National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for fuel capable gasoline

  1. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Methodology For Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Pump Components The components for the gasoline and diesel fuel pumps are calculated in the following manner in cents per gallon and then converted into a percentage: Crude Oil - the monthly average of the composite refiner acquisition cost, which is the average price of crude oil purchased by refiners. Refining Costs & Profits - the difference between the monthly average of the spot price of gasoline or diesel fuel (used as a proxy for the value of

  2. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline Price Data Collection Procedures Every Monday, retail prices for all three grades of gasoline are collected by telephone from a sample of approximately 800 retail gasoline ...

  3. The Application of High Energy Ignition and Boosting/Mixing Technology to Increase Fuel Economy in Spark Ignition Gasoline Engines by Increasing EGR Dilution Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, Edward; Gough, Charles

    2015-07-07

    This report summarizes activities conducted in support of the project “The Application of High Energy Ignition and Boosting/Mixing Technology to Increase Fuel Economy in Spark Ignition Gasoline Engines by Increasing EGR Dilution Capability” under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-EE0005654, as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated May 2012.

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Gasoline Cars Work?

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Gasoline Cars Work? to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Gasoline Cars Work? on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Gasoline Cars Work? on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Gasoline Cars Work? on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Gasoline Cars Work? on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Gasoline Cars Work? on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Gasoline

  5. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Annual Energy Outlook

    February 16, 2016 Reformulated Gasoline States in each PADD Region Procedures & Methodology Gasoline Data collection procedures Sampling methodology Coefficient of variation...

  6. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: ...

  7. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Detailed Price and CV Report Motor Gasoline Prices & Coefficients of Variation Spreadsheet

  8. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Learn more... Price trends and regional differences What causes fluctuations in motor gasoline prices? Retail gasoline prices are mainly affected by crude oil prices and the level of gasoline supply relative to demand. Strong and increasing demand for gasoline and other petroleum products in the United States and the rest of the world at times places intense pressure on available supplies. Even when crude oil prices are stable... read more in Gasoline Explained What causes fluctuations in diesel

  9. The Performance of Gasoline Fuels and Surrogates in Gasoline HCCI Combustion

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Almost 2 dozen gasoline fuels, blending components, and surrogates were evaluated in a single-cylinder HCCI gasoline engine for combustion, emissions, and efficiency performance.

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Fleet Reduces Gasoline and Diesel

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Use Michigan Fleet Reduces Gasoline and Diesel Use to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Fleet Reduces Gasoline and Diesel Use on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Fleet Reduces Gasoline and Diesel Use on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Fleet Reduces Gasoline and Diesel Use on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Fleet Reduces Gasoline and Diesel Use on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data

  11. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Retail motor gasoline city definitions The table below shows the counties included in the sampling area for the ten cities that EIA publishes retail motor gasoline prices for. EIA does not have gasoline prices by county. City Counties included Boston Barnstable County, MA Bristol County, MA Dukes County, MA Essex County, MA Hillsborough County, NH Merrimack County, NH Middlesex County, MA Nantucket County, MA Norfolk County, MA Plymouth County, MA Rockingham County, NH Strafford County, NH

  12. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Annual Energy Outlook

    ... Sold for Local Consumption", and demographic data from the Bureau of the Census and Department of Transportation on population, number of gasoline stations and number of vehicles. ...

  13. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Procedures, Methodology, and Coefficients of Variation Gasoline price data collection procedures Every Monday, retail prices for all three grades of gasoline are collected by telephone from a sample of approximately 800 retail gasoline outlets. The prices are published around 5:00 p.m. ET Monday, except on government holidays, when the data are released on Tuesday (but still represent Monday's price). The reported price includes all taxes and is the pump price paid by a consumer as of 8:00 a.m.

  14. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Energy Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting ace063_smith_2012_o.pdf (1.91 MB) More Documents & Publications Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car PHEV Engine and Aftertreatment Model Development

  15. Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline and Diesel HECC on a Multi-Cylinder Light Duty Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions Performance of Dual-Fuel Gasoline ...

  16. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    On-Highway Diesel Fuel Prices & Coefficients of Variation Report

  17. Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  18. Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  19. Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  20. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline Pump Components History WHAT WE PAY FOR IN A GALLON OF REGULAR GASOLINE Mon-yr Retail Price (Dollars per gallon) Refining (percentage) Distribution & Marketing (percentage) Taxes (percentage) Crude Oil (percentage) Jan-00 1.289 7.8 13.0 32.1 47.1 Feb-00 1.377 17.9 7.5 30.1 44.6 Mar-00 1.517 15.4 12.8 27.3 44.6 Apr-00 1.465 10.1 20.2 28.3 41.4 May-00 1.485 20.2 9.2 27.9 42.7 Jun-00 1.633 22.2 8.8 25.8 43.1 Jul-00 1.551 13.2 15.8 27.2 43.8 Aug-00 1.465 15.8 7.5 28.8 47.8 Sep-00 1.550

  1. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Annual Energy Outlook

    These data are made available through EIA's hotline (202-586-6966), EIA's web page, and through EIA's email notification, regular and wireless. Previous Diesel Fuel Price Data ...

