xiao-Yu; Ge, Guang-Bo; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Yang, Ling; Sun, Hong-Zhi

    2013-03-01

    The wide utilization of ginseng provides the high risk of herbdrug interaction (HDI) with many clinical drugs. The inhibition of ginsenosides towards drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) has been regarded as an important reason for herbdrug interaction (HDI). Compared with the deep studies on the ginsenosides' inhibition towards cytochrome P450 (CYP), the inhibition of ginsenosides towards the important phase II enzymes UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) remains to be unclear. The present study aims to evaluate the inhibition behavior of ginsenosides towards important UGT isoforms located in the liver and intestine using in vitro methods. The recombinant UGT isoform-catalyzed 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) glucuronidation reaction was employed as in vitro probe reaction. The results showed that structure-dependent inhibition existed for the inhibition of ginsenosides towards UGT isoforms. To clarify the possibility of in vivo herbdrug interaction induced by this kind of inhibition, the ginsenoside Rg{sub 3} was selected as an example, and the inhibition kinetic type and parameters (K{sub i}) were determined. Rg{sub 3} competitively inhibited UGT1A7, 2B7 and 2B15-catalyzed 4-MU glucuronidation reaction, and exerted noncompetitive inhibition towards UGT1A8-catalyzed 4-MU glucuronidation. The inhibition parameters (K{sub i} values) were calculated to be 22.6, 7.9, 1.9, and 2.0 ?M for UGT1A7, 1A8, 2B7 and 2B15. Using human maximum plasma concentration of Rg{sub 3} (400 ng/ml (0.5 ?M)) after intramuscular injection of 60 mg Rg{sub 3}, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) was extrapolated to increase by 2.2%, 6.3%, 26.3%, and 25% for the co-administered drugs completely undergoing the metabolism catalyzed by UGT1A7, 1A8, 2B7 and 2B15, respectively. All these results indicated that the ginsenosides' inhibition towards UGT isoforms might be an important reason for ginsengdrug interaction. - Highlights: ? Structure-dependent inhibition of ginsenoside

  1. AmeriFlux CA-SF3 Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, forest burned in 1998.

    DOE Data Explorer

    Amiro, Brian [University of Manitoba; Canadian Forest Service

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-SF3 Saskatchewan - Western Boreal, forest burned in 1998.. Site Description - The 1998 burn site (F98) was in the east part of Prince Albert National Park, Saskatchewan, in the Waskesiu Fire, ignited by lightning that burned about 1700 ha in July 1998. The pre-fire forest consisted of jack pine and black spruce stands, with some intermixed aspen. The fire was severe, consuming much of the top layer of organic soil and killing all trees. In 2001, much of the regenerating vegetation consisted of aspen saplings about 1 m tall and shorter jack pine and black spruce seedlings. An overstory of dead, leafless jack pine trees dominated at a height of 18 m. Sparse grass and herbs, such as fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium L.) covered the ground. There were a large number of fallen dead trees, mostly perched above the ground and not decomposing quickly.

  2. Flora of the Mayacmas Mountains. [Listing of 679 species in the Geysers Geothermal Resource area

    SciTech Connect

    Neilson, J.A.

    1981-09-01

    This flora describes the plants that occur within the Mayacmas Mountain Range of northern California. It is the result of ten years of environmental assessment by the author in the Geysers Geothermal Resource area, located in the center of the Mayacmas Range. The flora includes notes on plant communities and ecology of the area, as well as habitat and collection data for most of the 679 species covered. Altogether 74 families, 299 genera and 679 species are included in the flora. The work is divided into eight subdivisions: trees; shrubs; ferns and fern allies; aquatic plants; tules, sedges, and rushes; lilies and related plants; dicot herbs; and grasses. Within each subdivision, family, genera and species are listed alphabetically. Keys are provided at the beginning of each subdivision. A unique combination of physical, environmental and geologic factors have resulted in a rich and diverse flora in the Mayacmas. Maps have been provided indicating known locations for species of rare or limited occurrence.

  3. Preliminary study on mercury uptake by Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Rosemary) in a mining area (Mt. Amiata, Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Barghigiani, C.; Ristori, T.

