National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for fuels batteries chemicals

  1. Depletion Aggregation > Batteries & Fuel Cells > Research > The...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries & Fuel Cells In This Section Battery Anodes Battery Cathodes Depletion Aggregation Membranes Depletion Aggregation We are exploring a number of synthetic strategies to ...

  2. Electric Fuel Battery Corporation | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Fuel Battery Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Electric Fuel Battery Corporation Place: Auburn, Alabama Zip: 36832 Product: Develops and manufactures BA-8180U high...

  3. Batteries & Fuel Cells > Research > The Energy Materials Center...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries & Fuel Cells Here are the details of what we're doing in the labs to improve battery & fuel cell technology. Battery Anodes Battery Cathodes Depletion Aggregation ...

  4. Membranes > Batteries & Fuel Cells > Research > The Energy Materials Center

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    at Cornell Batteries & Fuel Cells In This Section Battery Anodes Battery Cathodes Depletion Aggregation Membranes Membranes Fig. 1 PEM Fuel Cell Fuel cells are highly efficient devices that convert the chemical energy stored in a fuel directly intoelectricity. Within a fuel cell, the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) serves as the conducting interface between the anode and cathode, transporting the ions (Figure 1). As a result, the PEM is a central, and often performance-limiting,

  5. Frank DiSalvo > Research Thrust Leader - Fuel Cells and Batteries...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Thrust Leader - Fuel Cells and Batteries John A. Newman Professor of Physical Science Chemistry and Chemical Biology Research Group Webpage fjd3@cornell.edu Research The ...

  6. Fuel Cell and Battery Electric Vehicles Compared

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Level PHEVs Fuel Cell and Battery Electric Vehicles Compared By C. E. (Sandy) Thomas, ... Goal: 80% below 1990 Scenario Pollution - Fuel Cell 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 2060 ...

  7. Georgia Tech Center for Innovative Fuel Cell and Battery Technologies...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Innovative Fuel Cell and Battery Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Name: Georgia Tech Center for Innovative Fuel Cell and Battery Technologies Place: Georgia Product: The...

  8. Fuel Cell and Battery Electric Vehicles Compared | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    and Battery Electric Vehicles Compared Fuel Cell and Battery Electric Vehicles Compared Presented by Sandy Thomas at the National Hydrogen Assocation Conference and Hydrogen Expo thomas_fcev_vs_battery_evs.pdf (281 KB) More Documents & Publications An Energy Evolution:Alternative Fueled Vehicle Comparisons Fuel Cell and Battery Electric Vehicles Compared INFOGRAPHIC: The Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Asia/ITS

  9. Tobias Hanrath > Research Thrust Leader - Fuel Cells and Batteries

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Assistant Professor Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering > Faculty Directory > The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Hanrath Research Thrust Leader - Fuel Cells and Batteries Assistant Professor Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Research Group Webpage th358@cornell.edu Research There is a tremendous opportunity space for nanostructured materials to play a key role in next generation energy technologies. Our research efforts focus on the fundamental study of optoelectronic

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellowstone Park Recycles Vehicle Batteries

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    for Solar Power Yellowstone Park Recycles Vehicle Batteries for Solar Power to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellowstone Park Recycles Vehicle Batteries for Solar Power on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellowstone Park Recycles Vehicle Batteries for Solar Power on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellowstone Park Recycles Vehicle Batteries for Solar Power on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellowstone Park Recycles

  11. DOE/EA-1760 Final Environmental Assessment for FutureFuel Chemical...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    0 Final Environmental Assessment for FutureFuel Chemical Company Electric Drive Vehicle Battery and Component Manufacturing Initiative Project Batesville, AR August 2010 Prepared ...

  12. Battery Anodes > Batteries & Fuel Cells > Research > The Energy...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Anode The anode in the battery deserves an equal say in the overall performance of a battery. For an effective development of a high energy density battery, the use of high ...

  13. Battery Cathodes > Batteries & Fuel Cells > Research > The Energy...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    is pursuing an alternate approach to battery cathodes based on the reaction of lithium ... As a result, organic materials have promise for high-rate battery applications. Achieving ...

  14. Impact of Battery Management on Fuel Efficiency Validity | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Battery Management on Fuel Efficiency Validity Impact of Battery Management on Fuel Efficiency Validity 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting vss069_rask_2012_o.pdf (1.45 MB) More Documents & Publications HEV, PHEV, EV Test Standard Development and Validation HEV, PHEV, BEV Test Standard Validation Advanced Technology Vehicle Lab Benchmarking - Level 2 (in-depth)

  15. Fuels and Chemicals from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Valorization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fuels and Chemicals from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Valorization of Lignin. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fuels and Chemicals from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Valorization ...

  16. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities: 5th International Conference on Polymer Batteries and Fuel Cells

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Plenary presentation by Sunita Satyapal at the 5th International Conference on Polymer Batteries and Fuel Cells on August 4, 2011.

  17. Better batteries to break dependence on fossil fuels > EMC2 News...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    The fuel cell and battery technologies they are developing ... and Sciences. Current photovoltaic efficiency is around 12 ... Most fuel cells operate in acidic media, which require these ...

  18. An overview—Functional nanomaterials for lithium rechargeable batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hua Kun

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Nanomaterials play important role in lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage and fuel cells. - Highlights: • Nanomaterials play important role for lithium rechargeable batteries. • Nanostructured materials increase the capacitance of supercapacitors. • Nanostructure improves the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of hydrogen storage materials. • Nanomaterials enhance the electrocatalytic activity of the catalysts in fuel cells. - Abstract: There is tremendous worldwide interest in functional nanostructured materials, which are the advanced nanotechnology materials with internal or external dimensions on the order of nanometers. Their extremely small dimensions make these materials unique and promising for clean energy applications such as lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, and other applications. This paper will highlight the development of new approaches to study the relationships between the structure and the physical, chemical, and electrochemical properties of functional nanostructured materials. The Energy Materials Research Programme at the Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, the University of Wollongong, has been focused on the synthesis, characterization, and applications of functional nanomaterials, including nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanowires, nanoporous materials, and nanocomposites. The emphases are placed on advanced nanotechnology, design, and control of the composition, morphology, nanostructure, and functionality of the nanomaterials, and on the subsequent applications of these materials to areas including lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen storage, and fuel cells.

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Batteries for Hybrid and Plug-In Electric

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Vehicles Batteries for Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Batteries for Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Batteries for Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Batteries for Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Batteries for Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles on Delicious Rank

  20. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Advanced Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    PItz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O

    2009-01-20

    Development of detailed chemical kinetic models for advanced petroleum-based and nonpetroleum based fuels is a difficult challenge because of the hundreds to thousands of different components in these fuels and because some of these fuels contain components that have not been considered in the past. It is important to develop detailed chemical kinetic models for these fuels since the models can be put into engine simulation codes used for optimizing engine design for maximum efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions. For example, these chemistry-enabled engine codes can be used to optimize combustion chamber shape and fuel injection timing. They also allow insight into how the composition of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels affect engine performance characteristics. Additionally, chemical kinetic models can be used separately to interpret important in-cylinder experimental data and gain insight into advanced engine combustion processes such as HCCI and lean burn engines. The objectives are: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for components of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels. These fuels models include components from vegetable-oil-derived biodiesel, oil-sand derived fuel, alcohol fuels and other advanced bio-based and alternative fuels. (2) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for mixtures of non-petroleum and petroleum-based components to represent real fuels and lead to efficient reduced combustion models needed for engine modeling codes. (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on efficiency and pollutant emissions from practical automotive engines.

  1. Fuels and Chemicals from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Valorization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biomass: Valorization of Lignin Mike Kent Deconstruction Division Joint BioEnergy Institute Outline 1. Introduction: -fuels and chemicals from Ngnocellulosic biomass -need ...

  2. Excellence in biotechnology for fuels and chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Neufeld, S.

    1999-04-23

    The Biotechnology Center for Fuels and Chemicals (BCFC) leads a national effort, in cooperation with industry, to develop innovative, market-driven biotechnologies for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable resources. The BCFC researchers focus on using bioprocesses to convert renewable biomass feedstocks into valuable products.

  3. NREL Uses Fuel Cells to Increase the Range of Battery Electric Vehicles (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-01-01

    NREL analysis identifies potential cost-effective scenarios for using small fuel cell power units to increase the range of medium-duty battery electric vehicles.

  4. Illinois Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    derived from fossil fuels, non-biogenic municipal solid waste, batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, tire-derived fuel, and miscellaneous technologies." ...

  5. Michigan Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    derived from fossil fuels, non-biogenic municipal solid waste, batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, tire-derived fuel, and miscellaneous technologies." ...

  6. Maryland Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    derived from fossil fuels, non-biogenic municipal solid waste, batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, tire-derived fuel, and miscellaneous technologies." ...

  7. Minnesota Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    derived from fossil fuels, non-biogenic municipal solid waste, batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, tire-derived fuel, and miscellaneous technologies." ...

  8. Georgia Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    derived from fossil fuels, non-biogenic municipal solid waste, batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, tire-derived fuel, and miscellaneous technologies." ...

  9. Mississippi Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    derived from fossil fuels, non-biogenic municipal solid waste, batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, tire-derived fuel, and miscellaneous technologies." ...

  10. Massachusetts Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    derived from fossil fuels, non-biogenic municipal solid waste, batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, tire-derived fuel, and miscellaneous technologies." ...

  11. Missouri Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    derived from fossil fuels, non-biogenic municipal solid waste, batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, tire-derived fuel, and miscellaneous technologies." ...

  12. California Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    derived from fossil fuels, non-biogenic municipal solid waste, batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, tire-derived fuel, and miscellaneous technologies." ...

  13. Florida Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    derived from fossil fuels, non-biogenic municipal solid waste, batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, tire-derived fuel, and miscellaneous technologies." ...

  14. Arizona Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    derived from fossil fuels, non-biogenic municipal solid waste, batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, tire-derived fuel, and miscellaneous technologies." ...

  15. Arkansas Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    derived from fossil fuels, non-biogenic municipal solid waste, batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, tire-derived fuel, and miscellaneous technologies." ...

  16. Connecticut Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    derived from fossil fuels, non-biogenic municipal solid waste, batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, tire-derived fuel, and miscellaneous technologies." ...

  17. Alabama Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    derived from fossil fuels, non-biogenic municipal solid waste, batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, tire-derived fuel, and miscellaneous technologies." ...

  18. Louisiana Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    derived from fossil fuels, non-biogenic municipal solid waste, batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, tire-derived fuel, and miscellaneous technologies." ...

  19. Graphene-based Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage: Fuel cells, Supercapacitors and Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Junbo; Shao, Yuyan; Ellis, Michael A.; Moore, Robert; Yi, Baolian

    2011-09-14

    Graphene has attracted extensive research interest due to its strictly 2-dimensional (2D) structure, which results in its unique electronic, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties and potential technical applications. These remarkable characteristics of graphene, along with the inherent benefits of a carbon material, make it a promising candidate for application in electrochemical energy devices. This article reviews the methods of graphene preparation, introduces the unique electrochemical behavior of graphene, and summarizes the recent research and development on graphene-based fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In addition, promising areas are identified for the future development of graphene-based materials in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems.

  20. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Peter J. Tijrn

    2000-09-30

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  1. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Peter J. Tijrn

    2000-03-31

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  2. Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Tijrn

    2003-01-02

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  3. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    1999-10-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  4. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-04-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  5. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  6. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-10-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  7. Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1998-08-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  8. Production of chemicals and fuels from biomass

    DOEpatents

    Woods, Elizabeth; Qiao, Ming; Myren, Paul; Cortright, Randy D.; Kania, John

    2015-12-15

    Described are methods, reactor systems, and catalysts for converting biomass to fuels and chemicals in a batch and/or continuous process. The process generally involves the conversion of water insoluble components of biomass, such as hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, to volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates, such as alcohols, ketones, cyclic ethers, esters, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and mixtures thereof. In certain applications, the volatile C.sub.2+O.sub.1-2 oxygenates can be collected and used as a final chemical product, or used in downstream processes to produce liquid fuels, chemicals and other products.

  9. Chemical Shuttle Additives in Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Mary

    2013-03-31

    than NMC) and the DDB is useful for lithium ion cells with LFP cathodes (potential that is lower than NMC). A 4.5 V class redox shuttle provided by Argonne National Laboratory was evaluated which provides a few cycles of overcharge protection for lithium ion cells containing NMC cathodes but it is not stable enough for consideration. Thus, a redox shuttle with an appropriate redox potential and sufficient chemical and electrochemical stability for commercial use in larger format lithium ion cells with NMC cathodes was not found. Molecular imprinting of the redox shuttle molecule during solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer formation likely contributes to the successful reduction of oxidized redox shuttle species at carbon anodes. This helps to understand how a carbon anode covered with an SEI layer, that is supposed to be electrically insulating, can reduce the oxidized form of a redox shuttle.

  10. Flow Batteries: A Historical Perspective

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Flow Batteries A Historical Perspective Robert F. Savinell Case Western Reserve University Department of Chemical Engineering DOE Flow Battery Workshop March 2012 2 OUTLINE *The first flow cell? *Review articles- documented progress *Early NASA Work- some learning *Fuel Cell and Flow Battery Similarities (and differences) *What my group is working on at CWRU *Acknowledgements Redox Flow Batteries: Earliest? Concept: Fe 3+ Sn 2+ Pt Pt + - Fuel Air or O 2 Fe 2+ Sn 4+ - Also Br 2 + 2e - ↔ 2Br Sn

  11. Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-02

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE�s LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  12. Fuels

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing ... Heavy Duty Fuels DISI Combustion HCCISCCI Fundamentals Spray Combustion Modeling ...

  13. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries

    DOEpatents

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2014-05-13

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

  14. Chemical Kinetics Research on HCCI and Diesel Fuels

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses detailed chemical kinetics mechanisms for complex hydrocarbon fuels and computationally efficiecnt, accurate methodologies for modeling advanced combustion strategies.

  15. Predicting Chemical Pathways for Li-O2 Batteries - Joint Center...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    March 6, 2014, Research Highlights Predicting Chemical Pathways for Li-O2 Batteries ... figure) and (LiO2)6 (red curve, upper figure) to Li2O2 using quantum chemical theory. ...

  16. New materials for batteries and fuel cells. Materials Research Society symposium proceedings, Volume 575

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, D.H.; Nazar, L.F.; Arakawa, Masayasu; Brack, H.P.; Naoi, Katsuhiko

    2000-07-01

    This proceedings volume is organized into seven sections that reflect the materials systems and issues of electrochemical materials R and D in batteries, fuel cells, and capacitors. The first three parts are largely devoted to lithium ion rechargeable battery materials since that electrochemical system has received much of the attention from the scientific community. Part 1 discusses cathodes for lithium ion rechargeable batteries as well as various other battery systems. Part 2 deals with electrolytes and cell stability, and Part 3 discusses anode developments, focusing on carbon and metal oxides. Part 4 focuses on another rechargeable system that has received substantial interest, nickel/metal hydride battery materials. The next two parts discuss fuel cells--Part 5 deals with Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells, and Part 6 discusses oxide materials for solid oxide fuel cells. The former has the benefit of operating around room temperature, whereas the latter has the benefit of operating with a more diverse (non-hydrogen) fuel source. Part 7 presents developments in electrochemical capacitors, termed Supercapacitors. These devices are receiving renewed interest and have shown substantial improvements in the past few years. In all, the results presented at this symposium gave a deeper understanding of the relationship between synthesis, properties, and performance of power source materials. Papers are processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  17. Correlation of Lithium-Ion Battery Performance with Structural and Chemical

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Transformations | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Correlation of Lithium-Ion Battery Performance with Structural and Chemical Transformations Wednesday, April 30, 2014 Chemical evolution and structural transformations in a material directly influence characteristics relevant to a wide range of prominent applications including rechargeable batteries for energy storage. Structural and/or chemical rearrangements at surfaces determine the way a material interacts with its environment,

  18. Washington Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Blast furnace gas, propane gas, other manufactured and waste gases derived from fossil fuels, non-biogenic municipal solid waste, batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, ...

  19. Texas Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    solid waste, batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, tire-derived fuel, and miscellaneous technologies." "Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood ...

  20. Ohio Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    solid waste, batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, tire-derived fuel, and miscellaneous technologies." "Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood ...

  1. Tennessee Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    solid waste, batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, tire-derived fuel, and miscellaneous technologies." "Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood ...

  2. Wisconsin Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    solid waste, batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, tire-derived fuel, and miscellaneous technologies." "Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood ...

  3. Virginia Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    solid waste, batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, tire-derived fuel, and miscellaneous technologies." "Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood ...

  4. Pennsylvania Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    solid waste, batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, tire-derived fuel, and miscellaneous technologies." "Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood ...

  5. 37th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 37th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals will be held from April 27–30, 2015 in San Diego, California.

  6. Mild, Nontoxic Production of Fuels and Chemicals from Biomass...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Fossil fuel resources supply almost 90 percent of the world's energy and the vast majority of its organic chemicals. This dependency is insupportable in light of rising emissions, ...

  7. Photosynthetic Conversion of CO2 to Fuels and Chemicals using...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Photosynthetic Conversion of CO 2 to Fuels and Chemicals using Cyanobacteria Accelerating Innovation Webinar August 8, 2012 Jianping Yu, Ph.D., Senior Scientist * Many eukaryotic ...

  8. Fuel Cell Animation- Chemical Process (Text Version)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This text version of the fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts.

  9. Early Markets: Fuel Cells for Backup Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Backup Power Overview Fuel cells convert the chemical energy ... The analysis compares 5 kW battery-only, fuel cell, and 25 ... power management and compressed hydrogen fuel storage. ...

  10. Membrane Durability in PEM Fuel Cells: Chemical Degradation | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Durability in PEM Fuel Cells: Chemical Degradation Membrane Durability in PEM Fuel Cells: Chemical Degradation Presentation at the 2008 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held June 9, 2008, in Washington, DC motupally_htmwg_2008.pdf (962.33 KB) More Documents & Publications Highly Dispersed Alloy Cathode Catalyst for Durability Fundamental Study of the Mechanical Strength Degradation Mechanisms of PFSA Membranes and MEAs New Membranes for PEM Fuel Cells

  11. South Carolina Nuclear Profile - All Fuels

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    solid waste, batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, tire-derived fuel, and miscellaneous technologies." "Other Renewable: Wood, black liquor, other wood ...

  12. Chemical Kinetic Research on HCCI & Diesel Fuels

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  13. Chemical Kinetic Research on HCCI & Diesel Fuels

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  14. Micropower chemical fuel-to-electric conversion : a "regenerative flip" hydrogen concentration cell promising near carnot efficiency.

    SciTech Connect

    Wally, Karl

    2006-05-01

    Although battery technology is relatively mature, power sources continue to impose serious limitations for small, portable, mobile, or remote applications. A potentially attractive alternative to batteries is chemical fuel-to-electric conversion. Chemical fuels have volumetric energy densities 4 to 10 times those of batteries. However, realizing this advantage requires efficient chemical fuel-to-electric conversion. Direct electrochemical conversion would be the ideal, but, for most fuels, is generally not within the state-of-the-science. Next best, chemical-to-thermal-to-electric conversion can be attractive if efficiencies can be kept high. This small investigative project was an exploration into the feasibility of a novel hybrid (i.e., thermal-electrochemical) micropower converter of high theoretical performance whose demonstration was thought to be within near-term reach. The system is comprised of a hydrogen concentration electrochemical cell with physically identical hydrogen electrodes as anode and cathode, with each electrode connected to physically identical hydride beds each containing the same low-enthalpy-of-formation metal hydride. In operation, electrical power is generated by a hydrogen concentration differential across the electrochemical cell. This differential is established via coordinated heating and passive cooling of the corresponding hydride source and sink. Heating is provided by the exothermic combustion (i.e., either flame combustion or catalytic combustion) of a chemical fuel. Upon hydride source depletion, the role of source and sink are reversed, heating and cooling reversed, electrodes commutatively reversed, cell operation reversed, while power delivery continues unchanged. This 'regenerative flip' of source and sink hydride beds can be cycled continuously until all available heating fuel is consumed. Electricity is efficiently generated electrochemically, but hydrogen is not consumed, rather the hydrogen is regeneratively cycled as

  15. CNEEC - Batteries Tutorial by Prof. Cui

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries

  16. Zinc air refuelable battery: alternative zinc fuel morphologies and cell behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Krueger, R.

    1997-01-01

    Multicell zinc/air batteries have been tested previously in the laboratory and as part of the propulsion system of an electric bus; cut zinc wire was used as the anode material. This battery is refueled by a hydraulic transport of 0.5-1 mm zinc particles into hoppers above each cell. We report an investigation concerning alternative zinc fuel morphologies, and energy losses associated with refueling and with overnight or prolonged standby. Three types of fuel pellets were fabricated, tested and compared with results for cut wire: spheres produced in a fluidized bed electrolysis cell; elongated particles produced by gas-atomization; and pellets produced by chopping 1 mm porous plates made of compacted zinc fines. Relative sizes of the particles and cell gap dimensions are critical. All three types transported within the cell 1553 and showed acceptable discharge characteristics, but a fluidized bed approach appears especially attractive for owner/user recovery operations.

  17. Lignin conversion to fuels, chemicals and materials - Energy Innovation

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Lignin conversion to fuels, chemicals and materials National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary There has been vast research in developing cost effective processes to convert the polysaccharide components of plants, mainly cellulose and hemicellulose, into fuels and chemicals. However, the lignin component of biomass, which is an energy-dense polymer and the second most abundant biopolymer on Earth, is vastly underutilized in

  18. SBIR/STTR FY15 Phase 1 Release 2 Awards Announced—Includes Fuel Cell-Battery Electric Hybrid Truck and Fuel Cell Manufacturing Quality Control Processes

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy has announced the 2015 Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR) Phase I Release 2 Awards, including projects demonstrating fuel cell-battery electric hybrid trucks and developing a real-time, in-line optical detector for the measurement of fuel cell membrane thickness.

  19. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Non-Petroleum Based Fuels | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Modeling of Non-Petroleum Based Fuels Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Non-Petroleum Based Fuels 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting ft010_pitz_2012_o.pdf (2.41 MB) More Documents & Publications Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Non-Petroleum Based Fuels Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Fuels Chemical Kinetic Research on HCCI & Diesel Fuels

  20. US Department of Energy Hybrid Vehicle Battery and Fuel Economy Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Karner; J.E. Francfort

    2005-09-01

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, has conducted testing of advanced technology vehicles since August, 1995 in support of the AVTA goal to provide benchmark data for technology modeling, and research and development programs. The AVTA has tested over 200 advanced technology vehicles including full size electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, and hydrogen internal combustion engine powered vehicles. Currently, the AVTA is conducting significant tests of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). This testing has included all HEVs produced by major automotive manufacturers and spans over 1.3 million miles. The results of all testing are posted on the AVTA web page maintained by the Idaho National Laboratory. Through the course of this testing, the fuel economy of HEV fleets has been monitored and analyzed to determine the "real world" performance of their hybrid energy systems, particularly the battery. While the initial "real world" fuel economy of these vehicles has typically been less than that evaluated by the manufacturer and varies significantly with environmental conditions, the fuel economy and, therefore, battery performance, has remained stable over vehicle life (160,000 miles).

  1. Overcoming the Range Limitation of Medium-Duty Battery Electric Vehicles through the use of Hydrogen Fuel-Cells

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL/CP-5400-60053. Posted with permission. Presented at the SAE 2013 Commercial Vehicle Engineering Congress. 2013-01-2471 Published 09/24/2013 doi:10.4271/2013-01-2471 saecomveh.saejournals.org Overcoming the Range Limitation of Medium-Duty Battery Electric Vehicles through the use of Hydrogen Fuel-Cells Eric Wood, Lijuan Wang, Jeffrey Gonder, and Michael Ulsh National Renewable Energy Laboratory ABSTRACT Battery electric vehicles possess great potential for decreasing lifecycle costs in

  2. Overcoming the Range Limitation of Medium-Duty Battery Electric Vehicles through the use of Hydrogen Fuel-Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, E.; Wang, L.; Gonder, J.; Ulsh, M.

    2013-10-01

    Battery electric vehicles possess great potential for decreasing lifecycle costs in medium-duty applications, a market segment currently dominated by internal combustion technology. Characterized by frequent repetition of similar routes and daily return to a central depot, medium-duty vocations are well positioned to leverage the low operating costs of battery electric vehicles. Unfortunately, the range limitation of commercially available battery electric vehicles acts as a barrier to widespread adoption. This paper describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy and industry partners to analyze the use of small hydrogen fuel-cell stacks to extend the range of battery electric vehicles as a means of improving utility, and presumably, increasing market adoption. This analysis employs real-world vocational data and near-term economic assumptions to (1) identify optimal component configurations for minimizing lifecycle costs, (2) benchmark economic performance relative to both battery electric and conventional powertrains, and (3) understand how the optimal design and its competitiveness change with respect to duty cycle and economic climate. It is found that small fuel-cell power units provide extended range at significantly lower capital and lifecycle costs than additional battery capacity alone. And while fuel-cell range-extended vehicles are not deemed economically competitive with conventional vehicles given present-day economic conditions, this paper identifies potential future scenarios where cost equivalency is achieved.

  3. Co-Optima Fuel Property Team; Part 1 - Fuel Properties and Chemical Kinetics

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Co-Optima Fuel Property Team Part 1 - Fuel Properties and Chemical Kinetics June 9, 2016 1 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information FT038 - Part 1 Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines Fuel Property Team Robert L. McCormick, 1 Gina Fioroni, 1 Jim Szybist, 2 Tim Bays, 3 Paul Miles, 4 Matt McNenly, 5 Bill Pitz, 5 Jon Luecke, 1 Matt Ratcliff, 1 Brad Zigler, 1 Scott Goldsborough 6 1. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2. Oak Ridge

  4. battery electrode percolating network

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    battery electrode percolating network - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home ... Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel ...

  5. Chemically Etched Silicon Nanowires as Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    West, Hannah Elise

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on silicon as a high capacity replacement anode for Lithium-ion batteries. The challenge of silicon is that it expands ~270% upon lithium insertion which causes particles of silicon to fracture, causing the capacity to fade rapidly. To account for this expansion chemically etched silicon nanowires from the University of Maine were studied as anodes. They were built into electrochemical half-cells and cycled continuously to measure the capacity and capacity fade.

  6. Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanisms for Combustion of Hydrocarbon and Other Types of Chemical Fuels

    DOE Data Explorer

    The central feature of the Combustion Chemistry project at LLNL is the development, validation, and application of detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms for the combustion of hydrocarbon and other types of chemical fuels. For the past 30 years, LLNL's Chemical Sciences Division has built hydrocarbon mechanisms for fuels from hydrogen and methane through much larger fuels including heptanes and octanes. Other classes of fuels for which models have been developed include flame suppressants such as halons and organophosphates, and air pollutants such as soot and oxides of nitrogen and sulfur. Reaction mechanisms have been tested and validated extensively through comparisons between computed results and measured data from laboratory experiments (e.g., shock tubes, laminar flames, rapid compression machines, flow reactors, stirred reactors) and from practical systems (e.g., diesel engines, spark-ignition engines, homogeneous charge, compression ignition (HCCI) engines). These kinetic models are used to examine a wide range of combustion systems.

  7. Identification and quantification of organic chemicals in supplemental fuel blends

    SciTech Connect

    Salter, F.

    1996-12-31

    Continental Cement Company, Inc. (Continental) burns waste fuels to supplement coal in firing the kiln. It is to be expected that federal and state agencies want an accounting of the chemicals burned. As rules and regulations become more plentiful, a company such as Continental must demonstrate that it has made a reasonable attempt to identify and quantify many specific organic compounds. The chemicals on the SARA 313 list can change frequently. Also the number and concentrations of compounds that can disqualify a material from consideration as a supplemental fuel at Continental continues to change. A quick and reliable method of identifying and quantifying organics in waste fuel blends is therefore crucial. Using a Hewlett-Packard 5972 GC/MS system Continental has developed a method of generating values for the total weight of compounds burned. A similar procedure is used to verify that waste streams meet Continental`s acceptance criteria.

  8. Alternative fuel and chemicals from synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    Development of a reliable and cost-effective method of wax/catalyst separation is a key step toward a commercially viable slurry reactor process with iron oxide-based catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of hydrocarbon transportation fuels. Although a variety of suitable catalysts (including, for example, cobalt-based catalysts) are available, iron oxide-based catalysts are preferred for coal-derived, CO-rich syngas because, in addition to catalyzing the F-T reaction, they simultaneously catalyze the reaction stifling CO to H{sub 2}, obviating a separate shift process block and associated costs. Because of the importance of development of this wax/catalyst separation, a study was initiated in February 1991. P. Z. Zhou of Burns and Roe reviewed the status of F-T wax/catalyst separation techniques. This led to the selection of a filtration system for the separation. Pilot tests were conducted by Mott Porous Metal Products in 1992 to develop this system. Initial results were good, but problems were encountered in follow-up testing. As a result of the testing, a filter was selected for use on the pilot plant. In LaPorte, Texas, APCI has been operating a pilot plant for the development of various synthesis gas technologies with DOE and industry support. The APCI F-T program builds on the DOE-sponsored laboratory-scale work by Mobil, reported in the mid-1980s, which used an iron oxide catalyst to produce high-quality F-T liquids in relatively compact reactors. Separation of the catalyst solids from the wax still represents a challenge. In the summer of 1992, testing of the selected filter was begun as part of the pilot plant testing. The filter performed poorly. Separation of the catalyst was primarily by sedimentation. It was recommended that the wax/catalyst separation be developed further.

  9. Chemical Kinetic Research on HCCI & Diesel Fuels | Department of Energy

    Energy Saver

    Chemical Kinetic Research on HCCI & Diesel Fuels Chemical Kinetic Research on HCCI & Diesel Fuels 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. ace013_pitz_2010_o.pdf (1.44 MB) More Documents & Publications Chemical Kinetics Research on HCCI and Diesel Fuels Chemical Kinetic Research on HCCI & Diesel Fuels Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Chemical Kinetic Models for Advanced

  10. 38th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 38th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals will be hosted in Baltimore, Maryland, from April 25–28, 2016 and will be hosted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The conference will center on the development of a wide variety of renewable biobased fuels and products. Many members of the Bioenergy Technologies Office will be in attendance, including Deputy Director Valerie Reed and Advanced Algal Systems and Feedstocks Program Manger Alison Goss Eng, as well as Technology Managers Christine English, Jay Fitzgerald, Prasad Gupte, Ian Rowe, and Steve Thomas.