  2. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Annual Energy Outlook

    to the States covered by each primary publication cell. The distribution of allocations was proportional to the annual State total volume of retail on-highway diesel fuel sales. ...

  3. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Procedures, Methodology, and Coefficients of Variation Diesel Fuel Price Data Collection Procedures Every Monday, cash self-serve on-highway diesel prices (including taxes) are collected from a sample of approximately 400 retail diesel outlets in the continental U.S. The sample includes a combination of truck stops and service stations that sell on-highway diesel fuel. The data represent the price of ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) which contains less than 15 parts-per-million sulfur. The prices

  4. The Application of High Energy Ignition and Boosting/Mixing Technology to Increase Fuel Economy in Spark Ignition Gasoline Engines by Increasing EGR Dilution Capability

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  5. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Diesel Fuel Pump Components History WHAT WE PAY FOR IN A GALLON OF DIESEL FUEL Mon-yr Retail Price (Dollars per gallon) Refining (percentage) Distribution & Marketing (percentage) Taxes (percentage) Crude Oil (percentage) May-02 1.305 5.1 11.3 36.9 46.6 Jun-02 1.286 6.6 11.2 37.5 44.7 Jul-02 1.299 5.3 12.1 37.1 45.5 Aug-02 1.328 8.6 7.8 36.3 47.4 Sep-02 1.411 12.0 7.5 34.2 46.3 Oct-02 1.462 11.4 10.9 33 44.8 Nov-02 1.420 12.0 12.8 33.9 41.2 Dec-02 1.429 12.7 9.3 33.7 44.3 Jan-03 1.488 10.7

  6. Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    District and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Sales to End Users Sales for Resale...

  7. Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) ...

  8. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ace063smith2013o.pdf More Documents & Publications Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel ...

  9. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update - Energy Information Administration

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ‹ See all petroleum reports Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update Gasoline Release Date: November 14, 2016 | Next Release Date: November 21, 2016 Diesel Fuel Release Date: November 14, 2016 | Next Release Date: November 21, 2016 Notice: Due to the pipeline disruption in the Southeast, the EPA and DOE have issued a waiver of the federal RFG requirements in the affected RFG areas in Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, and Virginia. These RFG areas may contain conventional gasoline

  10. Intermediate Alcohol-Gasoline Blends, Fuels for Enabling Increased Engine Efficiency and Powertrain Possibilities

    SciTech Connect

    Splitter, Derek A; Szybist, James P

    2014-01-01

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All fuels are operated to full-load conditions with =1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. The results demonstrate that higher octane number bio-fuels better utilize higher compression ratios with high stoichiometric torque capability. Specifically, the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with the 11.85:1 compression ratio using E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg at =1 (with 15% EGR, 18.5 bar with 0% EGR). EGR was shown to provide thermodynamic advantages with all fuels. The results demonstrate that E30 may further the downsizing and downspeeding of engines by achieving increased low speed torque, even with high compression ratios. The results suggest that at mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol-gasoline blends, and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

  11. Electric and Gasoline Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    1995-05-24

    EAGLES1.1 is PC-based interactive software for analyzing performance (e.g., maximum range) of electric vehicles (EVs) or fuel economy (e.g., miles/gallon) of gasoline vehicles (GVs). The EV model provides a second by second simulation of battery voltage and current for any specified vehicle velocity/time or power/time profile. It takes into account the effects of battery depth-of-discharge (DOD) and regenerative braking. The GV fuel economy model which relates fuel economy, vehicle parameters, and driving cycle characteristics, canmore » be used to investigate the effects of changes in vehicle parameters and driving patterns on fuel economy. For both types of vehicles, effects of heating/cooling loads on vehicle performance can be studied. Alternatively, the software can be used to determine the size of battery needed to satisfy given vehicle mission requirements (e.g., maximum range and driving patterns). Options are available to estimate the time necessary for a vehicle to reach a certain speed with the application of a specified constant power and to compute the fraction of time and/or distance in a drivng cycle for speeds exceeding a given value.« less

  12. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace063_smith_2011_o.pdf (1.81 MB) More Documents & Publications Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Cummins-ORNL\FEERC Emissions CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines, Self-Diagnosing

  13. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Energy 3 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting ace063_smith_2013_o.pdf (1.19 MB) More Documents & Publications Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Lean Miller Cycle System Development for Light-Duty Vehicles

  14. The Performance of Gasoline Fuels and Surrogates in Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    PDF icon p-05bunting.pdf More Documents & Publications APBF Effects on Combustion Fuel-Borne Reductants for NOx Aftertreatment: Preliminary EtOH SCR Study Combustion, Efficiency, ...

