National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for gas flow summary

  1. ,"Illinois Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Summary" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Prices",5,"Monthly","42016","01...

  2. ,"Iowa Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Summary" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Prices",5,"Monthly","42016","01...

  3. ,"Mississippi Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...S3","N3010MS3","N3020MS3","N3035MS3","NA1570SMS3","N3045MS3" "Date","Mississippi Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Mississippi Natural Gas Imports ...

  4. ,"Texas Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Data 5","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"06301967" ,"Data 6","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",2,"Annual",2015,"06302012" ,"Data 7","Consumption",11,"Annual",2015,"06...

  5. ,"Maryland Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Data 4","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"06301967" ,"Data 5","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"06301980" ,"Data 6","Consumption",10,"Annual",2015,"06...

  6. ,"Delaware Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Data 2","Underground Storage",3,"Annual",1975,"06301967" ,"Data 3","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"06301980" ,"Data 4","Consumption",9,"Annual",2015,"0630...

  7. ,"California Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Data 5","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"06301967" ,"Data 6","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"06301980" ,"Data 7","Consumption",11,"Annual",2015,"06...

  8. ,"Nebraska Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Data 3","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"06301967" ,"Data 4","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"06301980" ,"Data 5","Consumption",11,"Annual",2015,"06...

  9. ,"Louisiana Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Data 5","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"06301967" ,"Data 6","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"06301980" ,"Data 7","Consumption",11,"Annual",2015,"06...

  10. ,"Nevada Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...1967" ,"Data 2","Production",12,"Annual",2015,"06301991" ,"Data 3","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"06301982" ,"Data 4","Consumption",10,"Annual",2015,"06...

  11. ,"Virginia Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Data 4","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"06301967" ,"Data 5","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"06301980" ,"Data 6","Consumption",10,"Annual",2015,"06...

  12. ,"Pennsylvania Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Data 4","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"06301967" ,"Data 5","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"06301980" ,"Data 6","Consumption",11,"Annual",2015,"06...

  13. ,"Minnesota Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Data 3","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"06301973" ,"Data 4","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"06301980" ,"Data 5","Consumption",8,"Annual",2015,"0630...

  14. ,"Tennessee Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Data 3","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"06301968" ,"Data 4","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"06301980" ,"Data 5","Consumption",11,"Annual",2015,"06...

  15. ,"Arkansas Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Data 4","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"06301967" ,"Data 5","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"06301980" ,"Data 6","Consumption",11,"Annual",2015,"06...

  16. ,"Wisconsin Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Data 2","Underground Storage",3,"Annual",1975,"06301973" ,"Data 3","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"06301980" ,"Data 4","Consumption",8,"Annual",2015,"0630...

  17. ,"Washington Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Data 3","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"06301967" ,"Data 4","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"06301980" ,"Data 5","Consumption",9,"Annual",2015,"0630...

  18. ,"Connecticut Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Data 2","Underground Storage",3,"Annual",1996,"06301973" ,"Data 3","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"06301980" ,"Data 4","Consumption",8,"Annual",2015,"0630...

  19. ,"Alabama Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Data 4","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"06301968" ,"Data 5","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"06301980" ,"Data 6","Consumption",11,"Annual",2015,"06...

  20. ,"Indiana Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Data 3","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"06301967" ,"Data 4","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"06301980" ,"Data 5","Consumption",10,"Annual",2015,"06...

  1. ,"Alaska Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Data 5","Underground Storage",6,"Annual",2015,"06301973" ,"Data 6","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"06301969" ,"Data 7","Consumption",11,"Annual",2015,"06...

  2. ,"Colorado Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Data 4","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"06301967" ,"Data 5","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",2,"Annual",2015,"06301980" ,"Data 6","Consumption",11,"Annual",2015,"06...

  3. ,"Georgia Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Data 3","Underground Storage",3,"Annual",1975,"06301974" ,"Data 4","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"06301980" ,"Data 5","Consumption",8,"Annual",2015,"0630...

  4. ,"Missouri Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Data 3","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"06301967" ,"Data 4","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"06301980" ,"Data 5","Consumption",10,"Annual",2015,"06...

  5. ,"Oregon Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Data 3","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"06301973" ,"Data 4","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"06301980" ,"Data 5","Consumption",10,"Annual",2015,"06...

  6. ,"Idaho Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Data 3","Underground Storage",2,"Annual",1975,"06301974" ,"Data 4","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"06301981" ,"Data 5","Consumption",9,"Annual",2015,"0630...

  7. ,"Massachusetts Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Data 3","Underground Storage",3,"Annual",1975,"06301967" ,"Data 4","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"06301980" ,"Data 5","Consumption",8,"Annual",2015,"0630...

  8. Florida Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Vented and Flared 0 0 0 0 NA 0 1971-2015 Marketed Production 12,409 15,125 773 292 496 499 1967-2015 Natural Gas Processed 2,915 2014-2015 Natural Gas Processed 2,915 1967-2015 ...

  9. ,"Oklahoma Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...50OK3","N3010OK3","N3020OK3","N3035OK3","NA1570SOK3","N3045OK3" "Date","Oklahoma Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Oklahoma Natural Gas Pipeline and ...

  10. ,"Ohio Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ..."N3050OH3","N3010OH3","N3020OH3","N3035OH3","NA1570SOH3","N3045OH3" "Date","Ohio Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Ohio Natural Gas Pipeline and ...

  11. Louisiana Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Marketed Production 2,210,099 3,029,206 2,955,437 2,360,202 1,960,813 1,776,800 1967-2015 Natural Gas Processed 2,207,760 2,048,175 978,100 923,772 823,742 1967-2015 Natural Gas ...

  12. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Marketed Production 572,902 1,310,592 2,256,696 3,259,042 4,257,693 4,812,983 1967-2015 Natural Gas Processed 56,162 131,959 236,817 396,726 1967-2015 Natural Gas Processed 51,023 ...

  13. ,"Utah Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ..."N3050UT3","N3010UT3","N3020UT3","N3035UT3","NA1570SUT3","N3045UT3" "Date","Utah Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Utah Natural Gas Pipeline and ...

  14. ,"Wyoming Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...050WY3","N3010WY3","N3020WY3","N3035WY3","NA1570SWY3","N3045WY3" "Date","Wyoming Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Wyoming Natural Gas Pipeline and ...

  15. ,"Florida Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...050FL3","N3010FL3","N3020FL3","N3035FL3","NA1570SFL3","N3045FL3" "Date","Florida Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Florida Natural Gas Pipeline and ...

  16. ,"Montana Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...050MT3","N3010MT3","N3020MT3","N3035MT3","NA1570SMT3","N3045MT3" "Date","Montana Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Montana Natural Gas Imports Price ...

  17. ,"Ohio Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050OH3","N3010OH3","N3020OH3","N3035OH3","N3045OH3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Ohio (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Ohio Price of Natural Gas ...

  18. ,"Arizona Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...050AZ3","N3010AZ3","N3020AZ3","N3035AZ3","NA1570SAZ3","N3045AZ3" "Date","Arizona Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Price of Arizona Natural Gas ...

  19. ,"Kansas Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...3050KS3","N3010KS3","N3020KS3","N3035KS3","NA1570SKS3","N3045KS3" "Date","Kansas Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Kansas Natural Gas Pipeline and ...

  20. ,"Kentucky Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...50KY3","N3010KY3","N3020KY3","N3035KY3","NA1570SKY3","N3045KY3" "Date","Kentucky Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Kentucky Natural Gas Pipeline and ...

  1. ,"Iowa Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050IA3","N3010IA3","N3020IA3","N3035IA3","N3045IA3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Iowa (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Iowa Price of Natural Gas ...

  2. ,"Michigan Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...50MI3","N3010MI3","N3020MI3","N3035MI3","NA1570SMI3","N3045MI3" "Date","Michigan Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Michigan Natural Gas Imports Price ...

  3. ,"Vermont Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...1480SVT3","N3050VT3","N3010VT3","N3020VT3","N3035VT3","N3045VT3" "Date","Vermont Natural Gas Imports Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Vermont Natural Gas Pipeline and ...

  4. ,"Utah Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050UT3","N3010UT3","N3020UT3","N3035UT3","N3045UT3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Utah (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Utah Price of Natural Gas ...

  5. Alabama Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Production (Million Cubic Feet) Gross Withdrawals NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 From Shale Gas ...

  6. Louisiana Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Gross Withdrawals 159,456 166,570 164,270 166,973 161,280 163,799 1991-2015 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 From Shale Gas ...

  7. Indiana Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Production (Million Cubic Feet) Gross Withdrawals NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 From Shale Gas ...

  8. Maryland Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Production (Million Cubic Feet) Gross Withdrawals NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 From Shale Gas ...

  9. Illinois Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Production (Million Cubic Feet) Gross Withdrawals NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 From Shale Gas ...

  10. Colorado Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Gross Withdrawals 139,822 143,397 138,325 144,845 139,698 141,947 1991-2015 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 From Shale Gas ...

  11. Kentucky Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Production (Million Cubic Feet) Gross Withdrawals NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 From Shale Gas ...

  12. Missouri Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Production (Million Cubic Feet) Gross Withdrawals NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 From Shale Gas ...

  13. ,"Mississippi Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050MS3","N3010MS3","N3020MS3","N3035MS3","N3045MS3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Mississippi (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Mississippi Price ...

  14. ,"Maryland Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050MD3","N3010MD3","N3020MD3","N3035MD3","N3045MD3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Maryland (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Maryland Price of ...

  15. ,"Florida Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050FL3","N3010FL3","N3020FL3","N3035FL3","N3045FL3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Florida (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Florida Price of ...

  16. ,"Missouri Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050MO3","N3010MO3","N3020MO3","N3035MO3","N3045MO3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Missouri (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Missouri Price of ...

  17. ,"Alabama Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050AL3","N3010AL3","N3020AL3","N3035AL3","N3045AL3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Alabama (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Alabama Price of ...

  18. ,"Virginia Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050VA3","N3010VA3","N3020VA3","N3035VA3","N3045VA3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Virginia (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Virginia Price of ...

  19. ,"Louisiana Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050LA3","N3010LA3","N3020LA3","N3035LA3","N3045LA3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Louisiana (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Louisiana Price of ...

  20. ,"Pennsylvania Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050PA3","N3010PA3","N3020PA3","N3035PA3","N3045PA3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Pennsylvania (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Pennsylvania Price ...

  1. ,"Nebraska Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050NE3","N3010NE3","N3020NE3","N3035NE3","N3045NE3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Nebraska (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Nebraska Price of ...

  2. ,"Wyoming Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050WY3","N3010WY3","N3020WY3","N3035WY3","N3045WY3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Wyoming (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Wyoming Price of ...

  3. ,"Minnesota Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050MN3","N3010MN3","N3020MN3","N3035MN3","N3045MN3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Minnesota (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Minnesota Price of ...

  4. ,"Maine Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Data 2","Imports and Exports",2,"Annual",2015,"06301982" ,"Data 3","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"06301981" ,"Data 4","Consumption",8,"Annual",2015,"0630...

  5. ,"Arizona Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050AZ3","N3010AZ3","N3020AZ3","N3035AZ3","N3045AZ3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Arizona (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Arizona Price of ...

  6. ,"Montana Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050MT3","N3010MT3","N3020MT3","N3035MT3","N3045MT3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Montana (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Montana Price of ...

  7. ,"Kentucky Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050KY3","N3010KY3","N3020KY3","N3035KY3","N3045KY3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Kentucky (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Kentucky Price of ...

  8. ,"Washington Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050WA3","N3010WA3","N3020WA3","N3035WA3","N3045WA3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Washington (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Washington Price of ...

  9. ,"California Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050CA3","N3010CA3","N3020CA3","N3035CA3","N3045CA3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in California (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","California Price of ...

  10. ,"Illinois Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050IL3","N3010IL3","N3020IL3","N3035IL3","N3045IL3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Illinois (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Illinois Price of ...

  11. ,"Michigan Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050MI3","N3010MI3","N3020MI3","N3035MI3","N3045MI3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Michigan (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Michigan Price of ...

  12. ,"Oklahoma Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050OK3","N3010OK3","N3020OK3","N3035OK3","N3045OK3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Oklahoma (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Oklahoma Price of ...

  13. ,"Arkansas Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050AR3","N3010AR3","N3020AR3","N3035AR3","N3045AR3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Arkansas (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Arkansas Price of ...

  14. ,"Colorado Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050CO3","N3010CO3","N3020CO3","N3035CO3","N3045CO3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Colorado (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Colorado Price of ...

  15. ,"Indiana Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050IN3","N3010IN3","N3020IN3","N3035IN3","N3045IN3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Indiana (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Indiana Price of ...

  16. ,"Tennessee Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050TN3","N3010TN3","N3020TN3","N3035TN3","N3045TN3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Tennessee (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Tennessee Price of ...

  17. Oklahoma Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Gross Withdrawals 209,342 201,517 207,703 214,000 199,578 212,608 1991-2016 From Gas Wells ... Marketed Production 209,342 201,517 207,703 214,000 199,578 212,608 1989-2016 Dry ...

  18. ,"Oregon Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050OR3","N3010OR3","N3020OR3","N3035OR3","N3045OR3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Oregon (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Oregon Price of Natural ...

  19. ,"Hawaii Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050HI3","N3010HI3","N3020HI3","N3035HI3","N3045HI3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Hawaii (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Hawaii Price of Natural ...

  20. ,"Alaska Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050AK3","N3010AK3","N3020AK3","N3035AK3","N3045AK3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Alaska (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Alaska Price of Natural ...

  1. ,"Nevada Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050NV3","N3010NV3","N3020NV3","N3035NV3","N3045NV3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Nevada (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Nevada Price of Natural ...

  2. ,"Kansas Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050KS3","N3010KS3","N3020KS3","N3035KS3","N3045KS3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Kansas (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Kansas Price of Natural ...

  3. ,"Texas Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050TX3","N3010TX3","N3020TX3","N3035TX3","N3045TX3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in Texas (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Texas Price of Natural ...

  4. Alaska Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Gross Withdrawals 221,340 204,073 261,150 279,434 289,770 304,048 1991-2015 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 From Coalbed Wells ...

  5. Ohio Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Production (Million Cubic Feet) Gross Withdrawals 88,406 87,904 89,371 104,127 104,572 113,096 1991-2015 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA ...

  6. Arkansas Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Production (Million Cubic Feet) Gross Withdrawals 85,763 83,954 81,546 83,309 79,278 80,492 1991-2015 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA ...

  7. Illinois Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Wellhead NA 1967-2010 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 5.52 5.09 4.11 4.43 6.28 3.82 1984-2015 Residential 9.39 8.78 8.26 8.20 9.59 7.97 1967-2015 Commercial 8.76 8.27 7.78 7.57 8.86 7.29 1967-2015 Industrial 7.13 6.84 5.63 6.00 7.75 5.47 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 7.22 11.61 11.39 1990-2012 Electric Power 5.14 W W W W W 1997-2015 Production (Million Cubic Feet) Number of Producing Gas Wells 50 40 40 34 36 35 1989-2015 Number of Gas Producing

  8. Arizona Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Prices (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Citygate 4.85 3.03 2.77 3.31 4.05 3.86 1989-2016 Residential 18.06 16.54 17.44 19.48 21.49 22.29 1989-2016 Commercial 9.74 9.07 8.78 8.70 8.72 8.62 1989-2016 Industrial 5.86 5.72 5.59 4.93 5.76 6.02 2001-2016 Electric Power W W W W W W 2002-2016 Production (Million Cubic Feet) Gross Withdrawals NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA

  9. Michigan Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Prices (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Citygate 3.90 2.91 2.87 2.74 3.21 3.08 1989-2016 Residential 7.69 7.72 9.28 12.32 13.25 14.50 1989-2016 Commercial 6.54 6.54 7.04 8.17 8.71 9.22 1989-2016 Industrial 5.61 5.59 5.76 6.00 6.39 6.06 2001-2016 Electric Power 2.14 2.31 2.28 2.75 3.04 3.12 2002-2016 Production (Million Cubic Feet) Gross Withdrawals NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 From Oil Wells NA NA

  10. Mississippi Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Prices (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Citygate NA 3.36 3.19 3.46 4.04 3.79 1989-2016 Residential 9.17 10.94 13.16 14.15 15.93 16.26 1989-2016 Commercial 7.87 8.09 7.56 7.08 7.65 7.53 1989-2016 Industrial 4.31 4.03 3.75 3.88 3.89 4.52 2001-2016 Electric Power W W W W W W 2002-2016 Production (Million Cubic Feet) Gross Withdrawals NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA

  11. Montana Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Prices (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Citygate 3.03 2.42 2.28 2.50 NA 3.34 1989-2016 Residential 7.00 6.75 7.18 8.34 10.30 11.09 1989-2016 Commercial 6.92 6.64 6.93 7.74 8.59 9.08 1989-2016 Industrial 5.52 5.40 4.82 6.18 4.84 6.32 2001-2016 Electric Power -- -- -- -- -- -- 2002-2016 Production (Million Cubic Feet) Gross Withdrawals 4,426 4,275 4,461 4,285 4,358 4,207 1991-2016 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 From Oil Wells NA

  12. Nebraska Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Prices (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Citygate 4.16 3.14 3.00 3.17 NA NA 1989-2016 Residential 6.98 7.83 9.61 12.95 15.24 15.70 1989-2016 Commercial 5.32 4.86 4.64 5.02 5.44 6.02 1989-2016 Industrial 4.23 3.69 3.19 3.29 3.60 3.89 2001-2016 Electric Power 2.32 2.44 2.77 3.32 3.41 3.48 2002-2016 Production (Million Cubic Feet) Gross Withdrawals NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA

  13. Nevada Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Prices (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Citygate 3.18 3.16 3.19 3.74 4.50 4.76 1989-2016 Residential 10.84 11.25 11.92 12.99 14.63 14.42 1989-2016 Commercial 7.59 7.25 7.04 7.08 7.22 6.89 1989-2016 Industrial 6.73 6.21 5.99 6.10 6.51 5.79 2001-2016 Electric Power 2.30 2.40 2.54 2.57 3.38 3.23 2002-2016 Production (Million Cubic Feet) Gross Withdrawals NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 From Oil Wells NA

  14. Oregon Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Prices (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Citygate 3.48 3.97 4.47 4.97 5.59 5.08 1989-2016 Residential 11.93 13.59 15.03 15.63 NA 16.28 1989-2016 Commercial 9.42 9.83 10.74 11.57 NA 10.18 1989-2016 Industrial 5.59 5.24 5.14 6.49 5.29 5.43 2001-2016 Electric Power 1.77 W W W W W 2002-2016 Production (Million Cubic Feet) Gross Withdrawals NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA

  15. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Prices (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Citygate 3.98 3.28 4.35 6.36 6.52 5.63 1989-2016 Residential 9.46 9.86 11.32 15.54 18.24 19.38 1989-2016 Commercial 8.16 8.06 8.85 10.56 10.99 10.76 1989-2016 Industrial 7.21 6.72 NA NA 9.13 NA 2001-2016 Electric Power 1.43 1.61 1.65 1.90 1.86 1.68 2002-2016 Production (Million Cubic Feet) Gross Withdrawals 452,601 429,503 441,974 434,819 443,628 443,397 1991-2016 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA

  16. Tennessee Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Prices (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Citygate 3.09 2.97 3.02 3.19 3.88 3.64 1989-2016 Residential 7.86 9.50 12.45 14.76 17.06 18.91 1989-2016 Commercial 7.01 7.59 7.60 8.28 8.68 9.49 1989-2016 Industrial 4.24 3.80 3.75 3.65 4.38 4.31 2001-2016 Electric Power 2.05 1.96 2.08 2.37 2.74 2.69 2002-2016 Production (Million Cubic Feet) Gross Withdrawals NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 From Oil Wells NA NA

  17. Utah Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Prices (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Citygate 6.06 4.63 4.60 3.58 3.37 3.24 1989-2016 Residential 9.50 8.96 8.89 9.81 10.67 10.75 1989-2016 Commercial 7.91 7.37 6.77 6.84 7.01 7.10 1989-2016 Industrial 5.97 5.68 5.14 5.10 5.02 5.00 2001-2016 Electric Power W W W W W W 2002-2016 Production (Million Cubic Feet) Gross Withdrawals 33,192 31,720 31,762 29,847 30,577 30,352 1991-2016 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 From Oil Wells NA

  18. Virginia Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Prices (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Citygate 3.72 3.92 4.38 6.42 6.25 7.04 1989-2016 Residential 10.21 10.65 12.71 15.54 19.95 21.37 1989-2016 Commercial 7.26 6.72 7.32 7.81 8.36 8.57 1989-2016 Industrial 4.13 3.56 3.84 4.06 3.91 4.28 2001-2016 Electric Power W W W W W W 2002-2016 Production (Million Cubic Feet) Gross Withdrawals NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA

  19. Wyoming Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Prices (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Citygate 3.44 3.14 3.04 2.82 3.41 3.38 1989-2016 Residential 7.65 7.85 9.10 12.30 NA NA 1989-2016 Commercial 6.33 6.39 6.82 7.00 8.12 NA 1989-2016 Industrial 3.56 3.87 NA NA NA NA 2001-2016 Electric Power 4.39 5.88 12.15 17.60 -- 5.57 2002-2016 Production (Million Cubic Feet) Gross Withdrawals 156,116 148,710 148,721 145,310 136,383 139,305 1991-2016 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 From Oil

  20. California Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Prices (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Citygate 2.30 2.25 2.49 2.52 3.34 3.29 1989-2016 Residential 10.60 10.50 11.52 11.37 11.97 12.90 1989-2016 Commercial 8.18 7.19 7.35 7.44 8.08 8.76 1989-2016 Industrial 6.77 5.79 5.93 5.89 6.40 7.02 2001-2016 Electric Power 2.59 W 2.59 2.98 3.48 3.45 2002-2016 Production (Million Cubic Feet) Gross Withdrawals 18,166 17,618 18,074 17,229 17,573 17,822 1991-2016 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA

  1. Kansas Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Prices (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Citygate 3.56 4.41 4.57 5.64 5.33 5.55 1989-2016 Residential 9.52 11.40 13.83 19.39 20.30 21.53 1989-2016 Commercial 8.88 NA NA 12.73 13.12 13.55 1989-2016 Industrial 4.20 NA 3.28 3.24 3.51 3.64 2001-2016 Electric Power 2.84 3.16 3.45 3.07 3.26 3.53 2002-2016 Production (Million Cubic Feet) Gross Withdrawals 22,110 21,173 21,621 20,531 21,049 20,731 1991-2016 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016

  2. Minnesota Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Prices (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Citygate 3.77 2.94 2.98 3.49 3.88 4.28 1989-2016 Residential 8.01 7.58 10.50 12.19 NA 13.38 1989-2016 Commercial 6.50 6.17 NA 7.39 8.14 7.78 1989-2016 Industrial 3.65 3.35 4.25 3.71 4.11 4.09 2001-2016 Electric Power W W W W W W 2002-2016 Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Total Capacity 7,000 7,000 7,000 7,000 7,000 7,000 2002-2016 Gas in Storage 6,016 6,009 6,085 6,259 6,464 6,692 1990-2016

  3. Texas Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Prices (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Citygate 3.60 3.20 3.20 3.41 3.94 4.00 1989-2016 Residential 10.02 11.63 16.33 NA 19.33 22.75 1989-2016 Commercial 6.15 6.12 6.82 6.70 7.50 8.24 1989-2016 Industrial 1.88 2.08 2.14 2.16 2.98 3.01 2001-2016 Electric Power 1.91 2.14 2.17 2.62 2.95 2.94 2002-2016 Production (Million Cubic Feet) Gross Withdrawals 702,555 680,919 698,238 675,064 682,664 681,898 1991-2016 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA

  4. Washington Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Prices (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Citygate NA 3.43 3.85 3.57 4.56 4.35 1989-2016 Residential 9.96 9.45 9.90 NA NA 15.55 1989-2016 Commercial 7.76 7.73 7.82 NA 9.06 9.54 1989-2016 Industrial 7.39 7.31 7.25 8.07 7.67 7.69 2001-2016 Electric Power 4.02 2.76 W W W W 2002-2016 Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Total Capacity 46,900 46,900 46,900 46,900 46,900 46,900 2002-2016 Gas in Storage 30,111 33,029 37,421 39,255 40,043 42,133

  5. Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop Summary Report | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Summary Report Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop Summary Report Workshop summary report ... R&D needs; and gather input for future development of roadmaps and technical ...

  6. SUMMARY GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS DATA WORKSHEET JANUARY 2015 | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Energy SUMMARY GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS DATA WORKSHEET JANUARY 2015 SUMMARY GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS DATA WORKSHEET JANUARY 2015 SUMMARY_GREENHOUSE_GAS_EMISSIONS_DATA_WORKSHEET_JANUARY_2015.xlsx (36.21 KB) More Documents & Publications Attachment C - Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL Attachment C Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL Amendment: Energy and Emissions Benefit Table (December 30, 2008)

  7. ,"North Dakota Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...3","N3010ND3","N3020ND3","N3035ND3","NA1570SND3","N3045ND3" "Date","North Dakota Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","North Dakota Natural Gas Imports ...

  8. ,"West Virginia Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...","N3010WV3","N3020WV3","N3035WV3","NA1570SWV3","N3045WV3" "Date","West Virginia Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","West Virginia Natural Gas Pipeline ...

  9. ,"New Jersey Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...J3","N3035NJ3","N3045NJ3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in New Jersey (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","New Jersey Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential Consumers ...

  10. ,"New York Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...NY3","N3035NY3","N3045NY3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in New York (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","New York Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential Consumers ...

  11. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...M3","N3035NM3","N3045NM3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in New Mexico (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","New Mexico Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential Consumers ...

  12. ,"North Carolina Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...,"N3035NC3","N3045NC3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in North Carolina (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","North Carolina Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential ...

  13. ,"North Dakota Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...","N3035ND3","N3045ND3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in North Dakota (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","North Dakota Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential Consumers ...

  14. ,"North Dakota Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...D3","N3035ND3","NA1570SND3","N3045ND3" "Date","North Dakota Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","North Dakota Natural Gas Imports Price (Dollars per ...

  15. ,"New Hampshire Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...","N3010NH3","N3020NH3","N3035NH3","N3045NH3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in New Hampshire (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","New Hampshire Price of Natural Gas Delivered ...

  16. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Data 4","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"06301967" ,"Data 5","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",2,"Annual",2015,"06301980" ,"Data 6","Consumption",11,"Annual",2015,"06...

  17. ,"South Carolina Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Data 2","Underground Storage",3,"Annual",1975,"06301973" ,"Data 3","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"06301980" ,"Data 4","Consumption",8,"Annual",2015,"0630...

  18. ,"New Jersey Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Data 2","Underground Storage",3,"Annual",1996,"06301967" ,"Data 3","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"06301980" ,"Data 4","Consumption",8,"Annual",2015,"0630...

  19. ,"South Dakota Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...1967" ,"Data 2","Production",14,"Annual",2015,"06301967" ,"Data 3","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"06301984" ,"Data 4","Consumption",11,"Annual",2015,"06...

  20. ,"North Carolina Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Data 2","Underground Storage",3,"Annual",1996,"06301973" ,"Data 3","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"06301980" ,"Data 4","Consumption",8,"Annual",2015,"0630...

  1. ,"Rhode Island Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Data 2","Underground Storage",3,"Annual",1996,"06301973" ,"Data 3","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"06301980" ,"Data 4","Consumption",9,"Annual",2015,"0630...

  2. ,"New York Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Data 5","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"06301967" ,"Data 6","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"06301980" ,"Data 7","Consumption",10,"Annual",2015,"06...

  3. South Dakota Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Production (Million Cubic Feet) Gross Withdrawals NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 From Shale Gas ...

  4. New York Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Production (Million Cubic Feet) Gross Withdrawals NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 From Shale Gas ...

  5. ,"New Hampshire Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Data 2","Imports and Exports",2,"Annual",2015,"06301982" ,"Data 3","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"06301973" ,"Data 4","Consumption",8,"Annual",2015,"0630...

  6. ,"West Virginia Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050WV3","N3010WV3","N3020WV3","N3035WV3","N3045WV3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in West Virginia (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","West Virginia ...

  7. ,"South Dakota Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050SD3","N3010SD3","N3020SD3","N3035SD3","N3045SD3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in South Dakota (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","South Dakota Price ...

  8. ,"North Dakota Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050ND3","N3010ND3","N3020ND3","N3035ND3","N3045ND3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in North Dakota (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","North Dakota Price ...

  9. ,"New York Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050NY3","N3010NY3","N3020NY3","N3035NY3","N3045NY3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in New York (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","New York Price of ...

  10. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices" "Sourcekey","N3050NM3","N3010NM3","N3020NM3","N3035NM3","N3045NM3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in New Mexico (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","New Mexico Price of ...

