National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for grain-oriented electrical steel

  1. Structure analysis of aluminium silicon manganese nitride precipitates formed in grain-oriented electrical steels

    SciTech Connect

    Bernier, Nicolas; Xhoffer, Chris; Van De Putte, Tom; Galceran, Montserrat; Godet, Stéphane

    2013-12-15

    We report a detailed structural and chemical characterisation of aluminium silicon manganese nitrides that act as grain growth inhibitors in industrially processed grain-oriented (GO) electrical steels. The compounds are characterised using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), while their crystal structures are analysed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and TEM in electron diffraction (ED), dark-field, high-resolution and automated crystallographic orientation mapping (ACOM) modes. The chemical bonding character is determined using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Despite the wide variation in composition, all the precipitates exhibit a hexagonal close-packed (h.c.p.) crystal structure and lattice parameters of aluminium nitride. The EDX measurement of ∼ 900 stoichiometrically different precipitates indicates intermediate structures between pure aluminium nitride and pure silicon manganese nitride, with a constant Si/Mn atomic ratio of ∼ 4. It is demonstrated that aluminium and silicon are interchangeably precipitated with the same local arrangement, while both Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 3+} are incorporated in the h.c.p. silicon nitride interstitial sites. The oxidation of the silicon manganese nitrides most likely originates from the incorporation of oxygen during the decarburisation annealing process, thus creating extended planar defects such as stacking faults and inversion domain boundaries. The chemical composition of the inhibitors may be written as (AlN){sub x}(SiMn{sub 0.25}N{sub y}O{sub z}){sub 1−x} with x ranging from 0 to 1. - Highlights: • We study the structure of (Al,Si,Mn)N inhibitors in grain oriented electrical steels. • Inhibitors have the hexagonal close-packed symmetry with lattice parameters of AlN. • Inhibitors are intermediate structures between pure AlN and (Si,Mn)N with Si/Mn ∼ 4. • Al and Si share the same local arrangement; Mn is incorporated in both Mn

  2. Evolution of microstructure, texture and inhibitor along the processing route for grain-oriented electrical steels using strip casting

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hai-Tao; Yao, Sheng-Jie; Sun, Yu; Gao, Fei; Song, Hong-Yu; Liu, Guo-Huai; Li, Lei; Geng, Dian-Qiao; Liu, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2015-08-15

    In the present work, a regular grade GO sheet was produced successively by strip casting, hot rolling, normalizing annealing, two-stage cold rolling with intermediate annealing, primary recrystallization annealing, secondary recrystallization annealing and purification. The aim of this paper was to characterize the evolution of microstructure, texture and inhibitor along the new processing route by comprehensive utilization of optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that a fine microstructure with the ferrite grain size range of 7–12 μm could be obtained in the primary recrystallization annealed sheet though a very coarse microstructure was produced in the initial as-cast strip. The main finding was that the “texture memory” effect on Goss texture started on the through-thickness intermediate annealed strip after first cold rolling, which was not similar to the “texture memory” effect on Goss texture starting on the surface layers of the hot rolled strip in the conventional production route. As a result, the origin of Goss nuclei capable of secondary recrystallization lied in the grains already presented in Goss orientation in the intermediate annealed strip after first cold rolling. Another finding was that fine and dispersive inhibitors (mainly AlN) were easy to be produced in the primary recrystallization microstructure due to the initial rapid solidification during strip casting and the subsequent rapid cooling, and the very high temperature reheating usually used before hot rolling in the conventional production route could be avoided. - Highlights: • A regular grade grain-oriented electrical steel was produced. • Evolution of microstructure, texture and inhibitor was characterized. • Origin of Goss nuclei lied in the intermediate annealed strip. • A fine primary recrystallization microstructure could be produced. • Effective inhibitors were easy to be obtained in the new processing route.

  3. FEA Simulations of Magnets with Grain Oriented Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Witte H.

    2012-08-06

    One of the potential successors of the Large Hadron Collider is a Muon Col- lider. Muons are short-lived particles, which therefore require fast acceleration. One potential avenue is a very fast cycling cyclotron, where the bending is sup- plied by a combination of fixed-field superconducting magnets and fast ramping normal conducting iron-cored coils. Due to the high ramping rate (around 1 kHz) eddy current and hysteresis losses are a concern. One way to overcome these is by using grain-oriented soft-iron, which promises superior magnetic properties in the direction of the grains. This note summarizes efforts to include the anisotropic material properties of grain-oriented steel in finite element analysis to predict the behaviour of the dipole magnets for this accelerator. It was found that including anisotropic material properties has a detrimental effect on model convergence. During this study it was not possible to include grain oriented steel with an accuracy necessary to study the field quality of a dipole magnet.

  4. Grain orientation dependence of lattice strains and intergranular...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Grain orientation dependence of lattice strains and intergranular damage rates in polycrystals under cyclic loading Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Grain orientation ...

  5. Continuous method for manufacturing grain-oriented magnetostrictive bodies

    DOEpatents

    Gibson, Edwin D.; Verhoeven, John D.; Schmidt, Frederick A.; McMasters, O. Dale

    1988-01-01

    The invention comprises a continuous casting and crystallization method for manufacturing grain-oriented magnetostrictive bodies. A magnetostrictive alloy is melted in a crucible having a bottom outlet. The melt is discharged through the bottom of the crucible and deposited in an elongated mold. Heat is removed from the deposited melt through the lower end portion of the mold to progressively solidify the melt. The solid-liquid interface of the melt moves directionally upwardly from the bottom to the top of the mold, to produce the axial grain orientation.

  6. Optical method for the determination of grain orientation in films

    DOEpatents

    Maris, Humphrey J.

    2001-01-01

    A method for the determination of grain orientation in a film sample is provided comprising the steps of measuring a first transient optical response of the film and determining the contribution to the transient optical response arising from a change in the energy distribution of the electrons in the sample, determining the contribution to the transient optical response arising from a propagating strain pulse within the sample, and determining the contribution to the transient optical response arising from a change in sample temperature of the sample. The grain orientation of the sample may be determined using the contributions to the transient optical response arising from the change in the energy distribution of the electrons, the propagating strain pulse, and the change in sample temperature. Additionally, a method for determination of the thickness of a film sample is provided. The grain orientation of the sample is first determined. The grain orientation, together with the velocity of sound and a propagation time of a strain pulse through the sample are then used to determine the thickness of the film sample.

  7. Optical method for the determination of grain orientation in films

    DOEpatents

    Maris, Humphrey J.

    2003-05-13

    A method for the determination of grain orientation in a film sample is provided comprising the steps of measuring a first transient optical response of the film and determining the contribution to the transient optical response arising from a change in the energy distribution of the electrons in the sample, determining the contribution to the transient optical response arising from a propagating strain pulse within the sample, and determining the contribution to the transient optical response arising from a change in sample temperature of the sample. The grain orientation of the sample may be determined using the contributions to the transient optical response arising from the change in the energy distribution of the electrons, the propagating strain pulse, and the change in sample temperature. Additionally, a method for determination of the thickness of a film sample is provided. The grain orientation of the sample is first determined. The grain orientation, together with the velocity of sound and a propagation time of a strain pulse through the sample are then used to determine the thickness of the film sample.

  8. © 2012 ATI. All Rights Reserved

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    * Stainless steels, grain oriented electrical steel & duplex alloys * Zirconium, ... readily available high-end grades of conventional grain oriented electrical steel (e.g. ...

  9. Electrical resistance tomography from measurements inside a steel cased borehole

    DOEpatents

    Daily, William D.; Schenkel, Clifford; Ramirez, Abelardo L.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) produced from measurements taken inside a steel cased borehole. A tomographic inversion of electrical resistance measurements made within a steel casing was then made for the purpose of imaging the electrical resistivity distribution in the formation remotely from the borehole. The ERT method involves combining electrical resistance measurements made inside a steel casing of a borehole to determine the electrical resistivity in the formation adjacent to the borehole; and the inversion of electrical resistance measurements made from a borehole not cased with an electrically conducting casing to determine the electrical resistivity distribution remotely from a borehole. It has been demonstrated that by using these combined techniques, highly accurate current injection and voltage measurements, made at appropriate points within the casing, can be tomographically inverted to yield useful information outside the borehole casing.

  10. Lightweight Sealed Steel Fuel Tanks for Advanced Hybrid Electric Vehicles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Sealed Steel Fuel Tanks for Advanced Hybrid Electric Vehicles Lightweight Sealed Steel Fuel Tanks for Advanced Hybrid Electric Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting lm066_yaccarino_2012_o.pdf (3.73 MB) More Documents & Publications A Review of Stress Corrosion Cracking/Fatigue Modeling for Light Water Reactor Cooling System Components Report on Assessment of

  11. Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Daily, William D.; Ramirez, Abelardo L.

    1999-01-01

    An electrical resistance tomography method using steel cased boreholes as electrodes. The method enables mapping the electrical resistivity distribution in the subsurface from measurements of electrical potential caused by electrical currents injected into an array of electrodes in the subsurface. By use of current injection and potential measurement electrodes to generate data about the subsurface resistivity distribution, which data is then used in an inverse calculation, a model of the electrical resistivity distribution can be obtained. The inverse model may be constrained by independent data to better define an inverse solution. The method utilizes pairs of electrically conductive (steel) borehole casings as current injection electrodes and as potential measurement electrodes. The greater the number of steel cased boreholes in an array, the greater the amount of data is obtained. The steel cased boreholes may be utilized for either current injection or potential measurement electrodes. The subsurface model produced by this method can be 2 or 3 dimensional in resistivity depending on the detail desired in the calculated resistivity distribution and the amount of data to constain the models.

  12. Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Daily, W.D.; Ramirez, A.L.

    1999-06-22

    An electrical resistance tomography method is described which uses steel cased boreholes as electrodes. The method enables mapping the electrical resistivity distribution in the subsurface from measurements of electrical potential caused by electrical currents injected into an array of electrodes in the subsurface. By use of current injection and potential measurement electrodes to generate data about the subsurface resistivity distribution, which data is then used in an inverse calculation, a model of the electrical resistivity distribution can be obtained. The inverse model may be constrained by independent data to better define an inverse solution. The method utilizes pairs of electrically conductive (steel) borehole casings as current injection electrodes and as potential measurement electrodes. The greater the number of steel cased boreholes in an array, the greater the amount of data is obtained. The steel cased boreholes may be utilized for either current injection or potential measurement electrodes. The subsurface model produced by this method can be 2 or 3 dimensional in resistivity depending on the detail desired in the calculated resistivity distribution and the amount of data to constrain the models. 2 figs.

  13. Effect of grain orientation on aluminum relocation at incipient melt conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, Nadir; Vigil, Francisco M.; Vigil, Miquela S.; Branam, Robert; Tolendino, Greg; Gill, Walt; Burl Donaldson, A.

    2015-09-01

    Aluminum is commonly used for structural applications in the aerospace industry because of its high strength in relation to its weight. It is necessary to understand the mechanical response of aluminum structures at elevated temperatures such as those experienced in a fire. Additionally, aluminum alloys exhibit many complicated behaviors that require further research and understanding, such as aluminum combustion, oxide skin formation and creep behavior. This paper discusses the effect of grain orientation on aluminum deformation subjected to heating at incipient melt conditions. Experiments were conducted by applying a vertical compressive force to aluminum alloy 7075 block test specimens. Furthermore, compression testing was done on test specimens with the applied load on the long transverse and short transverse orientations. Our results showed that the grain orientation significantly influences aluminums strength and mode of failure.

  14. Effect of grain orientation on aluminum relocation at incipient melt conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, Nadir; Vigil, Francisco M.; Vigil, Miquela S.; Branam, Robert; Tolendino, Greg; Gill, Walt; Burl Donaldson, A.

    2015-09-01

    Aluminum is commonly used for structural applications in the aerospace industry because of its high strength in relation to its weight. It is necessary to understand the mechanical response of aluminum structures at elevated temperatures such as those experienced in a fire. Additionally, aluminum alloys exhibit many complicated behaviors that require further research and understanding, such as aluminum combustion, oxide skin formation and creep behavior. This paper discusses the effect of grain orientation on aluminum deformation subjected to heating at incipient melt conditions. Experiments were conducted by applying a vertical compressive force to aluminum alloy 7075 block test specimens. Furthermore, compression testing was done on test specimens with the applied load on the long transverse and short transverse orientations. Our results showed that the grain orientation significantly influences aluminum’s strength and mode of failure.

  15. Effect of grain orientation on aluminum relocation at incipient melt conditions

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Yilmaz, Nadir; Vigil, Francisco M.; Vigil, Miquela S.; Branam, Robert; Tolendino, Greg; Gill, Walt; Burl Donaldson, A.

    2015-09-01

    Aluminum is commonly used for structural applications in the aerospace industry because of its high strength in relation to its weight. It is necessary to understand the mechanical response of aluminum structures at elevated temperatures such as those experienced in a fire. Additionally, aluminum alloys exhibit many complicated behaviors that require further research and understanding, such as aluminum combustion, oxide skin formation and creep behavior. This paper discusses the effect of grain orientation on aluminum deformation subjected to heating at incipient melt conditions. Experiments were conducted by applying a vertical compressive force to aluminum alloy 7075 block test specimens. Furthermore,more » compression testing was done on test specimens with the applied load on the long transverse and short transverse orientations. Our results showed that the grain orientation significantly influences aluminum’s strength and mode of failure.« less

  16. Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as long electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Daily, W; Newmark, R L; Ramirez, A

    1999-07-20

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) using multiple electrodes installed in boreholes has been shown to be useful for both site characterization and process monitoring. In some cases, however, installing multiple downhole electrodes is too costly (e.g., deep targets) or risky (e.g., contaminated sites). For these cases we have examined the possibility of using the steel casings of existing boreholes as electrodes. Several possibilities can be considered. The first case we investigated uses an array of steel casings as electrodes. This results in very few data and thus requires additional constraints to limit the domain of possible inverse solutions. Simulations indicate that the spatial resolution and sensitivity are understandably low but it is possible to coarsely map the lateral extent of subsurface processes such as steam floods. The second case uses an array of traditional point borehole electrodes combined with long-conductor electrodes (steel casings). Although this arrangement provides more data, in many cases it results in poor reconstructions of test targets. Results indicate that this method may hold promise for low resolution imaging where steel casings can be used as electrodes but the merits depend strongly on details of each application. Field tests using these configurations are currently being conducted.

  17. Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Newmark, R L; Daily, W; Ramirez, A

    1999-03-22

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) using multiple electrodes installed in boreholes has been shown to be useful for both site characterization and process monitoring. In some cases, however, installing multiple downhole electrodes is too costly (e.g., deep targets) or risky (e.g., contaminated sites). For these cases we have examined the possibility of using the steel casings of existing boreholes as electrodes. The first case we investigated used an array of steel casings as electrodes. This results in very few data and thus requires additional constraints to limit the domain of possible inverse solutions. Simulations indicate that the spatial resolution and sensitivity are understandably low but it is possible to coarsely map the lateral extent of subsurface processes such as steam floods. A hybrid case uses traditional point electrode arrays combined with long-conductor electrodes (steel casings). Although this arrangement provides more data, in many cases it results in poor reconstructions of test targets. Results indicate that this method may hold promise for low resolution imaging where steel casings can be used as electrodes.

  18. Method for reducing formation of electrically resistive layer on ferritic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Rakowski, James M.

    2013-09-10

    A method of reducing the formation of electrically resistive scale on a an article comprising a silicon-containing ferritic stainless subjected to oxidizing conditions in service includes, prior to placing the article in service, subjecting the article to conditions under which silica, which includes silicon derived from the steel, forms on a surface of the steel. Optionally, at least a portion of the silica is removed from the surface to placing the article in service. A ferritic stainless steel alloy having a reduced tendency to form silica on at least a surface thereof also is provided. The steel includes a near-surface region that has been depleted of silicon relative to a remainder of the steel.

  19. Analysis of Crossover Points for MVLT Superclass

    Energy Saver

    of Cross-Over Points for Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel and Amorphous Ribbon for the MVLT ... transformers with M-3 grain-oriented electrical steel core designs crosses the low-cost ...

  20. Comments of Steele-Waseca Cooperative Electric | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to ... More Documents & Publications NBP RFI: Communications Requirements- Comments of Great ...

  1. Extracting grain-orientation-dependent data from in situ time-of-flight neutron diffraction. I. Inverse pole figures

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Stoica, Grigoreta M.; Stoica, Alexandru Dan; An, Ke; Ma, Dong; Vogel, S. C.; Carpenter, J. S.; Wang, Xun-Li

    2014-11-28

    The problem of calculating the inverse pole figure (IPF) is analyzed from the perspective of the application of time-of flight neutron diffraction toin situmonitoring of the thermomechanical behavior of engineering materials. On the basis of a quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) method, a consistent set of grain orientations is generated and used to compute the weighting factors for IPF normalization. The weighting factors are instrument dependent and were calculated for the engineering materials diffractometer VULCAN (Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory). The QMC method is applied to face-centered cubic structures and can be easily extended to other crystallographic symmetries. Examples includemore » 316LN stainless steelin situloaded in tension at room temperature and an Al–2%Mg alloy, substantially deformed by cold rolling and in situannealed up to 653 K.« less

  2. Production of high quality steels using the scrap/electric arc furnace route

    SciTech Connect

    Houpert, C.; Lanteri, V.; Jolivet, J.M.; Guttmann, M.; Birat, J.P.; Jallon, M.; Confente, M.

    1996-12-31

    Europe, after North America, is increasing the share of electric arc furnace steelmaking at the expense of integrated steel production and the trend appears to be long term. The driving forces for this change are strong: availability of scrap, social pressure to recycle materials and economic benefits to be reaped from the small structure associated with this short and slim production route. The increasing use of scrap does raise some problems however, in terms of the tramp element build up within the scrap deposit over time. Scrap pretreatment, which aims at separating steel from non-ferrous material during preparation, is thus attracting a lot of attention. The purpose of the present work was to investigate quantitatively the potential problems related to increased levels in tramp elements, with two objectives: identify, on a case by case basis, the currently existing practical limits and devise countermeasures to further extend these limits by better controlling process parameters for instance.

  3. Steel

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The steelmaking industry has significantly lowered its energy use over the past several decades. The U.S. steel industry has worked with AMO to develop a range of resources to assist in lowering the energy and carbon intensity of steelmaking. Some current R&D projects and Energy Management resources will benefit the industry.

  4. Giant strain with ultra-low hysteresis and high temperature stability in grain oriented lead-free K₀̣₅Bi₀̣₅TiO₃-BaTiO₃-Na₀̣₅Bi₀̣₅TiO₃ piezoelectric materials

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Maurya, Deepam; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Yaojin; Yan, Yongke; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, Dwight; Priya, Shashank

    2015-02-26

    We synthesized grain-oriented lead-free piezoelectric materials in (K₀̣₅Bi₀̣₅TiO₃-BaTiO₃-xNa₀̣₅Bi₀̣₅TiO₃ (KBT-BT-NBT) system with high degree of texturing along the [001]c (c-cubic) crystallographic orientation. We demonstrate giant field induced strain (~0.48%) with an ultra-low hysteresis along with enhanced piezoelectric response (d₃₃ ~ 190pC/N) and high temperature stability (~160°C). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) results demonstrate smaller size highly ordered domain structure in grain-oriented specimen relative to the conventional polycrystalline ceramics. The grain oriented specimens exhibited a high degree of non-180° domain switching, in comparison to the randomly axed ones. These results indicate the effective solution to the lead-free piezoelectricmore » materials.« less

  5. Microstructure investigation of 13Cr-2Mo ODS steel components obtained by high voltage electric discharge compaction technique

    SciTech Connect

    Bogachev, Igor; Yudin, Artem; Grigoryev, Evgeniy; Chernov, Ivan; Staltsov, Maxim; Khasanov, Oleg; Olevsky, Eugene

    2015-11-02

    Refractory oxide dispersion strengthened 13Cr-2Mo steel powder was successfully consolidated to near theoretical density using high voltage electric discharge compaction. Cylindrical samples with relative density from 90% to 97% and dimensions of 10 mm in diameter and 10–15 mm in height were obtained. Consolidation conditions such as pressure and voltage were varied in some ranges to determine the optimal compaction regime. Three different concentrations of yttria were used to identify its effect on the properties of the samples. It is shown that the utilized ultra-rapid consolidation process in combination with high transmitted energy allows obtaining high density compacts, retaining the initial structure with minimal grain growth. The experimental results indicate some heterogeneity of the structure which may occur in the external layers of the tested samples due to various thermal and electromagnetic in-processing effects. As a result, the choice of the optimal parameters of the consolidation enables obtaining samples of acceptable quality.

  6. Toughened Graphite Electrode for High Heat Electric Arc Furnaces...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ORNL to melt steel, titanium, and other scrap metal in industrial electric arc furnaces. ... Applications and Industries Electric arc furnace steel manufacturing Steel refinement and ...

  7. Microstructure investigation of 13Cr-2Mo ODS steel components obtained by high voltage electric discharge compaction technique

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Bogachev, Igor; Yudin, Artem; Grigoryev, Evgeniy; Chernov, Ivan; Staltsov, Maxim; Khasanov, Oleg; Olevsky, Eugene

    2015-11-02

    Refractory oxide dispersion strengthened 13Cr-2Mo steel powder was successfully consolidated to near theoretical density using high voltage electric discharge compaction. Cylindrical samples with relative density from 90% to 97% and dimensions of 10 mm in diameter and 10–15 mm in height were obtained. Consolidation conditions such as pressure and voltage were varied in some ranges to determine the optimal compaction regime. Three different concentrations of yttria were used to identify its effect on the properties of the samples. It is shown that the utilized ultra-rapid consolidation process in combination with high transmitted energy allows obtaining high density compacts, retaining themore » initial structure with minimal grain growth. The experimental results indicate some heterogeneity of the structure which may occur in the external layers of the tested samples due to various thermal and electromagnetic in-processing effects. As a result, the choice of the optimal parameters of the consolidation enables obtaining samples of acceptable quality.« less

  8. Profiles in garbage: Steel cans

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.

    1998-02-01

    Steel mills are the largest market for steel cans. Integrated mills use the basic oxygen process to manufacture tinplate, appliances, car bodies, and steel framing. Electric arc furnaces use 100% scrap to produce steel shapes such as railroad ties and bridge spans. Electric arc furnaces are more geographically diverse and tend to have smaller capacities than basic oxygen furnaces. Detinners remove the tin from steel cans for resale to tin using industries. With less tin use in steel cans, the importance of the detinning market has declined substantially. Foundries use scrap as a raw material in making castings and molds for industrial users.

  9. Texture evolution in Fe-3% Si steel treated under unconventional annealing conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyka, Vladimir; Kovac, Frantisek; Stupakov, Oleksandr; Petryshynets, Ivan

    2010-11-15

    The present work investigates texture evolution stages in grain-oriented steel heat-treated using unconventional conditions. The Fe-3%Si steel taken after final cold rolling reduction from an industrial line was subjected to a laboratory isothermal annealing at different temperatures. The annealing temperatures were varied in a range of 850-1150 deg. C. During the annealing each specimen was heated at 10 deg. C/s and kept at the stated temperature for 5 min. Development of microstructure and texture in the annealed specimens were followed by the DC measurements of magnetic properties. The grain oriented steel, taken from the same industrial line after final box annealing was also analyzed and compared with the laboratory annealed specimens. It was shown that there is an optimal temperature region that, with combination of a fast heating rate, led to the best conditions of a drastically reduced development time of the {l_brace}110{r_brace} < 001 > crystallographic texture in the cold rolled grain-oriented steel. Materials heat treated below the optimum temperature region account for a primary recrystallization, while applying heat above this region leads to a secondary recrystallization without abnormal grain growth. Moreover, in the optimum temperature range, there was a particular temperature leading to the most optimal microstructure and texture. The magnetic properties, measured after the optimal heat treatment, were close to that measured on specimens taken after the final box annealing. The electron back scattered diffraction measurement technique revealed that sharpness of the {l_brace}110{r_brace} < 001 > crystallographic texture, developed at the optimum temperature is comparable to the steel taken after the industrial final box annealing. This fact is evidence that there is a temperature where the abnormal grain growth proceeds optimally.

  10. Giant strain with ultra-low hysteresis and high temperature stability in grain oriented lead-free K₀̣₅Bi₀̣₅TiO₃-BaTiO₃-Na₀̣₅Bi₀̣₅TiO₃ piezoelectric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Maurya, Deepam; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Yaojin; Yan, Yongke; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, Dwight; Priya, Shashank

    2015-02-26

    We synthesized grain-oriented lead-free piezoelectric materials in (K₀̣₅Bi₀̣₅TiO₃-BaTiO₃-xNa₀̣₅Bi₀̣₅TiO₃ (KBT-BT-NBT) system with high degree of texturing along the [001]c (c-cubic) crystallographic orientation. We demonstrate giant field induced strain (~0.48%) with an ultra-low hysteresis along with enhanced piezoelectric response (d₃₃ ~ 190pC/N) and high temperature stability (~160°C). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) results demonstrate smaller size highly ordered domain structure in grain-oriented specimen relative to the conventional polycrystalline ceramics. The grain oriented specimens exhibited a high degree of non-180° domain switching, in comparison to the randomly axed ones. These results indicate the effective solution to the lead-free piezoelectric materials.

  11. Roles of electricity: Electric steelmaking

    SciTech Connect

    Burwell, C.C.

    1986-07-01

    Electric steel production from scrap metal continues to grow both in total quantity and in market share. The economics of electric-steel production in general, and of electric minimills in particular, seem clearly established. The trend towards electric steelmaking provides significant economic and competitive advantages for producers and important overall economic, environmental, and energy advantages for the United States at large. Conversion to electric steelmaking offers up to a 4-to-1 advantage in terms of the overall energy used to produce a ton of steel, and s similar savings in energy cost for the producer. The amount of old scrap used to produce a ton of steel has doubled since 1967 because of the use of electric furnaces.

  12. Stainless Steel Hotplate Heater for Long Objects --- Inventor...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Stainless Steel Hotplate Heater for Long Objects --- Inventor(s): Stephan Jurczynski and ... High electrical current is passed through a stainless steel plate longer and slightly ...

  13. Deformation localization and dislocation channel dynamics in neutron-irradiated austenitic stainless steels

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Gussev, Maxim N.; Field, Kevin G.; Busby, Jeremy T.

    2015-02-24

    We investigated dynamics of deformation localization and dislocation channel formation in situ in a neutron irradiated AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel and a model 304-based austenitic alloy by combining several analytical techniques including optic microscopy and laser confocal microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Channel formation was observed at 70% of the formal tensile yield stress for both alloys. It was shown that triple junction points do not always serve as a source of dislocation channels; at stress levels below the yield stress, channels often formed near the middle of the grain boundary. For amore » single grain, the role of elastic stiffness value (Young modulus) in the channel formation was analyzed; it was shown that in the irradiated 304 steels the initial channels appeared in soft grains with a high Schmid factor located near stiff grains with high elastic stiffness. Moreover, the spatial organization of channels in a single grain was analyzed; it was shown that secondary channels operating in the same slip plane as primary channels often appeared at the middle or at one third of the way between primary channels. The twinning nature of dislocation channels was analyzed for grains of different orientation using TEM. Finally, it was shown that in the AISI 304 steel, channels were twin-free in grains oriented close to [001] and [101] of standard unit triangle; [111]-grains and grains oriented close to Schmid factor maximum contained deformation twins.« less

  14. Deformation localization and dislocation channel dynamics in neutron-irradiated austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Gussev, Maxim N.; Field, Kevin G.; Busby, Jeremy T.

    2015-02-24

    We investigated dynamics of deformation localization and dislocation channel formation in situ in a neutron irradiated AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel and a model 304-based austenitic alloy by combining several analytical techniques including optic microscopy and laser confocal microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Channel formation was observed at 70% of the formal tensile yield stress for both alloys. It was shown that triple junction points do not always serve as a source of dislocation channels; at stress levels below the yield stress, channels often formed near the middle of the grain boundary. For a single grain, the role of elastic stiffness value (Young modulus) in the channel formation was analyzed; it was shown that in the irradiated 304 steels the initial channels appeared in soft grains with a high Schmid factor located near stiff grains with high elastic stiffness. Moreover, the spatial organization of channels in a single grain was analyzed; it was shown that secondary channels operating in the same slip plane as primary channels often appeared at the middle or at one third of the way between primary channels. The twinning nature of dislocation channels was analyzed for grains of different orientation using TEM. Finally, it was shown that in the AISI 304 steel, channels were twin-free in grains oriented close to [001] and [101] of standard unit triangle; [111]-grains and grains oriented close to Schmid factor maximum contained deformation twins.