  11. Battery-free Wireless Sensor Network For Advanced Fossil-Fuel Based Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Yi Jia

    2011-02-28

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the project supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-FG26-07NT4306. The aim of the project was to conduct basic research into battery-free wireless sensing mechanism in order to develop novel wireless sensors and sensor network for physical and chemical parameter monitoring in a harsh environment. Passive wireless sensing platform and five wireless sensors including temperature sensor, pressure sensor, humidity sensor, crack sensor and networked sensors developed and demonstrated in our laboratory setup have achieved the objective for the monitoring of various physical and chemical parameters in a harsh environment through remote power and wireless sensor communication, which is critical to intelligent control of advanced power generation system. This report is organized by the sensors developed as detailed in each progress report.

  12. Chemical Kinetic Research on HCCI & Diesel Fuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Research on HCCI & Diesel Fuels Chemical Kinetic Research on HCCI & Diesel Fuels 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting ace013_pitz_2012_o.pdf (2.95 MB) More Documents & Publications Simulation of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines and Detailed Chemical Kinetic Mechanisms Development Chemical Kinetic Research on HCCI & Diesel Fuels Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Chemical

  13. Chemical Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage in Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Brooks, Kriston P.; Ronnebro, Ewa; Rassat, Scot D.; Holladay, Jamelyn D.

    2012-04-16

    Due to its high hydrogen storage capacity (up to 19.6% by weight for the release of 2.5 molar equivalents of hydrogen gas) and its stability under typical ambient conditions, ammonia borane (AB) is a promising material for chemical hydrogen storage for fuel cell applications in transportation sector. Several systems models for chemical hydride materials such as solid AB, liquid AB and alane were developed and evaluated at PNNL to determine an optimal configuration that would meet the 2010 and future DOE targets for hydrogen storage. This paper presents an overview of those systems models and discusses the simulation results for various transient drive cycle scenarios.

  14. COLLOQUIUM: Renewable Fuels and Chemicals | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    19, 2014, 4:00pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: Renewable Fuels and Chemicals Professor Dion Vlachos University of Delaware We will discuss modern technologies that rely on biomass degradation to simple derivatives, such as sugars, followed by a number of reactions, such as isomerization, acid-based chemistry, and etherification to convert sugars to valuable intermediates, such as furans and green monomers. Cross-cutting technologies, including hierarchical multiscale materials

  15. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1995-01-01

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Peter J. Tijrn

    2003-05-31

    This Final Report for Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-95PC93052, the ''Development of Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas,'' was prepared by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products), and covers activities from 29 December 1994 through 31 July 2002. The overall objectives of this program were to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture primarily of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and carbon monoxide (CO), to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at the LaPorte, Texas Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). Laboratory work was performed by Air Products and a variety of subcontractors, and focused on the study of the kinetics of production of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas, the production of DME using the Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME{trademark}) Process, the conversion of DME to fuels and chemicals, and the production of other higher value products from syngas. Four operating campaigns were performed at the AFDU during the performance period. Tests of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process and the LPDME{trademark} Process were made to confirm results from the laboratory program and to allow for the study of the hydrodynamics of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) at a significant engineering scale. Two campaigns demonstrated the conversion of syngas to hydrocarbon products via the slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process. Other topics that were studied within this program include the economics of production of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), the identification of trace components in coal-derived syngas and the means to economically remove these species, and the study of systems for separation of wax from catalyst in the F-T process. The work performed under this Cooperative Agreement has continued to promote the development of technologies that use clean syngas produced from any one of a

  17. Evaluation of battery converters based on 4. 8-MW fuel cell demonstrator inverter. Final report. [Contains brief glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Electrical power conditioning is a critical element in the development of advanced electrochemical energy storage systems. This program evaluates the use of existing self-commutated converter technology (as developed by the Power Systems Division of United Technologies for the 4.8-MW Fuel Cell Demonstrator) with modification for use in battery energy storage systems. The program consists of three parts: evaluation of the cost and performance of a self-commutated converter modified to maintain production commonality between battery and fuel cell power conditioners, demonstration of the principal characteristics required for the battery application in MW-scale hardware, and investigation of the technical requirements of operation isolated from the utility system. A power-conditioning system consisting of a self-commutated converter augmented with a phase-controlled rectifier was selected and a preliminary design, prepared. A principal factor in this selection was production commonality with the fuel cell inverter system. Additional types of augmentation, and the use of a self-commutated converter system without augmentation, were also considered. A survey of advanced battery manufacturers was used to establish the dc interface characteristics. The principal characteristics of self-commutated converter operation required for battery application were demonstrated with the aid of an available 0.5-MW development system. A survey of five REA and municipal utilities and three A and E firms was conducted to determine technical requirements for operation in a mode isolated from the utility. Definitive requirements for this application were not established because of the limited scope of this study. 63 figures, 37 tables.

  18. Process for converting cellulosic materials into fuels and chemicals

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Faison, Brendlyn D.; Davison, Brian H.; Woodward, Jonathan

    1994-01-01

    A process for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major constituent of paper, cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. The cellulase is produced from a continuous, columnar, fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing immobilized microorganisms. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. The cellulase is recycled by an adsorption process. The resulting crude sugars are converted to dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing microorganisms. The dilute product is concentrated and purified by utilizing distillation and/or a biparticle fluidized-bed bioreactor system.

  19. Fact Sheet: Accelerating the Development and Deployment of Advanced Technology Vehicles, including Battery Electric and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    FACT SHEET Accelerating the Development and Deployment of Advanced Technology Vehicles, including Battery Electric and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles President Obama's proposed changes to advanced vehicle tax credits as part of the Administration's Fiscal Year 2016 Revenue Proposals: 1 Provide a Tax Credit for the Production of Advanced Technology Vehicles Current Law A tax credit is allowed for plug-in electric drive motor vehicles. A plug-in electric drive motor vehicle is a vehicle that has at

  20. Consortium for Advanced Battery Simulation

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Battery Simulation - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us ... Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel ...

  1. Research and development of a phosphoric acid fuel cell/battery power source integrated in a test-bed bus. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-30

    This project, the research and development of a phosphoric acid fuel cell/battery power source integrated into test-bed buses, began as a multi-phase U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project in 1989. Phase I had a goal of developing two competing half-scale (25 kW) brassboard phosphoric acid fuel cell systems. An air-cooled and a liquid-cooled fuel cell system were developed and tested to verify the concept of using a fuel cell and a battery in a hybrid configuration wherein the fuel cell supplies the average power required for operating the vehicle and a battery supplies the `surge` or excess power required for acceleration and hill-climbing. Work done in Phase I determined that the liquid-cooled system offered higher efficiency.

  2. Diamond and Hydrogenated Carbons for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells: Fundamental Studies and Applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Swain; Greg M.

    2009-04-13

    The original funding under this project number was awarded for a period 12/1999 until 12/2002 under the project title Diamond and Hydrogenated Carbons for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells: Fundamental Studies and Applications. The project was extended until 06/2003 at which time a renewal proposal was awarded for a period 06/2003 until 06/2008 under the project title Metal/Diamond Composite Thin-Film Electrodes: New Carbon Supported Catalytic Electrodes. The work under DE-FG02-01ER15120 was initiated about the time the PI moved his research group from the Department of Chemistry at Utah State University to the Department of Chemistry at Michigan State University. This DOE-funded research was focused on (i) understanding structure-function relationships at boron-doped diamond thin-film electrodes, (ii) understanding metal phase formation on diamond thin films and developing electrochemical approaches for producing highly dispersed electrocatalyst particles (e.g., Pt) of small nominal particle size, (iii) studying the electrochemical activity of the electrocatalytic electrodes for hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction and (iv) conducting the initial synthesis of high surface area diamond powders and evaluating their electrical and electrochemical properties when mixed with a Teflon binder.

  3. An investigation of synthetic fuel production via chemical looping

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Zeman; Marco Castaldi

    2008-04-15

    Producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels with a reduced greenhouse gas emissions profile would ease the transition to a carbon-neutral energy sector with the transportation industry being the immediate beneficiary followed by the power industry. Revolutionary solutions in transportation, such as electricity and hydrogen, depend on the deployment of carbon capture and storage technologies and/or renewable energy systems. Additionally, high oil prices may increase the development of unconventional sources, such as tar sands, that have a higher emissions profile. One process that is gaining interest is a system for producing reduced carbon fuels though chemical looping technologies. An investigation of the implications of such a process using methane and carbon dioxide that is reformed to yield methanol has been done. An important aspect of the investigation is the use of off-the-shelf technologies to achieve the results. The ability of the process to yield reduced emissions fuels depends on the source for the feed and process heat. For the range of conditions considered, the emissions profile of methanol produced in this method varies from 0.475 to 1.645 moles carbon dioxide per mole methanol. The thermal load can be provided by methane, coal or carbon neutral (biogas). The upper bound can be lowered to 0.750 by applying CCS and/or using nonfossil heat sources for the reforming. The process provides an initial pathway to incorporate CO{sub 2} into fuels independent of electrolytic hydrogen or developments in other sectors of the economy. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  4. Recent Advances in Detailed Chemical Kinetic Models for Large Hydrocarbon and Biodiesel Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J; Herbinet, O; Mehl, M

    2009-03-30

    n-Hexadecane and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane represent the primary reference fuels for diesel that are used to determine cetane number, a measure of the ignition property of diesel fuel. With the development of chemical kinetics models for these two primary reference fuels for diesel, a new capability is now available to model diesel fuel ignition. Also, we have developed chemical kinetic models for a whole series of large n-alkanes and a large iso-alkane to represent these chemical classes in fuel surrogates for conventional and future fuels. Methyl decanoate and methyl stearate are large methyl esters that are closely related to biodiesel fuels, and kinetic models for these molecules have also been developed. These chemical kinetic models are used to predict the effect of the fuel molecule size and structure on ignition characteristics under conditions found in internal combustion engines.

  5. Chemical and Electrochemical Lithiation of LiVOPO4 Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Katharine L; Bridges, Craig A; Segre, C; VernadoJr, C Daniel; Applestone, Danielle; Bielawski, Christopher W; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical capacity of LiVOPO4 could be increased from 159 to 318 mAh/g with the insertion of a second Li+ ion into the lattice to form Li2VOPO4, significantly enhancing the energy density of lithium-ion batteries. The changes accompanying the second Li+ insertion into -LiVOPO4 and -LiVOPO4 are presented here at various degrees of lithiation, employing both electrochemical and chemical lithiation. Inductively coupled plasma, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and Fourier transform spectroscopy measurements indicate that a composition of Li2VOPO4 could be realized with an oxidation state of V3+ by the chemical lithiation process. The accompanying structural changes are evidenced by X-ray and neutron powder diffraction. Spectroscopic and diffraction data collected with the chemically lithiated samples as well as diffraction data on the electrochemically lithiated samples reveal that significant amount of lithium can be inserted into -LiVOPO4 before a more dramatic structural change occurs. In contrast, lithiation of -LiVOPO4 is more consistent with the formation of a two-phase mixture throughout most of the lithiation range. The phases observed with the ambient-temperature lithiation processes presented here are significantly different from those reported in the literature.

  6. Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Choe, Yoong-Kee; Henson, Neil J.; Kim, Yu Seung

    2015-12-31

    Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT). We have elucidated that the aryl-ether moiety of membranes is one of the weakest site against attack of hydroxide ions. The results of DFT calculations for hydroxide initiated aryl-ether cleavage indicated that the aryl-ether cleavage occurred prior to degradation of cationic functional group. Such a weak nature of the aryl-ether group arises from the electron deficiency of the aryl group as well as the low bond dissociation energy. The DFT results suggests that removal of the aryl-ether group in the membrane should enhance the stability of membranes under alkaline conditions. In fact, an ether fee poly(phenylene) membrane exhibits excellent stability against the attack from hydroxide ions.

  7. Process for converting cellulosic materials into fuels and chemicals

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Faison, B.D.; Davison, B.H.; Woodward, J.

    1994-09-20

    A process is described for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major constituent of paper, cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. The cellulase is produced from a continuous, columnar, fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing immobilized microorganisms. An attrition mill and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. The cellulase is recycled by an adsorption process. The resulting crude sugars are converted to dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing microorganisms. The dilute product is concentrated and purified by utilizing distillation and/or a biparticle fluidized-bed bioreactor system. 1 fig.

  8. Production of fuels and chemicals from apple pomace

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, Y.D.

    1987-03-01

    Nearly 36 million tons of apples are produced annually in the US. Approximately 45% of the total US apple production is used for processing purposes. The primary by-product of apple processing is apple pomace. It consists of the presscake resulting from pressing apples for juice or cider, including the presscake obtained in pressing peel and core wastes generated in the manufacture of apple sauce or slices. More than 500 food processing plants in the US produce a total of about 1.3 million metric tons of apple pomace each year, and it is likely that annual disposal fees exceed $10 million. Apple pomace has the potential to be used for the production of fuels (ethanol and biogas containing 60% methane) and food-grade chemicals. These uses will be reviewed in this article.

  9. Hydrogen fuel cells in chemical industry: The assemini project

    SciTech Connect

    Caserza, G.; Bozzoni, T.; Porcino, G.; Pasquinucci, A.

    1996-12-31

    Chemical and petrochemical industries generate large quantities of hydrogen-rich streams, in the range 50%-100% H{sub 2} concentration by volume, as by-products of electrochemical or dehydrogenation processes, or exhausts/purging in hydrogenation processes. Due to safety aspects, and because of the low density, which makes difficult transportation and storage, such streams often constitute a problem for plant managers. In most cases recycling within the plant processes is not possible, and transportation to other sites, generally by truck after compression in cylinders, is not economical. Many of these streams arc therefore simply co-burned in plant boilers, and in some cases even wasted by venting or flaring. Their value ranges from zero (if vented), to the value of the fuel used in the boiler, where they are co-burned.

  10. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    low-emission operation across a broad range of fuel compositions, including syngas, biogas, natural gas, and refinery fuel gas. PDF icon Displacing Natural Gas Consumption and...

  11. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    capable of automatic, safe, reliable, efficient, and low-emission operation across a broad range of fuel compositions, including syngas, biogas, natural gas, and refinery fuel gas. ...

  12. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone ...

  13. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone...

  14. Leading experts to speak at battery & energy storage technology...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    including: new battery chemistries, battery longevity and performance, energy storage in electric grid applications and the latest developments in fuel cells and flow batteries. ...

  15. Analysis of environmental factors impacting the life cycle cost analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery-powered passenger vehicles. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-31

    This report presents the results of the further developments and testing of the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Model previously developed by Engineering Systems Management, Inc. (ESM) on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract No. DE-AC02-91CH10491. The Model incorporates specific analytical relationships and cost/performance data relevant to internal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles, battery powered electric vehicles (BPEVs), and fuel cell/battery-powered electric vehicles (FCEVs).

  16. NREL Uses Fuel Cells to Increase the Range of Battery Electric Vehicles (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL analysis identifies potential cost-effective scenarios for using small fuel cell power units to increase the range of medium-duty battery electric vehicles. Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer great potential for decreasing lifecycle costs in medium-duty applications, a market segment currently dominated by internal combustion technology. Charac- terized by frequent repetition of similar routes and daily return to a central depot, medium-duty vocations such as parcel delivery are well

  17. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Non-Petroleum Based Fuels

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  18. Breakthrough Flow Battery Cell Stack: Transformative Electrochemical Flow Storage System (TEFSS)

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-09

    GRIDS Project: UTRC is developing a flow battery with a unique design that provides significantly more power than today's flow battery systems. A flow battery is a cross between a traditional battery and a fuel cell. Flow batteries store their energy in external tanks instead of inside the cell itself. Flow batteries have traditionally been expensive because the battery cell stack, where the chemical reaction takes place, is costly. In this project, UTRC is developing a new stack design that achieves 10 times higher power than today’s flow batteries. This high power output means the size of the cell stack can be smaller, reducing the amount of expensive materials that are needed. UTRC’s flow battery will reduce the cost of storing electricity for the electric grid, making widespread use feasible.

  19. CONVERSION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC MATERIAL TO CHEMICALS AND FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin S. Olson

    2001-06-30

    A direct conversion of cellulosic wastes, including resin-bonded furniture and building waste, to levulinate esters is being investigated with the view to producing fuels, solvents, and chemical intermediates as well as other useful by-products in an inexpensive process. The acid-catalyzed reaction of cellulosic materials with ethanol or methanol at 200 C gives good yields of levulinate and formate esters, as well as useful by-products, such as a solid residue (charcoal) and a resinous lignin residue. An initial plant design showed reasonable rates of return for production of purified ethyl levulinate and by-products. In this project, investigations have been performed to identify and develop reactions that utilize esters of levulinic acid produced during the acid-catalyzed ethanolysis reaction. We wish to develop uses for levulinate esters that allow their marketing at prices comparable to inexpensive polymer intermediates. These prices will allow a sufficient rate of return to justify building plants for utilizing the waste lignocellulosics. If need is demonstrated for purified levulinate, the initial plant design work may be adequate, at least until further pilot-scale work on the process is performed.

  20. Fuel cells: A handbook (Revision 3)

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Stauffer, D.B.; Engleman, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert the chemical energy of reaction directly into electrical energy. In a typical fuel cell, gaseous fuels are fed continuously to the anode (negative electrode) compartment and an oxidant (i.e., oxygen from air) is fed continuously to the cathode (positive electrode) compartment; the electrochemical reactions take place at the electrodes to produce an electric current. A fuel cell, although having similar components and several characteristics, differs from a typical battery in several respects. The battery is an energy storage device, that is, the maximum energy that is available is determined by the amount of chemical reactant stored within the battery itself. Thus, the battery will cease to produce electrical energy when the chemical reactants are consumed (i.e., discharged). In a secondary battery, the reactants are regenerated by recharging, which involves putting energy into the battery from an external source. The fuel cell, on the other hand, is an energy conversion device which theoretically has the capability of producing electrical energy for as long as the fuel and oxidant are supplied to the electrodes. In reality, degradation or malfunction of components limits the practical operating life of fuel cells.

  1. Apparatus and method for solid fuel chemical looping combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V; Weber, Justin M

    2015-04-14

    The disclosure provides an apparatus and method utilizing fuel reactor comprised of a fuel section, an oxygen carrier section, and a porous divider separating the fuel section and the oxygen carrier section. The porous divider allows fluid communication between the fuel section and the oxygen carrier section while preventing the migration of solids of a particular size. Maintaining particle segregation between the oxygen carrier section and the fuel section during solid fuel gasification and combustion processes allows gases generated in either section to participate in necessary reactions while greatly mitigating issues associated with mixture of the oxygen carrier with char or ash products. The apparatus and method may be utilized with an oxygen uncoupling oxygen carrier such as CuO, Mn.sub.3O.sub.4, or Co.sub.3O.sub.4, or utilized with a CO/H.sub.2 reducing oxygen carrier such as Fe.sub.2O.sub.3.

  2. electrochemical battery stress-induced degradation mechanisms

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    electrochemical battery stress-induced degradation mechanisms - Sandia Energy Energy ... Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel ...

  3. Epitaxial Single Crystal Nanostructures for Batteries & PVs ...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    for Lithium Sulfur Batteries Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel Cells Epitaxial Single Crystal Nanostructures for Batteries & PVs High Performance ...

  4. Converting biomass to fuels and high-value chemicals | The Ames...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Converting biomass to fuels and high-value chemicals The goal of this research is to develop low cost catalysts based on graphene-derived nanomaterials, and use them to improve the...

  5. Eighteenth symposium on biotechnology for fuels and chemicals: Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This volume provides the proceedings for the Eighteenth Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals held May 5-9, 1996 in Gatlinburg, Tennessee. The proceedings contains abstracts for oral and poster presentations.

  6. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS. FINAL QUARTERLY STATUS REPORT NO. 10

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  7. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS. FINAL QUARTERLY STATUS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  8. Synthetic Design Microorganisms for Lignin Fuels and Chemicals Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Synthetic Design Microorganisms for Lignin Fuels and Chemicals 3/26/2015 Synthetic Biology Joshua S. Yuan Associate Professor and Director Texas A&M University This presentation does contain proprietary information 1 Project Goal: Design of Microorganisms for Lignin Fuel * The proposed research aims to address one of the most challenging issues in biofuel production: the utilization of lignin for fungible fuels. * Project Outcome: A viable biological platform for conversion of lignin into

  9. Biogas to Liquid Fuels and Chemicals Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Biogas to Liquid Fuels and Chemicals Using a Methanotrophic Microorganism WBS 2.3.2.102 2015 DOE BioEnergy Technologies Office (BETO) Project Peer Review March 24, 2015 Technology Area: Biochemical Conversion Principal Investigator: Michael T. Guarnieri Organization: National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2 Goal Statement Goals 1. Demonstrate proof of concept for a biogas-to-liquid fuels and chemicals process. 2. Enhance carbon conversion efficiency from methane to biomass and products. Outcome:

  10. Processes for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to chemicals and liquid fuels

    DOEpatents

    Held, Andrew; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy; Gray, Matthew

    2016-07-05

    The present invention provides processes, methods, and systems for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to liquid fuels and chemicals. The method generally includes the reaction of a hydrolysate from a biomass deconstruction process with hydrogen and a catalyst to produce a reaction product comprising one of more oxygenated compounds. The process also includes reacting the reaction product with a condensation catalyst to produce C.sub.4+ compounds useful as fuels and chemicals.

  11. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1995-03-14

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

  12. Chemically Bonded Phosphorus/Graphene Hybrid as a High Performance Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Jiangxuan; Yu, Zhaoxin; Gordin, Mikhail; Hu, Shilin; Yi, Ran; Tang, Duihai; Walter, Timothy; Regula, Michael; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Xiaolin; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Wang, Donghai

    2014-11-12

    Room temperature sodium-ion batteries are of great interest for high-energy-density energy storage systems because of low-cost, natural abundance of sodium. Here, we report a novel graphene nanosheets-wrapped phosphorus composite as an anode for high performance sodium-ion batteries though a facile ball-milling of red phosphorus and graphene nanosheets. Not only can the graphene nanosheets significantly improve the electrical conductivity, but they also serve as a buffer layer to accommodate the large volume change of phosphorus in the charge-discharge process. As a result, the graphene wrapped phosphorus composite anode delivers a high reversible capacity of 2077 mAh/g with excellent cycling stability (1700 mAh/g after 60 cycles) and high Coulombic efficiency (>98%). This simple synthesis approach and unique nanostructure can potentially extend to other electrode materials with unstable solid electrolyte interphases in sodium-ion batteries.

  13. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-01

    Funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 ENVIRON International Corporation, in collaboration with Callidus Technologies by Honeywell and Shell Global Solutions, Inc., will develop and demonstrate a full-scale fuel blending and combustion system. This system will allow a broad range of opportunity fuel compositions, including syngas, biogas, natural gas, and refinery fuel gas, to be safely, cost-effectively, and efficiently utilized while generating minimal emissions of criteria pollutants. The project will develop a commercial technology for application in refinery and chemical plant process heaters where opportunity fuels are used.

  14. Seventeenth symposium on biotechnology for fuels and chemicals. Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral and poster presentations made at the Seventeenth Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. Session titles include Thermal, Chemical, and Biological Processing; Applied Biological Research; Bioprocessing Research; Special Topics Discussion Groups; Process Economics and Commercialization; and Environmental Biotechnology.

  15. Fuel Cell/Battery Powered Bus System. Final Report for period August 1987 - December 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Wimmer, R.

    1999-01-01

    Today, fuel cell systems are getting much attention from the automotive industry as a future replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE). Every US automobile manufacturer and most foreign firms have major programs underway to develop fuel cell engines for transportation. The objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of using fuel cells as an alternative to the ICE. Three such vehicles (30-foot buses) were introduced beginning in 1994. Extensive development and operational testing of fuel cell systems as a vehicle power source has been accomplished under this program. The development activity investigated total systems configuration and effectiveness for vehicle operations. Operational testing included vehicle performance testing, road operations, and extensive dynamometer emissions testing.

  16. Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines Research Diesel Fuels: Analysis of Physical and Chemical Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gallant, Tom; Franz, Jim; Alnajjar, Mikhail; Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Sluder, Scott; Cannella, William C; Fairbridge, Craig; Hager, Darcy; Dettman, Heather; Luecke, Jon; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Zigler, Brad

    2009-01-01

    The CRC Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines working group has worked to identify a matrix of research diesel fuels for use in advanced combustion research applications. Nine fuels were specified and formulated to investigate the effects of cetane number aromatic content and 90% distillation fraction. Standard ASTM analyses were performed on the fuels as well as GC/MS and /u1H//u1/u3C NMR analyses and thermodynamic characterizations. Details of the actual results of the fuel formulations compared with the design values are presented, as well as results from standard analyses, such as heating value, viscosity and density. Cetane number characterizations were accomplished by using both the engine method and the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT/sT) apparatus.

  17. Accelerating the Computation of Detailed Chemical Reaction Kinetics for Simulating Combustion of Complex Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Grout, Ray W

    2012-01-01

    Combustion of hydrocarbon fuels has been a very challenging scientific and engineering problem due to the complexity of turbulent flows and hydrocarbon reaction kinetics. There is an urgent need to develop an efficient modeling capability to accurately predict the combustion of complex fuels. Detailed chemical kinetic models for the surrogates of fuels such as gasoline, diesel and JP-8 consist of thousands of chemical species and Arrhenius reaction steps. Oxygenated fuels such as bio-fuels and heavier hydrocarbons, such as from newer fossil fuel sources, are expected to have a much more complex chemistry requiring increasingly larger chemical kinetic models. Such models are beyond current computational capability, except for homogeneous or partially stirred reactor type calculations. The advent of highly parallel multi-core processors and graphical processing units (GPUs) promises a steep increase in computational performance in the coming years. This paper will present a software framework that translates the detailed chemical kinetic models to high- performance code targeted for GPU accelerators.

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Overview and Progress of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) Activity

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by the Department of Energy's Energy Storage area at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about the research area that is examining new battery materials and addressing fundamental chemical and mechanical instability issues in batteries.

  19. HCCI experiments with gasoline surrogate fuels modeled by a semidetailed chemical kinetic model

    SciTech Connect

    Andrae, J.C.G.; Head, R.A.

    2009-04-15

    Experiments in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine have been conducted with four gasoline surrogate fuel blends. The pure components in the surrogate fuels consisted of n-heptane, isooctane, toluene, ethanol and diisobutylene and fuel sensitivities (RON-MON) in the fuel blends ranged from two to nine. The operating conditions for the engine were p{sub in}=0.1 and 0.2 MPa, T{sub in}=80 and 250 C, {phi}=0.25 in air and engine speed 1200 rpm. A semidetailed chemical kinetic model (142 species and 672 reactions) for gasoline surrogate fuels, validated against ignition data from experiments conducted in shock tubes for gasoline surrogate fuel blends at 1.0{<=} p{<=}5.0MPa, 700{<=} T{<=}1200 K and {phi}=1.0, was successfully used to qualitatively predict the HCCI experiments using a single zone modeling approach. The fuel blends that had higher fuel sensitivity were more resistant to autoignition for low intake temperature and high intake pressure and less resistant to autoignition for high intake temperature and low intake pressure. A sensitivity analysis shows that at high intake temperature the chemistry of the fuels ethanol, toluene and diisobutylene helps to advance ignition. This is consistent with the trend that fuels with the least Negative Temperature Coefficient (NTC) behavior show the highest octane sensitivity, and become less resistant to autoignition at high intake temperatures. For high intake pressure the sensitivity analysis shows that fuels in the fuel blend with no NTC behavior consume OH radicals and acts as a radical scavenger for the fuels with NTC behavior. This is consistent with the observed trend of an increase in RON and fuel sensitivity. With data from shock tube experiments in the literature and HCCI modeling in this work, a correlation between the reciprocal pressure exponent on the ignition delay to the fuel sensitivity and volume percentage of single-stage ignition fuel in the fuel blend was found. Higher fuel

  20. Disposal of defense spent fuel and HLW at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ermold, L.F.; Loo, H.H.; Klingler, R.D.; Herzog, J.D.; Knecht, D.A.

    1993-06-01

    Irradiated nuclear fuel has been reprocessed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) since 1953 to recover uranium-235 and krypton-85 for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The resulting acidic high-level radioactive waste (HLW) has been solidified to a calcine since 1963 and stored in stainless steel underground bins enclosed by concrete vaults. Several different types of unprocessed irradiated DOE-owned fuels are also in storage at the ICPP. In April, 1992, DOE announced that spent fuel would no longer be reprocessed to recover enriched uranium and called for a shutdown of the reprocessing facilities at the ICPP. A new Spent Fuel and HLW Technology Development program was subsequently initiated to develop technologies for immobilizing ICPP spent fuels and HLW for disposal, in accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The Program elements include Systems Analysis, Graphite Fuel Disposal, Other Spent Fuel Disposal, Sodium-Bearing Liquid Waste Processing, Calcine Immobilization, and Metal Recycle/Waste Minimization. This paper presents an overview of the ICPP radioactive wastes and current spent fuels, with an emphasis on the description of HLW and spent fuels requiring repository disposal.

  1. Chemical overcharge protection of lithium and lithium-ion secondary batteries

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Rohan, James F.; Foo, Conrad C.; Pasquariello, David M.

    1999-01-01

    This invention features the use of redox reagents, dissolved in non-aqueous electrolytes, to provide overcharge protection for cells having lithium metal or lithium-ion negative electrodes (anodes). In particular, the invention features the use of a class of compounds consisting of thianthrene and its derivatives as redox shuttle reagents to provide overcharge protection. Specific examples of this invention are thianthrene and 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene. One example of a rechargeable battery in which 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene is used has carbon negative electrode (anode) and spinet LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4 positive electrode (cathode).

  2. Chemical overcharge protection of lithium and lithium-ion secondary batteries

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, K.M.; Rohan, J.F.; Foo, C.C.; Pasquariello, D.M.

    1999-01-12

    This invention features the use of redox reagents, dissolved in non-aqueous electrolytes, to provide overcharge protection for cells having lithium metal or lithium-ion negative electrodes (anodes). In particular, the invention features the use of a class of compounds consisting of thianthrene and its derivatives as redox shuttle reagents to provide overcharge protection. Specific examples of this invention are thianthrene and 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene. One example of a rechargeable battery in which 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene is used has carbon negative electrode (anode) and spinet LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} positive electrode (cathode). 8 figs.