  15. Assessment of California reformulated gasoline impact on vehicle fuel economy

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S., LLNL

    1997-01-01

    Fuel economy data contained in the 1996 California Air Resources Board (CARB) report with respect to the introduction of California Reformulated Gasoline (CaRFG) has been examined and reanalyzed by two additional statistical methodologies. Additional data has also been analyzed by these two statistical approaches. Within the assumptions of the analysis, point estimates for the reduction in fuel economy using CaRFG as compared to conventional, non-reformulated gasoline were 2-4%, with a 95% upper confidence bound of 6%. Substantial variations in fuel economy are routine and inevitable due to additional factors which affect mileage, even if there is no change in fuel reformulation. This additional analysis confirms the conclusion reached by CARB with respect to the impact of CaRFG on fuel economy.

  16. Gasoline-fueled hybrid vs. conventional vehicle emissions and fuel economy.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.; Bharathan, D.; He, J.; Plotkin, S.; Santini, D.; Vyas, A.

    1999-06-18

    This paper addresses the relative fuel economy and emissions behavior, both measured and modeled, of technically comparable, contemporary hybrid and conventional vehicles fueled by gasoline, in terms of different driving cycles. Criteria pollutants (hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides) are discussed, and the potential emissions benefits of designing hybrids for grid connection are briefly considered. In 1997, Toyota estimated that their grid-independent hybrid vehicle would obtain twice the fuel economy of a comparable conventional vehicle on the Japan 10/15 mode driving cycle. This initial result, as well as the fuel economy level (66 mpg), made its way into the U.S. press. Criteria emissions amounting to one-tenth of Japanese standards were cited, and some have interpreted these results to suggest that the grid-independent hybrid can reduce criteria emissions in the U.S. more sharply than can a conventional gasoline vehicle. This paper shows that the potential of contemporary grid-independent hybrid vehicle technology for reducing emissions and fuel consumption under U.S. driving conditions is less than some have inferred. The importance (and difficulty) of doing test and model assessments with comparable driving cycles, comparable emissions control technology, and comparable performance capabilities is emphasized. Compared with comparable-technology conventional vehicles, grid-independent hybrids appear to have no clear criteria pollutant benefits (or disbenefits). (Such benefits are clearly possible with grid-connectable hybrids operating in zero emissions mode.) However, significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions (i.e., fuel consumption) are possible with hybrid vehicles when they are used to best advantage.

  17. Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Program Update

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses hardware and system development activities to achieve in-vehicle fuel economy and emissions performance improvements compared to a production baseline vehicle.

  18. Technical comparison between Hythane, GNG and gasoline fueled vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    This interim report documents progress on this 2-year Alternative Fuel project, scheduled to end early 1993. Hythane is 85 vol% compressed natural gas (CNG) and 15 vol% hydrogen; it has the potential to meet or exceed the California Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) standard. Three USA trucks (3/4 ton pickup) were operated on single fuel (unleaded gasoline, CNG, Hythane) in Denver. The report includes emission testing, fueling facility, hazard and operability study, and a framework for a national hythane strategy.

  19. Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Regimes | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Regimes Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Regimes 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting ft008_szybist_2012_o.pdf (1.87 MB) More Documents & Publications Gasoline-like fuel effects on advanced combustion regimes High Efficiency Clean Combustion in Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Engines Load Expansion of Stoichiometric HCCI Using Spark

  20. Fact #861 February 23, 2015 Idle Fuel Consumption for Selected Gasoline and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Diesel Vehicles - Dataset | Department of Energy 1 February 23, 2015 Idle Fuel Consumption for Selected Gasoline and Diesel Vehicles - Dataset Fact #861 February 23, 2015 Idle Fuel Consumption for Selected Gasoline and Diesel Vehicles - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Idle Fuel Consumption for Selected Gasoline and Diesel Vehicles fotw#861_web.xlsx (17.63 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact #917: March 21, 2016 Work Truck Daily Idle Time by Industry - Dataset Fact #916: March 14,

  1. Gasoline Ultra Efficient Fuel Vehicle with Advanced Low Temperature Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Confer, Keith

    2014-09-30

    The objective of this program was to develop, implement and demonstrate fuel consumption reduction technologies which are focused on reduction of friction and parasitic losses and on the improvement of thermal efficiency from in-cylinder combustion. The program was executed in two phases. The conclusion of each phase was marked by an on-vehicle technology demonstration. Phase I concentrated on short term goals to achieve technologies to reduce friction and parasitic losses. The duration of Phase I was approximately two years and the target fuel economy improvement over the baseline was 20% for the Phase I demonstration. Phase II was focused on the development and demonstration of a breakthrough low temperature combustion process called Gasoline Direct- Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI). The duration of Phase II was approximately four years and the targeted fuel economy improvement was 35% over the baseline for the Phase II demonstration vehicle. The targeted tailpipe emissions for this demonstration were Tier 2 Bin 2 emissions standards.

  2. Fuel Fabrication Capability Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Senor, David J.; Burkes, Douglas

    2013-06-28

    The purpose of this document is to provide a comprehensive review of the mission of the Fuel Fabrication Capability (FFC) within the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Convert Program, along with research and development (R&D) needs that have been identified as necessary to ensuring mission success. The design and fabrication of successful nuclear fuels must be closely linked endeavors.