    1995-04-01

    Among the different plants analyzed to assess environmental mercury contamination of mining areas, lichens are those most studied, followed by brooms together with pine, which was also used in other areas, and spruce. Other species, both naturally occurring and cultivated, have also been studied. This work reports on the results of mercury uptake and accumulation in rosemary in relation to metal concentrations in both air and soil. R. officinalis is a widespread endemic Mediterranean evergreen shrub, which in Italy grows naturally and is also cultivated as a culinary herb. This research was carried out in Tuscany (Italy), in the Mt. Amiata area, which is characterized by the presence of cinnabar (HgS) deposits and has been used for mercury extraction and smelting from Etruscan times until 1980, and in the country near the town of Pisa, 140 km away from Mt. Amiata. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Restoring a disappearing ecosystem: the Longleaf Pine Savanna.

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, Timothy B.; Miller, Karl V.; Park, Noreen

    2013-05-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) savannas of the southeastern United States contain some of the worlds most diverse plant communities, along with a unique complement of wildlife. Their traditionally open canopy structure and rich understory of grasses and herbs were critical to their vigor. However, a long history of land-use practices such as logging, farming, and fire exclusion have reduced this once-widespread ecosystem to only 3 percent of its original range. At six longleaf pine plantations in South Carolina, Tim Harrington with the Pacific Northwest Research Station and collaborators with the Southern Research Station used various treatments (including prescribed burns, tree thinning, and herbicide applications) to alter the forest structure and tracked how successful each one was in advancing savanna restoration over a 14-year period. They found that typical planting densities for wood production in plantations create dense understory shade that excludes many native herbaceous species important to savannas and associated wildlife. The scientists found that although tree thinning alone did not result in sustained gains, a combination of controlled burning, thinning, and herbicide treatments to reduce woody plants was an effective strategy for recovering the savanna ecosystem. The scientists also found that these efforts must be repeated periodically for enduring benefits.

  5. Ecosystem management: Controlling biological invasion in an Illinois nature preserve

    SciTech Connect

    Thelen, C.S.; Schulz, K.E.

    1995-12-01

    Understanding the nature and effects of human interaction with the landscape is an important aspect of environmental decisionmaking. Often, human action alters the composition and distribution of organisms. In the North American central Midwest, human occupation has decimated native woodlands, which endure as habitat islands in a highly fragmented natural landscape dominated by intensive agriculture and permeated by invasive exotic species. The alterations in the landscape have affected the structure and function of the few remaining intact forests by altering the environment experienced by tree and herb species. A frequent invader of forest understories throughout the central Midwest is Vinca minor, a horticultural groundcover, yet this species has not previously been studied as a woodland invader. We tested the hypothesis that native understory species were excluded from colonized areas, and that tree seedling growth was suppressed. Using study plots in Knobeloch Woods Nature Preserve, St. Clair County, Illinois, we measured the effect of Vinca colonization on understory composition and diversity, by comparing colonized and uncolonized plots. We also related understory characteristics to soil and canopy properties. Finally, to evaluate an ongoing program to control the invasion in the field, we tested the hypothesis that simultaneous cutting and herbicide treatment had increased the diversity of native understory species. We hope with this study to provide fact-based recommendations for management of midwestern nature preserves experiencing exotic plant invasions.

  6. AmeriFlux US-Ton Tonzi Ranch

    DOE Data Explorer

    Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ton Tonzi Ranch. Site Description - Located in the lower foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, the Tonzi Ranch site is classified as an oak savanna woodland on privately owned land. Managed by local rancher, Russell Tonzi, brush has been periodically removed for cattle grazing. The overstory is dominated by blue oak trees (40% of total vegetation) with intermittent grey pine trees (3 trees/ha). Understory species include a variety of grasses and herbs, including purple false brome, smooth cat's ear, and rose clover. These two distinctive layers operate in and out from one another. Growing season of the understory is confined to the wet season only, typically from October to early May. In contrast, the deciduous blue oak trees are dormant during the rainy winter months and reach maximum LAI in April. The blue oak ecosystem rings the Great Central Valley of California, inhabiting the lower reaches of the Sierra Nevada foothills.

  7. Pipeline corridors through wetlands -- Impacts on plant communities: Little Timber Creek Crossing, Gloucester County, New Jersey. Topical report, August 1991--January 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Shem, L.M.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Alsum, S.K.; Van Dyke, G.D. |

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents results of a survey conducted over the period of August 5--7, 1991, at the Little Timber Creek crossing in Gloucester County, New Jersey, where three pipelines, constructed in 1950, 1960, and 1990, cross the creek and associated wetlands. The old side of the ROW, created by the installation of the 1960 pipeline, was designed to contain a raised peat bed over the 1950 pipeline and an open-water ditch over the 1960 pipeline. The new portion of the ROW, created by installation of the 1990 pipeline, has an open-water ditch over the pipeline (resulting from settling of the backfill) and a raised peat bed (resulting from rebound of compacted peat). Both the old and new ROWs contain dense stands of herbs; the vegetation on the old ROW was more similar to that in the adjacent natural area than was vegetation in the new ROW. The ROW increased species and habitat diversity in the wetlands. It may contribute to the spread of purple loosestrife and affect species sensitive to habitat fragmentation.