  3. Batteries and energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mantell, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    A historical review of the galvanic concept and a brief description of the theory of operation of batteries are followed by chapters on specific types of batteries and energy systems. Chapters contain a section on basic theory, performance and applications. Secondary cells discussed are: SLI batteries, lead-acid storage batteries, lead secondary cells, alkaline secondary cells, nickel and silver-cadmium systems and solid electrolyte systems. Other chapters discuss battery charging, regenerative electrochemical systems, solar cells, fuel cells, electric vehicles and windmills. (KAW)

  4. Electrocatalytic Activity of Transition Metal Oxide-Carbon Composites for Oxygen Reduction in Alkaline Batteries and Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Malkhandi, S; Trinh, P; Manohar, AK; Jayachandrababu, KC; Kindler, A; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2013-06-07

    Conductive transition metal oxides (perovskites, spinels and pyrochlores) are attractive as catalysts for the air electrode in alkaline rechargeable metal-air batteries and fuel cells. We have found that conductive carbon materials when added to transition metal oxides such as calcium-doped lanthanum cobalt oxide, nickel cobalt oxide and calcium-doped lanthanum manganese cobalt oxide increase the electrocatalytic activity of the oxide for oxygen reduction by a factor of five to ten. We have studied rotating ring-disk electrodes coated with (a) various mass ratios of carbon and transition metal oxide, (b) different types of carbon additives and (c) different types of transition metal oxides. Our experiments and analysis establish that in such composite catalysts, carbon is the primary electro- catalyst for the two-electron electro-reduction of oxygen to hydroperoxide while the transition metal oxide decomposes the hydroperoxide to generate additional oxygen that enhances the observed current resulting in an apparent four-electron process. These findings are significant in that they change the way we interpret previous reports in the scientific literature on the electrocatalytic activity of various transition metal oxide- carbon composites for oxygen reduction, especially where carbon is assumed to be an additive that just enhances the electronic conductivity of the oxide catalyst. (C) 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  5. CHEMICAL SENSOR AND FIELD SCREENING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT: FUELS IN SOILS FIELD SCREENING METHOD VALIDATION

    SciTech Connect

    Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron

    1997-04-01

    A new screening method for fuel contamination in soils was recently developed as American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Method D-583 1-95, Standard Test Method for Screening Fuels in Soils. This method uses low-toxicity chemicals and can be used to screen organic-rich soils. In addition, it is fast, easy, and inexpensive to perform. The screening method calls for extracting a sample of soil with isopropyl alcohol following treatment with calcium oxide. The resulting extract is filtered, and the ultraviolet absorbance of the extract is measured at 254 nm. Depending on the available information concerning the contaminant fuel type and availability of the contaminant fuel for calibration, the method can be used to determine the approximate concentration of fuel contamination, an estimated value of fuel contamination, or an indication of the presence or absence of fuel contamination. Fuels containing aromatic compounds, such as diesel fuel and gasoline, as well as other aromatic-containing hydrocarbon materials, such as motor oil, crude oil, and coal oil, can be determined. The screening method for fuels in soils was evaluated by conducting a collaborative study on the method and by using the method to screen soil samples at an actual field site. In the collaborative study, a sand and an organic soil spiked with various concentrations of diesel fuel were tested. Data from the collaborative study were used to determine the reproducibility (between participants) and repeatability (within participant) precision of the method for screening the test materials. The collaborative study data also provide information on the performance of portable field equipment versus laboratory equipment for performing the screening method and a comparison of diesel concentration values determined using the screening method versus a laboratory method. Data generated using the method to screen soil samples in the field provide information on the performance of the method in

  6. Chemical Kinetic Simulation of the Combustion of Bio-based Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ashen, Ms. Refuyat; Cushman, Ms. Katherine C.

    2007-10-01

    Due to environmental and economic issues, there has been an increased interest in the use of alternative fuels. However, before widespread use of biofuels is feasible, the compatibility of these fuels with specific engines needs to be examined. More accurate models of the chemical combustion of alternative fuels in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines are necessary, and this project evaluates the performance of emissions models and uses the information gathered to study the chemical kinetics involved. The computer simulations for each alternative fuel were executed using the Chemkin chemical kinetics program, and results from the runs were compared with data gathered from an actual engine that was run under similar conditions. A new heat transfer mechanism was added to the existing model's subroutine, and simulations were then conducted using the heat transfer mechanism. Results from the simulation proved to be accurate when compared with the data taken from the actual engine. The addition of heat transfer produced more realistic temperature and pressure data for biodiesel when biodiesel's combustion was simulated in an HCCI engine. The addition of the heat transfer mechanism essentially lowered the peak pressures and peak temperatures during combustion of all fuels simulated in this project.

  7. Aquatic biomass as a source of fuels and chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, L.P.

    1983-09-01

    The Aquatic Species Program (ASP) addresses the development of technologies that produce and utilize plant biomass species which naturally inhabit wetlands or submerged areas. Processes being developed through this program take advantage of the rapid growth rates, high yields, and extraordinary chemical compositions inherently associated with aquatic species. Emphasis is placed on salt tolerant species for cultivation on poorly utilized, low-value lands, where conventional agriculture is not economic. Candidate species are identified from: (1) microalgae-unicellular plants that are natural factories for converting sunlight into high quality oils; (2) macroalgae-large, chemically unique plants that can be easily fermented to methane gas or alcohols; and (3) emergents-plants that grow rooted in waterways and bogs, but are partially exposed above water. Within the next five years, the conditions and resources necessary for sustained systems operations are to be defined, design parameters examined, and experimental facilities developed. Succeeding years are planned to focus on resolving major technical hurdles in systems operations, integration, and component performance. This paper updates the technical progress in this program, describes several aspects of evolving systems concepts, and attempts to provide some perspectives based on potential economics. 16 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

  8. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Charles; Wilson, Robert

    2014-04-30

    This project culminated in the demonstration of a full-scale industrial burner which allows a broad range of “opportunity” gaseous fuels to be cost-effectively and efficiently utilized while generating minimal emissions of criteria air pollutants. The burner is capable of maintaining a stable flame when the fuel composition changes rapidly. This enhanced stability will contribute significantly to improving the safety and reliability of burner operation in manufacturing sites. Process heating in the refining and chemicals sectors is the primary application for this burner. The refining and chemical sectors account for more than 40% of total industrial natural gas use. Prior to the completion of this project, an enabling technology did not exist that would allow these energy-intensive industries to take full advantage of opportunity fuels and thereby reduce their natural gas consumption. Opportunity gaseous fuels include biogas (from animal and agricultural wastes, wastewater plants, and landfills) as well as syngas (from the gasification of biomass, municipal solid wastes, construction wastes, and refinery residuals). The primary challenge to using gaseous opportunity fuels is that their composition and combustion performance differ significantly from those of conventional fuels such as natural gas and refinery fuel gas. An effective fuel-flexible burner must accept fuels that range widely in quality and change in composition over time, often rapidly. In Phase 1 of this project, the team applied computational fluid dynamics analysis to optimize the prototype burner’s aerodynamic, combustion, heat transfer, and emissions performance. In Phase 2, full-scale testing and refinement of two prototype burners were conducted in test furnaces at Zeeco’s offices in Broken Arrow, OK. These tests demonstrated that the full range of conventional and opportunity fuels could be utilized by the project’s burner while achieving robust flame stability and very low levels of

  9. Membrane process designs in the recovery of bio-fuels and bio-chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Leeper, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    In this presentation, the emerging membrane unit operations and process designs that can be used in recovery of fuels and organic chemicals produced via bioconversion are briefly summarized. Product recovery costs are a major barrier to increased use of bioconversion for the production of fuels and chemicals. The integration of developing membrane unit operations into product recovery schemes may reduce process energy requirements and cost. Membrane unit operations that are used or studied in recovery of bio-fuels and organic chemicals include pervaporation (PV), vapor permeation (VPe), reverse osmosis (RO), membrane extraction, and electrodialysis (ED). Although it can be argued that ultrafiltration (UF) is used to purify bio-fuels and bio-chemicals, UF is not included in this survey for two reasons: (1) the primary uses of UF in bioprocessing are to clarify fermentation broth and to retain cells/enzymes in bioreactors and (2) the literature on UF in biotechnology is expansive. Products of bioconversion for which data are compiled include ethanol, acetone, butanol, glycerol, isopropanol, ethyl acetate, fusel oils, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, butyric acid, citric acid, propionic acid, succinic acid, and tartaric acid. 13 refs.

  10. Catalytic Hydrogenation of Bio-Oil for Chemicals and Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2006-02-14

    The scope of work includes optimizing processing conditions and demonstrating catalyst lifetime for catalyst formulations that are readily scaleable to commercial operations. We use a bench-scale, continuous-flow, packed-bed, catalytic, tubular reactor, which can be operated in the range of 100-400 mL/hr., from 50-400 C and up to 20MPa (see Figure 1). With this unit we produce upgraded bio-oil from whole bio-oil or useful bio-oil fractions, specifically pyrolytic lignin. The product oils are fractionated, for example by distillation, for recovery of chemical product streams. Other products from our tests have been used in further testing in petroleum refining technology at UOP and fractionation for product recovery in our own lab. Further scale-up of the technology is envisioned and we will carry out or support process design efforts with industrial partners, such as UOP.

  11. Fuel-cladding chemical interaction correlation for mixed-oxide fuel pins

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, L.A.

    1986-10-01

    A revised wastage correlation was developed for FCCI with fabrication and operating parameters. The expansion of the data base to 305 data sets provided sufficient data to employ normal statistical techniques for calculation of confidence levels without unduly penalizing predictions. The correlation based on 316 SS cladding also adequately accounts for limited measured depths of interaction for fuel pins with D9 and HTq cladding.

  12. Twelfth symposium on biotechnology for fuels and chemicals: Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Scheitlin, F.M.

    1990-01-01

    This report is the program and abstracts of the twelfth symposium on biotechnology for fuels and chemicals, held on May 7--11, 1990, at Gatlinburg, Tennessee. The symposium, sponsored by the Department of Energy, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Solar Energy Research Institute, Badger Engineers, Inc., Gas Research Institute, and American Chemical Society, consists of five sessions: Session 1, thermal, chemical, and biological processing; Session 2 and 3, applied biological research; Session 4, bioengineering research; and Session 5, biotechnology, bioengineering, and the solution of environmental problems. It also consists of a poster session of the same five subject categories.

  13. Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  14. USABC Development of Advanced High-Performance Batteries for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Development of Advanced High-Performance Batteries for EV Applications USABC Development of Advanced High-Performance Batteries for EV Applications 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells ...

  15. Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries > Research...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    for Lithium Sulfur Batteries Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel Cells Epitaxial Single Crystal Nanostructures for Batteries & PVs High Performance ...

  16. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery...

  17. Battery of short-term tests in laboratory animals to corroborate the detection of human population exposures to genotoxic chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, M.A.; Chang, L.W.; McMillan, L.; Ward, J.B.; Legator, M.S.

    1982-02-01

    The authors are conducting a battery of short-term tests in laboratory animals for comparison to a series of monitoring test they are evaluating for the detection of human population exposures to genotoxic chemicals. The human monitoring tests are described in a separate abstract. These assays include (1) hemoglobin (Hb) alkylation, (2) cytogenetic effects in bone marrow cells including chromosomal structural aberrations, sister chromatid exchange and micronucleus production, (3) DNA damage in bone marrow cells, (4) sperm morphology and (5) urine analysis for mutagens. Formaldehyde and methanol a metabolic precursor, are being evaluated in animals. The results are as follows: Hb Alkylation: the oral administration of carbon-14 radiolabeled formaldehyde or methanol to rats resulted in their covalent binding to Hb. Adducts to amino acids were separated after acid hydrolysis by an amino acid analyzer. The binding of both chemicals exhibited a linear relationship to dose between 10 and 100 umole/kg. The extent of methanol binding to Hb was greater than formaldehyde. Cytogenetic Analyses: the oral administration in mice of formaldehyde (100 mg/kg) or methanol (lg/kg) increased the incidence of chromosomal aberrations particularly aneuploidy and exchanges and the incidence of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes. Results of the Hb alkylation and cytogenetic analyses will be compared to the results obtained in the human monitors studies with formaldehyde.

  18. Chemical Reactivity Testing for the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program. Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Newsom, H.C.

    1999-01-24

    This quality assurance project plan (QAPjP) summarizes requirements used by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Incorporated (LMES) Development Division at Y-12 for conducting chemical reactivity testing of Department of Energy (DOE) owned spent nuclear fuel, sponsored by the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP). The requirements are based on the NSNFP Statement of Work PRO-007 (Statement of Work for Laboratory Determination of Uranium Hydride Oxidation Reaction Kinetics.) This QAPjP will utilize the quality assurance program at Y-12, QA-101PD, revision 1, and existing implementing procedures for the most part in meeting the NSNFP Statement of Work PRO-007 requirements, exceptions will be noted.

  19. Biotechnology for producing fuels and chemicals from biomass. Volume II. Fermentation chemicals from biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Villet, R.

    1981-02-01

    The technological and economic feasibility of producing some selected chemicals by fermentation is discussed: acetone, butanol, acetic acid, citric acid, 2,3-butanediol, and propionic acid. The demand for acetone and butanol has grown considerably. They have not been produced fermentatively for three decades, but instead by the oxo and aldol processes. Improved cost of fermentative production will hinge on improving yields and using cellulosic feedstocks. The market for acetic acid is likely to grow 5% to 7%/yr. A potential process for production is the fermentation of hydrolyzed cellulosic material to ethanol followed by chemical conversion to acetic acid. For about 50 years fermentation has been the chief process for citric acid production. The feedstock cost is 15% to 20% of the overall cost of production. The anticipated 5%/yr growth in demand for citric acid could be enhanced by using it to displace phosphates in detergent manufacture. A number of useful chemicals can be derived from 2,3-butanediol, which has not been produced commercially on a large scale. R and D are needed to establish a viable commercial process. The commercial fermentative production of propionic acid has not yet been developed. Recovery and purification of the product require considerable improvement. Other chemicals such as lactic acid, isopropanol, maleic anhydride, fumarate, and glycerol merit evaluation for commercial fermentative production in the near future.

  20. Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE`s LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts. The paper reports the progress on the following tasks: engineering and modifications: AFDU shakedown, operations, deactivation and disposal; and research and development on new processes for DME, chemistry and catalyst development, and oxygenates via synthesis gas.

  1. Recovery Act: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-fueled Chemical Looping

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wei-Ping; Cao, Yan

    2012-11-30

    Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) could totally negate the necessity of pure oxygen by using oxygen carriers for purification of CO{sub 2} stream during combustion. It splits the single fuel combustion reaction into two linked reactions using oxygen carriers. The two linked reactions are the oxidation of oxygen carriers in the air reactor using air, and the reduction of oxygen carriers in the fuel reactor using fuels (i.e. coal). Generally metal/metal oxides are used as oxygen carriers and operated in a cyclic mode. Chemical looping combustion significantly improves the energy conversion efficiency, in terms of the electricity generation, because it improves the reversibility of the fuel combustion process through two linked parallel processes, compared to the conventional combustion process, which is operated far away from its thermo-equilibrium. Under the current carbon-constraint environment, it has been a promising carbon capture technology in terms of fuel combustion for power generation. Its disadvantage is that it is less mature in terms of technological commercialization. In this DOE-funded project, accomplishment is made by developing a series of advanced copper-based oxygen carriers, with properties of the higher oxygen-transfer capability, a favorable thermodynamics to generate high purity of CO{sub 2}, the higher reactivity, the attrition-resistance, the thermal stability in red-ox cycles and the achievement of the auto-thermal heat balance. This will be achieved into three phases in three consecutive years. The selected oxygen carriers with final-determined formula were tested in a scaled-up 10kW coal-fueled chemical looping combustion facility. This scaled-up evaluation tests (2-day, 8-hour per day) indicated that, there was no tendency of agglomeration of copper-based oxygen carriers. Only trace-amount of coke or carbon deposits on the copper-based oxygen carriers in the fuel reactor. There was also no evidence to show the sulphidization of oxygen

  2. Down Select Report of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials, Catalysts, and Spent Fuel Regeneration Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Kevin; Linehan, Sue; Lipiecki, Frank; Aardahl, Christopher L.

    2008-08-24

    The DOE Hydrogen Storage Program is focused on identifying and developing viable hydrogen storage systems for onboard vehicular applications. The program funds exploratory research directed at identifying new materials and concepts for storage of hydrogen having high gravimetric and volumetric capacities that have the potential to meet long term technical targets for onboard storage. Approaches currently being examined are reversible metal hydride storage materials, reversible hydrogen sorption systems, and chemical hydrogen storage systems. The latter approach concerns materials that release hydrogen in endothermic or exothermic chemical bond-breaking processes. To regenerate the spent fuels arising from hydrogen release from such materials, chemical processes must be employed. These chemical regeneration processes are envisioned to occur offboard the vehicle.

  3. Status Report on the Fabrication of Fuel Cladding Chemical Interaction Test Articles for ATR Irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G.; Howard, Richard H.

    2015-09-28

    FeCrAl alloys are a promising new class of alloys for light water reactor (LWR) applications due to their superior oxidation and corrosion resistance in high temperature environments. The current R&D efforts have focused on the alloy composition and processing routes to generate nuclear grade FeCrAl alloys with optimized properties for enhanced accident tolerance while maintaining properties needed for normal operation conditions. Therefore, the composition and processing routes must be optimized to maintain the high temperature steam oxidation (typically achieved by increasing the Cr and Al content) while still exhibiting properties conducive to normal operation in a LWR (such as radiation tolerance where reducing Cr content is favorable). Within this balancing act is the addition of understanding the influence on composition and processing routes on the FeCrAl alloys for fuel-cladding chemical interactions (FCCI). Currently, limited knowledge exists on FCCI for the FeCrAl-UO2 clad-fuel system. To overcome the knowledge gaps on the FCCI for the FeCrAl-UO2 clad-fuel system a series of fueled irradiation tests have been developed for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) housed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The first series of tests has already been reported. These tests used miniaturized 17x17 PWR fuel geometry rodlets of second-generation FeCrAl alloys fueled with industrial Westinghouse UO2 fuel. These rodlets were encapsulated within a stainless steel housing.To provide high fidelity experiments and more robust testing, a new series of rodlets have been developed deemed the Accident Tolerant Fuel Experiment #1 Oak Ridge National Laboratory FCCI test (ATF-1 ORNL FCCI). The main driving factor, which is discussed in detail, was to provide a radiation environment where prototypical fuel-clad interface temperatures are met while still maintaining constant contact between industrial fuel and the candidate cladding alloys

  4. Biochemical Conversion: Using Hydrolysis, Fermentation, and Catalysis to Make Fuels and Chemicals

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    New pathways will enable energy-efficient biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels that are compatible with today's vehicles and infrastructure. Photos (clockwise from upper left): iStock/4373820, Energetics Inc., iStock/6091090, NREL/15040 Biochemical Conversion: Using Enzymes, Microbes, and Catalysts to Make Fuels and Chemicals Advanced biofuels are part of America's all-of-the-above strategy to develop domestic energy resources and win the global race in clean energy

  5. Photosynthetic Conversion of CO2 to Fuels and Chemicals using Cyanobacteria

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Photosynthetic Conversion of CO 2 to Fuels and Chemicals using Cyanobacteria Accelerating Innovation Webinar August 8, 2012 Jianping Yu, Ph.D., Senior Scientist * Many eukaryotic algae accumulate triacylglycerols (TAG), a biodiesel precursor. * Genetic system in eukaryotic algae lags behind; while cyanobacteria offer good genetic tools that facilitate fundamental understanding and they ability to manipulate pathways. * Harvesting TAG accumulated inside algae cells requires large energy input;

  6. Effect of fuel rate and annealing process of LiFePO{sub 4} cathode material for Li-ion batteries synthesized by flame spray pyrolysis method

    SciTech Connect

    Halim, Abdul; Setyawan, Heru; Machmudah, Siti; Nurtono, Tantular; Winardi, Sugeng

    2014-02-24

    In this study the effect of fuel rate and annealing on particle formation of LiFePO{sub 4} as battery cathode using flame spray pyrolysis method was investigated numerically and experimentally. Numerical study was done using ANSYS FLUENT program. In experimentally, LiFePO{sub 4} was synthesized from inorganic aqueous solution followed by annealing. LPG was used as fuel and air was used as oxidizer and carrier gas. Annealing process attempted in inert atmosphere at 700C for 240 min. Numerical result showed that the increase of fuel rate caused the increase of flame temperature. Microscopic observation using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealed that all particles have sphere and polydisperse. Increasing fuel rate caused decreasing particle size and increasing particles crystallinity. This phenomenon attributed to the flame temperature. However, all produced particles still have more amorphous phase. Therefore, annealing needed to increase particles crystallinity. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis showed that all particles have PO4 function group. Increasing fuel rate led to the increase of infrared spectrum absorption corresponding to the increase of particles crystallinity. This result indicated that phosphate group vibrated easily in crystalline phase. From Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) analysis, annealing can cause the increase of Li{sup +} diffusivity. The diffusivity coefficient of without and with annealing particles were 6.8439910{sup ?10} and 8.5988810{sup ?10} cm{sup 2} s{sup ?1}, respectively.

  7. Hydrogen Fuel for Material Handling

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    p Hydrogen Fuel for Hydrogen Fuel for Material Handling Tom Joseph © Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., 2009 7201 Hamilton Blvd Allentown PA 18195 7201 Hamilton Blvd., Allentown PA 18195 Fuel Cell Packs for MHE Form Fit and Function Battery Replacement Form, Fit and Function Battery Replacement © Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., 2009 Courtesy of Ballard Power Systems 31.1 x 13.2 x 31.6 LWH MHE Classes and Pack size 4kW 9kW 14kW 4kW 9kW 14kW CLASS 1 Forklift 32 x 38.6 x 22.7" LWH CLASS

  8. Thermal conversion of biomass to valuable fuels, chemical feedstocks and chemicals

    DOEpatents

    Peters, William A.; Howard, Jack B.; Modestino, Anthony J.; Vogel, Fredreric; Steffin, Carsten R.

    2009-02-24

    A continuous process for the conversion of biomass to form a chemical feedstock is described. The biomass and an exogenous metal oxide, preferably calcium oxide, or metal oxide precursor are continuously fed into a reaction chamber that is operated at a temperature of at least 1400.degree. C. to form reaction products including metal carbide. The metal oxide or metal oxide precursor is capable of forming a hydrolizable metal carbide. The reaction products are quenched to a temperature of 800.degree. C. or less. The resulting metal carbide is separated from the reaction products or, alternatively, when quenched with water, hydolyzed to provide a recoverable hydrocarbon gas feedstock.

  9. DOE Technical Targets for Fuel Cell Systems for Portable Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    environmental impact through the use of reusable fuel cartridges, recyclable components, ... of the total fuel cell system, including fuel tank, fuel, and any hybridization batteries. ...

  10. Biomass-derived Syngas Utilization for Fuels and Chemicals - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dayton, David C

    2010-03-24

    Executive Summary The growing gap between petroleum production and demand, mounting environmental concerns, and increasing fuel prices have stimulated intense interest in research and development (R&D) of alternative fuels, both synthetic and bio-derived. Currently, the most technically defined thermochemical route for producing alternative fuels from lignocellulosic biomass involves gasification/reforming of biomass to produce syngas (carbon monoxide [CO] + hydrogen [H2]), followed by syngas cleaning, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) or mixed alcohol synthesis, and some product upgrading via hydroprocessing or separation. A detailed techno-economic analysis of this type of process has recently been published [1] and it highlights the need for technical breakthroughs and technology demonstration for gas cleanup and fuel synthesis. The latter two technical barrier areas contribute 40% of the total thermochemical ethanol cost and 70% of the production cost, if feedstock costs are factored out. Developing and validating technologies that reduce the capital and operating costs of these unit operations will greatly reduce the risk for commercializing integrated biomass gasification/fuel synthesis processes for biofuel production. The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate new catalysts and catalytic processes that can efficiently convert biomass-derived syngas into diesel fuel and C2-C4 alcohols. The goal is to improve the economics of the processes by improving the catalytic activity and product selectivity, which could lead to commercialization. The project was divided into 4 tasks: Task 1: Reactor Systems: Construction of three reactor systems was a project milestone. Construction of a fixed-bed microreactor (FBR), a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), and a slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) were completed to meet this milestone. Task 2: Iron Fischer-Tropsch (FT) Catalyst: An attrition resistant iron FT catalyst will be developed and tested

  11. Process for the conversion of and aqueous biomass hydrolyzate into fuels or chemicals by the selective removal of fermentation inhibitors

    DOEpatents

    Hames, Bonnie R.; Sluiter, Amie D.; Hayward, Tammy K.; Nagle, Nicholas J.

    2004-05-18

    A process of making a fuel or chemical from a biomass hydrolyzate is provided which comprises the steps of providing a biomass hydrolyzate, adjusting the pH of the hydrolyzate, contacting a metal oxide having an affinity for guaiacyl or syringyl functional groups, or both and the hydrolyzate for a time sufficient to form an adsorption complex; removing the complex wherein a sugar fraction is provided, and converting the sugar fraction to fuels or chemicals using a microorganism.

  12. Test Report : GS battery, EPC power HES RESCU.

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, David Martin; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Borneo, Daniel R.

    2013-10-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprising of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. GS Battery and EPC Power have developed an energy storage system that utilizes zinc-bromide flow batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the GS Battery, EPC Power HES RESCU.

  13. High-temperature Chemical Compatibility of As-fabricated TRIGA Fuel and Type 304 Stainless Steel Cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Jan-Fong Jue; Eric Woolstenhulme; Kurt Terrani; Glenn A. Moore

    2012-09-01

    Chemical interaction between TRIGA fuel and Type-304 stainless steel cladding at relatively high temperatures is of interest from the point of view of understanding fuel behavior during different TRIGA reactor transient scenarios. Since TRIGA fuel comes into close contact with the cladding during irradiation, there is an opportunity for interdiffusion between the U in the fuel and the Fe in the cladding to form an interaction zone that contains U-Fe phases. Based on the equilibrium U-Fe phase diagram, a eutectic can develop at a composition between the U6Fe and UFe2 phases. This eutectic composition can become a liquid at around 725°C. From the standpoint of safe operation of TRIGA fuel, it is of interest to develop better understanding of how a phase with this composition may develop in irradiated TRIGA fuel at relatively high temperatures. One technique for investigating the development of a eutectic phase at the fuel/cladding interface is to perform out-of-pile diffusion-couple experiments at relatively high temperatures. This information is most relevant for lightly irradiated fuel that just starts to touch the cladding due to fuel swelling. Similar testing using fuel irradiated to different fission densities should be tested in a similar fashion to generate data more relevant to more heavily irradiated fuel. This report describes the results for TRIGA fuel/Type-304 stainless steel diffusion couples that were annealed for one hour at 730 and 800°C. Scanning electron microscopy with energy- and wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy was employed to characterize the fuel/cladding interface for each diffusion couple to look for evidence of any chemical interaction. Overall, negligible fuel/cladding interaction was observed for each diffusion couple.

  14. Chemical reactivity testing for the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Koester, L.W.

    2000-02-08

    This quality assurance project plan (QAPjP) summarizes requirements used by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Incorporated (LMES) Development Division at Y-12 for conducting chemical reactivity testing of Department of Energy (DOE) owned spent nuclear fuel, sponsored by the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP). The requirements are based on the NSNFP Statement of work PRO-007 (Statement of Work for Laboratory Determination of Uranium Hydride Oxidation Reaction Kinetics.) This QAPjP will utilize the quality assurance program at Y-12, Y60-101PD, Quality Program Description, and existing implementing procedures for the most part in meeting the NSNFP Statement of Work PRO-007 requirements, exceptions will be noted. The project consists of conducting three separate series of related experiments, ''Passivation of Uranium Hydride Powder With Oxygen and Water'', '''Passivation of Uranium Hydride Powder with Surface Characterization'', and ''Electrochemical Measure of Uranium Hydride Corrosion Rate''.

  15. Steam-reforming of fossil fuels and wastes to produce energy and chemicals without greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, T.R.

    1998-07-01

    Worldwide concern has demanded a re-examination of the energy- and chemical-producing plants that use fossil fuel sources and release large quantities of greenhouse gases. Plant retrofits with steam-reformer/gasifiers will increase plant efficiencies, improve economics and avoid releasing troublesome amounts of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide. In this paper, the authors describe and illustrate the several new steam-reforming/gasification plants that are processing waste streams and fossil fuels. These plants range in size from 1 ton/day to 2,000 tons/day. They are commercial and economically successful. These new concepts can be used to both upgrade fossil plants for improved economics while eliminating the release of greenhouse gases. By aggressively retrofitting old coal plants and sequestering CO{sub 2}, a 15% reduction in 1990 CO{sub 2} emissions can be met by the US by 2010.

  16. Battery Life Predictive Model - Energy Innovation Portal

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Energy Storage Energy Storage Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search Battery Life Predictive Model National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Batteries are one of the leading cost drivers of any electric vehicle project. Current practices require that batteries be oversized by design in order to meet the battery warrantee's end-of-life (EOL) power and energy requirements.

  17. An Experimental and Chemical Kinetics Study of the Combustion of Syngas and High Hydrogen Content Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, Robers; Dryer, Frederick; Ju, Yiguang

    2013-09-30

    An integrated and collaborative effort involving experiments and complementary chemical kinetic modeling investigated the effects of significant concentrations of water and CO2 and minor contaminant species (methane [CH4], ethane [C2H6], NOX, etc.) on the ignition and combustion of HHC fuels. The research effort specifically addressed broadening the experimental data base for ignition delay, burning rate, and oxidation kinetics at high pressures, and further refinement of chemical kinetic models so as to develop compositional specifications related to the above major and minor species. The foundation for the chemical kinetic modeling was the well validated mechanism for hydrogen and carbon monoxide developed over the last 25 years by Professor Frederick Dryer and his co-workers at Princeton University. This research furthered advance the understanding needed to develop practical guidelines for realistic composition limits and operating characteristics for HHC fuels. A suite of experiments was utilized that that involved a high-pressure laminar flow reactor, a pressure-release type high-pressure combustion chamber and a high-pressure turbulent flow reactor.

  18. JCESR Scientific Sprints - Better Polymers for Better Batteries...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    research --Building design ---Construction ... & simulation ---Nuclear fuel cycle ---Reactors -Energy usage --Energy storage ---Batteries ----Lithium-ion ...

  19. Market Transformation: Fuel Cell Early Adoption (Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... Fuel Cells... - Allow for rapid refueling - quicker than changing-out or replacing batteries - Provide constant power - without voltage drop - Eliminate need for space for battery ...

  20. Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas. Quarterly status report number 2, 1 January--31 March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE`s LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit. Results are discussed for the following tasks: liquid phase hydrodynamic run; catalyst activation with CO; new processes for DME (dehydration catalyst screening runs, and experiments using Robinson-Mahoney basket internal and pelletized catalysts); new fuels from DME; and new processes for alcohols and oxygenated fuel additives.