  15. ELECTRIC

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    you nay give us will be greatly uppreckted. VPry truly your23, 9. IX. Sin0j3, Mtinager lclectronics and Nuclear Physics Dept. omh , WESTINGHOUSE-THE NAT KING IN ELECTRICITY

  16. Microstructure, texture evolution and magnetic properties of strip-casting non-oriented 6.5 wt.% Si electrical steel doped with cerium

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hao-Ze Liu, Hai-Tao; Liu, Zhen-Yu Wang, Guo-Dong

    2015-05-15

    A 0.3 mm thick non-oriented 6.5 wt.% Si electrical steel sheet doped with cerium is produced by twin-roll strip casting, hot rolling, warm rolling and annealing. A detailed study of the cerium precipitates in the as-cast strip, microstructure and texture evolution at different processing stages is carried out by electron probe micro-analysis, optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron backscattered diffraction analysis. Grain interior distributing precipitates identified as Ce-oxides, Ce-oxysulfides and Ce-phosphides, and boundary distributing Ce-oxides and Ce-phosphides are observed in the as-cast strip. The initial as-cast strip is characterized by a much finer solidification microstructure and dominated by obvious < 001 >//ND texture through the strip thickness. After hot and warm rolling, inhomogeneous microstructure containing large amounts of in-grain shear bands is characterized by mixed < 110 >//RD and < 111 >//ND textures. The texture of the annealed sheet with a relatively large average grain size is far more optimized by the domination of the beneficial cube, rotated cube, (001)< 120 > to (001)< 130 > and Goss texture components, and the elimination of the detrimental γ-fiber texture, leading to a superior magnetic induction and improved iron loss. - Highlights: • An Fe–6.5 wt.% Si as-cast strip doped with cerium was produced. • A thin warm rolled sheet with limited edge cracks was obtained. • Microstructure and texture evolution at each stage were investigated. • Strong λ-fiber and Goss recrystallization textures were formed. • The magnetic properties of the annealed sheet were significantly improved.

  17. Process for mitigating corrosion and increasing the conductivity of steel studs in soderberg anodes of aluminum reduction cells

    DOEpatents

    Oden, Laurance L.; White, Jack C.; Ramsey, James A.

    1994-01-01

    A corrosion resistant electrically conductive coating on steel anode studs used in the production of aluminum by electrolysis.

  18. Grain orientation dependence of phase transformation in the shape...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 94; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 1359-6454 Publisher: Elsevier Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy ...

  19. Steel Industry Technology Roadmap | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Steel Industry Technology Roadmap Steel Industry Technology Roadmap Table of Contents Introduction Process Improvement 2.1 Cokemaking 2.2 Ironmaking 2.3 Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) Steelmaking 2.4 Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) Steelmaking 2.5 Ladle Refining 2.6 Casting 2.7 Rolling and Finishing 2.8 Refractories Iron Recycling Unit 3.1 By-products 3.2 Obsolete Scrap Environment 4.1 Cokemaking 4.2 Ironmaking 4.3 Steelmaking - Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) 4.4 Steelmaking - Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) 4.5

  20. Using Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    . Total Electricity Consumption and Expenditures, 2003" ,"All Buildings* Using Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings...

  1. ITP Steel: Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for Selected Conditions, March 2000 ITP Steel: Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for Selected Conditions, March 2000 ...

  2. Electric steelmaking: recent trends and future constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Burwell, C.C.

    1984-05-01

    This report provides a very brief description of steelmaking, and an overview of comparative data, primarily related to the use of energy and materials for each of the major steelmaking processes. This is followed by a discussion of possible limitations on the use of scrap - the current raw material for electric steel - and possible technological routes for overcoming them. The economics of electric-steel production in general, and of electric minimills in particular, seem clearly established. Electric steel-making is viable in its own right. The trend toward electric steelmaking provides significant economic and competitive advantages for producers and important overall economic, environmental and energy advantages for the US at large. Conversion to electric steelmaking offers a 4 to 1 advantage in terms of the overall energy used to produce a ton of steel, and a 2 to 1 savings in energy cost for the producer. The amount of energy saved, to produce the same amount of steel in 1967 and 1980, was equivalent to 25 million tons of coal. Furthermore, the amount of old scrap used to produce a ton of steel has doubled since 1967 because of the use of electric furnaces. Using the existing scrap to produce steel would save the energy equivalent of two billion barrels of oil. 44 references, 6 figures, 7 tables.

  3. Ultrahigh carbon steels, Damascus steels, and superplasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Sherby, O.D.; Wadsworth, J.

    1997-04-01

    The processing properties of ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs) have been studied at Stanford University over the past twenty years. These studies have shown that such steels (1 to 2.1% C) can be made superplastic at elevated temperature and can have remarkable mechanical properties at room temperature. It was the investigation of these UHCSs that eventually brought us to study the myths, magic, and metallurgy of ancient Damascus steels, which in fact, were also ultrahigh carbon steels. These steels were made in India as castings, known as wootz, possibly as far back as the time of Alexander the Great. The best swords are believed to have been forged in Persia from Indian wootz. This paper centers on recent work on superplastic UHCSs and on their relation to Damascus steels. 32 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Supporting steel

    SciTech Connect

    Badra, C.

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) have just completed a pilot program on the technical and economic viability of direct ironmaking by a process based on bath smelting. In this process, oxygen, prereduced iron ore pellets, coal, and flux are charged into a molten slag bath containing a high percentage of carbon. The carbon removes oxygen from the iron ore and generates carbon monoxide and liquid iron. Oxygen is then injected to burn some of the carbon monoxide gas before it leaves the smelting vessel. The partially combusted gas is sued to preheat and prereduced the ore before it is injected into the bath. There are several competing cokeless ironmaking processes in various stages of development around the world. A brief comparison of these processes provides a useful perspective with which to gauge the progress and objectives of the AISI-DOE research initiative. The principal competing foreign technologies include the Corex process, DIOS, HIsmelt, and Jupiter. The advantages of the direct ironmaking process examined by AISI-DOE were not sufficiently demonstrated to justify commercialization without further research. However, enough knowledge was gained from laboratory and pilot testing to teach researchers how to optimize the direct ironmaking process and to provide the foundation for future research. Researchers now better understand issues such as the dissolution of materials, reduction mechanisms and rates, slag foaming and control, the behavior of sulfur, dust generation, and the entire question of energy efficiency--including post combustion and the role of coal/volatile matter.

  5. Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel

    DOEpatents

    Bauer, Roger E.; Straalsund, Jerry L.; Chin, Bryan A.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

  6. Using Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    A. Total Electricity Consumption and Expenditures for All Buildings, 2003" ,"All Buildings Using Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"Number of...

  7. Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    C9. Total Electricity Consumption and Expenditures, 1999" ,"All Buildings Using Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings...

  8. Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    DIV. Total Electricity Consumption and Expenditures by Census Division, 1999" ,"All Buildings Using Electricity",,,"Electricity Consumption",,,"Electricity Expenditures" ,"Number...

  9. Methods of forming steel

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Burch, Joseph V.

    2001-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention encompasses a method of forming a steel. A metallic glass is formed and at least a portion of the glass is converted to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A molten alloy is formed and cooled the alloy at a rate which forms a metallic glass. The metallic glass is devitrified to convert the glass to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In yet another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A first metallic glass steel substrate is provided, and a molten alloy is formed over the first metallic glass steel substrate to heat and devitrify at least some of the underlying metallic glass of the substrate.

  10. Baotou Iron and Steel Group Baotou Steel | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    search Name: Baotou Iron and Steel Group (Baotou Steel) Place: Baotou, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Product: Baotou-based iron and steel maker as well as a rare...

  11. ITP Steel: Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Study September...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Marginal Opportunity Study September 2005 ITP Steel: Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Study September 2005 steelmarginalopportunity.pdf (346.86 KB) More Documents & Publications ...

  12. Auto/Steel Partnership: Advanced High-Strength Steel Research...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    More Documents & Publications AutoSteel Partnership: AHSS Stamping, Strain Rate Characterization, Sheet Steel Fatigue, AHSS Joining FY 2008 Progress Report for Lightweighting ...

  13. Success Story: Harrison Steel

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This case study highlights how Harrison Steel leveraged both EPA's ENERGY STAR program and DOE resources to enhance energy efficiency efforts and multiply captured energy savings.

  14. Process development of thin strip steel casting

    SciTech Connect

    Sussman, R.C.; Williams, R.S.

    1990-12-01

    An important new frontier is being opened in steel processing with the emergence of thin strip casting. Casting steel directly to thin strip has enormous benefits in energy savings by potentially eliminating the need for hot reduction in a hot strip mill. This has been the driving force for numerous current research efforts into the direct strip casting of steel. The US Department of Energy initiated a program to evaluate the development of thin strip casting in the steel industry. In earlier phases of this program, planar flow casting on an experimental caster was studied by a team of engineers from Westinghouse Electric corporation and Armco Inc. A subsequent research program was designed as a fundamental and developmental study of both planar and melt overflow casting processes. This study was arranged as several separate and distinct tasks which were often completed by different teams of researchers. An early task was to design and build a water model to study fluid flow through different designs of planar flow casting nozzles. Another important task was mathematically modeling of melt overflow casting process. A mathematical solidification model for the formation of the strip in the melt overflow process was written. A study of the material and conditioning of casting substrates was made on the small wheel caster using the melt overflow casting process. This report discusses work on the development of thin steel casting.

  15. Large Power Transformers and the U.S. Electric Grid Report Update...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The new report includes updated information about global electrical steel supply conditions and discusses the increased domestic production of large power transformers resulting ...

  16. Glass Stronger than Steel

    DOE R&D Accomplishments

    Yarris, Lynn

    2011-03-28

    A new type of damage-tolerant metallic glass, demonstrating a strength and toughness beyond that of steel or any other known material, has been developed and tested by a collaboration of researchers from Berkeley Lab and Caltech.

  17. Dezincing of steel scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Rij, P.W. van; Campenon, B.; Mooij, J.N.

    1997-04-01

    Scrap is an important raw material in the steel industry. Depending on the type of steelmaking process, the composition of the scrap may vary. Market research in Europe shows that there will be a shortage of zinc-free scrap in the future. An alkaline dezincing process for galvanized steel has been developed. A description of a pilot plant based on alkaline dezincing technology is presented.

  18. Surface modified stainless steels for PEM fuel cell bipolar plates

    DOEpatents

    Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Wang, Heli [Littleton, CO; Turner, John A [Littleton, CO

    2007-07-24

    A nitridation treated stainless steel article (such as a bipolar plate for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell) having lower interfacial contact electrical resistance and better corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel article is disclosed. The treated stainless steel article has a surface layer including nitrogen-modified chromium-base oxide and precipitates of chromium nitride formed during nitridation wherein oxygen is present in the surface layer at a greater concentration than nitrogen. The surface layer may further include precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide. The surface layer in the treated article is chemically heterogeneous surface rather than a uniform or semi-uniform surface layer exclusively rich in chromium, titanium or aluminum. The precipitates of titanium nitride and/or aluminum oxide are formed by the nitriding treatment wherein titanium and/or aluminum in the stainless steel are segregated to the surface layer in forms that exhibit a low contact resistance and good corrosion resistance.

  19. Structural characteristics and hydration kinetics of modified steel slag

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jianxin; Yu Qijun; Wei Jiangxiong Zhang Tongsheng

    2011-03-15

    This study investigates the structural characteristics and hydration kinetics of modified basic oxygen furnace steel slag. The basic oxygen furnace steel slag (BOFS) was mixed with electric arc furnace steel slag (EAFS) in appropriate ratios and heated again at high temperature in the laboratory. The mineralogical and structural characteristics of both BOFS and modified steel slag (MSS) were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies. The results show that modification increases alite content in MSS and decreases alite crystal size with the formation of C{sub 6}AF{sub 2}. One more obvious heat evolution peak appears in MSS's heat-flow rate curves in comparison to BOFS, becoming similar to that of typical Portland cement paste. As a result, its cementitious activity is much improved.

  20. ITP Steel: Steel Industry Energy Bandwidth Study October 2004

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... Steel can be hot or cold rolled; with hot rolling, the steel either is reheated or directly charged after casting. Reheating is the major energy consumer in the rolling process. ...

  1. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Sutton Steele and Steele...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Documents Related to SUTTON, STEELE & STEELE CO. TX.09-1 - Memorandum; Babcock to Files; ... March 28, 1951 TX.09-4 - Memorandum; Babcock to Files; Air Tabling Tests at Sutton, ...

  2. ITP Steel: Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Study September 2005

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The objective of this study is to generate a marginal opportunity curve for the ITP steel subprogram showing the location of the current portfolio compared against all opportunities for steel manufacturing.

  3. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Peaslee, Kent D.; Peter, Jorg J.; Robertson, David G. C.; Thomas, Brian G.; Zhang, Lifeng

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  4. Steel Market Development Institute Awards "Community Hero" Award...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Steel Market Development Institute Men and Women of Steel Awardees Steel Market Development Institute Men and Women of Steel Awardees At the 2016 North American International Auto ...

  5. ATI Allegheny Ludlum's response to DOE's May

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ATI Allegheny Ludlum's response to DOE's May 29, 2012 Notice of Public Meeting (NOPM) Four new TSLs were proposed by the DOE for medium voltage liquid immersed distribution transformers in two documents (the NOPM and Appendix 8-A) issued in advance of a public meeting held on June 20, 2012. All were found to have significant impacts on the competitiveness of grain-oriented electrical steel relative to amorphous ribbon and other higher-performance, lower availability cores, which was corroborated

  6. Bagdad Plant Raymond J. Polinski 585 Silicon Drive General Manager

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Bagdad Plant Raymond J. Polinski 585 Silicon Drive General Manager Leechburg, PA 15656 Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel e-mail: Raymond.Polinski@ATImetals.com E. Below are Allegheny Technologies Incorporated's comments on certain issues in which the DOE sought comment. 17. DOE seeks comment on nanotechnology composites and their potential for use in distribution transformers. Soft magnetic and amorphous particles with excellent magnetic properties can be and are currently produced, but the

  7. Ferritic steel melt and FLiBe/steel experiment : melting ferritic steel.

    SciTech Connect

    Troncosa, Kenneth P.; Smith, Brandon M.; Tanaka, Tina Joan

    2004-11-01

    In preparation for developing a Z-pinch IFE power plant, the interaction of ferritic steel with the coolant, FLiBe, must be explored. Sandia National Laboratories Fusion Technology Department was asked to drop molten ferritic steel and FLiBe in a vacuum system and determine the gas byproducts and ability to recycle the steel. We tried various methods of resistive heating of ferritic steel using available power supplies and easily obtained heaters. Although we could melt the steel, we could not cause a drop to fall. This report describes the various experiments that were performed and includes some suggestions and materials needed to be successful. Although the steel was easily melted, it was not possible to drip the molten steel into a FLiBe pool Levitation melting of the drop is likely to be more successful.

  8. History of ultrahigh carbon steels

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, J.; Sherby, O.D.

    1997-06-20

    The history and development of ultrahigh carbon steels (i.e., steels containing between 1 and 2.l percent C and now known as UHCS) are described. The early use of steel compositions containing carbon contents above the eutectoid level is found in ancient weapons from around the world. For example, both Damascus and Japanese sword steels are hypereutectoid steels. Their manufacture and processing is of interest in understanding the role of carbon content in the development of modern steels. Although sporadic examples of UHCS compositions are found in steels examined in the early part of this century, it was not until the mid-1970s that the modern study began. This study had its origin in the development of superplastic behavior in steels and the recognition that increasing the carbon content was of importance in developing that property. The compositions that were optimal for superplasticity involved the development of steels that contained higher carbon contents than conventional modern steels. It was discovered, however, that the room temperature properties of these compositions were of interest in their own right. Following this discovery, a period of intense work began on understanding their manufacture, processing, and properties for both superplastic forming and room temperature applications. The development of superplastic cast irons and iron carbides, as well as those of laminated composites containing UHCS, was an important part of this history.

  9. High-performance steels

    SciTech Connect

    Barsom, J.M.

    1996-03-01

    Steel is the material of choice in structures such as storage tanks, gas and oil distribution pipelines, high-rise buildings, and bridges because of its strength, ductility, and fracture toughness, as well as its repairability and recyclability. Furthermore, these properties are continually being improved via advances in steelmaking, casting, rolling, and chemistry. Developments in steelmaking have led to alloys having low sulfur, sulfide shape control, and low hydrogen. They provide reduced chemical segregation, higher fracture toughness, better through-thickness and weld heat-affected zone properties, and lower susceptibility to hydrogen cracking. Processing has moved beyond traditional practices to designed combinations of controlled rolling and cooling known as thermomechanical control processes (TMCP). In fact, chemical composition control and TMCP now enable such precise adjustment of final properties that these alloys are now known as high-performance steels (HPS), engineered materials having properties tailored for specific applications.

  10. High-Alloy Ferritic Steels: Semi-Austenitic Stainless Steels...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    however, have low fracture toughness in high strength conditions and at low (subzero) temperature. ... Stainless Steels 1700 - 3 4.2 Heat treatment These alloys typically employ ...

  11. A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity in China and the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn; Aden, Nathaniel; Chunxia, Zhang; Xiuping, Li; Fangqin, Shangguan

    2011-06-15

    Production of iron and steel is an energy-intensive manufacturing process. In 2006, the iron and steel industry accounted for 13.6% and 1.4% of primary energy consumption in China and the U.S., respectively (U.S. DOE/EIA, 2010a; Zhang et al., 2010). The energy efficiency of steel production has a direct impact on overall energy consumption and related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The goal of this study is to develop a methodology for making an accurate comparison of the energy intensity (energy use per unit of steel produced) of steel production. The methodology is applied to the steel industry in China and the U.S. The methodology addresses issues related to boundary definitions, conversion factors, and indicators in order to develop a common framework for comparing steel industry energy use. This study uses a bottom-up, physical-based method to compare the energy intensity of China and U.S. crude steel production in 2006. This year was chosen in order to maximize the availability of comparable steel-sector data. However, data published in China and the U.S. are not always consistent in terms of analytical scope, conversion factors, and information on adoption of energy-saving technologies. This study is primarily based on published annual data from the China Iron & Steel Association and National Bureau of Statistics in China and the Energy Information Agency in the U.S. This report found that the energy intensity of steel production is lower in the United States than China primarily due to structural differences in the steel industry in these two countries. In order to understand the differences in energy intensity of steel production in both countries, this report identified key determinants of sector energy use in both countries. Five determinants analyzed in this report include: share of electric arc furnaces in total steel production, sector penetration of energy-efficiency technologies, scale of production equipment, fuel shares in the iron and steel

  12. Stainless Steel Permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Buchenauer, Dean A.; Karnesky, Richard A.

    2015-09-01

    An understanding of the behavior of hydrogen isotopes in materials is critical to predicting tritium transport in structural metals (at high pressure), estimating tritium losses during production (fission environment), and predicting in-vessel inventory for future fusion devices (plasma driven permeation). Current models often assume equilibrium diffusivity and solubility for a class of materials (e.g. stainless steels or aluminum alloys), neglecting trapping effects or, at best, considering a single population of trapping sites. Permeation and trapping studies of the particular castings and forgings enable greater confidence and reduced margins in the models. For FY15, we have continued our investigation of the role of ferrite in permeation for steels of interest to GTS, through measurements of the duplex steel 2507. We also initiated an investigation of the permeability in work hardened materials, to follow up on earlier observations of unusual permeability in a particular region of 304L forgings. Samples were prepared and characterized for ferrite content and coated with palladium to prevent oxidation. Issues with the poor reproducibility of measurements at low permeability were overcome, although the techniques in use are tedious. Funding through TPBAR and GTS were secured for a research grade quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and replacement turbo pumps, which should improve the fidelity and throughput of measurements in FY16.

  13. Hydrogen attack of HSLA steels

    SciTech Connect

    Sundararajan, G.; Shewmon, P.G.

    1980-03-01

    Three high strength low alloy steels with low carbon contents and varying alloy contents were exposed to 21 MPa (300 psi) hydrogen pressure in the temperature range 350 to 510/sup 0/C. The resulting sample expansion rate was measured using a highly sensitive capacitance dilatometer. In all three HSLA steels, the early expansion rate was found to be independent of exposure time, but a function of exposure temperature and pressure. The temperature dependence of the sample expansion rate was similar for all three HSLA and the reference carbon steels, and corresponded roughly to an activation energy (Q) of 190 K J/mole. The later accelerating expansion rate fitted a Q of 160 K J/mole. Though the sample expansion rates exhibited the same temperature dependence, they varied by as much as two orders of magnitude among the three HSLA and the carbon steels. This marked variation in rate was proportional to the estimated carbon activity in each steel. Comparison between the Nelson curves published by the American Petroleum Institute (API) for 1/2% Mo steel and the experimental curves constructed for HSLA steels indicated that these steels should provide comparable or better resistance to hydrogen attack than the 1/2% Mo steel.

  14. Process for dezincing galvanized steel

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, William A.; Dudek, Frederick J.; Daniels, Edward J.

    1998-01-01

    A process for removing zinc from galvanized steel. The galvanized steel is immersed in an electrolyte containing at least about 15% by weight of sodium or potassium hydroxide and having a temperature of at least about 75.degree. C. and the zinc is galvanically corroded from the surface of the galvanized steel. The material serving as the cathode is principally a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series. The corrosion rate may be accelerated by (i) increasing the number density of corrosion sites in the galvanized steel by mechanically abrading or deforming the galvanized steel, (ii) heating the galvanized steel to form an alloy of zinc on the surface of the galvanized steel, (iii) mixing the galvanized steel with a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series, or (iv) moving the galvanized steel relative to itself and to the electrolyte while immersed in the electrolyte.

  15. High strength, tough alloy steel

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Gareth; Rao, Bangaru V. N.

    1979-01-01

    A high strength, tough alloy steel is formed by heating the steel to a temperature in the austenite range (1000.degree.-1100.degree. C.) to form a homogeneous austenite phase and then cooling the steel to form a microstructure of uniformly dispersed dislocated martensite separated by continuous thin boundary films of stabilized retained austenite. The steel includes 0.2-0.35 weight % carbon, at least 1% and preferably 3-4.5% chromium, and at least one other substitutional alloying element, preferably manganese or nickel. The austenite film is stable to subsequent heat treatment as by tempering (below 300.degree. C.) and reforms to a stable film after austenite grain refinement.

  16. Process for dezincing galvanized steel

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, W.A.; Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1998-07-14

    A process is described for removing zinc from galvanized steel. The galvanized steel is immersed in an electrolyte containing at least about 15% by weight of sodium or potassium hydroxide and having a temperature of at least about 75 C and the zinc is galvanically corroded from the surface of the galvanized steel. The material serving as the cathode is principally a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series. The corrosion rate may be accelerated by (1) increasing the number density of corrosion sites in the galvanized steel by mechanically abrading or deforming the galvanized steel, (2) heating the galvanized steel to form an alloy of zinc on the surface of the galvanized steel, (3) mixing the galvanized steel with a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series, or (4) moving the galvanized steel relative to itself and to the electrolyte while immersed in the electrolyte. 1 fig.

  17. Iron and Steel (2010 MECS)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Iron and Steel Sector (NAICS 3311, 3312) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS (with adjustments) Footprint Last Revised: February 2014

  18. Steel Industry Profile | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Steel Industry Profile Steel Industry Profile The steel industry is critical to the U.S. economy. Steel is the material of choice for many elements of manufacturing, construction, transportation, and various consumer products. Traditionally valued for its strength, steel has also become the most recycled material.1 About two-thirds of the steel produced in the United States in 2008 was made from scrap.2 Steelmaking facilities use one of two processes. In the integrated steelmaking process, iron

  19. EERE Success Story-Steel Mill Powered by Waste Heat Recovery System |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Steel Mill Powered by Waste Heat Recovery System EERE Success Story-Steel Mill Powered by Waste Heat Recovery System May 16, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis EERE worked with ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. to install an efficient recovery boiler to burn blast furnace gases generated during iron-making operations to produce electricity and steam onsite at the company's Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. The steam is being used to drive existing turbogenerators onsite,

  20. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Guterl Specialty Steel ...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Guterl Specialty Steel - NY 12 FUSRAP Considered Sites Guterl Specialty Steel, NY Alternate Name(s): Simonds Saw and Steel Co. Guterl Steel Allegheny Ludlum Steel Corp. NY.12-1 ...

  1. JFE Steel Corp | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: JFE Steel Corp Place: Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Zip: 100-0011 Product: Japanese steel manufacturer; manufactures metallurgical silicon and plans to...

  2. Kobe Steel Ltd Kobelco | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Kobe Steel Ltd (Kobelco) Place: Kobe-shi, Hyogo, Japan Zip: 651-8585 Sector: Solar Product: Japanese steel manufacturer; manufactures PV...

  3. Improved Martensitic Steel for High Temperature Applications...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Improved Martensitic Steel for High Temperature Applications A stainless steel composition and heat treatment process for a high-temperature, titanium alloyed 9 Cr-1 molybdenum ...

  4. Mr. Frank Iannizzara Engineering Department Copperweld Steel...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Frank Iannizzara Engineering Department Copperweld Steel Company 4000 Mahoning Street ... (ORNL) performed a of the Copperweld Steel Company facility in Warren, Ohio. copy of ...

  5. Sodium sulfide slagging for removing copper from scrap steel

    SciTech Connect

    Leis, J.R.; Sanghvi, S.M.; Steinberg, R.M.

    1982-10-01

    Fundamental studies of sodium sulfide slagging for removing copper from scrap steel indicate that the copper distribution coefficient is 10, and that if 30 wt % FeS exists in the slag phase, no iron will be transferred to the slag from the metal phase. This process can be used commercially as an added fluxing step with minimal modifications to current electric-furnace steelmaking operations. Preliminary economic analysis shows an incremental return on investment equal to 100% per year.

  6. The industrial ecology of steel

    SciTech Connect

    Considine, Timothy J.; Jablonowski, Christopher; Considine, Donita M.M.; Rao, Prasad G.

    2001-03-26

    This study performs an integrated assessment of new technology adoption in the steel industry. New coke, iron, and steel production technologies are discussed, and their economic and environmental characteristics are compared. Based upon detailed plant level data on cost and physical input-output relations by process, this study develops a simple mathematical optimization model of steel process choice. This model is then expanded to a life cycle context, accounting for environmental emissions generated during the production and transportation of energy and material inputs into steelmaking. This life-cycle optimization model provides a basis for evaluating the environmental impacts of existing and new iron and steel technologies. Five different plant configurations are examined, from conventional integrated steel production to completely scrap-based operations. Two cost criteria are used to evaluate technology choice: private and social cost, with the latter including the environmental damages associated with emissions. While scrap-based technologies clearly generate lower emissions in mass terms, their emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are significantly higher. Using conventional damage cost estimates reported in the literature suggests that the social costs associated with scrap-based steel production are slightly higher than with integrated steel production. This suggests that adopting a life-cycle viewpoint can substantially affect environmental assessment of new technologies. Finally, this study also examines the impacts of carbon taxes on steel production costs and technology choice.

  7. High current capacity electrical connector

    DOEpatents

    Bettis, Edward S.; Watts, Harry L.

    1976-01-13

    An electrical connector is provided for coupling high current capacity electrical conductors such as copper busses or the like. The connector is arranged in a "sandwiched" configuration in which a conductor plate contacts the busses along major surfaces thereof clamped between two stainless steel backing plates. The conductor plate is provided with a plurality of contact buttons affixed therein in a spaced array such that the caps of the buttons extend above the conductor plate surface to contact the busses. When clamping bolts provided through openings in the sandwiched arrangement are tightened, Belleville springs provided under the rim of each button cap are compressed and resiliently force the caps into contact with the busses' contacting surfaces to maintain a predetermined electrical contact area provided by the button cap tops. The contact area does not change with changing thermal or mechanical stresses applied to the coupled conductors.

  8. Electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. This paper discusses these concepts.

  9. HRC steel mill project. Volume 2. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The initial step in developing the design for a steel producing facility is the selection of the major processes to be used. This study investigated five steelmaking processes to determine the one(s) best suited for Grasim based on technical and cost performance. The processes were: Electric Arc Furnace; Induction Furnace/BOF; KS Furnace; Cupola; and Submerged Arc. This investigation determined that the electric arc furnace (EAF) was the most suitable melting process for the production of steel using DRI feed stock.

  10. Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ozpineci, Burak

    2014-05-02

    Burak Ozpineci sees a future where electric vehicles charge while we drive them down the road, thanks in part to research under way at ORNL.

  11. Electrical stator

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, Alan W.; Olich, Eugene E.

    1994-01-01

    An electrical stator of an electromagnetic pump includes first and second spaced apart coils each having input and output terminals for carrying electrical current. An elongate electrical connector extends between the first and second coils and has first and second opposite ends. The connector ends include respective slots receiving therein respective ones of the coil terminals to define respective first and second joints. Each of the joints includes a braze filler fixedly joining the connector ends to the respective coil terminals for carrying electrical current therethrough.

  12. Electric Vehicles

    ScienceCinema

    Ozpineci, Burak

    2016-07-12

    Burak Ozpineci sees a future where electric vehicles charge while we drive them down the road, thanks in part to research under way at ORNL.

  13. Electrical Engineer

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Transmission Field Services is responsible for field switching operation and maintenance of Bonneville Power Administration's high-voltage electrical transmission system to provide safe, reliable,...