  8. Life-threatening interaction between the root extract of Pueraria lobata and methotrexate in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, H.-M.; Fang, S.-H.; Wen, K.-C.; Hsiu, S.-L.; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Hou, Y.-C.; Chi, Y.-C.; Lee Chao, Pei-Dawn . E-mail: pdlee@mail.cmu.edu.tw

    2005-12-15

    Isoflavone supplements are nowadays widely used as alternative for hormone replacement therapy. However, the safety remains unanswered. This study attempted to investigate the effect of Pueraria lobata root decoction (PLRD), an isoflavone-rich herb, on the pharmacokinetics of methotrexate (MTX), a bicarboxylate antimetabolite with narrow therapeutic window. Rats were orally and intravenously given methotrexate alone and coadministered with PLRD. Blood samples were withdrawn via cardiopuncture at specific time points after drug administration. Serum methotrexate concentrations were assayed by specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartment model of WINNONLIN for both oral and intravenous data of MTX. Our results showed that coadministration of 4.0 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg of PLRD significantly increased the AUC{sub 0-t} by 207.8% and 127.9%, prolonged the mean residence time (MRT) by 237.8 and 155.2%, respectively, finally resulted in surprisingly high mortalities of 57.1% and 14.3% in rats. When MTX was given intravenously, the coadministration of PLRD at 4.0 g/kg significantly increased the half-life by 53.9% and decreased the clearance by 47.9%. In conclusion, the coadministration of PLRD significantly decreased the elimination and resulted in markedly increased exposure of MTX in rats.

  9. A Survey of Vegetation and Wildland Fire Hazards on the Nevada Test Site, September 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-09-01

    In the spring of 2004 a survey was conducted by Bechtel Nevada Ecological Services on the Nevada Test Site to characterize vegetation resources and climatic components of the environment that contribute to wildland fires. The field surveyed assessed 211 sites along major Nevada Test Site corridors for the abundance of native perennial and annual species and invasive weeds. The abundance of fine-textured (grasses and herbs) and coarse-textured (woody) biomass was visually estimated on numerical scales ranging from one to five. Wildland fires are costly to control and to mitigate once they occur. Revegetation of burned areas is very slow without reseeding or transplanting with native species and other rehabilitation efforts. Untreated areas become much more vulnerable to future fires once invasive species, rather than native species, colonize a burned area.The annual assessment of wildland fire hazards on the Nevada Test Site is scheduled to be implemented each spring in the near future with results being reported directly to the U.S. Department of Energy and the Bechtel Nevada Fire Marshal.

  10. Ecological outcomes and evaluation of success in passively restored southeastern depressional wetlands.

    SciTech Connect

    De Steven, Diane; Sharitz, Rebecca R.; Barton, Christopher, D.

    2010-11-01

    Abstract: Depressional wetlands may be restored passively by disrupting prior drainage to recover original hydrology and relying on natural revegetation. Restored hydrology selects for wetland vegetation; however, depression geomorphology constrains the achievable hydroperiod, and plant communities are influenced by hydroperiod and available species pools. Such constraints can complicate assessments of restoration success. Sixteen drained depressions in South Carolina, USA, were restored experimentally by forest clearing and ditch plugging for potential crediting to a mitigation bank. Depressions were assigned to alternate revegetation methods representing desired targets of herbaceous and wet-forest communities. After five years, restoration progress and revegetation methods were evaluated. Restored hydroperiods differed among wetlands, but all sites developed diverse vegetation of native wetland species. Vegetation traits were influenced by hydroperiod and the effects of early drought, rather than by revegetation method. For mitigation banking, individual wetlands were assessed for improvement from pre-restoration condition and similarity to assigned reference type. Most wetlands met goals to increase hydroperiod, herb-species dominance, and wetland-plant composition. Fewer wetlands achieved equivalence to reference types because some vegetation targets were incompatible with depression hydroperiods and improbable without intensive management. The results illustrated a paradox in judging success when vegetation goals may be unsuited to system constraints.