  1. Development of Diffusion barrier coatings and Deposition Technologies for Mitigating Fuel Cladding Chemical Interactions (FCCI)

    SciTech Connect

    Sridharan, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Cole, James

    2013-02-27

    The goal of this project is to develop diffusion barrier coatings on the inner cladding surface to mitigate fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI). FCCI occurs due to thermal and radiation enhanced inter-diffusion between the cladding and fuel materials, and can have the detrimental effects of reducing the effective cladding wall thickness and lowering the melting points of the fuel and cladding. The research is aimed at the Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), a sodium-cooled fast reactor, in which higher burn-ups will exacerbate the FCCI problem. This project will study both diffusion barrier coating materials and deposition technologies. Researchers will investigate pure vanadium, zirconium, and titanium metals, along with their respective oxides, on substrates of HT-9, T91, and oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels; these materials are leading candidates for ABR fuel cladding. To test the efficacy of the coating materials, the research team will perform high-temperature diffusion couple studies using both a prototypic metallic uranium fuel and a surrogate—the rare-earth element lanthanum. Ion irradiation experiments will test the stability of the coating and the coating-cladding interface. A critical technological challenge is the ability to deposit uniform coatings on the inner surface of cladding. The team will develop a promising non-line-of-sight approach that uses nanofluids . Recent research has shown the feasibility of this simple yet novel approach to deposit coatings on test flats and inside small sections of claddings. Two approaches will be investigated: 1) modified electrophoretic deposition (MEPD) and 2) boiling nanofluids. The coatings will be evaluated in the as-deposited condition and after sintering.

  2. Unique battery with an active membrane separator having uniform physico-chemically functionalized ion channels and a method making the same

    DOEpatents

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Ruscic, Katarina J.; Sears, Devin N.; Smith, Luis J.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.

    2012-02-21

    The invention relates to a unique battery having an active, porous membrane and method of making the same. More specifically the invention relates to a sealed battery system having a porous, metal oxide membrane with uniform, physicochemically functionalized ion channels capable of adjustable ionic interaction. The physicochemically-active porous membrane purports dual functions: an electronic insulator (separator) and a unidirectional ion-transporter (electrolyte). The electrochemical cell membrane is activated for the transport of ions by contiguous ion coordination sites on the interior two-dimensional surfaces of the trans-membrane unidirectional pores. The membrane material is designed to have physicochemical interaction with ions. Control of the extent of the interactions between the ions and the interior pore walls of the membrane and other materials, chemicals, or structures contained within the pores provides adjustability of the ionic conductivity of the membrane.

  3. Nanoscale Imaging of Fundamental Li Battery Chemistry: Solid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: catalysis (heterogeneous), solar (fuels), energy storage (including batteries and capacitors), hydrogen and fuel ...

  4. Slurry-Based Chemical Hydrogen Storage Systems for Automotive Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Semelsberger, Troy; Simmons, Kevin L.; Van Hassel, Bart A.

    2014-05-30

    In this paper, the system designs for hydrogen storage using chemical hydrogen materials in an 80 kWe fuel cell, light-duty vehicle are described. Ammonia borane and alane are used for these designs to represent the general classes of exothermic and endothermic materials. The designs are then compared to the USDRIVE/DOE developed set of system level targets for on-board storage. While most of the DOE targets are predicted to be achieved based on the modeling, the system gravimetric and volumetric densities were more challenging and became the focus of this work. The resulting system evaluation determined that the slurry is majority of the system mass. Only modest reductions in the system mass can be expected with improvements in the balance of plant components. Most of the gravimetric improvements will require developing materials with higher inherent storage capacity or by increasing the solids loading of the chemical hydrogen storage material in the slurry.

  5. Transitioning from fossil-fueled ...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Chemical Reactions That lithium-ion batteries lose their ... Simulation and Experiment Sandia's BATLab is a leading facility for investigating and understanding battery ...

  6. Correlation of Lithium-Ion Battery Performance with Structural...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Correlation of Lithium-Ion Battery Performance with Structural and Chemical ... Specifically, the surfaces of lithium-ion battery electrodes evolve simultaneously with ...

  7. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanisms for Primary Reference Fuels for Diesel Cetane Number and Spark-Ignition Octane Number

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M; Curran, H J

    2010-03-03

    For the first time, a detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism is developed for primary reference fuel mixtures of n-hexadecane and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethyl nonane for diesel cetane ratings. The mechanisms are constructed using existing rules for reaction pathways and rate expressions developed previously for the primary reference fuels for gasoline octane ratings, n-heptane and iso-octane. These reaction mechanisms are validated by comparisons between computed and experimental results for shock tube ignition and for oxidation under jet-stirred reactor conditions. The combined kinetic reaction mechanism contains the submechanisms for the primary reference fuels for diesel cetane ratings and submechanisms for the primary reference fuels for gasoline octane ratings, all in one integrated large kinetic reaction mechanism. Representative applications of this mechanism to two test problems are presented, one describing fuel/air autoignition variations with changes in fuel cetane numbers, and the other describing fuel combustion in a jet-stirred reactor environment with the fuel varying from pure 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethyl nonane (Cetane number of 15) to pure n-hexadecane (Cetane number of 100). The final reaction mechanism for the primary reference fuels for diesel fuel and gasoline is available on the web.

  8. Detailed chemical kinetic models for large n-alkanes and iso-alkanes found in conventional and F-T diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J; Mehl, M

    2008-12-15

    Detailed chemical kinetic models are needed to simulate the combustion of current and future transportation fuels. These models should represent the various chemical classes in these fuels. Conventional diesel fuels are composed of n-alkanes, iso-alkanes, cycloalkanes and aromatics (Farrell et al. 2007). For future fuels, there is a renewed interest in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) processes which can be used to synthesize diesel and other transportation fuels from biomass, coal and natural gas. F-T diesel fuels are expected to be similar to F-T jet fuels which are commonly comprised of iso-alkanes with some n-alkanes (Smith and Bruno, 2008). Thus, n-alkanes and iso-alkanes are common chemical classes in these conventional and future fuels. This paper reports on the development of chemical kinetic models of large n-alkanes and iso-alkanes to represent these chemical classes in conventional and future fuels. Two large iso-alkanes are 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane, which is a primary reference fuel for diesel, and isooctane, a primary reference fuel for gasoline. Other iso-alkanes are branched alkanes with a single methyl side chain, typical of most F-T fuels. The chemical kinetic models are then used to predict the effect of these fuel components on ignition characteristics under conditions found in internal combustion engines.

  9. Nanoelectrofuels for Flow Batteries | Argonne National Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoelectrofuels for Flow Batteries Four-page technical brochure about Argonne's high-density rechargeable liquid fuel PDF icon esnanoelectrofuels-broch-tech...

  10. Thermochemical Conversion of Woody Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Pendse, Hemant P.

    2015-09-30

    Maine and its industries identified more efficient utilization of biomass as a critical economic development issue. In Phase I of this implementation project, a research team was assembled, research equipment was implemented and expertise was demonstrated in pyrolysis, hydrodeoxygenation of pyrolysis oils, catalyst synthesis and characterization, and reaction engineering. Phase II built upon the infrastructure to innovate reaction pathways and process engineering, and integrate new approaches for fuels and chemical production within pulp and paper and other industries within the state. This research cluster brought together chemists, engineers, physicists and students from the University of Maine, Bates College, and Bowdoin College. The project developed collaborations with Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory. The specific research projects within this proposal were of critical interest to the DoE - in particular the biomass program within EERE and the catalysis/chemical transformations program within BES. Scientific and Technical Merit highlights of this project included: (1) synthesis and physical characterization of novel size-selective catalyst/supports using engineered mesoporous (1-10 nm diameter pores) materials, (2) advances in fundamental knowledge of novel support/ metal catalyst systems tailored for pyrolysis oil upgrading, (3) a microcalorimetric sensing technique, (4) improved methods for pyrolysis oil characterization, (5) production and characterization of woody biomass-derived pyrolysis oils, (6) development of two new patented bio oil pathways: thermal deoxygenation (TDO) and formate assisted pyrolysis (FASP), and (7) technoeconomics of pyrolysis of Maine forest biomass. This research cluster has provided fundamental knowledge to enable and assess pathways to thermally convert biomass to hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals.

  11. Battery system

    DOEpatents

    Dougherty, Thomas J; Wood, Steven J; Trester, Dale B; Andrew, Michael G

    2013-08-27

    A battery module includes a plurality of battery cells and a system configured for passing a fluid past at least a portion of the plurality of battery cells in a parallel manner.

  12. Soluble Lead Flow Battery: Soluble Lead Flow Battery Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: General Atomics is developing a flow battery technology based on chemistry similar to that used in the traditional lead-acid battery found in nearly every car on the road today. Flow batteries store energy in chemicals that are held in tanks outside the battery. When the energy is needed, the chemicals are pumped through the battery. Using the same basic chemistry as a traditional battery but storing its energy outside of the cell allows for the use of very low cost materials. The goal is to develop a system that is far more durable than today’s lead-acid batteries, can be scaled to deliver megawatts of power, and which lowers the cost of energy storage below $100 per kilowatt hour.

  13. Applications of high-temperature solar heat to the production of selected fuels and chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Beall, S.E. Jr.; Bamberger, C.E.; Goeller, H.A.

    1981-07-01

    An attempt is made to judge whether solar heat in the 500 K to 2500 K temperature range might be economical for some important fuel- and chemical-production processes. Previous work in related areas is reviewed and the chemicals aluminum oxide (and bauxite), calcium sulfate (and gypsum), and calcium oxide (lime) chosen for detailed study. In addition to reviewing the energy needs of the more common bulk chemicals, several innovative processes requiring heat in the 1500 to 2500 K range were investigated. Hydrogen production by several thermochemical means, carbon monoxide production by thermochemical and direct thermal dissociation, and nitrogen fixation by direct thermal reaction of nitrogen and oxygen in air were considered. The engineering feasibility of the processes is discussed. The problem of matching the conventional and innovative processes to a high-temperature solar supply is studied. Some solar-thermal power plants of current designs are examined and several advanced concepts of highly concentrating systems are considered for very high-temperature applications. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  14. Direct measurement of the chemical reactivity of silicon electrodes with LiPF6-based battery electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Veith, Gabriel M; Baggetto, Loic; Sacci, Robert L; Unocic, Raymond R; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E; Browning, Jim

    2014-01-01

    We report the first direct measurement of the chemistry and extent of reactivity between a lithium ion battery electrode surface (Si) and a liquid electrolyte (1.2M LiPF6-3:7 wt% ethylene carbonate:dimethyl carbonate). This layer is estimated to be 3.6 nm thick and partially originates from the consumption of the silicon surface.

  15. Lithium Batteries

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thin-Film Battery with Lithium Anode Courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division Lithium Batteries Resources with Additional Information...

  16. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate.

    SciTech Connect

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-07-21

    Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were developed and used to study the oxidation of two large unsaturated esters: methyl-5-decenoate and methyl-9-decenoate. These models were built from a previous methyl decanoate mechanism and were compared with rapeseed oil methyl esters oxidation experiments in a jet stirred reactor. A comparative study of the reactivity of these three oxygenated compounds was performed and the differences in the distribution of the products of the reaction were highlighted showing the influence of the presence and the position of a double bond in the chain. Blend surrogates, containing methyl decanoate, methyl-5-decenoate, methyl-9-decenoate and n-alkanes, were tested against rapeseed oil methyl esters and methyl palmitate/n-decane experiments. These surrogate models are realistic kinetic tools allowing the study of the combustion of biodiesel fuels in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines.

  17. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate

    SciTech Connect

    Herbinet, Olivier; Pitz, William J.; Westbrook, Charles K.

    2010-05-15

    Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were developed and used to study the oxidation of two large unsaturated esters: methyl-5-decenoate and methyl-9-decenoate. These models were built from a previous methyl decanoate mechanism and were compared with rapeseed oil methyl esters oxidation experiments in a jet-stirred reactor. A comparative study of the reactivity of these three oxygenated compounds was performed and the differences in the distribution of the products of the reaction were highlighted showing the influence of the presence and the position of a double bond in the chain. Blend surrogates, containing methyl decanoate, methyl-5-decenoate, methyl-9-decenoate and n-alkanes, were tested against rapeseed oil methyl esters and methyl palmitate/n-decane experiments. These surrogate models are realistic kinetic tools allowing the study of the combustion of biodiesel fuels in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. (author)

  18. Process for hydrocracking carbonaceous material to provide fuels or chemical feed stock

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Dennis A.

    1980-01-01

    A process is disclosed for hydrocracking coal or other carbonaceous material to produce various aromatic hydrocarbons including benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, phenol and cresols in variable relative concentrations while maintaining a near constant maximum temperature. Variations in relative aromatic concentrations are achieved by changing the kinetic severity of the hydrocracking reaction by altering the temperature profile up to and quenching from the final hydrocracking temperature. The relative concentration of benzene to the alkyl and hydroxyl aromatics is increased by imposing increased kinetic severity above that corresponding to constant heating rate followed by immediate quenching at about the same rate to below the temperature at which dehydroxylation and dealkylation reactions appreciably occur. Similarly phenols, cresols and xylenes are produced in enhanced concentrations by adjusting the temperature profile to provide a reduced kinetic severity relative to that employed when high benzene concentrations are desired. These variations in concentrations can be used to produce desired materials for chemical feed stocks or for fuels.

  19. Radiant flash pyrolysis of biomass as a source of fuels and chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Hofman, L.; Moreira, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Last year a team of US and French scientists using the Odeillo (France) 1MW/sub th/ solar furnace showed concentrated solar radiation to be an effective means for rapidly volatilizing biomass materials. The results of continuing research in the U.S. on radiant flash pyrolysis of biomass as a source of fluid fuels, industrial feedstocks and chemicals are described. Bench scale sources of intense, visible radiant energy have been used to simulate the concentrated solar flux available at the focus of solar towers. Windowed transport reactors are being developed, which act as cavity receivers for the focused radiant energy and provide a means for direct use of the radiation to rapidly pyrolyze the entering biomass. One of these reactors will be operated at the focus of the Georgia Tech 400kW/sub th/ solar furnace next August. Preliminary results from the bench scale reactor experiments, and plans for the Georgia Tech experiments are detailed.

  20. Chemical Engineering Division fuel cycle programs. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Steindler, M J; Ader, M; Barletta, R E

    1980-01-01

    In the program on pyrochemical and dry processing methods (PDPM) for nuclear fuel, tungsten crucibles were successfully spun for use in laboratory-scale experiments. Corrosion testing of refractory metals and alloys in PDPM environments was done. Ceramic substrates were successfully coated with tungsten. Solubility measurements were made to determine Cd/Mg alloy composition and temperature at which dissolved Th will precipitate. Experiments were started to study the reduction of high-fired ThO/sub 2/ with Ca in a molten metal-molten salt system. Work on the fused salt electrolysis of CaO was started. Equipment for determining phase diagrams for U-Cu-Mg system was set up. The reaction of UO/sub 2/ with molten equimolar NaNO/sub 3/-KNO/sub 3/ was studied as part of a project to identify chemically feasible nonaqueous fuel reprocessing methods. Work was continued on development of a flowsheet for reprocessing actinide oxides by extracting actinides into ammonium chloro-aluminate (and alternative salts) from a bismuth solution. Preparation of Th, U, and Pu nitrides after dissolution of spent fuel elements in molten tin is being studied. Leach rates of glass beads, pulverized beads, and beads encapsulated in a lead matrix with no protective envelope were studied. A method (employing no pressure or vacuum systems) of encapsulating various solid wastes in a lead metal matrix was developed and tested. A preliminary integration was made of earlier data on effects of impacts on metal-matrix waste forms.Leach migration experiments were compared with conventional infiltration experiments as methods of evaluating geologic formations as barriers to nuclide migration. The effect of the streaming potential on the rates of transport of radioactive I/sup -/ and Na/sup +/ through kaolinite columns was measured, as well as adsorption of iodide and iodate by several compounds; implications of the results upon the disposal of radioactive iodine are discussed.

  1. Benefits analysis for the production of fuels and chemicals using solar thermal energy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1982-05-01

    Numerous possibilities exist for using high temperature solar thermal energy in the production of various chemicals and fuels (Sun Fuels). Research and development activities have focused on the use of feedstocks such as coal and biomass to provide synthesis gas, hydrogen, and a variety of other end-products. A Decision Analysis technique geared to the analysis of Sun Fuels options was developed. Conventional scoring methods were combined with multi-attribute utility analysis in a new approach called the Multi-Attribute Preference Scoring (MAPS) system. MAPS calls for the designation of major categories of attributes which describe critical elements of concern for the processes being examined. The six major categories include: Process Demonstration; Full-Scale Process, Feedstock; End-Product Market; National/Social Considerations; and Economics. MAPS calls for each attribute to be weighted on a simple scale for all of the candidate processes. Next, a weight is assigned to each attribute, thus creating a multiplier to be used with each individual value to derive a comparative weighting. Last, each of the categories of attributes themselves are weighted, thus creating another multiplier, for use in developing an overall score. With sufficient information and industry input, each process can be ultimately compared using a single figure of merit. After careful examination of available information, it was decided that only six of the 20 candidate processes were adequately described to allow a complete MAPS analysis which would allow direct comparisons for illustrative purposes. These six processes include three synthesis gas processes, two hydrogen and one ammonia. The remaining fourteen processes were subjected to only a partial MAPS assessment.

  2. Detailed chemical kinetic models for large n-alkanes and iso-alkanes found in conventional and F-T diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M; Curran, H J

    2009-03-09

    n-Hexadecane and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane represent the primary reference fuels for diesel that are used to determine cetane number, a measure of the ignition property of diesel fuel. With the development of chemical kinetics models for both primary reference fuels, a new capability is now available to model diesel fuel ignition. Additionally, we have developed chemical kinetic models for a whole series of large n-alkanes and a large iso-alkane to represent these chemical classes in fuel surrogates for conventional and future fuels. These chemical kinetic models are used to predict the effect of the aforementioned fuel components on ignition characteristics under conditions found in internal combustion engines.

  3. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:www.nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  4. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  5. Fifteenth symposium on biotechnology for fuels and chemicals: Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This collection contains 173 abstracts from presented papers and poster sessions. The five sessions of the conference were on the subjects of: (1) Thermal, Chemical, and Biological Processing, (2) Applied Biological Research, (3) Bioprocessing Research (4), Process Economics and Commercialization, and (5) Environmental Biotechnology. Examples of specific topics in the first session include the kinetics of ripening cheese, microbial liquefaction of lignite, and wheat as a feedstock for fuel ethanol. Typical topics in the second session were synergism studies of bacterial and fungal celluloses, conversion of inulin from jerusalem artichokes to sorbitol and ethanol by saccharomyces cerevisiae, and microbial conversion of high rank coals to methane. The third session entertained topics such as hydrodynamic modeling of a liquid fluidized bed bioreactor for coal biosolubilization, aqueous biphasic systems for biological particle partitioning, and arabinose utilization by xylose-fermenting yeast and fungi. The fourth session included such topics as silage processing of forage biomass to alcohol fuels, economics of molasses to ethanol in India, and production of lactic acid from renewable resources. the final session contained papers on such subjects as bioluminescent detection of contaminants in soils, characterization of petroleum contaminated soils in coral atolls in the south Pacific, and landfill management for methane generation and emission control.

  6. Heavy Duty Fuels

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel ... Laser enters piston bowl through windows in cylinder wall (not shown) and piston bowl-rim. ...

  7. Development of Geothermally Assisted Process for Production of Liquid Fuels and Chemicals from Wheat Straw

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, V.G.; Linden, J.C.; Moreira, A.R.; Lenz, T.G.

    1981-06-01

    Recently there has been much interest in developing processes for producing liquid fuels from renewable resources. The most logical long term approach in terms of economics derives the carbohydrate substrate for fermentation from the hydrolysis of cellulosic crop and forest residues rather than from grains or other high grade food materials (1,2). Since the presence of lignin is the main barrier to the hydrolysis of cellulose from lignocellulosic materials, delignification processes developed by the wood pulping industry have been considered as possible prehydrolysis treatments. The delignification process under study in our laboratory is envisioned as a synthesis of two recently developed pulping processes. In the first step, called autohydrolysis, hot water is used directly to solubilize hemicellulose and to depolymerize lignin (3). Then, in a second step known as organosolv pulping (4), the autohydrolyzed material is extracted with aqueous alcohol. A s shown in Figure 1, this process can separate the original lignocellulosic material into three streams--hemicellulose in water, lignin in aqueous alcohol, and a cellulose pulp. Without further mechanical milling, delignified cellulose can be enzymatically hydrolyzed at 45-50 C to greater than 80% theoretical yield of glucose using fungal cellulases (5, 6). The resulting glucose syrup can then be fermented by yeast to produce ethanol or by selected bacteria to produce acetone and butanol or acetic and propionic acids (7). One objection to such a process, however, is the large energy input that is required. In order to extend our supplies of liquid fuels and chemicals, it is important that the use of fossil fuels in any lignocellulosic conversion process be minimized. The direct use of geothermal hot water in carrying out the autohydrolysis and extraction operations, therefore, seems especially attractive. On the one hand, it facilitates the conversion of non-food biomass to fuels and chemicals without wasting fossil

  8. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion...

  9. PHEV Battery Cost Assessment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Battery Cost Assessment PHEV Battery Cost Assessment 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting es111_gallagher_2012_o.pdf (1.1 MB) More Documents & Publications Promises and Challenges of Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Transition-Metal Layered-Oxide Cathodes PHEV Battery Cost Assessment EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Battery Status and Cost Reduction Prospects

  10. Overcharge Protection for PHEV Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Overcharge Protection for PHEV Batteries Overcharge Protection for PHEV Batteries 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting es037_chen_2012_o.pdf (3.62 MB) More Documents & Publications Overcharge Protection for PHEV Batteries Overcharge Protection Overcharge Protection for PHEV Batteries

  11. Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling Facilities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling Facilities Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling Facilities 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting arravt020_es_coy_2012_p.pdf (1.72 MB) More Documents & Publications Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling Facilities Recycling Hybrid and Elecectric Vehicle Batteries EA-1722: Final Environmental Assessment

  12. Lithium-Ion Batteries - Energy Innovation Portal

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Energy Storage Energy Storage Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search Lithium-Ion Batteries Predictive computer models for lithium-ion battery performance under standard and potentially abusive conditions National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Design. Build. Test. Break. Repeat. Developing batteries is an expensive and time-intensive process. Testing costs the

  13. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, R.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Lund, A.L.; Gilbert, E.R.

    1996-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAl{sub x}, UAl{sub x}-Al and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrH{sub x}, UErZrH, UO{sub 2}-stainless steel cermet, and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified.

  14. Physical and chemical comparison of soot in hydrocarbon and biodiesel fuel diffusion flames: A study of model and commercial fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Matti Maricq, M.

    2011-01-15

    Data are presented to compare soot formation in both surrogate and practical fatty acid methyl ester biodiesel and petroleum fuel diffusion flames. The approach here uses differential mobility analysis to follow the size distributions and electrical charge of soot particles as they evolve in the flame, and laser ablation particle mass spectrometry to elucidate their composition. Qualitatively, these soot properties exhibit a remarkably similar development along the flames. The size distributions begin as a single mode of precursor nanoparticles, evolve through a bimodal phase marking the onset of aggregate formation, and end in a self preserving mode of fractal-like particles. Both biodiesel and hydrocarbon fuels yield a common soot composition dominated by C{sub x}H{sub y}{sup +} ions, stabilomer PAHs, and fullerenes in the positive ion mass spectrum, and C{sub x}{sup -} and C{sub 2x}H{sup -} in the negative ion spectrum. These ion intensities initially grow with height in the diffusion flames, but then decline during later stages, consistent with soot carbonization. There are important quantitative differences between fuels. The surrogate biodiesel fuel methyl butanoate substantially reduces soot levels, but soot formation and evolution in this flame are delayed relative to both soy and petroleum fuels. In contrast, soots from soy and hexadecane flames exhibit nearly quantitative agreement in their size distribution and composition profiles with height, suggesting similar soot precursor chemistry. (author)

  15. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Early Fuel Cell Market

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Demonstrations Early Fuel Cell Market Demonstrations Photo of fuel cell backup power system in outdoor setting. Photo of fuel cell forklifts in warehouse setting. Fuel cell backup power systems offer longer continuous runtimes and greater durability than traditional batteries in harsh outdoor environments. For specialty vehicles such as forklifts, fuel cells can be a cost-competitive alternative to traditional lead-acid batteries. Learn More Subscribe to the biannual Fuel Cell and Hydrogen

  16. Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    H2-Fuel Cell Systems vs Batteries At DOEUSABC Targets * A ... Adapted from GM 4 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: ... carbon renewable electricity includes wind, solar, etc. ...

  17. Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines (Co-Optima) -- Fuel Properties and Chemical Kinetics and Thrust I Engine Projects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information #$%&'"(")*+,"!" Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines Fuel Property Team -./0+,"12"345.+67489 ! "!"#$%&"'('#") * %+",%-./0"12) 3 %4",%5$/1) 6 %7$89%:"9;1) <% :$=%:>?;#9/) @ %5"99%7"2.) @ %+'#%A8;>B;) * %:$=%C$2>9"D) * %5($E%F"G9;() * %->'=%!'9E10'('8GH I % *J!

  18. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters- Fact Sheet 2014

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fact sheet summarizing a project to develop and demonstrate a full-scale fuel handling and combustion system

  19. Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Nano-Structured Sn/C Composite Thin-Film Anodes for Li-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, Cynthia; Marcinek, M.; Hardwick, L.J.; Richardson, T.J.; Song, X.; Kostecki, R.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper we report results of a novel synthesis method of thin-film composite Sn/C anodes for lithium batteries. Thin layers of graphitic carbon decorated with uniformly distributed Sn nanoparticles were synthesized from a solid organic precursor Sn(IV) tert-butoxide by a one step microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD). The thin-film Sn/C electrodes were electrochemically tested in lithium half cells and produced a reversible capacity of 440 and 297 mAhg{sup -1} at C/25 and 5C discharge rates, respectively. A long term cycling of the Sn/C nanocomposite anodes showed 40% capacity loss after 500 cycles at 1C rate.

  20. Life-cycle cost comparisons of advanced storage batteries and fuel cells for utility, stand-alone, and electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a comparison of battery and fuel cell economics for ten different technologies. To develop an equitable economic comparison, the technologies were evaluated on a life-cycle cost (LCC) basis. The LCC comparison involved normalizing source estimates to a standard set of assumptions and preparing a lifetime cost scenario for each technology, including the initial capital cost, replacement costs, operating and maintenance (O M) costs, auxiliary energy costs, costs due to system inefficiencies, the cost of energy stored, and salvage costs or credits. By considering all the costs associated with each technology over its respective lifetime, the technology that is most economical to operate over any given period of time can be determined. An analysis of this type indicates whether paying a high initial capital cost for a technology with low O M costs is more or less economical on a lifetime basis than purchasing a technology with a low initial capital cost and high O M costs. It is important to realize that while minimizing cost is important, the customer will not always purchase the least expensive technology. The customer may identify benefits associated with a more expensive option that make it the more attractive over all (e.g., reduced construction lead times, modularity, environmental benefits, spinning reserve, etc.). The LCC estimates presented in this report represent three end-use applications: utility load-leveling, stand-alone power systems, and electric vehicles.

  1. Development and Validation of a Slurry Model for Chemical Hydrogen Storage in Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Pires, Richard P.; Simmons, Kevin L.

    2014-07-25

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence (HSECoE) is developing models for hydrogen storage systems for fuel cell-based light duty vehicle applications for a variety of promising materials. These transient models simulate the performance of the storage system for comparison to the DOE’s Technical Targets and a set of four drive cycles. The purpose of this research is to describe the models developed for slurry-based chemical hydrogen storage materials. The storage systems of both a representative exothermic system based on ammonia borane and endothermic system based on alane were developed and modeled in Simulink®. Once complete the reactor and radiator components of the model were validated with experimental data. The model was then run using a highway cycle, an aggressive cycle, cold-start cycle and hot drive cycle. The system design was adjusted to meet these drive cycles. A sensitivity analysis was then performed to identify the range of material properties where these DOE targets and drive cycles could be met. Materials with a heat of reaction greater than 11 kJ/mol H2 generated and a slurry hydrogen capacity of greater than 11.4% will meet the on-board efficiency and gravimetric capacity targets, respectively.

  2. Systems Modeling of Chemical Hydride Hydrogen Storage Materials for Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Rassat, Scot D.; Holladay, Jamelyn D.

    2011-10-05

    A fixed bed reactor was designed, modeled and simulated for hydrogen storage on-board the vehicle for PEM fuel cell applications. Ammonia Borane (AB) was selected by DOE's Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence (HSECoE) as the initial chemical hydride of study because of its high hydrogen storage capacity (up to {approx}16% by weight for the release of {approx}2.5 molar equivalents of hydrogen gas) and its stability under typical ambient conditions. The design evaluated consisted of a tank with 8 thermally isolated sections in which H2 flows freely between sections to provide ballast. Heating elements are used to initiate reactions in each section when pressure drops below a specified level in the tank. Reactor models in Excel and COMSOL were developed to demonstrate the proof-of-concept, which was then used to develop systems models in Matlab/Simulink. Experiments and drive cycle simulations showed that the storage system meets thirteen 2010 DOE targets in entirety and the remaining four at greater than 60% of the target.

  3. Improving Fuel Cell Electrodes Two-Steps at a Time > Research Highlights >

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Research > The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Research Highlights In This Section The Structural Evolution and Diffusion During the Chemical Transformation from Cobalt to Cobalt Phosphide Nanoparticles Joint Density-Functional Theory of Electrochemistry Double-band Electrode Channel Flow DEMS Cell Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel Cells Epitaxial Single Crystal Nanostructures for Batteries & PVs High

  4. Lithium Batteries

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    information about thin-film lithium batteries is available in full-text and on the Web. ... Additional Web Pages: Thin Films for Advanced Batteries Thin-Film Rechargeable Lithium, ...

  5. Historic American Engineering Record, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Stacy; Julie Braun

    2006-12-01

    Just as automobiles need fuel to operate, so do nuclear reactors. When fossil fuels such as gasoline are burned to power an automobile, they are consumed immediately and nearly completely in the process. When the fuel is gone, energy production stops. Nuclear reactors are incapable of achieving this near complete burn-up because as the fuel (uranium) that powers them is burned through the process of nuclear fission, a variety of other elements are also created and become intimately associated with the uranium. Because they absorb neutrons, which energize the fission process, these accumulating fission products eventually poison the fuel by stopping the production of energy from it. The fission products may also damage the structural integrity of the fuel elements. Even though the uranium fuel is still present, sometimes in significant quantities, it is unburnable and will not power a reactor unless it is separated from the neutron-absorbing fission products by a method called fuel reprocessing. Construction of the Fuel Reprocessing Complex at the Chem Plant started in 1950 with the Bechtel Corporation serving as construction contractor and American Cyanamid Company as operating contractor. Although the Foster Wheeler Corporation assumed responsibility for the detailed working design of the overall plant, scientists at Oak Ridge designed all of the equipment that would be employed in the uranium separations process. After three years of construction activity and extensive testing, the plant was ready to handle its first load of irradiated fuel.