  14. ITP Steel: Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Study September...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... 0.32 0.28 3. Effective utilization of dust and sludge * Steel Technology Roadmap ... 6. Effective utilization of slag and dust * 40% of EAF dust landfilled (>100,000 ...

  15. Advanced steel reheat furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Moyeda, D.; Sheldon, M.; Koppang, R.; Lanyi, M.; Li, X.; Eleazer, B.

    1997-10-01

    Energy and Environmental Research Corp. (EER) under a contract from the Department of Energy is pursuing the development and demonstration of an Advanced Steel Reheating Furnace. This paper reports the results of Phase 1, Research, which has evaluated an advanced furnace concept incorporating two proven and commercialized technologies previously applied to other high temperature combustion applications: EER`s gas reburn technology (GR) for post combustion NOx control; and Air Product`s oxy-fuel enrichment air (OEA) for improved flame heat transfer in the heating zones of the furnace. The combined technologies feature greater production throughput with associated furnace efficiency improvements; lowered NOx emissions; and better control over the furnace atmosphere, whether oxidizing or reducing, leading to better control over surface finish.

  16. 2169 steel waveform experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Furnish, Michael David; Alexander, C. Scott; Reinhart, William Dodd; Brown, Justin L.

    2012-11-01

    In support of LLNL efforts to develop multiscale models of a variety of materials, we have performed a set of eight gas gun impact experiments on 2169 steel (21% Cr, 6% Ni, 9% Mn, balance predominantly Fe). These experiments provided carefully controlled shock, reshock and release velocimetry data, with initial shock stresses ranging from 10 to 50 GPa (particle velocities from 0.25 to 1.05 km/s). Both windowed and free-surface measurements were included in this experiment set to increase the utility of the data set, as were samples ranging in thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Target physical phenomena included the elastic/plastic transition (Hugoniot elastic limit), the Hugoniot, any phase transition phenomena, and the release path (windowed and free-surface). The Hugoniot was found to be nearly linear, with no indications of the Fe - phase transition. Releases were non-hysteretic, and relatively consistent between 3- and 5-mm-thick samples (the 3 mm samples giving slightly lower wavespeeds on release). Reshock tests with explosively welded impactors produced clean results; those with glue bonds showed transient releases prior to the arrival of the reshock, reducing their usefulness for deriving strength information. The free-surface samples, which were steps on a single piece of steel, showed lower wavespeeds for thin (1 mm) samples than for thicker (2 or 4 mm) samples. A configuration used for the last three shots allows release information to be determined from these free surface samples. The sample strength appears to increase with stress from ~1 GPa to ~ 3 GPa over this range, consistent with other recent work but about 40% above the Steinberg model.

  17. Mr. Fred Steinkuehler Granite City Steel Division National Steel Corporation

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    45 Mr. Fred Steinkuehler Granite City Steel Division National Steel Corporation 20th and State Streets Granite City, Illinois 62040 Dear Mr. Steinkuehler: Enclosed please find your copy of the signed consent forms for the radiological survey of the South Plant Betatron Building. In your letter to me of July 21, 1988, you identified several issues regarding the survey and the consent. I would like to address these concerns below. As noted in the consent form, the purpose of our surveys are only

  18. ITP Steel: Energy Use in the U.S. Steel Industry: An Historical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Use in the U.S. Steel Industry: An Historical Perspective and Future Opportunities, September 2000 ITP Steel: Energy Use in the U.S. Steel Industry: An Historical ...

  19. Auto/Steel Partnership: AHSS Stamping, Strain Rate Characterization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    AHSS Stamping, Strain Rate Characterization, Sheet Steel Fatigue, AHSS Joining AutoSteel ... More Documents & Publications AutoSteel Partnership: Fatigue of AHSS Strain Rate ...

  20. ITP Steel: Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ITP Steel: Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations castingops.pdf (875.11 KB) More Documents & Publications Steel Industry Technology Roadmap ITP Steel: ...

  1. Nano-composite stainless steel (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Nano-composite stainless steel Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nano-composite stainless steel A composite stainless steel composition is composed essentially of, ...

  2. Auto/Steel Partnership: Hydroforming Materials and Lubricant...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    FY 2008 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 5. Automotive Metals-Steel FY 2009 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 5. Automotive Metals - Steel AutoSteel ...

  3. Electric avenues

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, P.; Chang, A.

    1994-12-31

    Highly efficient electric drive technology developed originally for defense applications is being applied to the development of all electric shuttle buses for the San Jose International Airport. An innovative opportunity charging system using induction chargers will be incorporated to extend operation hours. The project, if successful, is expected to reduce pollution at the airport and generate jobs for displaced defense workers.

  4. Electric machine

    DOEpatents

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  5. Great Lakes Steel -- PCI facility

    SciTech Connect

    Eichinger, F.T.; Dake, S.H.; Wagner, E.D.; Brown, G.S.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the planning, design, and start-up of the 90 tph PCI facility for National Steel`s Great Lakes Steel Division in River Rouge, MI. This project is owned and operated by Edison Energy Services, and was implemented on a fast-track basis by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Babcock Material Handling, and Babcock and Wilcox. This paper presents important process issues, basic design criteria, an the challenges of engineering and building a state-of-the-art PCI facility in two existing plants. Pulverized coal is prepared at the River Rouge Power Plant of Detroit Edison, is pneumatically conveyed 6,000 feet to a storage silo at Great Lakes Steel, and is injected into three blast furnaces.

  6. Electrochemical Dezincing of Steel Scrap

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Half of the steel produced in the United States is derived from scrap. With zinc-coated prompt scrap increasing fivefold since 1980, steelmakers are feeling the effect of increased contaminant...

  7. Hydrogen embrittlement of structural steels.

    SciTech Connect

    Somerday, Brian P.

    2010-06-01

    Carbon-manganese steels are candidates for the structural materials in hydrogen gas pipelines, however it is well known that these steels are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Decades of research and industrial experience have established that hydrogen embrittlement compromises the structural integrity of steel components. This experience has also helped identify the failure modes that can operate in hydrogen containment structures. As a result, there are tangible ideas for managing hydrogen embrittement in steels and quantifying safety margins for steel hydrogen containment structures. For example, fatigue crack growth aided by hydrogen embrittlement is a key failure mode for steel hydrogen containment structures subjected to pressure cycling. Applying appropriate structural integrity models coupled with measurement of relevant material properties allows quantification of safety margins against fatigue crack growth in hydrogen containment structures. Furthermore, application of these structural integrity models is aided by the development of micromechanics models, which provide important insights such as the hydrogen distribution near defects in steel structures. The principal objective of this project is to enable application of structural integrity models to steel hydrogen pipelines. The new American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) B31.12 design code for hydrogen pipelines includes a fracture mechanics-based design option, which requires material property inputs such as the threshold for rapid cracking and fatigue crack growth rate under cyclic loading. Thus, one focus of this project is to measure the rapid-cracking thresholds and fatigue crack growth rates of line pipe steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas. These properties must be measured for the base materials but more importantly for the welds, which are likely to be most vulnerable to hydrogen embrittlement. The measured properties can be evaluated by predicting the performance of the pipeline

  8. Hydrogen Embrittlement in Pipeline Steels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Applied Chemicals & Materials Division Material Measurement Laboratory HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT IN PIPELINE STEELS AJ Slifka, ES Drexler, RL Amaro, DS Lauria, JR Fekete Applied Chemicals & Materials Division Material Measurement Laboratory Cheaper vs Safe?: Does it have to be choice * Steel is sold by the ton * X80 costs about the same as a X42/ton * Use less X80, therefore save money by using higher strength material, thinner wall * BUT hydrogen piping code encourages use of X52, because

  9. Optimization of strength and ductility in nanotwinned ultrafine grained Ag: twin density and grain orientations

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, R. T.; Geng, J.; Besser, M. F.; Kramer, M. J.; Wang, Y. M.; Park, E. S.; LeSar, R.; King, A. H.

    2015-06-27

    Nanotwinned ultrafine grained Ag thick films with different twin densities and orientations have been synthesized by magnetron sputtering with a wide-range of deposition rates. The twin boundary (TB) spacings and orientations as well as the grain size for the different deposition conditions have been characterized by both synchrotron X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Structural characterization combined with uniaxial tensile tests of the free-standing films reveals a large increase in the yield strength for films deposited at high deposition rates without any accompanying change in the TB spacing – a behavior that is in contrast with what has been reported in the literature. We find that films deposited at lower deposition rates exhibit more randomly oriented grains with a lower overall twin density (averaged over all the grains) than the more heavily twinned grains with strong <111> fiber texture in the films deposited at higher deposition rates. The TB spacing in the twinned grains, however, does not show any significant dependence on the deposition rate. The dependence of the strength and ductility on the twin density and orientations can be described by two different soft deformation modes: 1) untwinned grains and 2) nanowinned grains that are not oriented with <111> along the growth direction. The untwinned grains provide relatively low resistance to slip, and thus decreased strength, while the nanotwinned grains that are not oriented with <111> along the growth direction are softer than nanotwinned grains that are oriented with <111> along the growth direction. We reveal that an ultrafine-grained (150-200 nm) structure consisting of a mixture of nanotwinned (~ 8-12 nm spacing) and untwined grains yields the best combination of high strength and uniform tensile ductility.

  10. Optimization of strength and ductility in nanotwinned ultrafine grained Ag: twin density and grain orientations

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Ott, R. T.; Geng, J.; Besser, M. F.; Kramer, M. J.; Wang, Y. M.; Park, E. S.; LeSar, R.; King, A. H.

    2015-06-27

    Nanotwinned ultrafine grained Ag thick films with different twin densities and orientations have been synthesized by magnetron sputtering with a wide-range of deposition rates. The twin boundary (TB) spacings and orientations as well as the grain size for the different deposition conditions have been characterized by both synchrotron X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Structural characterization combined with uniaxial tensile tests of the free-standing films reveals a large increase in the yield strength for films deposited at high deposition rates without any accompanying change in the TB spacing – a behavior that is in contrast with what has beenmore » reported in the literature. We find that films deposited at lower deposition rates exhibit more randomly oriented grains with a lower overall twin density (averaged over all the grains) than the more heavily twinned grains with strong <111> fiber texture in the films deposited at higher deposition rates. The TB spacing in the twinned grains, however, does not show any significant dependence on the deposition rate. The dependence of the strength and ductility on the twin density and orientations can be described by two different soft deformation modes: 1) untwinned grains and 2) nanowinned grains that are not oriented with <111> along the growth direction. The untwinned grains provide relatively low resistance to slip, and thus decreased strength, while the nanotwinned grains that are not oriented with <111> along the growth direction are softer than nanotwinned grains that are oriented with <111> along the growth direction. We reveal that an ultrafine-grained (150-200 nm) structure consisting of a mixture of nanotwinned (~ 8-12 nm spacing) and untwined grains yields the best combination of high strength and uniform tensile ductility.« less

  11. Grain orientations and grain boundaries in tungsten nonotendril fuzz grown under divertor-like conditions

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Parish, Chad M.; Wang, Kun; Doerner, Russel P.; Baldwin, Matthew J.

    2016-09-19

    We grew nanotendril “fuzz” on tungsten via plasma exposure and performed transmission Kikuchi diffraction (tKD) in scanning electron microscopy of isolated nanotendrils. 900 °C, 1023 He/m2sec, 4 × 1026 He/m2 exposure of tungsten produced a deep and fully developed nanotendril mat. tKD of isolated nanotendrils indicated that there was no preferred crystallographic direction oriented along the long axes of the tendrils, and the grain boundary character showed slightly preferential orientations. In conclusion, tendril growth is sufficiently non-equilibrium to prevent any preference of growth direction to manifest measurably, and that new high-angle boundaries (with new grains and grain-growth axes) nucleate randomlymore » along the tendrils during growth.« less

  12. Development of New Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Robert F. Buck

    2005-08-30

    A new family of innovative martensitic stainless steels, 521-A, 521-B, and 521-C has been developed by Advanced Steel Technology, LLC (Trafford, PA) as high strength fastener (bolt) materials for use at moderate temperatures in turbine engines, including steam turbines, gas turbines, and aircraft engines. The primary objective of the development program was to create a martensitic stainless steel with high strength at moderate temperatures, and which could replace the expensive nickel-based superalloy IN 718 in some fasteners applications. A secondary objective was to replace conventional 12Cr steels such as AISI 422 used as blades, buckets and shafts that operate at intermediate temperatures in turbine engines with stronger steel. The composition of the new alloys was specifically designed to produce excellent mechanical properties while integrating heat treatment steps into production to reduce energy consumption during manufacturing. As a result, production costs and energy consumption during production of rolled bar products is significantly lower than conventional materials. Successful commercialization of the new alloys would permit the installed cost of certain turbine engines to be reduced without sacrificing high availability or operational flexibility, thereby enhancing the global competitiveness of U.S. turbine engine manufacturers. Moreover, the domestic specialty steel industry would also benefit through increased productivity and reduced operating costs, while increasing their share of the international market for turbine engine fasteners, blades, buckets and shafts.

  13. Lightweight Sealed Steel Fuel Tanks for Advanced Hybrid Electric...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    66yaccarino2012o.pdf (3.73 MB) More Documents & Publications A Review of Stress Corrosion CrackingFatigue Modeling for Light Water Reactor Cooling System Components Report on ...

  14. Steele-Waseca Cooperative Electric- The Sunna Project

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Sunna Project allows any member to suscribe to the solar community program. The subscription includes the allocation of energy produced by their subscriped panel(s) to offset  their monthly...

  15. Electrical connector

    DOEpatents

    Dilliner, Jennifer L.; Baker, Thomas M.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Hoff, Brian D.

    2006-11-21

    An electrical connector includes a female component having one or more receptacles, a first test receptacle, and a second test receptacle. The electrical connector also includes a male component having one or more terminals configured to engage the one or more receptacles, a first test pin configured to engage the first test receptacle, and a second test pin configured to engage the second test receptacle. The first test receptacle is electrically connected to the second test receptacle, and at least one of the first test pin and the second test pin is shorter in length than the one or more terminals.

  16. Electrical Safety

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... Fig. 1-1. Flow down of Electrical AHJ and worker responsibility. 3 DOE-HDBK-1092-2013 2.0 ... When equipment contains storage batteries, workers should be protected from the various ...

  17. Recovery Act: Waste Energy Project at AK Steel Corporation Middletown

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, Jeffrey

    2012-06-30

    In 2008, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) began development of a project to beneficially utilize waste blast furnace topgas generated in the course of the iron-making process at AK Steel Corporations Middletown, Ohio works. In early 2010, Air Products was awarded DOE Assistance Agreement DE-EE002736 to further develop and build the combined-cycle power generation facility. In June 2012, Air Products and AK Steel Corporation terminated work when it was determined that the project would not be economically viable at that time nor in the foreseeable future. The project would have achieved the FOA-0000044 Statement of Project Objectives by demonstrating, at a commercial scale, the technology to capture, treat, and convert blast furnace topgas into electric power and thermal energy.

  18. The fifth international iron and steel congress: Proceedings of the 69th steelmaking conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book contains papers divided among the following sections: Quality; Ferroalloys; Science and Technology of Continuous Casting and Bottom Pouring Powders; Refractories; Laddle Metallurgy; Caster Quality; Steelmaking; Technology and Tundish Metallurgy; Novel Casting; Electric Furnace; and Technology of Filtering Liquid Steel for Inclusion Removal.

  19. Electric generator

    DOEpatents

    Foster, Jr., John S.; Wilson, James R.; McDonald, Jr., Charles A.

    1983-01-01

    1. In an electrical energy generator, the combination comprising a first elongated annular electrical current conductor having at least one bare surface extending longitudinally and facing radially inwards therein, a second elongated annular electrical current conductor disposed coaxially within said first conductor and having an outer bare surface area extending longitudinally and facing said bare surface of said first conductor, the contiguous coaxial areas of said first and second conductors defining an inductive element, means for applying an electrical current to at least one of said conductors for generating a magnetic field encompassing said inductive element, and explosive charge means disposed concentrically with respect to said conductors including at least the area of said inductive element, said explosive charge means including means disposed to initiate an explosive wave front in said explosive advancing longitudinally along said inductive element, said wave front being effective to progressively deform at least one of said conductors to bring said bare surfaces thereof into electrically conductive contact to progressively reduce the inductance of the inductive element defined by said conductors and transferring explosive energy to said magnetic field effective to generate an electrical potential between undeformed portions of said conductors ahead of said explosive wave front.

  20. Flash® Processed Steel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Gary M Cola, Jr SFP Works, LLC (dba Flash® Bainite) U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Program Review Meeting Washington, D.C. June 14-15, 2016 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Project Objective  Create a process for making Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) that  Uses plain carbon (AISI 1020) steel as a feedstock  Has a tensile strength of 1500 MPa or higher  Has the necessary formability to be cold

  1. Electrically powered hand tool

    DOEpatents

    Myers, Kurt S.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-01-16

    An electrically powered hand tool is described and which includes a three phase electrical motor having a plurality of poles; an electrical motor drive electrically coupled with the three phase electrical motor; and a source of electrical power which is converted to greater than about 208 volts three-phase and which is electrically coupled with the electrical motor drive.

  2. Portable probe to measure sensitization of stainless steel

    DOEpatents

    Park, Jang Y.

    1979-01-01

    An electrochemical cell for making field measurements of metals such as stainless steel comprises a cylinder containing a reservoir of an electrolyte, a reference electrode, a capillary tube connecting the electrolyte to the surface of the metal to be measured and another electrode in electrical contact with the electrolyte. External connections from the reference electrode, the other electrode, and the sample to a measuring device provide means for maintaining the potential of the electrolyte while sweeping the potential difference between the electrolyte and the metal. Such a sweep enables the determination of a current-voltage characteristic that is a measure of sensitization in the metal.

  3. The impact of energy prices on technology choice in the United States steel industry

    SciTech Connect

    Karlson, S.H. . Dept. of Economics); Boyd, G. )

    1991-01-01

    In the last thirty years US steel producers have replaced their aging open hearth steel furnaces with basic oxygen or large electric arc furnaces. This choice of technology leads to the opportunity to substitute electricity for fossil fuels as a heat source. We extend earlier research to investigate whether or not energy prices affect this type of technology adoption as predicted by economic theory. The econometric model uses the seemingly unrelated Tobit'' method to capture the effects of the industry's experience with both technologies, technical change, and potential cost reductions, as well as energy prices, on adoption. When we include the prices of electricity and coking coal as explanatory variables, the four energy price coefficients have the signs predicted by the law of demand. The two price coefficients have a statistically significant effect on adoption of basic oxygen furnaces. The inclusion of energy prices leads to significantly more efficient estimates of other coefficients in the model. 19 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Today`s steel technology

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    AISI members have made significant advances in steelmaking technology over the past several years. This report details the alloy developments and processes that have made steel an engineered material suitable for an expanding range of applications. Improved processes involve casting, rolling, welding, forging, chemical composition and computerized control. Applications cover a broad range including automobile, buildings and bridges.

  5. Distribution of radionuclides during melting of carbon steel

    SciTech Connect

    Thurber, W.C.; MacKinney, J.

    1997-02-01

    During the melting of steel with radioactive contamination, radionuclides may be distributed among the metal product, the home scrap, the slag, the furnace lining and the off-gas collection system. In addition, some radionuclides will pass through the furnace system and vent to the atmosphere. To estimate radiological impacts of recycling radioactive scrap steel, it is essential to understand how radionuclides are distributed within the furnace system. For example, an isotope of a gaseous element (e.g., radon) will exhaust directly from the furnace system into the atmosphere while a relatively non-volatile element (e.g., manganese) can be distributed among all the other possible media. This distribution of radioactive contaminants is a complex process that can be influenced by numerous chemical and physical factors, including composition of the steel bath, chemistry of the slag, vapor pressure of the particular element of interest, solubility of the element in molten iron, density of the oxide(s), steel melting temperature and melting practice (e.g., furnace type and size, melting time, method of carbon adjustment and method of alloy additions). This paper discusses the distribution of various elements with particular reference to electric arc furnace steelmaking. The first two sections consider the calculation of partition ratios for elements between metal and slag based on thermodynamic considerations. The third section presents laboratory and production measurements of the distribution of various elements among slag, metal, and the off-gas collection system; and the final section provides recommendations for the assumed distribution of each element of interest.

  6. Electricity Monthly Update

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Contact Information and Staff The Electricity Monthly Update is prepared by the Electric Power Operations Team, Office of Electricity, Renewables and Uranium Statistics, U.S....

  7. Electricity Monthly Update

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Methodology and Documentation General The Electricity Monthly Update is prepared by the Electric Power Operations Team, Office of Electricity, Renewables and Uranium Statistics,...

  8. Steel project fact sheet: Steel reheating for further processing

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    Steel reheating is an energy-intensive process requiring uniform temperature distribution within reheating furnaces. Historically, recuperators have ben used to preheat combustion air, thereby conserving energy. More recent innovations include oxygen enrichment and the use of regenerative burners, which provide higher preheat air temperatures than recuperators. These processes have limitations such as equipment deterioration, decreasing energy efficiency over time, high maintenance costs, and increased NO{sub x} emissions with increased air preheat temperature, unless special equipment is used. Praxair, Inc., supplier of oxygen and other industrial gases to the steel industry, proposes to introduce an innovative oxy-fuel burner technology (using 100% oxygen) to the steel reheating industry. Oxy-fuel combustion reduces or eliminates nitrogen in combustion air and substantially reduces waste heat carried out with flue gas. Based on technology currently used in the glass, hazardous waste, and aluminum industries, Praxair has developed and patented low temperature, oxy-fuel burners that can be used in high temperature industrial furnaces where temperature uniformity is critical and extremely low NO{sub x} emissions are desired. The technical goal of the project is to demonstrate the use of oxy-fuel burners in a slab reheat furnace while reducing energy consumption by 45% and NO{sub x} emissions by 90% within the converted furnace zones. Successful implementation of this technology also will eliminate the need to periodically replace recuperators and install NO{sub x} removal equipment.

  9. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Iron and Steel (NAICS

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    3311, 3312), October 2012 (MECS 2006) | Department of Energy - Sector: Iron and Steel (NAICS 3311, 3312), October 2012 (MECS 2006) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Iron and Steel (NAICS 3311, 3312), October 2012 (MECS 2006) steel_footprint_2012.pdf (121.99 KB) More Documents & Publications MECS 2006 - Iron and Steel Iron and Steel (2010 MECS) MECS 2006 - Cement

  10. Automotive frames of stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Emmons, J.B.; Douthett, J.

    1996-08-01

    A lightweight, stainless steel vehicle modular frame that meets the requirements of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) is being jointly developed by Armco and Autokinetics. Reaching the long-term goal of the program known as the Supercar will require technology that is capable of significantly reducing mass, while holding the cost of the finished vehicle to current levels. The structure should reduce mass by at least 50%, and must be high in performance, practical to manufacture, and conceptually simple compared to current practice. Another key PNGV goal is the development of a manufacturing infrastructure to attain cost and production levels consistent with auto industry norms. A third goal is to spin off as much of the resulting advanced technology as possible to conventional vehicles, enabling them to benefit from advances in mass reduction, aerodynamics, and materials technologies. All of these benefits can be realized with the stainless steel modular frame.

  11. Steel Industry Energy Bandwidth Study

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-10-01

    ITP conducted a study on energy use and potential savings, or "bandwidth" study, in major steelmaking processes. Intended to provide a realistic estimate of the potential amount of energy that can be saved in an industrial process, the "bandwidth" refers to the difference between the amount of energy that would be consumed in a process using commercially available technology versus the minimum amount of energy needed to achieve those same results based on the 2nd law of thermodynamics. The Steel Industry Energy Bandwidth Study (PDF133 KB) also estimates steel industry energy use in the year 2010, and uses that value as a basis for comparison against the minimum requirements. This energy savings opportunity for 2010 will aid focus on longer term R&D.

  12. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Iron and Steel Industry in China

    SciTech Connect

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Morrow, William; Sathaye, Jayant; Masanet, Eric; Xu, Tengfang

    2012-05-15

    China’s annual crude steel production in 2010 was 638.7 Mt accounting for nearly half of the world’s annual crude steel production in the same year. Around 461 TWh of electricity and 14,872 PJ of fuel were consumed to produce this quantity of steel in 2010. We identified and analyzed 23 energy efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the processes in the iron and steel industry. The Conservation Supply Curve (CSC) used in this study is an analytical tool that captures both the engineering and the economic perspectives of energy conservation. Using a bottom-up electricity CSC model, the cumulative cost-effective electricity savings potential for the Chinese iron and steel industry for 2010-2030 is estimated to be 251 TWh, and the total technical electricity saving potential is 416 TWh. The CO2 emissions reduction associated with cost-effective electricity savings is 139 Mt CO2 and the CO2 emission reduction associated with technical electricity saving potential is 237 Mt CO2. The FCSC model for the iron and steel industry shows cumulative cost-effective fuel savings potential of 11,999 PJ, and the total technical fuel saving potential is 12,139. The CO2 emissions reduction associated with cost-effective and technical fuel savings is 1,191 Mt CO2 and 1,205 Mt CO2, respectively. In addition, a sensitivity analysis with respect to the discount rate used is conducted to assess the effect of changes in this parameter on the results. The result of this study gives a comprehensive and easy to understand perspective to the Chinese iron and steel industry and policy makers about the energy efficiency potential and its associated cost.

  13. Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2005-09-01

    The Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis (PDF347 KB) identifies opportunities for developing advanced technologies and estimates both the necessary funding and the potential payoff. This analysis determines what portion of the energy bandwidth can be captured through the adoption of state-of-the-art technology and practices. R&D opportunities for addressing the remainder of the bandwidth are characterized and plotted on a marginal opportunity curve.

  14. Nano-composite stainless steel

    DOEpatents

    Dehoff, Ryan R.; Blue, Craig A.; Peter, William H.; Chen, Wei; Aprigliano, Louis F.

    2015-07-14

    A composite stainless steel composition is composed essentially of, in terms of wt. % ranges: 25 to 28 Cr; 11 to 13 Ni; 7 to 8 W; 3.5 to 4 Mo; 3 to 3.5 B; 2 to 2.5 Mn; 1 to 1.5 Si; 0.3 to 1.7 C; up to 2 O; balance Fe. The composition has an austenitic matrix phase and a particulate, crystalline dispersed phase.

  15. Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Fines Injection | Department of Energy Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines Injection Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines Injection This fact sheet describes a new technology with the potential to reduce operating costs and increase productivity in bar and flat-rolled products for the steel industry. Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines Injection (January

  16. Electrical receptacle

    DOEpatents

    Leong, Robert

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a receptacle for a three prong electrical plug which has either a tubular or U-shaped grounding prong. The inventive receptacle has a grounding prong socket which is sufficiently spacious to prevent the socket from significantly stretching when a larger, U-shaped grounding prong is inserted into the socket, and having two ridges to allow a snug fit when a smaller tubular shape grounding prong is inserted into the socket. The two ridges are made to prevent the socket from expanding when either the U-shaped grounding prong or the tubular grounding prong is inserted.

  17. Electrical receptacle

    DOEpatents

    Leong, R.

    1993-06-22

    The invention is a receptacle for a three prong electrical plug which has either a tubular or U-shaped grounding prong. The inventive receptacle has a grounding prong socket which is sufficiently spacious to prevent the socket from significantly stretching when a larger, U-shaped grounding prong is inserted into the socket, and having two ridges to allow a snug fit when a smaller tubular shape grounding prong is inserted into the socket. The two ridges are made to prevent the socket from expanding when either the U-shaped grounding prong or the tubular grounding prong is inserted.

  18. Electrical machine

    DOEpatents

    De Bock, Hendrik Pieter Jacobus; Alexander, James Pellegrino; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Gerstler, William Dwight; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2016-06-21

    An apparatus, such as an electrical machine, is provided. The apparatus can include a rotor defining a rotor bore and a conduit disposed in and extending axially along the rotor bore. The conduit can have an annular conduit body defining a plurality of orifices disposed axially along the conduit and extending through the conduit body. The rotor can have an inner wall that at least partially defines the rotor bore. The orifices can extend through the conduit body along respective orifice directions, and the rotor and conduit can be configured to provide a line of sight along the orifice direction from the respective orifices to the inner wall.

  19. Electric Resistance Heating Basics

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Electric resistance heat can be supplied by centralized forced-air electric furnaces or by heaters in each room. Electric resistance heating converts nearly all of the energy in the electricity to heat.

  20. Steel: Material for the 21. century

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    In spite of inroads by a range of competing materials, steel is still the primary structural material because of its outstanding strength, ductility, fracture toughness, repairability, and recyclability. Over the past ten years, advances in steelmaking and processing technologies have enabled the development of a wide range of new steel products with improved properties. For example, combinations of closely controlled chemical composition, rolling practices, and cooling rates now permit the production of steels with enhanced fracture toughness and lower susceptibility to hydrogen cracking.