  11. West Virginia Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Prices (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Citygate 3.27 3.22 3.43 4.62 5.59 5.08 1989-2016 Residential 8.82 9.36 11.73 15.58 17.03 18.41 1989-2016 Commercial 7.58 7.90 9.02 9.80 10.16 10.29 1989-2016 Industrial NA 2.76 2.02 2.11 2.03 2.00 2001-2016 Electric Power 1.92 2.12 2.03 2.00 3.21 W 2002-2016 Production (Million Cubic Feet) Gross Withdrawals 112,282 110,827 114,948 104,295 119,222 119,208 1991-2016 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA

  12. Gas flow meter and method for measuring gas flow rate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robertson, Eric P.

    2006-08-01

    A gas flow rate meter includes an upstream line and two chambers having substantially equal, fixed volumes. An adjustable valve may direct the gas flow through the upstream line to either of the two chambers. A pressure monitoring device may be configured to prompt valve adjustments, directing the gas flow to an alternate chamber each time a pre-set pressure in the upstream line is reached. A method of measuring the gas flow rate measures the time required for the pressure in the upstream line to reach the pre-set pressure. The volume of the chamber and upstream line are known and fixed, thus the time required for the increase in pressure may be used to determine the flow rate of the gas. Another method of measuring the gas flow rate uses two pressure measurements of a fixed volume, taken at different times, to determine the flow rate of the gas.

  13. High gas flow alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolton, R.D.; Bounds, J.A.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.

    1996-05-07

    An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors. 4 figs.

  14. High gas flow alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolton, Richard D.; Bounds, John A.; Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini W.

    1996-01-01

    An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors.

  15. EFM units monitor gas flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This paper describes the radio-controlled pipeline monitoring system established by Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Corp. which was designed to equip all its natural gas purchasing metering facilities with electronic flow measurement computers. The paper describes the actual radio equipment used and the features and reliability of the equipment.

  16. Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Summary)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Salt Caverns Storage Capacity Aquifers Storage Capacity Depleted Fields Storage Capacity Total Working Gas Capacity Working Gas Capacity of Salt Caverns Working Gas Capacity of ...

  17. Summary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Summary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves 2009 November 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration Office of Oil, Gas, and Coal Supply...

  18. Base Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Summary)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  19. Natural Gas: A Preliminary Summary 1999

    Reports and Publications

    2000-01-01

    This special report provides preliminary natural gas data for 1999 which were reported on monthly surveys of the industry through December.

  20. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Data 5","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"06301935" ,"Data 6","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"06301969" ,"Data 7","Consumption",11,"Annual",2015,"06...

  1. Natural Gas: A Preliminary Summary 1998

    Reports and Publications

    1999-01-01

    This special report provides preliminary natural gas data for 1998 which were reported on monthly surveys of the industry through December.

  2. Second AEO2014 Oil and Gas Working Group Meeting Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    7 November 12, 2013 MEMORANDUM FOR: JOHN CONTI ASSISTANT ADMINISTRATOR FOR ENERGY ANALYSIS FROM: ANGELINA LAROSE TEAM LEAD NATURAL GAS MARKETS TEAM JOHN STAUB TEAM LEAD EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION ANALYSIS TEAM EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION and NATURAL GAS MARKETS TEAMS SUBJECT: Second AEO2014 Oil and Gas Working Group Meeting Summary (presented September 26, 2013) Attendees: Robert Anderson (DOE) Peter Balash (NETL)* David Bardin (self) Joe Benneche (EIA) Philip Budzik (EIA) Kara Callahan

  3. Second AEO2016 Oil and Gas Working Group Meeting Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    April 8, 2016 MEMORANDUM FOR: JOHN CONTI ASSISTANT ADMINISTRATOR FOR ENERGY ANALYSIS FROM: MINDI FARBER-DEANDA ACTING TEAM LEAD NATURAL GAS MARKETS TEAM JOHN STAUB TEAM LEAD EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION ANALYSIS TEAM EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION and NATURAL GAS MARKETS TEAMS SUBJECT: Second AEO2016 Oil and Gas Working Group Meeting Summary (presented on February 29, 2016) Attendees: Joseph Benneche (EIA) Katie Dyl (EIA) Terry Yen (EIA) Danya Murali (EIA) Laura Singer (EIA) Faouzi Aloulou (EIA) Dana

  4. AEO2014 Oil and Gas Working Group Meeting Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    9 August 12, 2013 MEMORANDUM FOR: JOHN CONTI ASSISTANT ADMINISTRATOR FOR ENERGY ANALYSIS FROM: ANGELINA LAROSE TEAM LEAD NATURAL GAS MARKETS TEAM JOHN STAUB TEAM LEAD EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION ANALYSIS TEAM EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION and NATURAL GAS MARKETS TEAMS SUBJECT: First AEO2014 Oil and Gas Working Group Meeting Summary (presented on July 25, 2013) Attendees: Anas Alhajji (NGP)* Samuel Andrus (IHS)* Emil Attanasi (USGS)* Andre Barbe (Rice University) David J. Barden (self) Joseph

  5. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...S3","N9133US3","N3050US3","N3010US3","N3020US3","N3035US3","N3045US3" "Date","U.S. Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Price of U.S. Natural Gas Imports ...

  6. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...10US3","N3020US3","N3035US3","N3045US3" "Date","U.S. Natural Gas Wellhead Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Price of U.S. Natural Gas Imports (Dollars per Thousand Cubic ...

  7. Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop Summary Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Workshop Summary Report Prepared for: U. S. Department of Energy Prepared by: Dr. Adam Z. Weber Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Organizing Committee: Michael Perry, UTRC Tom Zawodzinski, UTK and ORNL Ned Stetson, DOE EERE Mark Johnson, DOE ARPA-E Imre Gyuk, DOE OEDER i Executive Summary An essentially identical technology to a reversible fuel cell is that of a redox flow cell (RFC) or redox flow battery (RFB), where a RFC can be seen as merging the concepts of RFBs with recent improvements

  8. U.S. Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Imports 2.23 1.60 1.54 1.48 1.80 2.28 1989-2016 By Pipeline 2.12 1.55 1.51 1.44 1.76 2.26 1997-2016 As Liquefied Natural Gas 5.12 3.29 3.30 3.45 3.18 3.21 1997-2016 Exports 2.28 ...

  9. U.S. Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Wellhead 4.48 3.95 2.66 NA NA NA 1922-2015 Imports 4.52 4.24 2.88 3.83 5.30 2.99 1985-2015 By Pipeline 4.46 4.09 2.79 3.73 5.21 2.84 1985-2015 As Liquefied Natural Gas 4.94 5.63 4.27 6.80 8.85 7.37 1985-2015 Exports 5.02 4.64 3.25 4.08 5.51 3.07 1985-2015 By Pipeline 4.75 4.35 3.08 4.06 5.40 2.95 1985-2015 As Liquefied Natural Gas 9.53 10.54 12.82 13.36 15.66 10.92 1985-2015 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 6.18 5.63 4.73 4.88 5.71 4.26

  10. Spark gap switch with spiral gas flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brucker, John P.

    1989-01-01

    A spark gap switch having a contaminate removal system using an injected gas. An annular plate concentric with an electrode of the switch defines flow paths for the injected gas which form a strong spiral flow of the gas in the housing which is effective to remove contaminates from the switch surfaces. The gas along with the contaminates is exhausted from the housing through one of the ends of the switch.

  11. Gas Flow Tightly Coupled to Elastoplastic Geomechanics for Tight...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Gas Flow Tightly Coupled to Elastoplastic Geomechanics for Tight- and Shale-Gas ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Gas Flow Tightly Coupled to Elastoplastic ...

  12. Apparatus for focusing flowing gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nogar, N.S.; Keller, R.A.

    1985-05-20

    Apparatus for focusing gas streams. The principle of hydrodynamic focusing is applied to flowing gas streams in order to provide sample concentration for improved photon and sample utilization in resonance ionization mass spectrometric analysis. In a concentric nozzle system, gas samples introduced from the inner nozzle into the converging section of the outer nozzle are focused to streams 50-250-..mu..m in diameter. In some cases diameters of approximately 100-..mu..m are maintained over distances of several centimeters downstream from the exit orifice of the outer nozzle. The sheath gas employed has been observed to further provide a protective covering around the flowing gas sample, thereby isolating the flowing gas sample from possible unwanted reactions with nearby surfaces. A single nozzle variation of the apparatus for achieving hydrodynamic focusing of gas samples is also described.

  13. Flowing effects in gas lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhi, G.

    1984-05-01

    Currently accepted theory states that saturation intensity and gain (or optical power density) increase without limit with the increase of the flow speed. These conclusions are not true. It is shown instead that they tend to be limiting values with the increase of flow speed. The variations of the parameters mentioned above with flow speed are presented.

  14. Heavy Gas Dispersion Incompressible Flow

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-01-27

    FEM3 is a numerical model developed primarily to simulate heavy gas dispersion in the atmosphere, such as the gravitational spread and vapor dispersion that result from an accidental spill of liquefied natural gas (LNG). FEM3 solves both two and three-dimensional problems and, in addition to the generalized anelastic formulation, includes options to use either the Boussinesq approximation or an isothermal assumption, when appropriate. The FEM3 model is composed of three parts: a preprocessor PREFEM3, themore » main code FEM3, and two postprocessors TESSERA and THPLOTX.« less

  15. Heavy Gas Dispersion Incompressible Flow

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-03

    FEM3 is a numerical model developed primarily to simulate heavy gas dispersion in the atmosphere, such as the gravitational spread and vapor dispersion that result from an accidental spill of liquefied natural gas (LNG). FEM3 solves both two and three-dimensional problems and, in addition to the generalized anelastic formulation, includes options to use either the Boussinesq approximation or an isothermal assumption, when appropriate. The FEM3 model is composed of three parts: a preprocessor PREFEM3, themore » main code FEM3, and two postprocessors TESSERA and THPLOTX. The DEC VAX11 version contains an auxiliary program, POLYREAD, which reads the polyplot file created by FEM3.« less

  16. Flowmeter for gas-entrained solids flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Porges, Karl G.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus and method for the measurement of solids feedrate in a gas-entrained solids flow conveyance system. The apparatus and method of the present invention include a vertical duct connecting a source of solids to the gas-entrained flow conveyance system, a control valve positioned in the vertical duct, and a capacitive densitometer positioned along the duct at a location a known distance below the control valved so that the solid feedrate, Q, of the gas entrained flow can be determined by Q=S.rho..phi.V.sub.S where S is the cross sectional area of the duct, .rho. is the density of the solid, .phi. is the solid volume fraction determined by the capacitive densitometer, and v.sub.S is the local solid velocity which can be inferred from the konown distance of the capacitive densitometer below the control valve.

  17. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    gas is heavily used for power generation. Such conditions could cause a mid-year spike in prices to above 6 per MMBtu. With high natural gas prices, natural gas demand is...

  18. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Processing: The Crucial Link Between Natural Gas Production and Its Transportation to Market Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas, January 2006 1 The natural gas product fed into the mainline gas transportation system in the United States must meet specific quality measures in order for the pipeline grid to operate properly. Consequently, natural gas produced at the wellhead, which in most cases contains contaminants 1 and natural gas liquids, 2 must be processed, i.e.,

  19. First AEO2015 Oil and Gas Working Group Meeting Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    TEAM EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION and NATURAL GAS MARKETS TEAMS SUBJECT: First AEO2015 Oil and Gas Working Group ... to High Resource case * World oil price outlooks based on ...

  20. Florida Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    7 56 6 16 15 0 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 0 26 4 16 14 0 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 7 30 2 0 1 0 ...

  1. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    2002). Natural gas prices were higher than expected in October as storms in the Gulf of Mexico in late September temporarily shut in some gas production, causing spot prices at...

  2. New York Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    196 281 253 184 144 143 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 196 271 245 178 138 138 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease ...

  3. Federal Offshore, Pacific (California) Natural Gas Reserves Summary...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    740 725 711 652 264 243 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 9 3 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 731 722 ...

  4. CA, Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    169 180 173 305 284 277 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 1 2 1 2 2 8 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 168 178 ...

  5. CA, Los Angeles Basin Onshore Natural Gas Reserves Summary as...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    91 92 102 98 90 84 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 91 92 102 98 ...

  6. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    economy. In 2003, natural gas demand growth is expected across all sectors. Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, July 2002 History Projections Apr-02 Ma May-02 Jun-02...

  7. Miscellaneous Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    349 363 393 233 188 185 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 271 353 270 219 169 167 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 78 10 104 7 19 18 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 349 350 379 222 179 17

  8. Mississippi Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    22 858 868 612 600 563 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 884 822 806 550 557 505 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 38 36 62 62 43 58 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 917 853 860 607 595 558

  9. Montana Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    93 959 792 616 590 686 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 681 657 522 327 286 361 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 312 302 270 289 304 325 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 976 944 778 602 575 667

  10. [Fuel substitution of vehicles by natural gas: Summaries of four final technical reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-01

    This report contains summary information on three meetings and highlights of a fourth meeting held by the Society of Automotive Engineers on natural gas fueled vehicles. The meetings covered the following: Natural gas engine and vehicle technology; Safety aspects of alternately fueled vehicles; Catalysts and emission control--Meeting the legislative standards; and LNG--Strengthening the links.

  11. Texas Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    85,034 94,287 104,454 93,475 97,921 105,955 1981-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 76,272 84,157 90,947 74,442 75,754 79,027 1981-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 8,762 10,130 13,507 19,033 22,167 26,928 1981-2014 Dry Natural Gas 80,424 88,997 98,165 86,924 90,349 97,154 1981-2014 Natural Gas Liquids (Million Barrels) 1981

  12. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    7,018 14,068 26,719 36,543 50,078 60,443 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 6,885 13,924 26,585 36,418 49,809 60,144 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 133 144 134 125 269 299 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 6,985 13,960 26,529 36,348 49,674 59,873 1977-2014 Natural Gas Liquids (Million Barrels) 1979-1981

  13. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook

    change the pattern of annual demand shifts reported in earlier Outlooks. Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, December 2002 History Projections Sep-02 Oct-02 Nov-02...

  14. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    to increase because of accelerated economic growth and generally lower prices. Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, October 2003 History Projections Jul-03 Aug-03 Sep-03...

  15. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    to increase because of accelerated economic growth and generally lower prices. Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, November 2003 History Projections Aug-03 Sep-03 Oct-03...

  16. Executive Summary - Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, J.; Heath, G.; Macknick, J.; Paranhos, E.; Boyd, W.; Carlson, K.

    2013-01-01

    In November 2012, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) released a new report, 'Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity.' The study provides a new methodological approach to estimate natural gas related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, tracks trends in regulatory and voluntary industry practices, and explores various electricity futures. The Executive Summary provides key findings, insights, data, and figures from this major study.

  17. North Dakota Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,213 1,869 2,652 3,974 6,081 6,787 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 143 152 141 105 91 45 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease ...

  18. West Virginia Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    6,090 7,163 10,532 14,881 23,209 31,153 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 6,066 7,134 10,480 14,860 23,139 31,121 1979-2014 Natural Gas ...

  19. Arkansas Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    10,872 14,181 16,374 11,039 13,524 12,795 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 10,852 14,152 16,328 10,957 13,389 12,606 1979-2014 Natural Gas ...

  20. Kentucky Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2,919 2,785 2,128 1,515 1,794 1,753 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 2,887 2,674 2,030 1,422 1,750 1,704 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, ...

  1. Utah Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    7,411 7,146 8,108 7,775 7,057 6,970 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 6,810 6,515 7,199 6,774 6,162 6,098 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, ...

  2. New Mexico Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    6,644 16,529 16,138 14,553 14,567 16,426 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 14,662 14,316 13,586 11,734 11,154 11,743 1979-2014 Natural Gas ...

  3. Ohio Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    896 832 758 1,235 3,201 7,193 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 799 742 684 1,012 2,887 6,985 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After ...

  4. Alabama Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2,948 2,724 2,570 2,304 1,670 2,121 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 2,919 2,686 2,522 2,204 1,624 1,980 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, ...

  5. Alaska Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    9,183 8,917 9,511 9,667 7,383 6,805 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 1,090 1,021 976 995 955 954 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet ...

  6. Virginia Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    3,091 3,215 2,832 2,579 2,373 2,800 1982-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 3,091 3,215 2,832 2,579 2,373 2,800 1982-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, ...

  7. Oklahoma Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    24,207 28,182 29,937 28,714 28,900 34,319 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 23,115 26,873 27,683 25,018 24,370 27,358 1979-2014 Natural Gas ...

  8. Wyoming Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    36,748 36,526 36,930 31,636 34,576 28,787 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 36,386 36,192 36,612 30,930 33,774 27,507 1979-2014 Natural Gas ...

  9. CA, San Joaquin Basin Onshore Natural Gas Reserves Summary as...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2,609 2,447 2,685 1,650 1,574 1,823 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 607 498 506 269 245 265 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After ...

  10. North Louisiana Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    17,273 26,136 27,411 18,467 17,112 19,837 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 17,220 26,063 27,313 18,385 16,933 19,645 1979-2014 Natural Gas ...

  11. Kansas Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    3,500 3,937 3,747 3,557 3,772 4,606 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 3,417 3,858 3,620 3,231 3,339 3,949 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, ...

  12. Louisiana Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    30,545 22,135 20,389 23,258 1981-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 19,898 28,838 29,906 21,362 19,519 22,350 1981-2014 Natural Gas ...

  13. Michigan Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2,805 2,975 2,549 1,781 1,839 1,873 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 2,728 2,903 2,472 1,687 1,714 1,765 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 77 72 77 94 125 108 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 2,763 2,919 2,505 1,750 1,807 1,845

  14. NM, East Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4,558 4,720 4,884 4,833 5,108 6,434 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 2,658 2,612 2,475 2,156 1,832 1,977 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 1,900 2,108 2,409 2,677 3,276 4,457 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 4,141 4,226 4,379 4,386 4,633 5,799

  15. NM, West Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2,086 11,809 11,254 9,720 9,459 9,992 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 12,004 11,704 11,111 9,578 9,322 9,766 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 82 105 143 142 137 226 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 11,457 11,186 10,626 9,200 8,943 9,484

  16. California Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,926 2,785 3,042 2,119 2,023 2,260 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 612 503 510 272 247 273 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 2,314 2,282 2,532 1,847 1,776 1,987 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 2,773 2,647 2,934 1,999 1,887 2,107

  17. Colorado Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4,081 25,372 26,151 21,674 23,533 21,992 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 22,199 23,001 23,633 18,226 19,253 16,510 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 1,882 2,371 2,518 3,448 4,280 5,482 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 23,058 24,119 24,821 20,666 22,381 20,851

  18. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) projects that natural gas prices will remain high through the rest of 2004 (Short-Term Energy Outlook, July 2004). Wellhead prices are expected to average $5.85 per MMBtu from July through December, while composite spot prices will likely stay well above $6.00. Spot prices at the Henry Hub averaged $6.34 per MMBtu in May and $6.27 in June, as strong demand for natural gas coupled with high petroleum prices has led to higher gas prices despite nearly

  19. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook

    levels and 25 percent below the 5-year average. Natural gas prices are likely to stay high as long as above-normal storage injection demand competes with industrial and...

  20. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    and continued increases in demand over 2002 levels. Cold temperatures this past winter led to a record drawdown of storage stocks. By the end of March, estimated working gas...

  1. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    price trend reflects a number of influences, such as unusual weather patterns that have led to increased gas consumption, and tensions in the Middle East and rising crude oil...

  2. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    this winter is expected to be almost 9 percent higher than last winter, as estimated gas consumption weighted heating degree days during the fourth quarter of 2002 and first...

  3. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    3.20 per MMBtu, which is about 0.84 higher than last winter's price. Domestic dry natural gas production is projected to fall by about 1.7 percent in 2002 compared with the...

  4. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    commercial sector demand are offset by lower demand in the electric power sector. Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, September 2003 History Projections Jun-03 Jul-03 Aug-03...

  5. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    by 1.8 percent as the economy continues to expand and prices ease slightly. Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, January 2004 History Projections Oct-03 Nov-03 Dec-03...

  6. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook

    of 2005 relative to the first quarter of 2004 and relatively lower fuel oil prices. Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, April 2004 History Projections Jan-04 Feb-04 Mar-04...

  7. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook

    should relieve some of the potential upward price pressure on the domestic market Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, January 2003 History Projections Oct-02 Nov-02 Dec-02...

  8. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    because of somewhat weaker prices and higher demand in the electric power sector. Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, July 2003 History Projections Apr-03 May-03 Jun-03 Jul-03...

  9. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    than those of 2003, when stocks after the winter of 2002-2003 were at record lows. Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, December 2003 History Projections Sep-03 Oct-03 Nov-03...

  10. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    power sector eases and relative coal and fuel oil spot prices decline somewhat. Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, May 2004 History Projections Feb-04 Mar-04 Apr-04 May-04...

  11. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Annual Energy Outlook

    demand in the first quarter of 2005 relative to the first quarter of 2004. Short-Term Natural Gas Market Outlook, March 2004 History Projections Dec-03 Jan-04 Feb-04...

  12. Gas flow means for improving efficiency of exhaust hoods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gadgil, A.J.

    1994-01-11

    Apparatus is described for inhibiting the flow of contaminants in an exhaust enclosure toward an individual located adjacent an opening into the exhaust enclosure by providing a gas flow toward a source of contaminants from a position in front of an individual to urge said contaminants away from the individual toward a gas exit port. The apparatus comprises a gas manifold which may be worn by a person as a vest. The manifold has a series of gas outlets on a front face thereof facing away from the individual and toward the contaminants to thereby provide a flow of gas from the front of the individual toward the contaminants. 15 figures.

  13. Gas flow means for improving efficiency of exhaust hoods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gadgil, Ashok J.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for inhibiting the flow of contaminants in an exhaust enclosure toward an individual located adjacent an opening into the exhaust enclosure by providing a gas flow toward a source of contaminants from a position in front of an individual to urge said contaminants away from the individual toward a gas exit port. The apparatus comprises a gas mani-fold which may be worn by a person as a vest. The manifold has a series of gas outlets on a front face thereof facing away from the individual and toward the contaminants to thereby provide a flow of gas from the front of the individual toward the contaminants.

  14. Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Dry Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Proved Reserves as of 12/31 1992-2007 Estimated Production 1992-2007 Production (Million Cubic Feet) Number of Producing Gas Wells 1,852 2,226 1,892 1,588 1,377 1,163 1998-2015 Number of Gas Producing Oil Wells 3,046 3,012 3,022 3,038 2,965 2011-2015 Gross Withdrawals 2,259,144 1,830,913 1,527,875 1,326,697 1,275,738 1,309,380 1997-2015 From Gas Wells 1,699,908 1,353,929 1,013,914 817,340 706,715 668,012 1997-2015 From Oil Wells 559,235 476,984 513,961

  15. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    average $2.83 per MMBtu in 2002 compared with about $4.00 last year (Short-Term Energy Outlook, June 2002). Average wellhead prices have increased by nearly 50 percent from $2.09 per MMBtu in February to an estimated $3.11 per MMBtu in May. Spot prices at the Henry Hub have also increased, rising more than $1.00 per MMBtu since early February. It is atypical to see higher spot gas prices in the cooling season than during the heating season, particularly when working gas in underground storage is

  16. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    about $3.49 per MMBtu through December 2002 and then increase to $3.76 in January 2003, the peak demand month of the heating season (Short-Term Energy Outlook, released November 7, 2002). Natural gas prices were higher than expected in October as storms in the Gulf of Mexico in late September temporarily shut in some gas production, causing spot prices at the Henry Hub and elsewhere to rise above $4.00 per million Btu for most of October. In addition, early winter-like temperatures, particularly

  17. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Now that the heating season has ended, natural gas wellhead prices have fallen from the exceptionally high levels seen in February and early March. Nevertheless, they still remain historically and unseasonably high, hovering around $5.00 per MMBtu. EIA projects that natural gas wellhead prices will remain above $5.00 per MMBtu in April and then decrease to $4.36 in May and $4.26 in June (Short-Term Energy Outlook, April 2003). Wellhead prices for the 2002-2003 heating season (November through

  18. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    In the May 2003 Short-Term Energy Outlook, EIA projected that natural gas wellhead prices will remain high relative to historical levels. In February and March 2003, natural gas wellhead prices were more than double last year's levels. Despite considerable declines posted in April 2003, wellhead prices are expected to remain between 42 and 73 percent above last year's level through each of the remaining months of the refill season. This will push the average wellhead price to roughly $5.00 per

  19. Summary of gas release events detected by hydrogen monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MCCAIN, D.J.

    1999-05-18

    This paper summarizes the results of monitoring tank headspace for flammable gas release events. In over 40 tank years of monitoring the largest detected release in a single-shell tank is 2.4 cubic meters of Hydrogen. In the double-shell tanks the largest release is 19.3 cubic meters except in SY-101 pre mixer pump installation condition.

  20. Summary

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Fine and coarse mode aerosol parameters retrieved from SGP MFRSR network data Summary We retrieve fine and coarse mode aerosol optical depth (AOD) and fine mode effective radius from MFRSR measurements. Sensitivity study demonstrated that for 0.01 accuracy in AOD the trade-offs between the aerosol extinction and NO 2 absorption prevent a conclusive estimate of NO 2 column and may bias aerosol size retrievals. The retrieval algorithm uses climatological amounts of NO 2 , compiled from SCIAMACHY

  1. Summary

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    [ 6450-01-P ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration Project, Lake Charles, Louisiana AGENCY: Department of Energy ACTION: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement and Notice of Proposed Floodplain and Wetlands Involvement SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announces its intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) pursuant to the National Environmental Policy

  2. FROZEN HEAT A GLOBAL OUTLOOK ON METHANE GAS HYDRATES EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    FROZEN HEAT A GLOBAL OUTLOOK ON METHANE GAS HYDRATES EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Beaudoin, Y. C., Boswell, R., Dallimore, S. R., and Waite, W. (eds), 2014. Frozen Heat: A UNEP Global Outlook on Methane Gas Hydrates. United Nations Environment Programme, GRID-Arendal. © United Nations Environment Programme, 2014 This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part and in any form for educational or non-profit purposes without special permission from the copyright holder, provided acknowledgement of the

  3. ,"Virginia Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    8,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 2","Dry Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1982" ,"Data 3","Production",12,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 4","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 5","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1980" ,"Data

  4. ,"Wisconsin Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    7,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 2","Underground Storage",3,"Annual",1975,"6/30/1973" ,"Data 3","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1980" ,"Data 4","Consumption",8,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  5. ,"Alabama Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    8,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 2","Dry Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1977" ,"Data 3","Production",14,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 4","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1968" ,"Data 5","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1980" ,"Data

  6. ,"Arkansas Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    8,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 2","Dry Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1977" ,"Data 3","Production",14,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 4","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 5","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1980" ,"Data

  7. ,"Colorado Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    8,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 2","Dry Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1977" ,"Data 3","Production",14,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 4","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 5","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",2,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1980" ,"Data

  8. ,"Connecticut Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    7,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 2","Underground Storage",3,"Annual",1996,"6/30/1973" ,"Data 3","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1980" ,"Data 4","Consumption",8,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  9. ,"Delaware Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    7,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 2","Underground Storage",3,"Annual",1975,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 3","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1980" ,"Data 4","Consumption",9,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  10. ,"Maine Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    8,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 2","Imports and Exports",2,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1982" ,"Data 3","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1981" ,"Data 4","Consumption",8,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  11. ,"Maryland Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    9,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 2","Production",12,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 3","Imports and Exports",1,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1999" ,"Data 4","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 5","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1980" ,"Data

  12. ,"Nevada Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    8,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 2","Production",12,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1991" ,"Data 3","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1982" ,"Data 4","Consumption",10,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  13. ,"New Hampshire Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    9,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1977" ,"Data 2","Imports and Exports",2,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1982" ,"Data 3","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1973" ,"Data 4","Consumption",8,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1980" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  14. ,"New Jersey Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    7,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 2","Underground Storage",3,"Annual",1996,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 3","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1980" ,"Data 4","Consumption",8,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  15. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    8,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 2","Dry Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1977" ,"Data 3","Production",14,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 4","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 5","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",2,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1980" ,"Data

  16. ,"North Carolina Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    7,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 2","Underground Storage",3,"Annual",1996,"6/30/1973" ,"Data 3","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1980" ,"Data 4","Consumption",8,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  17. ,"Pennsylvania Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    8,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 2","Dry Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1977" ,"Data 3","Production",15,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 4","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 5","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1980" ,"Data

  18. ,"Rhode Island Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    7,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 2","Underground Storage",3,"Annual",1996,"6/30/1973" ,"Data 3","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1980" ,"Data 4","Consumption",9,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  19. ,"South Carolina Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    7,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 2","Underground Storage",3,"Annual",1975,"6/30/1973" ,"Data 3","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1980" ,"Data 4","Consumption",8,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  20. ,"South Dakota Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    8,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 2","Production",14,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 3","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1984" ,"Data 4","Consumption",11,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  1. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    63 and $2.72 per MMBtu during the months through October without the wide variations that occurred over the spring and early summer months (Short-Term Energy Outlook, August 2002). Prices are expected to be less variable unless unusually hot weather in late summer results in gas being diverted from storage to meet the added cooling demand, or colder-than-normal weather for October results in an unexpected drawdown of storage stocks. Overall in 2002, wellhead prices are expected to average about

  2. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    range from $2.91 to $3.19 per MMBtu through December 2002 and then increase to $3.53 in January 2003, the peak demand month of the heating season (Short-Term Energy Outlook, October 2002). Natural gas prices climbed sharply in late September as hurricanes Isidore and Lili caused production shut downs in the Gulf of Mexico. However, this price surge is expected to be short-lived, unless the weather in October is unusually cold or if additional storm activity in the Gulf curbs production further.