  6. Applying the Battery Ownership Model in Pursuit of Optimal Battery Use

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Strategies | Department of Energy Applying the Battery Ownership Model in Pursuit of Optimal Battery Use Strategies Applying the Battery Ownership Model in Pursuit of Optimal Battery Use Strategies 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting es123_neubauer_2012_o.pdf (709.43 KB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office: 2013 Energy Storage R&D Progress Report, Sections 4-6 Analysis of

  7. Overview of Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries (CAEBAT) and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Introduction to Multi-Scale, Multi-Dimensional (MSMD) Modeling of Lithium-Ion Batteries | Department of Energy Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries (CAEBAT) and Introduction to Multi-Scale, Multi-Dimensional (MSMD) Modeling of Lithium-Ion Batteries Overview of Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries (CAEBAT) and Introduction to Multi-Scale, Multi-Dimensional (MSMD) Modeling of Lithium-Ion Batteries 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit

  8. A High-Performance PHEV Battery Pack | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    A High-Performance PHEV Battery Pack A High-Performance PHEV Battery Pack 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting es002_alamgir_2012_p.pdf (1.57 MB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2013: A High-Performance PHEV Battery Pack A High-Performance PHEV Battery Pack Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: A 12V Start-Stop Li Polymer Battery Pack

  9. GM Li-Ion Battery Pack Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    GM Li-Ion Battery Pack Manufacturing GM Li-Ion Battery Pack Manufacturing 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting arravt005_es_trumm_2012_p.pdf (1.09 MB) More Documents & Publications GM Li-Ion Battery Pack Manufacturing GM Li-Ion Battery Pack Manufacturing GM Li-Ion Battery Pack Manufacturing

  10. Stand-Alone Battery Thermal Management System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Stand-Alone Battery Thermal Management System Stand-Alone Battery Thermal Management System 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting es135_brodie_2012_p.pdf (508.75 KB) More Documents & Publications Stand-Alone Battery Thermal Management System Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Stand-Alone Battery Thermal Management System Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Stand-Alone Battery Thermal

  11. Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Energy Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting es162_tenent_2012_o.pdf (2.24 MB) More Documents & Publications Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coati

  12. Catalytic Upgrading of Thermochemical Intermediates to Hydrocarbons: Conversion of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks to Aromatic Fuels and High Value Chemicals

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    3 May, 2013 Technology Area Review: Thermochemical Conversion Randy Cortright PhD Virent, Inc WBS: 3.3.1.10 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Goal Statement Project Goal -Develop and demonstrate integration of Virent's lignocellulosic biomass solvolysis technology with Virent's BioForming® process to generate aromatic-rich hydrocarbon products for use in either fuels or chemicals applications.  Liquefaction of Biomass and

  13. Redox Flow Batteries - Energy Innovation Portal

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    large quantities of renewable, intermittent generation into the electrical grid. ... battery that can reversibly convert electrical energy into chemical energy which are ...

  14. Battery Charger Efficiency

    Energy Saver

    Battery Chargers Marine and RV battery chargers differ from power tool and small appliance chargers CEC Testing assumes all variables are known - battery chemistry, battery size. ...

  15. Fuels

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    such as coal, biomass, and natural gas, and to produce a variety of products, including heat and specialty chemicals. Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle ...

  16. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Battery cell feedthrough apparatus Title: Battery cell feedthrough apparatus A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs. Inventors: Kaun, T.D. Issue Date: 1995-03-14 OSTI Identifier: 27692 Assignee: Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States) PTO; SCA: 250903; PA: EDB-95:056592; SN: 95001354417 Patent Number(s): US 5,397,661/A/

  17. Battery Charger Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Battery Charger Efficiency Issues with Marine and Recreational Vehicle Battery Chargers Marine and RV battery chargers differ from power tool and small appliance chargers CEC Testing assumes all variables are known - battery chemistry, battery size. This is not the case in Marine and RV applications. * The battery charger manufacturer has no influence on the selection of batteries. * The battery charger could be used to charge a single battery, single battery bank, multiple batteries or multiple

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Battery Safety Testing

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Sandia National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about battery safety...

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Battery Thermal Characterization

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by NREL at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about battery thermal characterization.

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Battery Thermal Characterization

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by National Renewable Energy Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about battery...

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Battery Safety Testing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Sandia National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about battery safety...

  2. Batteries for Large Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L.

    2011-07-15

    In recent years, with the deployment of renewable energy sources, advances in electrified transportation, and development in smart grids, the markets for large-scale stationary energy storage have grown rapidly. Electrochemical energy storage methods are strong candidate solutions due to their high energy density, flexibility, and scalability. This review provides an overview of mature and emerging technologies for secondary and redox flow batteries. New developments in the chemistry of secondary and flow batteries as well as regenerative fuel cells are also considered. Advantages and disadvantages of current and prospective electrochemical energy storage options are discussed. The most promising technologies in the short term are high-temperature sodium batteries with β”-alumina electrolyte, lithium-ion batteries, and flow batteries. Regenerative fuel cells and lithium metal batteries with high energy density require further research to become practical.

  3. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Surrogate Fuels for Gasoline and Application to an HCCI Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Naik, C V; Pitz, W J; Sj?berg, M; Dec, J E; Orme, J; Curran, H J; Simmie, J M; Westbrook, C K

    2005-01-07

    Gasoline consists of many different classes of hydrocarbons, such as paraffins, olefins, aromatics, and cycloalkanes. In this study, a surrogate gasoline reaction mechanism is developed, and it has one representative fuel constituent from each of these classes. These selected constituents are iso-octane, n-heptane, 1-pentene, toluene, and methyl-cyclohexane. The mechanism was developed in a step-wise fashion, adding submechanisms to treat each fuel component. Reactions important for low temperature oxidation (<1000K) and cross-reactions among different fuels are incorporated into the mechanism. The mechanism consists of 1214 species and 5401 reactions. A single-zone engine model is used to evaluate how well the mechanism captures autoignition behavior for conditions corresponding to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine operation. Experimental data are available for both how the combustion phasing changes with fueling at a constant intake temperature, and also how the intake temperature has to be changed with pressure in order to maintain combustion phasing for a fixed equivalence ratio. Three different surrogate fuel mixtures are used for the modeling. Predictions are in reasonably good agreement with the engine data. In addition, the heat release rate is calculated and compared to the data from experiments. The model predicts less low-temperature heat release than that measured. It is found that the low temperature heat-release rate depends strongly on engine speed, reactions of RO{sub 2}+HO{sub 2}, fuel composition, and pressure boost.

  4. Lithium Batteries

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This greatly expands the potential medical uses of the batteries, including transdermal applications for heart regulation.' -Edited excerpt from Medical Applications of Non-medical ...

  5. Chemicals, fuels and electricity from coal. A proposed tri-generation concept for utilization of CO{sub 2} from power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C.

    1999-07-01

    A tri-generation concept is proposed for the 21st century for making liquid fuels and chemicals along with electricity using CO{sub 2} from flue gases of coal-based electric power plants. The CO{sub 2} from flue gas in the power plant can be converted with CH{sub 4} (natural gas) to form synthesis gas (CO and H{sub 2} mixture) using the waste heat in the power plant. The H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} in the flue gas will be used as co-reactants and need not be separated from the flue gas. The hot synthesis gas can be used as feedstock for fuel cells for electricity generation (such as MCFC and SOFC). The hot synthesis gas can also be used for gas turbines to generate electricity. The synthesis gas at moderate temperature can be converted into chemicals and fuels, e.g., methanol and mixed alcohols for chemical and fuel uses, dimethylether (DME) and mixed ethers for diesel fuel, dimethyl carbonate and acetic acid for chemicals. The fuels thus produced may be used either for conventional IC engines or in fuel cell-driven vehicles. This concept could also be applied, in principle, for natural gas-based power plants and IGCC power plants.

  6. Identification of vapor-phase chemical warfare agent simulants and rocket fuels using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Stearns, Jaime A.; McElman, Sarah E.; Dodd, James A.

    2010-05-01

    Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to the identification of security threats is a growing area of research. This work presents LIBS spectra of vapor-phase chemical warfare agent simulants and typical rocket fuels. A large dataset of spectra was acquired using a variety of gas mixtures and background pressures and processed using partial least squares analysis. The five compounds studied were identified with a 99% success rate by the best method. The temporal behavior of the emission lines as a function of chamber pressure and gas mixture was also investigated, revealing some interesting trends that merit further study.

  7. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report

    Publication and Product Library

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of

  8. Advanced chemical hydride-based hydrogen generation/storage system for fuel cell vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Breault, R.W.; Rolfe, J.

    1998-08-01

    Because of the inherent advantages of high efficiency, environmental acceptability, and high modularity, fuel cells are potentially attractive power supplies. Worldwide concerns over clean environments have revitalized research efforts on developing fuel cell vehicles (FCV). As a result of intensive research efforts, most of the subsystem technology for FCV`s are currently well established. These include: high power density PEM fuel cells, control systems, thermal management technology, and secondary power sources for hybrid operation. For mobile applications, however, supply of hydrogen or fuel for fuel cell operation poses a significant logistic problem. To supply high purity hydrogen for FCV operation, Thermo Power`s Advanced Technology Group is developing an advanced hydrogen storage technology. In this approach, a metal hydride/organic slurry is used as the hydrogen carrier and storage media. At the point of use, high purity hydrogen will be produced by reacting the metal hydride/organic slurry with water. In addition, Thermo Power has conceived the paths for recovery and regeneration of the spent hydride (practically metal hydroxide). The fluid-like nature of the spent hydride/organic slurry will provide a unique opportunity for pumping, transporting, and storing these materials. The final product of the program will be a user-friendly and relatively high energy storage density hydrogen supply system for fuel cell operation. In addition, the spent hydride can relatively easily be collected at the pumping station and regenerated utilizing renewable sources, such as biomass, natural, or coal, at the central processing plants. Therefore, the entire process will be economically favorable and environmentally friendly.

  9. Design Concepts for Co-Production of Power, Fuels & Chemicals Via Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, A. D.; Chen, Q.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    2012-09-30

    The overall goal of the program is to develop design concepts, incorporating advanced technologies in areas such as oxygen production, feed systems, gas cleanup, component separations and gas turbines, for integrated and economically viable coal and biomass fed gasification facilities equipped with carbon capture and storage for the following scenarios: (i) coproduction of power along with hydrogen, (ii) coproduction of power along with fuels, (iii) coproduction of power along with petrochemicals, and (iv) coproduction of power along with agricultural chemicals. To achieve this goal, specifically the following objectives are met in this proposed project: (i) identify advanced technology options and innovative preliminary design concepts that synergistically integrate plant subsections, (ii) develop steady state system simulations to predict plant efficiency and environmental signature, (iii) develop plant cost estimates by capacity factoring major subsystems or by major equipment items where required, and then capital, operating and maintenance cost estimates, and (iv) perform techno- economic analyses for the above described coproduction facilities. Thermal efficiencies for the electricity only cases with 90% carbon capture are 38.26% and 36.76% (HHV basis) with the bituminous and the lignite feedstocks respectively. For the coproduction cases (where 50% of the energy exported is in the form of electricity), the electrical efficiency, as expected, is highest for the hydrogen coproduction cases while lowest for the higher alcohols (ethanol) coproduction cases. The electrical efficiencies for Fischer-Tropsch coproduction cases are slightly higher than those for the methanol coproduction cases but it should be noted that the methanol (as well as the higher alcohol) coproduction cases produce the finished coproduct while the Fischer-Tropsch coproduction cases produce a coproduct that requires further processing in a refinery. The cross comparison of the thermal

  10. Down Select Report of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials, Catalysts, and Spent Fuel Regeneration Processes - May 2008

    Publication and Product Library

    Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center of Excellence FY2008 Second Quarter Milestone Report: Technical report describing assessment of hydrogen storage materials and progress towards meeting DOE’s hydrogen

  11. Down Select Report of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials, Catalysts, and Spent Fuel Regeneration Processes - May 2008

    Publication and Product Library

    Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center of Excellence FY2008 Second Quarter Milestone Report: Technical report describing assessment of hydrogen storage materials and progress towards meeting DOEs hydrogen

  12. DOE Issues Request for Information on Fuel Cells for Continuous...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Request for Information on Fuel Cells for Continuous On-Board Recharging for Battery Electric Light-Duty Vehicles DOE Issues Request for Information on Fuel Cells for...

  13. KAir Battery

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    KAir Battery, from Ohio State University, is commercializing highly energy efficient cost-effective potassium air batteries for use in the electrical stationary storage systems market (ESSS). Beyond, the ESSS market potential applications range from temporary power stations and electric vehicle.

  14. Michael Thackeray on Lithium-air Batteries | Argonne National Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Michael Thackeray on Lithium-air Batteries Share Description Michael Thackeray, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries. Speakers Michael Thackeray Duration 2:10 Topic Energy Energy usage Energy storage Batteries Lithium-air batteries Programs Chemical sciences & engineering Electrochemical energy storage Video ID

  15. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries | Argonne National Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries Share Description Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries. Speakers Khalil Amine Duration 2:34 Topic Energy Energy usage Energy storage Batteries Lithium-air batteries Programs Chemical sciences & engineering Electrochemical energy storage Video ID http://youtu.be/K-rO39scjUs

  16. Models for Battery Reliability and Lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G. H.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-03-01

    Models describing battery degradation physics are needed to more accurately understand how battery usage and next-generation battery designs can be optimized for performance and lifetime. Such lifetime models may also reduce the cost of battery aging experiments and shorten the time required to validate battery lifetime. Models for chemical degradation and mechanical stress are reviewed. Experimental analysis of aging data from a commercial iron-phosphate lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell elucidates the relative importance of several mechanical stress-induced degradation mechanisms.

  17. Circulating current battery heater

    DOEpatents

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N.; Stuart, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    A circuit for heating energy storage devices such as batteries is provided. The circuit includes a pair of switches connected in a half-bridge configuration. Unidirectional current conduction devices are connected in parallel with each switch. A series resonant element for storing energy is connected from the energy storage device to the pair of switches. An energy storage device for intermediate storage of energy is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and one of the switches. The energy storage device which is being heated is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and the other switch. Energy from the heated energy storage device is transferred to the switched network and then recirculated back to the battery. The flow of energy through the battery causes internal power dissipation due to electrical to chemical conversion inefficiencies. The dissipated power causes the internal temperature of the battery to increase. Higher internal temperatures expand the cold temperature operating range and energy capacity utilization of the battery. As disclosed, either fixed frequency or variable frequency modulation schemes may be used to control the network.

  18. Compliant alkali silicate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cell applications: thermal cycle stability and chemical compatibility

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Y. S.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Williams, Riley T.; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Bonnett, Jeff F.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Shyam, Amit; Lara-Curzio, E.

    2011-03-01

    An alkali silicate glass (SCN-1) is currently being evaluated as a candidate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel (SOFC) applications. The glass containing ~17 mole% alkalis (K2O and Na2O) remains vitreous and compliant during SOFC operation, unlike conventional SOFC sealing glasses, which experience substantial devitrification after the sealing process. The non-crystallizing compliant sealing glass has lower glass transition and softening temperatures since the microstructure remains glassy without significant crystallite formation, and hence can relieve or reduce residual stresses and also has the potential for crack healing. Sealing approaches based on compliant glass will also need to satisfy all the mechanical, thermal, chemical, physical, and electrical requirements for SOFC applications, not only in bulk properties but also at sealing interfaces. In this first of a series of papers we will report the thermal cycle stability of the glass when sealed between two SOFC components, i.e., a NiO/YSZ anode supported YSZ bilayer and a coated ferritic stainless steel interconnect material. High temperature leak rates were monitored versus thermal cycles between 700-850oC using back pressures ranging from 0.2 psi to 1.0 psi. Isothermal stability was also evaluated in a dual environment consisting of flowing dilute H2 fuel versus ambient air. In addition, chemical compatibility at the alumina and YSZ interfaces was examined with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results shed new light on the topic of SOFC glass seal development.

  19. Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals: Pilot-Scale Operation

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2006-04-01

    This project focuses on the development and pilot-scale testing of technologies that will enable the development of a biorefinery capable of economically deriving high-value chemicals and oils from lower value corn fiber.

  20. Microsoft PowerPoint - Chemical Kinetics Studies of Alternative Fuels_Sung_092310

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Studies of Alt ti F l Alternative Fuels Chih-Jen (Jackie) Sung Chih Jen (Jackie) Sung Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Connecticut y Prepared for 2010 MACCCR and CEFRC Conferences 2010 MACCCR and CEFRC Conferences Princeton, NJ September 23, 2010 Accomplishments - Year 1 * * Autoignition Autoignition of of n n- -Butanol Butanol at Low to Intermediate at Low to Intermediate Temperatures and Elevated Pressures* Temperatures and Elevated Pressures* Temperatures and Elevated

  1. Johnson Controls Inc. Domestic Advanced Battery Industry Creation Project |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Johnson Controls Inc. Domestic Advanced Battery Industry Creation Project Johnson Controls Inc. Domestic Advanced Battery Industry Creation Project 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting arravt019_es_ellerman_2012_p.pdf (1.19 MB) More Documents & Publications Johnson Controls Inc. Domestic Advanced Battery Industry Creation Project Johnson Controls Inc. Domestic Advanced Battery

  2. Manufacture of Advanced Battery Metal Containers & Components | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Energy Manufacture of Advanced Battery Metal Containers & Components Manufacture of Advanced Battery Metal Containers & Components 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting arravt013_es_lauinger_2012_p.pdf (2.6 MB) More Documents & Publications Manufacture of Advanced Battery Metal Containers & Components Manufacture of Advanced Battery Metal Containers & Components FY 2011 Annual Progress

  3. SOLID ELECTROLYTES FOR NEXT GENERATION BATTERIES | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    SOLID ELECTROLYTES FOR NEXT GENERATION BATTERIES SOLID ELECTROLYTES FOR NEXT GENERATION BATTERIES 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting es158_goodenough_2012_p.pdf (1.3 MB) More Documents & Publications Solid Electrolyte Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Overview and Progress of the Advanced Battery Materials Research (BMR) Program Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016:

  4. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting es129_eitouni_2012_p.pdf (644.7 KB) More Documents & Publications High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for

  5. Evaluation Study for Large Prismatic Lithium-Ion Cell Designs Using Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional Battery Model (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2009-05-01

    Addresses battery requirements for electric vehicles using a model that evaluates physical-chemical processes in lithium-ion batteries, from atomic variations to vehicle interface controls.

  6. Lithium battery

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, H.; Nakaido, S.; Narukara, S.

    1983-08-16

    In a lithium battery having a negative electrode formed with lithium as active material and the positive electrode formed with manganese dioxide, carbon fluoride or the like as the active material, the discharge capacity of the negative electrode is made smaller than the discharge capacity of the positive electrode, whereby a drop in the battery voltage during the final discharge stage is steepened, and prevents a device using such a lithium battery as a power supply from operating in an unstable manner, thereby improving the reliability of such device.

  7. Direct Measurement of the Chemical Reactivity of Silicon Electrodes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: catalysis (heterogeneous), solar (fuels), energy storage (including batteries and capacitors), hydrogen and fuel ...

  8. DOE Issues Request for Information on Fuel Cells for Continuous On-Board Recharging for Battery Electric Light-Duty Vehicles

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The USDOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office has issued an RFI seeking feedback from the research community and relevant stakeholders about fuel cell technology validation, commercial acceleration, and potential deployment strategies for continuous fuel cell rechargers on board light-duty electric vehicle fleets.

  9. Flow battery

    DOEpatents

    Lipka, Stephen M.; Swartz, Christopher R.

    2016-02-23

    An electrolyte system for a flow battery has an anolyte including [Fe(CN).sub.6].sup.3- and [Fe(CN).sub.6].sup.4- and a catholyte including Fe.sup.2+ and Fe.sup.3+.

  10. Bipolar battery

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1992-01-01

    A bipolar battery having a plurality of cells. The bipolar battery includes: a negative electrode; a positive electrode and a separator element disposed between the negative electrode and the positive electrode, the separator element electrically insulating the electrodes from one another; an electrolyte disposed within at least one of the negative electrode, the positive electrode and the separator element; and an electrode containment structure including a cup-like electrode holder.

  11. Hydrogen-Bromine Flow Battery: Hydrogen Bromine Flow Batteries for Grid Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    GRIDS Project: LBNL is designing a flow battery for grid storage that relies on a hydrogen-bromine chemistry which could be more efficient, last longer and cost less than today’s lead-acid batteries. Flow batteries are fundamentally different from traditional lead-acid batteries because the chemical reactants that provide their energy are stored in external tanks instead of inside the battery. A flow battery can provide more energy because all that is required to increase its storage capacity is to increase the size of the external tanks. The hydrogen-bromine reactants used by LBNL in its flow battery are inexpensive, long lasting, and provide power quickly. The cost of the design could be well below $100 per kilowatt hour, which would rival conventional grid-scale battery technologies.

  12. Basic mechanisms of photosynthesis and applications to improved production and conversion of biomass to fuels and chemical products

    SciTech Connect

    El-Sayed, M.; Greenbaum, E.; Wasielewski, M.

    1996-09-01

    Natural photosynthesis, the result of 3.5 billion years of evolutionary experimentation, is the best proven, functional solar energy conversion technology. It is responsible for filling the vast majority of humanity`s energy, nutritional, and materials needs. Understanding the basic physical chemical principles underlying photosynthesis as a working model system is vital to further exploitation of this natural technology. These principles can be used to improve or modify natural photosynthesis so that it is more efficient or so that it can produce unusual products such as hydrogen, methane, methanol, ethanol, diesel fuel substitutes, biodegradable materials, or other high value chemical products. Principles garnered from the natural process can also be used to design artificial photosynthetic devices that employ analogs of natural antenna and reaction center function, self-assembly and repair concepts, photoinduced charge transfer processes, photoprotection, and dark reactions that facilitate catalytic action to convert light into, useful chemical or electrical energy. The present broad understanding of many structural and functional aspects of photosynthesis has resulted from rapid recent research progress. X-ray structures of several key photosynthetic reaction centers and antenna systems are available, and the overall principles controlling photoinduced energy and electron transfer are being established.

  13. Sandia Researchers Develop Promising Chemical Technology for Energy Storage

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE-funded researchers have developed new chemical technology that could lead to batteries able to cost-effectively store three times more energy than today's batteries.

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines (Co-Optima)—Fuel Properties and Chemical Kinetics and Thrust I Engine Projects

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Fuel & Lubricants

  15. Chemical reactions during ThO{sub 2} and ThO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2} fuel fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, J.C.

    1994-08-01

    The chemical reactions that occur during the fabrication of fuel pellets for the Shipping port Light Water Breeder Reactor are discussed. These include (1) precipitation and pyrolysis of thorium oxalate, (2) precipitation, calcination, and hydrogen reduction of ammonium diuranate, (3) comminution, granulation with an organic binder, and cold compaction of ThO{sub 2} and ThO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2} powders, (4) decarburization of the organic binder in CO{sub 2} at temperature up to 925 C, and (5) sintering in moist hydrogen at temperature up to 1790 C. Thorium oxalate precipitation and pyrolysis temperatures were the primary process variables for controlling the resulting thoria powder properties. Coprecipitated metal sulfates were converted to transition metal sulfides during calcining - the conversion of thorium oxalate to thorium oxide. The critical variable for controlling the urania powder properties was the hydrogen reduction temperature. Thermodynamic analyses showed that the efficiency of carbon removal from cold-compacted ThO{sub 2} and ThO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2} pellets by CO{sub 2} oxidation increases with temperature and, at temperatures around 900 C, substantially complete oxidation of carbon to carbon monoxide gas should occur. The carbon content of the ThO{sub 2} and ThO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2} fuels was further reduced during the initial heating in the hydrogen sintering cycle through the formation of methane gas. Additions of water vapor to the hydrogen sintering atmosphere also aided in carbon removal.

  16. Chemical Engineering Division fuel cycle programs. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Steindler, M.J.; Ader, M.; Barletta, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel cycle work included hydraulic performance and extraction efficiency of eight-stage centrifugal contactors, flowsheet for the Aralex process, Ru and Zr extraction in a miniature centrifugal contactor, study of Zr aging in the organic phase and its effect on Zr extraction and hydraulic testing of the 9-cm-ID contactor. Work for predicting accident consequences in LWR fuel processing covered the relation between energy input (to subdivide a solid) and the modes of particle size frequency distribution. In the pyrochemical and dry processing program corrosion-testing materials for containment vessels and equipment for studying carbide reactions in bismuth is under way. Analytical studies have been made of salt-transport processes; efforts to spin tungsten crucibles 13 cm dia continue, and other information on tungsten fabrication is being assembled; the process steps of the chloride volatility process have been demonstrated and the thoria powder product used to produce oxide pellets; solubility of UO/sub 2/, PuO/sub 2/, and fission products in molten alkali nitrates is being investigated; work was continued on reprocessing actinide oxides by extracting the actinides into ammonium chloroaluminate from bismuth; the preparation of thorium-uranium carbide from the oxide is being studied as a means of improving the oxide reactivity; studies are in progress on producing uranium metal and decontaminated ThO/sub 2/ by the reaction of (Th,U)O/sub 2/ solid solution in molten salts containing ThCl/sub 4/ and thorium metal chips. In the molten tin process, no basic thermodynamic or kinetic factors have been found that may limit process development.

  17. The chemical origin of octane sensitivity in gasoline fuels containing nitroalkanes

    SciTech Connect

    Cracknell, R.F.; McAllister, L.J.; Norton, M.; Walmsley, H.L.; Andrae, J.C.G.

    2009-05-15

    Experimental octane measurements are presented for a standard gasoline to which has been added various quantities of nitromethane, nitroethane and 1-nitropropane. The addition of nitroalkanes was found to suppress the Motor Octane Number to a much greater extent than the Research Octane Number. In other words addition of nitroalkanes increases the octane sensitivity of gasoline. Density Functional Theory was used to model the equilibrium thermodynamics and the barrier heights for reactions leading to the break-up of nitroethane. These results were used to develop a chemical kinetic scheme for nitroalkanes combined with a surrogate gasoline (for which a mechanism has been developed previously). Finally the chemical kinetic simulations were combined with a quasi-dimensional engine model in order to predict autoignition in octane rating tests. Our results suggest that the chemical origin of octane sensitivity in gasoline/nitroalkane blends cannot be fully explained on the conventional basis of the extent to which NTC behaviour is absent. Instead we have shown that the contribution of the two pathways leading to autoignition in gasoline containing nitroalkanes becomes much more significant under the more severe conditions of the Motor Octane method than the Research Octane method. (author)

  18. Evaluating temperature and fuel stratification for heat-release rate control in a reactivity-controlled compression-ignition engine using optical diagnostics and chemical kinetics modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Musculus, Mark P. B.; Kokjohn, Sage L.; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2015-04-23

    We investigated the combustion process in a dual-fuel, reactivity-controlled compression-ignition (RCCI) engine using a combination of optical diagnostics and chemical kinetics modeling to explain the role of equivalence ratio, temperature, and fuel reactivity stratification for heat-release rate control. An optically accessible engine is operated in the RCCI combustion mode using gasoline primary reference fuels (PRF). A well-mixed charge of iso-octane (PRF = 100) is created by injecting fuel into the engine cylinder during the intake stroke using a gasoline-type direct injector. Later in the cycle, n-heptane (PRF = 0) is delivered through a centrally mounted diesel-type common-rail injector. This injection strategy generates stratification in equivalence ratio, fuel blend, and temperature. The first part of this study uses a high-speed camera to image the injection events and record high-temperature combustion chemiluminescence. Moreover, the chemiluminescence imaging showed that, at the operating condition studied in the present work, mixtures in the squish region ignite first, and the reaction zone proceeds inward toward the center of the combustion chamber. The second part of this study investigates the charge preparation of the RCCI strategy using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of a fuel tracer under non-reacting conditions to quantify fuel concentration distributions prior to ignition. The fuel-tracer PLIF data show that the combustion event proceeds down gradients in the n-heptane distribution. The third part of the study uses chemical kinetics modeling over a range of mixtures spanning the distributions observed from the fuel-tracer fluorescence imaging to isolate the roles of temperature, equivalence ratio, and PRF number stratification. The simulations predict that PRF number stratification is the dominant factor controlling the ignition location and growth rate of the reaction zone. Equivalence ratio has a smaller, but still significant

  19. Chemical Engineering Division Fuel Cycle Programs. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Steindler, M J; Ader, M; Barletta, R E

    1980-01-01

    In the program on pyrochemical and dry processing methods (PDPM) for nuclear fuel, corrosion testing of refractory metals and alloys, graphite, and SiC in PDPM environments was done. A tungsten-metallized Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-3% Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ crucible was successfully fabricated. Tungsten microstructure of a plasma-sprayed tungsten crucible was stabilized by nickel infiltration and heat treatment. Solubility measurements of Th in Cd and Cd-Mg alloys were continued, as were experiments to study the reduction of high-fired ThO/sub 2/. Work on the fused salt electrolysis of CaO also was continued. The method of coprocessing of U and Pu by a salt transport process was modified. Tungsten-coated molybdenum crucibles were fabricated. The proliferation resistance of chloride volatility processing of thorium-based fuels is being evaluated by studying the behavior of fission product elements during chlorination of U and Th. Thermodynamic analysis of the phase relationships in the U-Pu-Zn system was initiated. The Pyro-Civex reprocessing method is being reviewed. Reactivity of UO/sub 2/ and PuO/sub 2/ with molten equimolar NaNO/sub 3/-KNO/sub 3/ is being studied along with the behavior of selected fission product elements. Work was continued on the reprocessing of actinide oxides by extracting the actinides from a bismuth solution. Rate of dissolution of UO/sub 2/ microspheres in LiCl/AlCl/sub 3/ was measured. Nitriding rates of Th and U dissolved in molten tin were measured. In work on the encapsulation of radioactive waste in metal, leach rates of a simulated waste glass were studied. Rates of dissolution of metals (potential barrier materials) in aqueous media are being studied. In work on the transport properties of nuclear waste in geologic media, the adsorption of iodate by hematite as a function of pH and iodate concentration was measured. The migration behavior of cesium in limestone was studied in relation to the cesium concentration and pH of simulated groundwater

  20. Fuel cell-fuel cell hybrid system

    DOEpatents

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A.; Williams, Mark C.