  1. CERTIFICATION DOCKET FOR BETHLEHEM STEEL CORPORATION LACKAWANNA...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    BETHLEHEM STEEL CORPORATION LACKAWANNA, NEW YORK Department of Energy Office of Nuclear ... Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Nuclear Energy, Office of Terminal Waste Disposal ...

  2. Tokyo Steel Manufacturing Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tokyo Steel Manufacturing Co, Ltd Place: Japan Zip: 100-0013 Product: Tokyo Steel is involved in the manufacture and sale of steel...

  3. Korea Iron Steel Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Steel Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Korea Iron & Steel Co Ltd Place: Changwon, South Gyeongsang, Korea (Republic) Zip: 641 370 Product: Korea-based manufacturer of steel...

  4. Technical Letter Report Assessment of Ultrasonic Phased Array Inspection Method for Welds in Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Pressurizer Surge Line Piping JCN N6398, Task 1B

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Mathews, Royce; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2009-07-28

    performance of the PA-UT methods applied. This effort was comprised of multiple elements that included use of microstructural knowledge (dimensional analysis, grain orientation, and grain type) as well as sound field modeling to more effectively modify inspection parameters and enhance the inspection outcomes. Advanced probe design and sound field simulations were employed to enhance detection and characterization of circumferentially oriented flaws, and an assessment of lateral (circumferential) flaw localization capability and performance was also conducted. An evaluation of flaw detection, length sizing, depth sizing, and signal-to-noise ratio was performed for all flaws in the subject specimens, as a function of various inspection parameters, and finally, measurements were made to quantify and assess the baseline CASS material noise and its potential impact on flaw detection.

  5. Development of (Mn,Co)3O4 Protection Layers for Ferritic Stainless Steel Interconnects

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhenguo; Simner, Steven P.; Singh, Prabhakar; Xia, Guanguang; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2005-07-05

    A spinel-based surface protection layer has been developed for alloy SOFC current collectors and bi-polar gas separators. The (Mn,Co)3O4 spinel with a nominal composition of Mn1.5Co1.5O4 demonstrates an excellent electrical conductivity and thermal expansion match to ferritic stainless steel interconnects. A slurry-coating technique provides a viable approach for fabricating protective layers of the spinel onto the steel interconnects. Thermally grown protection layers of Mn1.5Co1.5O4 have been found not only to significantly decrease the contact resistance between a LSF cathode and stainless steel interconnect, but also inhibits the sub-scale growth on the stainless steel. The combination of the inhibited sub-scale growth, good thermal expansion matching between the spinel and the stainless steel, and the closed-pore structure contribute to the excellent structural and thermomechanical stability of these spinel protection layers, which was verified by a long-term thermal-cycling test. The spinel protection layers can also act effectively to prevent outward diffusion of chromium from the interconnect alloy, preventing subsequent chromium migration into the cathode and contact materials. PNNL is currently engaged in studies intended to optimize the composition, microstructure, and fabrication procedure for the spinel protection layers.

  6. Blast furnace gas fired boiler for Eregli Iron and Steel Works (Erdemir), Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.; Strickland, A.; Kimsesiz, E.; Temucin, I.

    1996-11-01

    Eregli Demir ve Celik Fabriklari T.A.S. (Eregli Iron and Steel Works Inc.), known as Erdemir, is a modern integrated iron and steel works on the Black Sea coast of Turkey, producing flat steel plate. Facilities include two blast furnaces, coke ovens, and hot and cold rolling mills, with a full supporting infrastructure. Four oil- and gas-fired steam boilers provide steam for electric power generation, and to drive steam turbine driven fans for Blast Furnace process air. Two of these boilers (Babcock and Wilcox Type FH) were first put into operation in 1965, and still reliably produce 100 tons/hour of steam at a pressure of 44 bar and a temperature of 410 C. In 1989 Erdemir initiated a Capacity Increase and Modernization Project to increase the steel production capability from two million to three million tons annually. This project also incorporates technology to improve the product quality. Its goals include a reduction in energy expenses to improve Erdemir`s competitiveness. The project`s scheduled completion is in late 1995. The by-product gases of the blast furnaces, coke ovens, and basic oxygen furnaces represent a considerable share of the consumed energy in an integrated iron and steel works. Efficient use of these fuels is an important factor in improving the overall efficiency of the operation.

  7. Final Scientific Report Steel Foundry Refractory Lining Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.D.; Peaslee, K.D.

    2002-12-02

    The overall objective of the program was to optimize refractory materials and foundry processing used in casting steel. This objective was to be met by completing the following: (1) Surveying the steel foundries both through paper/electronic surveys sent to North American steel foundries as well as plant visits to participants. Information concerning refractory selection and performance as well as refractory and steelmaking practices provides a baseline for future comparison and to identify opportunities for substantial improvement in energy efficiency. (2) Conducting post-mortem analysis of materials from existing refractory/steelmaking practices to determine wear/failure mechanisms. (3) Identify areas for research on developing refractories for use in steel foundry furnaces, adjusting steelmaking practices to improve efficiency and modifying slag practices to improve refractory performance. The overall objective of the steel foundry refractory lining optimization program was to review established refractory and steelmaking practices to identify opportunities for improvements that would yield substantial energy savings for steel foundries. Energy savings were expected to arise from improved efficiency of the electric arc furnaces and from reductions in the post-casting welding and grinding that are normally required. Ancillary energy savings related to a reduction in the amount of refractories currently produced to meet the needs of the steel foundry industry, and a shift from pre-fired materials (shaped refractories) to monolithic refractories that are heat treated ''in situ'' were anticipated. A review of the complete program results indicates that techniques for achieving the overall goal were demonstrated. The main difference between the predicted and the actual achievements relates to the areas from which actual energy savings could be realized. Although reductions in furnace tap temperature would result in a reduction in the power required for melting, such

  8. Corrosion Testing of Carbon Steel in Acid Cleaning Solutions...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Technical Report: Corrosion Testing of Carbon Steel in Acid Cleaning Solutions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Corrosion Testing of Carbon Steel in Acid Cleaning ...

  9. Multi-component Cu-Strengthened Steel Welding Simulations: Atom...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Steel Welding Simulations: Atom Probe Tomography and Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction Analyses Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Multi-component Cu-Strengthened Steel Welding ...

  10. NanoComposite Stainless Steel Powder Technologies (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    NanoComposite Stainless Steel Powder Technologies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: NanoComposite Stainless Steel Powder Technologies You are accessing a document from ...

  11. Post-Test Metallurgical Evaluation Results for Steel Containment...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Results for Steel Containment Vessel (SCV) High Pressure Test Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Post-Test Metallurgical Evaluation Results for Steel Containment ...

  12. Post Irradiation Examination of Stainless Steel Cladding from...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Post Irradiation Examination of Stainless Steel Cladding from In-Reactor Permeation Experiment Post Irradiation Examination of Stainless Steel Cladding from In-Reactor Permeation ...

  13. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Superior Steel Co - PA 03

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Superior Steel Co - PA 03 FUSRAP Considered Sites Superior Steel, PA Alternate Name(s): Copper Weld, Inc. Superbolt Location: Carnegie, Pennsylvania PA.03-1 Historical Operations: ...

  14. Hydrogen Assisted Fracture of Stainless Steels (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Hydrogen Assisted Fracture of Stainless Steels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydrogen Assisted Fracture of Stainless Steels You are accessing a ...

  15. 2169 steel waveform experiments. (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: 2169 steel waveform experiments. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: 2169 steel waveform experiments. In support of LLNL efforts to develop multiscale ...

  16. Assessing Steel Pipeline and Weld Susceptibility to Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Assessing Steel Pipeline and Weld Susceptibility to Hydrogen Embrittlement U.S. Department ... Office eere.energy.gov Assessing Steel Pipeline and Weld Susceptibility to Hydrogen ...

  17. Assessing Steel Pipeline and Weld Susceptibility to Hydrogen...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Office webinar "Assessing Steel Pipeline and Weld Susceptibility to Hydrogen Embrittlement" held on January 12, 2016. Assessing Steel Pipeline and Weld Susceptibility to ...

  18. Steele Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Steele Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Steele Hot...

  19. Hydrogen Assisted Fracture of Stainless Steels (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydrogen Assisted Fracture of Stainless Steels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydrogen Assisted Fracture of Stainless Steels Abstract not provided. Authors: Somerday,...

  20. Hydrogen Assisted Fracture of Stainless Steels (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydrogen Assisted Fracture of Stainless Steels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydrogen Assisted Fracture of Stainless Steels You are accessing a document from the...

  1. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- American Steel Foundries...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Steel Foundries Elmes-King Div - OH 36 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: American Steel Foundries Elmes-King Div (OH.36 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: ...

  2. Auto/Steel Partnership: Fatigue of AHSS Strain Rate Characterization...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    More Documents & Publications AutoSteel Partnership: AHSS Stamping, Strain Rate Characterization, Sheet Steel Fatigue, AHSS Joining FY 2009 Progress Report for Lightweighting ...

  3. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Copperweld Steel Co - OH...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Copperweld Steel Co - OH 33 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: COPPERWELD STEEL CO. (OH.33 ) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate ...

  4. Largest Producer of Steel Products in the United States Achieves...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Largest Producer of Steel Products in the United States Achieves Significant Energy Savings at its Minntac Plant Largest Producer of Steel Products in the United States Achieves ...

  5. Decorative Steel Composition with a Crystalline Surface - Energy...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Decorative Steel Composition with a Crystalline ... Technology Marketing SummaryA method for producing a new decorative steel with a ...

  6. COLLOQUIUM: How Trenton Iron and Steel Innovations Reshaped America...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: How Trenton Iron and Steel Innovations Reshaped America Mr. Clifford Zink Independent Historian Iron and steel innovations in Trenton helped transform ...

  7. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Carpenter Steel Co - PA...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Carpenter Steel Co - PA 12 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Carpenter Steel Co. (PA.12 ) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate ...

  8. Aluminum electroplating on steel from a fused bromide electrolyte...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Return to Search Aluminum electroplating on steel from a fused bromide electrolyte Idaho ... widely used to electroplate aluminum on steel, brass, copper and other substrate ...

  9. SURVEY OF ROLLING MILL USED BY BETHLEHEM STEEL CORPORATION LACKAWANNA...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    SURVEY OF ROLLING MILL USED BY BETHLEHEM STEEL CORPORATION LACKAWANNA, NEW YORK Work ... SURVEY OF ROLLING MILL USED BY BETHLEHEM STEEL CORPORATION LACKAWANNA, NEW YORK A ...

  10. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Bethlehem Steel Corporation...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation - NY 02 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: BETHLEHEM STEEL CORPORATION (NY.02 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated ...

  11. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Jessop Steel Co - PA 17

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Jessop Steel Co - PA 17 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: JESSOP STEEL CO. (PA.17 ) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: ...

  12. Improved Processing of High Alloy Steels for Wear Components...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Steels for Wear Components in Energy Generation Systems, Transportation and ... Title: Improved Processing of High Alloy Steels for Wear Components in Energy Generation ...

  13. Electrode wells for powerline-frequency electrical heating of soils

    DOEpatents

    Buettner, Harley M.; Daily, William D.; Aines, Roger D.; Newmark, Robin L.; Ramirez, Abelardo L.; Siegel, William H.

    1999-01-01

    An electrode well for use in powerline-frequency heating of soils for decontamination of the soil. Heating of soils enables the removal of volatile organic compounds from soil when utilized in combination with vacuum extraction. A preferred embodiment of the electrode well utilizes a mild steel pipe as the current-carrying conductor to at least one stainless steel electrode surrounded by a conductive backfill material, preferably graphite or steel shot. A covering is also provided for electrically insulating the current-carrying pipe. One of the electrode wells is utilized with an extraction well which is under subatmospheric pressure to withdraw the volatile material, such as gasoline and trichioroethylene (TCE) as it is heated.

  14. Electrode wells for powerline-frequency electrical heating of soils

    DOEpatents

    Buettner, H.M.; Daily, W.D.; Aines, R.D.; Newmark, R.L.; Ramirez, A.L.; Siegel, W.H.

    1999-05-25

    An electrode well is described for use in powerline-frequency heating of soils for decontamination of the soil. Heating of soils enables the removal of volatile organic compounds from soil when utilized in combination with vacuum extraction. A preferred embodiment of the electrode well utilizes a mild steel pipe as the current-carrying conductor to at least one stainless steel electrode surrounded by a conductive backfill material, preferably graphite or steel shot. A covering is also provided for electrically insulating the current-carrying pipe. One of the electrode wells is utilized with an extraction well which is under subatmospheric pressure to withdraw the volatile material, such as gasoline and trichloroethylene (TCE) as it is heated. 4 figs.

  15. Clean steel technology -- Fundamental to the development of high performance steels

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A.D.

    1999-07-01

    The use of clean steel technology (low sulfur with calcium treatment for inclusion shape control) is a fundamental building block in the development of high performance plate steels. A brief review will be presented of the benefits of calcium treatment and its effect on non-metallic inclusions (sulfides and oxides) and reducing sulfur levels. During the past thirty years the requirements for low sulfur levels have been reduced from 0.010% maximum to 0.001% maximum. The effects of clean steel practices on specific properties will be reviewed including tensile ductility, Charpy V-notch and fracture toughness, fatigue crack propagation and hydrogen-induced-cracking resistance. Traditional low sulfur plate steel applications have included pressure vessels. offshore platforms, plastic injection molds and line-pipe skelp. More recent applications will be discussed including bridge steels, high strength structural steels to 130 ksi (897 MPa) minimum yield strength, 9% nickel steels for cryogenic applications, and military armor.

  16. EIA - Electricity Generating Capacity

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Electricity Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Electricity Data Browser (interactive query tool with charting & mapping) Summary Sales (consumption), revenue, prices & customers Generation and thermal output Capacity of electric power plants Consumption of fuels used to generate electricity Receipts of fossil-fuels for electricity generation Average cost of fossil-fuels for electricity generation Fossil-fuel stocks for electricity generation Cost, revenue and expense statistics for...

  17. Bagdad Plant

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Bagdad Plant 585 Silicon Drive Leechburg, P A 15656 * ATI Allegheny "'I Ludlum e-mail: Raymond.Polinski@ATImetals.com Mr. James Raba U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Building Technologies Program 1000 Independence Avenue SW Washington, DC 205585-0121 Raymond J. Polinski General Manager Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel RE: Distribution Transformers Rulemaking Docket Number EE-2010-STD-0048 RIN 1904-AC04 Submitted 4-10-12 via email Mr. Raba, I was

  18. Low Mn alloy steel for cryogenic service

    DOEpatents

    Morris, J.W. Jr.; Niikura, M.

    A ferritic cryogenic steel which has a relatively low (about 4 to 6%) manganese content and which has been made suitable for use at cryogenic temperatures by a thermal cycling treatment followed by a final tempering. The steel includes 4 to 6% manganese, 0.02 to 0.06% carbon, 0.1 to 0.4% molybdenum and 0 to 3% nickel.

  19. METHOD FOR JOINING ALUMINUM TO STAINLESS STEEL

    DOEpatents

    Lemon, L.C.

    1960-05-24

    Aluminum may be joined to stainless steel without the use of flux by tinning the aluminum with a tin solder containing 1% silver and 1% lead, tinning the stainless steel with a 50% lead 50% tin solder, and then sweating the tinned surfaces together.

  20. Method for welding chromium molybdenum steels

    DOEpatents

    Sikka, Vinod K.

    1986-01-01

    Chromium-molybdenum steels exhibit a weakening after welding in an area adjacent to the weld. This invention is an improved method for welding to eliminate the weakness by subjecting normalized steel to a partial temper prior to welding and subsequently fully tempering the welded article for optimum strength and ductility.

  1. Stainless steel 4003 in the transportation industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacs, H.; Stoeckl, M.

    1998-12-31

    The world today sees a dramatic increase in the number of people and the quantities of articles and products which are to be transported. This results in an ever-increasing demand in the steels used in the transportation industry. Key factors are environmental regulations, safety, and life expectancy and product cost in determining which types steel to use. Especially the ferritic 12% chromium stainless steels has seen a significant development and usage in recent years. Compared to typical carbon steels high strength/low alloy steels and structural steels the 12% chromium steels offers improvement in corrosion and wear resistance and weldability outlining advantages in light weight construction and an overall saving. The paper presents the chemical composition and mechanical properties of grade 4003 which is increasingly used worldwide in areas of public transportation, rail transportation, mining industry and sugar industry, among others. The impact of corrosion and abrasion of this stainless steel versus the standard carbon grades and cost efficiency are discussed.

  2. Weldability of nitrogen-enhanced HSLA steels

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, F.C.; Liu, S.; Olson, D.L.

    1993-12-31

    Light microscopy, electron microscopy and Charpy-V-Notch (CVN) testing were used to characterize two Ti-V microalloyed steels which contained 130 and 30 ppm of nitrogen with respect to weldability. Particular emphasis has been placed on the understanding of the heat input-microstructure-toughness relationship in the high nitrogen HSLA steel. Within the 1 to 3 kJ/mm heat input range, the high nitrogen steel exhibited coarse grained heat affected zone (CGHAZ) toughness superior to that of the low nitrogen steel. The transition temperatures (measured at 50 ft-lb impact energy) were, in average, 15 to 60 C lower than those presented by the low nitrogen steel. Quantitative metallography results showed that high nitrogen steel CGHAZs have smaller austenite grain size and larger amount of grain boundary ferrite. Combining the microstructural information and toughness data, it was concluded that for the high nitrogen steel to exhibit superior properties than the low nitrogen steel, the final HAZ microstructure must contain at least 60% of lathy (bainitic) phases, balanced with ferritic products.

  3. Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCAT)

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Casuccio; Michael Potter; Fred Schwerer; Dr. Richard J. Fruehan; Dr. Scott Story

    2005-12-30

    The objective of this study was to develop the Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCATTM) to permit steelmakers to evaluate the quality of the steel through the analysis of individual inclusions. By characterizing individual inclusions, determinations can be made as to the cleanliness of the steel. Understanding the complicating effects of inclusions in the steelmaking process and on the resulting properties of steel allows the steel producer to increase throughput, better control the process, reduce remelts, and improve the quality of the product. The ASCAT (Figure 1) is a steel-smart inclusion analysis tool developed around a customized next-generation computer controlled scanning electron microscopy (NG-CCSEM) hardware platform that permits acquisition of inclusion size and composition data at a rate never before possible in SEM-based instruments. With built-in customized ''intelligent'' software, the inclusion data is automatically sorted into clusters representing different inclusion types to define the characteristics of a particular heat (Figure 2). The ASCAT represents an innovative new tool for the collection of statistically meaningful data on inclusions, and provides a means of understanding the complicated effects of inclusions in the steel making process and on the resulting properties of steel. Research conducted by RJLG with AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute) and SMA (Steel Manufactures of America) members indicates that the ASCAT has application in high-grade bar, sheet, plate, tin products, pipes, SBQ, tire cord, welding rod, and specialty steels and alloys where control of inclusions, whether natural or engineered, are crucial to their specification for a given end-use. Example applications include castability of calcium treated steel; interstitial free (IF) degasser grade slag conditioning practice; tundish clogging and erosion minimization; degasser circulation and optimization; quality assessment/steel cleanliness; slab, billet

  4. Estimating the Value of Electricity Storage Resources in Electricity...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Estimating the Value of Electricity Storage Resources in Electricity Markets - EAC 2011 Estimating the Value of Electricity Storage Resources in Electricity Markets - EAC 2011 The ...

  5. Technology Roadmap - Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Roadmap - Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Technology Roadmap - Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric...

  6. Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Sales: December 2010 - June...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Sales data for various models of electric and hybrid electric vehicles from December 2010 through June 2013. Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Sales: December 2010 - June 2013 ...

  7. Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for Selected Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Fruehan, R.J.; Fortini, O.; Paxton, H.W.; Brindle, R.

    2000-05-01

    The energy used to produce liquid steel in today's integrated and electric arc furnace (EAF) facilities is significantly higher than the theoretical minimum energy requirements. This study presents the absolute minimum energy required to produce steel from ore and mixtures of scrap and scrap alternatives. Additional cases in which the assumptions are changed to more closely approximate actual operating conditions are also analyzed. The results, summarized in Table E-1, should give insight into the theoretical and practical potentials for reducing steelmaking energy requirements. The energy values have also been converted to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in order to indicate the potential for reduction in emissions of this greenhouse gas (Table E-2). The study showed that increasing scrap melting has the largest impact on energy consumption. However, scrap should be viewed as having ''invested'' energy since at one time it was produced by reducing ore. Increasing scrap melting in the BOF mayor may not decrease energy if the ''invested'' energy in scrap is considered.

  8. DOE handbook electrical safety

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    Electrical Safety Handbook presents the Department of Energy (DOE) safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety guidance and information for DOE installations to effect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of this handbook are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  9. Electrical safety guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Electrical Safety Guidelines prescribes the DOE safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety standards and guidance for DOE installations in order to affect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of these guidelines are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  10. National Electrical Manufacturers Association

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    3, 2014) Dear Mr. Croley, The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) thanks ... As you may know, NEMA is the trade association of choice for the electrical manufacturing ...

  11. Electricity Monthly Update

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    See all Electricity Reports Electricity Monthly Update With Data for November 2014 | Release Date: Jan. 26, 2015 | Next Release Date: Feb. 24, 2015 Previous Issues Issue:...

  12. Edison Electric Institute Update

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Fall 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—discusses the Edison Electric Institute (EEI) and the current electricity landscape.

  13. Electricity Transmission, A Primer

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... Power can flow over long distances, but with two significant limitations. *Line losses and voltage drop. Power lines carry electricity over long distances, but the electrical ...

  14. Electricity Monthly Update

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    The Electric Power Sector comprises electricity-only and combined heat and power (CHP) plants within the North American Industrial Classification System 22 category whose...

  15. Integrating Electricity Subsector

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Integrating Electricity Subsector Failure Scenarios into a Risk Assessment Methodology ... Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) ...

  16. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Missouri Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Missouri) Item Value ... More tables on Missouri's Electricity Profile: formats Table 2. Ten largest plants by ...

  17. Electricity Monthly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Update November 28, 2012 Map of Electric System Selected for Daily Peak Demand was replaced with the correct map showing Selected Wholesale Electricity and Natural Gas Locations....

  18. Electricity Monthly Update

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    of electricity. End-use data is the first "data page" based on the assumption that information about retail electricity service is of greatest interest to a general...

  19. Ohio Electricity Restructuring Active

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Other Links Ohio Electricity Profile Ohio Energy Profile Ohio Web Sites Acronyms for the ... Consumer education programs were available on the Ohio Electric Choice web site, through ...

  20. Electric Power detailed State data

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    See also: Electric Power Monthly Electric Power Annual Electric Sales, Revenue, and Price Electricity survey forms 1 The "Other Renewables" category in Capacity and Generation ...

  1. Integrated electrical connector (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Integrated electrical connector Title: Integrated electrical connector An electrical ... The opening is also smaller than the diameter of an electrically conductive contact pin. ...

  2. SURFACE PREPARATION OF STEEL SUBSTRATES USING GRIT-BLASTING

    SciTech Connect

    Donna Post Guillen; D. J. Varacalle, Jr.; D. Deason; W. Rhodaberger; E. Sampson

    2005-05-01

    The primary purpose of grit blasting for thermal spray applications is to ensure a strong mechanical bond between the substrate and the coating by the enhanced roughening of the substrate material. This study presents statistically designed experiments that were accomplished to investigate the effect of abrasives on roughness for A36/1020 steel. The experiments were conducted using a Box statistical design of experiment (SDE) approach. Three grit blasting parameters and their effect on the resultant substrate roughness were investigated. These include blast media, blast pressure, and working distance. The substrates were characterized for roughness using surface profilometry. These attributes were correlated with the changes in operating parameters. Twin-Wire Electric Arc (TWEA) coatings of aluminum and zinc/aluminum were deposited on the grit-blasted substrates. These coatings were then tested for bond strength. Bond strength studies were conducted utilizing a portable adhesion tester following ASTM standard D4541.

  3. Measuring precrack initiation fatigue state in reactor pressure vessel steels

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, Y.; Fukuoka, C.

    1993-08-01

    Identification of a precursor whose measurement could lead to damage avoidance or mitigation in a power plant structure, system or component that is expensive to repair or replace would substantially improve the economics of electrical power generation, The accent is identification of measurable microstructural precursors of those macroscopic damages that limit the useful life of metallic, power plant, pressure boundary components that degrade by fatigue, creep, stress corrosion and embrittlement. This report presents the results of a five year research program to develop an inspection technique to predict when fatigue initiation will occur in pressure vessel steels operating at LWR nuclear plant conditions. The report serves two primary objectives. One is to describe an inspection method that appears to predict when fatigue crack initiation will occur. The second is to illustrate the nature and scope of a program required to validate a microstructural precursor program for the engineering materials and service conditions of utility practice.

  4. Tritiated Water Interaction with Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2007-05-01

    Experiments conducted to study tritium permeation of stainless steel at ambient and elevated temperatures revealed that HT converts relatively quickly to HTO. Further, the HTO partial pressure contributes essentially equally with elemental tritium gas in driving permeation through the stainless steel. Such permeation appears to be due to dissociation of the water molecule on the hot stainless steel surface. There is an equilibrium concentration of HTO vapor above adsorbed gas on the walls of the experimental apparatus evident from freezing transients. The uptake process of tritium from the carrier gas involves both surface adsorption and isotopic exchange with surface bound water.

  5. Geneva Steel blast furnace improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Fowles, R.D.; Hills, L.S.

    1993-01-01

    Geneva Steel is located in Utah and is situated near the western edge of the Rocky Mountains adjacent to the Wasatch Front. Geneva's No. 1, 2 and 3 are the only remaining operating blast furnaces in the United States west of the Mississippi River. They were originally constructed in 1943 to support steelmaking during World War II. During the early 60's all three furnaces were enlarged to their current working volume. Very few major improvements were made until recently. This discussion includes a brief historical perspective of operating difficulties associated with practice, design and equipment deficiencies. Also included is an overview of blast furnace improvements at Geneva found necessary to meet the demands of modern steelmaking. Particular emphasis will be placed on casthouse improvements.

  6. MECS 2006 - Iron and Steel | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Iron and Steel MECS 2006 - Iron and Steel Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Iron and Steel Sector (NAICS 3311, 3312) with Total Energy Input, October 2012 (MECS 2006) All available footprints and supporting documents Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint Iron and Steel (121.99 KB) More Documents & Publications Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Iron and Steel (NAICS 3311, 3312), October 2012 (MECS 2006

  7. Project B: Improved Liquid Steel Feed For Slab Casters

    SciTech Connect

    Brent S. Isaacson; Mike Slepian; Thomas Richter

    1998-10-01

    This report describes the completion of the development of an electromagnetic valve to control liquid steel flow for improved liquid steel feeding for slab casters. Achievements result from a joint research effort between Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, North American Refractories and U.S. Steel. This effort is part of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AISI) Advanced Process Control Program, a collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and fifteen North American steel makers.

  8. Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCAT) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCAT) Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCAT) New Microscopy System Improves Steel Mill Performance and Allows Production of Higher Quality Steel Inclusions are particles of insoluble impurities formed during steelmaking and casting operations that are entrapped during solidification of metal. Characterizing inclusions is important because of an increasing demand for cleaner steels with low inclusion (defect) content. The composition, and

  9. H-Series Cast Austenitic Stainless Steels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    H-Series Cast Austenitic Stainless Steels H-Series Cast Austenitic Stainless Steels Scientific Design Methodology Used to Develop Stronger Stainless Steels for High-Temperature Applications Cast H-Series austenitic steels are used extensively in several industries for a broad range of high-temperature applications. The H-Series stainless steels have evolved over many years of complex alloy development that added various alloying elements by trial-and-error methods. The native microstructure

  10. Microstructural characterization in dissimilar friction stir welding between 304 stainless steel and st37 steel

    SciTech Connect

    Jafarzadegan, M.; State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, School of Materials Science and Eng., Harbin Institute of Technology, P.O. Box: 150001, Harbin ; Feng, A.H.; Abdollah-zadeh, A.; Saeid, T.; Shen, J.; Assadi, H.

    2012-12-15

    In the present study, 3 mm-thick plates of 304 stainless steel and st37 steel were welded together by friction stir welding at a welding speed of 50 mm/min and tool rotational speed of 400 and 800 rpm. X-ray diffraction test was carried out to study the phases which might be formed in the welds. Metallographic examinations, and tensile and microhardness tests were used to analyze the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joint. Four different zones were found in the weld area except the base metals. In the stir zone of the 304 stainless steel, a refined grain structure with some features of dynamic recrystallization was evidenced. A thermomechanically-affected zone was characterized on the 304 steel side with features of dynamic recovery. In the other side of the stir zone, the hot deformation of the st37 steel in the austenite region produced small austenite grains and these grains transformed to fine ferrite and pearlite and some products of displacive transformations such as Widmanstatten ferrite and martensite by cooling the material after friction stir welding. The heat-affected zone in the st37 steel side showed partially and fully refined microstructures like fusion welding processes. The recrystallization in the 304 steel and the transformations in the st37 steel enhanced the hardness of the weld area and therefore, improved the tensile properties of the joint. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FSW produced sound welds between st37 low carbon steel and 304 stainless steel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SZ of the st37 steel contained some products of allotropic transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The material in the SZ of the 304 steel showed features of dynamic recrystallization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The finer microstructure in the SZ increased the hardness and tensile strength.