  3. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    $3.67 per MMBtu through December 2002 and then increase to more than $4.00 in January and February (Short-Term Energy Outlook, released December 9, 2002). Wellhead prices for the overall heating season (November through March), assuming normal weather, are expected to average about $3.90 per MMBtu, or $1.54 more than last winter's levels, while prices to residential customers are expected to average $8.15 per MMBtu compared with $7.14 last winter. Natural gas prices were higher than expected in

  4. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    4.20 per MMBtu through January 2003 and then increase to $4.61 in February and $4.23 in March (Short-Term Energy Outlook, released January 8, 2003). Wellhead prices for the overall heating season (November through March), assuming normal weather, are expected to average about $4.10 per MMBtu, or $1.74 more than last winter's levels, while prices to residential customers are expected to average $8.51 per MMBtu compared with $7.14 last winter. Natural gas prices were higher than expected in

  5. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    this summer and continue at elevated levels through the rest of 2003 (Short-Term Energy Outlook, June 2003). Natural gas wellhead prices are expected to average $5.40 per MMBtu in June and remain above $5.13 through December 2003. Spot prices at the Henry Hub have stayed well above $5.00 per MMBtu on a monthly basis since the beginning of the year and have been above $6.00 for the first 10 days of June. The low level of underground storage is the principal reason for these unusually high prices.

  6. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    through the rest of 2003, with monthly wellhead prices ranging between $4.31 and $4.96 per MMBtu (Short-Term Energy Outlook, July 2003). The spot price at the Henry Hub has been above $5.00 per MMBtu on a monthly basis since the beginning of the year. The price topped $6.00 in late May and early June, as concerns escalated about the ability of the industry to rebuild underground storage supplies. However, natural gas storage injections were about 40 percent above normal in June, posting a record

  7. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    in September and range between $4.37 and $4.58 per MMBtu in the last 3 months of 2003 (Short-Term Energy Outlook, September 2003). Spot prices at the Henry Hub have fallen somewhat from the unusually high levels that prevailed in the first half of the year and most of July, as mild summer weather in many areas of the country has reduced cooling demand and allowed record storage refill rates. As of September 5, working gas levels were only 5.5 percent below the 5-year average and, barring any

  8. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    7 per MMBtu during the last 3 months of 2003 and increase to $4.32 in January 2004 (Short-Term Energy Outlook, October 2003). Prices have fallen somewhat from the unusually high levels that prevailed in the first half of the year and most of July, as mild summer weather and reduced industrial demand allowed record storage refill rates. As of October 3, 2003, working gas levels were only 1 percent below the 5-year average and, barring any disruptions, are on target to reach 3 Tcf by the end of

  9. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    8 per MMBtu during the last 2 months of 2003 and increase to $4.36 in January 2004 (Short-Term Energy Outlook, November 2003). Prices have fallen in the past few months as mild weather and reduced industrial demand have allowed record storage refill rates. As of October 31, 2003, working gas levels had reached 3,155 Bcf, which is about 3 percent higher than the 5-year average and the first time since October 2002 that stocks exceeded the year-earlier levels. With the improved storage situation,

  10. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    4.41 per MMBtu in December 2003, although spot prices are expected to average $5.38 (Short-Term Energy Outlook, December 2003). The average wellhead price is expected to increase moderately to $4.56 during the first three months of 2004. Natural gas prices were lower in November than previously expected but forward price expectations remain sensitive to weather conditions. Prices increased rapidly in futures trading in early December as some cold weather moved into the Eastern United States and

  11. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    late spring, averaging $4.89 per MMBtu in March, $4.92 in April, and $4.84 in May (Short-Term Energy Outlook, March 2004). Spot prices averaged $5.90 per MMBtu in January but fell to $4.80 in February as temperatures moderated and heating demand lessened. Still, underground storage facilities reported above-average withdrawals for February, leaving storage inventories at the beginning of March about 11 percent lower than the 5-year average. However, as of March 5, working gas levels were about

  12. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) projects that natural gas prices will remain relatively high for the rest of 2004. Wellhead prices are expected to average $5.41 per MMBtu through the end of the storage refill season (October 31) and $5.59 in November and December. Spot prices (composites for producing-area hubs) averaged about $5.30 per MMBtu in the first quarter of this year but are currently near $6.00. Barring cooler-than-normal weather this summer, the likelihood appears small

  13. Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    EIA projects that natural gas prices will continue at high levels through the rest of 2004 (Short-Term Energy Outlook, June 2004). Wellhead prices are expected to average $5.74 per MMBtu in the summer months (June-August) and $6.00 per MMBtu in the fourth quarter, while composite spot prices will likely stay well above $6.00 through December. Spot prices averaged about $5.35 per MMBtu in the first quarter of the year but have been above $6.00 since the beginning of May, as strong demand for

  14. Summary

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary * The neighborhoods in which larger deep convective cloud objects occur tend to have higher values of albedo, cloud top height, ice water path, τ, and lower values of OLR, and cloud top temperature. These changes in the overall distributions with size are a combination of changes in the DC distribu- tions (similar to Xu et al. 2007) and an increase in the proportion of DC footprints. The non-DC distributions of these proper- ties change very little with cloud object size. * As SST

  15. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1922" ,"Data 2","Dry Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1925" ,"Data 3","Production",14,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1900" ,"Data 4","Imports and Exports",6,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1973" ,"Data 5","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1935" ,"Data 6","Liquefied Natural Gas

  16. ,"Washington Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    9,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 2","Imports and Exports",2,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1982" ,"Data 3","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 4","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1980" ,"Data 5","Consumption",9,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016"

  17. ,"Alaska Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    8,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 2","Dry Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1977" ,"Data 3","Production",13,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 4","Imports and Exports",1,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1982" ,"Data 5","Underground Storage",6,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1973" ,"Data 6","Liquefied Natural Gas

  18. ,"California Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    10,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 2","Dry Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1977" ,"Data 3","Production",14,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 4","Imports and Exports",2,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1982" ,"Data 5","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 6","Liquefied Natural Gas

  19. ,"Georgia Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    8,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 2","Imports and Exports",1,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1999" ,"Data 3","Underground Storage",3,"Annual",1975,"6/30/1974" ,"Data 4","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1980" ,"Data 5","Consumption",8,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016"

  20. ,"Idaho Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    9,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 2","Imports and Exports",2,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1982" ,"Data 3","Underground Storage",2,"Annual",1975,"6/30/1974" ,"Data 4","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1981" ,"Data 5","Consumption",9,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016"

  1. ,"Indiana Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    8,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 2","Production",14,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 3","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 4","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1980" ,"Data 5","Consumption",10,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016"

  2. ,"Louisiana Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    10,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 2","Dry Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1981" ,"Data 3","Production",14,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 4","Imports and Exports",2,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1982" ,"Data 5","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 6","Liquefied Natural Gas

  3. ,"Massachusetts Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    8,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 2","Imports and Exports",1,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1982" ,"Data 3","Underground Storage",3,"Annual",1975,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 4","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1980" ,"Data 5","Consumption",8,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016"

  4. ,"Minnesota Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    9,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 2","Imports and Exports",2,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1982" ,"Data 3","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1973" ,"Data 4","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1980" ,"Data 5","Consumption",8,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016"

  5. ,"Missouri Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    8,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 2","Production",12,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 3","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 4","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1980" ,"Data 5","Consumption",10,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016"

  6. ,"Nebraska Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    8,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 2","Production",14,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 3","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 4","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1980" ,"Data 5","Consumption",11,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016"

  7. ,"New York Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    10,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 2","Dry Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1977" ,"Data 3","Production",12,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 4","Imports and Exports",2,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1982" ,"Data 5","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 6","Liquefied Natural Gas

  8. ,"Oregon Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    8,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 2","Production",12,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1979" ,"Data 3","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1973" ,"Data 4","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1980" ,"Data 5","Consumption",10,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016"

  9. ,"Tennessee Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    8,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 2","Production",14,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 3","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1968" ,"Data 4","Liquefied Natural Gas Storage",3,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1980" ,"Data 5","Consumption",11,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016"

  10. ,"Texas Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    10,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 2","Dry Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2014,"6/30/1981" ,"Data 3","Production",14,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 4","Imports and Exports",2,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1982" ,"Data 5","Underground Storage",4,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1967" ,"Data 6","Liquefied Natural Gas

  11. Canada Mexico Figure 11. Flow of natural gas exports, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    8 Canada Mexico Figure 11. Flow of natural gas exports, 2014 (billion cubic feet) Source: Energy Information Administration, based on data from the Office of Fossil Energy, U.S. ...

  12. System for controlling the flow of gas into and out of a gas laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, Terry; Uhlich, Dennis M.; Benett, William J.; Ault, Earl R.

    1994-01-01

    A modularized system for controlling the gas pressure within a copper vapor or like laser is described herein. This system includes a gas input assembly which serves to direct gas into the laser in a controlled manner in response to the pressure therein for maintaining the laser pressure at a particular value, for example 40 torr. The system also includes a gas output assembly including a vacuum pump and a capillary tube arrangement which operates within both a viscous flow region and a molecular flow region for drawing gas out of the laser in a controlled manner.

  13. Flammable gas interlock spoolpiece flow response test plan and procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, T.C., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-13

    The purpose of this test plan and procedure is to test the Whittaker electrochemical cell and the Sierra Monitor Corp. flammable gas monitors in a simulated field flow configuration. The sensors are used on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) Flammable Gas Interlock (FGI), to detect flammable gases, including hydrogen and teminate the core sampling activity at a predetermined concentration level.

  14. DYNAMIC MODELING STRATEGY FOR FLOW REGIME TRANSITION IN GAS-LIQUID TWO-PHASE FLOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    X. Wang; X. Sun; H. Zhao

    2011-09-01

    In modeling gas-liquid two-phase flows, the concept of flow regime has been used to characterize the global interfacial structure of the flows. Nearly all constitutive relations that provide closures to the interfacial transfers in two-phase flow models, such as the two-fluid model, are often flow regime dependent. Currently, the determination of the flow regimes is primarily based on flow regime maps or transition criteria, which are developed for steady-state, fully-developed flows and widely applied in nuclear reactor system safety analysis codes, such as RELAP5. As two-phase flows are observed to be dynamic in nature (fully-developed two-phase flows generally do not exist in real applications), it is of importance to model the flow regime transition dynamically for more accurate predictions of two-phase flows. The present work aims to develop a dynamic modeling strategy for determining flow regimes in gas-liquid two-phase flows through the introduction of interfacial area transport equations (IATEs) within the framework of a two-fluid model. The IATE is a transport equation that models the interfacial area concentration by considering the creation and destruction of the interfacial area, such as the fluid particle (bubble or liquid droplet) disintegration, boiling and evaporation; and fluid particle coalescence and condensation, respectively. For the flow regimes beyond bubbly flows, a two-group IATE has been proposed, in which bubbles are divided into two groups based on their size and shape (which are correlated), namely small bubbles and large bubbles. A preliminary approach to dynamically identifying the flow regimes is provided, in which discriminators are based on the predicted information, such as the void fraction and interfacial area concentration of small bubble and large bubble groups. This method is expected to be applied to computer codes to improve their predictive capabilities of gas-liquid two-phase flows, in particular for the applications in

  15. Hot gas cross flow filtering module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lippert, Thomas E.; Ciliberti, David F.

    1988-01-01

    A filter module for use in filtering particulates from a high temperature gas has a central gas duct and at least one horizontally extending support mount affixed to the duct. The support mount supports a filter element thereon and has a chamber therein, which communicates with an inner space of the duct through an opening in the wall of the duct, and which communicates with the clean gas face of the filter element. The filter element is secured to the support mount over an opening in the top wall of the support mount, with releasable securement provided to enable replacement of the filter element when desired. Ceramic springs may be used in connection with the filter module either to secure a filter element to a support mount or to prevent delamination of the filter element during blowback.

  16. Intercooler flow path for gas turbines: CFD design and experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, A.K.; Gollahalli, S.R.; Carter, F.L.

    1995-10-01

    The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program was created by the U.S. Department of Energy to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for generating electricity. Intercooling or cooling of air between compressor stages is a feature under consideration in advanced cycles for the ATS. Intercooling entails cooling of air between the low pressure (LP) and high pressure (BP) compressor sections of the gas turbine. Lower air temperature entering the HP compressor decreases the air volume flow rate and hence, the compression work. Intercooling also lowers temperature at the HP discharge, thus allowing for more effective use of cooling air in the hot gas flow path. The thermodynamic analyses of gas turbine cycles with modifications such as intercooling, recuperating, and reheating have shown that intercooling is important to achieving high efficiency gas turbines. The gas turbine industry has considerable interest in adopting intercooling to advanced gas turbines of different capacities. This observation is reinforced by the US Navys Intercooled-Recuperative (ICR) gas turbine development program to power the surface ships. In an intercooler system, the air exiting the LP compressor must be decelerated to provide the necessary residence time in the heat exchanger. The cooler air must subsequently be accelerated towards the inlet of the HP compressor. The circumferential flow nonuniformities inevitably introduced by the heat exchanger, if not isolated, could lead to rotating stall in the compressors, and reduce the overall system performance and efficiency. Also, the pressure losses in the intercooler flow path adversely affect the system efficiency and hence, must be minimized. Thus, implementing intercooling requires fluid dynamically efficient flow path with minimum flow nonuniformities and consequent pressure losses.

  17. Gas-Dynamic Transients Flow Networks

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1987-09-01

    TVENT1P predicts flows and pressures in a ventilation system or other air pathway caused by pressure transients, such as a tornado. For an analytical model to simulate an actual system, it must have (1) the same arrangement of components in a network of flow paths; (2) the same friction characteristics; (3) the same boundary pressures; (4) the same capacitance; and (5) the same forces that drive the air. A specific set of components used formore » constructing the analytical model includes filters, dampers, ducts, blowers, rooms, or volume connected at nodal points to form networks. The effects of a number of similar components can be lumped into a single one. TVENT1P contains a material transport algorithm and features for turning blowers off and on, changing blower speeds, changing the resistance of dampers and filters, and providing a filter model to handle very high flows. These features make it possible to depict a sequence of events during a single run. Component properties are varied using time functions. The filter model is not used by the code unless it is specified by the user. The basic results of a TVENT1P solution are flows in branches and pressures at nodes. A postprocessor program, PLTTEX, is included to produce the plots specified in the TVENT1P input. PLTTEX uses the proprietary CA-DISSPLA graphics software.« less

  18. Using Carbon Dioxide to Enhance Recovery of Methane from Gas Hydrate Reservoirs: Final Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrail, B. Peter; Schaef, Herbert T.; White, Mark D.; Zhu, Tao; Kulkarni, Abhijeet S.; Hunter, Robert B.; Patil, Shirish L.; Owen, Antionette T.; Martin, P F.

    2007-09-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration coupled with hydrocarbon resource recovery is often economically attractive. Use of CO2 for enhanced recovery of oil, conventional natural gas, and coal-bed methane are in various stages of common practice. In this report, we discuss a new technique utilizing CO2 for enhanced recovery of an unconventional but potentially very important source of natural gas, gas hydrate. We have focused our attention on the Alaska North Slope where approximately 640 Tcf of natural gas reserves in the form of gas hydrate have been identified. Alaska is also unique in that potential future CO2 sources are nearby, and petroleum infrastructure exists or is being planned that could bring the produced gas to market or for use locally. The EGHR (Enhanced Gas Hydrate Recovery) concept takes advantage of the physical and thermodynamic properties of mixtures in the H2O-CO2 system combined with controlled multiphase flow, heat, and mass transport processes in hydrate-bearing porous media. A chemical-free method is used to deliver a LCO2-Lw microemulsion into the gas hydrate bearing porous medium. The microemulsion is injected at a temperature higher than the stability point of methane hydrate, which upon contacting the methane hydrate decomposes its crystalline lattice and releases the enclathrated gas. Small scale column experiments show injection of the emulsion into a CH4 hydrate rich sand results in the release of CH4 gas and the formation of CO2 hydrate

  19. About the statistical description of gas-liquid flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanz, D.; Guido-Lavalle, G.; Carrica, P.

    1995-09-01

    Elements of the probabilistic geometry are used to derive the bubble coalescence term of the statistical description of gas liquid flows. It is shown that the Boltzmann`s hypothesis, that leads to the kinetic theory of dilute gases, is not appropriate for this kind of flows. The resulting integro-differential transport equation is numerically integrated to study the flow development in slender bubble columns. The solution remarkably predicts the transition from bubbly to slug flow pattern. Moreover, a bubbly bimodal size distribution is predicted, which has already been observed experimentally.

  20. Gas mass transfer for stratified flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffey, R.B.; Hughes, E.D.

    1995-06-01

    We analyzed gas absorption and release in water bodies using existing surface renewal theory. We show a new relation between turbulent momentum and mass transfer from gas to water, including the effects of waves and wave roughness, by evaluating the equilibrium integral turbulent dissipation due to energy transfer to the water from the wind. Using Kolmogoroff turbulence arguments the gas transfer velocity, or mass transfer coefficient, is then naturally and straightforwardly obtained as a non-linear function of the wind speed drag coefficient and the square root of the molecular diffusion coefficient. In dimensionless form, the theory predicts the turbulent Sherwood number to be Sh{sub t} = (2/{radical}{pi})Sc{sup 1/2}, where Sh{sub t} is based on an integral dissipation length scale in the air. The theory confirms the observed nonlinear variation of the mass transfer coefficient as a function of the wind speed; gives the correct transition with turbulence-centered models for smooth surfaces at low speeds; and predicts experimental data from both laboratory and environmental measurements within the data scatter. The differences between the available laboratory and field data measurements are due to the large differences in the drag coefficient between wind tunnels and oceans. The results also imply that the effect of direct aeration due to bubble entrainment at wave breaking is no more than a 20% increase in the mass transfer for the highest speeds. The theory has importance to mass transfer in both the geo-physical and chemical engineering literature.

  1. Gas mass transfer for stratified flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffey, R.B.; Hughes, E.D.

    1995-07-01

    We analyzed gas absorption and release in water bodies using existing surface renewal theory. We show a new relation between turbulent momentum and mass transfer from gas to water, including the effects of waves and wave roughness, by evaluating the equilibrum integral turbulent dissipation due to energy transfer to the water from the wind. Using Kolmogoroff turbulence arguments the gas transfer velocity, or mass transfer coefficient, is then naturally and straightforwardly obtained as a non-linear function of the wind speed drag coefficient and the square root of the molecular diffusion coefficient. In dimensionless form, the theory predicts the turbulent Sherwood number to be Sh{sub t} = (2/{radical}{pi}) Sc{sup 1/2}, where Sh{sub t} is based on an integral dissipation length scale in the air. The theory confirms the observed nonlinear variation of the mass transfer coefficient as a function of the wind speed; gives the correct transition with turbulence-centered models for smooth surfaces at low speeds; and predicts experimental data from both laboratory and environmental measurements within the data scatter. The differences between the available laboratory and field data measurements are due to the large differences in the drag coefficient between wind tunnels and oceans. The results also imply that the effect of direct aeration due to bubble entrainment at wave breaking is no more than a 20% increase in the mass transfer for the highest speeds. The theory has importance to mass transfer in both the geophysical and chemical engineering literature.

  2. Turbine exhaust diffuser with region of reduced flow area and outer boundary gas flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orosa, John

    2014-03-11

    An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine. The outer boundary may include a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inwardly toward the hub structure and may direct at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub structure. At least one gas jet is provided including a jet exit located on the outer boundary. The jet exit may discharge a flow of gas downstream substantially parallel to an inner surface of the outer boundary to direct a portion of the exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the outer boundary to effect a radially outward flow of at least a portion of the exhaust gas flow toward the outer boundary to balance an aerodynamic load between the outer and inner boundaries.

  3. Dynamic Modeling Strategy for Flow Regime Transition in Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia Wang; Xiaodong Sun; Benjamin Doup; Haihua Zhao

    2012-12-01

    In modeling gas-liquid two-phase flows, the concept of flow regimes has been widely used to characterize the global interfacial structure of the flows. Nearly all constitutive relations that provide closures to the interfacial transfers in two-phase flow models, such as the two-fluid model, are flow regime dependent. Current nuclear reactor safety analysis codes, such as RELAP5, classify flow regimes using flow regime maps or transition criteria that were developed for steady-state, fully-developed flows. As twophase flows are dynamic in nature, it is important to model the flow regime transitions dynamically to more accurately predict the two-phase flows. The present work aims to develop a dynamic modeling strategy to determine flow regimes in gas-liquid two-phase flows through introduction of interfacial area transport equations (IATEs) within the framework of a two-fluid model. The IATE is a transport equation that models the interfacial area concentration by considering the creation of the interfacial area, fluid particle (bubble or liquid droplet) disintegration, boiling and evaporation, and the destruction of the interfacial area, fluid particle coalescence and condensation. For flow regimes beyond bubbly flows, a two-group IATE has been proposed, in which bubbles are divided into two groups based on their size and shapes, namely group-1 and group-2 bubbles. A preliminary approach to dynamically identify the flow regimes is discussed, in which discriminator s are based on the predicted information, such as the void fraction and interfacial area concentration. The flow regime predicted with this method shows good agreement with the experimental observations.

  4. Microfluidic gas flow profiling using remote detection NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hilty, Christian; McDonnell, Erin; Granwehr, Josef; Pierce,Kimberly; Han, Song-I Han; Pines, Alexander

    2005-05-06

    Miniaturized fluid handling devices have recently attracted considerable interest in many areas of science1. Such microfluidic chips perform a variety of functions, ranging from analysis of biological macromolecules2,3 to catalysis of reactions and sensing in the gas phase4,5. To enable precise fluid handling, accurate knowledge of the flow properties within these devices is important. Due to low Reynolds numbers, laminar flow is usually assumed. However, either by design or unintentionally, the flow characteristic in small channels is often altered, for example by surface interactions, viscous and diffusional effects, or electrical potentials. Therefore, its prediction is not always straight-forward6-8. Currently, most microfluidic flow measurements rely on optical detection of markers9,10, requiring the injection of tracers and transparent devices. Here, we show profiles of microfluidic gas flow in capillaries and chip devices obtained by NMR in the remote detection modality11,12. Through the transient measurement of dispersion13, NMR is well adaptable for non-invasive, yet sensitive determination of the flow field and provides a novel and potentially more powerful tool to profile flow in capillaries and miniaturized flow devices.

  5. A Two-Dimensional Compressible Gas Flow Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-03-17

    F2D is a general purpose, two dimensional, fully compressible thermal-fluids code that models most of the phenomena found in situations of coupled fluid flow and heat transfer. The code solves momentum, continuity, gas-energy, and structure-energy equations using a predictor-correction solution algorithm. The corrector step includes a Poisson pressure equation. The finite difference form of the equation is presented along with a description of input and output. Several example problems are included that demonstrate the applicabilitymore » of the code in problems ranging from free fluid flow, shock tubes and flow in heated porous media.« less

  6. Fiber-optic interferometric sensor for gas flow measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaminski, W.R. ); Griffin, J.W.; Bates, J.M. )

    1991-12-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation to determine the feasibility of a novel approach to measuring gas flow in a pipe. An optical fiber is stretched across a pipe and serves as a sensor which is based upon the well-established principle of vortex shedding of a cylinder in cross-flow. The resulting time varying optical signal produces a frequency component proportional to the average velocity in the pipe which is in turn proportional to volumetric flow. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer is used to enhance the accuracy of the vortex shedding frequency signal. The analytical and experimental effort discussed herein shows that the concept is feasible and holds promise for a sensitive and accurate flow measuring technique.

  7. Hydrogen and Hydrogen/Natural Gas Station and Vehicle Operations - 2006 Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francfort; Donald Karner; Roberta Brayer

    2006-09-01

    This report is a summary of the operations and testing of internal combustion engine vehicles that were fueled with 100% hydrogen and various blends of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (HCNG). It summarizes the operations of the Arizona Public Service Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant, which produces, compresses, and dispenses hydrogen fuel. Other testing activities, such as the destructive testing of a CNG storage cylinder that was used for HCNG storage, are also discussed. This report highlights some of the latest technology developments in the use of 100% hydrogen fuels in internal combustion engine vehicles. Reports are referenced and WWW locations noted as a guide for the reader that desires more detailed information. These activities are conducted by Arizona Public Service, Electric Transportation Applications, the Idaho National Laboratory, and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity.

  8. Magnetic roller gas gate employing transonic sweep gas flow to isolate regions of differing gaseous composition or pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doehler, Joachim

    1994-12-20

    Disclosed herein is an improved gas gate for interconnecting regions of differing gaseous composition and/or pressure. The gas gate includes a narrow, elongated passageway through which substrate material is adapted to move between said regions and inlet means for introducing a flow of non-contaminating sweep gas into a central portion of said passageway. The gas gate is characterized in that the height of the passageway and the flow rate of the sweep gas therethrough provides for transonic flow of the sweep gas between the inlet means and at least one of the two interconnected regions, thereby effectively isolating one region, characterized by one composition and pressure, from another region, having a differing composition and/or pressure, by decreasing the mean-free-path length between collisions of diffusing species within the transonic flow region. The gas gate preferably includes a manifold at the juncture point where the gas inlet means and the passageway interconnect.

  9. Flammable gas interlock spoolpiece flow response test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, T.C., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-24

    The purpose of this test report is to document the testing performed under the guidance of HNF-SD-WM-TC-073, {ital Flammable Gas Interlock Spoolpiece Flow Response Test Plan and Procedure}. This testing was performed for Lockheed Martin Hanford Characterization Projects Operations (CPO) in support of Rotary Mode Core Sampling jointly by SGN Eurisys Services Corporation and Numatec Hanford Company. The testing was conducted in the 305 building Engineering Testing Laboratory (ETL). NHC provides the engineering and technical support for the 305 ETL. The key personnel identified for the performance of this task are as follows: Test responsible engineering manager, C. E. Hanson; Flammable Gas Interlock Design Authority, G. P. Janicek; 305 ETL responsible manager, N. J. Schliebe; Cognizant RMCS exhauster engineer, E. J. Waldo/J. D. Robinson; Cognizant 305 ETL engineer, K. S. Witwer; Test director, T. C. Schneider. Other support personnel were supplied, as necessary, from 305/306 ETL. The testing, on the flammable Gas Interlock (FGI) system spoolpiece required to support Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) of single shell flammable gas watch list tanks, took place between 2-13-97 and 2-25-97.

  10. Acoustic cross-correlation flowmeter for solid-gas flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.

    1984-05-14

    Apparatus for measuring particle velocity in a solid-gas flow within a pipe includes: first and second transmitting transducers for transmitting first and second ultrasonic signals into the pipe at first and second locations, respectively, along the pipe; an acoustic decoupler, positioned between said first and second transmitting transducers, for acoustically isolating said first and second signals from one another; first and second detecting transducers for detecting said first and second signals and for generating first and second detected signals; and means for cross-correlating said first and second output signals.

  11. Acoustic cross-correlation flowmeter for solid-gas flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheen, Shuh-Haw; Raptis, Apostolos C.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus for measuring particle velocity in a solid-gas flow within a pipe includes: first and second transmitting transducers for transmitting first and second ultrasonic signals into the pipe at first and second locations, respectively, along the pipe; an acoustic decoupler, positioned between said first and second transmitting transducers, for acoustically isolating said first and second signals from one another; first and second detecting transducers for detecting said first and second signals and for generating first and second detected signals in response to said first and second detected signals; and means for cross-correlating said first and second output signals.

  12. Lattice gas automata for flow and transport in geochemical systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janecky, D.R.; Chen, S.; Dawson, S.; Eggert, K.C.; Travis, B.J.