    2003-09-23

    A device for converting chemical energy to electricity is provided, the device comprising a high temperature fuel cell with the ability for partially oxidizing and completely reforming fuel, and a low temperature fuel cell juxtaposed to said high temperature fuel cell so as to utilize remaining reformed fuel from the high temperature fuel cell. Also provided is a method for producing electricity comprising directing fuel to a first fuel cell, completely oxidizing a first portion of the fuel and partially oxidizing a second portion of the fuel, directing the second fuel portion to a second fuel cell, allowing the first fuel cell to utilize the first portion of the fuel to produce electricity; and allowing the second fuel cell to utilize the second portion of the fuel to produce electricity.

  1. The Structural Evolution and Diffusion During the Chemical Transformation

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    from Cobalt to Cobalt Phosphide Nanoparticles > Research Highlights > Research > The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Research Highlights In This Section The Structural Evolution and Diffusion During the Chemical Transformation from Cobalt to Cobalt Phosphide Nanoparticles Joint Density-Functional Theory of Electrochemistry Double-band Electrode Channel Flow DEMS Cell Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel

  2. RADIOACTIVE BATTERY

    DOEpatents

    Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

    1959-11-17

    A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

  3. Recent research efforts in the area of biotechnology for fuels and chemicals: Poster session papers

    SciTech Connect

    Antonopoulos, A.A. ); Grohmann, K. )

    1992-01-01

    This report presents research presented at the poster session of the Symposium covering a wide spectrum of current biotechnological research activities. Research focused mostly on ethanol production and methane generation from biomass material via microbial processing, as well as on enhanced hydrogen yield from algae. Several of the posters dealt with the pretreatment of cellulosic materials, and enzyme production/characterization, while a good number of papers displayed research efforts on bioremediation, photosynthesis, production of various useful chemicals from biomass by bioprocessing, and on other miscellaneous subjects. One of the papers treated a very interesting topic of cellulose-cellulase complexes. Many of the poster papers are included in this volume, and a synopsis of all the poster/papers presented is the subject of this article.

  4. Recent research efforts in the area of biotechnology for fuels and chemicals: Poster session papers

    SciTech Connect

    Antonopoulos, A.A.; Grohmann, K.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents research presented at the poster session of the Symposium covering a wide spectrum of current biotechnological research activities. Research focused mostly on ethanol production and methane generation from biomass material via microbial processing, as well as on enhanced hydrogen yield from algae. Several of the posters dealt with the pretreatment of cellulosic materials, and enzyme production/characterization, while a good number of papers displayed research efforts on bioremediation, photosynthesis, production of various useful chemicals from biomass by bioprocessing, and on other miscellaneous subjects. One of the papers treated a very interesting topic of cellulose-cellulase complexes. Many of the poster papers are included in this volume, and a synopsis of all the poster/papers presented is the subject of this article.

  5. Materials cost evaluation report for high-power Li-ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, G. L.; Amine, K.; Liu, J.

    2003-01-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the lead federal agency in the partnership between the U.S. automobile industry and the federal government to develop fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) as part of the FreedomCAR Partnership. DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Office sponsors the Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program--involving 5 of its national laboratories--to assist the industrial developers of high-power lithium-ion batteries to overcome the barriers of cost, calendar life, and abuse tolerance so that this technology can be rendered practical for use in HEV and FCEV applications under the FreedomCAR Partnership. In the area of cost reduction, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is working to identify and develop advanced anode, cathode, and electrolyte components that can significantly reduce the cost of the cell chemistry, while simultaneously extending the calendar life and enhancing the inherent safety of this electrochemical system. The material cost savings are quantified and tracked via the use of a cell and battery design model that establishes the quantity of each material needed in the production of batteries that are designed to meet the requirements of a minimum-power-assist HEV battery or a maximum-power-assist HEV battery for the FreedomCAR Partnership. Similar models will be developed for FEV batteries when the requirements for those batteries are finalized. In order to quantify the material costs relative to the FreedomCAR battery cost goals, ANL uses (1) laboratory cell performance data, (2) its battery design model and (3) battery manufacturing process yields to create battery-level material cost models. Using these models and industry-supplied material cost information, ANL assigns battery-level material costs for different cell chemistries. These costs can then be compared with the battery cost goals to determine the probability of meeting the goals with these cell chemistries. As can be

  6. Flash methanolysis of wood for the production of fuels and chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.; Sundaram, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    Biomass in the form of less than 1000 micron oven dried fir wood particles was flash pyrolyzed in the presence of methane (methanolysis) in a downflow 1 in. I.D. tubular reactor at pressures of 20 to 200 psi and temperatures between 800/sup 0/ and 1050/sup 0/C. The major products were benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX), a heavy oily liquid (greater than or equal to C/sub 9/), ethylene and carbon monoxide. As much as 12% of the available carbon in the wood was converted to BTX, 21% to ethylene and 48% to carbon monoxide at 50 psi and 1000/sup 0/C. The maximum heavier oil yield of 11% was observed at 50 psi and 800/sup 0/C. Wood particle residence times for all experiments were calculated to be less than 1 second at 20 and 50 psi and up to 2.8 sec at 200 psi. The yelds were found to be greatly influenced by the methane to wood feed ratio. Experiments were conducted to insure the results to be that produced from the wood and methane and not a catalytic effect of the reactor wall of foreign matter. Material balance, including char analyses, indicate approximately 75 to 80% of the available carbon in the feed wood reacted. Methane balances were within the margin of error of the measuring equipment showing that there is no significant net production or consumption of methane. A preliminary economic evaluation of a 2000 ton/day wood processing plant producing ethylene, benzene and methanol showed a reasonably cmpetitive plant investment of $29,000/barrel fuel oil equivalent/day assuming 15% return on investment and present market values for the products.

  7. Durathon Battery in New Bus | GE Global Research

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Battery-Dominant Fuel Cell Bus Uses New Durathon(tm) Battery Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Battery-Dominant Fuel Cell Bus Uses New Durathon(tm) Battery Researchers at GE Global Research, the General Electric Company's (NYSE: GE) technology development arm, have achieved a first step in reducing the

  8. Stand Alone Battery Thermal Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Brodie, Brad

    2015-09-30

    The objective of this project is research, development and demonstration of innovative thermal management concepts that reduce the cell or battery weight, complexity (component count) and/or cost by at least 20%. The project addresses two issues that are common problems with current state of the art lithium ion battery packs used in vehicles; low power at cold temperatures and reduced battery life when exposed to high temperatures. Typically, battery packs are “oversized” to satisfy the two issues mentioned above. The first phase of the project was spent making a battery pack simulation model using AMEsim software. The battery pack used as a benchmark was from the Fiat 500EV. FCA and NREL provided vehicle data and cell data that allowed an accurate model to be created that matched the electrical and thermal characteristics of the actual battery pack. The second phase involved using the battery model from the first phase and evaluate different thermal management concepts. In the end, a gas injection heat pump system was chosen as the dedicated thermal system to both heat and cool the battery pack. Based on the simulation model. The heat pump system could use 50% less energy to heat the battery pack in -20°C ambient conditions, and by keeping the battery cooler at hot climates, the battery pack size could be reduced by 5% and still meet the warranty requirements. During the final phase, the actual battery pack and heat pump system were installed in a test bench at DENSO to validate the simulation results. Also during this phase, the system was moved to NREL where testing was also done to validate the results. In conclusion, the heat pump system can improve “fuel economy” (for electric vehicle) by 12% average in cold climates. Also, the battery pack size, or capacity, could be reduced 5%, or if pack size is kept constant, the pack life could be increased by two years. Finally, the total battery pack and thermal system cost could be reduced 5% only if the

  9. Thermal battery

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.T.; Winchester, C.S.; Jolson, J.D.

    1989-06-20

    A thermal battery is described comprising at least one electrochemical cell comprising an anode of alkali metal, alkaline earth metal or alloys thereof, a fusible salt electrolyte, a fluorocarbon polymer or fluorochlorocarbon polymer depolarizer, and means for heating the cell to melt the electrolyte.

  10. Rapid characterization of lignocellulosic feedstocks for fuels and chemicals: Molecular beam mass spectrometric approach

    SciTech Connect

    Agblevor, F.A.; Davis, M.F. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Rapid characterization of biomass feedstocks has a pivotal role in the development of biomass energy because of the large number of samples that must be analyzed due to the diversity of biomass feedstocks and the significant differences in the chemical and physical properties of these feedstocks. Several biomass feedstocks (herbaceous, woody, and agricultural residues) were screened for the effects of storage, season of harvest, geographic location, clonal, and species variation on the pyrolysis products of the feed stocks. For herbaceous species such as sericea lespedeza, the season of harvest had a significant effect on the pyrolysis products. Effects of clonal variation on the composition of hybrid poplar feedstocks was easily discerned with the molecular beam mass spectrometric analysis. The effect of geographic location on the poplar clones pyrolysis products was minimal. However in the case of switchgrass, varietal influence on the pyrolysis products was minimal, but where the plant was grown had a strong influence on the pyrolysis products of the feedstock. Significant differences because of species variation could also be shown from the pyrolysis products of various biomass feedstocks. The influence of storage time on biomass samples stored outside in the open could also be discerned from the pyrolysis products of the feedstocks. The differences noted in the pyrolysis products of the feedstocks were noted for samples which were significantly degraded during storage either through the action of microflora or weathering.

  11. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as hybrid

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Mechanistic Modeling Framework for Predicting Extreme Battery Response: Coupled Hierarchical Models for Thermal, Mechanical, Electrical and (Electro)chemical Processes

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Sandia National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about mechanistic...

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Public Utility Definition A corporation or individual that owns, controls, operates, or manages a facility that supplies electricity to the public exclusively to charge light-duty battery electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, compressed natural gas to fuel natural gas vehicles, or hydrogen as a motor vehicle fuel is not defined as a public utility. (Reference California Public Utilities Code 216

  14. Chemical interactions between interconnect and electrode materials during sintering in solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, T.R.; Chick, L.A.; Bates, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    Chemical interactions and interdiffusion between the interconnect, (LaCa)CrO{sub 3} and (YCa)CrO{sub 3} and the anode, Ni{center_dot}ZrO{sub 2}, and cathode, (LaSr)MnO{sub 3} and (YCa)MnO{sub 3}, were evaluated from 1300 to 1500C. Reaction of (LaCa)CrO{sub 3} and Ni{center_dot}ZrO{sub 2} cermet resulted in the formation of NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel, while reaction of (YCa)CrO{sub 3} and Ni{center_dot}ZrO{sub 2} resulted in the formation of both NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CaZrO{sub 3}, at all temperatures. Interactions between the chromites and manganites resulted in the formation of a solid solution. Dense reaction layers were observed near the interface of Ni{center_dot}ZrO{sub 2}/(LaCa)CrO{sub 3} and Ni{center_dot}ZrO{sub 2}/(YCa)CrO{sub 3} samples. These dense regions were enriched in calcium and chromium, resulting from liquid migration from the chromite to the anode. Nearly ideal interfaces were observed between (LaSr)MnO{sub 3} and (LaCa)CrO{sub 3}. Interactions between (YCa)CrO{sub 3} and (YCa)MnO{sub 3} resulted in the formation of a CaCrO{sub 4} rich layer along the interface.

  15. 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    Publication and Product Library

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of

  16. SBIR/STTR FY15 Phase 1 Release 2 Awards Announced-Includes Fuel...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    measurement of fuel cell membrane thickness. US Hybrid Corporation of Torrance, California, will develop and demonstrate polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell-battery ...

  17. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  18. LEESS Battery Development | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    LEESS Battery Development LEESS Battery Development 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting es139_mcgrath_2012_p.pdf (1.22 MB) More Documents & Publications Development of Advanced Energy Storage Systems for High Power, Lower Energy … Energy Storage System (LEESS) for Power Assist Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PAHEV) Applications FY 2012 Annual Progress Report for Energy Storage R&D USABC LEESS and PHEV

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Pre-Lithiation of Battery Electrodes

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Stanford University at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: A 12V Start-Stop Li Polymer Battery Pack

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by LG Chem Power at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: High Energy Anode Material Development for Li-Ion Batteries

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Sinode Systems at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: High Energy High Power Battery Exceeding PHEV-40 Requirements

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by TIAX at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: High Energy Lithium Batteries for PHEV Applications

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Envia at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Construction of High Energy Density Batteries

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Physical Sciences Inc. at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: High Energy Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Envia Systems at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  6. Microstructural and chemical evolution near anode triple phase boundary in Ni/YSZ solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yun; Chen, Song; Hackett, Gregory; Finklea, Harry; Song, Xueyan; Gerdes, Kirk

    2011-12-12

    In this study, we report the micro-structural and chemical evolution of anode grain boundaries and triple phase boundary (TPB) junctions of Ni/YSZ anode supported solid oxide fuel cells. A NiO phase was found to develop along the Ni/YSZ interfaces extending to TPBs in the operated cells. The thickness of the NiO ribbon phase remains constant at ~ 5 nm in hydrogen for operating durations up to 540 h. When operating on synthesis gas, an increase in interphase thickness was observed from ~ 11 nm for 24 h of operation to ~ 51 nm for 550 h of operation. YSZ phases are observed to be stable in H{sub 2} over 540 h of operation. However, for the cell operated in syngas for 550 h, a 510 nm tetragonal YSZ (t-YSZ) interfacial layer was identified that originated from the Ni/YSZ interfaces. Yttrium species seem to segregate to the interfaces during operation, leading to the formation of t-YSZ in the Y-depleted regions.

  7. DOE Issues Request for Information on Fuel Cells for Continuous...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    On-Board Recharging for Battery Electric Light-Duty Vehicles DOE Issues Request for Information on Fuel Cells for Continuous On-Board Recharging for Battery Electric Light-Duty ...

  8. Thin film battery/fuel cell power generating system. Final report of the continuation contract (Tasks 1-4), April 1, 1978-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-30

    Research on the design, development, and testing of a high-temperature solid electrolyte (HTSOE) fuel cell is described in detail. Task 1 involves the development and refinement of fabrication processes for the porous support tube, fuel electrode, solid electrolyte, air electrode, and interconnection. Task 2 includes the life testing of cell components and the stack; task 3 involves the stack performance evaluation; task 4 includes demonstrating the reproducibility of 10 watt stacks. A cost, design and benefit study to evaluate the nature and worth of an industrial cogeneration application of the HTSOE fuel cell is underway. Here, promisng applications are now being considered, from which a single application has been selected as a basis for the study - an integrated aluminum production facility. (WHK)

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office: Batteries | Department of Energy

    Energy Saver

    Plug-in Electric Vehicles & Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office: Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office: Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office: Batteries Improving the ...

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Technology Advancement Funding - South Coast The South Coast Air Quality Management District's (SCAQMD) Clean Fuels Program provides funding for research, development, demonstration, and deployment projects that are expected to help accelerate the commercialization of advanced low emission transportation technologies. Eligible projects include powertrains and energy storage or conversion devices (e.g., fuel cells and batteries), and implementation of clean fuels (e.g., natural gas, propane, and

  11. Operando NMR and XRD Study of Chemically Synthesized LiC2 Oxidation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: catalysis (heterogeneous), solar (fuels), energy storage (including batteries and capacitors), hydrogen and fuel ...

  12. Overview and Progress of United States Advanced Battery Research (USABC)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Activity | Department of Energy United States Advanced Battery Research (USABC) Activity Overview and Progress of United States Advanced Battery Research (USABC) Activity 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting es097_snyder_2012_o.pdf (722.2 KB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Overview and Progress of United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) Activity

  13. Overview and Progress of the Applied Battery Research (ABR) Activity |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Applied Battery Research (ABR) Activity Overview and Progress of the Applied Battery Research (ABR) Activity 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting es014_faguy_2012_o.pdf (2.07 MB) More Documents & Publications Fabricate PHEV Cells for Testing & Diagnostics Overview and Progress of the Applied Battery Research (ABR) Activity Current Research Activities in Electrode and Cell

  14. Overview and Progress of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Technologies (BATT) Activity | Department of Energy Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) Activity Overview and Progress of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) Activity 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting es108_duong_2012_o.pdf (994.39 KB) More Documents & Publications Overview and Progress of the Exploratory Technology Research Activity: Batteries for

  15. Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion Battery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Separator | Department of Energy Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion Battery Separator Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion Battery Separator 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting arravt009_es_rumierz_2012_p.pdf (745.7 KB) More Documents & Publications Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion Battery Separator Celgard US

  16. Chemical Technology Division. Annual technical report, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Laidler, J.J.; Myles, K.M.; Green, D.W.; McPheeters, C.C.

    1996-06-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division`s activities during 1995 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) methods for treatment of hazardous waste and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; (3) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (4) processes for separating and recovering selected elements from waste streams, concentrating low-level radioactive waste streams with advanced evaporator technology, and producing {sup 99}Mo from low-enriched uranium; (5) electrometallurgical treatment of different types of spent nuclear fuel in storage at Department of Energy sites; and (6) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems.

  17. Batteries Breakout Session

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Low voltage ( 1- cell ) Distributed battery that can go anywhere * Bi-polar cellspack configuration * Chemistries that do not need balancing Standard battery bay for drop in ...

  18. Evaluating temperature and fuel stratification for heat-release rate control in a reactivity-controlled compression-ignition engine using optical diagnostics and chemical kinetics modeling

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Musculus, Mark P. B.; Kokjohn, Sage L.; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2015-04-23

    We investigated the combustion process in a dual-fuel, reactivity-controlled compression-ignition (RCCI) engine using a combination of optical diagnostics and chemical kinetics modeling to explain the role of equivalence ratio, temperature, and fuel reactivity stratification for heat-release rate control. An optically accessible engine is operated in the RCCI combustion mode using gasoline primary reference fuels (PRF). A well-mixed charge of iso-octane (PRF = 100) is created by injecting fuel into the engine cylinder during the intake stroke using a gasoline-type direct injector. Later in the cycle, n-heptane (PRF = 0) is delivered through a centrally mounted diesel-type common-rail injector. This injectionmore » strategy generates stratification in equivalence ratio, fuel blend, and temperature. The first part of this study uses a high-speed camera to image the injection events and record high-temperature combustion chemiluminescence. Moreover, the chemiluminescence imaging showed that, at the operating condition studied in the present work, mixtures in the squish region ignite first, and the reaction zone proceeds inward toward the center of the combustion chamber. The second part of this study investigates the charge preparation of the RCCI strategy using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of a fuel tracer under non-reacting conditions to quantify fuel concentration distributions prior to ignition. The fuel-tracer PLIF data show that the combustion event proceeds down gradients in the n-heptane distribution. The third part of the study uses chemical kinetics modeling over a range of mixtures spanning the distributions observed from the fuel-tracer fluorescence imaging to isolate the roles of temperature, equivalence ratio, and PRF number stratification. The simulations predict that PRF number stratification is the dominant factor controlling the ignition location and growth rate of the reaction zone. Equivalence ratio has a smaller, but still

  19. Chemical Bonding In Amorphous Si Coated-carbon Nanotube As Anodes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanotube As Anodes For Li ion Batteries: A XANES Study The chemical bonding ... are crucial in designing further improved Si-C composite anode for lithium ion battery. ...

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Battery Safety Testing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Battery Recycling

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by OnTo Technology LLC at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced battery recycling.

  2. Piezonuclear battery

    DOEpatents

    Bongianni, Wayne L.

    1992-01-01

    A piezonuclear battery generates output power arising from the piezoelectric voltage produced from radioactive decay particles interacting with a piezoelectric medium. Radioactive particle energy may directly create an acoustic wave in the piezoelectric medium or a moderator may be used to generate collision particles for interacting with the medium. In one embodiment a radioactive material (.sup.252 Cf) with an output of about 1 microwatt produced a 12 nanowatt output (1.2% conversion efficiency) from a piezoelectric copolymer of vinylidene fluoride/trifluorethylene.

  3. Chemical Engineering Division research highlights, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, L.; Webster, D. S.; Barney, D. L.; Cafasso, F. A.; Steindler, M. J.

    1980-06-01

    In 1979, CEN conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) high-temperature, rechargeable lithium/iron sulfide batteries for electric vehicles and electric utility load leveling; (2) ambient-temperature batteries - improved lead-acid, nickel/zinc, and nickel/iron - for electric vehicles; (3) molten carbonate fuel cells for use by electric utilities; (4) coal technology - mainly fluidized-bed combustion of coal in the presence of SO/sub 2/ sorbent of limestone; (5) heat- and seed- recovery technology for open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic systems; (6) solar energy collectors and thermal energy storage; (7) fast breeder reactor chemistry research - chemical support of reactor safety studies, chemistry of irradiated fuels, and sodium technology; (8) fuel cycle technology - reprocessing of nuclear fuels, management of nuclear wastes, geologic migration studies, and proof-of-breeding studies for the Light Water Breeder Reactor; (9) magnetic fusion research - lithium processing technology and materials research; and (10) basic energy sciences - homogeneous catalysis, thermodynamics of inorganic and organic materials, environmental chemistry, electrochemistry, and physical properties of salt vapors. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of these areas.

  4. Nanotube composite anode materials improve lithium-ion battery performance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    (ANL-09-034) - Energy Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Nanotube composite anode materials improve lithium-ion battery performance (ANL-09-034) Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are a critical technology for many applications, including consumer electronics and electric vehicles. As the demand for hybrid and

  5. Geek-Up[4.8.2011]: Batteries (With & Without) and Tools for Team Science

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This week's edition of the Geek-Up highlights battery-less chemical detectors, develops open source modeling software for team-based science and finds new uses for aged Electric Vehicle batteries.

  6. Fun Fact Friday: Fueling Growth | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Fueling Growth Fun Fact Friday: Fueling Growth January 3, 2014 - 1:53pm Addthis Fuel cells, which work like batteries but don’t run down or need recharging, are ideal for powering material handling equipment, like forklifts and airport baggage carts, because they reduce recharging time and cut carbon pollution. Recent Energy Department reports indicate the fuel cell and hydrogen industry is continuing to grow. | Photo courtesy of Plug Power, Inc. Fuel cells, which work like batteries but

  7. Overview of Battery R&D Activities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Battery R&D Activities Overview of Battery R&D Activities 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting vtpn07_es_howell_2012_o.pdf (1.38 MB) More Documents & Publications Hybrid Electric Systems Overview of Battery R&D Activities Overview of Battery R&D Activities

  8. High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting es024_jow_2012_o.pdf (6.21 MB) More Documents & Publications High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries Progress in Electrolyte Component R&D within the ABR Program, 2009 thru 2013

  9. Optima Batteries | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Optima Batteries Jump to: navigation, search Name: Optima Batteries Place: Milwaukee, WI Website: www.optimabatteries.com References: Optima Batteries1 Information About...

  10. H.sub.2 /C.sub.12 fuel cells for power and HCl production - chemical cogeneration

    DOEpatents

    Gelb, Alan H.

    1991-01-01

    A fuel cell for the electrolytic production of hydrogen chloride and the generation of electric energy from hydrogen and chlorine gas is disclosed. In typical application, the fuel cell operates from the hydrogen and chlorine gas generated by a chlorine electrolysis generator. The hydrogen chloride output is used to maintain acidity in the anode compartment of the electrolysis cells, and the electric energy provided from the fuel cell is used to power a portion of the electrolysis cells in the chlorine generator or for other chlorine generator electric demands. The fuel cell itself is typically formed by a passage for the flow of hydrogen chloride or hydrogen chloride and sodium chloride electrolyte between anode and cathode gas diffusion electrodes, the HCl increa This invention was made with Government support under Contract No. DE-AC02-86ER80366 with the Department of Energy and the United States Government has certain rights thereto.

  11. H[sub 2]/Cl[sub 2] fuel cells for power and HCl production - chemical cogeneration

    DOEpatents

    Gelb, A.H.

    1991-08-20

    A fuel cell for the electrolytic production of hydrogen chloride and the generation of electric energy from hydrogen and chlorine gas is disclosed. In typical application, the fuel cell operates from the hydrogen and chlorine gas generated by a chlorine electrolysis generator. The hydrogen chloride output is used to maintain acidity in the anode compartment of the electrolysis cells, and the electric energy provided from the fuel cell is used to power a portion of the electrolysis cells in the chlorine generator or for other chlorine generator electric demands. The fuel cell itself is typically formed by a passage for the flow of hydrogen chloride or hydrogen chloride and sodium chloride electrolyte between anode and cathode gas diffusion electrodes. 3 figures.

  12. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Overview | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    and Fuel Cell Technologies Overview Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Overview Presented at the NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Manufacturing R&D Workshop in Washington, DC, August 11-12, 2011. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Overview (1.42 MB) More Documents & Publications Fuel Cell Technologies Overview: March 2012 State Energy Advisory Board Meeting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities: 5th International Conference on Polymer Batteries and Fuel Cells DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cell

  13. Thin film battery/fuel cell power generation system. Topical report covering Task 5: the design, cost and benefit of an industrial cogeneration system, using a high-temperature solid-oxide-electrolyte (HTSOE) fuel-cell generator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-25

    A literature search and review of the studies analyzing the relationship between thermal and electrical energy demand for various industries and applications resulted in several applications affording reasonable correlation to the thermal and electrical output of the HTSOE fuel cell. One of the best matches was in the aluminum industry, specifically, the Reynolds Aluminum Production Complex near Corpus Christi, Texas. Therefore, a preliminary design of three variations of a cogeneration system for this plant was effected. The designs were not optimized, nor were alternate methods of providing energy compared with the HTSOE cogeneration systems. The designs were developed to the extent necessary to determine technical practicality and economic viability, when compared with alternate conventional fuel (gas and electric) prices in the year 1990.

  14. Opportunities for portable Ballard Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, H.H.; Huff, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    With the increasing proliferation and sophistication of portable electronic devices in both commercial and military markets, the need has arisen for small, lightweight power supplies that can provide increased operating life over those presently available. A solution to this power problem is the development of portable Ballard Fuel Cell power systems that operate with a hydrogen fuel source and air. Ballard has developed PEM fuel cell stacks and power systems in the 25 to 100 watt range for both of these markets. For military use, Ballard has teamed with Ball Corporation and Hydrogen Consultants, Inc. and has provided the Ballard Fuel Cell stack for an ambient PEM fuel cell power system for the DoD. The system provides power from idle to I 00 watts and has the capability of delivering overloads of 125 watts for short periods of time. The system is designed to operate over a wide range of temperature, relative humidity and altitude. Hydrogen is supplied as a compressed gas, metal hydride or chemical hydride packaged in a unit that is mated to the power/control unit. The hydrogen sources provide 1.5, 5 and 15 kWh of operation, respectively. The design of the fuel cell power system enables the unit to operate at 12 volts or 24 volts depending upon the equipment being used. For commercial applications, as with the military, fuel cell power sources in the 25 to 500 watt range will be competing with advanced batteries. Ambient PEM fuel cell designs and demonstrators are being developed at 25 watts and other low power levels. Goals are minimum stack volume and weight and greatly enhanced operating life with reasonable system weight and volume. This paper will discuss ambient PEM fuel cell designs and performance and operating parameters for a number of power levels in the multiwatt range.

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: A Disruptive Concept for a Whole Family of New Battery Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Parthian Energy at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Overview and Progress of United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) Activity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by USABC at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Design of Sulfur Cathodes for High Energy Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Stanford University at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Development of Si-Composite Anode for Large-Format Li-ion Batteries

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Hydro Quebec at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Development of Advanced High-Performance Batteries for 12V Start Stop Vehicle Applications

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Maxwell at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Advanced Polyolefin Separators for Li-Ion Batteries Used in Vehicle Applications

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Entek at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Li-Ion Battery Anodes from Electrospun Nanoparticle/Conducting Polymer Nanofibers

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Vanderbilt at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Low-cost, High Energy Si/Graphene Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by XG Sciences at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: An Integrated Flame Spray Process for Low Cost Production of Battery Materials

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by University of Missouri at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: New Lamination and Doping Concepts for Enhanced Lithium-Sulfur Battery Performance

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by University of Pittsburgh at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Low?Cost, High?Capacity Lithium Ion Batteries through Modified Surface and Microstructure

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Navitas Systems at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  6. Fuel Quality Issues in Stationary Fuel Cell Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Quality Issues in Stationary Fuel Cell Systems ANLCSEFCTFQ-2011-11 Chemical Sciences ... Fuel Quality Issues in Stationary Fuel Cell Systems prepared by D.D. Papadias, S. Ahmed, ...

  7. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, Bill; Gangi, Jennifer; Curtin, Sandra; Delmont, Elizabeth

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  8. Fuel Cell Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Renewable Energy » Hydrogen & Fuel Cells » Fuel Cell Basics Fuel Cell Basics August 14, 2013 - 2:09pm Addthis Text Version Photo of two hydrogen fuel cells. Fuel cells can provide heat and electricity for buildings and electrical power for vehicles and electronic devices. HOW FUEL CELLS WORK Fuel cells work like batteries, but they do not run down or need recharging. They produce electricity and heat as long as fuel is supplied. A fuel cell consists of two electrodes-a negative electrode

  9. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery: A Robust and Inexpensive Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery for Grid-Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    GRIDS Project: USC is developing an iron-air rechargeable battery for large-scale energy storage that could help integrate renewable energy sources into the electric grid. Iron-air batteries have the potential to store large amounts of energy at low cost—iron is inexpensive and abundant, while oxygen is freely obtained from the air we breathe. However, current iron-air battery technologies have suffered from low efficiency and short life spans. USC is working to dramatically increase the efficiency of the battery by placing chemical additives on the battery’s iron-based electrode and restructuring the catalysts at the molecular level on the battery’s air-based electrode. This can help the battery resist degradation and increase life span. The goal of the project is to develop a prototype iron-air battery at significantly cost lower than today’s best commercial batteries.