  11. AmeriFlux US-Dk1 Duke Forest-open field

    DOE Data Explorer

    Novick, Kim [Indiana University; Oishi, Chris [USDA Forest Service; Stoy, Paul [Montana State University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Dk1 Duke Forest-open field. Site Description - The Duke Forest grass field is approximately 480×305 m, dominated by the C3 grass Festuca arundinacea Shreb. (tall fescue) includes minor components of C3 herbs and the C4 grass Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, not considered here. The site was burned in 1979 and is mowed annually during the summer for hay according to local practices. Lai, C.T. and G.G. Katul, 2000, "The dynamic role of root-water uptake in coupling potential to actual transpiration" , Advances in Water Resources, 23, 427-439; Novick , K.A., P. C. Stoy, G. G. Katul, D. S. Ellsworth, M. B. S. Siqueira, J. Juang, R. Oren, 2004, Carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange in a warm temperate grassland, Oecologia, 138, 259-274; Stoy PC, Katul GG, Siqueira MBS, Juang J-Y, McCarthy HR, Oishi AC, Uebelherr JM, Kim H-S, Oren R (2006). Separating the effects of climate and vegetation on evapotranspiration along a successional chronosequence in the southeastern U.S. Global Change Biology 12:2115-2135

  12. Natural vegetation at the proposed Reference Repository Location in southeastern Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Rickard, W.H.

    1988-02-01

    The dominant shrubs were sagebrush and spiny hopsage; the herbs were dominated by cheatgrass and Sandberg bluegrass. Spiny hopsage appeared to be vulnerable to burning and also to damage by off-road vehicular traffic. It appears to have little or no ability to reproduce through seedlings; once the existing plants are killed they are not likely to be replaced, even if seed-producing plants are nearby. The only pure stand of spiny hopsage known to exist on the Hanford Site is on and near study plot 2H. Sagebrush, like spiny hopsage, is killed by burning and by heavy vehicles. Sagebrush is capable of reproducing via seeds, indicating that it is an inherently aggressive species with a capacity to reestablish itself if parent plants are in the vicinity to act as seed sources. Alien, annual plants, especially cheatgrass, were a major contributor to the herbaceous canopy cover in plots 3S, 4S, and 5S. However, native perennial grasses, especially Sandberg bluegrass, were a major contributor to the canopy cover in plots 1S and 2H. These differences are probably caused by differences in soil properties (e.g., water retention capacity), rather than to historical disturbances such as livestock grazing or wildfire. Specimens of Sandwort, Arenaria franklinii, growing near the Reference Repository Location were collected for examination by taxonomists to determine if the specimens are of the variety A. f. thompsonii, a taxon currently listed as threatened in the state of Washington. 16 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Deoxyelephantopin from Elephantopus scaber L. induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in the human nasopharyngeal cancer CNE cells

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Miaoxian; Chung, Hau Yin; Li, Yaolan

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Deoxyelephantopin (ESD) inhibited cell proliferation in the human nasopharyngeal cancer CNE cells. {yields} ESD induced cell cycle arrest in S and G2/M phases via modulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins. {yields} ESD triggered apoptosis by dysfunction of mitochondria and induction of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathways. {yields} ESD also triggered Akt, ERK, and JNK signaling pathways. -- Abstract: Deoxyelephantopin (ESD), a naturally occurring sesquiterpene lactone present in the Chinese medicinal herb, Elephantopus scaber L. exerted anticancer effects on various cultured cancer cells. However, the cellular mechanisms by which it controls the development of the cancer cells are unavailable, particularly the human nasopharyngeal cancer CNE cells. In this study, we found that ESD inhibited the CNE cell proliferation. Cell cycle arrest in S and G2/M phases was also found. Western blotting analysis showed that modulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins was responsible for the ESD-induced cell cycle arrest. Besides, ESD also triggered apoptosis in CNE cells. Dysfunction in mitochondria was found to be associated with the ESD-induced apoptosis as evidenced by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential ({Delta}{Psi}m), the translocation of cytochrome c, and the regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins. Despite the Western blotting analysis showed that both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways (cleavage of caspases-3, -7, -8, -9, and -10) were triggered in the ESD-induced apoptosis, additional analysis also showed that the induction of apoptosis could be achieved by the caspase-independent manner. Besides, Akt, ERK and JNK pathways were found to involve in ESD-induced cell death. Overall, our findings provided the first evidence that ESD induced cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in CNE cells. ESD could be a potential chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC).