    1992-05-01

    Lattice gas automata models are described, which couple solute transport with chemical reactions at mineral surfaces within pore networks. Diffusion in a box calculations are illustrated, which compare directly with Fickian diffusion. Chemical reactions at solid surfaces, including precipitation/dissolution, sorption, and catalytic reaction, can be examined with the model because hydrodynamic transport, solute diffusion and mineral surface processes are all treated explicitly. The simplicity and flexibility of the approach provides the ability to study the interrelationship between fluid flow and chemical reactions in porous materials, at a level of complexity that has not previously been computationally possible.

  13. Lattice gas automata for flow and transport in geochemical systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janecky, D.R.; Chen, S.; Dawson, S.; Eggert, K.C.; Travis, B.J.

    1992-01-01

    Lattice gas automata models are described, which couple solute transport with chemical reactions at mineral surfaces within pore networks. Diffusion in a box calculations are illustrated, which compare directly with Fickian diffusion. Chemical reactions at solid surfaces, including precipitation/dissolution, sorption, and catalytic reaction, can be examined with the model because hydrodynamic transport, solute diffusion and mineral surface processes are all treated explicitly. The simplicity and flexibility of the approach provides the ability to study the interrelationship between fluid flow and chemical reactions in porous materials, at a level of complexity that has not previously been computationally possible.

  14. FORCE2: A multidimensional flow program for gas solids flow theory guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burge, S.W.

    1991-05-01

    This report describes the theory and structure of the FORCE2 flow program. The manual describes the governing model equations, solution procedure and their implementation in the computer program. FORCE2 is an extension of an existing B&V multidimensional, two-phase flow program. FORCE2 was developed for application to fluid beds by flow implementing a gas-solids modeling technology derived, in part, during a joint government -- industry research program, ``Erosion of FBC Heat Transfer Tubes,`` coordinated by Argonne National Laboratory. The development of FORCE2 was sponsored by ASEA-Babcock, an industry participant in this program. This manual is the principal documentation for the program theory and organization. Program usage and post-processing of code predictions with the FORCE2 post-processor are described in a companion report, FORCE2 -- A Multidimensional Flow Program for Fluid Beds, User`s Guide. This manual is segmented into sections to facilitate its usage. In section 2.0, the mass and momentum conservation principles, the basis for the code, are presented. In section 3.0, the constitutive relations used in modeling gas-solids hydrodynamics are given. The finite-difference model equations are derived in section 4.0 and the solution procedures described in sections 5.0 and 6.0. Finally, the implementation of the model equations and solution procedure in FORCE2 is described in section 7.0.

  15. Florida Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Florida Natural Gas Number of Gas and ...2016 Referring Pages: Number of Producing Gas Wells (Summary) Florida Natural Gas Summary

  16. Use of exhaust gas as sweep flow to enhance air separation membrane performance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutart, Charles H.; Choi, Cathy Y.

    2003-01-01

    An intake air separation system for an internal combustion engine is provided with purge gas or sweep flow on the permeate side of separation membranes in the air separation device. Exhaust gas from the engine is used as a purge gas flow, to increase oxygen flux in the separation device without increasing the nitrogen flux.

  17. Relation between plasma plume density and gas flow velocity in atmospheric pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Taka, Shogo; Ogura, Kazuo [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)

    2014-04-15

    We have studied atmospheric pressure plasma generated using a quartz tube, helium gas, and copper foil electrode by applying RF high voltage. The atmospheric pressure plasma in the form of a bullet is released as a plume into the atmosphere. To study the properties of the plasma plume, the plasma plume current is estimated from the difference in currents on the circuit, and the drift velocity is measured using a photodetector. The relation of the plasma plume density n{sub plu}, which is estimated from the current and the drift velocity, and the gas flow velocity v{sub gas} is examined. It is found that the dependence of the density on the gas flow velocity has relations of n{sub plu} ? log(v{sub gas}). However, the plasma plume density in the laminar flow is higher than that in the turbulent flow. Consequently, in the laminar flow, the density increases with increasing the gas flow velocity.

  18. A Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Periodic Flow Gas Turbine for Distributed Energy Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Adam London

    2008-06-20

    The proposed effort served as a feasibility study for an innovative, low-cost periodic flow gas turbine capable of realizing efficiencies in the 39-48% range.

  19. Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Interim Report on Natural Gas Flows and Rates

    Reports and Publications

    1995-01-01

    This report, summarized data and studies that could be used to address the impact of legislative and regulatory actions on natural gas transportation rates and flow patterns.

  20. Enhanced thermal and gas flow performance in a three-way catalytic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Enhanced thermal and gas flow performance in a three-way catalytic converter through use of insulation within the ceramic monolith Emissions performance comparison of conventional ...

  1. A simple model of gas flow in a porous powder compact.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shugard, Andrew D.; Robinson, David B.

    2014-04-01

    This report describes a simple model for ideal gas flow from a vessel through a bed of porous material into another vessel. It assumes constant temperature and uniform porosity. Transport is treated as a combination of viscous and molecular flow, with no inertial contribution (low Reynolds number). This model can be used to fit data to obtain permeability values, determine flow rates, understand the relative contributions of viscous and molecular flow, and verify volume calibrations. It draws upon the Dusty Gas Model and other detailed studies of gas flow through porous media.

  2. Analytical model for transient gas flow in nuclear fuel rods. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowe, D.S.; Oehlberg, R.N.

    1981-08-01

    An analytical model for calculating gas flow and pressure inside a nuclear fuel rod is presented. Such a model is required to calculate the pressure loading of cladding during ballooning that could occur for postulated reactor accidents. The mathematical model uses a porous media (permeability) concept to define the resistance to gas flow along the fuel rod. 7 refs.

  3. Flow Integrating Section for a Gas Turbine Engine in Which Turbine Blades are Cooled by Full Compressor Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steward, W. Gene

    1999-11-14

    Routing of full compressor flow through hollow turbine blades achieves unusually effective blade cooling and allows a significant increase in turbine inlet gas temperature and, hence, engine efficiency. The invention, ''flow integrating section'' alleviates the turbine dissipation of kinetic energy of air jets leaving the hollow blades as they enter the compressor diffuser.

  4. Falling microbead counter-flow process for separating gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hornbostel, Marc D.; Krishnan, Gopala N.; Sanjurjo, Angel

    2015-10-27

    A method and reactor for removing a component from a gas stream is provided. In one embodiment, the method includes providing the gas stream containing the component that is to be removed and adsorbing the component out of the gas stream as the gas stream rises via microbeads of a sorbent falling down an adsorber section of a reactor.

  5. Falling microbead counter-flow process for separating gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hornbostel, Marc D.; Krishnan, Gopala N.; Sanjurjo, Angel

    2015-07-07

    A method and reactor for removing a component from a gas stream is provided. In one embodiment, the method includes providing the gas stream containing the component that is to be removed and adsorbing the component out of the gas stream as the gas stream rises via microbeads of a sorbent falling down an adsorber section of a reactor.

  6. CA, State Offshore Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    57 66 82 66 75 76 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 4 3 3 1 0 0 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 53 63 79 65 75 ...

  7. Next Generation * Natural Gas (NG)2 Information Requirements--Executive Summary

    Reports and Publications

    2000-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has initiated the Next Generation * Natural Gas (NG)2 project to design and implement a new and comprehensive information program for natural gas to meet customer requirements in the post-2000 time frame.

  8. TX, State Offshore Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    64 131 118 94 59 42 1981-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 161 128 113 88 56 42 1981-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 3 3 ...

  9. LA, State Offshore Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    728 386 519 519 420 341 1981-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 215 279 468 391 332 273 1981-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease ...

  10. Summary of Recent Flow Testing of the Fenton Hill HDR Reservoir...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    a viable commercial reality. Of most significance is the demonstrated self-regulating nature of the flow through such a reservoir. Both temperature and tracer data indicate that...

  11. Fuel Summary for Peach Bottom Unit 1 High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Cores 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karel I. Kingrey

    2003-04-01

    This fuel summary report contains background and summary information for the Peach Bottom Unit 1, High-Temperature, Gas-Cooled Reactor Cores 1 and 2. This report contains detailed information about the fuel in the two cores, the Peach Bottom Unit 1 operating history, nuclear parameters, physical and chemical characteristics, and shipping and storage canister related data. The data in this document have been compiled from a large number of sources and are not qualified beyond the qualification of the source documents. This report is intended to provide an overview of the existing data pertaining to spent fuel management and point to pertinent reference source documents. For design applications, the original source documentation must be used. While all referenced sources are available as records or controlled documents at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), some of the sources were marked as informal or draft reports. This is noted where applicable. In some instances, source documents are not consistent. Where they are known, this document identifies those instances and provides clarification where possible. However, as stated above, this document has not been independently qualified and such clarifications are only included for information purposes. Some of the information in this summary is available in multiple source documents. An effort has been made to clearly identify at least one record document as the source for the information included in this report.

  12. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Expansion Process Flow Diagram

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Development & Expansion > Development and Expansion Process Figure About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates Development and Expansion Process For Natural Gas Pipeline Projects Figure showing the expansion process

  13. U.S. Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    283,879 317,647 348,809 322,670 353,994 388,841 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 250,496 281,901 305,986 269,514 295,504 319,724 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 33,383 35,746 42,823 53,156 58,490 69,117 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 272,509 304,625 334,067 308,036 338,264 368,704 1925-2014 Natural Gas Liquids (Million Barrels) 1979

  14. Iran seeking help in regaining prerevolution oil and gas flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tippee, B.

    1996-02-19

    This paper reviews the goals of the Iranian oil and gas industry to rebuild their oil and gas production facilities by using foreign investment. It discusses the historical consequences of war in the region to diminish the production and postpone the recovery of natural gas which is currently flared. It describes the major projects Iran hopes to develop through international partnerships and includes field development, pipeline construction, gas reinjection, gas treatment facilities, and new offshore operation. The paper also reviews the US policy on Iran and its attempt to apply sanctions towards this country.

  15. Experimental on two sensors combination used in horizontal pipe gas-water two-phase flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Hao; Dong, Feng

    2014-04-11

    Gas-water two phase flow phenomenon widely exists in production and living and the measurement of it is meaningful. A new type of long-waist cone flow sensor has been designed to measure two-phase mass flow rate. Six rings structure of conductance probe is used to measure volume fraction and axial velocity. The calibration of them have been made. Two sensors have been combined in horizontal pipeline experiment to measure two-phase flow mass flow rate. Several model of gas-water two-phase flow has been discussed. The calculation errors of total mass flow rate measurement is less than 5% based on the revised homogeneous flow model.

  16. Federal Offshore U.S. Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2,856 12,120 10,820 9,853 8,567 8,968 1990-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 7,633 6,916 5,374 3,989 3,037 3,634 1990-2014 Natural Gas ...

  17. LA, South Onshore Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2,969 2,995 2,615 3,149 2,857 3,080 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 2,463 2,496 2,125 2,586 2,254 2,432 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, ...

  18. Program Summaries

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Program Summaries Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Program Summaries Brochures Reports Accomplishments Presentations BES and Congress Science for Energy Flow Seeing Matter Nano for Energy Scale of Things Chart Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington,

  19. Gas-kinetic unified algorithm for hypersonic flows covering various flow regimes solving Boltzmann model equation in nonequilibrium effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhihui; Ma, Qiang; Wu, Junlin; Jiang, Xinyu; Zhang, Hanxin

    2014-12-09

    Based on the Gas-Kinetic Unified Algorithm (GKUA) directly solving the Boltzmann model equation, the effect of rotational non-equilibrium is investigated recurring to the kinetic Rykov model with relaxation property of rotational degrees of freedom. The spin movement of diatomic molecule is described by moment of inertia, and the conservation of total angle momentum is taken as a new Boltzmann collision invariant. The molecular velocity distribution function is integrated by the weight factor on the internal energy, and the closed system of two kinetic controlling equations is obtained with inelastic and elastic collisions. The optimization selection technique of discrete velocity ordinate points and numerical quadrature rules for macroscopic flow variables with dynamic updating evolvement are developed to simulate hypersonic flows, and the gas-kinetic numerical scheme is constructed to capture the time evolution of the discretized velocity distribution functions. The gas-kinetic boundary conditions in thermodynamic non-equilibrium and numerical procedures are studied and implemented by directly acting on the velocity distribution function, and then the unified algorithm of Boltzmann model equation involving non-equilibrium effect is presented for the whole range of flow regimes. The hypersonic flows involving non-equilibrium effect are numerically simulated including the inner flows of shock wave structures in nitrogen with different Mach numbers of 1.5-Ma-25, the planar ramp flow with the whole range of Knudsen numbers of 0.0009-Kn-10 and the three-dimensional re-entering flows around tine double-cone body.

  20. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system with directed internal gas flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holmes, Michael Jerome; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2010-02-09

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an inlet adapted to introduce gas into the interior of the vessel, an outlet adapted to withdraw gas from the interior of the vessel, and an axis; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region; and (c) one or more gas flow control partitions disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and adapted to change a direction of gas flow within the vessel.

  1. TX, RRC District 1 Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    523 2,599 6,127 9,141 8,118 12,431 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 1,456 2,332 5,227 6,516 4,442 7,733 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 67 267 900 2,625 3,676 4,698 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 1,398 2,399 5,910 8,868 7,784 11,945

  2. TX, RRC District 10 Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    7,594 8,484 8,373 8,007 7,744 8,354 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 6,984 7,915 7,475 7,073 6,660 7,140 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 610 569 898 934 1,084 1,214 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 6,882 7,663 7,513 7,253 7,034 7,454

  3. TX, RRC District 2 Onshore Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    909 2,235 3,690 5,985 6,640 7,524 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 1,837 2,101 2,766 3,986 4,348 4,802 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 72 134 924 1,999 2,292 2,722 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 1,800 2,090 3,423 5,462 5,910 6,559

  4. TX, RRC District 3 Onshore Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2,802 2,774 2,490 2,429 2,592 2,483 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 2,326 2,308 2,091 1,965 1,795 1,760 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 476 466 399 464 797 723 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 2,616 2,588 2,260 2,154 2,307 2,19

  5. TX, RRC District 4 Onshore Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    7,057 7,392 10,054 9,566 11,101 12,482 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 6,961 7,301 9,993 9,467 11,038 12,291 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 96 91 61 99 63 191 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 6,728 7,014 9,458 8,743 9,640 11,057

  6. TX, RRC District 5 Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    22,623 24,694 28,187 17,640 19,531 18,155 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 22,602 24,686 28,147 17,587 19,354 17,970 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 21 8 40 53 177 185 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 22,343 24,363 27,843 17,331 19,280 17,880

  7. TX, RRC District 6 Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    13,257 15,416 15,995 11,726 12,192 12,023 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 12,806 14,958 15,524 11,204 11,553 11,640 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 451 458 471 522 639 383 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 12,795 14,886 15,480 11,340 11,655 11,516

  8. TX, RRC District 7B Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2,424 2,625 3,887 3,363 3,267 2,695 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 2,322 2,504 3,754 3,183 3,040 2,418 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 102 121 133 180 227 277 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 2,077 2,242 3,305 2,943 2,787 2,290

  9. TX, RRC District 7C Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    5,430 5,432 5,236 5,599 5,584 7,103 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 3,724 3,502 2,857 2,523 2,183 2,444 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 1,706 1,930 2,379 3,076 3,401 4,659 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 4,827 4,787 4,475 4,890 4,800 6,422

  10. TX, RRC District 8 Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    7,440 8,105 8,088 8,963 9,715 11,575 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 3,950 3,777 3,006 2,309 2,315 2,480 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 3,490 4,328 5,082 6,654 7,400 9,095 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 6,672 7,206 7,039 7,738 8,629 9,742

  11. TX, RRC District 8A Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    1,289 1,228 1,289 1,280 1,338 1,328 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 43 58 31 20 23 24 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 1,246 1,170 1,258 1,260 1,315 1,304 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 1,218 1,164 1,226 1,214 1,269 1,257

  12. TX, RRC District 9 Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    11,522 13,172 10,920 9,682 10,040 9,760 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 11,100 12,587 9,963 8,521 8,947 8,283 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 422 585 957 1,161 1,093 1,477 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 10,904 12,464 10,115 8,894 9,195 8,791

  13. Lower 48 States Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    274,696 308,730 339,298 313,003 346,611 382,036 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 249,406 280,880 305,010 268,519 294,549 318,770 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 25,290 27,850 34,288 44,484 52,062 63,266 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 263,408 295,787 324,643 298,457 330,948 361,959

  14. Gas-lift pumps for flowing and purifying molten silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kellerman, Peter L.; Carlson, Frederick

    2016-02-23

    The embodiments herein relate to a sheet production apparatus. A vessel is configured to hold a melt of a material and a cooling plate is disposed proximate the melt. This cooling plate configured to form a sheet of the material on the melt. A pump is used. In one instance, this pump includes a gas source and a conduit in fluid communication with the gas source. In another instance, this pump injects a gas into a melt. The gas can raise the melt or provide momentum to the melt.

  15. Influence of the gas-flow Reynolds number on a plasma column in a glass tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Dong Jun; Uhm, Han S.; Cho, Guangsup [Department of Electronic and Biological Physics, Kwangwoon University, 20 Kwangwon-Ro, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Electronic and Biological Physics, Kwangwoon University, 20 Kwangwon-Ro, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Atmospheric-plasma generation inside a glass tube is influenced by gas stream behavior as described by the Reynolds number (Rn). In experiments with He, Ne, and Ar, the plasma column length increases with an increase in the gas flow rate under laminar flow characterized by Rn < 2000. The length of the plasma column decreases as the flow rate increases in the transition region of 2000 < Rn < 4000. For a turbulent flow beyond Rn > 4000, the length of the plasma column is short in front of the electrode, eventually leading to a shutdown.

  16. Gas flow stabilized megavolt spark gap for repetitive pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawson, R.N.; O'Malley, M.W.; Rohwein, G.J.

    A high voltage spark gap switch is disclosed including a housing having first and second end walls being spaced apart by a predetermined distance. A first electrode is positioned on the first end wall and a second electrode is positioned on the second end wall. The first and second electrodes are operatively disposed relative to each other and are spaced apart by a predetermined gap. An inlet conduit is provided for supplying gas to the first electrode. The conduit includes a nozzle for dispersing the gas in the shape of an annular jet. The gas is supplied into the housing at a predetermined velocity. A venturi housing is disposed within the second electrode. An exhaust conduit is provided for discharging gas and residue from the housing. The gas supplied at the predetermined velocity to the housing through the inlet conduit and the nozzle in an annular shape traverses the gap between the first and second electrodes and entrains low velocity gas within the housing decreasing the velocity of the gas supplied to the housing and increasing the diameter of the annular shape. The venturi disposed within the second electrode recirculates a large volume of gas to clean and cool the surface of the electrodes.

  17. Gas flow stabilized megavolt spark gap for repetitive pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawson, Robert N.; O'Malley, Martin W.; Rohwein, Gerald J.

    1986-01-01

    A high voltage spark gap switch including a housing having first and second end walls being spaced apart by a predetermined distance. A first electrode is positioned on the first end wall and a second electrode is positioned on the second end wall. The first and second electrodes are operatively disposed relative to each other and are spaced apart by a predetermined gap. An inlet conduit is provided for supplying gas to the first electrode. The conduit includes a nozzle for dispersing the gas in the shape of an annular jet. The gas is supplied into the housing at a predetermined velocity. A venturi housing is disposed within the second electrode. An exhaust conduit is provided for discharging gas and residue from the housing. The gas supplied at the predetermined velocity to the housing through the inlet conduit and the nozzle in an annular shape traverses the gap between the first and second electrodes and entrains low velocity gas within the housing decreasing the velocity of the gas supplied to the housing and increasing the diameter of the annular shape. The venturi disposed within the second electrode recirculates a large volume of gas to clean and cool the surface of the electrodes.

  18. A summary of methods for approximating salt creep and disposal room closure in numerical models of multiphase flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeze, G.A.; Larson, K.W.; Davies, P.B.

    1995-10-01

    Eight alternative methods for approximating salt creep and disposal room closure in a multiphase flow model of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were implemented and evaluated: Three fixed-room geometries three porosity functions and two fluid-phase-salt methods. The pressure-time-porosity line interpolation method is the method used in current WIPP Performance Assessment calculations. The room closure approximation methods were calibrated against a series of room closure simulations performed using a creep closure code, SANCHO. The fixed-room geometries did not incorporate a direct coupling between room void volume and room pressure. The two porosity function methods that utilized moles of gas as an independent parameter for closure coupling. The capillary backstress method was unable to accurately simulate conditions of re-closure of the room. Two methods were found to be accurate enough to approximate the effects of room closure; the boundary backstress method and pressure-time-porosity line interpolation. The boundary backstress method is a more reliable indicator of system behavior due to a theoretical basis for modeling salt deformation as a viscous process. It is a complex method and a detailed calibration process is required. The pressure lines method is thought to be less reliable because the results were skewed towards SANCHO results in simulations where the sequence of gas generation was significantly different from the SANCHO gas-generation rate histories used for closure calibration. This limitation in the pressure lines method is most pronounced at higher gas-generation rates and is relatively insignificant at lower gas-generation rates. Due to its relative simplicity, the pressure lines method is easier to implement in multiphase flow codes and simulations have a shorter execution time.

  19. Miscellaneous: Uruguay energy supply options study assessing the market for natural gas - executive summary.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conzelmann, G.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-03-04

    Uruguay is in the midst of making critical decisions affecting the design of its future energy supply system. Momentum for change is expected to come from several directions, including recent and foreseeable upgrades and modifications to energy conversion facilities, the importation of natural gas from Argentina, the possibility for a stronger interconnection of regional electricity systems, the country's membership in MERCOSUR, and the potential for energy sector reforms by the Government of Uruguay. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of several fuel diversification strategies on Uruguay's energy supply system. The analysis pays special attention to fuel substitution trends due to potential imports of natural gas via a gas pipeline from Argentina and increasing electricity ties with neighboring countries. The Government of Uruguay has contracted with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to study several energy development scenarios with the support of several Uruguayan institutions. Specifically, ANL was asked to conduct a detailed energy supply and demand analysis, develop energy demand projections based on an analysis of past energy demand patterns with support from local institutions, evaluate the effects of potential natural gas imports and electricity exchanges, and determine the market penetration of natural gas under various scenarios.

  20. The Gas Flow from the Gas Attenuator to the Beam Line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryutov, D.D.

    2010-12-03

    The gas leak from the gas attenuator to the main beam line of the Linac Coherent Light Source has been evaluated, with the effect of the Knudsen molecular beam included. It has been found that the gas leak from the gas attenuator of the present design, with nitrogen as a working gas, does not exceed 10{sup -5} torr x l/s even at the highest pressure in the main attenuation cell (20 torr).

  1. Oil and gas resources of the Fergana basin (Uzbekistan, Tadzhikistan, and Kyrgyzstan). Advance summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-07

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA), in cooperation with the US Geological Survey (USGS), has assessed 13 major petroleum producing regions outside of the United States. This series of assessments has been performed under EIA`s Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP). The basic approach used in these assessments was to combine historical drilling, discovery, and production data with EIA reserve estimates and USGS undiscovered resource estimates. Field-level data for discovered oil were used for these previous assessments. In FESAP, supply projections through depletion were typically formulated for the country or major producing region. Until now, EIA has not prepared an assessment of oil and gas provinces in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Before breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Fergana basin was selected for a trial assessment of its discovered and undiscovered oil and gas. The object was to see if enough data could be collected and estimated to perform reasonable field-level estimates of oil and gas in this basin. If so, then assessments of other basins in the FSU could be considered. The objective was met and assessments of other basins can be considered. Collected data for this assessment cover discoveries through 1987. Compared to most other oil and gas provinces in the FSU, the Fergana basin is relatively small in geographic size, and in number and size of most of its oil and gas fields. However, with recent emphasis given to the central graben as a result of the relatively large Mingbulak field, the basin`s oil and gas potential has significantly increased. At least 7 additional fields to the 53 fields analyzed are known and are assumed to have been discovered after 1987.

  2. Gas Flow Tightly Coupled to Elastoplastic Geomechanics for Tight- and Shale-Gas Reservoirs: Material Failure and Enhanced Permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jihoon; Moridis, George J.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate coupled flow and geomechanics in gas production from extremely low permeability reservoirs such as tight and shale gas reservoirs, using dynamic porosity and permeability during numerical simulation. In particular, we take the intrinsic permeability as a step function of the status of material failure, and the permeability is updated every time step. We consider gas reservoirs with the vertical and horizontal primary fractures, employing the single and dynamic double porosity (dual continuum) models. We modify the multiple porosity constitutive relations for modeling the double porous continua for flow and geomechanics. The numerical results indicate that production of gas causes redistribution of the effective stress fields, increasing the effective shear stress and resulting in plasticity. Shear failure occurs not only near the fracture tips but also away from the primary fractures, which indicates generation of secondary fractures. These secondary fractures increase the permeability significantly, and change the flow pattern, which in turn causes a change in distribution of geomechanical variables. From various numerical tests, we find that shear failure is enhanced by a large pressure drop at the production well, high Biot's coefficient, low frictional and dilation angles. Smaller spacing between the horizontal wells also contributes to faster secondary fracturing. When the dynamic double porosity model is used, we observe a faster evolution of the enhanced permeability areas than that obtained from the single porosity model, mainly due to a higher permeability of the fractures in the double porosity model. These complicated physics for stress sensitive reservoirs cannot properly be captured by the uncoupled or flow-only simulation, and thus tightly coupled flow and geomechanical models are highly recommended to accurately describe the reservoir behavior during gas production in tight and shale gas reservoirs and to smartly design production

  3. Table 9. Summary of U.S. natural gas imports by point of entry, 2011-2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    26 Table 9. Summary of U.S. natural gas imports by point of entry, 2011-2015 (volumes in million cubic feet, prices in dollars per thousand cubic feet) See footnotes at end of table. Pipeline (Canada) Eastport, ID 606,099 3.90 634,194 2.59 686,449 3.34 608,147 4.14 673,531 2.34 Calais, ME 149,736 4.40 76,540 3.44 55,248 4.86 79,590 9.70 43,070 11.22 Detroit, MI 19 5.17 0 -- 165 4.44 188 5.26 0 -- Marysville, MI 9,946 4.42 8,099 2.99 2,337 4.15 4,650 6.86 1,961 2.73 St. Clair, MI 5,228 4.29 3,531

  4. New Albany shale gas flow starts in western Indiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-04-29

    This paper briefly describes the stratigraphy and lithology of the New Albany shale and how this affects the placement of gas recovery wells in the Greene County, Indiana area. It reviews the project planning aspects including salt water reinjection and well spacing for optimum gas recovery. It also briefly touches on how the wells were completed and brought on-line for production and distribution.

  5. Table B1. Summary statistics for natural gas in the United States...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    R 169,900 182,720 From Coalbed Wells 50,377 43,591 40,374 R 37,012 33,451 From Shale Gas Wells 240,721 298,257 337,891 R 395,726 438,228 Total 806,436 836,545 835,986 R ...

  6. Table 1. Summary statistics for natural gas in the United States...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    From Coalbed Wells 1,779,055 1,539,395 1,425,783 R 1,307,072 1,181,320 From Shale Gas Wells 8,500,983 10,532,858 11,932,524 R 13,974,936 15,475,887 Total 28,479,026 ...

  7. R and D opportunities in gas-side fouling. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Fassbender, L.L.

    1984-02-01

    This report provides an overview of five research reports that were generated for the Fouling and Corrosion Program. In addition, a listing of research and development opportunities in gas-side fouling is provided. R and D opportunities are designated as technology transfer, basic research, or applied research opportunities.

  8. Rock matrix and fracture analysis of flow in western tight gas sands: Annual report, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dandge, V.; Graham, M.; Gonzales, B.; Coker, D.