  3. Fact #645: October 18, 2010 Price of Diesel Fuel versus Gasoline in Europe

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    | Department of Energy 5: October 18, 2010 Price of Diesel Fuel versus Gasoline in Europe Fact #645: October 18, 2010 Price of Diesel Fuel versus Gasoline in Europe A comparison between the average annual price of a gallon of gasoline and a gallon of highway diesel fuel in several European countries shows that a large change took place in 2008. In most of the selected countries, the price of gasoline was 30 to 95 cents higher than that of diesel from 2001 to 2007. In 2008, the price

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: The Application of High Energy Ignition and Boosting/Mixing Technology to Increase Fuel Economy in Spark Ignition Gasoline Engines by Increasing EGR Dilution Capability

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by General Motors LLC at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about the application of high...

  5. Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other Alcohols into Fungible Gasoline, Jet, and Diesel Fuel Blend Stocks

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other Alcohols into Fungible Gasoline, Jet, and Diesel Fuel Blend Stocks

  6. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Cars

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Stuart R.

    2013-11-25

    The General Motors and DOE cooperative agreement program DE-EE0003379 is completed. The program has integrated and demonstrated a lean-stratified gasoline engine, a lean aftertreatment system, a 12V Stop/Start system and an Active Thermal Management system along with the necessary controls that significantly improves fuel efficiency for small cars. The fuel economy objective of an increase of 25% over a 2010 Chevrolet Malibu and the emission objective of EPA T2B2 compliance have been accomplished. A brief review of the program, summarized from the narrative is: The program accelerates development and synergistic integration of four cost competitive technologies to improve fuel economy of a light-duty vehicle by at least 25% while meeting Tier 2 Bin 2 emissions standards. These technologies can be broadly implemented across the U.S. light-duty vehicle product line between 2015 and 2025 and are compatible with future and renewable biofuels. The technologies in this program are: lean combustion, innovative passive selective catalyst reduction lean aftertreatment, 12V stop/start and active thermal management. The technologies will be calibrated in a 2010 Chevrolet Malibu mid-size sedan for final fuel economy demonstration.

  7. Manufacturing fuel-switching capability, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Historically, about one-third of all energy consumed in the United States has been used by manufacturers. About one-quarter of manufacturing energy is used as feedstocks and raw material inputs that are converted into nonenergy products; the remainder is used for its energy content. During 1988, the most recent year for which data are available, manufacturers consumed 15.5 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) of energy to produce heat and power and to generate electricity. The manufacturing sector also has widespread capabilities to switch from one fuel to another for either economic or emergency reasons. There are numerous ways to define fuel switching. For the purposes of the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), fuel switching is defined as the capability to substitute one energy source for another within 30 days with no significant modifications to the fuel-consuming equipment, while keeping production constant. Fuel-switching capability allows manufacturers substantial flexibility in choosing their mix of energy sources. The consumption of a given energy source can be maximized if all possible switching into that energy source takes place. The estimates in this report are based on data collected on the 1988 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), Forms 846 (A through C). The EIA conducts this national sample survey of manufacturing energy consumption on a triennial basis. The MECS is the only comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries. The MECS was first conducted in 1986 to collect data for 1985. This report presents information on the fuel-switching capabilities of manufacturers in 1988. This report is the second of a series based on the 1988 MECS. 8 figs., 31 tabs.

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Regimes

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about gasoline-like...

  9. Fact #861 February 23, 2015 Idle Fuel Consumption for Selected Gasoline and Diesel Vehicles

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Based on a worksheet developed by Argonne National Laboratory, the idle fuel consumption rate for selected gasoline and diesel vehicles with no load (no use of accessories such as air conditioners,...

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Regimes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about gasoline-like...

  11. Fact #576: June 22, 2009 Carbon Dioxide from Gasoline and Diesel Fuel |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy 6: June 22, 2009 Carbon Dioxide from Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Fact #576: June 22, 2009 Carbon Dioxide from Gasoline and Diesel Fuel The amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere by a vehicle is primarily determined by the carbon content of the fuel. However, there is a small portion of the fuel that is not oxidized into carbon dioxide when the fuel is burned. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has published information on carbon dioxide emissions from