  10. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    5/2011 eere.energy.gov 5 th International Conference on Polymer Batteries & Fuel Cells Argonne, Illinois Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities Dr. Sunita Satyapal U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Program Program Manager August 4, 2011 2 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 8/5/2011 eere.energy.gov Fuel Cells: Benefits & Market Potential The Role of Fuel Cells Key Benefits Very High Efficiency Reduced CO 2 Emissions * 35-50%+ reductions for CHP systems (>80% with

  11. Laboratory and Field Testing of Commercially Available Detectors for the Identification of Chemicals of Interest in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle for the Detection of Undeclared Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Carla Miller; Mary Adamic; Stacey Barker; Barry Siskind; Joe Brady; Warren Stern; Heidi Smartt; Mike McDaniel; Mike Stern; Rollin Lakis

    2014-07-01

    Traditionally, IAEA inspectors have focused on the detection of nuclear indicators as part of infield inspection activities. The ability to rapidly detect and identify chemical as well as nuclear signatures can increase the ability of IAEA inspectors to detect undeclared activities at a site. Identification of chemical indicators have been limited to use in the analysis of environmental samples. Although IAEA analytical laboratories are highly effective, environmental sample processing does not allow for immediate or real-time results to an IAEA inspector at a facility. During a complementary access inspection, under the Additional Protocol, the use of fieldable technologies that can quickly provide accurate information on chemicals that may be indicative of undeclared activities can increase the ability of IAEA to effectively and efficiently complete their mission. The Complementary Access Working Group (CAWG) is a multi-laboratory team with members from Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory. The team identified chemicals at each stage of the nuclear fuel cycle that may provide IAEA inspectors with indications that proliferation activities may be occurring. The group eliminated all indicators related to equipment, technology and training, developing a list of by-products/effluents, non-nuclear materials, nuclear materials, and other observables. These proliferation indicators were prioritized based on detectability from a conduct of operations (CONOPS) perspective of a CA inspection (for example, whether an inspector actually can access the S&O or whether it is in process with no physical access), and the IAEA’s interest in the detection technology in conjunction with radiation detectors. The list was consolidated to general categories (nuclear materials from a chemical detection technique, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals, halogens, and miscellaneous materials). The team

  12. Chemical Looping | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    to convert fossil fuels to electricity and provide carbon capture without significant efficiency or cost penalties. Chemical looping combustion is very similar to oxy-fuel...

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Rebate - San Joaquin Valley The San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD) administers the Drive Clean! Rebate Program, which provides rebates for the purchase or lease of eligible new vehicles, including qualified natural gas, hydrogen fuel cell, propane, zero emission motorcycles, battery electric, neighborhood electric, and plug-in electric vehicles. The program offers rebates of up to $3,000, which are available on a first-come,

  14. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities: 5th International Conference...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Plenary presentation by Sunita Satyapal at the 5th International Conference on Polymer Batteries and Fuel Cells on August 4, 2011. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities (6.13 MB) More ...

  15. New Fuel Cell Design Powered by Graphene-Wrapped Nanocrystals

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    New Fuel Cell Design Powered by Graphene-Wrapped Nanocrystals Lab researchers have developed a new materials recipe for a battery-like hydrogen fuel cell that shields the ...

  16. Fuel Cell Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Cells » Fuel Cell Systems Fuel Cell Systems The design of fuel cell systems is complex, and can vary significantly depending upon fuel cell type and application. However, several basic components are found in many fuel cell systems: Fuel cell stack Fuel processor Power conditioners Air compressors Humidifiers Fuel Cell Stack The fuel cell stack is the heart of a fuel cell power system. It generates electricity in the form of direct current (DC) from electro-chemical reactions that take place in

  17. Direct use of natural gas (methane) for conversion of carbonaceous raw materials to fuels and chemical feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.

    1985-04-01

    It appears that natural gas is almost as abundant as petroleum, if not more so, as a natural resource in many parts of the world. Because of its rich hydrogen content, it is probably the lowest cost source of hydrogen wherever it is available. The most abundant fossil energy resource in the world appears to be coal, and the most abundant renewable resource appears to be biomass (trees and plants), both of which contain a deficiency of hydrogen. It is proposed to use natural gas in conjunction with coal and biomass to produce the preferred liquid fuel simulating petroleum products. Processes are described which include methanolysis that is the direct use of methane for gasification and liquefaction of coal and biomass, and for desulfurization of coal derived liquid and gases. The thermal decomposition of methane is described for hydrogen and carbon particulate production. A cyclical process is described for producing a clean particulate carbon from coal for use in a carbon-water-fuel-mix as a substitute diesel fuel or premium-grade boiler fuel. The hydrogen from methane can be used for flash hydropyrolysis or can be used to produce ammonia fertilizer. 7 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Progress in Modeling and Simulation of Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, John A

    2016-01-01

    Modeling and simulation of batteries, in conjunction with theory and experiment, are important research tools that offer opportunities for advancement of technologies that are critical to electric motors. The development of data from the application of these tools can provide the basis for managerial and technical decision-making. Together, these will continue to transform batteries for electric vehicles. This collection of nine papers presents the modeling and simulation of batteries and the continuing contribution being made to this impressive progress, including topics that cover: * Thermal behavior and characteristics * Battery management system design and analysis * Moderately high-fidelity 3D capabilities * Optimization Techniques and Durability As electric vehicles continue to gain interest from manufacturers and consumers alike, improvements in economy and affordability, as well as adoption of alternative fuel sources to meet government mandates are driving battery research and development. Progress in modeling and simulation will continue to contribute to battery improvements that deliver increased power, energy storage, and durability to further enhance the appeal of electric vehicles.

  19. Anodes for Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Windisch, Charles F.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss, "constructive corrosion" as it occurs in power generated devices, specifically batteries.

  20. Status of the DOE Battery and Electrochemical Technology Program V

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.

    1985-06-01

    The program consists of two activities, Technology Base Research (TBR) managed by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and Exploratory Technology Development and Testing (EDT) managed by the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The status of the Battery Energy Storage Test (BEST) Facility is presented, including the status of the batteries to be tested. ECS program contributions to the advancement of the lead-acid battery and specific examples of technology transfer from this program are given. The advances during the period December 1982 to June 1984 in the characterization and performance of the lead-acid, iron/nickel-oxide, iron/air, aluminum/air, zinc/bromide, zinc/ferricyanide, and sodium/sulfur batteries and in fuel cells for transport are summarized. Novel techniques and the application of established techniques to the study of electrode processes, especially the electrode/electrolyte interface, are described. Research with the potential of leading to improved ceramic electrolytes and positive electrode container and current-collectors for the sodium/sulfur battery is presented. Advances in the electrocatalysis of the oxygen (air) electrode and the relationship of these advances to the iron/air and aluminum/air batteries and to the fuel cell are noted. The quest for new battery couples and battery materials is reviewed. New developments in the modeling of electrochemical cell and electrode performance with the approaches to test these models are reported.

  1. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  2. Simulating flame lift-off characteristics of diesel and biodiesel fuels using detailed chemical-kinetic mechanisms and LES turbulence model.

    SciTech Connect

    Som, S; Longman, D. E.; Luo, Z; Plomer, M; Lu, T; Senecal, P.K.; Pomraning, E

    2012-01-01

    Combustion in direct-injection diesel engines occurs in a lifted, turbulent diffusion flame mode. Numerous studies indicate that the combustion and emissions in such engines are strongly influenced by the lifted flame characteristics, which are in turn determined by fuel and air mixing in the upstream region of the lifted flame, and consequently by the liquid breakup and spray development processes. From a numerical standpoint, these spray combustion processes depend heavily on the choice of underlying spray, combustion, and turbulence models. The present numerical study investigates the influence of different chemical kinetic mechanisms for diesel and biodiesel fuels, as well as Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and large eddy simulation (LES) turbulence models on predicting flame lift-off lengths (LOLs) and ignition delays. Specifically, two chemical kinetic mechanisms for n-heptane (NHPT) and three for biodiesel surrogates are investigated. In addition, the RNG k-{epsilon} (RANS) model is compared to the Smagorinsky based LES turbulence model. Using adaptive grid resolution, minimum grid sizes of 250 {micro}m and 125 {micro}m were obtained for the RANS and LES cases respectively. Validations of these models were performed against experimental data from Sandia National Laboratories in a constant volume combustion chamber. Ignition delay and flame lift-off validations were performed at different ambient temperature conditions. The LES model predicts lower ignition delays and qualitatively better flame structures compared to the RNG k-{epsilon} model. The use of realistic chemistry and a ternary surrogate mixture, which consists of methyl decanoate, methyl 9-decenoate, and NHPT, results in better predicted LOLs and ignition delays. For diesel fuel though, only marginal improvements are observed by using larger size mechanisms. However, these improved predictions come at a significant increase in computational cost.

  3. Lithium sulfide compositions for battery electrolyte and battery electrode coatings

    DOEpatents

    Liang, Chengdu; Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wunjun; Lin, Zhan; Dudney, Nancy J; Howe, Jane Y; Rondinone, Adam J

    2013-12-03

    Methods of forming lithium-containing electrolytes are provided using wet chemical synthesis. In some examples, the lithium containing electroytes are composed of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7. The solid electrolyte may be a core shell material. In one embodiment, the core shell material includes a core of lithium sulfide (Li.sub.2S), a first shell of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7, and a second shell including one or .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7 and carbon. The lithium containing electrolytes may be incorporated into wet cell batteries or solid state batteries.

  4. Lithium sulfide compositions for battery electrolyte and battery electrode coatings

    DOEpatents

    Liang, Chengdu; Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wujun; Lin, Zhan; Dudney, Nancy J; Howe, Jane Y; Rondinone, Adam J

    2014-10-28

    Method of forming lithium-containing electrolytes are provided using wet chemical synthesis. In some examples, the lithium containing electrolytes are composed of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7. The solid electrolyte may be a core shell material. In one embodiment, the core shell material includes a core of lithium sulfide (Li.sub.2S), a first shell of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7, and a second shell including one of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7 and carbon. The lithium containing electrolytes may be incorporated into wet cell batteries or solid state batteries.

  5. Fuel cell generator energy dissipator

    DOEpatents

    Veyo, Stephen Emery; Dederer, Jeffrey Todd; Gordon, John Thomas; Shockling, Larry Anthony

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for eliminating the chemical energy of fuel remaining in a fuel cell generator when the electrical power output of the fuel cell generator is terminated. During a generator shut down condition, electrically resistive elements are automatically connected across the fuel cell generator terminals in order to draw current, thereby depleting the fuel

  6. AGM Batteries Ltd | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    navigation, search Name: AGM Batteries Ltd Place: United Kingdom Product: Manufactures lithium-ion cells and batteries for AEA Battery Systems Ltd. References: AGM Batteries Ltd1...

  7. Vehicle Battery Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Battery Basics Vehicle Battery Basics November 22, 2013 - 1:58pm Addthis Vehicle Battery Basics Batteries are essential for electric drive technologies such as hybrid electric ...

  8. NREL Joins with A123Systems to Improve Advanced-Vehicle Batteries - News

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases | NREL NREL Joins with A123Systems to Improve Advanced-Vehicle Batteries Safe, powerful, and long-lasting batteries key to more fuel-efficient cars June 19, 2008 The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and A123Systems have teamed up to support the battery-maker's effort to develop safe, less expensive, more powerful, and longer lasting batteries for hybrid-electric vehicles. The Laboratory and the battery-maker have signed a three-year,

  9. Advanced Li-Ion Polymer Battery Cell Manufacturing Plant in USA |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Li-Ion Polymer Battery Cell Manufacturing Plant in USA Advanced Li-Ion Polymer Battery Cell Manufacturing Plant in USA 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting arravt001_es_koo_2012_p.pdf (2.94 MB) More Documents & Publications Advanced Li-Ion Polymer Battery Cell Manufacturing Plant in USA Li-Ion Battery Cell Manufacturing 2010 DOE, Li-Ion Battery Cell Manufacturing

  10. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Battles, J.E.; Myles, K.M.; Laidler, J.J.; Green, D.W.

    1994-04-01

    Chemical Technology (CMT) Division this period, conducted research and development in the following areas: advanced batteries and fuel cells; fluidized-bed combustion and coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics; treatment of hazardous waste and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; separating and recovering transuranic elements, concentrating radioactive waste streams with advanced evaporators, and producing {sup 99}Mo from low-enriched uranium; recovering actinide from IFR core and blanket fuel in removing fission products from recycled fuel, and disposing removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors; and physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources and novel ceramic precursors; materials chemistry of superconducting oxides, electrified metal/solution interfaces, molecular sieve structures, thin-film diamond surfaces, effluents from wood combustion, and molten silicates; and the geochemical processes involved in water-rock interactions. The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT also provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support.

  11. Characterization of electrochemical systems and batteries: Materials and systems

    SciTech Connect

    McBreen, J.

    1992-12-01

    Materials are a pacing problem in battery development. The battery environment, particularly in rechargeable batteries, places great demands on materials. Characterization of battery materials is difficult because of their complex nature. In many cases meaningful characterization requires iii situ methods. Fortunately, several new electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques for in situ characterization studies have recently become available, and reports of new techniques have become more frequent. The opportunity now exists to utilize advanced instrumentation to define detailed features, participating chemical species and interfacial structure of battery materials with a precision heretofore not possible. This overview gives key references to these techniques and discusses the application of x-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of battery materials.

  12. Characterization of electrochemical systems and batteries: Materials and systems

    SciTech Connect

    McBreen, J.

    1992-01-01

    Materials are a pacing problem in battery development. The battery environment, particularly in rechargeable batteries, places great demands on materials. Characterization of battery materials is difficult because of their complex nature. In many cases meaningful characterization requires iii situ methods. Fortunately, several new electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques for in situ characterization studies have recently become available, and reports of new techniques have become more frequent. The opportunity now exists to utilize advanced instrumentation to define detailed features, participating chemical species and interfacial structure of battery materials with a precision heretofore not possible. This overview gives key references to these techniques and discusses the application of x-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of battery materials.

  13. Fueling the Economy | Argonne National Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Fueling the Economy Argonne helps make the United States a front-runner in the production of materials for advanced lithium-ion batteries used in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles...

  14. V Fuel Pty Ltd | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    company set up by Magnam Technologies to commercialise the vanadium redox battery. References: V-Fuel Pty Ltd1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  15. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  16. Standard Missile Block IV battery

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.

    1996-11-01

    During the 1980`s a trend in automatic primary battery technologies was the replacement of silver-zinc batteries by thermal battery designs. The Standard missile (SM 2) Block IV development is a noteworthy reversal of this trend. The SM2, Block IV battery was originally attempted as a thermal battery with multiple companies attempting to develop a thermal battery design. These attempts resulted in failure to obtain a production thermal battery. A decision to pursue a silver-zinc battery design resulted in the development of a battery to supply the SM 2, Block IV (thermal battery design goal) and also the projected power requirements of the evolving SM 2, Block IVA in a single silver-zinc battery design. Several advancements in silver-zinc battery technology were utilized in this design that improve the producibility and extend the boundaries of silver-zinc batteries.

  17. Materials Project Releases Massive Trove of Battery and Molecule Data

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Project Releases Massive Trove of Battery and Molecule Data Materials Project Releases Massive Trove of Battery and Molecule Data June 8, 2016 Julie Chao, JHChao@lbl.gov, (510) 486-6491 materialsproject2 Screen shot from the Materials Project website. The Materials Project, a Google-like database of material properties aimed at accelerating innovation, has released an enormous trove of data to the public, giving scientists working on fuel cells, photovoltaics, thermoelectrics and a

  18. High Voltage Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries High Voltage Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting es113_zhang_2012_o.pdf (1.74 MB) More Documents & Publications Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives Progress in Electrolyte Component R&D within the ABR Program, 2009 thru 2013 Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fluorinated Electrolyte for 5-V Li-Ion

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Development and Validation of a Simulation tool to Predict the Combined Structural, Electrical, Electrochemical, and Thermal Responses of Automotive Batteries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Ford at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Co-Extrusion (CoEx) for Cost Reduction of Advanced High-Energy-and-Power Battery Electrode Manufacturing

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by PARC at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: A Closed Loop Process for the End-of-Life Electric Vehicle Li-ion Batteries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by WPI at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Chemical Kinetic Models for

    Energy Saver

    Batteries for Electric Vehicle (EV) Applications | Department of Energy Advanced High-Performance Batteries for Electric Vehicle (EV) Applications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Advanced High-Performance Batteries for Electric Vehicle (EV) Applications Presentation given by Amprius at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries es241_stefan_2016_p_web.pdf (739.96 KB) More

  3. Electric Vehicle Battery Performance

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    1992-02-20

    DIANE is used to analyze battery performance in electric vehicle (EV) applications. The principal objective of DIANE is to enable the prediction of EV performance on the basis of laboratory test data for batteries. The model provides a second-by-second simulation of battery voltage and current for any specified velocity/time or power/time profile. Two releases are included with the package. Diane21 has a graphics capability; DIANENP has no graphics capability.

  4. Polyoxometalate flow battery

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Travis M.; Pratt, Harry D.

    2016-03-15

    Flow batteries including an electrolyte of a polyoxometalate material are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the flow battery includes an electrochemical cell including an anode portion, a cathode portion and a separator disposed between the anode portion and the cathode portion. Each of the anode portion and the cathode portion comprises a polyoxometalate material. The flow battery further includes an anode electrode disposed in the anode portion and a cathode electrode disposed in the cathode portion.

  5. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Yahnke, Mark S.; Shlomo, Golan; Anderson, Marc A.

    1994-01-01

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range.

  6. Lithium battery management system

    DOEpatents

    Dougherty, Thomas J.

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  7. Rechargeable Heat Battery's Secret Revealed

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Rechargeable Heat Battery Rechargeable Heat Battery's Secret Revealed Solar energy capture ... Contact: John Hules, JAHules@lbl.gov, +1 510 486 6008 2011-01-11-Heat-Battery.jpg A ...

  8. GBP Battery | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    GBP Battery Jump to: navigation, search Name: GBP Battery Place: China Product: Shenzhen-China-based maker of Li-Poly and Li-ion batteries suitable for EVs and other applications....

  9. Battery Thermal Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Saxon, Aron; Powell, Mitchell; Shi, Ying

    2015-06-09

    This presentation provides an update of NREL's battery thermal characterization efforts for the 2015 U.S. Department of Energy Annual Merit Reviews.

  10. Ambient temperature thermal battery

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, A. N.; Bliss, D. E.; McManis III

    1985-11-26

    An ambient temperature thermal battery having two relatively high temperature melting electrolytes which form a low melting temperature electrolyte upon activation.

  11. Battery Calorimetry Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    LaboratoryBrayton Lab Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation ... profile so that modules operate within the desired range. ... calorimetry used to measure cell or battery heat capacity ...

  12. Alternative Aviation Fuel Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Alternative Aviation Fuel Workshop Alternative Aviation Fuel Workshop September 14, 2016 8:00AM EDT to September 15, 2016 1:00PM EDT Macon Marriott City Center 240 Coliseum Drive, Macon, GA 31217801 The aviation industry faces significant challenges to maintain growth while enhancing environmental sustainability. Alternative energy systems such as batteries, fuel cells, and natural gas are options for on-road, off-road, and marine engine applications, but these alternative fuels are not yet

  13. An Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    handling equipment, including the capital costs of battery and fuel cell systems, the cost of supporting infrastructure, maintenance costs, warehouse space costs, and labor costs. ...

  14. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    restricted information page 1 Overview * Base Period: - 100% complete * ... these 3 tech level Fuel Cell System Battery System Storage 2. Determine costs for these 3 tech ...

  15. A full fuel-cycle analysis of energy and emissions impacts of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    use in five types of motor vehicles--spark-ignition vehicles, compression-ignition vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, battery-powered electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles. ...

  16. Fuel dissipater for pressurized fuel cell generators

    DOEpatents

    Basel, Richard A.; King, John E.

    2003-11-04

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for eliminating the chemical energy of fuel remaining in a pressurized fuel cell generator (10) when the electrical power output of the fuel cell generator is terminated during transient operation, such as a shutdown; where, two electrically resistive elements (two of 28, 53, 54, 55) at least one of which is connected in parallel, in association with contactors (26, 57, 58, 59), a multi-point settable sensor relay (23) and a circuit breaker (24), are automatically connected across the fuel cell generator terminals (21, 22) at two or more contact points, in order to draw current, thereby depleting the fuel inventory in the generator.

  17. Overview and Progress of the Battery Testing, Analysis, and Design Activity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    | Department of Energy Battery Testing, Analysis, and Design Activity Overview and Progress of the Battery Testing, Analysis, and Design Activity 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting es116_cunningham_2012_o.pdf (1.72 MB) More Documents & Publications Overview and Progress of the Battery Testing, Analysis, and Design Activity Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Overview and Progress of the

  18. Advanced Electrolyte Additives for PHEV/EV Lithium-ion Battery | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Energy Electrolyte Additives for PHEV/EV Lithium-ion Battery Advanced Electrolyte Additives for PHEV/EV Lithium-ion Battery 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting es025_zhang_2012_o.pdf (1.97 MB) More Documents & Publications Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives Advanced Electrolyte Additives for PHEV/EV Lithium-ion Battery Development of Advanced Electrolytes and Electrolyte

  19. New Layered Nanolaminates for Use in Lithium Battery Anodes | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Layered Nanolaminates for Use in Lithium Battery Anodes New Layered Nanolaminates for Use in Lithium Battery Anodes 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting es146_gogotsi_2012_p.pdf (1.87 MB) More Documents & Publications New Layered Nanolaminates for Use in Lithium Battery Anodes 2012 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Acronyms Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT Anode

  20. Battery SEAB Presentation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Battery SEAB Presentation Battery SEAB Presentation Battery SEAB Presentation (1.43 MB) More Documents & Publications Overview of Battery R&D Activities Hybrid Electric Systems Overview of Battery R&D Activities

  1. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells FAQs

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells FAQs faq-header-big.jpg SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS - BASICS Q: What is a fuel cell? A: A fuel cell is a power generation device that converts the chemical energy of a fuel and oxidant directly into electrical energy, with heat and water as byproducts. Since fuel cells produce electricity through an electrochemical reaction and not through a combustion process, they are inherently more efficient and environmentally friendly than conventional electric power generation processes.

  2. Prieto Battery | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Colorado Zip: 80526 Product: Colorado-based startup company that is developing lithium ion batteries based on nano-structured materials. References: Prieto Battery1 This...

  3. Phylion Battery | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Phylion Battery Jump to: navigation, search Name: Phylion Battery Place: Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China Zip: 215011 Sector: Vehicles Product: Jiangsu-province-based producer of...

  4. Battery Ventures | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Battery Ventures (Boston) Name: Battery Ventures (Boston) Address: 930 Winter Street, Suite 2500 Place: Waltham, Massachusetts Zip: 02451 Region: Greater Boston Area Product:...

  5. Advanced Flow Battery Electrodes: Low-cost, High-Performance 50-Year Electrode

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: Primus Power is developing zinc-based, rechargeable liquid flow batteries that could produce substantially more energy at lower cost than conventional batteries. A flow battery is similar to a conventional battery, except instead of storing its energy inside the cell it stores that energy for future use in chemicals that are kept in tanks that sit outside the cell. One of the most costly components in a flow battery is the electrode, where the electrochemical reactions actually occur. Primus Power is investigating and developing mixed-metal materials for their electrodes that could ultimately reduce the lifetime cost of flow batteries because they are more durable and long-lasting than electrodes found in traditional batteries. Using these electrodes, Primus Power’s flow batteries can be grouped together into robust, containerized storage pods for use by utilities, renewable energy developers, businesses, and campuses.

  6. Micro fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Zook, L.A.; Vanderborgh, N.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hockaday, R. [Energy Related Devices Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1998-12-31

    An ambient temperature, liquid feed, direct methanol fuel cell device is under development. A metal barrier layer was used to block methanol crossover from the anode to the cathode side while still allowing for the transport of protons from the anode to the cathode. A direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is an electrochemical engine that converts chemical energy into clean electrical power by the direct oxidation of methanol at the fuel cell anode. This direct use of a liquid fuel eliminates the need for a reformer to convert the fuel to hydrogen before it is fed into the fuel cell.

  7. Chemical Technology Division, Annual technical report, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1991 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for fluidized-bed combustion and coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics; (3) methods for treatment of hazardous and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste streams; (6) recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR); (7) processes for removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors and burnup in IFRs; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources; chemistry of superconducting oxides and other materials of interest with technological application; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, catalysis, and high-temperature superconductivity; and the geochemical processes involved in water-rock interactions occurring in active hydrothermal systems. In addition, the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the technical programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).

  8. Chemical Technology Division, Annual technical report, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division`s activities during 1991 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for fluidized-bed combustion and coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics; (3) methods for treatment of hazardous and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste streams; (6) recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR); (7) processes for removal of actinides in spent fuel from commercial water-cooled nuclear reactors and burnup in IFRs; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources; chemistry of superconducting oxides and other materials of interest with technological application; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, catalysis, and high-temperature superconductivity; and the geochemical processes involved in water-rock interactions occurring in active hydrothermal systems. In addition, the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the technical programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).

  9. Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Fleet Deployment Projects Final Technical Report May 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Klingler, James J

    2014-05-06

    The overall objectives of this project were to evaluate the performance, operability and safety of fork lift trucks powered by fuel cells in large distribution centers. This was accomplished by replacing the batteries in over 350 lift trucks with fuel cells at five distribution centers operated by GENCO. The annual cost savings of lift trucks powered by fuel cell power units was between $2,400 and $5,300 per truck compared to battery powered lift trucks, excluding DOE contributions. The greatest savings were in fueling labor costs where a fuel cell powered lift truck could be fueled in a few minutes per day compared to over an hour for battery powered lift trucks which required removal and replacement of batteries. Lift truck operators where generally very satisfied with the performance of the fuel cell power units, primarily because there was no reduction in power over the duration of a shift as experienced with battery powered lift trucks. The operators also appreciated the fast and easy fueling compared to the effort and potential risk of injury associated with switching heavy batteries in and out of lift trucks. There were no safety issues with the fueling or operation of the fuel cells. Although maintenance costs for the fuel cells were higher than for batteries, these costs are expected to decrease significantly in the next generation of fuel cells, making them even more cost effective.

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Mechanistic Investigation for the Rechargeable Li-Sulfur Batteries

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by University of Wisconsin - Madison at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Development of a PHEV Battery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Xerion Advanced Battery Corp. at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about development of...

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Statically and Dynamically Stable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by University of Texas at Austin  at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy High Power Battery Exceeding PHEV-40 Requirements

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by TIAX LLC at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy high power battery...

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Energy High Power Battery Exceeding PHEV-40 Requirements

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by [company name] at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy high power battery...

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Envia Systems at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy lithium batteries...

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Process Development and Scale-Up of Critical Battery Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Post-Test Analysis of Lithium-Ion Battery Materials

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Next Generation Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries: Overview

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Overview and Progress of Applied Battery Research (ABR) Activities

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Department of Energy (DOE) at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Lithium Batteries for PHEV Applications

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Envia at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy lithium batteries for PHEV...

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Energy Lithium Batteries for PHEV Applications

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by [company name] at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy lithium batteries...

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: High Energy Density Lithium Battery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Binghamton University-SUNY at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  3. Battery separator assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, M.A.; Suchanski, M.R.; Osterhoudt, H.W.

    1988-05-03

    A separator assembly for use in batteries is described comprising a film bearing a thermal fuse in the form of a layer of wax coated fibers; wherein the assembly is sufficiently porous to allow continuous flow of ions in the battery.

  4. Battery Particle Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-15

    Two simulations show the differences between a battery being drained at a slower rate, over a full hour, versus a faster rate, only six minutes (a tenth of an hour). In both cases battery particles go from being fully charged (green) to fully drained (red), but there are significant differences in the patterns of discharge based on the rate.

  5. Advancement Of Tritium Powered Betavoltaic Battery Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Staack, G.; Gaillard, J.; Hitchcock, D.; Peters, B.; Colon-Mercado, H.; Teprovich, J.; Coughlin, J.; Neikirk, K.; Fisher, C.

    2015-10-14

    Due to their decades-long service life and reliable power output under extreme conditions, betavoltaic batteries offer distinct advantages over traditional chemical batteries, especially in applications where frequent battery replacement is hazardous, or cost prohibitive. Although many beta emitting isotopes exist, tritium is considered ideal in betavoltaic applications for several reasons: 1) it is a “pure” beta emitter, 2) the beta is not energetic enough to damage the semiconductor, 3) it has a moderately long half-life, and 4) it is readily available. Unfortunately, the widespread application of tritium powered betavoltaics is limited, in part, by their low power output. This research targets improving the power output of betavoltaics by increasing the flux of beta particles to the energy conversion device (the p-n junction) through the use of low Z nanostructured tritium trapping materials.

  6. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report, November 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  7. Development of Molten Corium Using An Exothermic Chemical Reaction for the Molten- Fuel Moderator-Interaction Studies at Chalk River Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Nitheanandan, T.; Sanderson, D.B.; Kyle, G.; Farmer, M.

    2004-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has partnered with Argonne National Laboratory to develop a corium thermite prototypical of Candu material and test the concept of ejecting {approx}25 kg of the molten material from a pressure tube with a driving pressure of 10 MPa. This development program has been completed and the technology transferred to AECL. Preparation for the molten-fuel moderator-interaction tests at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories is well underway. A mixture of 0.582 U/0.077 U{sub 3}O{sub 8}/0.151 Zr/0.19 CrO{sub 3} (wt%) as reactant chemicals has been demonstrated to produce a corium consisting of 0.73 UO{sub 2}/0.11 Zr/0.06 ZrO{sub 2}/0.10 Cr (wt%) at {approx}2400 deg. C. This is comparable to the target Candu specific corium of 0.9 UO{sub 2}/0.1 Zr (wt%), with limited oxidation. The peak melt temperature was confirmed from small-scale thermitic reaction tests. Several small-scale tests were completed to qualify the thermite to ensure operational safety and a quantifiable experimental outcome. The proposed molten-fuel moderator-interaction experiments at Chalk River Laboratories will consist of heating the thermite mixture inside a 1.14-m long insulated pressure tube. Once the molten material has reached the desired temperature of {approx}2400 deg. C, the pressure inside the tube will be raised to about 10 MPa, and the pressure tube will fail at a pre-machined flaw, ejecting the molten material into the surrounding tank of water. The test apparatus, instrumentation, data acquisition and control systems have been assembled, and a series of successful commissioning tests have been completed. (authors)

  8. Low Temperature Sodium-Sulfur Grid Storage and EV Battery - Energy

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Energy Storage Energy Storage Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Low Temperature Sodium-Sulfur Grid Storage and EV Battery Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Berkeley Lab researcher Gao Liu has developed an innovative design for a battery, made primarily of sodium and sulfur, that

  9. Internal Short Circuit Device for Improved Lithium-Ion Battery Design -

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Internal Short Circuit Device for Improved Lithium-Ion Battery Design National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication NREL Internal Short Circuit (ISC) Fact Sheet (321 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Energy storage cells (also referred to herein as "cells" or "batteries") sold for

  10. Chemical Engineering Division fuel cycle programs. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1979. [Pyrochemical/dry processing; waste encapsulation in metal; transport in geologic media

    SciTech Connect

    Steindler, M.J.; Ader, M.; Barletta, R.E.