  11. Apparatus For Laminating Segmented Core For Electric Machine

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, Robert Anthony; Stabel, Gerald R

    2003-06-17

    A segmented core for an electric machine includes segments stamped from coated electric steel. The segments each have a first end, a second end, and winding openings. A predetermined number of segments are placed end-to-end to form layers. The layers are stacked such that each of the layers is staggered from adjacent layers by a predetermined rotation angle. The winding openings of each of the layers are in vertical alignment with the winding openings of the adjacent layers. The stack of layers is secured to form the segmented core.

  12. Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hong Woo; Kim, Gyosung; Park, Sung Ho

    2010-06-15

    Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high crashworthiness performance instead of expensive light weight materials such as Al, Mg and composites. To provide the innovative steel solutions for automotive industry, POSCO has developed AHSS and its application technologies, which is directly connected to EVI activities. EVI is a technical cooperation program with customer covering all stages of new car project from design to mass production. Integrated light weight solutions through new forming technologies such as TWB, hydroforming and HPF are continuously developed and provided for EVI activities. This paper will discuss the detailed status of these technologies especially light weight steel solutions based on innovative technologies.

  13. Clean Cast Steel Technology, Phase IV

    SciTech Connect

    Charles E. Bates

    2003-02-24

    The objective of the Clean Cast Steel Technology Program was to improve casting product quality by removing or minimizing oxide defects and to allow the production of higher integrity castings for high speed machining lines. Previous research has concentrated on macro-inclusions that break, chip, or crack machine tool cutters and drills and cause immediate shutdown of the machining lines. The overall goal of the project is to reduce the amount of surface macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions have been identified by industrial sponsors as a major barrier to improving the quality and marketability of steel castings.

  14. Case hardenable nickel-cobalt steel

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Yana; Olson, Gregory B.

    2012-04-17

    An advanced secondary hardening carburized Ni--Co steel achieves an improved case hardness of about 68-69 Rc together with nominal core hardness of about 50 Rc.

  15. Hydrogen compatibility handbook for stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1983-06-01

    This handbook compiles data on the effects of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of stainless steels and discusses this data within the context of current understanding of hydrogen compatibility of metals. All of the tabulated data derives from continuing studies of hydrogen effects on materials that have been conducted at the Savannah River Laboratory over the past fifteen years. Supplementary data from other sources are included in the discussion. Austenitic, ferritic, martensitic, and precipitation hardenable stainless steels have been studied. Damage caused by helium generated from decay of tritium is a distinctive effect that occurs in addition to the hydrogen isotopes protium and deuterium. The handbook defines the scope of our current knowledge of hydrogen effects in stainless steels and serves as a guide to selection of stainless steels for service in hydrogen.

  16. Field weldability of high strength pipeline steels

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, D.N.; Pargeter, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    This project has studied the small-scale SMA weldability of two X80 grade pipeline steels and conducted mechanical and fracture toughness tests on full-size SMA and GMA welds in both pipes.

  17. High performance corrosion-resistant structural steels

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, F.B.; Ferry, B.N.; Beblo, D.G.

    1995-12-31

    A new corrosion-resistant structural steel named Duracorr was developed for low maintenance when compared to conventional structural steels. The new stainless steel is a dual phase composition between the established 12% Cr, ferritic T409 and martensitic T410 grades. Attractive combinations of hardness, strength, toughness, weldability and formability are derived from a microstructure that is a dual phase mixture of ferrite and martensite. The Duracorr composition, UNS S41003, provides for a microstructure of ferrite and austenite to be present throughout the hot rolling process. Cooling to room temperature causes transformation of the austenite to martensite. Subsequent tempering of the steel creates minimum mechanical properties of 275 MPa (40 ksi) yield strength and 455 MPa (66 ksi) tensile strength with room temperature longitudinal Charpy impact values typically greater than 34 J (25 ft-lbs).

  18. Stainless Steel to Titanium Bimetallic Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaluzny, J. A.; Grimm, C.; Passarelli, D.

    2015-01-01

    In order to use stainless steel piping in an LCLS-II (Linac Coherent Light Source Upgrade) cryomodule, stainless steel to titanium bimetallic transitions are needed to connect the stainless steel piping to the titanium cavity helium vessel. Explosion bonded stainless steel to titanium transition pieces and bimetallic transition material samples have been tested. A sample transition tube was subjected to tests and x-ray examinations between tests. Samples of the bonded joint material were impact and tensile tested at room temperature as well as liquid helium temperature. The joint has been used successfully in horizontal tests of LCLS-II cavity helium vessels and is planned to be used in LCLS-II cryomodules. Results of material sample and transition tube tests will be presented.

  19. Mr. Thomas Mahl Granite City Steel Company

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    8&v Mr. Thomas Mahl Granite City Steel Company 20th and State Streets Granite City, IL 62040 Dear Mr. Mahl: This is to notify you that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has ...

  20. Precise carbon control of fabricated stainless steel

    DOEpatents

    Nilsen, R.J.

    1975-12-01

    A process is described for controlling the carbon content of fabricated stainless steel components including the steps of heat treating the component in hydrogen atmospheres of varying dewpoints and carbon potentials.

  1. Iron and Steel Energy Intensities

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    MECS Survey Year 1985 1988 1991 1994 All Energy Sources 46.47 30.61 34.77 33.98 Electricity 3.66 2.44 3.17 3.05 Natural Gas 11.33 7.86 10.25 9.97 Coal 29.13 19.12 20.08 18.40...

  2. Nonlinear ultrasonic characterization of precipitation in 17-4PH stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Matlack, Kathryn; Bradley, Harrison A.; Thiele, Sebastian; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Wall, James J.; Jung, Hee Joon; Qu, Jianmin; Jacobs, Laurence J.

    2015-04-01

    The extension of operational lifetime of most US nuclear reactors will cause reactor pressure vessel to be exposed to increased levels of neutron radiation damage. This research is part of a broader effort to develop a nondestructive evaluation technique to monitor radiation damage in reactor pressure vessel steels. The main contributor to radiation embrittlement in these steels is the formation of copper-rich precipitates. In this work, a precipitate hardenable martensitic alloy, 17-4PH stainless steel is exposed to thermal aging treatments, and used as a surrogate material to study the effects of copper precipitates on the measured acoustic nonlinearity parameter. Previous work has demonstrated the effectiveness of these nonlinear ultrasonic (NLU) measurements in the characterization of radiation-induced microstructural changes in neutron irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels. NLU measurements using Rayleigh surface waves are performed on 17-4PH samples subjected to isothermal aging. NLU measurements are interpreted with hardness, thermo-electric power, TEM, and atom probe tomography measurements. The Rayleigh wave measurements showed a decrease in the acoustic nonlinearity parameter with increasing aging time, consistent with evidence of increasing number density of nucleated precipitates.

  3. High strength and high toughness steel

    DOEpatents

    Parker, Earl R.; Zackay, Victor F.

    1979-01-01

    A structural steel which possess both high strength and high toughness and has particular application of cryogenic uses. The steel is produced by the utilization of thermally induced phase transformation following heating in a three-phase field in iron-rich alloys of the Fe-Ni-Ti system, with a preferred composition of 12% nickel, 0.5% titanium, the remainder being iron.

  4. High strength, high ductility low carbon steel

    DOEpatents

    Koo, Jayoung; Thomas, Gareth

    1978-01-01

    A high strength, high ductility low carbon steel consisting essentially of iron, 0.05-0.15 wt% carbon, and 1-3 wt% silicon. Minor amounts of other constituents may be present. The steel is characterized by a duplex ferrite-martensite microstructure in a fibrous morphology. The microstructure is developed by heat treatment consisting of initial austenitizing treatment followed by annealing in the (.alpha. + .gamma.) range with intermediate quenching.

  5. Development of Steel Foam Materials and Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Kremer; Anthony Liszkiewicz; James Adkins

    2004-10-20

    In the past few years there has been a growing interest in lightweight metal foams. Demands for weight reduction, improved fuel efficiency, and increased passenger safety in automobiles now has manufacturers seriously considering the use of metal foams, in contrast to a few years ago, when the same materials would have been ruled out for technical or economical reasons. The objective of this program was to advance the development and use of steel foam materials, by demonstrating the advantages of these novel lightweight materials in selected generic applications. Progress was made in defining materials and process parameters; characterization of physical and mechanical properties; and fabrication and testing of generic steel foam-filled shapes with compositions from 2.5 wt.% to 0.7 wt.% carbon. A means of producing steel foam shapes with uniform long range porosity levels of 50 to 60 percent was demonstrated and verified with NDE methods. Steel foam integrated beams, cylinders and plates were mechanically tested and demonstrated advantages in bend stiffness, bend resistance, and crush energy absorption. Methods of joining by welding, adhesive bonding, and mechanical fastening were investigated. It is important to keep in mind that steel foam is a conventional material in an unconventional form. A substantial amount of physical and mechanical properties are presented throughout the report and in a properties database at the end of the report to support designer's in applying steel foam in unconventional ways.

  6. Microstructural studies of advanced austenitic steels

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, J. A.; Ren, Jyh-Ching

    1989-11-15

    This report presents the first complete microstructural and analytical electron microscopy study of Alloy AX5, one of a series of advanced austenitic steels developed by Maziasz and co-workers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for their potential application as reheater and superheater materials in power plants that will reach the end of their design lives in the 1990's. The advanced steels are modified with carbide forming elements such as titanium, niobium and vanadium. When combined with optimized thermo-mechanical treatments, the advanced steels exhibit significantly improved creep rupture properties compared to commercially available 316 stainless steels, 17--14 Cu--Mo and 800 H steels. The importance of microstructure in controlling these improvements has been demonstrated for selected alloys, using stress relaxation testing as an accelerated test method. The microstructural features responsible for the improved creep strengths have been identified by studying the thermal aging kinetics of one of the 16Ni--14Cr advanced steels, Alloy AX5, in both the solution annealed and the solution annealed plus cold worked conditions. Time-temperature-precipitation diagrams have been developed for the temperature range 600 C to 900 C and for times from 1 h to 3000 h. 226 refs., 88 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Irradiation Assisted Grain Boundary Segregation in Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Zheng; Faulkner, Roy G.

    2008-07-01

    The understanding of radiation-induced grain boundary segregation (RIS) has considerably improved over the past decade. New models have been introduced and much effort has been devoted to obtaining comprehensive information on segregation from the literature. Analytical techniques have also improved so that chemical analysis of layers 1 nm thick is almost routine. This invited paper will review the major methods used currently for RIS prediction: namely, Rate Theory, Inverse Kirkendall, and Solute Drag approaches. A summary is made of the available data on phosphorus RIS in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. This will be discussed in the light of the predictions of the various models in an effort to show which models are the most reliable and easy to use for forecasting P segregation behaviour in steels. A consequence of RIS in RPV steels is a radiation induced shift in the ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT). It will be shown how it is possible to relate radiation-induced P segregation levels to DBTT shift. Examples of this exercise will be given for RPV steels and for ferritic steels being considered for first wall fusion applications. Cr RIS in high alloy stainless steels and associated irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) will be briefly discussed. (authors)

  8. NREL: Transportation Research - Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Testing How Electric and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Work EVs use batteries to store the electric energy that powers the ...

  9. Surface Treatments for Improved Performance of Spinel-coated AISI 441 Ferritic Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Riel, Eric M.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2013-01-01

    Ferritic stainless steels are promising candidates for IT-SOFC interconnect applications due to their low cost and resistance to oxidation at SOFC operating temperatures. However, steel candidates face several challenges; including long term oxidation under interconnect exposure conditions, which can lead to increased electrical resistance, surface instability, and poisoning of cathodes due to volatilization of Cr. To potentially extend interconnect lifetime and improve performance, a variety of surface treatments were performed on AISI 441 ferritic stainless steel coupons prior to application of a protective spinel coating. The coated coupons were then subjected to oxidation testing at 800 and 850°C in air, and electrical testing at 800°C in air. While all of the surface-treatments resulted in improved surface stability (i.e., increased spallation resistance) compared to untreated AISI 441, the greatest degree of improvement (through 20,000 hours of testing at 800°C and 14,000 hours of testing at 850°C) was achieved by surface blasting.

  10. Electricity Monthly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Methodology and Documentation General The Electricity Monthly Update is prepared by the Electric Power Operations Team, Office of Electricity, Renewables and Uranium Statistics, U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy. Data published in the Electricity Monthly Update are compiled from the following sources: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-826,"Monthly Electric Utility Sales and Revenues with State Distributions Report," U.S. Energy

  11. Tensile-property characterization of thermally aged cast stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Michaud, W.F.; Toben, P.T.; Soppet, W.K.; Chopra, O.K.

    1994-02-01

    The effect of thermal aging on tensile properties of cast stainless steels during service in light water reactors has been evaluated. Tensile data for several experimental and commercial heats of cast stainless steels are presented. Thermal aging increases the tensile strength of these steels. The high-C Mo-bearing CF-8M steels are more susceptible to thermal aging than the Mo-free CF-3 or CF-8 steels. A procedure and correlations are presented for predicting the change in tensile flow and yield stresses and engineering stress-vs.-strain curve of cast stainless steel as a function of time and temperature of service. The tensile properties of aged cast stainless steel are estimated from known material information, i.e., chemical composition and the initial tensile strength of the steel. The correlations described in this report may be used for assessing thermal embrittlement of cast stainless steel components.

  12. Baltimore Gas & Electric Company (Electric) - Residential Energy...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    AC: 30 Recycling RefrigeratorFreezer: 50 ACDehumidifier: 25 Summary The Baltimore Gas & Electric Company (BGE) offers rebates for residential customers to improve the...

  13. Richmond Electric Vehicle Initiative Electric Vehicle Readiness...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    The REVi plan addresses the electric vehicle market in Richmond and then addresses a regional plan, policies, and analysis of the the communities readiness. Richmond EV Initiative ...

  14. ITP Steel: Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for Selected Conditions, March 2000

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The absolute theoretical minimum energies to produce liquid steel from idealized scrap (100% Fe) and ore (100% Fe2O3) are much lower than consumed in practice, as are the theoretical minimum energies to roll the steel into its final shape.

  15. High Mn austenitic stainless steel

    DOEpatents

    Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge, TN; Santella, Michael L [Knoxville, TN; Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J [Oak Ridge, TN; Liu, Chain-tsuan [Knoxville, TN

    2010-07-13

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy includes, in weight percent: >4 to 15 Mn; 8 to 15 Ni; 14 to 16 Cr; 2.4 to 3 Al; 0.4 to 1 total of at least one of Nb and Ta; 0.05 to 0.2 C; 0.01 to 0.02 B; no more than 0.3 of combined Ti+V; up to 3 Mo; up to 3 Co; up to 1W; up to 3 Cu; up to 1 Si; up to 0.05 P; up to 1 total of at least one of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; less than 0.05 N; and base Fe, wherein the weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni, and wherein the alloy forms an external continuous scale including alumina, nanometer scale sized particles distributed throughout the microstructure, the particles including at least one of NbC and TaC, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure that is essentially delta-ferrite-free and essentially BCC-phase-free.

  16. Electric arc saw apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deichelbohrer, Paul R [Richland, WA

    1986-01-01

    A portable, hand held electric arc saw has a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc to erode a workpiece. Electric current is supplied to the blade by biased brushes and a slip ring which are mounted in the frame. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads stretched between two pulleys are used to facilitate movement of the electric arc saw. The pulleys are formed of dielectric material to electrically insulate the crawler treads from the frame.

  17. Mechanical properties of irradiated 9Cr-2WVTa steel

    SciTech Connect

    Klueh, R.L.; Alexander, D.J.; Rieth, M.

    1998-09-01

    An Fe-9Cr-2W-0.25V-0.07Ta-0.1C (9Cr-2WVTa) steel has excellent strength and impact toughness before and after irradiation in the Fast Flux Test Facility and the High Flux Reactor (HFR). The ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) increased only 32 C after 28 dpa at 365 C in FFTF, compared to a shift of {approx}60 C for a 9Cr-2WV steel--the same as the 9Cr-2WVTa steel but without tantalum. This difference occurred despite the two steels having similar tensile but without tantalum. This difference occurred despite the two steels having similar tensile properties before and after irradiation. The 9Cr-2WVTa steel has a smaller prior-austenite grain size, but otherwise microstructures are similar before irradiation and show similar changes during irradiation. The irradiation behavior of the 9Cr-2WVTa steel differs from the 9Cr-2WV steel and other similar steels in two ways: (1) the shift in DBTT of the 9Cr-2WVTa steel irradiated in FFTF does not saturate with fluence by {approx}28 dpa, whereas for the 9Cr-2WV steel and most similar steels, saturation occurs at <10 dpa, and (2) the shift in DBTT for 9Cr-2WVTa steel irradiated in FFTF and HFR increased with irradiation temperature, whereas it decreased for the 9Cr-2WV steel, as it does for most similar steels. The improved properties of the 9Cr-2WVTa steel and the differences with other steels were attributed to tantalum in solution.

  18. Superplastic forming of stainless steel automotive components

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, B.; Elmer, J.; Carol, L.

    1997-02-06

    Exhaust emission standards are governmentally controlled standards, which are increasingly stringent, forcing alternate strategies to meet these standards. One approach to improve the efficiency of the exhaust emission equipment is to decrease the time required to get the catalytic converter to optimum operating temperature. To accomplish this, automotive manufacturers are using double wall stainless steel exhaust manifolds to reduce heat loss of the exhaust gases to the converter. The current method to manufacture double wall stainless steel exhaust components is to use a low-cost alloy with good forming properties and extensively form, cut, assemble, and weld the pieces. Superplastic forming (SPF) technology along with alloy improvements has potential at making this process more cost effective. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and USCAR Low Emission Partnership (LEP) worked under a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) to evaluate material properties, SPF behavior, and welding behavior of duplex stainless steel alloy for automotive component manufacturing. Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has a separate CRADA with the LEP to use SPF technology to manufacture a double wall stainless steel exhaust component. As a team these CRADAs developed and demonstrated a technical plan to accomplish making double wall stainless steel exhaust manifolds.

  19. Panasonic Electric Works Ltd formerly Matsushita Electric Works...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Electric Works Ltd (formerly Matsushita Electric Works) Place: Kadoma-shi, Osaka, Japan Zip: 571-8686 Product: Japanese manufacturer of mainly electric appliances including...

  20. Electrical Generation for More-Electric Aircraft using Solid...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    examines approaches to providing electrical power on board commercial aircraft ... Electrical Generation for More-Electric Aircraft using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (2.12 MB) ...

  1. Table 2a. Electricity Consumption and Electricity Intensities...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Administration Home Page Home > Commercial Buildings Home > Sq Ft Tables > Table 2a. Electricity Consumption per Sq Ft Table 2a. Electricity Consumption and Electricity...

  2. Electric Power Monthly

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Electric Power Monthly Data for January 2016 | Release Date: March 25, 2016 | Next ... Revisions made to the March 2016 Electric Power Monthly: March 30, 2016 Tables 2.8.A-B ...

  3. Electricity Monthly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    cheap price of natural gas reduced coals share of electricity production. Days of Burn Days of burn Coal capacity The average number of days of burn held at electric power...

  4. Electric Efficiency Standard

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In December 2009, the Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission's (IURC) ordered utilities to establish demand-side management (DSM) electric savings goals leading to 2.0% reduction of electricity sa...

  5. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-09-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  6. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  7. EIA - Electric Power Data

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    capacity. annual annual: 1990-2015 Electric generator capacity data-annual (Form EIA-860) Electric utility and non-utility generator-specific plant data, including in-service ...

  8. 2012 National Electricity Forum

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the 2012 National Electricity Forum, held February 8-9, 2012 and jointly organized by DOE's Office of Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability (OE) and the National Association of...

  9. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 8,325 38 Electric utilities 7,296 31 IPP & CHP 1,029 44 Net generation (megawatthours) 43,784,526 33 Electric utilities 40,741,425 28 IPP & CHP ...

  10. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    9 Electric utilities 11,134 26 IPP & CHP 20,372 6 Net generation (megawatthours) 134,476,405 8 Electric utilities 43,290,512 25 IPP & CHP 91,185,893 7 Emissions Sulfur dioxide ...

  11. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    6 Electric utilities 10,989 27 IPP & CHP 29,416 5 Net generation (megawatthours) 137,122,202 7 Electric utilities 34,082 31 IPP & CHP 103,039,347 5 Emissions Sulfur dioxide ...

  12. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    10 Electric utilities 27,376 5 IPP & CHP 3,573 26 Net generation (megawatthours) 116,334,363 11 Electric utilities 102,294,256 5 IPP & CHP 14,040,107 24 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide ...

  13. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    8 Electric utilities 23,050 8 IPP & CHP 8,903 11 Net generation (megawatthours) 149,340,447 6 Electric utilities 112,340,555 3 IPP & CHP 36,999,892 10 Emissions Sulfur dioxide ...

  14. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    21 Electric utilities 19,473 15 IPP & CHP 1,405 40 Net generation (megawatthours) 90,896,435 17 Electric utilities 90,133,403 10 IPP & CHP 763,032 49 Emissions Sulfur dioxide ...

  15. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 2,464 48 Electric utilities 2,313 39 IPP & CHP 151 50 Net generation (megawatthours) 6,042,830 50 Electric utilities 5,509,991 40 IPP & CHP ...

  16. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    24 Electric utilities 12,655 20 IPP & CHP 3,852 25 Net generation (megawatthours) 56,853,282 28 Electric utilities 43,021,954 27 IPP & CHP 13,831,328 25 Emissions Sulfur dioxide ...

  17. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4,470 43 Electric utilities 10 49 IPP & CHP 4,460 20 Net generation (megawatthours) 13,248,710 44 Electric utilities 523 49 IPP & CHP 13,248,187 27 Emissions Sulfur dioxide ...

  18. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 6,330 41 Electric utilities 3,209 38 IPP & CHP 3,121 30 Net generation (megawatthours) 30,257,616 41 Electric utilities 12,329,411 35 IPP & CHP ...

  19. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    8,732 36 Electric utilities 7,913 30 IPP & CHP 819 46 Net generation (megawatthours) 39,431,291 34 Electric utilities 36,560,960 30 IPP & CHP 2,870,331 45 Emissions Sulfur dioxide ...

  20. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    19,399 22 Electric utilities 544 43 IPP & CHP 18,852 7 Net generation (megawatthours) 68,051,086 23 Electric utilities -117,003 50 IPP & CHP 68,168,089 7 Emissions Sulfur dioxide ...

  1. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    20 Electric utilities 20,490 14 IPP & CHP 508 47 Net generation (megawatthours) 79,506,886 20 Electric utilities 76,986,629 13 IPP & CHP 2,520,257 47 Emissions Sulfur dioxide ...

  2. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    3 Electric utilities 51,775 1 IPP & CHP 7,665 15 Net generation (megawatthours) 230,015,937 2 Electric utilities 211,970,587 1 IPP & CHP 18,045,350 15 Emissions Sulfur dioxide ...

  3. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    42,723 5 Electric utilities 39 48 IPP & CHP 42,685 3 Net generation (megawatthours) 221,058,365 3 Electric utilities 90,994 44 IPP & CHP 220,967,371 2 Emissions Sulfur dioxide ...

  4. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    29 Electric utilities 10,204 28 IPP & CHP 4,729 18 Net generation (megawatthours) 53,847,386 30 Electric utilities 43,239,615 26 IPP & CHP 10,607,771 30 Emissions Sulfur dioxide ...

  5. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    3,086 46 Electric utilities 102 46 IPP & CHP 2,984 31 Net generation (megawatthours) 7,703,584 47 Electric utilities 49,050 46 IPP & CHP 7,654,534 35 Emissions Sulfur dioxide ...

  6. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    1,810 49 Electric utilities 8 50 IPP & CHP 1,803 38 Net generation (megawatthours) 6,281,748 49 Electric utilities 10,670 48 IPP & CHP 6,271,078 36 Emissions Sulfur dioxide ...

  7. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2,672 47 Electric utilities 1,732 40 IPP & CHP 939 45 Net generation (megawatthours) 10,204,158 46 Electric utilities 5,517,389 39 IPP & CHP 4,686,769 40 Emissions Sulfur dioxide ...

  8. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    27 Electric utilities 11,175 25 IPP & CHP 4,709 19 Net generation (megawatthours) 60,119,907 26 Electric utilities 44,565,239 24 IPP & CHP 15,554,668 21 Emissions Sulfur dioxide ...

  9. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2 Electric utilities 28,201 4 IPP & CHP 46,446 2 Net generation (megawatthours) 198,807,622 5 Electric utilities 71,037,135 14 IPP & CHP 127,770,487 4 Emissions Sulfur dioxide ...

  10. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 8,458 37 Electric utilities 7,233 32 IPP & CHP 1,225 43 Net generation (megawatthours) 49,696,183 32 Electric utilities 45,068,982 23 IPP & CHP ...

  11. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    34 Electric utilities 8,480 29 IPP & CHP 2,006 35 Net generation (megawatthours) 36,000,537 37 Electric utilities 27,758,728 33 IPP & CHP 8,241,809 33 Emissions Sulfur dioxide ...

  12. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    1 Electric utilities 29,113 2 IPP & CHP 83,800 1 Net generation (megawatthours) 437,629,668 1 Electric utilities 94,974,953 7 IPP & CHP 342,654,715 1 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide ...

  13. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    13 Electric utilities 21,311 11 IPP & CHP 6,938 17 Net generation (megawatthours) 112,257,187 13 Electric utilities 94,847,135 8 IPP & CHP 17,410,053 19 Emissions Sulfur dioxide ...

  14. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    25 Electric utilities 11,981 21 IPP & CHP 4,295 21 Net generation (megawatthours) 81,059,577 19 Electric utilities 63,331,833 15 IPP & CHP 17,727,743 17 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide ...

  15. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    13,128 32 Electric utilities 971 42 IPP & CHP 12,157 9 Net generation (megawatthours) 31,118,591 40 Electric utilities 679,986 43 IPP & CHP 30,438,606 12 Emissions Sulfur dioxide ...

  16. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 8,072 39 Electric utilities 6,094 33 IPP & CHP 1,978 37 Net generation (megawatthours) 32,306,210 39 Electric utilities 26,422,867 34 IPP & CHP ...

  17. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    12,264 33 Electric utilities 85 47 IPP & CHP 12,179 8 Net generation (megawatthours) 37,833,652 35 Electric utilities 20,260 47 IPP & CHP 37,813,392 9 Emissions Sulfur dioxide ...

  18. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-11-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  19. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2013-04-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  20. Electricity Monthly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    sales volumes are presented as a proxy for end-use electricity consumption. Average Revenue per kWh by state Percent Change Per KWh map showing U.S. electric industry percent...

  1. Electricity Monthly Update

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    End Use: August 2015 Retail ratesprices and consumption In this section, we look at what electricity costs and how much is purchased. Charges for retail electric service are based...

  2. Z Group Steel Holding Zelezarny Veseli | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Z Group Steel Holding Zelezarny Veseli Jump to: navigation, search Name: Z-Group Steel Holding - Zelezarny Veseli Place: Veseli nad Moravou, Czech Republic Zip: 698 12 Sector: Wind...

  3. Stainless steel 304 cladding mechanical properties and limitations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    steel 304 cladding mechanical properties and limitations during steady state operation of U-ZrH TRIGA type fuel. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stainless steel 304 ...

  4. Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels II...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels II Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels II 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle ...

  5. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Wyckoff Drawn Steel Co ...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Drawn Steel Co - IL 0-09 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Wyckoff Drawn Steel Co (IL 0-09) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: ...

  6. How Trenton Iron and Steel Innovations Reshaped America Clifford...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Trenton Iron and Steel Innovations Reshaped America Clifford Zink Independent Historian ... DeParTmenT of energy faciliTy Iron and steel innovations in Trenton helped transform ...

  7. First Structural Steel Erected at NSLS-II

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2010-01-08

    Ten steel columns were incorporated into the ever-growing framework for the National Synchrotron Light Source II last week, the first structural steel erected for the future 400,000-square-foot facility.

  8. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Allegheny-Ludlum Steel Corp...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Site: ALLEGHENY-LUDLUM STEEL CORP. (NY.0-02 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: Al-Tech Specialty Steel NY.0-02-1 Location: ...

  9. First Structural Steel Erected at NSLS-II

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-14

    Ten steel columns were incorporated into the ever-growing framework for the National Synchrotron Light Source II last week, the first structural steel erected for the future 400,000-square-foot facility.