  12. Fuel Fabrication Capability Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Senor, David J.; Burkes, Douglas

    2014-04-17

    The purpose of this document is to provide a comprehensive review of the mission of the Fuel Fabrication Capability (FFC) within the Global Threat Reduction Initiative Convert Program, along with research and development (R&D) needs that have been identified as necessary to ensuring mission success. The design and fabrication of successful nuclear fuels must be closely linked endeavors. Therefore, the overriding motivation behind the FFC R&D program described in this plan is to foster closer integration between fuel design and fabrication to reduce programmatic risk. These motivating factors are all interrelated, and progress addressing one will aid understanding of the others. The FFC R&D needs fall into two principal categories, 1) baseline process optimization, to refine the existing fabrication technologies, and 2) manufacturing process alternatives, to evaluate new fabrication technologies that could provide improvements in quality, repeatability, material utilization, or cost. The FFC R&D Plan examines efforts currently under way in regard to coupon, foil, plate, and fuel element manufacturing, and provides recommendations for a number of R&D topics that are of high priority but not currently funded (i.e., knowledge gaps). The plan ties all FFC R&D efforts into a unified vision that supports the overall Convert Program schedule in general, and the fabrication schedule leading up to the MP-1 and FSP-1 irradiation experiments specifically. The fabrication technology decision gates and down-selection logic and schedules are tied to the schedule for fabricating the MP-1 fuel plates, which will provide the necessary data to make a final fuel fabrication process down-selection. Because of the short turnaround between MP-1 and the follow-on FSP-1 and MP-2 experiments, the suite of specimen types that will be available for MP-1 will be the same as those available for FSP-1 and MP-2. Therefore, the only opportunity to explore parameter space and alternative processing

  13. Leveraging National Lab Capabilities: 2014 Fuel Cell Seminar...

    Energy Saver

    Presented at the 2014 Fuel Cell Seminar and Energy Exposition, November 11, 2014, in Los Angeles, California. Leveraging National Lab Capabilities (1.96 MB) Brookhaven National ...

  14. Leveraging National Lab Capabilities in Fuel Cells and Electrochemical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Cells and Electrochemical Systems-Phoenix, Arizona Leveraging National Lab Capabilities in Fuel Cells and Electrochemical Systems-Phoenix, Arizona August 26, 2015 - 1:45pm ...

  15. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels; Phase 3: Effects of Winter Gasoline Volatility and Ethanol Content on Blend Flammability; Flammability Limits of Denatured Ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; Clark, W.

    2011-07-01

    This study assessed differences in headspace flammability for summertime gasolines and new high-ethanol content fuel blends. The results apply to vehicle fuel tanks and underground storage tanks. Ambient temperature and fuel formulation effects on headspace vapor flammability of ethanol/gasoline blends were evaluated. Depending on the degree of tank filling, fuel type, and ambient temperature, fuel vapors in a tank can be flammable or non-flammable. Pure gasoline vapors in tanks generally are too rich to be flammable unless ambient temperatures are extremely low. High percentages of ethanol blended with gasoline can be less volatile than pure gasoline and can produce flammable headspace vapors at common ambient temperatures. The study supports refinements of fuel ethanol volatility specifications and shows potential consequences of using noncompliant fuels. E85 is flammable at low temperatures; denatured ethanol is flammable at warmer temperatures. If both are stored at the same location, one or both of the tanks' headspace vapors will be flammable over a wide range of ambient temperatures. This is relevant to allowing consumers to splash -blend ethanol and gasoline at fueling stations. Fuels compliant with ASTM volatility specifications are relatively safe, but the E85 samples tested indicate that some ethanol fuels may produce flammable vapors.

  16. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update - Energy Information Administration

    Annual Energy Outlook

    U.S. On-Highway Diesel Fuel Prices* (dollars per gallon)full history Change from 032116 ... collected on a gallon of fuel that are paid to the federal, state, or local government. ...

  17. Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Regimes

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  18. Gasoline-like fuel effects on advanced combustion regimes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  19. HCCI experiments with gasoline surrogate fuels modeled by a semidetailed chemical kinetic model

    SciTech Connect

    Andrae, J.C.G.; Head, R.A.

    2009-04-15

    Experiments in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine have been conducted with four gasoline surrogate fuel blends. The pure components in the surrogate fuels consisted of n-heptane, isooctane, toluene, ethanol and diisobutylene and fuel sensitivities (RON-MON) in the fuel blends ranged from two to nine. The operating conditions for the engine were p{sub in}=0.1 and 0.2 MPa, T{sub in}=80 and 250 C, {phi}=0.25 in air and engine speed 1200 rpm. A semidetailed chemical kinetic model (142 species and 672 reactions) for gasoline surrogate fuels, validated against ignition data from experiments conducted in shock tubes for gasoline surrogate fuel blends at 1.0{<=} p{<=}5.0MPa, 700{<=} T{<=}1200 K and {phi}=1.0, was successfully used to qualitatively predict the HCCI experiments using a single zone modeling approach. The fuel blends that had higher fuel sensitivity were more resistant to autoignition for low intake temperature and high intake pressure and less resistant to autoignition for high intake temperature and low intake pressure. A sensitivity analysis shows that at high intake temperature the chemistry of the fuels ethanol, toluene and diisobutylene helps to advance ignition. This is consistent with the trend that fuels with the least Negative Temperature Coefficient (NTC) behavior show the highest octane sensitivity, and become less resistant to autoignition at high intake temperatures. For high intake pressure the sensitivity analysis shows that fuels in the fuel blend with no NTC behavior consume OH radicals and acts as a radical scavenger for the fuels with NTC behavior. This is consistent with the observed trend of an increase in RON and fuel sensitivity. With data from shock tube experiments in the literature and HCCI modeling in this work, a correlation between the reciprocal pressure exponent on the ignition delay to the fuel sensitivity and volume percentage of single-stage ignition fuel in the fuel blend was found. Higher fuel

  20. Volatility of Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    More Documents & Publications Preparation, Injection and Combustion of Supercritical Fluids Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing with the Advanced ...