  14. Protocatechuic aldehyde inhibits migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and intravascular thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Chang Yoon; Endocrinology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Institute of Endocrine Research, and Severance Integrative Research Institute for Cerebral and Cardiovascular Disease, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul ; Ku, Cheol Ryong; Cho, Yoon Hee; Lee, Eun Jig

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protocatechuic aldehyde (PCA) inhibits ROS production in VSMCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCA inhibits proliferation and migration in PDGF-induced VSMCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCA has anti-platelet effects in ex vivo rat whole blood. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report the potential therapeutic role of PCA in atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: The migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and formation of intravascular thrombosis play crucial roles in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. This study examined the effects of protocatechuic aldehyde (PCA), a compound isolated from the aqueous extract of the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza, an herb used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a variety of vascular diseases, on the migration and proliferation of VSMCs and platelets due to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). DNA 5-bromo-2 Prime -deoxy-uridine (BrdU) incorporation and wound-healing assays indicated that PCA significantly attenuated PDGF-induced proliferation and migration of VSMCs at a pharmacologically relevant concentration (100 {mu}M). On a molecular level, we observed down-regulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, both of which regulate key enzymes associated with migration and proliferation. We also found that PCA induced S-phase arrest of the VSMC cell cycle and suppressed cyclin D2 expression. In addition, PCA inhibited PDGF-BB-stimulated reactive oxygen species production in VSMCs, indicating that PCA's antioxidant properties may contribute to its suppression of PDGF-induced migration and proliferation in VSMCs. Finally, PCA exhibited an anti-thrombotic effect related to its inhibition of platelet aggregation, confirmed with an aggregometer. Together, these findings suggest a potential therapeutic role of PCA in the treatment of atherosclerosis and angioplasty-induced vascular restenosis.

  15. Dehydroeffusol effectively inhibits human gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry with low toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenming; Meng, Mei; Zhang, Bin; Du, Longsheng; Pan, Yanyan; Yang, Ping; Gu, Zhenlun; Zhou, Quansheng Cao, Zhifei

    2015-09-01

    Accumulated data has shown that various vasculogenic tumor cells, including gastric cancer cells, are able to directly form tumor blood vessels via vasculogenic mimicry, supplying oxygen and nutrients to tumors, and facilitating progression and metastasis of malignant tumors. Therefore, tumor vasculogenic mimicry is a rational target for developing novel anticancer therapeutics. However, effective antitumor vasculogenic mimicry-targeting drugs are not clinically available. In this study, we purified 2,7-dihydroxyl-1-methyl-5-vinyl-phenanthrene, termed dehydroeffusol, from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Juncus effusus L., and found that dehydroeffusol effectively inhibited gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry in vitro and in vivo with very low toxicity. Dehydroeffusol significantly suppressed gastric cancer cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. Molecular mechanistic studies revealed that dehydroeffusol markedly inhibited the expression of a vasculogenic mimicry master gene VE-cadherin and reduced adherent protein exposure on the cell surface by inhibiting gene promoter activity. In addition, dehydroeffusol significantly decreased the expression of a key vasculogenic gene matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) in gastric cancer cells, and diminished MMP2 protease activity. Together, our results showed that dehydroeffusol effectively inhibited gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry with very low toxicity, suggesting that dehydroeffusol is a potential drug candidate for anti-gastric cancer neovascularization and anti-gastric cancer therapy. - Highlights: • Dehydroeffusol markedly inhibits gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry. • Dehydroeffusol suppresses the expression of vasculogenic mimicry key gene VE-cadherin. • Dehydroeffusol decreases the MMP2 expression and activity in gastric cancer cells. • Dehydroeffusol is a potential anti-cancer drug candidate with very low toxicity.

  16. Magnolol protects neurons against ischemia injury via the downregulation of p38/MAPK, CHOP and nitrotyrosine

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jiann-Hwa; Kuo, Hsing-Chun; Lee, Kam-Fai; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2014-09-15