  10. Annual Power Electric

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Electric Power Annual Update / Revision Data for 2014 updated: February 16, 2016 February 16, 2016 Table update: The following tables are being withheld pending the availability of additional data: Table 8.5. Revenue and Expense Statistics for U.S. Cooperative Borrower-Owned Electric Utilities Table 8.6.A. Noncoincident Peak Load by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area, Actual Table 8.6.B. Noncoincident Peak Load by North American Electric Reliability Corporation

  11. Electric Power Monthly

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Annual Technical Notes This appendix describes how the U.S. Energy Information Administration collects, estimates, and reports electric power data in the Electric Power Annual. Data Quality and Submission The Electric Power Annual (EPA) is prepared by the Office of Electricity, Renewables, and Uranium Statistics (ERUS), U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ERUS performs routine reviews of the data collection respondent frames, survey forms, and reviews

  12. Electric arc saw apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deichelbohrer, P.R.

    1983-08-08

    A portable, hand-held electric arc saw apparatus comprising a small frame for supporting an electrically conducting rotary blade which serves as an electrode for generating an electric arc between the blade and a workpiece of opposite polarity. Electrically conducting means are provided on said frame for transmitting current to said blade. A pair of freely movable endless belts in the form of crawler treads are employed to facilitate movement of the apparatus relative to the workpiece.

  13. Electric Drive Vehicles Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Electric Vehicles & Charging Stations Alleyn Harned Executive Director aharned@vacleancities.org October 19, 2016 Federal Agency Workplace Charging Workshop Clean Cities / 2 Agenda NREL Image Gallery #14922 & #23854  EVSE & PEV Basics  PEV Models  AFDC Station Locator  Policies & Incentives  Readiness Efforts Clean Cities / 3 * Hybrid Electric - Battery assisted - Gasoline engine * Plug-in Electric - Gasoline backup for limited electric range (53 miles) - 10 to 20

  14. Electrical utilities relay settings

    SciTech Connect

    HACHE, J.M.

    1999-02-24

    This document contains the Hanford transmission and distribution system relay settings that are under the control of Electrical Utilities.

  15. Electricity Monthly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    End Use: August 2016 Retail rates/prices and consumption In this section, we look at what electricity costs and how much is purchased. Charges for retail electric service are based primarily on rates approved by state regulators. However, a number of states have allowed retail marketers to compete to serve customers and these competitive retail suppliers offer electricity at a market-based price. EIA does not directly collect retail electricity rates or prices. However, using data collected on

  16. Electricity Monthly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    ‹ See all Electricity Reports Electricity Monthly Update With Data for August 2016 | Release Date: Oct. 25, 2016 | Next Release Date: Nov. 23, 2016 Previous Issues Issue: October 2016 September 2016 August 2016 July 2016 June 2016 May 2016 April 2016 March 2016 February 2016 January 2016 December 2015 November 2015 October 2015 September 2015 Previous issues Electric Power Monthly Flash Estimates Format: html Go Highlights: August 2016 Texas (ERCOT) set new daily peak electricity demand

  17. Electric Power Research Institute

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy Electric Kettle Takes Down Microwave in Final Round of #EnergyFaceoff Electric Kettle Takes Down Microwave in Final Round of #EnergyFaceoff November 24, 2014 - 12:13pm Addthis The electric kettle wins the final round of #EnergyFaceoff. | Graphic by Stacy Buchanan, National Renewable Energy Laboratory The electric kettle wins the final round of #EnergyFaceoff. | Graphic by Stacy Buchanan, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Allison Casey Senior Communicator, NREL How can

  18. Florida's electric industry and solar electric technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Camejo, N.

    1983-12-01

    The Florida Electric Industry is in a process of diversifying its generation technology and its fuel mix. This is being done in an effort to reduce oil consumption, which in 1981 accounted for 46.5% of the electric generation by fuel type. This does not compare well with the rest of the nation where oil use is lower. New coal and nuclear units are coming on line, and probably more will be built in the near future. However, eventhough conservation efforts may delay their construction, new power plants will have to be built to accomodate the growing demand for electricity. Other alternatives being considered are renewable energy resources. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a research project in which 10 electric utilities in Florida and the Florida Electric Power Coordinating Group rated six Solar Electric options. The Solar Electric options considered are: 1) Wind, 2) P.V., 3) Solar thermal-electric, 4) OTEC, 5) Ocean current, and 6) Biomass. The questionaire involved rating the economic and technical feasibility, as well as, the potential environmental impact of these options in Florida. It also involved rating the difficulty in overcoming institutional barriers and assessing the status of each option. A copy of the questionaire is included after the references. The combined capacity of the participating utilities represent over 90% of the total generating capacity in Florida. A list of the participating utilities is also included. This research was done in partial fulfillment for the Mater's of Science Degree in Coastal Zone Management. This paper is complementary to another paper (in these condensed conference proceedings) titled COASTAL ZONE ENERGY MANAGEMENT: A multidisciplinary approach for the integration of Solar Electric Systems with Florida's power generation system, which present a summary of the Master's thesis.

  19. DOE Electricity Advisory Committee

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Electricity Advisory Committee March 2015 1 MEMORANDUM TO: Honorable Patricia Hoffman, Assistant Secretary for Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, U.S. Department of Energy FROM: Electricity Advisory Committee (EAC) Richard Cowart, Chair DATE: March 27, 2015 RE: Recommendations on Smart Grid Research and Development Needs _________________________________________________________________________ Overview The Smart Grid is envisioned to provide the enhancements to ensure higher levels of

  20. Integrating Electricity Subsector

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Integrating Electricity Subsector Failure Scenarios into a Risk Assessment Methodology 3002001181 | DEC 2013 Program Leads Jason D. Christopher Technical Lead, Cyber Security Capabilities & Risk Management Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) Annabelle Lee Senior Technical Executive, Cyber Security Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) For more information on the DOE's cyber security risk management programs, please contact

  1. Enhanced Incluison Removal from Steel in the Tundish

    SciTech Connect

    R.C. Bradt; M.A.R. Sharif

    2009-09-25

    The objective of this project was to develop an effective chemical filtering system for significantly reducing the content of inclusion particles in the steel melts exiting the tundish for continuous casting. This project combined a multi-process approach that aimed to make significant progress towards an "inclusion free" steel by incorporating several interdependent concepts to reduce the content of inclusions in the molten steel exiting the tundish for the caster. The goal is to produce "cleaner" steel.

  2. Enhanced Inclusion Removal from Steel in the Tundish

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. Bradt; M.A.R. Sharif

    2009-09-25

    The objective of this project was to develop an effective chemical filtering system for significantly reducing the content of inclusion particles in the steel melts exiting the tundish for continuous casting. This project combined a multi-process approach that aimed to make significant progress towards an "inclusion free" steel by incorporating several interdependent concepts to reduce the content of inclusions in the molten steel exiting the tundish for the caster. The goal is to produce "cleaner" steel.

  3. Wear-Resistant, Nano-Composite Steel Coatings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Wear-Resistant, Nano-Composite Steel Coatings Laser Processing Techniques Used for the Production of Wear-Resistant Steel Coatings from Iron-Based Glassy Powders Introduction Steel is widely used in a broad range of engineering, mining, and construction applications due to its mechanical properties, availability, and relatively low cost, but is not optimized for wear resistance. Wear of steel components leads to both direct and indirect costs and energy losses, including losses due to plant

  4. Epcot Electric | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Epcot Electric Jump to: navigation, search Name: Epcot Electric Place: Texas Facebook: https:www.facebook.compagesEpcot-Electric108882552477023 References: EIA Form EIA-861...

  5. EWEB- Solar Electric Program (Rebate)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Eugene Water & Electric Board's (EWEB) Solar Electric Program offers financial incentives for residential, nonprofit, and government customers that generate electricity solar photovoltaic...

  6. Lincoln Electric | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Electric Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Lincoln Electric Developer Lincoln Electric Energy Purchaser Lincoln...

  7. Neutron Irradiation Resistance of RAFM Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Gaganidze, Ermile; Dafferner, Bernhard; Aktaa, Jarir

    2008-07-01

    The neutron irradiation resistance of the reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel EUROFER97 and international reference steels (F82H-mod, OPTIFER-Ia, GA3X and MANET-I) have been investigated after irradiation in the Petten High Flux Reactor up to 16.3 dpa at different irradiation temperatures (250-450 deg. C). The embrittlement behavior and hardening are investigated by instrumented Charpy-V tests with sub-size specimens. Neutron irradiation-induced embrittlement and hardening of EUROFER97 was studied under different heat treatment conditions. Embrittlement and hardening of as-delivered EUROFER97 steel are comparable to those of reference steels. Heat treatment of EUROFER97 at a higher austenitizing temperature substantially improves the embrittlement behaviour at low irradiation temperatures. Analysis of embrittlement vs. hardening behavior of RAFM steels within a proper model in terms of the parameter C={delta}DBTT/{delta}{sigma} indicates hardening-dominated embrittlement at irradiation temperatures below 350 deg. C with 0.17 {<=} C {<=} 0.53 deg. C/MPa. Scattering of C at irradiation temperatures above 400 deg. C indicates non hardening embrittlement. A role of He in a process of embrittlement is investigated in EUROFER97 based steels, that are doped with different contents of natural B and the separated {sup 10}B-isotope (0.008-0.112 wt.%). Testing on small scale fracture mechanical specimens for determination of quasi-static fracture toughness will be also presented in a view of future irradiation campaigns. (authors)

  8. Optical emission from a small scale model electric arc furnace in 250-600 nm region

    SciTech Connect

    Maekinen, A.; Tikkala, H.; Aksela, H.; Niskanen, J.

    2013-04-15

    Optical emission spectroscopy has been for long proposed for monitoring and studying industrial steel making processes. Whereas the radiative decay of thermal excitations is always taking place in high temperatures needed in steel production, one of the most promising environment for such studies are electric arc furnaces, creating plasma in excited electronic states that relax with intense characteristic emission in the optical regime. Unfortunately, large industrial scale electric arc furnaces also present a challenging environment for optical emission studies and application of the method is not straightforward. To study the usability of optical emission spectroscopy in real electric arc furnaces, we have developed a laboratory scale DC electric arc furnace presented in this paper. With the setup, optical emission spectra of Fe, Cr, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ni, SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaO, and MgO were recorded in the wavelength range 250-600 nm and the results were analyzed with the help of reference data. The work demonstrates that using characteristic optical emission, obtaining in situ chemical information from oscillating plasma of electric arc furnaces is indeed possible. In spite of complications, the method could possibly be applied to industrial scale steel making process in order to improve its efficiency.

  9. Modern steels at atomic and nanometre scales

    SciTech Connect

    Caballero, F. G.; Garcia-Mateo, C.; Miller, M. K.

    2014-10-10

    Processing bulk nanocrystalline materials for structural applications still poses a difficult challenge, particularly in achieving an industrially viable process. Recent work in ferritic steels has proved that it is possible to move from ultrafine to nanoscale by exploiting the bainite reaction without the use of severe deformation, rapid heat treatment or mechanical processing. This new generation of steels has been designed in which transformation at low temperature leads to a nanoscale structure consisting of extremely fine, 20–40 nm thick plates of bainitic ferrite and films of retained austenite. Finally, a description of the characteristics and significance of this remarkable microstructure is provided here.

  10. Modern steels at atomic and nanometre scales

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Caballero, F. G.; Garcia-Mateo, C.; Miller, M. K.

    2014-10-10

    Processing bulk nanocrystalline materials for structural applications still poses a difficult challenge, particularly in achieving an industrially viable process. Recent work in ferritic steels has proved that it is possible to move from ultrafine to nanoscale by exploiting the bainite reaction without the use of severe deformation, rapid heat treatment or mechanical processing. This new generation of steels has been designed in which transformation at low temperature leads to a nanoscale structure consisting of extremely fine, 20–40 nm thick plates of bainitic ferrite and films of retained austenite. Finally, a description of the characteristics and significance of this remarkable microstructuremore » is provided here.« less

  11. Stainless Steel Microstructure and Mechanical Properties Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Switzner, Nathan T

    2010-06-01

    A nitrogen strengthened 21-6-9 stainless steel plate was spinformed into hemispherical test shapes. A battery of laboratory tests was used to characterize the hemispheres. The laboratory tests show that near the pole (axis) of a spinformed hemisphere the yield strength is the lowest because this area endures the least “cold-work” strengthening, i.e., the least deformation. The characterization indicated that stress-relief annealing spinformed stainless steel hemispheres does not degrade mechanical properties. Stress-relief annealing reduces residual stresses while maintaining relatively high mechanical properties. Full annealing completely eliminates residual stresses, but reduces yield strength by about 30%.

  12. Helium damage in austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.; Mezzanotte, D.A. Jr.; Rawl, D.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Helium produced by tritium decay was first shown to embrittle austenitic stainless steel at ambient temperature in tensile specimens of Nitronic-40 steel (Armco, Inc.). A long-term study was initiated to study this form of helium damage in five austenitic alloys. Results from this study have been analyzed by the J-integral technique and show a decrease in ductile fracture toughness with increasing He-3 concentration. Sustained-load cracking tests indicate that the stress intensity required to initiate and propagate a crack also decreases with increasing He-3 concentration. 9 figures, 3 tables.

  13. INTEGRATED ELECTRIC DRIVE WITH HV2 MODULAR ELECTRIC MACHINE AND...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ELECTRIC DRIVE WITH HV2 MODULAR ELECTRIC MACHINE AND SIC BASED POWER CONVERTERS INTEGRATED ELECTRIC DRIVE WITH HV2 MODULAR ELECTRIC MACHINE AND SIC BASED POWER CONVERTERS The Ohio ...

  14. Corrosion fatigue crack growth in clad low-alloy steels. Part 1: Medium sulfur forging steel

    SciTech Connect

    James, L.A.; Poskie, T.J.; Auten, T.A.; Cullen, W.H.

    1997-08-01

    Corrosion fatigue crack propagation tests were conducted on a medium-sulfur ASTM A508-2 forging steel overlaid with weld-deposited alloy EN82H cladding. The specimens featured semi-elliptical surface cracks penetrating approximately 6.3 mm of cladding into the underlying steel. The initial crack sizes were relatively large with surface lengths of 30.3--38.3 mm, and depths of 13.1--16.8 mm. The experiments were conducted in a quasi-stagnant low-oxygen (O{sub 2} < 10 ppb) aqueous environment at 243 C, under loading conditions ({Delta}K, R, and cyclic frequency) conducive to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in higher-sulfur steels under quasi-stagnant conditions. Earlier experiments on unclad compact tension specimens of this heat of steel did not exhibit EAC, and the present experiments on semi-elliptical surface cracks penetrating cladding also did not exhibit EAC.

  15. ITP Steel: Energy and Environmental Profile fo the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's Office of Industrial Technologes has formed a partnership with the U.S. iron and steel industry to accelerate development of technologies and processes that will improve the industry's production and energy efficiency and environmental performance.

  16. Level 1 Electric Vehicle Charging

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    3 Scenario A: Making a Level 1 Electrical Outlet Available ......Costs for Scenario A (Making an Electrical Outlet Available) ......

  17. Electricity 101 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Resources » Electricity 101 Electricity 101 FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS Why do other countries use different shaped plugs? Why do outlets have three holes? Why do we have AC electricity? Can we harness lightning as an energy source? Can we have wireless transmission of electricity? SYSTEM What is electricity? Where does electricity come from? What is the "grid"? How much electricity does a typical household use? How did the electric system evolve? What does the future look like? Who

  18. Small Solar Electric Systems | Department of Energy

    Energy Saver

    Electricity & Fuel Buying & Making Electricity Small Solar Electric Systems Small Solar Electric Systems A small solar electric or photovoltaic system can be a reliable and ...

  19. Weldment for austenitic stainless steel and method

    DOEpatents

    Bagnall, Christopher; McBride, Marvin A.

    1985-01-01

    For making defect-free welds for joining two austenitic stainless steel mers, using gas tungsten-arc welding, a thin foil-like iron member is placed between the two steel members to be joined, prior to making the weld, with the foil-like iron member having a higher melting point than the stainless steel members. When the weld is formed, there results a weld nugget comprising melted and then solidified portions of the joined members with small portions of the foil-like iron member projecting into the solidified weld nugget. The portions of the weld nugget proximate the small portions of the foil-like iron member which project into the weld nugget are relatively rich in iron. This causes these iron-rich nugget portions to display substantial delta ferrite during solidification of the weld nugget which eliminates weld defects which could otherwise occur. This is especially useful for joining austenitic steel members which, when just below the solidus temperature, include at most only a very minor proportion of delta ferrite.

  20. The effect of iron dilution on strength of nickel/steel and Monel/steel welds

    SciTech Connect

    Fout, S.L.; Wamsley, S.D.

    1983-03-28

    The weld strength, as a function of iron content, for nickel/steel and Monel/steel welds was determined. Samples were prepared using a Gas Metal Arc (GMAW) automatic process to weld steel plate together with nickel or Monel to produce a range of iron contents typical of weld compositions. Tensile specimens of each iron content were tested to obtain strength and ductility measurements for that weld composition. Data indicate that at iron contents of less than 20% iron in a nickel/steel weld, the weld fails at the weld interface, due to a lack of fusion. Between 20% and 35% iron, the highest iron dilution that could be achieved in a nickel weld, the welds were stronger than the steel base metal. This indicates that a minimum amount of iron dilution (20%) is necessary for good fusion and optimum strength. On the other hand for Monel/steel welds, test results showed that the welds had good strength and integrity between 10% and 27% iron in the weld. Above 35% iron, the welds have less strength and are more brittle. The 35% iron content also corresponds to the iron dilution in Monel welds that has been shown to produce an increase in corrosion rate. This indicates that the iron dilution in Monel welds should be kept below 35% iron to maximize both the strength and corrosion resistance. 2 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Crack stability analysis of low alloy steel primary coolant pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.; Kameyama, M.; Urabe, Y.

    1997-04-01

    At present, cast duplex stainless steel has been used for the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan and joints of dissimilar material have been applied for welding to reactor vessels and steam generators. For the primary coolant piping of the next APWR plants, application of low alloy steel that results in designing main loops with the same material is being studied. It means that there is no need to weld low alloy steel with stainless steel and that makes it possible to reduce the welding length. Attenuation of Ultra Sonic Wave Intensity is lower for low alloy steel than for stainless steel and they have advantageous inspection characteristics. In addition to that, the thermal expansion rate is smaller for low alloy steel than for stainless steel. In consideration of the above features of low alloy steel, the overall reliability of primary coolant piping is expected to be improved. Therefore, for the evaluation of crack stability of low alloy steel piping to be applied for primary loops, elastic-plastic future mechanics analysis was performed by means of a three-dimensioned FEM. The evaluation results for the low alloy steel pipings show that cracks will not grow into unstable fractures under maximum design load conditions, even when such a circumferential crack is assumed to be 6 times the size of the wall thickness.

  2. Clean cast steel technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, C.E.; Griffin, J.A.

    1998-06-01

    This report documents the results obtained from the Clean Cast Steel Technology Program financially supported by the DOE Metal Casting Competitiveness Research Program and industry. The primary objective of this program is to develop technology for delivering steel free of oxide macroinclusions to mold cavities. The overall objective is to improve the quality of cast steel by developing and demonstrating the technology for substantially reducing surface and sub-surface oxide inclusions. Two approaches are discussed here. A total of 23 castings were produced by submerge pouring along with sixty conventionally poured castings. The submerged poured castings contained, on average, 96% fewer observable surface inclusions (11.9 vs 0.4) compared to the conventionally poured cast parts. The variation in the population of surface inclusions also decreased by 88% from 5.5 to 0.7. The machinability of the casting was also improved by submerged pouring. The submerge poured castings required fewer cutting tool changes and less operator intervention during machining. Subsequent to these trials, the foundry has decided to purchase more shrouds for continued experimentation on other problem castings where submerge pouring is possible. An examination of melting and pouring practices in four foundries has been carried out. Three of the four foundries showed significant improvement in casting quality by manipulating the melting practice. These melting practice variables can be grouped into two separate categories. The first category is the pouring and filling practice. The second category concerns the concentration of oxidizable elements contained in the steel. Silicon, manganese, and aluminum concentrations were important factors in all four foundries. Clean heats can consistently be produced through improved melting practice and reducing exposure of the steel to atmospheric oxygen during pouring and filling.

  3. Electrical system architecture

    DOEpatents

    Algrain, Marcelo C.; Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Hoff, Brian D.

    2008-07-15

    An electrical system for a vehicle includes a first power source generating a first voltage level, the first power source being in electrical communication with a first bus. A second power source generates a second voltage level greater than the first voltage level, the second power source being in electrical communication with a second bus. A starter generator may be configured to provide power to at least one of the first bus and the second bus, and at least one additional power source may be configured to provide power to at least one of the first bus and the second bus. The electrical system also includes at least one power consumer in electrical communication with the first bus and at least one power consumer in electrical communication with the second bus.

  4. Integrated electrical connector

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Ackler, Harold D.

    2005-05-24

    An electrical connector is formed from a sheet of electrically conductive material that lies in between the two layers of nonconducting material that comprise the casing of an electrical chip. The connector is electrically connected to an electrical element embedded within the chip. An opening in the sheet is concentrically aligned with a pair of larger holes respectively bored through the nonconducting layers. The opening is also smaller than the diameter of an electrically conductive contact pin. However, the sheet is composed flexible material so that the opening adapts to the diameter of the pin when the pin is inserted therethrough. The periphery of the opening applies force to the sides of the pin when the pin is inserted, and thus holds the pin within the opening and in contact with the sheet, by friction. The pin can be withdrawn from the connector by applying sufficient axial force.

  5. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-11-16

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator includes an intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator. The heat engine includes an electrically conductive liquid metal as the working fluid and includes two heat exchange and thermoacoustic structure assemblies which drive the liquid in a push-pull arrangement to cause the liquid metal to oscillate at a resonant acoustic frequency on the order of 1000 Hz. The engine is positioned in the field of a magnet and is oriented such that the liquid metal oscillates in a direction orthogonal to the field of the magnet, whereby an alternating electrical potential is generated in the liquid metal. Low-loss, low-inductance electrical conductors electrically connected to opposite sides of the liquid metal conduct an output signal to a transformer adapted to convert the low-voltage, high-current output signal to a more usable higher voltage, lower current signal.

  6. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1986-01-01

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator includes an intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator. The heat engine includes an electrically conductive liquid metal as the working fluid and includes two heat exchange and thermoacoustic structure assemblies which drive the liquid in a push-pull arrangement to cause the liquid metal to oscillate at a resonant acoustic frequency on the order of 1,000 Hz. The engine is positioned in the field of a magnet and is oriented such that the liquid metal oscillates in a direction orthogonal to the field of the magnet, whereby an alternating electrical potential is generated in the liquid metal. Low-loss, low-inductance electrical conductors electrically connected to opposite sides of the liquid metal conduct an output signal to a transformer adapted to convert the low-voltage, high-current output signal to a more usable higher voltage, lower current signal.

  7. Electric power monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  8. Electric Power Monthly

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2015 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Electric Power Monthly Appendix C Technical notes This appendix describes how the U. S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) collects, estimates, and reports electric power data in the EPM. Data quality The EPM is prepared by the Office of Electricity, Renewables & Uranium Statistics (ERUS), Energy Information Administration (EIA), U. S. Department of Energy. Quality statistics begin with the collection of the correct data. To assure this,

  9. Electricity Restructuring by State

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Restructuring Status Status of Electricity Restructuring by State Data as of: September 2010 Next Release Date: None The map below shows information on the electric industry restructuring. Click on a State for details. Restructuring means that a monopoly system of electric utilities has been replaced with competing sellers. Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe Flash player d Source: Energy Information Administration

  10. Renewable Electricity Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by Midwest Research Institute * Battelle Renewable Electricity Overview Bobi Garrett Associate Director, Renewable Electricity Science & Technology 12 August 2008 State Energy Advisory Board 2 National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Transforming Our Electricity System Create Smart Grid Two-Way Power Flow Higher Capacity High Reliability/Self Healing

  11. Electric Power Monthly

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Administration (EIA) Energy Infrastructure and Resources of North America Full Screen Locate North America Static Maps Border Crossings of Electric Transmission Lines PDF Border Crossings of Natural Gas Pipelines PDF Border Crossings of Liquids Pipelines PDF Natural Gas Processing Plants PDF Liquefied Natural Gas Import and Export Terminals PDF Refineries and Upgraders PDF Electric Power Plants PDF Renewable Electric Power Plants PDF Solar Resources, NSRDB PSM Global Horizontal Irradiance

  12. Electric Power Monthly

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Electric Power Monthly > Electric Power Monthly Back Issues Electric Power Monthly Back Issues Monthly Excel files zipped 2010 January February March April May June July August September October November December 2009 January February March April May June July August September October November December 2008 January February March March Supplement April May June July August September October November December 2007 January February March April May June July August September October November

  13. Office of Electricity Delivery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    4 DOE Resilient Electric Distribution Grid R&D Workshop June 11, 2014 Upton, New York 2014 DOE Resilient Electric Distribution Grid R&D Workshop Report Page i June 24, 2014 Acknowledgment The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) acknowledges the support provided by the organizations represented at the Resilient Electric Distribution Grid R&D Workshop. The report content is based on the workshop session discussions, with session summary descriptions taken from the report-out presentations

  14. Electricity Monthly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Contact Information and Staff The Electricity Monthly Update is prepared by the Electric Power Operations Team, Office of Electricity, Renewables and Uranium Statistics, U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy. Editorial Lead: Chris Cassar (christopher.cassar@eia.gov) Senior Adviser: Bill Booth Core Team: Paul McCardle, Glenn McGrath, Stephen Scott, Tim Shear, April Lee

  15. Electric Storage Water Heaters

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  16. Department of Energy - Electricity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    opportunities and challenges that lie ahead. Secretary Moniz headed down to Florida to talk about Grid Modernization. Learn more about our nation's electric grid in this fact...

  17. Electricity Monthly Update

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Electricity Monthly Update Explained Highlights The Highlights page features in the center a short article about a major event or an informative topic. The left column contains...

  18. Electric power annual 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-06

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric utility statistics at national, regional and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. ``The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance`` section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; retail sales; revenue; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms.

  19. 2015 Electricity Form Proposals

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Quarterly Electricity Imports and Exports Report (EIA-111) OMB Clearance Renewal in 2015 ... Report (EIA-111) survey on August 26, 2015. The initial proposals were announced to ...

  20. Electrical Circuit Tester

    DOEpatents

    Love, Frank

    2006-04-18

    An electrical circuit testing device is provided, comprising a case, a digital voltage level testing circuit with a display means, a switch to initiate measurement using the device, a non-shorting switching means for selecting pre-determined electrical wiring configurations to be tested in an outlet, a terminal block, a five-pole electrical plug mounted on the case surface and a set of adapters that can be used for various multiple-pronged electrical outlet configurations for voltages from 100 600 VAC from 50 100 Hz.

  1. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  2. Electrical Utility Materials Handler

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Join the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a challenging and rewarding career, while working, living, and playing in the Pacific Northwest. The Electrical Utility Material Handler (EUMH)...

  3. Electricity Monthly Update

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    costs, of which fuel costs account for the lion's share. Therefore, we present below, electricity generation output by fuel type and generator type. Since the generatorfuel...

  4. Electric Utility Industry Update

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the April 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—covers significant electric industry trends and industry priorities with federal customers.

  5. Perforation patterned electrical interconnects

    DOEpatents

    Frey, Jonathan

    2014-01-28

    This disclosure describes systems and methods for increasing the usable surface area of electrical contacts within a device, such as a thin film solid state device, through the implementation of electrically conductive interconnects. Embodiments described herein include the use of a plurality of electrically conductive interconnects that penetrate through a top contact layer, through one or more multiple layers, and into a bottom contact layer. The plurality of conductive interconnects may form horizontal and vertical cross-sectional patterns. The use of lasers to form the plurality of electrically conductive interconnects from reflowed layer material further aids in the manufacturing process of a device.

  6. " Electricity Generation by Employment...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Total Consumption of Offsite-Produced Energy for Heat, Power, and" " Electricity Generation by Employment Size Categories, Industry Group," " and Selected Industries, 1994" " ...

  7. Electricity Monthly Update

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Regional Wholesale Markets: May 2015 The United States has many regional wholesale electricity markets. Below we look at monthly and annual ranges of on-peak, daily wholesale...

  8. Electricity Monthly Update

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Wholesale Markets: August 2015 The United States has many regional wholesale electricity markets. Below we look at monthly and annual ranges of on-peak, daily wholesale...

  9. Electricity Monthly Update

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    and fuel consumption In this section, we look at the resources used to produce electricity. Generating units are chosen to run primarily on their operating costs, of which...

  10. Electricity Monthly Update

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), and two locations in the California ISO (CAISO). Also shown are wholesale prices at trading hubs in Louisiana (into Entergy),...

  11. Electricity Monthly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook

    New York ISO (NYISO), PJM Interconnection (PJM), Midwest ISO (MISO), Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), and two locations in the California ISO (CAISO). Also...

  12. Electricity Generation, Transmission ...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Generation, Transmission and Energy Storage Systems Utilities and other electricity and transmission providers and regulators often require that equipment be proven safe and ...

  13. Renewable Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-01

    This document highlights DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's advancements in renewable electricity generation technologies including solar, water, wind, and geothermal.