  1. EAGLES 1.1: A microcomputer software package for analyzing fuel efficiency of electric and gasoline vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, W.M.

    1994-05-15

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s electric/hybrid vehicle research program, Argonne National Laboratory has developed a computer software package called EAGLES. This paper describes the capability of the software and its many features and potential applications. EAGLES version 1.1 is an interactive microcomputer software package for the analysis of battery performance in electric-vehicle applications, or the estimation of fuel economy for a gasoline vehicle. The principal objective of the electric-vehicle analysis is to enable the prediction of electric-vehicle performance (e.g., vehicle range) on the basis of laboratory test data for batteries. The model provides a second-by-second simulation of battery voltage and current for any specified velocity/time or power/time profile, taking into consideration the effects of battery depth-of-discharge and regenerative braking. Alternatively, the software package can be used to determine the size of the battery needed to satisfy given vehicle mission requirements (e.g., range and driving patterns). For gasoline-vehicle analysis, an empirical model relating fuel economy, vehicle parameters, and driving-cycle characteristics is included in the software package. For both types of vehicles, effects of heating/cooling loads on vehicle performance can be simulated. The software package includes many default data sets for vehicles, driving cycles, and battery technologies. EAGLES 1.1 is written in the FORTRAN language for use on IBM-compatible microcomputers.

  2. U.S. average gasoline and diesel fuel prices expected to be slightly lower in 2013 than in 2012

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    average gasoline and diesel fuel prices expected to be slightly lower in 2013 than in 2012 Despite the recent run-up in gasoline prices, the U.S. Energy Information Administration expects falling crude oil prices will lead to a small decline in average motor fuel costs this year compared with last year. The price for regular gasoline is expected to average $3.55 a gallon in 2013 and $3.39 next year, according to EIA's new Short-Term Energy Outlook. That's down from $3.63 a gallon in 2012. For

  3. Transportation capabilities study of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.L.; Johnson, R.A.; Smith, R.W.; Abbott, D.G.; Tyacke, M.J.

    1994-10-01

    This study evaluates current capabilities for transporting spent nuclear fuel owned by the US Department of Energy. Currently licensed irradiated fuel shipping packages that have the potential for shipping the spent nuclear fuel are identified and then matched against the various spent nuclear fuel types. Also included are the results of a limited investigation into other certified packages and new packages currently under development. This study is intended to support top-level planning for the disposition of the Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel inventory.

  4. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Surrogate Fuels for Gasoline and Application to an HCCI Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Naik, C V; Pitz, W J; Sj?berg, M; Dec, J E; Orme, J; Curran, H J; Simmie, J M; Westbrook, C K

    2005-01-07

    Gasoline consists of many different classes of hydrocarbons, such as paraffins, olefins, aromatics, and cycloalkanes. In this study, a surrogate gasoline reaction mechanism is developed, and it has one representative fuel constituent from each of these classes. These selected constituents are iso-octane, n-heptane, 1-pentene, toluene, and methyl-cyclohexane. The mechanism was developed in a step-wise fashion, adding submechanisms to treat each fuel component. Reactions important for low temperature oxidation (<1000K) and cross-reactions among different fuels are incorporated into the mechanism. The mechanism consists of 1214 species and 5401 reactions. A single-zone engine model is used to evaluate how well the mechanism captures autoignition behavior for conditions corresponding to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine operation. Experimental data are available for both how the combustion phasing changes with fueling at a constant intake temperature, and also how the intake temperature has to be changed with pressure in order to maintain combustion phasing for a fixed equivalence ratio. Three different surrogate fuel mixtures are used for the modeling. Predictions are in reasonably good agreement with the engine data. In addition, the heat release rate is calculated and compared to the data from experiments. The model predicts less low-temperature heat release than that measured. It is found that the low temperature heat-release rate depends strongly on engine speed, reactions of RO{sub 2}+HO{sub 2}, fuel composition, and pressure boost.

  5. Fuel cycle evaluations of biomass-ethanol and reformulated gasoline. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Tyson, K.S.