    1987-12-01

    Tight gas sands are a vast future source of natural gas. These sands are characterized as having very low porosity and permeability. The main resource development problem is efficiently extracting the gas from the reservoir. Future production depends on a combination of gas price and technological advances. Gas production can be enhanced by fracturing. Studies have shown that many aspects of fracture design and gas production are influenced by properties of the rock matrix. Computer models for stimulation procedures require accurate knowledge of flow properties of both the rock matrix and the fractured regions. In the proposed work, these properties will be measured along with advanced core analysis procedure aimed at understanding the relationship between pore structure and properties. The objective of this project is to develop reliable core analysis techniques for measuring the petrophysical properties of tight gas sands. Recent research has indicated that the flow conditions in the reservoir can be greatly enhanced by the presence of natural fractures, which serve as a transport path for gas from the less permeable matrix. The study is mainly concerned with the dependence of flow in tight gas matrix and healed tectonic fractures on water saturation and confining pressure. This dependency is to be related to the detailed pore structure of tight sands as typified by cores recovered in the Multi-Well experiment. 22 refs., 34 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Modification of plasma flows with gas puff in the scrape-off layer of ADITYA tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sangwan, Deepak; Jha, Ratneshwar; Brotankova, Jana; Gopalkrishna, M. V. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2013-06-15

    The parallel Mach numbers are measured at three locations in the scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma of ADITYA tokamak by using Mach probes. The flow pattern is constructed from these measurements and the modification of flow pattern is observed by introducing a small puff of working gas. In the normal discharge, there is an indication of shell structure in the SOL plasma flows, which is removed during the gas puff. The plasma parameters, particle flux and Reynolds stress are also measured in the normal discharge and in the discharge with gas puff. It is observed that Reynolds stress and Mach number are coupled in the near SOL region and decoupled in the far SOL region. The coupling in the near SOL region gets washed away during the gas puff.

  10. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Test Reactor Point Design: Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterbentz, James William; Bayless, Paul David; Nelson, Lee Orville; Gougar, Hans David; Strydom, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    A point design has been developed for a 200-MW high-temperature gas-cooled test reactor. The point design concept uses standard prismatic blocks and 15.5% enriched uranium oxycarbide fuel. Reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics simulations have been performed to characterize the capabilities of the design. In addition to the technical data, overviews are provided on the technology readiness level, licensing approach, and costs of the test reactor point design.

  11. Summary of tank information relating salt well pumping to flammable gas safety issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caley, S.M.; Mahoney, L.A.; Gauglitz, P.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Hanford Site has 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. Active use of these SSTs was phased out completely by November 1980, and the first step toward final disposal of the waste in the SSTs is interim stabilization, which involves removing essentially all of the drainable liquid from the tank. Stabilization can be achieved administratively, by jet pumping to remove drainable interstitial liquid, or by supernatant pumping. To date, 116 tanks have been declared interim stabilized; 44 SSTs have had drainable liquid removed by salt well jet pumping. Of the 149 SSTs, 19 are on the Flammable Gas Watch List (FGWL) because the waste in these tanks is known or suspected, in all but one case, to generate and retain mixtures of flammable gases, including; hydrogen, nitrous oxide, and ammonia. Salt well pumping to remove the drainable interstitial liquid from these SSTs is expected to cause the release of much of the retained gas, posing a number of safety concerns. The scope of this work is to collect and summarize information, primarily tank data and observations, that relate salt well pumping to flammable gas safety issues. While the waste within FGWL SSTs is suspected offering flammable gases, the effect of salt well pumping on the waste behavior is not well understood. This study is being conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company as part of the Flammable Gas Project at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Understanding the historical tank behavior during and following salt well pumping will help to resolve the associated safety issues.

  12. Gas Flow Tightly Coupled to Elastoplastic Geomechanics for Tight- and Shale-Gas Reservoirs: Material Failure and Enhanced Permeability

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Kim, Jihoon; Moridis, George J.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate coupled flow and geomechanics in gas production from extremely low permeability reservoirs such as tight and shale gas reservoirs, using dynamic porosity and permeability during numerical simulation. In particular, we take the intrinsic permeability as a step function of the status of material failure, and the permeability is updated every time step. We consider gas reservoirs with the vertical and horizontal primary fractures, employing the single and dynamic double porosity (dual continuum) models. We modify the multiple porosity constitutive relations for modeling the double porous continua for flow and geomechanics. The numerical results indicate that production of gasmore » causes redistribution of the effective stress fields, increasing the effective shear stress and resulting in plasticity. Shear failure occurs not only near the fracture tips but also away from the primary fractures, which indicates generation of secondary fractures. These secondary fractures increase the permeability significantly, and change the flow pattern, which in turn causes a change in distribution of geomechanical variables. From various numerical tests, we find that shear failure is enhanced by a large pressure drop at the production well, high Biot's coefficient, low frictional and dilation angles. Smaller spacing between the horizontal wells also contributes to faster secondary fracturing. When the dynamic double porosity model is used, we observe a faster evolution of the enhanced permeability areas than that obtained from the single porosity model, mainly due to a higher permeability of the fractures in the double porosity model. These complicated physics for stress sensitive reservoirs cannot properly be captured by the uncoupled or flow-only simulation, and thus tightly coupled flow and geomechanical models are highly recommended to accurately describe the reservoir behavior during gas production in tight and shale gas reservoirs and to smartly design

  13. A CFD study of gas-solid jet in a CFB riser flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Tingwen; Guenther, Chris

    2012-03-01

    Three-dimensional high-resolution numerical simulations of a gas–solid jet in a high-density riser flow were conducted. The impact of gas–solid injection on the riser flow hydrodynamics was investigated with respect to voidage, tracer mass fractions, and solids velocity distribution. The behaviors of a gas–solid jet in the riser crossflow were studied through the unsteady numerical simulations. Substantial separation of the jetting gas and solids in the riser crossflow was observed. Mixing of the injected gas and solids with the riser flow was investigated and backmixing of gas and solids was evaluated. In the current numerical study, both the overall hydrodynamics of riser flow and the characteristics of gas–solid jet were reasonably predicted compared with the experimental measurements made at NETL.

  14. Multiphase imaging of gas flow in a nanoporous material usingremote detection NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harel, Elad; Granwehr, Josef; Seeley, Juliette A.; Pines, Alex

    2005-10-03

    Pore structure and connectivity determine how microstructured materials perform in applications such as catalysis, fluid storage and transport, filtering, or as reactors. We report a model study on silica aerogel using a recently introduced time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance imaging technique to characterize the flow field and elucidate the effects of heterogeneities in the pore structure on gas flow and dispersion with Xe-129 as the gas-phase sensor. The observed chemical shift allows the separate visualization of unrestricted xenon and xenon confined in the pores of the aerogel. The asymmetrical nature of the dispersion pattern alludes to the existence of a stationary and a flow regime in the aerogel. An exchange time constant is determined to characterize the gas transfer between them. As a general methodology, this technique provides new insights into the dynamics of flow in porous media where multiple phases or chemical species may be present.

  15. Comparison of electrical capacitance tomography and gamma densitometer measurement in viscous oil-gas flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archibong Eso, A.; Zhao, Yabin; Yeung, Hoi

    2014-04-11

    Multiphase flow is a common occurrence in industries such as nuclear, process, oil and gas, food and chemical. A prior knowledge of its features and characteristics is essential in the design, control and management of such processes due to its complex nature. Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) and Gamma Densitometer (Gamma) are two promising approaches for multiphase visualization and characterization in process industries. In two phase oil and gas flow, ECT and Gamma are used in multiphase flow monitoring techniques due to their inherent simplicity, robustness, and an ability to withstand wide range of operational temperatures and pressures. High viscous oil (viscosity > 100 cP) is of interest because of its huge reserves, technological advances in its production and unlike conventional oil (oil viscosity < 100 cP) and gas flows where ECT and Gamma have been previously used, high viscous oil and gas flows comes with certain associated concerns which include; increased entrainment of gas bubbles dispersed in oil, shorter and more frequent slugs as well as oil film coatings on the walls of flowing conduits. This study aims to determine the suitability of both devices in the visualization and characterization of high-viscous oil and gas flow. Static tests are performed with both devices and liquid holdup measurements are obtained. Dynamic experiments were also conducted in a 1 and 3 inch facility at Cranfield University with a range of nominal viscosities (1000, 3000 and 7500 cP). Plug, slug and wavy annular flow patterns were identified by means of Probability Mass Function and time series analysis of the data acquired from Gamma and ECT devices with high speed camera used to validate the results. Measured Liquid holdups for both devices were also compared.

  16. Hydrogen Gas Retention and Release from WTP Vessels: Summary of Preliminary Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Daniel, Richard C.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Wells, Beric E.; Bao, Jie; Boeringa, Gregory K.; Buchmiller, William C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Chun, Jaehun; Karri, Naveen K.; Li, Huidong; Tran, Diana N.

    2015-07-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is currently being designed and constructed to pretreat and vitrify a large portion of the waste in the 177 underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. A number of technical issues related to the design of the pretreatment facility (PTF) of the WTP have been identified. These issues must be resolved prior to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) reaching a decision to proceed with engineering, procurement, and construction activities for the PTF. One of the issues is Technical Issue T1 - Hydrogen Gas Release from Vessels (hereafter referred to as T1). The focus of T1 is identifying controls for hydrogen release and completing any testing required to close the technical issue. In advance of selecting specific controls for hydrogen gas safety, a number of preliminary technical studies were initiated to support anticipated future testing and to improve the understanding of hydrogen gas generation, retention, and release within PTF vessels. These activities supported the development of a plan defining an overall strategy and approach for addressing T1 and achieving technical endpoints identified for T1. Preliminary studies also supported the development of a test plan for conducting testing and analysis to support closing T1. Both of these plans were developed in advance of selecting specific controls, and in the course of working on T1 it was decided that the testing and analysis identified in the test plan were not immediately needed. However, planning activities and preliminary studies led to significant technical progress in a number of areas. This report summarizes the progress to date from the preliminary technical studies. The technical results in this report should not be used for WTP design or safety and hazards analyses and technical results are marked with the following statement: “Preliminary Technical Results for Planning – Not to be used for WTP Design

  17. Computation of the nonequilibrium flow in a gas dynamic laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yen, H.H.; Chen, L.Y.

    1984-04-01

    A three-modes-four temperatures vibrational relaxation model for a CO2-N2-H2O laser system is presented, and a set of fairly rigorous relaxation equations given. A series of problems related to computations of pseudo-one-dimensional nonequilibrium flows was analyzed and massive numerical computations using data obtained, were carried out for the rate of relaxation.

  18. Method For Enhanced Gas Monitoring In High Density Flow Streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Von Drasek, William A.; Mulderink, Kenneth A.; Marin, Ovidiu

    2005-09-13

    A method for conducting laser absorption measurements in high temperature process streams having high levels of particulate matter is disclosed. An impinger is positioned substantially parallel to a laser beam propagation path and at upstream position relative to the laser beam. Beam shielding pipes shield the beam from the surrounding environment. Measurement is conducted only in the gap between the two shielding pipes where the beam propagates through the process gas. The impinger facilitates reduced particle presence in the measurement beam, resulting in improved SNR (signal-to-noise) and improved sensitivity and dynamic range of the measurement.

  19. Institutional project summary University of Redlands direct fired gas absorption chiller system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanner, G.R.

    1996-05-01

    The University of Redlands, located in the California Inland Empire City of Redlands supplies six campus building with chilled and hot water for cooling and space heating from a centrally located Mechanical Center. The University was interested in lowering chilled water production costs and eliminating Ozone depleting chloroflourocarbon (CFC) refrigerants in addition to adding chiller capacity for future building to be added to the central plant piping {open_quotes}loop{close_quotes}. After initially providing a feasibility study of chiller addition alternatives and annual hourly load models, GRT & Associates, Inc. (GRT) provided design engineering for the installation of a 500 Ton direct gas fired absorption chiller addition to the University of Redland`s mechanical center. Based on the feasibility study and energy consumption tests done after the new absorption chiller was added, the university estimates annual energy cost saving versus the existing electric chiller is approximately $65,000 per year. Using actual construction costs, the simple before tax payback period for the project is six years.

  20. Dynamic gas flow during plasma operation in TMX-U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickles, W.L.; Carter, M.R.; Clower, C.A.; Drake, R.P.; Hunt, A.L.; Simonen, T.C.; Turner, W.C.

    1982-11-12

    Control of the neutral density outside of the plasma radius is essential for proper operation of the various plasma configurations in TMX-U. TMX-U excess-beam, stream-gun, gas-box, and beam-reflux gases are pumped internally in regions defined by 73/sup 0/ Ti-gettered liners and warm Ti-gettered plasma liners. The array of fast and slow ion gauges - a large TMX-U diagnostic - has been used to measure the dynamic pressure in many of the liner-defined regions on three time scales. The natural divertor action, or plasma pump effect, of mirror plasmas has been measured using the ion gauge diagnostics on a fast time scale during operation of TMX-U with ECRH start-up. Routine operation of TMX-U is enhanced by the ability to verify the effectiveness of gettering and to locate leaks using pressure data collected on the two slow time scales. A computer code, DYNAVAC 6, which treats TMX-U as a set of conductance-coupled regions with pumping and sources in each region, has been used to successfully model the overall gas dynamics during all phases of TMX-U operation.

  1. Cyclostrophic adjustment in swirling gas flows and the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalashnik, M. V. Visheratin, K. N.

    2008-04-15

    A theoretical analysis of cyclostrophic adjustment is presented; i.e., adjustment to balance between pressure gradient and centrifugal force in axisymmetric flow of an inviscid gas is examined. The solution to the problem is represented as the sum of a time-independent (balanced) and time-dependent (wave) components. It is shown that the wave component of the flow in an unbounded domain decays with time, and the corresponding solution reduces to the balanced component. In a bounded domain, the balanced flow component exists against the background of undamped acoustic waves. It is found that the balanced flow is thermally stratified at Mach numbers close to unity, with a substantial decrease in gas temperature (to between -50 and -100 deg. C) in the axial region. This finding, combined with the results of special experiments, is used to explain the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube effect.

  2. Solid oxide fuel cell having compound cross flow gas patterns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraioli, Anthony V.

    1985-01-01

    A core construction for a fuel cell is disclosed having both parallel and cross flow passageways for the fuel and the oxidant gases. Each core passageway is defined by electrolyte and interconnect walls. Each electrolyte wall consists of cathode and anode materials sandwiching an electrolyte material. Each interconnect wall is formed as a sheet of inert support material having therein spaced small plugs of interconnect material, where cathode and anode materials are formed as layers on opposite sides of each sheet and are electrically connected together by the interconnect material plugs. Each interconnect wall in a wavy shape is connected along spaced generally parallel line-like contact areas between corresponding spaced pairs of generally parallel electrolyte walls, operable to define one tier of generally parallel flow passageways for the fuel and oxidant gases. Alternate tiers are arranged to have the passageways disposed normal to one another. Solid mechanical connection of the interconnect walls of adjacent tiers to the opposite sides of the common electrolyte wall therebetween is only at spaced point-like contact areas, 90 where the previously mentioned line-like contact areas cross one another.

  3. Solid oxide fuel cell having compound cross flow gas patterns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraioli, A.V.

    1983-10-12

    A core construction for a fuel cell is disclosed having both parallel and cross flow passageways for the fuel and the oxidant gases. Each core passageway is defined by electrolyte and interconnect walls. Each electrolyte wall consists of cathode and anode materials sandwiching an electrolyte material. Each interconnect wall is formed as a sheet of inert support material having therein spaced small plugs of interconnect material, where cathode and anode materials are formed as layers on opposite sides of each sheet and are electrically connected together by the interconnect material plugs. Each interconnect wall in a wavy shape is connected along spaced generally parallel line-like contact areas between corresponding spaced pairs of generally parallel electrolyte walls, operable to define one tier of generally parallel flow passageways for the fuel and oxidant gases. Alternate tiers are arranged to have the passageways disposed normal to one another. Solid mechanical connection of the interconnect walls of adjacent tiers to the opposite sides of the common electrolyte wall therebetween is only at spaced point-like contact areas, 90 where the previously mentioned line-like contact areas cross one another.

  4. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create several types of by-products. This project focused primarily on by-product materials obtained from what are commonly called ''dry scrubbers'' which produce a dry, solid material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Prior to this project, dry FGD by-products were generally treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing; The major objective of this project was to develop beneficial uses, via recycling, capable of providing economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD by-product. It is equally important, however, that the environmental impacts be carefully assessed so that the new uses developed are not only technically feasible but socially acceptable. Specific objectives developed for this project were derived over an 18-month period during extensive discussions with personnel from industry, regulatory agencies and research institutions. These were stated as follows: Objective 1: To characterize the material generated by dry FGD processes. Objective 2: To demonstrate the utilization of dry FGD by-product as a soil amendment on agricultural lands and on abandoned and active surface coal mines in Ohio. Objective 3: To demonstrate the use of dry FGD by-product as an engineering material for soil stabilization. Objective 4: To determine the quantities of dry FGD by-product that can be utilized in each of these applications. Objective 5. To determine the environmental and economic impacts of utilizing the material. Objective 6. To calibrate environmental, engineering, and economic models that can be used to determine the applicability and costs of utilizing these processes at other sites.

  5. Closures for Course-Grid Simulation of Fluidized Gas-Particle Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sankaran Sundaresan

    2010-02-14

    Gas-particle flows in fluidized beds and riser reactors are inherently unstable, and they manifest fluctuations over a wide range of length and time scales. Two-fluid models for such flows reveal unstable modes whose length scale is as small as ten particle diameters. Yet, because of limited computational resources, gas-particle flows in large fluidized beds are invariably simulated by solving discretized versions of the two-fluid model equations over a coarse spatial grid. Such coarse-grid simulations do not resolve the small-scale spatial structures which are known to affect the macroscale flow structures both qualitatively and quantitatively. Thus there is a need to develop filtered two-fluid models which are suitable for coarse-grid simulations and capturing the effect of the small-scale structures through closures in terms of the filtered variables. The overall objective of the project is to develop validated closures for filtered two-fluid models for gas-particle flows, with the transport gasifier as a primary, motivating example. In this project, highly resolved three-dimensional simulations of a kinetic theory based two-fluid model for gas-particle flows have been performed and the statistical information on structures in the 100-1000 particle diameters length scale has been extracted. Based on these results, closures for filtered two-fluid models have been constructed. The filtered model equations and closures have been validated against experimental data and the results obtained in highly resolved simulations of gas-particle flows. The proposed project enables more accurate simulations of not only the transport gasifier, but also many other non-reacting and reacting gas-particle flows in a variety of chemical reactors. The results of this study are in the form of closures which can readily be incorporated into existing multi-phase flow codes such as MFIX (www.mfix.org). Therefore, the benefits of this study can be realized quickly. The training provided

  6. Rarefied gas flow in a rectangular enclosure induced by non-isothermal walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargas, Manuel; Tatsios, Giorgos; Valougeorgis, Dimitris; Stefanov, Stefan

    2014-05-15

    The flow of a rarefied gas in a rectangular enclosure due to the non-isothermal walls with no synergetic contributions from external force fields is investigated. The top and bottom walls are maintained at constant but different temperatures and along the lateral walls a linear temperature profile is assumed. Modeling is based on the direct numerical solution of the Shakhov kinetic equation and the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Solving the problem both deterministically and stochastically allows a systematic comparison and verification of the results as well as the exploitation of the numerical advantages of each approach in the investigation of the involved flow and heat transfer phenomena. The thermally induced flow is simulated in terms of three dimensionless parameters characterizing the problem, namely, the reference Knudsen number, the temperature ratio of the bottom over the top plates, and the enclosure aspect ratio. Their effect on the flow configuration and bulk quantities is thoroughly examined. Along the side walls, the gas flows at small Knudsen numbers from cold-to-hot, while as the Knudsen number is increased the gas flows from hot-to-cold and the thermally induced flow configuration becomes more complex. These flow patterns with the hot-to-cold flow to be extended to the whole length of the non-isothermal side walls may exist even at small temperature differences and then, they are enhanced as the temperature difference between the top and bottom plates is increased. The cavity aspect ratio also influences this flow configuration and the hot-to-cold flow is becoming more dominant as the depth compared to the width of the cavity is increased. To further analyze the flow patterns a novel solution decomposition into ballistic and collision parts is introduced. This is achieved by accordingly modifying the indexing process of the typical DSMC algorithm. The contribution of each part of the solution is separately examined and a physical

  7. Energy Efficient Thermal Management for Natural Gas Engine Aftertreatment via Active Flow Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen; Vitacheslav Naoumov; Doug Ferguson

    2005-04-01

    The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

  8. ENERGY EFFICIENT THERMAL MANAGEMENT FOR NATURAL GAS ENGINE AFTERTREATMENT VIA ACTIVE FLOW CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen

    2004-04-01

    The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

  9. Energy Efficient Thermal Management for Natural Gas Engine Aftertreatment via Active Flow Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David K. Irick; Ke Nguyen; Vitacheslav Naoumov; Doug Ferguson

    2006-04-01

    The project is focused on the development of an energy efficient aftertreatment system capable of reducing NOx and methane by 90% from lean-burn natural gas engines by applying active exhaust flow control. Compared to conventional passive flow-through reactors, the proposed scheme cuts supplemental energy by 50%-70%. The system consists of a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) system and an oxidation catalyst. Through alternating flow control, a major amount of engine exhaust flows through a large portion of the LNT system in the absorption mode, while a small amount of exhaust goes through a small portion of the LNT system in the regeneration or desulfurization mode. By periodically reversing the exhaust gas flow through the oxidation catalyst, a higher temperature profile is maintained in the catalyst bed resulting in greater efficiency of the oxidation catalyst at lower exhaust temperatures. The project involves conceptual design, theoretical analysis, computer simulation, prototype fabrication, and empirical studies. This report details the progress during the first twelve months of the project. The primary activities have been to develop the bench flow reactor system, develop the computer simulation and modeling of the reverse-flow oxidation catalyst, install the engine into the test cell, and begin design of the LNT system.

  10. Effect of advective flow in fractures and matrix diffusion on natural gas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karra, Satish; Makedonska, Nataliia; Viswanathan, Hari S.; Painter, Scott L.; Hyman, Jeffrey D.

    2015-10-12

    Although hydraulic fracturing has been used for natural gas production for the past couple of decades, there are significant uncertainties about the underlying mechanisms behind the production curves that are seen in the field. A discrete fracture network based reservoir-scale work flow is used to identify the relative effect of flow of gas in fractures and matrix diffusion on the production curve. With realistic three dimensional representations of fracture network geometry and aperture variability, simulated production decline curves qualitatively resemble observed production decline curves. The high initial peak of the production curve is controlled by advective fracture flow of free gas within the network and is sensitive to the fracture aperture variability. Matrix diffusion does not significantly affect the production decline curve in the first few years, but contributes to production after approximately 10 years. These results suggest that the initial flushing of gas-filled background fractures combined with highly heterogeneous flow paths to the production well are sufficient to explain observed initial production decline. Lastly, these results also suggest that matrix diffusion may support reduced production over longer time frames.

  11. Effect of advective flow in fractures and matrix diffusion on natural gas production

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Karra, Satish; Makedonska, Nataliia; Viswanathan, Hari S.; Painter, Scott L.; Hyman, Jeffrey D.

    2015-10-12

    Although hydraulic fracturing has been used for natural gas production for the past couple of decades, there are significant uncertainties about the underlying mechanisms behind the production curves that are seen in the field. A discrete fracture network based reservoir-scale work flow is used to identify the relative effect of flow of gas in fractures and matrix diffusion on the production curve. With realistic three dimensional representations of fracture network geometry and aperture variability, simulated production decline curves qualitatively resemble observed production decline curves. The high initial peak of the production curve is controlled by advective fracture flow of freemore » gas within the network and is sensitive to the fracture aperture variability. Matrix diffusion does not significantly affect the production decline curve in the first few years, but contributes to production after approximately 10 years. These results suggest that the initial flushing of gas-filled background fractures combined with highly heterogeneous flow paths to the production well are sufficient to explain observed initial production decline. Lastly, these results also suggest that matrix diffusion may support reduced production over longer time frames.« less

  12. WETTABILITY ALTERATION OF POROUS MEDIA TO GAS-WETTING FOR IMPROVING PRODUCTIVITY AND INJECTIVITY IN GAS-LIQUID FLOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    2002-10-21

    The authors have performed a number of imbibition tests with the treated and untreated cores in nC{sub 10}, nC{sub 14}, and nC{sub 16} and a natural gas condensate liquid. Imbibition tests for nC{sub 14} and nC{sub 16} were also carried out at elevated temperatures of 100 C and 140 C. An experimental polymer synthesized for the purpose of this project was used in core treatment. Imbibition results are very promising and imply liquid condensate mobility enhancement in the treated core. They also performed flow tests to quantify the increase in well deliverability and to simulate flow under realistic field conditions. In the past we have performed extensive testing of wettability alteration in intermediate gas wetting for polymer FC759 at temperatures of 24 C and 90 C. The results were promising for the purpose of gas well deliverability improvement in gas condensate wells. We used FC759 to lower the surface energy of various rocks. The model fluids nC{sub 10}, and nC{sub 14} were used to represent condensate liquid, and air was used as the gas phase. A new (L-16349) polymer, which has been recently synthesized for the purpose of the project, was used in the work to be presented here. L-16349 is a water-soluble fluorochemical polymer, with low order, neutral PH and very low volatile organic compound (VOC < 9.1 g/l). It is light yellow in appearance and density in 25% solution is 1.1 g/cc. Polymer L-16349 is very safe from environmental considerations and it is economical for our purpose. In this work, in addition to nC{sub 10}, and nC{sub 14}, we used two other liquids nC{sub 16}, and a liquid condensate in order to study the effect of wettability alteration with a broader range of fluids.

  13. Pore-scale mechanisms of gas flow in tight sand reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silin, D.; Kneafsey, T.J.; Ajo-Franklin, J.B.; Nico, P.

    2010-11-30

    Tight gas sands are unconventional hydrocarbon energy resource storing large volume of natural gas. Microscopy and 3D imaging of reservoir samples at different scales and resolutions provide insights into the coaredo not significantly smaller in size than conventional sandstones, the extremely dense grain packing makes the pore space tortuous, and the porosity is small. In some cases the inter-granular void space is presented by micron-scale slits, whose geometry requires imaging at submicron resolutions. Maximal Inscribed Spheres computations simulate different scenarios of capillary-equilibrium two-phase fluid displacement. For tight sands, the simulations predict an unusually low wetting fluid saturation threshold, at which the non-wetting phase becomes disconnected. Flow simulations in combination with Maximal Inscribed Spheres computations evaluate relative permeability curves. The computations show that at the threshold saturation, when the nonwetting fluid becomes disconnected, the flow of both fluids is practically blocked. The nonwetting phase is immobile due to the disconnectedness, while the permeability to the wetting phase remains essentially equal to zero due to the pore space geometry. This observation explains the Permeability Jail, which was defined earlier by others. The gas is trapped by capillarity, and the brine is immobile due to the dynamic effects. At the same time, in drainage, simulations predict that the mobility of at least one of the fluids is greater than zero at all saturations. A pore-scale model of gas condensate dropout predicts the rate to be proportional to the scalar product of the fluid velocity and pressure gradient. The narrowest constriction in the flow path is subject to the highest rate of condensation. The pore-scale model naturally upscales to the Panfilov's Darcy-scale model, which implies that the condensate dropout rate is proportional to the pressure gradient squared. Pressure gradient is the greatest near the matrix

  14. Production of Natural Gas and Fluid Flow in Tight Sand Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maria Cecilia Bravo

    2006-06-30

    This document reports progress of this research effort in identifying relationships and defining dependencies between macroscopic reservoir parameters strongly affected by microscopic flow dynamics and production well performance in tight gas sand reservoirs. These dependencies are investigated by identifying the main transport mechanisms at the pore scale that should affect fluids flow at the reservoir scale. A critical review of commercial reservoir simulators, used to predict tight sand gas reservoir, revealed that many are poor when used to model fluid flow through tight reservoirs. Conventional simulators ignore altogether or model incorrectly certain phenomena such as, Knudsen diffusion, electro-kinetic effects, ordinary diffusion mechanisms and water vaporization. We studied the effect of Knudsen's number in Klinkenberg's equation and evaluated the effect of different flow regimes on Klinkenberg's parameter b. We developed a model capable of explaining the pressure dependence of this parameter that has been experimentally observed, but not explained in the conventional formalisms. We demonstrated the relevance of this, so far ignored effect, in tight sands reservoir modeling. A 2-D numerical simulator based on equations that capture the above mentioned phenomena was developed. Dynamic implications of new equations are comprehensively discussed in our work and their relative contribution to the flow rate is evaluated. We performed several simulation sensitivity studies that evidenced that, in general terms, our formalism should be implemented in order to get more reliable tight sands gas reservoirs' predictions.