  14. Electricity Advisory Committee

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Paula Carmody Maryland People's Council Paul Centolella Centolella and Associates LLC Carlos Coe Millennium Energy Phyllis Currie Pasadena Water and Power Clark Gellings Electric ...

  15. Electricity Monthly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Wholesale Markets: February 2014 The United States has many regional wholesale electricity markets. Below we look at monthly and annual ranges of on-peak, daily wholesale...

  16. Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    in Procurement of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment This Guidance provides a description of the types of requirements to be included in an employer's workplace charging request for ...

  17. 2012 National Electricity Forum

    Energy Saver

    and Planning, Arizona Public Service * Jan Strack, Grid Planning, Regulatory & Economics Manager, San Diego Gas & Electric * Mario Villar, Vice President, Transmission, NV ...

  18. Electricity Advisory Committee

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Indians Robert Gramlich American Wind Energy Association The Honorable Dian Grueneich California Public Utilities Commission Michael Heyeck American Electric Power Hunter Hunt ...

  19. 2013 Electricity Form Proposals

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Form EIA-861, "Annual Electric Power Industry Report" The EIA-861 survey has historically collected retail sales, revenue, and a variety of information related to demand response ...

  20. Electricity | Department of Energy

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Under OE's Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) program, six utilities evaluated operations and customer charging behaviors for in-home and public electric vehicle charging stations. ...

  1. Estimating the Value of Electricity Storage Resources in Electricity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Markets - EAC 2011 | Department of Energy Estimating the Value of Electricity Storage Resources in Electricity Markets - EAC 2011 Estimating the Value of Electricity Storage Resources in Electricity Markets - EAC 2011 The purpose of this report is to assist the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 1) establishing a framework for understanding the role electricity storage resources (storage) can play in wholesale and retail electricity markets, 2) assessing the value of electricity storage in a

  2. Clean Steel: Advancing the State of the Art (TRP 0003)

    SciTech Connect

    Sridhar Seetharaman; Alan W. Cramb

    2004-05-19

    This project had 3 objectives: (1) to determine the kinetic factors governing inclusion removal from liquid steels at a slag metal interface; (2) to develop a methodology to enable steels of less than 1 ppm total oxygen to be produced with an average inclusion diameter of less than 5 {micro}m; and, (3) to determine the slag-metal interface conditions necessary for ultra clean steels. In objectives 1, and 3, the major finding was that dissolution rates of solid particles in slags were found to be significant in both ladle and tundish slags and must be included in a model to predict steel cleanliness. The work towards objective 2 indicated that liquid steel temperature was a very significant factor in our understanding of clean steel potential and that undercooled steels equilibrated with low oxygen potential inert gases have the potential to be significantly cleaner than current steels. Other work indicated that solidification front velocity could be used to push particles to produce clean steels and that reoxidation must be severely curtailed to allow the potential for clean steels to be realized.

  3. Characteristics of steel slag under different cooling conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Tossavainen, M.; Engstrom, F. Yang, Q.; Menad, N.; Lidstrom Larsson, M.; Bjorkman, B.

    2007-07-01

    Four types of steel slags, a ladle slag, a BOF (basic oxygen furnace) slag and two different EAF (electric arc furnace) slags, were characterized and modified by semi-rapid cooling in crucibles and rapid cooling by water granulation. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of different cooling conditions on the properties of glassy slags with respect to their leaching and volume stability. Optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and a standard test leaching (prEN 12457-2/3) have been used for the investigation. The results show that the disintegrated ladle slag was made volume stable by water granulation, which consisted of 98% glass. However EAF slag 1, EAF slag 2 and the BOF slag formed 17%, 1% and 1% glass, respectively. The leaching test showed that the glass-containing matrix did not prevent leaching of minor elements from the modified slags. The solubility of chromium, molybdenum and vanadium varied in the different modifications, probably due to their presence in different minerals and their different distributions.

  4. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a webinar given by the California Energy Commission.

  5. Next Generation Electric Machines

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    AMO’s Next Generation Electric Machines (NGEM) program is an RD&D effort leveraging recent technology advancements in power electronics and electric motors to develop a new generation of energy efficient, high power density, high speed, integrated MV drive systems for a wide variety of critical energy applications.

  6. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M.; Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in an Union of Concerned Scientists webinar on June 12, 2012.

  7. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. This presentation was presented in a Wind Powering America webinar on August 15, 2012 and is now available through the Wind Powering America website.

  8. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a Power Systems Engineering Research Center webinar on September 4, 2012.

  9. Electrical Circuit Simulation Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    2001-08-09

    Massively-Parallel Electrical Circuit Simulation Code. CHILESPICE is a massively-arallel distributed-memory electrical circuit simulation tool that contains many enhanced radiation, time-based, and thermal features and models. Large scale electronic circuit simulation. Shared memory, parallel processing, enhance convergence. Sandia specific device models.

  10. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It is being presented at the Utility Variable-Generation Integration Group Fall Technical Workshop on October 24, 2012.

  11. Hawaii electric system reliability.

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William

    2012-09-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  12. Electrically conductive diamond electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Swain, Greg; Fischer, Anne ,; Bennett, Jason; Lowe, Michael

    2009-05-19

    An electrically conductive diamond electrode and process for preparation thereof is described. The electrode comprises diamond particles coated with electrically conductive doped diamond preferably by chemical vapor deposition which are held together with a binder. The electrodes are useful for oxidation reduction in gas, such as hydrogen generation by electrolysis.

  13. Energy 101: Electric Vehicles

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This edition of Energy 101 highlights the benefits of electric vehicles, including improved fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and lower maintenance costs. For more information on electric vehicles from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, visit the Vehicle Technologies Program website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/

  14. Novel Direct Steelmaking by Combining Microwave, Electric Arc, and Exothermal Heating Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Xiaodi Huang; Dr. J. Y. Hwang

    2005-03-28

    Steel is a basic material broadly used by perhaps every industry and individual. It is critical to our nation's economy and national security. Unfortunately, the American steel industry is losing competitiveness in the world steel production field. There is an urgent need to develop the next generation of steelmaking technology for the American steel industry. Direct steelmaking through the combination of microwave, electric arc, and exothermal heating is a revolutionary change from current steelmaking technology. This technology can produce molten steel directly from a shippable agglomerate, consisting of iron oxide fines, powdered coal, and ground limestone. This technology is projected to eliminate many current intermediate steelmaking steps including coking, pellet sintering, blast furnace (BF) ironmaking, and basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking. This technology has the potential to (a) save up to 45% of the energy consumed by conventional steelmaking; (b) dramatically reduce the emission of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, VOCs, fine particulates, and air toxics; (c) substantially reduce waste and emission control costs; (d) greatly lower capital cost; and (e) considerably reduce steel production costs. This technology is based on the unique capability of microwaves to rapidly heat steelmaking raw materials to elevated temperature, then rapidly reduce iron oxides to metal by volumetric heating. Microwave heating, augmented with electric arc and exothermal reactions, is capable of producing molten steel. This technology has the components necessary to establish the ''future'' domestic steel industry as a technology leader with a strong economically competitive position in world markets. The project goals were to assess the utilization of a new steelmaking technology for its potential to achieve better overall energy efficiency, minimize pollutants and wastes, lower capital and operating costs, and increase the competitiveness of the U.S. steel industry. The

  15. Electric power monthly

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  16. Unbundling electricity: Ancillary services

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; Hirst, E.

    1996-06-01

    The US electricity industry, dominated by vertically integrated, retail-monopoly, regulated utilities, is undergoing enormous changes. The industry, within the next few years, will evolve into a deintegrated, competitive-market dominated, less regulated industry. Part of this process involves unbundling electric generation from transmission, which raises the issue of ancillary services. Since the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) published its March 1995 proposed rule on open-access transmission, ancillary services have been an important topic. Ancillary services are those functions performed by the equipment and people that generate, control, transmit, and distribute electricity to support the basic services of generating capacity, energy supply, and power delivery. These services cost US electricity consumers about $12 billion a year. This article examines the functions performed by the equipment and people that generate, control, transmit, and distribute electricity to support the basic services of generating capacity, energy supply, and power delivery.

  17. Electric turbocompound control system

    DOEpatents

    Algrain, Marcelo C.

    2007-02-13

    Turbocompound systems can be used to affect engine operation using the energy in exhaust gas that is driving the available turbocharger. A first electrical device acts as a generator in response to turbocharger rotation. A second electrical device acts as a motor to put mechanical power into the engine, typically at the crankshaft. Apparatus, systems, steps, and methods are described to control the generator and motor operations to control the amount of power being recovered. This can control engine operation closer to desirable parameters for given engine-related operating conditions compared to actual. The electrical devices can also operate in "reverse," going between motor and generator functions. This permits the electrical device associated with the crankshaft to drive the electrical device associated with the turbocharger as a motor, overcoming deficient engine operating conditions such as associated with turbocharger lag.

  18. Steel Creek fish, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Sayers, R.E. Jr.; Mealing, H.G. III

    1992-04-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal plain in west-central South Carolina. The Savannah River forms the western boundary of the site. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. All but Upper Three Runs Creek receive, or in the past received, thermal effluents from nuclear production reactors. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor, and protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The lake has an average width of approximately 600 m and extends along the Steel Creek valley approximately 7000 m from the dam to the headwaters. Water level is maintained at a normal pool elevation of 58 m above mean sea level by overflow into a vertical intake tower that has multilevel discharge gates. The intake tower is connected to a horizontal conduit that passes through the dam and releases water into Steel Creek. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and complements the Biological Monitoring Program for L Lake. This extensive program was implemented to address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems.

  19. Austenitic stainless steel and drill collar

    SciTech Connect

    Cordea, J. N.; Jasper, J. C.; Sheth, H. V.

    1985-03-05

    A non-magnetic austenitic stainless steel, and a drill collar fabricated therefrom solely by hot forging, the steel having a 0.2% yield strength of at least 85 ksi in the hot worked condition, high stress corrosion cracking resistance, good ductility, and low magnetic permeability even if cold worked, and consisting essentially of, in weight percent, from 0.12% to 0.20% carbon, 11% to 14% manganese, about 16% to about 19% chromium, 1.5% to 2.7% nickel, 0.30% to 0.45% nitrogen, 0.5% to 1.0% copper, about 0.75% maximum molybdenum, about 0.80% maximum silicon, about 0.04% maximum phosphorus, about 0.025% maximum sulfur, and balance essentially iron, with the carbon:nitrogen ratio not greater than 0.6:1.

  20. Mechanical Properties of Structural Steels in Hydrogen

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Mechanical Properties of Structural Steels in Hydrogen B.P. Somerday, K.A. Nibur, C. San Marchi, and M. Yip Sandia National Laboratories Livermore, CA DOE Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Meeting Aiken, SC September 25-26, 2007 H H H dδ/dt ≥ 0 H 2 H 2 Methods for measuring mechanical properties of structural steels in hydrogen dδ/dt > 0 dδ/dt > 0 strength of materials: σ UTS , σ YS , ε f , RA H 2 H H H H 2 H H 2 H H 2 H H H 2 H H 2 fracture mechanics: K IH , K TH H H H H H H H H H H

  1. Phase Transformation in Cast Superaustenitic Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Nathaniel Steven Lee Phillips

    2006-12-12

    Superaustenitic stainless steels constitute a group of Fe-based alloys that are compositionally balanced to have a purely austenitic matrix and exhibit favorable pitting and crevice corrosion resistant properties and mechanical strength. However, intermetallic precipitates such as sigma and Laves can form during casting or exposure to high-temperature processing, which degrade the corrosion and mechanical properties of the material. The goal of this study was to accurately characterize the solid-solid phase transformations seen in cast superaustenitic stainless steels. Heat treatments were performed to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formations in alloys CN3MN and CK3MCuN. Microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, WDS). The equilibrium microstructures, composed primarily of sigma and Laves within purely austenitic matrices, showed slow transformation kinetics. Factors that determine the extent of transformation, including diffusion, nucleation, and growth, are discussed.

  2. Welding high-molybdenum superaustenitic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, T.; Koseki, T.

    1996-02-01

    A high-molybdenum, nitrogen-enriched, nickel-based filler metal was developed for welding superaustenitic stainless steels. The beneficial effects of high Ni content and nitrogen addition in reducing the solute microsegregation and the precipitation of intermetallic phases were used to design the filler alloy. The weld had a precipitate-free, fully austenitic microstructure and exhibited excellent mechanical properties, and reduced hot-cracking susceptibility and high-chloride pitting-corrosion resistance.

  3. Pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel

    DOEpatents

    van Rooyen, D.; Bandy, R.

    A pitting corrosion resistant austenite stainless steel comprises 17 to 28 wt. % chromium, 15 to 26 wt. % nickel, 5 to 8 wt. % molybdenum, and 0.3 to 0.5 wt. % nitrogen, the balance being iron, unavoidable impurities, minor additions made in the normal course of melting and casting alloys of this type, and may optionally include up to 10 wt. % of manganese, up to 5 wt. % of silicon, and up to 0.08 wt. % of carbon.

  4. Integrating Steel Production with Mineral Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Klaus Lackner; Paul Doby; Tuncel Yegulalp; Samuel Krevor; Christopher Graves

    2008-05-01

    The objectives of the project were (i) to develop a combination iron oxide production and carbon sequestration plant that will use serpentine ores as the source of iron and the extraction tailings as the storage element for CO2 disposal, (ii) the identification of locations within the US where this process may be implemented and (iii) to create a standardized process to characterize the serpentine deposits in terms of carbon disposal capacity and iron and steel production capacity. The first objective was not accomplished. The research failed to identify a technique to accelerate direct aqueous mineral carbonation, the limiting step in the integration of steel production and carbon sequestration. Objective (ii) was accomplished. It was found that the sequestration potential of the ultramafic resource surfaces in the US and Puerto Rico is approximately 4,647 Gt of CO2 or over 500 years of current US production of CO2. Lastly, a computer model was developed to investigate the impact of various system parameters (recoveries and efficiencies and capacities of different system components) and serpentinite quality as well as incorporation of CO2 from sources outside the steel industry.

  5. Fillability of Thin-Wall Steel Castings

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Voigt; Joseph Bertoletti; Andrew Kaley; Sandi Ricotta; Travis Sunday

    2002-07-30

    The use of steel components is being challenged by lighter nonferrous or cast iron components. The development of techniques for enhancing and ensuring the filability of thin-wall mold cavities is most critical for thinner wall cast steel production. The purpose of this research was to develop thin-wall casting techniques that can be used to reliably produce thin-wall castings from traditional gravity poured sand casting processes. The focus of the research was to enhance the filling behavior to prevent misrunds. Experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of various foundry variables on the filling of thin section steel castings. These variables include casting design, heat transfer, gating design, and metal fluidity. Wall thickness and pouring temperature have the greatest effect on casting fill. As wall thickness increases the volume to surface area of the casting increases, which increases the solidification time, allowing the metal to flow further in thicker sect ions. Pouring time is another significant variable affecting casting fill. Increases or decreases of 20% in the pouring time were found to have a significant effect on the filling of thin-wall production castings. Gating variables, including venting, pouring head height, and mold tilting also significantly affected thin-wall casting fill. Filters offer less turbulent, steadier flow, which is appropriate for thicker castings, but they do not enhance thin-wall casting fill.

  6. Heat Treatment Procedure Qualification for Steel Castings

    SciTech Connect

    Mariol Charles; Nicholas Deskevich; Vipin Varkey; Robert Voigt; Angela Wollenburg

    2004-04-29

    Heat treatment practices used by steel foundries have been carefully studied as part of comprehensive heat treatment procedure qualification development trials. These studies highlight the relationships between critical heat treatment process control parameters and heat treatment success. Foundry heat treatment trials to develop heat treatment procedure qualifications have shed light on the relationship between heat treatment theory and current practices. Furnace load time-temperature profiles in steel foundries exhibit significant differences depending on heat treatment equipment, furnace loading practice, and furnace maintenance. Time-temperature profiles of furnace control thermocouples can be very different from the time-temperature profiles observed at the center of casting loads in the furnace. Typical austenitization temperatures and holding times used by steel foundries far exceed what is required for transformation to austenite. Quenching and hardenability concepts were also investigated. Heat treatment procedure qualification (HTPQ) schema to demonstrate heat treatment success and to pre-qualify other alloys and section sizes requiring lesser hardenability have been developed. Tempering success is dependent on both tempering time and temperature. As such, furnace temperature uniformity and control of furnace loading during tempering is critical to obtain the desired mechanical properties. The ramp-up time in the furnace prior to the establishment of steady state heat treatment conditions contributes to the extent of heat treatment performed. This influence of ramp-up to temperature during tempering has been quantified.

  7. Cast Stainless Steel Ferrite and Grain Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Ruud, Clayton O.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Meyer, Ryan M.; Mathews, Royce; Diaz, Aaron A.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2012-09-01

    In-service inspection requirements dictate that piping welds in the primary pressure boundary of light-water reactors be subject to a volumetric examination based on the rules contained within the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI. The purpose of the inspection is the reliable detection and accurate sizing of service-induced degradation and/or material flaws introduced during fabrication. The volumetric inspection is usually carried out using ultrasonic testing (UT) methods. However, the varied metallurgical macrostructures and microstructures of cast austenitic stainless steel piping and fittings, including statically cast stainless steel and centrifugally cast stainless steel (CCSS), introduce significant variations in the propagation and attenuation of ultrasonic energy. These variations complicate interpretation of the UT responses and may compromise the reliability of UT inspection. A review of the literature indicated that a correlation may exist between the microstructure and the delta ferrite content of the casting alloy. This paper discusses the results of a recent study where the goal was to determine if a correlation existed between measured and/or calculated ferrite content and grain structure in CCSS pipe.

  8. Largest Producer of Steel Products in the United States Achieves

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Significant Energy Savings at its Minntac Plant | Department of Energy Largest Producer of Steel Products in the United States Achieves Significant Energy Savings at its Minntac Plant Largest Producer of Steel Products in the United States Achieves Significant Energy Savings at its Minntac Plant This case study looks at the results of a DOE energy assessment at U.S. Steel's Minntac plant in Mt. Iron, Minnesota, to analyze the efficiency of the plant's process heating systems and determine

  9. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) steel drum

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, W.A.

    1998-09-29

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the steel drum packaging system meets the transportation safety requirements of HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments, for an onsite packaging containing Type B quantities of solid and liquid radioactive materials. The basic component of the steel drum packaging system is the 208 L (55-gal) steel drum.

  10. Cast Stainless Steel Aging Research Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Cast Stainless Steel Aging Research Plan Cast Stainless Steel Aging Research Plan This work plan proposes to build a systematic knowledge base for the thermal aging behavior of cast stainless steels (CASSs) within a limited time of five years. The final output of execution of the plan is expected to provide conclusive predictions for the integrity of the CASS components of LWR power plants during the extended service life up to and beyond 60 years. Mechanical and microstructural data obtained

  11. First Generation Advanced High-Strength Steels Deformation Fundamentals |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy First Generation Advanced High-Strength Steels Deformation Fundamentals First Generation Advanced High-Strength Steels Deformation Fundamentals 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting lm067_sun_2012_o.pdf (3.01 MB) More Documents & Publications Coherent Research Plan for the 3rd Generation Advanced high Strength Steels for Automotive Applications Vehicle Technologies Office: 2010

  12. Auto industry steel project to boost efficiency, safety

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Auto industry steel project to boost efficiency, safety Auto industry steel project to boost efficiency, safety Higher-strength, lighter-weight steels could be coming to a car near you in the near future as part of a U.S. Department of Energy advanced manufacturing initiative. July 11, 2013 Professor Emmanuel De Moor performing heat treatments of machined tensile specimens using molten salt to provide fast and controlled temperature changes to match the "Quench & Partitioning"

  13. Electricity from biogas

    SciTech Connect

    Augenstein, D.; Benemann, J.; Hughes, E.

    1994-12-31

    Biogas is a medium-Btu methane and carbon dioxide mix produced by bacterial decomposition of organic matter. Its sources include landfills, waste water sludges, and animal wastes. It can fuel energy applications, of which electricity generation is a frequently-preferred option. The greatest current U.S. biogas recovery and energy use is at landfills, where biogas at about 80 landfill sites fuels a total of approximately 300 MWe. Wastewater treatment plants and confined animal waste management systems support additional electric power production. Generation of electricity from biogas can present difficulties due to the generally small scale of the generating facility, variable energy content of the gas, fluctuating availability, contaminant problems, and often-demanding control needs. However, such difficulties are being successfully addressed and economics for electricity generation are often favorable as biogas can be essentially {open_quotes}free{close_quotes} fuel. Biogas recovery and use has the additional advantage of mitigating a potent greenhouse gas. Biogas from U.S. landfills alone could fuel about 1% of U.S. electrical generation while giving climate change benefit equivalent to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions in the electricity sector by more than 10%. Growth in landfill gas use will be facilitated by recent regulations, advances in equipment, and improved management techniques such as {open_quotes}controlled landfilling{close_quotes}. The potential for biogas recovery and electricity production from sewage sludges, animal wastes and other organic resources such as agricultural residues is uncertain but probably exceeds the estimate for landfills.

  14. Calibration-free electrical conductivity measurements for highly conductive slags

    SciTech Connect

    MACDONALD,CHRISTOPHER J.; GAO,HUANG; PAL,UDAY B.; VAN DEN AVYLE,JAMES A.; MELGAARD,DAVID K.

    2000-05-01

    This research involves the measurement of the electrical conductivity (K) for the ESR (electroslag remelting) slag (60 wt.% CaF{sub 2} - 20 wt.% CaO - 20 wt.% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) used in the decontamination of radioactive stainless steel. The electrical conductivity is measured with an improved high-accuracy-height-differential technique that requires no calibration. This method consists of making continuous AC impedance measurements over several successive depth increments of the coaxial cylindrical electrodes in the ESR slag. The electrical conductivity is then calculated from the slope of the plot of inverse impedance versus the depth of the electrodes in the slag. The improvements on the existing technique include an increased electrochemical cell geometry and the capability of measuring high precision depth increments and the associated impedances. These improvements allow this technique to be used for measuring the electrical conductivity of highly conductive slags such as the ESR slag. The volatilization rate and the volatile species of the ESR slag measured through thermogravimetric (TG) and mass spectroscopy analysis, respectively, reveal that the ESR slag composition essentially remains the same throughout the electrical conductivity experiments.

  15. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Electrical Contractors (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    This handbook answers basic questions about plug-in electric vehicles, charging stations, charging equipment, charging equipment installation, and training for electrical contractors.

  16. Central American electrical interconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    A technical cooperation grant of $2.25 million, designed to strengthen the capacity of Central American countries to operate their regional interconnected electrical system, was announced by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). The grant, extended from the banks Fund for Special Operations, will help improve the capacity of the regions electric power companies to achieve economical, safe operation of the interconnected electric power systems. The funds will also be used to finance regional studies of the accords, procedures, regulations, and supervisory mechanisms for the system, as well as program development and data bases.

  17. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Connecticut Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Connecticut) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 8,832 35 Electric utilities 161 45 IPP & CHP 8,671 12 Net generation (megawatthours) 33,676,980 38 Electric utilities 54,693 45 IPP & CHP 33,622,288 11 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 1,897 47 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 8,910 45 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 7,959 41 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.1 46 Nitrogen oxide

  18. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    District of Columbia Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (District of Columbia) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 9 51 Electric utilities IPP & CHP 9 51 Net generation (megawatthours) 67,612 51 Electric utilities IPP & CHP 67,612 51 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 0 51 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 147 51 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 48 50 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.0 51 Nitrogen oxide (lbs/MWh) 4.3 3

  19. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Georgia Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Georgia) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 38,250 7 Electric utilities 28,873 3 IPP & CHP 9,377 10 Net generation (megawatthours) 125,837,224 10 Electric utilities 109,523,336 4 IPP & CHP 16,313,888 20 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 105,998 11 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 58,144 14 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 62,516 12 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.7 24 Nitrogen oxide

  20. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Idaho Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Idaho) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Hydroelectric Net summer capacity (megawatts) 4,944 42 Electric utilities 3,413 37 IPP & CHP 1,531 39 Net generation (megawatthours) 15,184,417 43 Electric utilities 9,628,016 37 IPP & CHP 5,556,400 39 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 5,777 42 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 20,301 37 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 1,492 49 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.8 36 Nitrogen oxide

  1. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Illinois Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Illinois) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 44,727 4 Electric utilities 5,263 35 IPP & CHP 39,464 4 Net generation (megawatthours) 202,143,878 4 Electric utilities 10,457,398 36 IPP & CHP 191,686,480 3 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 187,536 6 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 58,076 15 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 96,624 6 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.9 20 Nitrogen

  2. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Indiana Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Indiana) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 27,499 14 Electric utilities 23,319 7 IPP & CHP 4,180 23 Net generation (megawatthours) 115,395,392 12 Electric utilities 100,983,285 6 IPP & CHP 14,412,107 22 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 332,396 3 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 133,412 3 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 103,391 3 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 5.8 1 Nitrogen oxide

  3. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Kansas Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Kansas) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 14,227 31 Electric utilities 11,468 24 IPP & CHP 2,759 33 Net generation (megawatthours) 49,728,363 31 Electric utilities 39,669,629 29 IPP & CHP 10,058,734 31 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 31,550 29 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 29,014 29 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 31,794 29 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.3 29 Nitrogen oxide

  4. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Louisiana Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Louisiana) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 26,657 15 Electric utilities 18,120 16 IPP & CHP 8,537 13 Net generation (megawatthours) 104,229,402 15 Electric utilities 58,518,271 17 IPP & CHP 45,711,131 8 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 96,240 14 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 83,112 8 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 57,137 15 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.8 21

  5. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Michigan Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Michigan) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 30,435 12 Electric utilities 22,260 9 IPP & CHP 8,175 14 Net generation (megawatthours) 106,816,991 14 Electric utilities 84,075,322 12 IPP & CHP 22,741,669 13 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 173,521 7 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 77,950 9 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 64,062 11 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.2 7 Nitrogen oxide

  6. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Minnesota Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Minnesota) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 15,621 28 Electric utilities 11,557 22 IPP & CHP 4,064 24 Net generation (megawatthours) 56,998,330 27 Electric utilities 45,963,271 22 IPP & CHP 11,035,059 29 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 39,272 27 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 38,373 28 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 32,399 28 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.4 27 Nitrogen

  7. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Hampshire Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (New Hampshire) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 4,413 44 Electric utilities 1,121 41 IPP & CHP 3,292 30 Net generation (megawatthours) 19,778,520 42 Electric utilities 2,266,903 41 IPP & CHP 17,511,617 20 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 3,733 44 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 5,057 47 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 3,447 46 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.4 45 Nitrogen

  8. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Oklahoma Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Oklahoma) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 24,048 17 Electric utilities 17,045 17 IPP & CHP 7,003 16 Net generation (megawatthours) 70,155,504 22 Electric utilities 48,096,026 19 IPP & CHP 22,059,478 14 Emissions Sulfur dioxide 78,556 18 Nitrogen oxide 44,874 23 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 43,994 18 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.2 17 Nitrogen oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.3 26

  9. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    South Dakota Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (South Dakota) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Hydroelectric Net summer capacity (megawatts) 3,948 45 Electric utilities 3,450 36 IPP & CHP 499 48 Net generation (megawatthours) 10,995,240 45 Electric utilities 9,344,872 38 IPP & CHP 1,650,368 48 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 13,852 35 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 10,638 44 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 3,093 47 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.5 15

  10. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Vermont Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Vermont) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 650 50 Electric utilities 337 44 IPP & CHP 313 49 Net generation (megawatthours) 7,031,394 48 Electric utilities 868,079 42 IPP & CHP 6,163,315 37 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 71 50 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 737 50 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 14 51 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.0 50 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 0.2 51

  11. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Virginia Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Virginia) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 26,292 16 Electric utilities 22,062 10 IPP & CHP 4,231 22 Net generation (megawatthours) 77,137,438 21 Electric utilities 62,966,914 16 IPP & CHP 14,170,524 23 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 68,550 20 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 40,656 26 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 33,295 25 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.8 23 Nitrogen

  12. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Wisconsin Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Wisconsin) Item Value Rank Primary Energy Source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 17,166 23 Electric utilities 14,377 18 IPP & CHP 2,788 32 Net generation (megawatthours) 61,064,796 25 Electric utilities 47,301,782 20 IPP & CHP 13,763,014 26 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 81,239 17 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 39,597 27 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 43,750 19 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.7 12 Nitrogen

  13. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    United States Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (United States) Item Value Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 1,068,422 Electric utilities 616,632 IPP & CHP 451,791 Net generation (megawatthours) 4,093,606,005 Electric utilities 2,382,473,495 IPP & CHP 1,711,132,510 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 3,842,005 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 2,400,375 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 2,160,342 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.9 Nitrogen Oxide