    1993-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is using the total fuel cycle analysis (TFCA) methodology to evaluate energy choices. The National Energy Strategy (NES) identifies TFCA as a tool to describe and quantify the environmental, social, and economic costs and benefits associated with energy alternatives. A TFCA should quantify inputs and outputs, their impacts on society, and the value of those impacts that occur from each activity involved in producing and using fuels, cradle-to-grave. New fuels and energy technologies can be consistently evaluated and compared using TFCA, providing a sound basis for ranking policy options that expand the fuel choices available to consumers. This study is limited to creating an inventory of inputs and outputs for three transportation fuels: (1) reformulated gasoline (RFG) that meets the standards of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) using methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE); (2) gasohol (E10), a mixture of 10% ethanol made from municipal solid waste (MSW) and 90% gasoline; and (3) E95, a mixture of 5% gasoline and 95% ethanol made from energy crops such as grasses and trees. The ethanol referred to in this study is produced from lignocellulosic material-trees, grass, and organic wastes -- called biomass. The biomass is converted to ethanol using an experimental technology described in more detail later. Corn-ethanol is not discussed in this report. This study is limited to estimating an inventory of inputs and outputs for each fuel cycle, similar to a mass balance study, for several reasons: (1) to manage the size of the project; (2) to provide the data required for others to conduct site-specific impact analysis on a case-by-case basis; (3) to reduce data requirements associated with projecting future environmental baselines and other variables that require an internally consistent scenario.

  6. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels, Phase 2: Evaluations of Field Samples and Laboratory Blends

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; LaViolette, M.

    2010-04-01

    Study to measure the flammability of gasoline/ethanol fuel vapors at low ambient temperatures and develop a mathematical model to predict temperatures at which flammable vapors were likely to form.

  7. Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Operating with In-Cylinder Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blending

    SciTech Connect

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Curran, Scott; Barone, Teresa L; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Storey, John Morse; Cho, Kukwon; Wagner, Robert M; Parks, II, James E

    2010-01-01

    Advanced combustion regimes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) offer benefits of reduced nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. However, these combustion strategies often generate higher carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. In addition, aldehydes and ketone emissions can increase in these modes. In this study, the engine-out emissions of a compression-ignition engine operating in a fuel reactivity- controlled PCCI combustion mode using in-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel fuel have been characterized. The work was performed on a 1.9-liter, 4-cylinder diesel engine outfitted with a port fuel injection system to deliver gasoline to the engine. The engine was operated at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) with the ratio of gasoline to diesel fuel that gave the highest engine efficiency and lowest emissions. Engine-out emissions for aldehydes, ketones and PM were compared with emissions from conventional diesel combustion. Sampling and analysis was carried out following micro-tunnel dilution of the exhaust. Particle geometric mean diameter, number-size distribution, and total number concentration were measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). For the particle mass measurements, samples were collected on Teflon-coated quartz-fiber filters and analyzed gravimetrically. Gaseous aldehydes and ketones were sampled using dinitrophenylhydrazine-coated solid phase extraction cartridges and the extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In addition, emissions after a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) were also measured to investigate the destruction of CO, HC and formaldehydes by the catalyst.

  8. An experimental study of fuel injection strategies in CAI gasoline engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hunicz, J.; Kordos, P.

    2011-01-15

    Combustion of gasoline in a direct injection controlled auto-ignition (CAI) single-cylinder research engine was studied. CAI operation was achieved with the use of the negative valve overlap (NVO) technique and internal exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR). Experiments were performed at single injection and split injection, where some amount of fuel was injected close to top dead centre (TDC) during NVO interval, and the second injection was applied with variable timing. Additionally, combustion at variable fuel-rail pressure was examined. Investigation showed that at fuel injection into recompressed exhaust fuel reforming took place. This process was identified via an analysis of the exhaust-fuel mixture composition after NVO interval. It was found that at single fuel injection in NVO phase, its advance determined the heat release rate and auto-ignition timing, and had a strong influence on NO{sub X} emission. However, a delay of single injection to intake stroke resulted in deterioration of cycle-to-cycle variability. Application of split injection showed benefits of this strategy versus single injection. Examinations of different fuel mass split ratios and variable second injection timing resulted in further optimisation of mixture formation. At equal share of the fuel mass injected in the first injection during NVO and in the second injection at the beginning of compression, the lowest emission level and cyclic variability improvement were observed. (author)

  9. Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other Alcohols into Fungible Gasoline, Jet, and Diesel Fuel Blend Stocks

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other Alcohols into Fungible Gasoline, Jet, and Diesel Fuel Blend Stocks Charles E. Wyman, PhD President and CEO Vertimass LLC Irvine, California DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Bioenergy 2015 Washington, DC June 24, 2015 1" Vertimass Transformative fungible biofuels Vertimass Overview * Vertimass catalyst converts ethanol into gasoline blend stock that eliminates blend wall as obstacle to market growth * Hydrocarbon products also

  10. Alternative fuel capabilities of the Mod II Stirling vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Grandin, A.W.; Ernst, W.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Stirling engine's characteristics make it a prime candidate for both multifuel and alternative fuel uses. In this paper, the relevant engine characteristics of the Mod II Stirling engine are examined, including the external heat system and basic operation. Adaptation of the Stirling to multifuel operation is addressed, and its experience with alternative fuels in automotive applications is summarized. The results of the U.S. Air Force review of the Stirling's multifuel capability are described, and the Stirling's advantages with liquid, gaseous, and solid fuels are discussed.

  11. Volatility of Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blends for Supercritical Fuel Injection

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Supercritical dieseline could be used in diesel engines having efficient fuel systems and combustion chamber designs that decrease fuel consumption and mitigate emissions.