  15. Numerical simulation of gas flow through unsaturated fractured rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Numerical analysis is used to identify the physical phenomena associated with barometrically driven gas (air and water vapor) flow through unsaturated fractured rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Results from simple finite difference simulations indicate that for a fractured rock scenario, the maximum velocity of air out of an uncased 10 cm borehole is 0.002 m s{sub {minus}1}. An equivalent porous medium (EPM) model was incorporated into a multiphase, multicomponent simulator to test more complex conceptual models. Results indicate that for a typical June day, a diurnal pressure wave propagates about 160 m into the surrounding Tiva Canyon hydrogeologic unit. Dry air that enters the formation evaporates water around the borehole which reduces capillary pressure. Multiphase countercurrent flow develops in the vicinity of the hole; the gas phase flows into the formation while the liquid phase flows toward the borehole. The effect occurs within 0.5 m of the borehole. The amount of water vapor leaving the formation during 1 day is 900 cm{sup 3}. This is less than 0.1% of the total recharge into the formation, suggesting that the barometric effect may be insignificant in drying the unsaturated zone. However, gas phase velocities out of the borehole (3 m s{sup {minus}1}), indicating that observed flow rates from wells along the east flank of Yucca Mountain were able to be simulated with a barometric model.

  16. Outer continental shelf oil and gas activities in the South Atlantic (US) and their onshore impacts. South Atlantic summary report update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Havran, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    An update of the South Atlantic Summary Report 2, this report provides current information about Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil- and gas-related activities and their onshore impacts for the period June 1982 to February, 1983. The geographical area covered by the report extends from north of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina to Cape Canaveral, Florida. The information is designed to assist in planning for the onshore effects associated with offshore oil and gas development. It covers lease and transportation strategies and the nature and location of onshore facilities. An appendix summarizes related state and federal studies. 11 references, 2 tables.

  17. Multiphase Flow and Cavern Abandonment in Salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, Brian; Tidwell, Vince

    2001-02-13

    This report will explore the hypothesis that an underground cavity in gassy salt will eventually be gas filled as is observed on a small scale in some naturally occurring salt inclusions. First, a summary is presented on what is known about gas occurrences, flow mechanisms, and cavern behavior after abandonment. Then, background information is synthesized into theory on how gas can fill a cavern and simultaneously displace cavern fluids into the surrounding salt. Lastly, two-phase (gas and brine) flow visualization experiments are presented that demonstrate some of the associated flow mechanisms and support the theory and hypothesis that a cavity in salt can become gas filled after plugging and abandonment

  18. A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT AND FEASIBILITY EVALUATION OF NATURAL GAS ENERGY FLOW MEASUREMENT ALTERNATIVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kendricks A. Behring II; Eric Kelner; Ali Minachi; Cecil R. Sparks; Thomas B. Morrow; Steven J. Svedeman

    1999-01-01

    Deregulation and open access in the natural gas pipeline industry has changed the gas business environment towards greater reliance on local energy flow rate measurement. What was once a large, stable, and well-defined source of natural gas is now a composite from many small suppliers with greatly varying gas compositions. Unfortunately, the traditional approach to energy flow measurement [using a gas chromatograph (GC) for composition assay in conjunction with a flow meter] is only cost effective for large capacity supplies (typically greater than 1 to 30 million scfd). A less costly approach will encourage more widespread use of energy measurement technology. In turn, the US will benefit from tighter gas inventory control, more efficient pipeline and industrial plant operations, and ultimately lower costs to the consumer. An assessment of the state and direction of technology for natural gas energy flow rate measurement is presented. The alternative technologies were ranked according to their potential to dramatically reduce capital and operating and maintenance (O and M) costs, while improving reliability and accuracy. The top-ranked technologies take an unconventional inference approach to the energy measurement problem. Because of that approach, they will not satisfy the fundamental need for composition assay, but have great potential to reduce industry reliance on the GC. Technological feasibility of the inference approach was demonstrated through the successful development of data correlations that relate energy measurement properties (molecular weight, mass-based heating value, standard density, molar ideal gross heating value, standard volumetric heating value, density, and volume-based heating value) to three inferential properties: standard sound speed, carbon dioxide concentration, and nitrogen concentration (temperature and pressure are also required for the last two). The key advantage of this approach is that inexpensive on-line sensors may be used

  19. ,"Hawaii Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Annual",2015,"06301980" ,"Data 2","Consumption",8,"Annual",2015,"06301980" ,"Release Date:","05312016" ,"Next Release Date:","06302016" ,"Excel File Name:","ngsumlsumdcu...

  20. ,"Vermont Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    7,"Annual",2015,"06301980" ,"Data 2","Imports and Exports",1,"Annual",2014,"06301982" ,"Data 3","Consumption",8,"Annual",2015,"06301980" ,"Release Date:","05312016" ,"Next ...

  1. Natural Gas Processed (Summary)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Show Data By: Data Series Area 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History U.S. 16,267,757 ... Louisiana 6,019 2015-2015 Michigan 22,405 21,518 21,243 21,416 18,654 16,288 1967-2015 ...

  2. ,"Maine Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Excel File Name:","ngsumlsumdcusmem.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http:www.eia.govdnavngngsumlsumdcusmem.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information ...

  3. Florida Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 View History Prices (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Citygate 3.95 3.83 3.37 3.50 3.46 3.69 1989-2016 Residential 16.13 17.20 17.98 20.69 ...

  4. Iowa Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Industrial 5.00 NA 4.46 5.14 4.50 5.18 2001-2016 Electric Power 3.12 2.98 2.89 5.06 2.60 2.96 2002-2016 Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Total Capacity 288,210 288,210 ...

  5. Natural Gas Exports (Summary)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    194,915 175,601 185,897 180,747 185,290 211,680

  6. Natural Gas Imports (Summary)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    240,764 241,317 248,317 241,885 265,022 260,814

  7. Natural Gas Imports (Summary)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    3,740,757 3,468,693 3,137,789 2,883,355 2,695,378 2,718,094 1973-2015 California 22,503 2,171 0 23 0 0 2007-2015 Georgia 106,454 75,641 59,266 15,575 7,155 11,786 1999-2015 Idaho 708,806 606,099 634,194 686,449 608,147 673,531 1982-2015 Louisiana 90,867 60,554 20,132 5,750 5,880 8,911 1982-2015 Maine 131,035 149,736 76,540 55,248 79,892 43,361 1982-2015 Maryland 43,431 13,981 2,790 5,366 11,585 12,091 1999-2015 Massachusetts 164,984 135,278 86,609 63,987 28,825 52,293 1982-2015 Michigan 11,365

  8. Natural Gas Exports (Summary)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    1,136,789 1,505,650 1,618,828 1,572,413 1,514,242 1,783,512 1973-2015 Alaska 30,100 16,398 9,342 0 13,310 16,519 1982-2015 Arizona 44,693 45,086 46,385 54,139 64,692 95,867 1982-2015 California 43,278 94,433 110,656 107,273 120,359 124,276 1982-2015 Idaho 12 10 0 6 0 0 1999-2015 Louisiana 22,814 38,552 7,655 0 0 0 2007-2015 Maine 452 1,028 6,952 13,539 2,911 14,242 2007-2015 Michigan 721,075 876,267 872,620 684,510 554,675 486,675 1982-2015 Minnesota 0 3,975 11,768 16,209 5,474 5,245 1999-2015

  9. Natural Gas Exports (Summary)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    136,789 1,505,650 1,618,828 1,572,413 1,514,242 1,783,512 1973-2015 Alaska 30,100 16,398 9,342 0 13,310 16,519 1982-2015 Arizona 44,693 45,086 46,385 54,139 64,692 95,867 1982-2015 California 43,278 94,433 110,656 107,273 120,359 124,276 1982-2015 Idaho 12 10 0 6 0 0 1999-2015 Louisiana 22,814 38,552 7,655 0 0 0 2007-2015 Maine 452 1,028 6,952 13,539 2,911 14,242 2007-2015 Michigan 721,075 876,267 872,620 684,510 554,675 486,675 1982-2015 Minnesota 0 3,975 11,768 16,209 5,474 5,245 1999-2015

  10. Natural Gas Imports (Summary)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    3,740,757 3,468,693 3,137,789 2,883,355 2,695,378 2,718,094 1973-2015 California 22,503 2,171 0 23 0 0 2007-2015 Georgia 106,454 75,641 59,266 15,575 7,155 11,786 1999-2015 Idaho 708,806 606,099 634,194 686,449 608,147 673,531 1982-2015 Louisiana 90,867 60,554 20,132 5,750 5,880 8,911 1982-2015 Maine 131,035 149,736 76,540 55,248 79,892 43,361 1982-2015 Maryland 43,431 13,981 2,790 5,366 11,585 12,091 1999-2015 Massachusetts 164,984 135,278 86,609 63,987 28,825 52,293 1982-2015 Michigan 11,365

  11. Natural Gas Imports (Summary)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    California 22,503 2,171 0 23 0 2007-2014 Georgia 106,454 75,641 59,266 15,575 7,155 1999-2014 Idaho 708,806 606,099 634,194 686,449 608,147 1982-2014 Louisiana 90,867 60,554 20,132 ...

  12. Connecticut Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Prices (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Citygate 3.09 3.20 3.85 4.58 4.69 4.20 1989-2016 Residential 11.74 12.87 15.03 19.19 21.75 24.07 1989-2016 Commercial 7.93 9.37 9.87 11.82 11.16 11.75 1989-2016 Industrial 5.84 6.84 6.58 6.05 6.19 6.17 2001-2016 Electric Power 4.63 2.74 2.39 2.33 3.13 3.09 2002-2016 Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Delivered to Consumers 21,834 21,380 17,303 14,434 NA NA 2001-2016 Residential 5,562 4,229 2,385 1,365

  13. Delaware Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Prices (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Citygate 4.70 5.03 6.24 8.53 8.77 8.50 1989-2016 Residential 10.24 11.47 13.44 17.54 21.34 24.20 1989-2016 Commercial 8.79 9.33 10.03 10.87 11.51 12.11 1989-2016 Industrial 8.29 7.85 8.62 8.93 NA 10.31 2001-2016 Electric Power -- -- -- -- -- -- 2002-2016 Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Delivered to Consumers 8,707 8,781 7,721 9,045 10,772 10,375 2001-2016 Residential 1,135 823 475 231 171 160

  14. Georgia Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Prices (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Citygate 3.21 3.19 3.37 3.44 4.32 4.01 1989-2016 Residential 12.90 16.27 20.07 24.64 25.97 25.99 1989-2016 Commercial 7.33 7.89 8.11 8.44 9.05 9.27 1989-2016 Industrial 3.46 3.45 3.50 3.54 4.14 4.25 2001-2016 Electric Power 2.23 2.40 2.44 3.03 3.30 3.33 2002-2016 Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Delivered to Consumers 57,121 52,856 53,239 57,590 60,897 59,242 2001-2016 Residential 9,664 6,530 4,678

  15. Hawaii Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History Prices (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Citygate 22.94 31.58 32.39 28.45 26.94 18.11 1984-2015 Residential 44.50 55.28 52.86 49.13 47.51 40.08 1980-2015 Commercial 36.55 45.58 47.03 41.92 40.42 31.17 1980-2015 Industrial 24.10 29.80 30.89 27.56 26.75 19.03 1997-2015 Electric Power -- -- -- -- -- -- 2001-2015 Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Total Consumption 2,627 2,619 2,689 2,855 2,916 2,922 1997-2015 Pipeline & Distribution Use 2 2 3 1 1 *

  16. Hawaii Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    13.19 14.19 16.20 17.26 13.54 13.33 1989-2016 Residential 36.99 36.85 39.90 42.55 34.76 34.86 1989-2016 Commercial 27.26 28.09 30.04 32.82 25.24 25.57 1989-2016 Industrial 13.73 14.45 15.05 16.92 16.51 16.03 2001-2016 Electric Power -- -- -- -- -- -- 2002-2016 Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Delivered to Consumers 248 256 243 240 255 264 2001-2016 Residential 49 51 44 45 45 45 1989-2016 Commercial 157 162 151 154 155 163 1989-2016 Industrial 41 42 47 41 54 56 2001-2016 Vehicle Fuel 1 1 0 0 0 0

  17. Idaho Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    67 2.79 3.22 NA NA 2.69 1989-2016 Residential 8.76 8.91 9.18 9.77 9.85 10.13 1989-2016 Commercial 7.59 7.80 7.69 7.79 7.70 7.62 1989-2016 Industrial 5.46 5.50 5.44 5.46 5.43 5.46 2001-2016 Electric Power 2.26 11.72 2.41 2.47 2.83 2.89 2002-2016 Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Delivered to Consumers 9,200 4,791 5,641 5,396 6,284 7,183 2001-2016 Residential 2,532 1,290 881 580 518 492 1989-2016 Commercial 1,706 993 851 653 657 701 1989-2016 Industrial 3,186 2,494 2,463 2,137 2,525 2,253 2001-2016

  18. Maine Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History Prices (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Imports 4.94 4.40 3.45 4.86 9.71 11.17 1999-2015 Exports 4.53 4.46 4.30 8.43 6.68 3.27 2007-2015 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1967-2005 Citygate 8.19 8.14 7.73 7.35 10.33 8.76 1984-2015 Residential 14.14 14.20 15.94 15.21 16.90 16.79 1967-2015 Commercial 11.71 11.69 12.22 12.79 15.13 14.16 1967-2015 Industrial 11.23 10.89 10.35 10.32 11.93 8.95 1997-2015 Electric Power W W W W W W 2001-2015 Imports and Exports

  19. Maine Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Prices (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Citygate 7.53 3.58 3.81 5.37 5.29 NA 1989-2016 Residential 12.99 12.57 13.48 18.01 21.90 22.81 1989-2016 Commercial 10.79 9.71 9.54 10.04 10.46 10.50 1989-2016 Industrial 8.51 8.46 5.78 5.55 5.58 5.99 2001-2016 Electric Power W W W W W W 2002-2016 Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Delivered to Consumers NA NA NA NA 5,106 5,412 2001-2016 Residential 342 258 143 63 52 44 1989-2016 Commercial 1,048 789

  20. Massachusetts Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Prices (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Citygate 3.40 3.94 4.86 5.90 7.49 6.95 1989-2016 Residential 11.70 12.02 12.46 12.84 14.55 15.35 1989-2016 Commercial 9.13 9.44 9.21 8.48 9.34 9.79 1989-2016 Industrial 7.98 8.04 7.79 6.59 6.76 6.80 2001-2016 Electric Power 1.99 2.99 2.11 2.34 2.86 3.18 2002-2016 Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Delivered to Consumers 39,410 34,399 29,846 26,915 30,053 30,162 2001-2016 Residential 14,183 10,379 5,800

  1. Alabama Natural Gas Summary

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Commercial 13.34 12.36 12.56 12.35 11.98 11.26 1967-2015 Industrial 6.64 5.57 4.35 4.98 5.49 4.08 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 16.24 11.45 17.99 1990-2012 Electric Power 4.85 W 3.09 W W ...

  2. Arkansas Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Commercial 8.89 8.90 7.99 7.68 7.88 8.43 1967-2015 Industrial 7.28 7.44 6.38 6.74 6.99 6.91 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel -- -- 9.04 1994-2012 Electric Power 5.11 W 3.19 W W W 1997-2015 ...

  3. Virginia Natural Gas Summary

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Commercial 9.55 9.69 8.77 8.83 9.17 8.13 1967-2015 Industrial 6.68 6.44 5.29 6.02 6.43 5.02 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 4.31 4.55 15.16 1993-2012 Electric Power 5.72 W 3.38 4.29 6.12 ...

  4. Colorado Natural Gas Summary

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Commercial 7.58 7.84 7.58 7.26 8.15 7.47 1967-2015 Industrial 5.84 6.42 5.79 5.90 6.84 5.74 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 10.79 9.56 11.65 1990-2012 Electric Power 5.16 4.98 W W 5.49 3.81 ...

  5. Minnesota Natural Gas Summary

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Commercial 7.60 7.46 6.36 6.86 8.66 7.31 1967-2015 Industrial 5.58 5.55 4.28 4.94 6.57 4.87 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 16.49 10.55 10.56 1993-2012 Electric Power W W W W W W 1997-2015 ...

  6. Ohio Natural Gas Summary

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Commercial 9.25 8.55 7.11 6.21 7.82 6.39 1967-2015 Industrial 7.40 6.77 5.48 6.03 7.06 5.35 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel -- -- -- 1990-2012 Electric Power 5.01 W 3.05 3.95 4.31 2.42 ...

  7. Indiana Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Commercial 7.55 8.04 7.69 7.59 8.19 7.61 1967-2015 Industrial 5.65 6.53 6.19 6.54 7.32 6.36 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 5.19 13.24 12.29 1990-2012 Electric Power 4.91 W W W W W ...

  8. Mississippi Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Commercial 8.75 7.99 7.37 7.61 8.36 7.86 1967-2015 Industrial 6.19 5.83 4.85 5.82 6.15 4.75 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel -- -- -- 1994-2012 Electric Power W W W W W W 1997-2015 Dry ...

  9. Maryland Natural Gas Summary

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Commercial 9.87 10.29 10.00 10.06 10.52 9.80 1967-2015 Industrial 9.05 8.61 8.01 8.47 9.94 9.70 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 5.99 5.09 -- 1993-2012 Electric Power 5.77 5.44 W 5.06 5.35 ...

  10. Nebraska Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Commercial 7.08 6.69 6.19 6.49 7.27 6.40 1967-2015 Industrial 5.85 5.61 4.34 4.72 5.69 4.56 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 15.10 15.29 1994-2012 Electric Power W 5.74 3.93 4.96 5.84 3.97 ...

  11. Arizona Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Commercial 10.72 9.99 9.35 8.76 10.34 10.53 1967-2015 Industrial 7.54 6.86 5.78 6.29 7.52 6.78 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 12.35 7.73 13.19 1991-2012 Electric Power 4.84 W 3.51 4.60 ...

  12. Tennessee Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Commercial 9.39 9.04 8.36 8.41 9.30 8.46 1967-2015 Industrial 6.64 6.15 4.98 5.62 6.31 5.06 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 8.16 12.32 8.18 1990-2012 Electric Power 5.04 4.62 2.90 3.83 4.64 ...

  13. Wyoming Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Commercial 7.13 7.29 6.72 6.81 7.69 7.43 1967-2015 Industrial 4.91 5.57 4.87 4.62 5.89 5.07 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 10.08 11.96 14.15 1991-2012 Electric Power W W W W W 5.18 ...

  14. Massachusetts Natural Gas Summary

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Commercial 12.00 11.68 10.68 11.25 12.48 10.81 1967-2015 Industrial 10.41 10.14 9.82 10.15 11.53 9.22 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 12.48 4.28 14.63 1990-2012 Electric Power 5.44 5.07 ...

  15. Connecticut Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Commercial 9.55 8.48 8.40 9.20 10.24 8.60 1967-2015 Industrial 9.60 9.16 8.83 6.85 8.07 6.35 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 16.31 18.59 13.70 1992-2012 Electric Power 5.70 5.09 3.99 6.23 ...

  16. Wisconsin Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Commercial 8.53 8.03 7.34 6.94 8.74 6.78 1967-2015 Industrial 7.56 7.05 5.81 6.02 8.08 5.65 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 7.84 6.10 5.71 1989-2012 Electric Power 5.43 4.91 3.27 4.47 W W ...

  17. Oklahoma Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Commercial 9.77 8.94 8.95 8.05 8.25 8.12 1967-2015 Industrial 8.23 7.37 7.65 7.16 8.30 7.51 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 8.18 10.98 9.13 1991-2012 Electric Power 4.84 W 3.04 4.13 W W ...

  18. Montana Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Commercial 8.54 8.66 7.98 8.09 8.77 8.13 1967-2015 Industrial 8.07 8.13 7.54 7.33 7.99 6.53 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 9.60 8.20 6.48 1990-2012 Electric Power W W W -- W -- 1997-2015 ...

  19. Georgia Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Commercial 10.95 10.51 9.75 9.38 9.86 8.58 1967-2015 Industrial 6.25 5.90 4.61 5.38 6.07 4.42 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 5.17 5.57 14.51 1993-2012 Electric Power 5.21 4.72 3.40 4.45 ...

  20. Kansas Natural Gas Summary

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Commercial 9.65 8.89 8.82 9.07 9.61 8.87 1967-2015 Industrial 5.49 5.28 3.87 4.86 5.68 4.24 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel -- 9.87 9.00 1994-2012 Electric Power 5.05 4.79 3.28 4.57 5.65 ...

  1. Utah Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Commercial 6.83 7.05 7.00 7.13 7.71 7.97 1967-2015 Industrial 5.57 5.50 4.69 5.22 5.87 5.93 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 11.61 13.01 15.02 1990-2012 Electric Power W W 3.04 4.10 W W ...

  2. Texas Natural Gas Summary

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Commercial 7.90 7.07 6.63 7.25 8.26 6.95 1967-2015 Industrial 4.61 4.21 3.02 3.92 4.71 2.89 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 5.38 7.03 10.14 1990-2012 Electric Power 4.66 4.36 2.99 3.94 4.62 ...

  3. Idaho Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Commercial 8.21 8.09 7.35 7.29 7.70 7.59 1967-2015 Industrial 6.39 6.36 5.73 5.47 5.96 5.83 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 7.51 5.10 9.27 1994-2012 Electric Power W W W W W 2.89 2001-2015 ...

  4. Kentucky Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Commercial 8.61 8.79 8.28 8.32 9.06 8.75 1967-2015 Industrial 5.57 5.16 3.96 4.84 5.78 4.45 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel -- -- -- 1992-2012 Electric Power W W W W W W 1997-2015 Dry ...

  5. Michigan Natural Gas Summary

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Commercial 8.95 9.14 8.35 7.82 8.28 7.51 1967-2015 Industrial 9.25 8.27 7.38 6.97 7.84 6.60 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel -- -- -- 1990-2012 Electric Power 4.97 4.76 3.21 4.58 6.71 3.21 ...

  6. Illinois Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Commercial 8.76 8.27 7.78 7.57 8.86 7.29 1967-2015 Industrial 7.13 6.84 5.63 6.00 7.75 5.47 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 7.22 11.61 11.39 1990-2012 Electric Power 5.14 W W W W W ...

  7. Washington Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Commercial 10.49 10.40 9.82 9.21 9.03 9.77 1967-2015 Industrial 9.37 9.47 8.77 8.37 8.55 8.91 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 12.89 9.88 11.06 1990-2012 Electric Power 5.52 W W W W W ...

  8. Delaware Natural Gas Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Commercial 13.26 13.58 13.31 11.78 11.42 10.70 1967-2015 Industrial 10.18 11.69 11.61 11.24 10.95 10.11 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 24.55 28.76 30.97 1995-2012 Electric Power W W -- -- ...

  9. Oregon Natural Gas Summary

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Commercial 10.10 9.60 8.91 8.60 9.44 10.09 1967-2015 Industrial 7.05 6.84 5.87 5.79 6.20 6.28 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 5.61 4.23 4.57 1992-2012 Electric Power 4.57 W W W W W ...

  10. California Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Commercial 8.30 8.29 7.05 7.81 9.05 8.04 1967-2015 Industrial 7.02 7.04 5.77 6.57 7.65 6.41 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 5.55 7.32 7.01 1990-2012 Electric Power 4.99 4.71 3.68 4.53 5.22 ...

  11. Missouri Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Commercial 10.28 9.99 9.54 9.00 8.96 9.14 1967-2015 Industrial 8.70 8.54 7.85 8.19 8.00 7.58 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 6.34 6.11 5.64 1994-2012 Electric Power W W W W W W 1997-2015 ...

  12. Nevada Natural Gas Summary

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Commercial 9.77 8.07 7.43 6.61 8.21 8.66 1967-2015 Industrial 10.53 8.99 7.34 6.66 7.83 8.07 1997-2015 Vehicle Fuel 8.13 4.76 8.97 1991-2012 Electric Power 5.75 5.00 3.49 W W 3.34 ...

  13. ,"Connecticut Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... 34043,,6255,4461 34074,,4043,3038 34104,,1947,1583 34135,,1274,1161 34165,,1040,1122 ...836,987,1723,1623,3,10500 40405,13482,1004,1947,1632,3,8895 40436,12628,951,1787,1591,3,82...

  14. ,"Michigan Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...22982,5746,,0,195,0,277,28256 37909,19454,15563,3891,,0,195,0,277,18982 37940,9737,7790,1947,,0,195,0,277,9265 37970,18864,15091,3773,,0,195,0,277,18392 38001,25319,20255,5064,,0,1...

  15. ,"Kansas Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... 38518,289259,247547,175600,71947,14139,2509,-11630 38548,289259,252209,1755... 36418,,1489,1820 36448,,2658,1947 36479,,3997,2395 36509,,9040,4553 ...

  16. ,"Utah Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... 31228,1999,-65,111,83,,,27,0,2,73 31593,1895,-68,51,78,,,51,0,0,60 31958,1947,-45,281,144,,,12,5,3,60 32324,1298,-424,86,277,,,3,3,0,40 32689,1507,260,87,84,,,9,0,1,...

  17. ,"Washington Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... 35869,,8950,5824 35900,,5827,4236 35930,,3221,2738 35961,,2312,2291 35991,,1765,1947 36022,,1574,1818 36053,,1667,1869 36083,,2427,2102 36114,,4731,3442 36144,,7989,5595 ...

  18. ,"Alabama Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... 36661,34424,33911,512,,,1268,1947,75,31133 36692,32702,32147,555,,,1231,1796... 39859,20978,12275,441,0,8262,46,1320,143,19470,18112 39887,22927,13305,476,0,9147,42,152...

  19. ,"Arizona Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...113,1904,2289,1975,,14944 37057,17703,1272,1947,1872,,12611 37087,18312,1060,1763,1853,,13... 40831,22244,1504,2125,1629,145,16841 40862,19475,2839,2848,2021,141,11627 ...

  20. ,"Nebraska Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... 38426,11440,5151,3311,2623,,355 38457,8360,3023,1975,2975,,389 38487,6579,1947,1592,2545,,496 38518,5853,990,999,2597,,1268 38548,7874,830,1046,4393,,1606 ...

  1. ,"Delaware Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... 38336,6759,1509,1180,1960,,2110 38367,6870,2031,1358,2068,,1412 38398,5543,1824,1253,1465,,1001 38426,5427,1705,1198,1558,,965 38457,2696,790,572,1055,,280 ...

  2. Alaska Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Industrial 4.23 3.84 5.11 8.16 7.97 7.21 1997-2015 Electric Power W 5.04 4.32 4.73 5.06 ... Acquisitions 0 221 0 272 193 2000-2014 Extensions 14 4 45 92 145 1977-2014 New Field ...

  3. ,"Kentucky Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Excel File Name:","ngsumlsumdcuskya.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http:www.eia.govdnavngngsumlsumdcuskya.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information ...

  4. Vermont Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History Prices (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Imports 6.54 5.81 4.90 5.72 6.61 5.31 1989-2015 Pipeline and Distribution Use 1982-2005 Citygate 8.29 7.98 6.63 6.16 7.08 6.33 1984-2015 Residential 16.14 16.17 16.73 15.87 14.68 14.56 1980-2015 Commercial 11.82 11.90 12.09 7.57 9.13 7.89 1980-2015 Industrial 6.57 6.09 4.89 8.59 6.63 5.50 1997-2015 Electric Power 5.73 5.26 4.14 -- -- -- 1997-2015 Imports and Exports (Million Cubic Feet) Imports 8,895 10,319 8,247

  5. Vermont Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Prices (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Citygate 6.93 4.85 4.96 4.24 4.01 4.22 1989-2016 Residential 12.66 13.30 14.26 18.40 21.11 23.02 1989-2016 Commercial 6.22 6.60 6.71 5.51 5.87 5.59 1989-2016 Industrial 4.96 4.93 5.13 4.97 5.61 5.31 2001-2016 Electric Power -- -- -- -- -- -- 2002-2016 Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Delivered to Consumers 1,101 NA 652 566 576 567 2001-2016 Residential 380 357 196 109 89 74 1989-2016 Commercial 516 NA

  6. Wisconsin Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Prices (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Citygate 3.73 3.16 3.67 4.12 5.08 4.80 1989-2016 Residential 7.40 7.58 8.64 10.57 14.32 15.05 1989-2016 Commercial 6.07 5.98 5.30 5.26 6.98 6.55 1989-2016 Industrial 4.94 5.05 3.97 3.44 4.63 4.28 2001-2016 Electric Power W W W W W W 2002-2016 Consumption (Million Cubic Feet) Delivered to Consumers 49,683 39,943 29,481 27,042 28,612 30,377 2001-2016 Residential 14,251 11,130 5,006 2,581 2,338 2,103

  7. Effect of pulsed corona discharge voltage and feed gas flow rate on dissolved ozone concentration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasetyaningrum, A. Ratnawati,; Jos, B.