    Magnolol is isolated from the herb Magnolia officinalis, which has been demonstrated to exert pharmacological effects. Our aim was to investigate whether magnolol is able to act as an anti-inflammatory agent that brings about neuroprotection using a global ischemic stroke model and to determine the mechanisms involved. Rats were treated with and without magnolol after ischemia reperfusion brain injury by occlusion of the two common carotid arteries. The inflammatory cytokine production in serum and the volume of infarction in the brain were measured. The proteins present in the brains obtained from the stroke animal model (SAM) and control animal groups with and without magnolol treatment were compared. Magnolol reduces the total infarcted volume by 15% and 30% at dosages of 10 and 30 mg/kg, respectively, compared to the untreated SAM group. The levels of acute inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-6 were attenuated by magnolol. Magnolol was also able to suppress the production of nitrotyrosine, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), various phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases and various C/EBP homologues. Furthermore, this modulation of ischemia injury factors in the SAM model group treated with magnolol seems to result from a suppression of reactive oxygen species production and the upregulation of p-Akt and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB). These findings confirm the anti-oxidative properties of magnolol, including the inhibition of ischemic injury to neurons; this protective effect seems to involve changes in the in vivo activity of Akt, GSK3β and NF-κB. - Graphical abstract: Schematic presentation of the signaling pathways involved in magnolol inhibited transient global ischemia brain apoptosis and inflammation in rats. The effect of magnolol on the scavenger of ROS, which inhibits p38 MAPK and CHOP protein inactivation

  17. CO2 EFFECTS ON MOJAVE DESERT PLANT INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    L. A. DEFALCO; G. C. FERNANDEZ; S. D. SMITH; R. S. NOWAK

    2004-01-01

    Seasonal and interannual droughts characteristic of deserts have the potential to modify plant interactions as atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations continue to rise. At the Nevada Desert FACE (free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment) facility in the northern Mojave Desert, the effects of elevated atmospheric C02 (550 vs. ambient {approx}360 {micro}mol mol{sup -1}) on plant interactions were examined during two years of high and low rainfall. Results suggest that CO{sub 2} effects on the interaction between native species and their understory herbs are dependent on the strength of competition when rainfall is plentiful, but are unimportant during annual drought. Seasonal rainfall for 1999 was 23% the long-term average for the area, and neither elevated CO{sub 2} nor the low production of herbaceous neighbors had an effect on relative growth rate (RGR, d{sup -1}) and reproductive effort (RE, number of flowers g{sup -1}) for Achnatherum hymenoides (early season perennial C{sub 3} grass), Pleuraphis rigida (late season perennial C{sub 4} grass), and Larrea tridentata (evergreen C{sub 3} shrub). In contrast, 1998 received 213% the average rainfall. Consequently, the decrease in RGR and increase in RE for Achnatherum, whose period of growth overlaps directly with that of its neighbors, was exaggerated at elevated CO{sub 2}. However, competitive effects of neighbors on Eriogonum trichopes (a winter annual growing in shrub interspaces), Pleuraphis and Larrea were not affected by elevated CO{sub 2}, and possible explanations are discussed. Contrary to expectations, the invasive annual neighbor Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens had little influence on target plant responses because densities in 1998 and 1999 at this site were well below those found in other studies where it has negatively affected perennial plant growth. The extent that elevated CO{sub 2} reduces the performance of Achnatherum in successive years to cause its loss from the plant community depends more on future pressure

  18. Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

    2010-01-27

    produced a comparable tensile and burst index pulps. Product gas composition determined using computer simulations The results demonstrate that RVS-1 can effectively remove > 99.8% of the H2S present in simulated synthesis gas generated from the gasification of black liquor. This level of sulfur removal was consistent over simulated synthesis gas mixtures that contained from 6 to 9.5 vol % H2S.A significant amount of the sulfur in the simulated syngas was recovered as SO2 during regeneration. The average recovery of sulfur as SO2 was about 75%. Because these are first cycle results, this sulfur recovery is expected to improve. Developed WINGems model of the process.The total decrease in variable operating costs for the BLG process compared to the HERB was in excess of $6,200,000 per year for a mill producing 350,000 tons of pulp per year. This represents a decrease in operating cost of about $17.7/ton of oven dry pulp produced. There will be additional savings in labor and maintenance cost that has not been taken into account. The capital cost for the MSSAQ based gasifier system was estimated at $164,000,000, which is comparable to a High Efficiency Recovery Boiler. The return on investment was estimated at 4%. A gasifier replacement cannot be justified on its own, however if the recovery boiler needs to be replaced the MSSAQ gasifier system shows significantly higher savings. Before black liquor based gasifer technology can be commercialized more work is necessary. The recovery of the absorbed sulfur in the absorbent as sulfur dioxide is only 75%. This needs to be greater than 90% for economical operation. It has been suggested that as the number of cycles is increased the sulfur dioxide recovery might improve. Further research is necessary. Even though a significant amount of work has been done on a pilot scale gasifiers using liquors containing sulfur, both at low and high temperatures the lack of a commercial unit is an impediment to the implementation of the MSSAQ