    1980-09-01

    For pyrochemical and dry processing materials development included exposure to molten metal and salt of Mo-0.5% Ti-0.07% Ti-0.01% C, Mo-30% W, SiC, Si/sub 2/ON/sub 2/, ZrB/sub 2/-SiC, MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, AlN, HfB/sub 2/, Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/, BeO, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/, nickel nitrate-infiltrated W, W-coated Mo, and W-metallized alumina-yttria. Work on Th-U salt transport processing included solubility of Th in liquid Cd, defining the Cd-Th and Cd-Mg-Th phase diagrams, ThO/sub 2/ reduction experiments, and electrolysis of CaO in molten salt. Work on pyrochemical processes and associated hardware for coprocessing U and Pu in spent FBR fuels included a second-generation computer model of the transport process, turntable transport process design, work on the U-Cu-Mg system, and U and Pu distribution coefficients between molten salt and metal. Refractory metal vessels are being service-life tested. The chloride volatility processing of Th-based fuel was evaluated for its proliferation resistance, and a preliminary ternary phase diagram for the Zn-U-Pu system was computed. Material characterization and process analysis were conducted on the Exportable Pyrochemical process (Pyro-Civex process). Literature data on oxidation of fissile metals to oxides were reviewed. Work was done on chemical bases for the reprocessing of actinide oxides in molten salts. Flowsheets are being developed for the processing of fuel in molten tin. Work on encapsulation of solidified radioactive waste in metal matrix included studies of leach rate of crystalline waste materials and of the impact resistance of metal-matrix waste forms. In work on the transport properties of nuclear waste in geologic media, adsorption of Sr on oolitic limestone was studied, as well as the migration of Cs in basalt. Fitting of data on the adsorption of iodate by hematite to a mathematical model was attempted.

  11. An Inexpensive Aqueous Flow Battery for Large-Scale Electrical Energy Storage Based on Water-Soluble Organic Redox Couples

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, B; Hoober-Burkhardt, L; Wang, F; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2014-05-21

    We introduce a novel Organic Redox Flow Battery (ORBAT), for Meeting the demanding requirements of cost, eco-friendliness, and durability for large-scale energy storage. ORBAT employs two different water-soluble organic redox couples on the positive and negative side of a flow battery. Redox couples such as quinones are particularly attractive for this application. No precious metal catalyst is needed because of the fast proton-coupled electron transfer processes. Furthermore, in acid media, the quinones exhibit good chemical stability. These properties render quinone-based redox couples very attractive for high-efficiency metal-free rechargeable batteries. We demonstrate the rechargeability of ORBAT with anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid or anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid on the negative side, and 1,2-dihydrobenzoquinone- 3,5-disulfonic acid on the positive side. The ORBAT cell uses a membrane-electrode assembly configuration similar to that used in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Such a battery can be charged and discharged multiple times at high faradaic efficiency without any noticeable degradation of performance. We show that solubility and mass transport properties of the reactants and products are paramount to achieving high current densities and high efficiency. The ORBAT configuration presents a unique opportunity for developing an inexpensive and sustainable metal-free rechargeable battery for large-scale electrical energy storage. (C) The Author(s) 2014. Published by ECS. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (CC BY, http://creativecommons.orgilicenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse of the work in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. All rights reserved.

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Definition AFVs include vehicles propelled to a significant extent by electricity from a battery that has a capacity of at least four kilowatt-hours and can be recharged from an external source and vehicles propelled solely by compressed natural gas, hydrogen, or propane and that meet or exceed Tier 2, Bin 2 federal exhaust emissions standards. (Reference Nevada Revised Statutes 484A.196 through 484A.197

  13. Solar Thermal Energy Storage Device: Hybrid Nanostructures for High-Energy-Density Solar Thermal Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-09

    HEATS Project: MIT is developing a thermal energy storage device that captures energy from the sun; this energy can be stored and released at a later time when it is needed most. Within the device, the absorption of sunlight causes the solar thermal fuels photoactive molecules to change shape, which allows energy to be stored within their chemical bonds. A trigger is applied to release the stored energy as heat, where it can be converted into electricity or used directly as heat. The molecules would then revert to their original shape, and can be recharged using sunlight to begin the process anew. MITs technology would be 100% renewable, rechargeable like a battery, and emissions-free. Devices using these solar thermal fuelscalled Hybrisolcan also be used without a grid infrastructure for applications such as de-icing, heating, cooking, and water purification.

  14. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Saver

    Breakout Session Report | Department of Energy Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries Breakout Session Report Breakout session presentation for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge: Battery Workshop on July 26, 2012 held at the Doubletree OHare, Chicago, IL. report_out-next-generation_li-ion_b.pdf (136.48 KB) More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion

  15. Fuel Cells | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Fuel Cells Fuel Cells A fuel cell uses the chemical energy of hydrogen or another fuel to cleanly and efficiently produce electricity. If hydrogen is the fuel, electricity, water, and heat are the only products. Fuel cells are unique in terms of the variety of their potential applications; they can provide power for systems as large as a utility power station and as small as a laptop computer. Why Study Fuel Cells Fuel cells can be used in a wide range of applications, including transportation,

  16. Commercialization of proton exchange membrane fuel cells for transportation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wismer, L.

    1996-04-01

    Environmental concerns with air quality and global warming have triggered strict federal ambient ozone air quality standards. Areas on non-attainment of these standards exist across the United States. Because it contains several of the most difficult attainment areas, the State of California has adopted low emission standards including a zero emission vehicle mandate that has given rise to development of hybrid electric vehicles, both battery-powered and fuel-cell powered. Fuel cell powered vehicles, using on-board hydrogen as a fuel, share the non-polluting advantage of the battery electric vehicle while offering at least three times the range today`s battery technology.

  17. Polymeric battery separators

    SciTech Connect

    Minchak, R. J.; Schenk, W. N.

    1985-06-11

    Configurations of cross-linked or vulcanized amphophilic or quaternized block copolymer of haloalkyl epoxides and hydroxyl terminated alkadiene polymers are useful as battery separators in both primary and secondary batteries, particularly nickel-zinc batteries. The quaternized block copolymers are prepared by polymerizing a haloalkyl epoxide in the presence of a hydroxyl terminated 1,3-alkadiene to form a block copolymer that is then reacted with an amine to form the quaternized or amphophilic block copolymer that is then cured or cross-linked with sulfur, polyamines, metal oxides, organic peroxides and the like.

  18. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Yahnke, M.S.; Shlomo, G.; Anderson, M.A.

    1994-08-30

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range. 2 figs.

  19. BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

  20. Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Batteries Batteries A small New York City startup is hoping it has the next big solution in energy storage. A video documents what the company's breakthrough means for the future of grid-scale energy storage. Learn more. Batteries have changed a lot in the past century, but there is still work to do. Improving this type of energy storage technology will have dramatic impacts on the way Americans travel and the ability to incorporate renewable energy into the nation's electric grid. On the

  1. Design, Synthesis, and Mechanistic Evaluation of Iron-Based Catalysis for Synthesis Gas Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Akio Ishikawa; Manuel Ojeda; Enrique Iglesia

    2005-09-30

    This project extends previously discovered Fe-based catalysts to hydrogen-poor synthesis gas streams derived from coal and biomass sources. These catalysts have shown unprecedented Fischer-Tropsch synthesis rate, selectivity for feedstocks consisting of synthesis gas derived from methane. During the first reporting period, we certified a microreactor, installed required analytical equipment, and reproduced synthetic protocols and catalytic results previously reported. During the second reporting period, we prepared several Fe-based compositions for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and tested the effects of product recycle under both subcritical and supercritical conditions. During the third reporting period, we improved the catalysts preparation method, which led to Fe-based FT catalysts with the highest FTS reaction rates and selectivities so far reported, a finding that allowed their operation at lower temperatures and pressures with high selectivity to desired products (C{sub 5+}, olefins). During this fourth reporting period, we have determined the effects of different promoters on catalytic performance. More specifically, we have found that the sequence in which promoters are introduced has a marked positive impact on rates and selectivities. Cu or Ru chemical promoters should be impregnated before K to achieve higher Fischer-Tropsch synthesis rates. The catalyst prepared in this way was evaluated for 240 h, showing a high catalytic activity and stability after an initial period of time necessary for the formation of the active phases. Concurrently, we are studying optimal activation procedures, which involve the reduction and carburization of oxide precursors during the early stages of contact with synthesis gas. Activation at low temperatures (523 K), made possible by optimal introduction of Cu or Ru, leads to lower catalyst surface area than higher activation temperatures, but to higher reaction rates, because such low temperatures avoid concurrent deactivation

  2. Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow, Helps Make Safer, Longer-lasting Batteries Colorado: Isothermal Battery Calorimeter Quantifies Heat Flow, Helps Make ...

  3. GP Batteries International Limited | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    International Limited is principally engaged in the development, manufacture and marketing of batteries and battery-related products. References: GP Batteries International...

  4. Laor Batteries Ltd | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Laor Batteries Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Laor Batteries Ltd. Place: Upper Nazareth, Israel Zip: 17105 Product: develops and distributes lead-acid batteries for variety...

  5. Aerospatiale Batteries ASB | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Aerospatiale Batteries ASB Jump to: navigation, search Name: Aerospatiale Batteries (ASB) Place: France Product: Research, design and manufacture of Thermal Batteries. References:...

  6. Advanced Battery Factory | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Battery Factory Place: Shen Zhen City, Guangdong Province, China Product: Producers of lithium polymer batteries, established in 1958. References: Advanced Battery Factory1 This...

  7. Ningbo Veken Battery Company | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    search Name: Ningbo Veken Battery Company Place: China Product: Ningbo-based maker of Lithium polymer, aluminum-shell and lithium power batteries. References: Ningbo Veken Battery...

  8. Hierarchically Structured Materials for Lithium Batteries (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hierarchically Structured Materials for Lithium Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hierarchically Structured Materials for Lithium Batteries Lithium-ion battery ...

  9. PHEV Battery Cost Assessment | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    es02barnett.pdf (615.99 KB) More Documents & Publications PHEV Battery Cost Assessment PHEV Battery Cost Assessment PHEV and LEESS Battery Cost Assessment

  10. RPM Flywheel Battery | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    RPM Flywheel Battery Jump to: navigation, search Name: RPM Flywheel Battery Place: California Product: Start-up planning to develop, produce, and market flywheel batteries for...

  11. Ford Electric Battery Group | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Electric Battery Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ford Electric Battery Group Place: Dearborn, MI References: Ford Battery1 Information About Partnership with NREL...

  12. Carbon Micro Battery LLC | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Micro Battery LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Micro Battery, LLC Place: California Sector: Carbon Product: Carbon Micro Battery, LLC, technology developer of micro and...

  13. Intellect Battery Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Intellect Battery Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Intellect Battery Co Ltd Place: Guangdong Province, China Product: Producer of NiMH rechargeable batteries and...

  14. NERSC Helps Develop Next-Gen Batteries

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    NERSC Helps Develop Next-Gen Batteries NERSC Helps Develop Next-Gen Batteries A genomics approach to materials research could speed up advancements in battery performance December ...

  15. Predictive Models of Li-ion Battery Lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Kim, Gi-heon; Shi, Ying; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-06-15

    It remains an open question how best to predict real-world battery lifetime based on accelerated calendar and cycle aging data from the laboratory. Multiple degradation mechanisms due to (electro)chemical, thermal, and mechanical coupled phenomena influence Li-ion battery lifetime, each with different dependence on time, cycling and thermal environment. The standardization of life predictive models would benefit the industry by reducing test time and streamlining development of system controls.

  16. Autogenic Pressure Reactions for Battery Materials Manufacture | Argonne

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Autogenic Pressure Reactions for Battery Materials Manufacture Technology available for licensing: A unique method for anode and cathode manufacture A one-step, solvent-free reaction for producing unique electrode materials that do not need further chemical processing treatment Offers the ability to smooth current distribution at the anode surface when charging Li-ion batteries, thereby reducing the risk of lithium dendrites, short circuits and resulting fire PDF icon

  17. An Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered Material

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Handling Equipment | Department of Energy An Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered Material Handling Equipment An Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered Material Handling Equipment This report by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory discusses an analysis of the total cost of ownership of fuel cell-powered and traditional battery-powered material handling equipment, including the capital costs of battery and fuel cell systems, the cost of

  18. 1998 Chemical Technology Division Annual Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, J.P.; Einziger, R.E.; Gay, E.C.; Green, D.W.; Miller, J.F.

    1999-08-06

    The Chemical Technology (CMT) Division is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. The Division conducts research and development in three general areas: (1) development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, (2) management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and (3) electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, and the chemistry of technology-relevant materials. In addition, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division's activities during 1998 are presented.

  19. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The Chemical Technology (CMT) Division is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. The Division conducts research and development in three general areas: (1) development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, (2) management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and (3) electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, and the chemistry of technology-relevant materials and electrified interfaces. In addition, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division`s activities during 1997 are presented.

  20. Method and apparatus for measuring the state of charge in a battery based on volume of battery components

    DOEpatents

    Rouhani, S. Zia

    1996-10-22

    The state of charge of electrochemical batteries of different kinds is determined by measuring the incremental change in the total volume of the reactive masses in the battery. The invention is based on the principle that all electrochemical batteries, either primary or secondary (rechargeable), produce electricity through a chemical reaction with at least one electrode, and the chemical reactions produce certain changes in the composition and density of the electrode. The reactive masses of the electrodes, the electrolyte, and any separator or spacers are usually contained inside a battery casing of a certain volume. As the battery is used, or recharged, the specific volume of at least one of the electrode masses will change and, since the masses of the materials do not change considerably, the total volume occupied by at least one of the electrodes will change. These volume changes may be measured in many different ways and related to the state of charge in the battery. In one embodiment, the volume change can be measured by monitoring the small changes in one of the principal dimensions of the battery casing as it expands or shrinks to accommodate the combined volumes of its components.

  1. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division's activities during 1986 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in areas that include the following: (1) high-performance batteries - mainly lithium-alloy/metal sulfide and sodium/sulfur; (2) aqueous batteries (lead-acid, nickel/iron, etc.); (3) advanced fuel cells with molten carbonate or solid oxide electrolytes; (4) coal utilization, including the heat and seed recovery technology for coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics plants, the technology for fluidized-bed combustion, and a novel concept for CO/sub 2/ recovery from fossil fuel combustion; (5) methods for recovery of energy from municipal waste; (6) methods for the electromagnetic continuous casting of steel sheet; (7) techniques for treatment of hazardous waste such as reactive metals and trichloroethylenes; (8) nuclear technology related to waste management, a process for separating and recovering transuranic elements from nuclear waste, and the recovery processes for discharged fuel and the uranium blanket in a sodium-cooled fast reactor; and (9) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also has a program in basic chemistry research in the areas of catalytic hydrogenation and catalytic oxidation; materials chemistry for associated and ordered solutions at high temperatures; interfacial processes of importance to corrosion science, surface science, and catalysis; the thermochemistry of zeolites and related silicates; and the geochemical processes responsible for trace-element migration within the earth's crust. The Division continued to be the major user of the technical support provided by the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at ANL. 127 refs., 71 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Thermal battery degradation mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Missert, Nancy A.; Brunke, Lyle Brent

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse reflectance IR spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to investigate the effect of accelerated aging on LiSi based anodes in simulated MC3816 batteries. DRIFTS spectra showed that the oxygen, carbonate, hydroxide and sulfur content of the anodes changes with aging times and temperatures, but not in a monotonic fashion that could be correlated to phase evolution. Bands associated with sulfur species were only observed in anodes taken from batteries aged in wet environments, providing further evidence for a reaction pathway facilitated by H2S transport from the cathode, through the separator, to the anode. Loss of battery capacity with accelerated aging in wet environments was correlated to loss of FeS2 in the catholyte pellets, suggesting that the major contribution to battery performance degradation results from loss of active cathode material.

  3. battery2.indd

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... However, increase the temperature to 200C and the voltage drop is now a more agreeable 2 volts. Two batteries in parallel at 100C would drop 4 volts at 100C and render a ...

  4. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  5. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  6. Battery Life Predictive Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    2009-12-31

    The Software consists of a model used to predict battery capacity fade and resistance growth for arbitrary cycling and temperature profiles. It allows the user to extrapolate from experimental data to predict actual life cycle.

  7. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Dramatically Improve the Safety Performance of Li Ion Battery Separators and Reduce the Manufacturing Cost Using UV Curing and High Precision Coating Technologies

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Miltec UV International at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  9. Chemical Transformation - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    July 28, 2014, Research Highlights Formation of Interfacial Layer and Long-Term Cyclability of Li-O2 Batteries Identified key factors that affect the long term cycle life of Li-O2 batteries under full discharge/charge conditions. Read More Chemical Transformation July 8, 2014, Research Highlights The mechanisms of oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in nonaqueous lithium-oxygen batteries Superoxide radical anions (O2*-) are intermediates formed in non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries, which

  10. Battery packaging - Technology review

    SciTech Connect

    Maiser, Eric

    2014-06-16

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows 'lessons learned' in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

  11. battery2.indd

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    6-1982J Solid-State Environmentally Safe Battery for Replacing Lithium Batteries 1. Submitting Organization Sandia National Laboratories PO Box 5800, MS 1033 Albuquerque, NM USA 87158-1033 Randy A. Normann (505) 845-9675, (505) 844-3952 (fax), ranorma@sandia.gov Affi rmation I affi rm that all information submitted as a part of, or supplemental to, this entry is fair and accurate representation of this product. ________________________________________________________________ Submitter Signature

  12. Energy, Environmental, and Economic Analyses of Design Concepts for the Co-Production of Fuels and Chemicals with Electricity via Co-Gasification of Coal and Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Larson; Robert Williams; Thomas Kreutz; Ilkka Hannula; Andrea Lanzini; Guangjian Liu

    2012-03-11

    The overall objective of this project was to quantify the energy, environmental, and economic performance of industrial facilities that would coproduce electricity and transportation fuels or chemicals from a mixture of coal and biomass via co-gasification in a single pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier, with capture and storage of CO{sub 2} (CCS). The work sought to identify plant designs with promising (Nth plant) economics, superior environmental footprints, and the potential to be deployed at scale as a means for simultaneously achieving enhanced energy security and deep reductions in U.S. GHG emissions in the coming decades. Designs included systems using primarily already-commercialized component technologies, which may have the potential for near-term deployment at scale, as well as systems incorporating some advanced technologies at various stages of R&D. All of the coproduction designs have the common attribute of producing some electricity and also of capturing CO{sub 2} for storage. For each of the co-product pairs detailed process mass and energy simulations (using Aspen Plus software) were developed for a set of alternative process configurations, on the basis of which lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, Nth plant economic performance, and other characteristics were evaluated for each configuration. In developing each set of process configurations, focused attention was given to understanding the influence of biomass input fraction and electricity output fraction. Self-consistent evaluations were also carried out for gasification-based reference systems producing only electricity from coal, including integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification solid-oxide fuel cell (IGFC) systems. The reason biomass is considered as a co-feed with coal in cases when gasoline or olefins are co-produced with electricity is to help reduce lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for these systems. Storing biomass-derived CO

  13. Method and apparatus for indicating electric charge remaining in batteries based on electrode weight and center of gravity

    DOEpatents

    Rouhani, S. Zia

    1996-01-01

    In most electrochemical batteries which generate electricity through the reaction of a battery electrode with an electrolyte solution, the chemical composition, and thus the weight and density, of the electrode changes as the battery discharges. The invention measures a parameter of the battery which changes as the weight of the electrode changes as the battery discharges and relates that parameter to the value of the parameter when the battery is fully charged and when the battery is functionally discharged to determine the state-of-charge of the battery at the time the parameter is measured. In one embodiment, the weight of a battery electrode or electrode unit is measured to determine the state-of-charge. In other embodiments, where a battery electrode is located away from the geometrical center of the battery, the position of the center of gravity of the battery or shift in the position of the center of gravity of the battery is measured (the position of the center of gravity changes with the change in weight of the electrode) and indicates the state-of-charge of the battery.

  14. Method and apparatus for indicating electric charge remaining in batteries based on electrode weight and center of gravity

    DOEpatents

    Rouhani, S.Z.

    1996-12-03

    In most electrochemical batteries which generate electricity through the reaction of a battery electrode with an electrolyte solution, the chemical composition, and thus the weight and density, of the electrode changes as the battery discharges. The invention measures a parameter of the battery which changes as the weight of the electrode changes as the battery discharges and relates that parameter to the value of the parameter when the battery is fully charged and when the battery is functionally discharged to determine the state-of-charge of the battery at the time the parameter is measured. In one embodiment, the weight of a battery electrode or electrode unit is measured to determine the state-of-charge. In other embodiments, where a battery electrode is located away from the geometrical center of the battery, the position of the center of gravity of the battery or shift in the position of the center of gravity of the battery is measured (the position of the center of gravity changes with the change in weight of the electrode) and indicates the state-of-charge of the battery. 35 figs.

  15. Conductive polymeric compositions for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles A.; Xu, Wu

    2009-03-17

    Novel chain polymers comprising weakly basic anionic moieties chemically bound into a polyether backbone at controllable anionic separations are presented. Preferred polymers comprise orthoborate anions capped with dibasic acid residues, preferably oxalato or malonato acid residues. The conductivity of these polymers is found to be high relative to that of most conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes. The conductivity at high temperatures and wide electrochemical window make these materials especially suitable as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  16. Electricity Fuel Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Fuels » Electricity Fuel Basics Electricity Fuel Basics August 19, 2013 - 5:44pm Addthis Electricity used to power vehicles is generally provided by the electricity grid and stored in the vehicle's batteries. Vehicles that run on electricity have no tailpipe emissions. Emissions that can be attributed to electric vehicles are generated during electricity production at the power plant. Charging plug-in electric vehicles at home is as simple as plugging them into an electric outlet. Electric

  17. Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Reversible Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report Prepared for: U.S. Department of Energy Prepared by: Dr. Robert J. Remick National Renewable Energy Laboratory Mr. Douglas Wheeler DJW Technology YOU'RE INVITED  NREL WORKSHOP Reversible fuel cells operate like batteries and may be one solution to the problem of storing electricity generated by variable resources. This workshop will bring together subject matter experts and fuel cell developers to discuss the state-of- the-art and to draft a road

  18. Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Electric Forklift Trucks

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Fuel Cells and Electric Forklift Trucks Steve Medwin The Raymond Corporation December 10, 2008 Value Proposition and Fuel Cell Tax Credit * Federal fuel cell tax credit increased in "Bailout Bill" - $3000/kW or 30% of unit price whichever is less * Tax credits extended to 2016 * Has a significant impact on financial viability Sample Financial Analysis * Illustrate impact of key factors on value proposition - Tax credit - Labor rate - Battery change time - Productivity improvement *

  19. New sealed rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, B.M. ); Dowgiallo, E. ); Halpert, G. ); Matsuda, Y. ); Takehara, Z.I. )

    1993-01-01

    This conference was divided into the following sections: supercapacitors; nickel-metal hydride batteries; lithium polymer batteries; lithium/carbon batteries; cathode materials; and lithium batteries. Separate abstracts were prepared for the 46 papers of this conference.

  20. Nickel coated aluminum battery cell tabs

    SciTech Connect

    Bucchi, Robert S.; Casoli, Daniel J.; Campbell, Kathleen M.; Nicotina, Joseph

    2014-07-29

    A battery cell tab is described. The battery cell tab is anodized on one end and has a metal coating on the other end. Battery cells and methods of making battery cell tabs are also described.

  1. Category:Battery makers | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Battery makers Jump to: navigation, search Pages in category "Battery makers" The following 5 pages are in this category, out of 5 total. B Battery Ventures F Ford Electric Battery...

  2. Chemical compositions, methods of making the chemical compositions, and structures made from the chemical compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Lei; Cheng, Zhe; Liu, Ze; Liu, Meilin

    2015-01-13

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include chemical compositions, structures, anodes, cathodes, electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells, fuel cells, fuel cell membranes, separation membranes, catalytic membranes, sensors, coatings for electrolytes, electrodes, membranes, and catalysts, and the like, are disclosed.

  3. Chemical Technology Division annual technical report, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    Highlights of the Chemical Technology (CMT) Division`s activities during 1994 are presented. In this period, CMT conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) electrochemical technology, including advanced batteries and fuel cells; (2) technology for fluidized-bed combustion; (3) methods for treatment of hazardous waste and mixed hazardous/radioactive waste; (4) the reaction of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel under conditions expected for an unsaturated repository; (5) processes for separating and recovering transuranic elements from waste streams, concentrating radioactive waste streams with advanced evaporator technology, and producing {sup 99}Mo from low-enriched uranium for medical applications; (6) electrometallurgical treatment of the many different types of spent nuclear fuel in storage at Department of Energy sites; and (8) physical chemistry of selected materials in environments simulating those of fission and fusion energy systems. The Division also conducts basic research in catalytic chemistry associated with molecular energy resources and novel ceramic precursors; materials chemistry of superconducting oxides, electrified metal/solution interfaces, molecular sieve structures, and impurities in scrap copper and steel; and the geochemical processes involved in mineral/fluid interfaces and water-rock interactions occurring in active hydrothermal systems. In addition, the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory in CMT provides a broad range of analytical chemistry support services to the technical programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).

  4. Building Better Batteries for Long-Distance Driving and Faster-Charging

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Electronics | Department of Energy Better Batteries for Long-Distance Driving and Faster-Charging Electronics Building Better Batteries for Long-Distance Driving and Faster-Charging Electronics March 2, 2016 - 10:07am Addthis The colors show the uneven distribution of chemical elements on this particle's surface, which is key to its improved performance in batteries. | Courtesy of Brookhaven National Laboratory and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Karen McNulty Walsh Brookhaven National

  5. Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    More Documents & Publications Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings Development of ...

  6. Testimonials- Partnerships in Battery Technologies- CalBattery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Phil Roberts, CEO and Founder of California Lithium Battery (CalBattery), describes the new growth and development that was possible through partnering with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  7. Battery, heal thyself: Inventing self-repairing batteries | Argonne...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Battery, heal thyself: Inventing self-repairing batteries By Louise Lerner * January 11, 2012 Tweet EmailPrint Imagine dropping your phone on the hard concrete sidewalk-but when...

  8. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Fuels

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  9. A Surface Treatment for Improving Fuel-Cell Cathodes

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Unlike batteries, fuel cells don't run down when exhausted, ... be anything from solar-produced hydrogen to gassified coal. ... usually made of a perovskite oxide, under operating ...

  10. Battery Vent Mechanism And Method

    SciTech Connect

    Ching, Larry K. W.

    2000-02-15

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  11. Battery venting system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Casale, Thomas J.; Ching, Larry K. W.; Baer, Jose T.; Swan, David H.

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  12. Battery venting system and method

    DOEpatents

    Casale, T.J.; Ching, L.K.W.; Baer, J.T.; Swan, D.H.

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve. 8 figs.

  13. Microgrid Reliability Modeling and Battery Scheduling Using Stochastic Linear Programming

    SciTech Connect

    Cardoso, Goncalo; Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; DeForest, Nicholas; Barbosa-Povoa, Ana; Ferrao, Paulo

    2013-05-23

    This paper describes the introduction of stochastic linear programming into Operations DER-CAM, a tool used to obtain optimal operating schedules for a given microgrid under local economic and environmental conditions. This application follows previous work on optimal scheduling of a lithium-iron-phosphate battery given the output uncertainty of a 1 MW molten carbonate fuel cell. Both are in the Santa Rita Jail microgrid, located in Dublin, California. This fuel cell has proven unreliable, partially justifying the consideration of storage options. Several stochastic DER-CAM runs are executed to compare different scenarios to values obtained by a deterministic approach. Results indicate that using a stochastic approach provides a conservative yet more lucrative battery schedule. Lower expected energy bills result, given fuel cell outages, in potential savings exceeding 6percent.

  14. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Pratt, Richard M.

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  15. Sodium/nickel-chloride battery development

    SciTech Connect

    Redey, L.; Prakash, J.; Vissers, D.R.; Dowgiallo, E.J.

    1994-02-28

    The performance of the Ni/NiCl{sub 2} positive electrode for the Na/NiCl{sub 2} battery has been significantly improved compared to that of our earlier electrodes, representative for 1990. This improvement has been achieved by lowering the impedance and increasing the usable capacity through the use of chemical additives and a tailored electrode morphology. The improved electrode has excellent performance even at 250{degrees}C and can be recharged within one hour. The performance of this new electrode was measured by the conventional interrupted galvanostatic method and under simulated driving profiles. These measurements were used to project the performance of 40- to 60-kWh batteries built with this new electrode combined with the already highly developed sodium/{beta}{double_prime}-alumina negative electrode. These calculated results yielded a specific power of 150--400 W/kg and a specific energy of 110--200 Wh/kg for batteries with single-tube and bipolar cell designs. This high performance, along with the high cell voltage, mid-temperature operation, fast recharge capability, and short-circuited failure mode of the electrode couple, makes the Na/NiCl{sub 2} battery attractive for electric vehicle applications.

  16. Semi-Solid Flowable Battery Electrodes: Semi-Solid Flow Cells for Automotive and Grid-Level Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    BEEST Project: Scientists at 24M are crossing a Li-Ion battery with a fuel cell to develop a semi-solid flow battery. This system relies on some of the same basic chemistry as a standard Li-Ion battery, but in a flow battery the energy storage material is held in external tanks, so storage capacity is not limited by the size of the battery itself. The design makes it easier to add storage capacity by simply increasing the size of the tanks and adding more paste. In addition, 24M's design also is able to extract more energy from the semi-solid paste than conventional Li-Ion batteries. This creates a cost-effective, energy-dense battery that can improve the driving range of EVs or be used to store energy on the electric grid.

  17. Feasibility study for the recycling of nickel metal hydride electric vehicle batteries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sabatini, J.C.; Field, E.L.; Wu, I.C.; Cox, M.R.; Barnett, B.M.; Coleman, J.T.

    1994-01-01

    This feasibility study examined three possible recycling processes for two compositions (AB{sub 2} and AB{sub 5}) of nickel metal hydride electric vehicle batteries to determine possible rotes for recovering battery materials. Analysts examined the processes, estimated the costs for capital equipment and operation, and estimated the value of the reclaimed material. They examined the following three processes: (1) a chemical process that leached battery powders using hydrochloric acid, (2) a pyrometallurical process, and (3) a physical separation/chemical process. The economic analysis revealed that the physical separation/chemical process generated the most revenue.

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Efficient Rechargeable Li/O2 Batteries Utilizing Stable Inorganic Molten Salt Electrolytes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Liox at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about efficient rechargeable Li/O2 batteries...

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Development of Novel Electrolytes and Catalysts for Li-Air Batteries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Overview and Progress of the Battery Testing, Design and Analysis Activity

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by the Department of Energy's Energy Storage area at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about the battery testing, design, and analysis activity.