    2015-12-29

    Ozonization is one of the methods extensively used for water purification and degradation of organic materials. Ozone (O{sub 3}) is recognized as a powerful oxidizing agent. Due to its strong oxidability and better environmental friendless, ozone increasing being used in domestic and industrial applications. Current technology in ozone production utilizes several techniques (corona discharge, ultra violet radiation and electrolysis). This experiment aimed to evaluating effect of voltage and gas flow rate on ozone production with corona discharge. The system consists of two net-type stainless steel electrode placed in a dielectric barrier. Three pulsed voltage (20, 30, 40 KV) and flow rate (5, 10, 15 L/min) were prepare for operation variable at high frequency (3.7 kHz) with AC pulsed power supply. The dissolved ozone concentration depends on the applied high-voltage level, gas flow rate and the discharge exposure duration. The ozone concentration increases with decreasing gas flow rate. Dissolved ozone concentrations greater than 200 ppm can be obtained with a minimum voltage 40 kV.

  8. Flow and heat transfer in gas turbine disk cavities subject to nonuniform external pressure field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, R.P.; Kim, Y.W.; Tong, T.W.

    1995-10-01

    Injestion of hot gas from the main-stream gas path into turbine disk cavities, particularly the first-stage disk cavity, has become a serious concern for the next-generation industrial gas turbines featuring high rotor inlet temperature. Fluid temperature in the cavities increases further due to windage generated by fluid drag at the rotating and stationary surfaces. The resulting problem of rotor disk heat-up is exacerbated by the high disk rim temperature due to adverse (relatively flat) temperature profile of the mainstream gas in the annular flow passage of the turbine. A designer is concerned about the level of stresses in the turbine rotor disk and its durability, both of which are affected significantly by the disk temperature distribution. This distribution also plays a major role in the radial position of the blade tip and thus, in establishing the clearance between the tip and the shroud. To counteract mainstream gas ingestion as well as to cool the rotor and the stator disks, it is necessary to inject cooling air (bled from the compressor discharge) into the wheel space. Since this bleeding of compressor air imposes a penalty on the engine cycle performance, the designers of disk cavity cooling and sealing systems need to accomplish these tasks with the minimum possible amount of bleed air without risking disk failure. This requires detailed knowledge of the flow characteristics and convective heat transfer in the cavity. The flow in the wheel space between the rotor and stator disks is quite complex. It is usually turbulent and contains recirculation regions. Instabilities such as vortices oscillating in space have been observed in the flow. It becomes necessary to obtain both a qualitative understanding of the general pattern of the fluid motion as well as a quantitative map of the velocity and pressure fields.

  9. Turbine exhaust diffuser with a gas jet producing a coanda effect flow control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orosa, John; Montgomery, Matthew

    2014-02-11

    An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine includes an inner boundary and an outer boundary with a flow path defined therebetween. The inner boundary is defined at least in part by a hub structure that has an upstream end and a downstream end. The outer boundary may include a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inward toward the hub structure and may direct at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub structure. The hub structure includes at least one jet exit located on the hub structure adjacent to the upstream end of the tail cone. The jet exit discharges a flow of gas substantially tangential to an outer surface of the tail cone to produce a Coanda effect and direct a portion of the exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the inner boundary.

  10. Attenuation of hydrogen radicals traveling under flowing gas conditions through tubes of different materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grubbs, R.K.; George, S.M.

    2006-05-15

    Hydrogen radical concentrations traveling under flowing gas conditions through tubes of different materials were measured using a dual thermocouple probe. The source of the hydrogen radicals was a toroidal radio frequency plasma source operating at 2.0 and 3.3 kW for H{sub 2} pressures of 250 and 500 mTorr, respectively. The dual thermocouple probe was comprised of exposed and covered Pt/Pt13%Rh thermocouples. Hydrogen radicals recombined efficiently on the exposed thermocouple and the energy of formation of H{sub 2} heated the thermocouple. The second thermocouple was covered by glass and was heated primarily by the ambient gas. The dual thermocouple probe was translated and measured temperatures at different distances from the hydrogen radical source. These temperature measurements were conducted at H{sub 2} flow rates of 35 and 75 SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP) inside cylindrical tubes made of stainless steel, aluminum, quartz, and Pyrex. The hydrogen radical concentrations were obtained from the temperatures of the exposed and covered thermocouples. The hydrogen concentration decreased versus distance from the plasma source. After correcting for the H{sub 2} gas flow using a reference frame transformation, the hydrogen radical concentration profiles yielded the atomic hydrogen recombination coefficient, {gamma}, for the four materials. The methodology of measuring the hydrogen radical concentrations, the analysis of the results under flowing gas conditions, and the determination of the atomic hydrogen recombination coefficients for various materials will help facilitate the use of hydrogen radicals for thin film growth processes.

  11. Energy policy act transportation study: Interim report on natural gas flows and rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-17

    This report, Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Interim Report on Natural Gas Flows and Rates, is the second in a series mandated by Title XIII, Section 1340, ``Establishment of Data Base and Study of Transportation Rates,`` of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102--486). The first report Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Availability of Data and Studies, was submitted to Congress in October 1993; it summarized data and studies that could be used to address the impact of legislative and regulatory actions on natural gas transportation rates and flow patterns. The current report presents an interim analysis of natural gas transportation rates and distribution patterns for the period from 1988 through 1994. A third and final report addressing the transportation rates and flows through 1997 is due to Congress in October 2000. This analysis relies on currently available data; no new data collection effort was undertaken. The need for the collection of additional data on transportation rates will be further addressed after this report, in consultation with the Congress, industry representatives, and in other public forums.

  12. Modeling of Gas-Liquid Flow Through An Interconnected Channel Matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane.H

    2009-01-01

    The motion of a less viscous, non-wetting gas into a liquid-saturated porous medium is known as drainage. Drainage is an important process in environmental applications, such as enhanced oil recovery and geologic CO2 sequestration. Understanding what conditions will increase the volume of gas that can saturate an initially water-saturated porous medium is of importance for predictions of the total CO2 volume that can be sequestered in known geologic formations. To further the understanding of how drainage flow properties are related to different injection flow-rates, a porous medium consisting of interconnected channels and pores was manufactured to perform bench-top experiments of drainage. Additionally, a finite-volume model of this interconnected channel matrix was constructed. Numerical simulations of constant-rate injection into the model porous medium are first shown to compare favorably to the bench-top experiments. The fluid and injection properties of the drainage process were then varied to evaluate the flow conditions which would maximize the volume of gas trapped within the porous medium. In particular, CO2 displacing brine within the porous medium was modeled, with representative subsurface temperatures and fluid properties. It was shown with these fluid conditions a higher final saturation of the invading less-viscous CO2 was obtained, as compared to air into water experiments at similar injection rates.

  13. Dynamic and spectroscopic characteristics of atmospheric gliding arc in gas-liquid two-phase flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tu, X.; Yu, L.; Yan, J. H.; Cen, K. F.; Cheron, B. G.

    2009-11-15

    In this study, an atmospheric alternating-current gliding arc device in gas-liquid two-phase flow has been developed for the purpose of waste water degradation. The dynamic behavior of the gas-liquid gliding arc is investigated through the oscillations of electrical signals, while the spatial evolution of the arc column is analyzed by high speed photography. Different arc breakdown regimes are reported, and the restrike mode is identified as the typical fluctuation characteristic of the hybrid gliding arc in air-water mixture. Optical emission spectroscopy is employed to investigate the active species generated in the gas-liquid plasma. The axial evolution of the OH (309 nm) intensity is determined, while the rotational and vibrational temperatures of the OH are obtained by a comparison between the experimental and simulated spectra. The significant discrepancy between the rotational and translational temperatures has also been discussed.

  14. Measurement of Flow Phenomena in a Lower Plenum Model of a Prismatic Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hugh M. McIlroy, Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink

    2008-05-01

    Mean-velocity-field and turbulence data are presented that measure turbulent flow phenomena in an approximately 1:7 scale model of a region of the lower plenum of a typical prismatic gas-cooled reactor (GCR) similar to a General Atomics Gas-Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GTMHR) design. The data were obtained in the Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and are offered for assessing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. This experiment has been selected as the first Standard Problem endorsed by the Generation IV International Forum. This paper reviews the experimental apparatus and procedures, presents a sample of the data set, and reviews the INL Standard Problem. Results concentrate on the region of the lower plenum near its far reflector wall (away from the outlet duct). The flow in the lower plenum consists of multiple jets injected into a confined cross flow - with obstructions. The model consists of a row of full circular posts along its centerline with half-posts on the two parallel walls to approximate flow scaled to that expected from the staggered parallel rows of posts in the reactor design. The model is fabricated from clear, fused quartz to match the refractive-index of the mineral oil working fluid so that optical techniques may be employed for the measurements. The benefit of the MIR technique is that it permits optical measurements to determine flow characteristics in complex passages in and around objects to be obtained without locating intrusive transducers that will disturb the flow field and without distortion of the optical paths. An advantage of the INL system is its large size, leading to improved spatial and temporal resolution compared to similar facilities at smaller scales. A three-dimensional (3-D) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system was used to collect the data. Inlet jet Reynolds numbers (based on the jet diameter and the time-mean average flow rate) are approximately 4,300 and 12

  15. The RealGas and RealGasH2O Options of the TOUGH+ Code for the Simulation of Coupled Fluid and Heat Flow in Tight/Shale Gas Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moridis, George; Freeman, Craig

    2013-09-30

    We developed two new EOS additions to the TOUGH+ family of codes, the RealGasH2O and RealGas . The RealGasH2O EOS option describes the non-isothermal two-phase flow of water and a real gas mixture in gas reservoirs, with a particular focus in ultra-tight (such as tight-sand and shale gas) reservoirs. The gas mixture is treated as either a single-pseudo-component having a fixed composition, or as a multicomponent system composed of up to 9 individual real gases. The RealGas option has the same general capabilities, but does not include water, thus describing a single-phase, dry-gas system. In addition to the standard capabilities of all members of the TOUGH+ family of codes (fully-implicit, compositional simulators using both structured and unstructured grids), the capabilities of the two codes include: coupled flow and thermal effects in porous and/or fractured media, real gas behavior, inertial (Klinkenberg) effects, full micro-flow treatment, Darcy and non-Darcy flow through the matrix and fractures of fractured media, single- and multi-component gas sorption onto the grains of the porous media following several isotherm options, discrete and fracture representation, complex matrix-fracture relationships, and porosity-permeability dependence on pressure changes. The two options allow the study of flow and transport of fluids and heat over a wide range of time frames and spatial scales not only in gas reservoirs, but also in problems of geologic storage of greenhouse gas mixtures, and of geothermal reservoirs with multi-component condensable (H2O and CH4) and non-condensable gas mixtures. The codes are verified against available analytical and semi-analytical solutions. Their capabilities are demonstrated in a series of problems of increasing complexity, ranging from isothermal flow in simpler 1D and 2D conventional gas reservoirs, to non-isothermal gas flow in 3D fractured shale gas reservoirs involving 4 types of fractures, micro-flow, non-Darcy flow and gas

  16. Modeling hot gas flow in the low-luminosity active galactic nucleus of NGC 3115

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shcherbakov, Roman V.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Wong, Ka-Wah; Irwin, Jimmy A.

    2014-02-20

    Based on the dynamical black hole (BH) mass estimates, NGC 3115 hosts the closest billion solar mass BH. Deep studies of the center revealed a very underluminous active galactic nucleus (AGN) immersed in an old massive nuclear star cluster. Recent 1 Ms Chandra X-ray visionary project observations of the NGC 3115 nucleus resolved hot tenuous gas, which fuels the AGN. In this paper we connect the processes in the nuclear star cluster with the feeding of the supermassive BH. We model the hot gas flow sustained by the injection of matter and energy from the stars and supernova explosions. We incorporate electron heat conduction as the small-scale feedback mechanism, the gravitational pull of the stellar mass, cooling, and Coulomb collisions. Fitting simulated X-ray emission to the spatially and spectrally resolved observed data, we find the best-fitting solutions with ?{sup 2}/dof = 1.00 for dof = 236 both with and without conduction. The radial modeling favors a low BH mass <1.3 10{sup 9} M {sub ?}. The best-fitting supernova rate and the best-fitting mass injection rate are consistent with their expected values. The stagnation point is at r {sub st} ? 1'', so that most of the gas, including the gas at a Bondi radius r{sub B} = 2''-4'', outflows from the region. We put an upper limit on the accretion rate at 2 10{sup 3} M {sub ?} yr{sup 1}. We find a shallow density profile n?r {sup ?} with ? ? 1 over a large dynamic range. This density profile is determined in the feeding region 0.''5-10'' as an interplay of four processes and effects: (1) the radius-dependent mass injection, (2) the effect of the galactic gravitational potential, (3) the accretion flow onset at r ? 1'', and (4) the outflow at r ? 1''. The gas temperature is close to the virial temperature T{sub v} at any radius.

  17. Establishing isokinetic flow for a plasma torch exhaust gas diagnostic for a plasma hearth furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pollack, B.R.

    1996-05-01

    Real time monitoring of toxic metallic effluents in confined gas streams can be accomplished through use of Microwave Induced Plasmas to perform atomic emission spectroscopy, For this diagnostic to be viable it is necessary that it sample from the flowstream of interest in an isokinetic manner. A method of isokinetic sampling was established for this device for use in the exhaust system of a plasma hearth vitrification furnace. The flow and entrained particulate environment were simulated in the laboratory setting using a variable flow duct of the same dimensions (8-inch diameter, schedule 40) as that in the field and was loaded with similar particulate (less than 10 {mu}m in diameter) of lake bed soil typically used in the vitrification process. The flow from the furnace was assumed to be straight flow. To reproduce this effect a flow straightener was installed in the device. An isokinetic sampling train was designed to include the plasma torch, with microwave power input operating at 2.45 GHz, to match local freestream velocities between 800 and 2400 ft/sec. The isokinetic sampling system worked as planned and the plasma torch had no difficulty operating at the required flowrates. Simulation of the particulate suspension was also successful. Steady particle feeds were maintained over long periods of time and the plasma diagnostic responded as expected.

  18. CFD Simulation of 3D Flow field in a Gas Centrifuge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dongjun Jiang; Shi Zeng

    2006-07-01

    A CFD method was used to study the whole flow field in a gas centrifuge. In this paper, the VSM (Vector Splitting Method) of the FVM (Finite Volume Method) was used to solve the 3D Navier-Stokes equations. An implicit second-order upwind scheme was adopted. The numerical simulation was successfully performed on a parallel cluster computer and a convergence result was obtained. The simulation shows that: in the withdrawal chamber, a strong detached shock wave is formed in front of the scoop; as the radial position increases, the shock becomes stronger and the distance to scoop front surface is smaller. An oblique shock forms in the clearance between the scoop and the centrifuge wall; behind the shock-wave, the radially-inward motion of gas is induced because of the imbalance of the pressure gradient and the centrifugal force. In the separation chamber, a countercurrent is introduced. This indicates that CFD method can be used to study the complex three-dimensional flow field of gas centrifuges. (authors)

  19. Numerical modeling of condensation from vapor-gas mixtures for forced down flow inside a tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuann, R Y; Schrock, V E; Chen, Xiang

    1995-09-01

    Laminar film condensation is the dominant heat transfer mode inside tubes. In the present paper direct numerical simulation of the detailed transport process within the steam-gas core flow and in the condensate film is carried out. The problem was posed as an axisymmetric two dimensional (r, z) gas phase inside an annular condensate film flow with an assumed smooth interface. The fundamental conservation equations were written for mass, momentum, species concentration and energy in the gaseous phase with effective diffusion parameters characterizing the turbulent region. The low Reynolds number two equation {kappa}-{epsilon} model was employed to determine the eddy diffusion coefficients. The liquid film was described by similar formulation without the gas species equation. An empirical correlation was employed to correct for the effect of film waviness on the interfacial shear. A computer code named COAPIT (Condensation Analysis Program Inside Tube) was developed to implement numerical solution of the fundamental equations. The equations were solved by a marching technique working downstream from the entrance of the condensing section. COAPIT was benchmarked against experimental data and overall reasonable agreement was found for the key parameters such as heat transfer coefficient and tube inner wall temperature. The predicted axial development of radial profiles of velocity, composition and temperature and occurrence of metastable vapor add insight to the physical phenomena.

  20. Determination of the permeability of carbon aerogels by gas flow measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, F.M.; Hulsey, S.S.; Alviso, C.T.; Pekala, R.W.

    1992-04-01

    Carbon aerogels are synthesized via the polycondensation of resorcinol and formaldehyde, followed by supercritical drying and pyrolysis at 1050{degree}C in nitrogen. Because of their interconnected porosity, ultrafine cell structure and high surface area, carbon aerogels have many potential applications, such as in supercapacitors, battery electrodes, catalyst supports, and gas filters. The performance of carbon aerogels in the latter two applications depends on the permeability or gas flow conductance in these materials. By measuring the pressure differential across a thin specimen and the nitrogen gas flow rate in the viscous regime, we calculated the permeability of carbon aerogels from equations based upon Darcy's law. Our measurements show that carbon aerogels have apparent permeabilities on the order of 10{sup {minus}12}to 10{sup {minus}10} cm{sup 2} for densities ranging from 0.44 to 0.05 g/cm{sup 3}. Like their mechanical properties, the permeability of carbon aerogels follows a power law relationship with density and average pore size. Such findings help us to estimate the average pore sizes of carbon aerogels once their densities are known. This paper reveals the relationships among permeability, pore size and density in carbon aerogels.

  1. Determination of the permeability of carbon aerogels by gas flow measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, F.M.; Hulsey, S.S.; Alviso, C.T.; Pekala, R.W.

    1992-04-01

    Carbon aerogels are synthesized via the polycondensation of resorcinol and formaldehyde, followed by supercritical drying and pyrolysis at 1050{degree}C in nitrogen. Because of their interconnected porosity, ultrafine cell structure and high surface area, carbon aerogels have many potential applications, such as in supercapacitors, battery electrodes, catalyst supports, and gas filters. The performance of carbon aerogels in the latter two applications depends on the permeability or gas flow conductance in these materials. By measuring the pressure differential across a thin specimen and the nitrogen gas flow rate in the viscous regime, we calculated the permeability of carbon aerogels from equations based upon Darcy`s law. Our measurements show that carbon aerogels have apparent permeabilities on the order of 10{sup {minus}12}to 10{sup {minus}10} cm{sup 2} for densities ranging from 0.44 to 0.05 g/cm{sup 3}. Like their mechanical properties, the permeability of carbon aerogels follows a power law relationship with density and average pore size. Such findings help us to estimate the average pore sizes of carbon aerogels once their densities are known. This paper reveals the relationships among permeability, pore size and density in carbon aerogels.

  2. ACCRETION OF GAS ONTO GAP-OPENING PLANETS AND CIRCUMPLANETARY FLOW STRUCTURE IN MAGNETIZED TURBULENT DISKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uribe, A. L. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Klahr, H.; Henning, Th., E-mail: uribe@oddjob.uchicago.edu [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    We have performed three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations of stellar accretion disks, using the PLUTO code, and studied the accretion of gas onto a Jupiter-mass planet and the structure of the circumplanetary gas flow after opening a gap in the disk. We compare our results with simulations of laminar, yet viscous disks with different levels of an {alpha}-type viscosity. In all cases, we find that the accretion flow across the surface of the Hill sphere of the planet is not spherically or azimuthally symmetric, and is predominantly restricted to the mid-plane region of the disk. Even in the turbulent case, we find no significant vertical flow of mass into the Hill sphere. The outer parts of the circumplanetary disk are shown to rotate significantly below Keplerian speed, independent of viscosity, while the circumplanetary disk density (therefore the angular momentum) increases with viscosity. For a simulation of a magnetized turbulent disk, where the global averaged alpha stress is {alpha}{sub MHD} = 10{sup -3}, we find the accretion rate onto the planet to be M-dot {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}M{sub J} yr{sup -1} for a gap surface density of 12 g cm{sup -2}. This is about a third of the accretion rate obtained in a laminar viscous simulation with equivalent {alpha} parameter.

  3. An efficient particle FokkerPlanck algorithm for rarefied gas flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorji, M. Hossein; Jenny, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    This paper is devoted to the algorithmic improvement and careful analysis of the FokkerPlanck kinetic model derived by Jenny et al. [1] and Gorji et al. [2]. The motivation behind the FokkerPlanck based particle methods is to gain efficiency in low Knudsen rarefied gas flow simulations, where conventional direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) becomes expensive. This can be achieved due to the fact that the resulting model equations are continuous stochastic differential equations in velocity space. Accordingly, the computational particles evolve along independent stochastic paths and thus no collision needs to be calculated. Therefore the computational cost of the solution algorithm becomes independent of the Knudsen number. In the present study, different computational improvements were persuaded in order to augment the method, including an accurate time integration scheme, local time stepping and noise reduction. For assessment of the performance, gas flow around a cylinder and lid driven cavity flow were studied. Convergence rates, accuracy and computational costs were compared with respect to DSMC for a range of Knudsen numbers (from hydrodynamic regime up to above one). In all the considered cases, the model together with the proposed scheme give rise to very efficient yet accurate solution algorithms.

  4. Conversion of forest residues to a methane-rich gas in a high-throughput gasifier. Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldmann, H.F.; Paisley, M.A.; Folsom, D.W.; Kim, B.C.

    1981-10-31

    Results of the experimental work conducted thus far have shown that wood can be readily gasified in a steam environment into a hydrocarbon rich fuel gas that can be used as a replacement for petroleum-based fuels or natural gas with minimal boiler retrofit. Further, this conversion can be achieved in a compact gasification reactor with heat supplied by a circulating entrained phase, thereby eliminating the need for an oxygen plant. Tars have not been found except at the lowest gasifier temperatures employed, and therefore heat recovery from the product gas should be much simpler than that from commercially available fixed-bed gasification systems where product gas contains significant quantities of tar. The data generated have been used in a preliminary conceptual design. Evaluation of this design has shown that a medium-Btu gas can be produced from wood at a cost competitive with natural gas or petroleum-based fuels.

  5. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF GAS-LIQUID CYLINDRICAL CYCLONE COMPACT SEPARATORS FOR THREE-PHASE FLOW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ram S. Mohan; Dr. Ovadia Shoham

    2001-10-30

    This report presents a brief overview of the activities and tasks accomplished during the second half year (April 1, 2001-September 30, 2001) of the fourth project year budget period (October 1, 2000-September 30, 2001). An executive summary is presented initially followed by the tasks of the current budget period. Then, detailed description of the experimental and modeling investigations are presented. Subsequently, the technical and scientific results of the activities of this project period are presented with some discussions. The findings of this investigation are summarized in the ''Conclusions'' section followed by relevant references. The fourth project year activities are divided into three main parts, which are carried out in parallel. The first part is continuation of the experimental program that includes a study of the oil/water two-phase behavior at high pressures and control system development for the three-phase GLCC{copyright}. This investigation will be eventually extended for three-phase flow. The second part consists of the development of a simplified mechanistic model incorporating the experimental results and behavior of dispersion of oil in water and water in oil. This will provide an insight into the hydrodynamic flow behavior and serve as the design tool for the industry. Although useful for sizing GLCC{copyright} for proven applications, the mechanistic model will not provide detailed hydrodynamic flow behavior information needed to screen new geometric variations or to study the effect of fluid property variations. Therefore, in the third part, the more rigorous approach of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) will be utilized. Multidimensional multiphase flow simulation at high pressures and for real crude conditions will provide much greater depth into the understanding of the physical phenomena and the mathematical analysis of three-phase GLCC{copyright} design and performance.

  6. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF GAS-LIQUID CYLINDRICAL CYCLONE COMPACT SEPARATORS FOR THREE-PHASE FLOW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ram S. Mohan; Dr. Ovadia Shoham

    2001-04-30

    This report presents a brief overview of the activities and tasks accomplished during the first half year (October 1, 2000-March 31, 2001) of the fourth project year budget period (October 1, 2000-September 30, 2001). An executive summary is presented initially followed by the tasks of the current budget period. Then, detailed description of the experimental and modeling investigations are presented. Subsequently, the technical and scientific results of the activities of this project period are presented with some discussions. The findings of this investigation are summarized in the ''Conclusions'' section followed by relevant references. The fourth project year activities are divided into three main parts, which are carried out in parallel. The first part is continuation of the experimental program that includes a study of the oil/water two-phase behavior at high pressures and control system development for the three-phase GLCC{copyright}. This investigation will be eventually extended for three-phase flow. The second part consists of the development of a simplified mechanistic model incorporating the experimental results and behavior of dispersion of oil in water and water in oil. This will provide an insight into the hydrodynamic flow behavior and serve as the design tool for the industry. Although useful for sizing GLCC{copyright} for proven applications, the mechanistic model will not provide detailed hydrodynamic flow behavior information needed to screen new geometric variations or to study the effect of fluid property variations. Therefore, in the third part, the more rigorous approach of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) will be utilized. Multidimensional multiphase flow simulation at high pressures and for real crude conditions will provide much greater depth into the understanding of the physical phenomena and the mathematical analysis of three-phase GLCC{copyright} design and performance.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW COST INFERENTIAL NATURAL GAS ENERGY FLOW RATE PROTOTYPE RETROFIT MODULE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Kelner; D. George; T. Morrow; T. Owen; M. Nored; R. Burkey; A. Minachi

    2005-05-01

    In 1998, Southwest Research Institute began a multi-year project to develop a working prototype instrument module for natural gas energy measurement. The module will be used to retrofit a natural gas custody transfer flow meter for energy measurement, at a cost an order of magnitude lower than a gas chromatograph. Development and evaluation of the prototype energy meter in 2002-2003 included: (1) refinement of the algorithm used to infer properties of the natural gas stream, such as heating value; (2) evaluation of potential sensing technologies for nitrogen content, improvements in carbon dioxide measurements, and improvements in ultrasonic measurement technology and signal processing for improved speed of sound measurements; (3) design, fabrication and testing of a new prototype energy meter module incorporating these algorithm and sensor refinements; and (4) laboratory and field performance tests of the original and modified energy meter modules. Field tests of the original energy meter module have provided results in close agreement with an onsite gas chromatograph. The original algorithm has also been tested at a field site as a stand-alone application using measurements from in situ instruments, and has demonstrated its usefulness as a diagnostic tool. The algorithm has been revised to use measurement technologies existing in the module to measure the gas stream at multiple states and infer nitrogen content. The instrumentation module has also been modified to incorporate recent improvements in CO{sub 2} and sound speed sensing technology. Laboratory testing of the upgraded module has identified additional testing needed to attain the target accuracy in sound speed measurements and heating value.

  8. Executive Summary: Executive Summary

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Executive Summary - On the Path to SunShot Executive Summary - On the Path to SunShot The halfway mark of the SunShot Initiative's 2020 target date is a good time to take stock: How much progress has been made? What have we learned? What barriers and opportunities must still be addressed to ensure that solar technologies achieve cost parity in 2020 and realize their full potential in the decades beyond? To answer these questions, the Solar Energy Technology Office launched the On the Path to

  9. Sub-grid drag models for horizontal cylinder arrays immersed in gas-particle multiphase flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkar, Avik; Sun, Xin; Sundaresan, Sankaran

    2013-09-08

    Immersed cylindrical tube arrays often are used as heat exchangers in gas-particle fluidized beds. In multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of large fluidized beds, explicit resolution of small cylinders is computationally infeasible. Instead, the cylinder array may be viewed as an effective porous medium in coarse-grid simulations. The cylinders' influence on the suspension as a whole, manifested as an effective drag force, and on the relative motion between gas and particles, manifested as a correction to the gas-particle drag, must be modeled via suitable sub-grid constitutive relationships. In this work, highly resolved unit-cell simulations of flow around an array of horizontal cylinders, arranged in a staggered configuration, are filtered to construct sub-grid, or `filtered', drag models, which can be implemented in coarse-grid simulations. The force on the suspension exerted by the cylinders is comprised of, as expected, a buoyancy contribution, and a kinetic component analogous to fluid drag on a single cylinder. Furthermore, the introduction of tubes also is found to enhance segregation at the scale of the cylinder size, which, in turn, leads to a reduction in the filtered gas-particle drag.

  10. Galactic scale gas flows in colliding galaxies: 3-Dimensional, N-body/hydrodynamics experiments

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Galactic Scale Gas Flows in Colliding Galaxies: a-Dimensional, N-bodyjHydrodynamics Experiments Susan A. Lamb* NORDITA and Neils Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100, Kpbenhaven 0, Danmark. Richard A. Gerber University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Departments of Physics and Astronomy, 1110 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801, U.S.A. and Dinshaw S. Balsara t Johns Hopkins University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Homewood Campu.s, Baltimore, MD 21218, U.S.A. Abstract. We present some

  11. Efficient boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotube formation via combined laser-gas flow levitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, R Roy; Jordan, Kevin; Smith, Michael W

    2015-03-24

    A process for producing boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B.sub.xC.sub.yN.sub.z. The process utilizes a combination of laser light and nitrogen gas flow to support a boron ball target during heating of the boron ball target and production of a boron vapor plume which reacts with nitrogen or nitrogen and carbon to produce boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B.sub.xC.sub.yN.sub.z.