  14. BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

  15. Chapter 5 - Electricity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    1 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Chapter 5 Electricity Overview In the International Energy Outlook 2016 (IEO2016) Reference case, world net electricity generation increases 69% by 2040, from 21.6 trillion kilowatthours (kWh) in 2012 to 25.8 trillion kWh in 2020 and 36.5 trillion kWh in 2040. Electricity is the world's fastest-growing form of end-use energy consumption, as it has been for many decades. Power systems have continued to evolve from

  16. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Arizona Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Arizona) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 28,249 13 Electric utilities 21,311 11 IPP & CHP 6,938 17 Net generation (megawatthours) 112,257,187 13 Electric utilities 94,847,135 8 IPP & CHP 17,410,053 19 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 22,597 32 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 56,726 17 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 53,684 16 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.4 41 Nitrogen oxide

  17. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    California Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (California) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 74,646 2 Electric utilities 28,201 4 IPP & CHP 46,446 2 Net generation (megawatthours) 198,807,622 5 Electric utilities 71,037,135 14 IPP & CHP 127,770,487 4 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 3,102 46 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 98,348 5 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 57,223 14 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.0 49

  18. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Colorado Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Colorado) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 14,933 29 Electric utilities 10,204 28 IPP & CHP 4,729 18 Net generation (megawatthours) 53,847,386 30 Electric utilities 43,239,615 26 IPP & CHP 10,607,771 30 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 28,453 30 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 44,349 24 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 38,474 22 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.1 32 Nitrogen

  19. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Connecticut Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Connecticut) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 8,832 35 Electric utilities 161 45 IPP & CHP 8,671 12 Net generation (megawatthours) 33,676,980 38 Electric utilities 54,693 45 IPP & CHP 33,622,288 11 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 1,897 47 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 8,910 45 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 7,959 41 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.1 46 Nitrogen oxide

  20. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Delaware Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Delaware) Item Value U.S. rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 3,086 46 Electric utilities 102 46 IPP & CHP 2,984 31 Net generation (megawatthours) 7,703,584 47 Electric utilities 49,050 46 IPP & CHP 7,654,534 35 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 824 48 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 2,836 48 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 4,276 43 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.2 45 Nitrogen oxide

  1. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    District of Columbia Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (District of Columbia) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 9 51 Electric utilities IPP & CHP 9 51 Net generation (megawatthours) 67,612 51 Electric utilities IPP & CHP 67,612 51 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 0 51 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 147 51 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 48 50 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.0 51 Nitrogen oxide (lbs/MWh) 4.3 3

  2. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Florida Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Florida) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 59,440 3 Electric utilities 51,775 1 IPP & CHP 7,665 15 Net generation (megawatthours) 230,015,937 2 Electric utilities 211,970,587 1 IPP & CHP 18,045,350 15 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 126,600 10 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 91,356 6 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 111,549 2 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.1 30 Nitrogen

  3. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Georgia Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Georgia) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 38,250 7 Electric utilities 28,873 3 IPP & CHP 9,377 10 Net generation (megawatthours) 125,837,224 10 Electric utilities 109,523,336 4 IPP & CHP 16,313,888 20 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 105,998 11 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 58,144 14 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 62,516 12 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.7 24 Nitrogen oxide

  4. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Hawaii Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Hawaii) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Petroleum Net summer capacity (megawatts) 2,672 47 Electric utilities 1,732 40 IPP & CHP 939 45 Net generation (megawatthours) 10,204,158 46 Electric utilities 5,517,389 39 IPP & CHP 4,686,769 40 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 21,670 33 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 26,928 31 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 7,313 42 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 4.2 4 Nitrogen oxide

  5. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Idaho Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Idaho) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Hydroelectric Net summer capacity (megawatts) 4,944 42 Electric utilities 3,413 37 IPP & CHP 1,531 39 Net generation (megawatthours) 15,184,417 43 Electric utilities 9,628,016 37 IPP & CHP 5,556,400 39 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 5,777 42 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 20,301 37 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 1,492 49 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.8 36 Nitrogen oxide

  6. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Illinois Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Illinois) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 44,727 4 Electric utilities 5,263 35 IPP & CHP 39,464 4 Net generation (megawatthours) 202,143,878 4 Electric utilities 10,457,398 36 IPP & CHP 191,686,480 3 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 187,536 6 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 58,076 15 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 96,624 6 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.9 20 Nitrogen

  7. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Indiana Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Indiana) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 27,499 14 Electric utilities 23,319 7 IPP & CHP 4,180 23 Net generation (megawatthours) 115,395,392 12 Electric utilities 100,983,285 6 IPP & CHP 14,412,107 22 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 332,396 3 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 133,412 3 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 103,391 3 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 5.8 1 Nitrogen oxide

  8. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Iowa Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Iowa) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 16,507 24 Electric utilities 12,655 20 IPP & CHP 3,852 25 Net generation (megawatthours) 56,853,282 28 Electric utilities 43,021,954 27 IPP & CHP 13,831,328 25 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 74,422 19 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 41,793 25 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 39,312 21 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.6 13 Nitrogen oxide

  9. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Kansas Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Kansas) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 14,227 31 Electric utilities 11,468 24 IPP & CHP 2,759 33 Net generation (megawatthours) 49,728,363 31 Electric utilities 39,669,629 29 IPP & CHP 10,058,734 31 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 31,550 29 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 29,014 29 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 31,794 29 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.3 29 Nitrogen oxide

  10. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Kentucky Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Kentucky) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 20,878 21 Electric utilities 19,473 15 IPP & CHP 1,405 40 Net generation (megawatthours) 90,896,435 17 Electric utilities 90,133,403 10 IPP & CHP 763,032 49 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 204,873 5 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 89,253 7 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 85,795 7 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 4.5 3 Nitrogen oxide

  11. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Louisiana Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Louisiana) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 26,657 15 Electric utilities 18,120 16 IPP & CHP 8,537 13 Net generation (megawatthours) 104,229,402 15 Electric utilities 58,518,271 17 IPP & CHP 45,711,131 8 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 96,240 14 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 83,112 8 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 57,137 15 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.8 21

  12. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Maine Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Maine) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 4,470 43 Electric utilities 10 49 IPP & CHP 4,460 20 Net generation (megawatthours) 13,248,710 44 Electric utilities 523 49 IPP & CHP 13,248,187 27 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 10,990 38 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 8,622 46 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 3,298 46 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.7 25 Nitrogen oxide (lbs/MWh)

  13. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Maryland Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Maryland) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 12,264 33 Electric utilities 85 47 IPP & CHP 12,179 8 Net generation (megawatthours) 37,833,652 35 Electric utilities 20,260 47 IPP & CHP 37,813,392 9 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 41,370 26 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 20,626 35 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 20,414 34 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.2 18 Nitrogen oxide

  14. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Massachusetts Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Massachusetts) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 13,128 32 Electric utilities 971 42 IPP & CHP 12,157 9 Net generation (megawatthours) 31,118,591 40 Electric utilities 679,986 43 IPP & CHP 30,438,606 12 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 6,748 41 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 13,831 43 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 12,231 39 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.4 40

  15. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Michigan Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Michigan) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 30,435 12 Electric utilities 22,260 9 IPP & CHP 8,175 14 Net generation (megawatthours) 106,816,991 14 Electric utilities 84,075,322 12 IPP & CHP 22,741,669 13 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 173,521 7 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 77,950 9 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 64,062 11 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.2 7 Nitrogen oxide

  16. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Minnesota Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Minnesota) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 15,621 28 Electric utilities 11,557 22 IPP & CHP 4,064 24 Net generation (megawatthours) 56,998,330 27 Electric utilities 45,963,271 22 IPP & CHP 11,035,059 29 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 39,272 27 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 38,373 28 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 32,399 28 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.4 27 Nitrogen

  17. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Mississippi Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Mississippi) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 16,090 26 Electric utilities 13,494 19 IPP & CHP 2,597 34 Net generation (megawatthours) 55,127,092 29 Electric utilities 47,084,382 21 IPP & CHP 8,042,710 34 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 101,093 13 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 23,993 32 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 24,037 33 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.7 5

  18. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Missouri Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Missouri) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 21,790 19 Electric utilities 20,538 13 IPP & CHP 1,252 42 Net generation (megawatthours) 87,834,468 18 Electric utilities 85,271,253 11 IPP & CHP 2,563,215 46 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 149,842 9 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 77,749 10 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 75,735 8 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.4 6 Nitrogen oxide

  19. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Montana Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Montana) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 6,330 41 Electric utilities 3,209 38 IPP & CHP 3,121 30 Net generation (megawatthours) 30,257,616 41 Electric utilities 12,329,411 35 IPP & CHP 17,928,205 16 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 14,426 34 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 20,538 36 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 17,678 36 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.0 34 Nitrogen oxide

  20. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Nebraska Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Nebraska) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 8,732 36 Electric utilities 7,913 30 IPP & CHP 819 46 Net generation (megawatthours) 39,431,291 34 Electric utilities 36,560,960 30 IPP & CHP 2,870,331 45 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 63,994 22 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 27,045 30 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 26,348 31 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.2 8 Nitrogen oxide

  1. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Nevada Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Nevada) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 10,485 34 Electric utilities 8,480 29 IPP & CHP 2,006 35 Net generation (megawatthours) 36,000,537 37 Electric utilities 27,758,728 33 IPP & CHP 8,241,809 33 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 10,229 40 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 18,606 39 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 16,222 37 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.4 38 Nitrogen

  2. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Hampshire Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (New Hampshire) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 4,413 44 Electric utilities 1,121 41 IPP & CHP 3,292 30 Net generation (megawatthours) 19,778,520 42 Electric utilities 2,266,903 41 IPP & CHP 17,511,617 20 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 3,733 44 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 5,057 47 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 3,447 46 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.4 45 Nitrogen

  3. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Jersey Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (New Jersey) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 19,399 22 Electric utilities 544 43 IPP & CHP 18,852 7 Net generation (megawatthours) 68,051,086 23 Electric utilities -117,003 50 IPP & CHP 68,168,089 7 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 3,369 44 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 15,615 41 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 17,905 35 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.1 47 Nitrogen oxide

  4. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Mexico Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (New Mexico) Item Value U.S. Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 8,072 39 Electric utilities 6,094 33 IPP & CHP 1,978 37 Net generation (megawatthours) 32,306,210 39 Electric utilities 26,422,867 34 IPP & CHP 5,883,343 38 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 12,064 37 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 46,192 22 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 24,712 32 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.7 37 Nitrogen

  5. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    York Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (New York) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural Gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 40,404 6 Electric utilities 10,989 27 IPP & CHP 29,416 5 Net generation (megawatthours) 137,122,202 7 Electric utilities 34,082 31 IPP & CHP 103,039,347 5 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 31,878 28 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 46,971 21 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 33,240 26 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.5 39 Nitrogen oxide

  6. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Carolina Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (North Carolina) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 30,048 12 Electric utilities 26,706 6 IPP & CHP 3,342 29 Net generation (megawatthours) 125,936,293 9 Electric utilities 116,317,050 2 IPP & CHP 9,619,243 31 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 71,293 20 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 62,397 12 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 56,940 14 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.1 32 Nitrogen

  7. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Dakota Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (North Dakota) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 6,566 40 Electric utilities 5,292 34 IPP & CHP 1,274 41 Net generation (megawatthours) 35,021,673 39 Electric utilities 31,044,374 32 IPP & CHP 3,977,299 42 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 56,854 23 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 48,454 22 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 30,274 28 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 3.2 11 Nitrogen oxide

  8. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Ohio Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Ohio) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 31,507 9 Electric utilities 11,134 26 IPP & CHP 20,372 6 Net generation (megawatthours) 134,476,405 8 Electric utilities 43,290,512 25 IPP & CHP 91,185,893 7 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 355,108 1 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 105,688 4 Carbon dioxide (thousand metrictons) 98,650 5 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 5.3 2 Nitrogen oxide (lbs/MWh)

  9. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Oklahoma Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Oklahoma) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 24,048 17 Electric utilities 17,045 17 IPP & CHP 7,003 16 Net generation (megawatthours) 70,155,504 22 Electric utilities 48,096,026 19 IPP & CHP 22,059,478 14 Emissions Sulfur dioxide 78,556 18 Nitrogen oxide 44,874 23 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 43,994 18 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.2 17 Nitrogen oxide (lbs/MWh) 1.3 26

  10. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Oregon Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Oregon) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Hydroelectric Net summer capacity (megawatts) 15,884 27 Electric utilities 11,175 25 IPP & CHP 4,709 19 Net generation (megawatthours) 60,119,907 26 Electric utilities 44,565,239 24 IPP & CHP 15,554,668 21 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 10,595 39 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 14,313 42 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 8,334 40 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.4 42 Nitrogen

  11. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Pennsylvania Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Pennsylvania) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 42,723 5 Electric utilities 39 48 IPP & CHP 42,685 3 Net generation (megawatthours) 221,058,365 3 Electric utilities 90,994 44 IPP & CHP 220,967,371 2 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 297,598 4 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 141,486 2 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 101,361 4 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.7 11 Nitrogen oxide

  12. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Rhode Island Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Rhode Island) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 1,810 49 Electric utilities 8 50 IPP & CHP 1,803 38 Net generation (megawatthours) 6,281,748 49 Electric utilities 10,670 48 IPP & CHP 6,271,078 36 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 100 49 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 1,224 49 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 2,566 48 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.0 48 Nitrogen oxide

  13. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Carolina Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (South Carolina) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 22,824 18 Electric utilities 20,836 12 IPP & CHP 1,988 36 Net generation (megawatthours) 97,158,465 16 Electric utilities 93,547,004 9 IPP & CHP 3,611,461 43 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 43,659 25 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 21,592 34 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 33,083 27 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.9 35

  14. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    South Dakota Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (South Dakota) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Hydroelectric Net summer capacity (megawatts) 3,948 45 Electric utilities 3,450 36 IPP & CHP 499 48 Net generation (megawatthours) 10,995,240 45 Electric utilities 9,344,872 38 IPP & CHP 1,650,368 48 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 13,852 35 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 10,638 44 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 3,093 47 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.5 15

  15. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Tennessee Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Tennessee) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 20,998 20 Electric utilities 20,490 14 IPP & CHP 508 47 Net generation (megawatthours) 79,506,886 20 Electric utilities 76,986,629 13 IPP & CHP 2,520,257 47 Emissions Sulfur dioxide (short tons) 89,357 16 Nitrogen oxide (short tons) 23,913 33 Carbon dioxide (thousand metric tons) 41,405 20 Sulfur dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.2 16 Nitrogen oxide

  16. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Texas Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Texas) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Natural gas Net summer capacity (megawatts) 112,914 1 Electric utilities 29,113 2 IPP & CHP 83,800 1 Net generation (megawatthours) 437,629,668 1 Electric utilities 94,974,953 7 IPP & CHP 342,654,715 1 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 349,245 2 Nitrogen Oxide short tons) 229,580 1 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 254,488 1 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.6 26 Nitrogen Oxide

  17. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    United States Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (United States) Item Value Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 1,068,422 Electric utilities 616,632 IPP & CHP 451,791 Net generation (megawatthours) 4,093,606,005 Electric utilities 2,382,473,495 IPP & CHP 1,711,132,510 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 3,842,005 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 2,400,375 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 2,160,342 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.9 Nitrogen Oxide

  18. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Vermont Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Vermont) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 650 50 Electric utilities 337 44 IPP & CHP 313 49 Net generation (megawatthours) 7,031,394 48 Electric utilities 868,079 42 IPP & CHP 6,163,315 37 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 71 50 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 737 50 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 14 51 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.0 50 Nitrogen Oxide (lbs/MWh) 0.2 51

  19. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Virginia Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Virginia) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Nuclear Net summer capacity (megawatts) 26,292 16 Electric utilities 22,062 10 IPP & CHP 4,231 22 Net generation (megawatthours) 77,137,438 21 Electric utilities 62,966,914 16 IPP & CHP 14,170,524 23 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 68,550 20 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 40,656 26 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 33,295 25 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.8 23 Nitrogen

  20. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Washington Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Washington) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Hydroelectric Net summer capacity (megawatts) 30,949 10 Electric utilities 27,376 5 IPP & CHP 3,573 26 Net generation (megawatthours) 116,334,363 11 Electric utilities 102,294,256 5 IPP & CHP 14,040,107 24 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 13,716 36 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 18,316 40 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 12,427 398 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 0.2 44

  1. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    West Virginia Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (West Virginia) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 16,276 25 Electric utilities 11,981 21 IPP & CHP 4,295 21 Net generation (megawatthours) 81,059,577 19 Electric utilities 63,331,833 15 IPP & CHP 17,727,743 17 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 102,406 12 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 72,995 11 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 73,606 9 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.5 14

  2. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Wisconsin Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Wisconsin) Item Value Rank Primary Energy Source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 17,166 23 Electric utilities 14,377 18 IPP & CHP 2,788 32 Net generation (megawatthours) 61,064,796 25 Electric utilities 47,301,782 20 IPP & CHP 13,763,014 26 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 81,239 17 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 39,597 27 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 43,750 19 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 2.7 12 Nitrogen

  3. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Wyoming Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Wyoming) Item Value Rank Primary energy source Coal Net summer capacity (megawatts) 8,458 37 Electric utilities 7,233 32 IPP & CHP 1,225 43 Net generation (megawatthours) 49,696,183 32 Electric utilities 45,068,982 23 IPP & CHP 4,627,201 41 Emissions Sulfur Dioxide (short tons) 45,704 24 Nitrogen Oxide (short tons) 49,638 18 Carbon Dioxide (thousand metric tons) 47,337 17 Sulfur Dioxide (lbs/MWh) 1.8 22 Nitrogen Oxide

  4. Aging Management Program for Stainless Steel Dry Storage System Canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Darrell S.; Lin, Bruce P.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2015-06-01

    This is a conference paper presenting an aging management program for stainless steel dry storage system canisters. NRC is lead author of paper. PNNL provided input.

  5. Post-Test Metallurgical Evaluation Results for Steel Containment...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Post-Test Metallurgical Evaluation Results for Steel Containment Vessel (SCV) High Pressure Test Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Post-Test Metallurgical Evaluation ...

  6. Steele County, North Dakota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Informatio...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    North Dakota M Power LLC Places in Steele County, North Dakota Finley, North Dakota Hope, North Dakota Luverne, North Dakota Sharon, North Dakota Retrieved from "http:...

  7. Study of Caustic Corrosion of Carbon Steel Waste Tanks (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Because the total test period for start up is relatively short, penetration will not ... In summary, the test results indicate that the corrosion rates for steel are acceptable ...

  8. Formability Characterization of a New Generation High Strength Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Sriram Sadagopan; Dennis Urban; Chris Wong; Mai Huang; Benda Yan

    2003-05-16

    Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are being progressively explored by the automotive industry all around the world for cost-effective solutions to accomplish vehicle lightweighting, improve fuel economy, and consequently reduce greenhouse emissions. Because of their inherent high strength, attractive crash energy management properties, and good formability, the effective use of AHSS such as Duel Phase and TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity) steels, will significantly contribute to vehicle lightweighting and fuel economy. To further the application of these steels in automotive body and structural parts, a good knowledge and experience base must be developed regarding the press formability of these materials. This project provides data on relevant intrinsic mechanical behavior, splitting limits, and springback behavior of several lots of mild steel, conventional high strength steel (HSS), advanced high strength steel (AHSS) and ultra-high strength steel (UHSS), supplied by the member companies of the Automotive Applications Committee (AAC) of the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI). Two lots of TRIP600, which were supplied by ThyssenKrupp Stahl, were also included in the study. Since sheet metal forming encompasses a very diverse range of forming processes and deformation modes, a number of simulative tests were used to characterize the forming behavior of these steel grades. In general, it was found that formability, as determined by the different tests, decreased with increased tensile strength. Consistant with previous findings, the formability of TRIP600 was found to be exceptionally good for its tensile strength.

  9. Predicting sigma formation in mo-bearing stainless steels. (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Predicting sigma formation in mo-bearing stainless steels. No abstract prepared. Authors: Perricone, Matthew ; Dupont, John Neuman ; Anderson, T. D. 1 ; Robino, Charles ...

  10. Bandwidth Study U.S. Iron and Steel Manufacturing | Department...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. iron and steel manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate ...

  11. Bandwidth Study U.S. Advanced High Strength Steel Manufacturing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    The study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in advanced high strength steel manufacturing in the U.S. The study relies on multiple sources to ...

  12. Hydrogen Embrittlement of Pipeline Steels: Causes and Remediation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Presentation by 09-Sofronis to DOE Hydrogen Pipeline R&D Project Review Meeting held ... More Documents & Publications Hydrogen Embrittlement of Pipeline Steels: Causes and ...

  13. Hydrogen Embrittlement of Pipeline Steels: Causes and Remediation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Webinar: I2CNER: An International Collaboration to Enable a Carbon-Neutral Energy Economy Hydrogen Embrittlement of Pipeline Steels: Causes and Remediation Hydrogen permeability ...

  14. Development of 3rd Generation Advanced High Strength Steels ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    an Integrated Experimental and Simulation Approach QUENCHING AND PARTITIONING PROCESS DEVELOPMENT TO REPLACE HOT STAMPING OF HIGH STRENGTH AUTOMOTIVE STEEL Vehicle Technologies ...

  15. Wear-Resistant, Nano-Composite Steel Coatings

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fact Sheet Overviewing Laser Processing Techniques Used for the Production of Wear-Resistant Steel Coatings from Iron-Based Glassy Powders

  16. ITP Steel: Energy and Environmental Profile fo the U.S. Iron...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy and Environmental Profile fo the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry ITP Steel: Energy and Environmental Profile fo the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry steelprofile.pdf (581.28 KB) ...

  17. HEA-16-0003- In the Matter of Steels Pond Hydro Inc.

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    On August 30, 2016, OHA issued a decision denying an appeal filed by Steels Pond Hydro Inc. (Steels Pond) of a notice issued to Steels Pond by the DOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable...

  18. Corrosion of packaged cadmium plated electrical control units from paint vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Brough, L.A.

    1987-08-01

    One of the most widely used methods of controlling the degradation of steel is the application of paint. It is relatively easy to accomplish and very economical. Painted steel is used successfully for many applications, including industrial equipment with electrical enclosures. Unless the proper paint and application procedures are selected, corrosion problems may develop directly from the paint, as the following incident will illustrate. A few years ago, a large electrical control enclosure (30 x 72 x 18 in. (76 x 183 x 46 cm)) was supplied to a customer with the control wiring and hardware mounted inside, which included a number of cadmium plated components. The enclosure had been painted inside with a fast drying, vinyl alkyd white enamel shortly before assembly. Since it was known that the completed unit would probably be stored at the customer's plant site for some time before installation, elaborate procedures were followed to retard or prevent degradation of any part of the system.

  19. EV Everywhere: All-Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Cars...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Cars Find Electric Vehicle Models Vehicle Charging Saving Fuel & Vehicle Costs Electric Vehicle Stories Benefits of Electric Vehicles Electric ...

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. These vehicles can draw electricity directly from the grid and other off-board electrical power sources and store it in batteries. ...

  1. March 2012 Electrical Safety Occurrences

    Energy Saver

    - Electrical Wiring 08J--OSHA ReportableIndustrial Hygiene - Near Miss (Electrical) 11G--Other - Subcontractor 12C--EH Categories - Electrical Safety 14D--Quality Assurance -...

  2. Electricity Advisory Committee - Federal Register Notices | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Federal Register Notices Electricity Advisory Committee - Federal Register Notices Electricity Advisory Committee - Federal Register Notices April 8, 2016 Electricity Advisory ...

  3. Schlumberger Electricity Metering | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Electricity Metering Jump to: navigation, search Name: Schlumberger Electricity Metering Place: Oconee, South Carolina Product: Manufacturer of electricity meters. Coordinates:...

  4. PNNL Electricity Infrastructure Operations Center | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Electricity Infrastructure Operations Center Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Electricity Infrastructure Operations Center Name Electricity Infrastructure Operations Center...

  5. PNNL Electricity Infrastructure Operations Center | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    PNNL Electricity Infrastructure Operations Center (Redirected from Electricity Infrastructure Operations Center) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Electricity Infrastructure...

  6. Steel Market Development Institute Awards "Community Hero" Award to the

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Vehicle Technologies Office | Department of Energy Steel Market Development Institute Awards "Community Hero" Award to the Vehicle Technologies Office Steel Market Development Institute Awards "Community Hero" Award to the Vehicle Technologies Office February 11, 2016 - 4:24pm Addthis Steel Market Development Institute Men and Women of Steel Awardees Steel Market Development Institute Men and Women of Steel Awardees At the 2016 North American International Auto Show in

  7. Electrically conductive material

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Jitendra P.; Bosak, Andrea L.; McPheeters, Charles C.; Dees, Dennis W.

    1993-01-01

    An electrically conductive material for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO.sub.2 as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO.sub.2 formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO.sub.2 as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns.

  8. Electrically conductive material

    DOEpatents

    Singh, J.P.; Bosak, A.L.; McPheeters, C.C.; Dees, D.W.

    1993-09-07

    An electrically conductive material is described for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO[sub 2] formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns. 8 figures.

  9. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Carolina Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (North Carolina) Item ... 2,307,431 15 Average retail price (centskWh) 9.24 27 Sources: U.S. Energy ...

  10. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    emissions estimates, 1990-2014 Table 8.Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990-2014 Table 9.Retail electricity sales statistics, 2014 Table 10.Supply

  11. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    1990-2014 Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990-2014 Table 9. Retail electricity sales statistics, 2014 Table 10. Supply and disposition of ...

  12. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Dakota Electricity Profile 2013 Table 1. 2013 Summary statistics (North Dakota) Item Value ... (megawatthours) 181,386 42 Average retail price (centskWh) 8.20 41 Sources: U.S. Energy ...

  13. EIA - State Electricity Profiles

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Arkansas Electricity Profile 2014 Table 1. 2014 Summary statistics (Arkansas) Item Value ... Direct use 1,925,932 18 Average retail price (centskWh) 7.90 48 kWh Kilowatthours. ...

  14. Biomass for Electricity Generation

    Reports and Publications

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines issues affecting the uses of biomass for electricity generation. The methodology used in the National Energy Modeling System to account for various types of biomass is discussed, and the underlying assumptions are explained.

  15. Activity: Conserving Electric Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Students participate in two experiments in which they (1) gain an appreciation for their dependency on electricity and (2) learn how regulating the rate of energy consumption makes the energy...

  16. Micromachined electrical cauterizer

    DOEpatents

    Lee, A.P.; Krulevitch, P.A.; Northrup, M.A.

    1999-08-31

    A micromachined electrical cauterizer is disclosed. Microstructures are combined with microelectrodes for highly localized electro cauterization. Using boron etch stops and surface micromachining, microneedles with very smooth surfaces are made. Micromachining also allows for precision placement of electrodes by photolithography with micron sized gaps to allow for concentrated electric fields. A microcauterizer is fabricated by bulk etching silicon to form knife edges, then parallelly placed microelectrodes with gaps as small as 5 {mu}m are patterned and aligned adjacent the knife edges to provide homeostasis while cutting tissue. While most of the microelectrode lines are electrically insulated from the atmosphere by depositing and patterning silicon dioxide on the electric feedthrough portions, a window is opened in the silicon dioxide to expose the parallel microelectrode portion. This helps reduce power loss and assist in focusing the power locally for more efficient and safer procedures. 7 figs.

  17. Electrical Subsurface Grounding Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Calle

    2000-11-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine the present grounding requirements of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) subsurface electrical system and to verify that the actual grounding system and devices satisfy the requirements.

  18. Micromachined electrical cauterizer

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Abraham P.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Northrup, M. Allen

    1999-01-01

    A micromachined electrical cauterizer. Microstructures are combined with microelectrodes for highly localized electro cauterization. Using boron etch stops and surface micromachining, microneedles with very smooth surfaces are made. Micromachining also allows for precision placement of electrodes by photolithography with micron sized gaps to allow for concentrated electric fields. A microcauterizer is fabricated by bulk etching silicon to form knife edges, then parallelly placed microelectrodes with gaps as small as 5 .mu.m are patterned and aligned adjacent the knife edges to provide homeostasis while cutting tissue. While most of the microelectrode lines are electrically insulated from the atmosphere by depositing and patterning silicon dioxide on the electric feedthrough portions, a window is opened in the silicon dioxide to expose the parallel microelectrode portion. This helps reduce power loss and assist in focusing the power locally for more efficient and safer procedures.

  19. Electricity Monthly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Electric Power Sector Coal Stocks: February 2014 Stocks Extreme cold throughout the winter continued in February, leading to a 13.4 million ton decline in coal inventories from...

  20. Electric current locator

    DOEpatents

    King, Paul E.; Woodside, Charles Rigel

    2012-02-07

    The disclosure herein provides an apparatus for location of a quantity of current vectors in an electrical device, where the current vector has a known direction and a known relative magnitude to an input current supplied to the electrical device. Mathematical constants used in Biot-Savart superposition equations are determined for the electrical device, the orientation of the apparatus, and relative magnitude of the current vector and the input current, and the apparatus utilizes magnetic field sensors oriented to a sensing plane to provide current vector location based on the solution of the Biot-Savart superposition equations. Description of required orientations between the apparatus and the electrical device are disclosed and various methods of determining the mathematical constants are presented.