  12. CO/sub 2/ gas dynamic laser with flow rate of 10 Kg/sec

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haitao, C.

    1982-08-01

    Using a supersonic technique in a 10 Kg/sec flow rate carbon dioxide gas dynamic laser unit to create a population inversion of the carbon dioxide particles, a 33,000 watt multiple mode continuous output was obtained. The power ratio reached 3000 watt sec/Kg. Single mode output was the P(20) branch with power of 11,200 watts and a beam diffuse angle of 4 seconds of radian. After eliminating the effect of stock wave, the diffuse angle can be reduced to 3 seconds of a radian. The results were below standards compared to those in foreign countries.

  13. Efficient boron nitride nanotube formation via combined laser-gas flow levitation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitney, R. Roy; Jordan, Kevin; Smith, Michael

    2014-03-18

    A process for producing boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B.sub.xC.sub.yN.sub.z. The process utilizes a combination of laser light and nitrogen gas flow to support a boron ball target during heating of the boron ball target and production of a boron vapor plume which reacts with nitrogen or nitrogen and carbon to produce boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B.sub.xC.sub.yN.sub.z.

  14. Mathematical Simulation of the Gas-Particles Reaction Flows in Incineration of Metal-Containing Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojovan, M. I.; Klimov, V. L.; Karlina, O. K.

    2002-02-26

    A ''quasi-equilibrium'' approach for thermodynamic calculation of chemical composition and properties of metal-containing fuel combustion products has been developed and used as a part of the mathematical model of heterogeneous reacting flow which carry burning and/or evaporating particles. By using of this approach, the applicable mathematical model has been devised, which allows defining the change in chemical composition and thermal characteristics of combustion products along the incineration chamber. As an example, the simulation results of the reacting flow of magnesium-sodium nitrate-organic mixture are presented. The simulation results on the gas phase temperature in the flow of combustion products are in good agreement with those obtained experimentally. The proposed method of ''quasi-equilibrium'' thermodynamic calculation and mathematical model provide a real possibility for performing of numerical experiments on the basis of mathematical simulation of nonequilibrium flows of combustion products. Numerical experiments help correctly to estimate the work characteristics in the process of treatment devices design saving time and costs.

  15. Fundamentals of Natural Gas and Species Flows from Hydrate Dissociation - Applications to Safety and Sea Floor Instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodarz Ahmadi

    2006-09-30

    Semi-analytical computational models for natural gas flow in hydrate reservoirs were developed and the effects of variations in porosity and permeability on pressure and temperature profiles and the movement of a dissociation front were studied. Experimental data for variations of gas pressure and temperature during propane hydrate formation and dissociation for crushed ice and mixture of crushed ice and glass beads under laboratory environment were obtained. A thermodynamically consistent model for multiphase liquid-gas flows trough porous media was developed. Numerical models for hydrate dissociation process in one dimensional and axisymmetric reservoir were performed. The computational model solved the general governing equations without the need for linearization. A detail module for multidimensional analysis of hydrate dissociation which make use of the FLUENT code was developed. The new model accounts for gas and liquid water flow and uses the Kim-Boshnoi model for hydrate dissociation.

  16. State policies affecting natural gas consumption (Notice of inquiry issued on August 14, 1992). Summary of comments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemon, R.; Kamphuis-Zatopa, W.

    1993-03-25

    On August 14, 1992, the United States Department of Energy issued a Request for Comments Concerning State Policies Affecting Natural Gas Consumption. This Notice of (NOI) noted the increasing significance of the role played by states and sought to gain better understanding of how state policies impact the gas industry. The general trend toward a. more competitive marketplace for natural gas, as well as recent regulatory and legislative changes at the Federal level, are driving State regulatory agencies to reevaluate how they regulate natural gas. State action is having a significant impact on the use of natural gas for generating electricity, as well as affecting the cost-effective trade-off between conservation expenditures and gas use. Additionally, fuel choice has an impact upon the environment and national energy security. In light of these dimensions, the Department of Energy initiated this study of State regulation. The goals of this NOI are: (1) help DOE better understand the impact of State policies on the efficient use of gas; (2) increase the awareness of the natural gas industry and Federal and State officials to the important role of State policies and regulations; (3) create an improved forum for dialogue on State and Federal natural gas issues; and, (4) develop a consensus on an analytical agenda that would be most helpful in addressing the regulatory challenges faced by the States. Ninety-seven parties filed comments, and of these ninety-seven, fifteen parties filed reply comments. Appendix One lists these parties. This report briefly syntheses the comments received. The goal is to assist parties to judging the extent of consensus on the problems posed and the remedies suggested, aid in identifying future analytical analyses, and assist parties in assessing differences in strategies and regulatory philosophies which shape these issues and their resolution.

  17. Flow Mapping in a Gas-Solid Riser via Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muthanna Al-Dahhan; Milorad P. Dudukovic; Satish Bhusarapu; Timothy J. O'hern; Steven Trujillo; Michael R. Prairie

    2005-06-04

    Statement of the Problem: Developing and disseminating a general and experimentally validated model for turbulent multiphase fluid dynamics suitable for engineering design purposes in industrial scale applications of riser reactors and pneumatic conveying, require collecting reliable data on solids trajectories, velocities ? averaged and instantaneous, solids holdup distribution and solids fluxes in the riser as a function of operating conditions. Such data are currently not available on the same system. Multiphase Fluid Dynamics Research Consortium (MFDRC) was established to address these issues on a chosen example of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) reactor, which is widely used in petroleum and chemical industry including coal combustion. This project addresses the problem of lacking reliable data to advance CFB technology. Project Objectives: The objective of this project is to advance the understanding of the solids flow pattern and mixing in a well-developed flow region of a gas-solid riser, operated at different gas flow rates and solids loading using the state-of-the-art non-intrusive measurements. This work creates an insight and reliable database for local solids fluid-dynamic quantities in a pilot-plant scale CFB, which can then be used to validate/develop phenomenological models for the riser. This study also attempts to provide benchmark data for validation of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) codes and their current closures. Technical Approach: Non-Invasive Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT) technique provides complete Eulerian solids flow field (time average velocity map and various turbulence parameters such as the Reynolds stresses, turbulent kinetic energy, and eddy diffusivities). It also gives directly the Lagrangian information of solids flow and yields the true solids residence time distribution (RTD). Another radiation based technique, Computed Tomography (CT) yields detailed time averaged local holdup profiles at

  18. A method for measuring the local gas pressure within a gas-flow stage in situ in the transmission electron microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colby, Robert J.; Alsem, Daan H.; Liyu, Andrey V.; Kabius, Bernd C.

    2015-06-01

    The development of environmental transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has enabled in situ experiments in a gaseous environment with high resolution imaging and spectroscopy. Addressing scientific challenges in areas such as catalysis, corrosion, and geochemistry can require pressures much higher than the ~20 mbar achievable with a differentially pumped, dedicated environmental TEM. Gas flow stages, in which the environment is contained between two semi-transparent thin membrane windows, have been demonstrated at pressures of several atmospheres. While this constitutes significant progress towards operando measurements, the design of many current gas flow stages is such that the pressure at the sample cannot necessarily be directly inferred from the pressure differential across the system. Small differences in the setup and design of the gas flow stage can lead to very different sample pressures. We demonstrate a method for measuring the gas pressure directly, using a combination of electron energy loss spectroscopy and TEM imaging. This method requires only two energy filtered TEM images, limiting the measurement time to a few seconds and can be performed during an ongoing experiment at the region of interest. This approach provides a means to ensure reproducibility between different experiments, and even between very differently designed gas flow stages.

  19. Summary and assessment of METC zinc ferrite hot coal gas desulfurization test program, final report: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Underkoffler, V.S.

    1986-12-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has conducted a test program to develop a zinc ferrite-based high temperature desulfurization process which could be applied to fuel gas entering downstream components such as molten carbonate fuel cells or gas turbines. As a result of prior METC work with iron oxide and zinc oxide sorbents, zinc ferrite evolved as a candidate with the potential for high capacity, low equilibrium levels of H/sub 2/S, and structural stability after multiple regenerations. The program consisted of laboratory-scale testing with a two-inch diameter reactor and simulated fixed-bed gasifier gas; bench-scale testing with a six-inch diameter reactor and actual gas from the METC 42-inch fixed bed gasifier; as well as laboratory-scale testing of zinc ferrite with simulated fluidized bed gasifier gas. Optimum operating parameters for zinc ferrite such as temperatures, gas compositions, and space velocities are discussed. From the test results, salient features of zinc ferrite were derived and discussed in regard to system implications, issues raised, and technical requirements. 47 refs., 53 figs., 41 tabs.

  20. Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Information Program. Update 2, August 1981, Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Activities in the South Atlantic (US) and their Onshore Impacts: a summary report, July 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCord, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    In July 1980, the Office of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Information issued an initial report called Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Activities in the South Atlantic (US) and their Onshore Impacts: A Summary Report, July 1980. The purpose of this report was to provide State and local governments with current information about offshore oil and gas resources and onshore activity in the area extending from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, to Cape Canaveral, Florida. This information was designed to assist in socioeconomic planning for the onshore impacts of oil and gas development in the affected areas. This report, Update 2, discusses Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities and their onshore impacts for the period of February 1981 to August 1981. Because of the minimal offshore oil- and gas-related activity in the South Atlantic Region, the onshore impacts are also minimal. Very little, if any, development has occurred as a result of exploration or development. Even though the South Atlantic OCS does contain large areas with hydrocarbon potential, little optimism has been generated by exploration associated with Lease Sale 43. Lease Sale 56 included tracts with geologic conditions more favorable to the generation, migration, and accumulation of hydrocarbons, especially the deepwatr tracts, but industry showed moderate interest in the first deepwater lease sale. The level of nearshore and onshore activity may increase with exploration associated with Lease Sale 56. More permanent onshore development will be contingent on the outcome of exploration efforts.

  1. Summary of hydrogeologic controls on ground-water flow at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laczniak, R.J.; Cole, J.C.; Sawyer, D.A.; Trudeau, D.A.

    1996-07-01

    The underground testing of nuclear devices has generated substantial volumes of radioactive and other chemical contaminants below ground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Many of the more radioactive contaminants are highly toxic and are known to persist in the environment for thousands of years. In response to concerns about potential health hazards, the US Department of Energy, under its Environmental Restoration Program, has made NTS the subject of a long-term investigation. Efforts will assess whether byproducts of underground testing pose a potential hazard to the health and safety of the public and, if necessary, will evaluate and implement steps to remediate any of the identified dangers. Ground-water flow is the primary mechanism by which contaminants can be transported significant distances away from the initial point of injection. Flow paths between contaminant sources and potential receptors are separated by remote areas that span tens of miles. The diversity and structural complexity of the rocks along these flow paths complicates the hydrology of the region. Although the hydrology has been studied in some detail, much still remains uncertain about flow rates and directions through the fractured-rock aquifers that transmit water great distances across this arid region. Unique to the hydrology of NTS are the effects of underground testing, which severely alter local rock characteristics and affect hydrologic conditions throughout the region. This report summarizes what is known and inferred about ground-water flow throughout the NTS region. The report identifies and updates what is known about some of the major controls on ground-water flow, highlights some of the uncertainties in the current understanding, and prioritizes some of the technical needs as related to the Environmental Restoration Program. 113 refs.

  2. New York Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) New York Natural Gas Number of Gas and ... Number of Producing Gas Wells Number of Producing Gas Wells (Summary) New York Natural Gas ...

  3. Numerical modeling of carrier gas flow in atomic layer deposition vacuum reactor: A comparative study of lattice Boltzmann models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Dongqing; Chien Jen, Tien [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 (United States); Li, Tao [School of Mechanical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Yuan, Chris, E-mail: cyuan@uwm.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 3200 North Cramer Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    This paper characterizes the carrier gas flow in the atomic layer deposition (ALD) vacuum reactor by introducing Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) to the ALD simulation through a comparative study of two LBM models. Numerical models of gas flow are constructed and implemented in two-dimensional geometry based on lattice BhatnagarGrossKrook (LBGK)-D2Q9 model and two-relaxation-time (TRT) model. Both incompressible and compressible scenarios are simulated and the two models are compared in the aspects of flow features, stability, and efficiency. Our simulation outcome reveals that, for our specific ALD vacuum reactor, TRT model generates better steady laminar flow features all over the domain with better stability and reliability than LBGK-D2Q9 model especially when considering the compressible effects of the gas flow. The LBM-TRT is verified indirectly by comparing the numerical result with conventional continuum-based computational fluid dynamics solvers, and it shows very good agreement with these conventional methods. The velocity field of carrier gas flow through ALD vacuum reactor was characterized by LBM-TRT model finally. The flow in ALD is in a laminar steady state with velocity concentrated at the corners and around the wafer. The effects of flow fields on precursor distributions, surface absorptions, and surface reactions are discussed in detail. Steady and evenly distributed velocity field contribute to higher precursor concentration near the wafer and relatively lower particle velocities help to achieve better surface adsorption and deposition. The ALD reactor geometry needs to be considered carefully if a steady and laminar flow field around the wafer and better surface deposition are desired.

  4. Safety aspects of forced flow cooldown transients in Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroger, P.G.

    1993-05-01

    During some of the design basis accidents in Modular High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (MHTGRs), the main Heat Transport System (HTS) and the Shutdown Cooling System n removed by the passive Reactor (SCS) are assumed to have failed. Decay heat is the Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) only. If either forced flow cooling system becomes available during such a transient, its restart could significantly reduce the down-time. This report used the THATCH code to examine whether such restart, during a period of elevated core temperatures, can be accomplished within safe limits for fuel and metal component temperatures. If the reactor is scrammed, either system can apparently be restarted at any time, without exceeding any safe limits. However, under unscrammed conditions a restart of forced cooling can lead to recriticality, with fuel and metal temperatures significantly exceeding the safety limits.

  5. Open source development experience with a computational gas-solids flow code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syamlal, M; O'Brien, T. J.; Benyahia, Sofiane; Gel, Aytekin; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2008-01-01

    A case study on the use of open source (OS) software development in chemical engineering research and education is presented here. The multiphase computational fluid dynamics software MFIX is the object of the case study. The verification and validation steps required for constructing modern computational software and the advantages of OS development in those steps are discussed. The infrastructure used for enabling the OS development of MFIX is described. The impact of OS development on computational research and education in gas-solids flow and the dissemination of information to other areas such as geotechnical and volcanology research are demonstrated. It is shown that the advantages of OS development methodology were realized: verification by many users, which enhances software quality; the use of software as a means for accumulating and exchanging information; and the facilitation of peer review of the results of computational research.

  6. COARSE-GRID SIMULATION OF REACTING AND NON-REACTING GAS-PARTICLE FLOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sankaran Sundaresan

    2004-03-01

    The principal goal of this project, funded under the ''DOE Vision 21 Virtual Demonstration Initiative'' is virtual demonstration of circulating fluidized bed performance. We had proposed a ''virtual demonstration tool'', which is based on the open-domain CFD code MFIX. The principal challenge funded through this grant is to devise and implement in this CFD code sound physical models for the rheological characteristics of the gas-particle mixtures. Within the past year, which was the third year of the project, we have made the following specific advances. (a) We have completed a study of the impact of sub-grid models of different levels of detail on the results obtained in coarse-grid simulations of gas-particle flow. (b) We have also completed a study of a model problem to understand the effect of wall friction, which was proved in our earlier work to be very important for stable operation of standpipes in a circulating fluidized bed circuit. These are described in a greater detail in this report.

  7. Natural Gas and Hydrogen Infrastructure Opportunities Workshop, October 18-19, 2011, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL : Summary Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, R. comp.; Ahmed, S. comp.

    2012-02-21

    The overall objective of the Workshop was to identify opportunities for accelerating the use of both natural gas (NG) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) as motor fuels and in stationary power applications. Specific objectives of the Workshop were to: (1) Convene industry and other stakeholders to share current status/state-of-the-art of NG and H{sub 2} infrastructure; (2) Identify key challenges (including non-technical challenges, such as permitting, installation, codes, and standards) preventing or delaying the widespread deployment of NG and H{sub 2} infrastructure. Identify synergies between NG and H{sub 2} fuels; and (3) Identify and prioritize opportunities for addressing the challenges identified above, and determine roles and opportunities for both the government and industry stakeholders. Plenary speakers and panel discussions summarized the current status of the NG and H{sub 2} infrastructure, technology for their use in transportation and stationary applications, and some of the major challenges and opportunities to more widespread use of these fuels. Two break-out sessions of three groups each addressed focus questions on: (1) infrastructure development needs; (2) deployment synergies; (3) natural gas and fuel cell vehicles (NGVs, FCVs), specialty vehicles, and heavy-duty trucks; (4) CHP (combined heat and power), CHHP (combined hydrogen, heat, and power), and synergistic approaches; and (5) alternative uses of natural gas.

  8. Modular ultrahigh vacuum-compatible gas-injection system with an adjustable gas flow for focused particle beam-induced deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klingenberger, D.; Huth, M.

    2009-09-15

    A gas-injection system (GIS) heats up a powdery substance and transports the resulting gas through a capillary into a vacuum chamber. Such a system can be used to guide a (metal)organic precursor gas very close to the focal area of an electron or ion beam, where a permanent deposit is created and adheres to the substrate. This process is known as focused particle beam-induced deposition. The authors present design principles and give construction details of a GIS suitable for ultrahigh vacuum usage. The GIS is composed of several self-contained components which can be customized rather independently. It allows for a continuously adjustable gas-flow rate. The GIS was attached to a standard scanning electron microscope (JEOL 6100) and tested with the tungsten precursor W(CO){sub 6}. The analysis of the deposits by means of atomic force microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy provides clear evidence that excellent gas-flow-rate stability and ensuing growth rate and metal-content reproducibility are experienced.

  9. New Mexico Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) New Mexico Natural Gas Number of Gas and ... Number of Producing Gas Wells Number of Producing Gas Wells (Summary) New Mexico Natural ...

  10. North Dakota Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) North Dakota Natural Gas Number of Gas ... Number of Producing Gas Wells Number of Producing Gas Wells (Summary) North Dakota Natural ...

  11. A Finite-Difference Numerical Method for Onsager's Pancake Approximation for Fluid Flow in a Gas Centrifuge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Stadler, M; Chand, K

    2007-11-12

    Gas centrifuges exhibit very complex flows. Within the centrifuge there is a rarefied region, a transition region, and a region with an extreme density gradient. The flow moves at hypersonic speeds and shock waves are present. However, the flow is subsonic in the axisymmetric plane. The analysis may be simplified by treating the flow as a perturbation of wheel flow. Wheel flow implies that the fluid is moving as a solid body. With the very large pressure gradient, the majority of the fluid is located very close to the rotor wall and moves at an azimuthal velocity proportional to its distance from the rotor wall; there is no slipping in the azimuthal plane. The fluid can be modeled as incompressible and subsonic in the axisymmetric plane. By treating the centrifuge as long, end effects can be appropriately modeled without performing a detailed boundary layer analysis. Onsager's pancake approximation is used to construct a simulation to model fluid flow in a gas centrifuge. The governing 6th order partial differential equation is broken down into an equivalent coupled system of three equations and then solved numerically. In addition to a discussion on the baseline solution, known problems and future work possibilities are presented.

  12. Burden distribution control for maintaining the central gas flow at No. 1 blast furnace in Pohang Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, S.K.; Lee, Y.J.; Suh, Y.K.; Ahn, T.J.; Kim, S.M.

    1995-12-01

    The causes for temperature lowering at the upper shaft center in Pohang No. 1 blast furnace were investigated. The test operation with charging notch change in the actual blast furnace and with a 1/12 scale model to Pohang No. 1 blast furnace were carried out in order to improve central gas flow in the shaft. Finally, rebuilding of the lower bunker interior was performed using the results of model experiments. It was confirmed that the main reason for the gas temperature lowering at the upper shaft center was the smaller particle size at center than the wall according to the discharging characteristics of center feed bunker with stone box. The central gas flow could be secured through modifying the stone box in the bunker.

  13. Flow pattern changes influenced by variation of viscosities of a heterogeneous gas-liquid mixture flow in a vertical channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keska, Jerry K.; Hincapie, Juan; Jones, Richard

    2011-02-15

    In the steady-state flow of a heterogeneous mixture such as an air-liquid mixture, the velocity and void fraction are space- and time-dependent parameters. These parameters are the most fundamental in the analysis and description of a multiphase flow. The determination of flow patterns in an objective way is extremely critical, since this is directly related to sudden changes in spatial and temporal changes of the random like characteristic of concentration. Flow patterns can be described by concentration signals in time, amplitude, and frequency domains. Despite the vital importance and countless attempts to solve or incorporate the flow pattern phenomena into multiphase models, it has still been a very challenging topic in the scientific community since the 1940's and has not yet reached a satisfactory solution. This paper reports the experimental results of the impact of fluid viscosity on flow patterns for two-phase flow. Two-phase flow was created in laboratory equipment using air and liquid as phase medium. The liquid properties were changed by using variable concentrations of glycerol in water mixture which generated a wide-range of dynamic viscosities ranging from 1 to 1060 MPa s. The in situ spatial concentration vs. liquid viscosity and airflow velocity of two-phase flow in a vertical ID=50.8 mm pipe were measured using two concomitant computer-aided measurement systems. After acquiring data, the in situ special concentration signals were analyzed in time (spatial concentration and RMS of spatial concentration vs. time), amplitude (PDF and CPDF), and frequency (PSD and CPSD) domains that documented broad flow pattern changes caused by the fluid viscosity and air velocity changes. (author)

  14. Summary of Advice to the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Summary of Advice to the Energy Information Administration from the American Statistical Association Committee on Energy Statistics at the Spring Meeting March 21-22, 2002 1. Weekly Natural Gas Storage Survey (Priority 1) Presenter: Elizabeth Campbell The Energy Information Administration (EIA) began its first collection of weekly natural gas data in May 2002 with implementation of the Weekly Natural Gas Storage Survey. EIA was directed to begin the new survey after the American Gas Association

  15. FEMO, A FLOW AND ENRICHMENT MONITOR FOR VERIFYING COMPLIANCE WITH INTERNATIONAL SAFEGUARDS REQUIREMENTS AT A GAS CENTRIFUGE ENRICHMENT FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunning, John E; Laughter, Mark D; March-Leuba, Jose A

    2008-01-01

    A number of countries have received construction licenses or are contemplating the construction of large-capacity gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). The capability to independently verify nuclear material flows is a key component of international safeguards approaches, and the IAEA does not currently have an approved method to continuously monitor the mass flow of 235U in uranium hexafluoride (UF6) gas streams. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is investigating the development of a flow and enrichment monitor, or FEMO, based on an existing blend-down monitoring system (BDMS). The BDMS was designed to continuously monitor both 235U mass flow and enrichment of UF6 streams at the low pressures similar to those which exists at GCEPs. BDMSs have been installed at three sites-the first unit has operated successfully in an unattended environment for approximately 10 years. To be acceptable to GCEP operators, it is essential that the instrument be installed and maintained without interrupting operations. A means to continuously verify flow as is proposed by FEMO will likely be needed to monitor safeguards at large-capacity plants. This will enable the safeguards effectiveness that currently exists at smaller plants to be maintained at the larger facilities and also has the potential to reduce labor costs associated with inspections at current and future plants. This paper describes the FEMO design requirements, operating capabilities, and development work required before field demonstration.

  16. Experimental investigation on impingement heat transfer of gas-solid suspension flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yokomine, Takenhiko; Shimizu, Akihiko

    1999-07-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate experimentally the heat transfer performance of dense gas-solid suspension impinging jet for diverter cooling of the fusion power reactor. Prior to the experimental study, a tentative goal of 20 kW/m{sup 2}K was set as the heat transfer coefficient based on the expected temperature level of both coolant and diverter plate materials. Figure A-1 summarizes the results of experiments, where H/D is non-dimensional space between nozzle exit and impingement plate. The ranges of examined nozzle Reynolds number Re{sub N} and thermal loading ratio {Gamma}{sub th} were 5.5 x 10{sup 4} {<=} Re{sub N} {<=} 2.4 x 10{sup 5} and 0 {<=} {Gamma}{sub th} {<=} 8.55, respectively. When the glassy-carbon (G-C) particles with 26{micro}m in diameter were used, the maximum heat transfer coefficient could not reach the target value because the solid flow rate was restricted by the crucial erosion damage of test plate and a strong vibration observed in the test line. On the other hand, in the case that the fine graphite particles (10{micro}m in diameter) were used, the maximum heat transfer coefficient of 20 kW/m{sup 2}K was obtained at relatively dilute condition of solid loading ratio, which is considered to be due to the additive production of turbulence by particles' wake. Furthermore, the following consideration can be obtained. (1) Changing the particle from hard glassy carbon to soft and fine graphite is effective not only for anti-erosion but also for heat transfer enhancement by increasing heat capacity. (2) Turbulence augmentation by particles is also important for heat transfer enhancement in addition to the increased heat capacity. However, increasing the solid loading is likely to lead to the saturation of heat transfer enhancement effect, on the contrary, to the attenuation of turbulence. (3) If soft and fine particle, like graphite of 10{micro}m diameter employed in present study, is used as suspended particle in coolant for anti-erosion, the

  17. Thermophysical and gas-dynamic characteristics of laser-induced gasplasma flows under femtosecond laser ablation of titanium in vacuum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loktionov, E Yu; Protasov, Yu S; Protasov, Yu Yu

    2014-03-28

    We report the results of experimental investigation of thermophysical and gas-dynamic characteristics of the gas-plasma flows induced by ultrashort (45 – 60 fs) laser pulse irradiation (the radiation wavelength λ = 400, 800 nm) of a titanium target in vacuum (∼5 × 10{sup -4} mbar). The use of combined interferometric technique and complex experimental data processing allowed us to estimate the momentum coupling coefficient (C{sub m} ∼ 10{sup -4} N W{sup -1}), the efficiency of laser energy conversion to the kinetic energy of the gas-plasma flow (65% – 85%), the spatiotemporal distributions of the particle density (n{sub e} = 10{sup 18} – 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}) and velocity ((v)=4 – 9 km s{sup -1}), the static (10{sup 6} – 10{sup 8} Pa) and total (10{sup 7} – 10{sup 11} Pa) pressure and temperature (T=7 – 50 kK) in the flow. Our data are compared with published data obtained by other methods. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  18. An atmospheric pressure high-temperature laminar flow reactor for investigation of combustion and related gas phase reaction systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oßwald, Patrick; Köhler, Markus

    2015-10-15

    A new high-temperature flow reactor experiment utilizing the powerful molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS) technique for detailed observation of gas phase kinetics in reacting flows is presented. The reactor design provides a consequent extension of the experimental portfolio of validation experiments for combustion reaction kinetics. Temperatures up to 1800 K are applicable by three individually controlled temperature zones with this atmospheric pressure flow reactor. Detailed speciation data are obtained using the sensitive MBMS technique, providing in situ access to almost all chemical species involved in the combustion process, including highly reactive species such as radicals. Strategies for quantifying the experimental data are presented alongside a careful analysis of the characterization of the experimental boundary conditions to enable precise numeric reproduction of the experimental results. The general capabilities of this new analytical tool for the investigation of reacting flows are demonstrated for a selected range of conditions, fuels, and applications. A detailed dataset for the well-known gaseous fuels, methane and ethylene, is provided and used to verify the experimental approach. Furthermore, application for liquid fuels and fuel components important for technical combustors like gas turbines and engines is demonstrated. Besides the detailed investigation of novel fuels and fuel components, the wide range of operation conditions gives access to extended combustion topics, such as super rich conditions at high temperature important for gasification processes, or the peroxy chemistry governing the low temperature oxidation regime. These demonstrations are accompanied by a first kinetic modeling approach, examining the opportunities for model validation purposes.

  19. Science Summary

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    summary written by Raven Hanna New rock formed by deep undersea volcanoes does not stay bare long. Microbes quickly move onto these basalts to form communities in the form of...

  20. SUMMARY REPORT

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    SUMMARY REPORT Department of Energy's Implementation of Selected Controls as Defined in the Cybersecurity Act of 2015 DOE-OIG-16-14 August 2016 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inspector General Office of Audits and Inspections Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 August 4, 2016 MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY FROM: Rickey R. Hass Acting Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Summary Report on the "Department of Energy's Implementation of Selected Controls as Defined in the