  12. User`s guide to EAGLES Version 1.1: An electric- and gasoline-vehicle fuel-efficiency software package

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, W.W.

    1995-01-01

    EAGLES is an interactive microcomputer software package for the analysis of fuel efficiency in electric-vehicle (EV) applications or the estimation of fuel economy for a gasoline vehicle. The principal objective of the EV analysis is to enable the prediction of EV performance on the basis of laboratory test data for batteries. The EV model included in the software package provides a second-by-second simulation of battery voltage and current for any specified vehicle velocity/time or power/time profile. The capability of the battery is modeled by an algorithm that relates the battery voltage to the withdrawn (or charged) current, taking into account the effect of battery depth-of-discharge. Alternatively, the software package can be used to determine the size of the battery needed to satisfy given vehicle mission requirements. For gasoline vehicles, a generic fuel-economy model based on data from EPA Test Car List 1991 is included in the software package. For both types of vehicles, effects of heating/cooling loads on vehicle performance, including range penalty for EVs, can be studied. Also available is an option to estimate the time needed by a specified vehicle to reach a certain speed with the application of a constant power and an option to compute the fraction of time and/or distance in a driving cycle at speeds exceeding a specified value. Certain parameters can be changed interactively prior to a run.

  13. Autoignition response of n-butanol and its blend with primary reference fuel constituents of gasoline.

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Kumar, Kamal; Zhang, Yu; Sung, Chi -Jen; Pitz, William J.

    2015-04-13

    We study the influence of blending n-butanol on the ignition delay times of n-heptane and iso-octane, the primary reference fuels for gasoline. The ignition delay times are measured using a rapid compression machine, with an emphasis on the low-to-intermediate temperature conditions. The experiments are conducted at equivalence ratios of 0.4 and 1.0, for a compressed pressure of 20 bar, with the temperatures at the end of compression ranging from 613 K to 979 K. The effect of n-butanol addition on the development of the two-stage ignition characteristics for the two primary reference fuels is also examined. The experimental results aremore » compared to predictions obtained using a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism, which has been obtained by a systematic merger of previously reported base models for the combustion of the individual fuel constituents. In conclusion, a sensitivity analysis on the base, and the merged models, is also performed to understand the dependence of autoignition delay times on the model parameters.« less

  14. Gasoline-like Fuel Effects on High-load, Boosted HCCI Combustion Employing Negative Valve Overlap Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Kalaskar, Vickey B; Szybist, James P; Splitter, Derek A

    2014-01-01

    In recent years a number of studies have demonstrated that boosted operation combined with external EGR is a path forward for expanding the high load limit of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) operation with the negative valve overlap (NVO) valve strategy. However, the effects of fuel composition with this strategy have not been fully explored. In this study boosted HCCI combustion is investigated in a single-cylinder research engine equipped with direct injection (DI) fueling, cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), laboratory pressurized intake air, and a fully-variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) valve train. Three fuels with significant compositional differences are investigated: regular grade gasoline (RON = 90.2), 30% ethanol-gasoline blend (E30, RON = 100.3), and 24% iso-butanol-gasoline blend (IB24, RON = 96.6). Results include engine loads from 350 to 800 kPa IMEPg for all fuels at three engine speeds 1600, 2000, and 2500 rpm. All operating conditions achieved thermal efficiency (gross indicated efficiency) between 38 and 47%, low NOX emissions ( 0.1 g/kWh), and high combustion efficiency ( 96.5%). Detailed sweeps of intake manifold pressure (atmospheric to 250 kPaa), EGR (0 25% EGR), and injection timing are conducted to identify fuel-specific effects. The major finding of this study is that while significant fuel compositional differences exist, in boosted HCCI operation only minor changes in operational conditions are required to achieve comparable operation for all fuels. In boosted HCCI operation all fuels were able to achieve matched load-speed operation, whereas in conventional SI operation the fuel-specific knock differences resulted in significant differences in the operable load-speed space. Although all fuels were operable in boosted HCCI, the respective air handling requirements are also discussed, including an analysis of the demanded turbocharger efficiency.

  15. Technical comparison between Hythane, GNG and gasoline fueled vehicles. [Hythane = 85 vol% natural gas, 15 vol% H[sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    This interim report documents progress on this 2-year Alternative Fuel project, scheduled to end early 1993. Hythane is 85 vol% compressed natural gas (CNG) and 15 vol% hydrogen; it has the potential to meet or exceed the California Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) standard. Three USA trucks (3/4 ton pickup) were operated on single fuel (unleaded gasoline, CNG, Hythane) in Denver. The report includes emission testing, fueling facility, hazard and operability study, and a framework for a national hythane strategy.

  16. Simulated comparisons of emissions and fuel efficiency of diesel and gasoline hybrid electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K; Daw, C Stuart

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents details and results of hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric passenger vehicle (HEV and PHEV) simulations that account for the interaction of thermal transients from drive cycle demands and engine start/stop events with aftertreatment devices and their associated fuel penalties. The simulations were conducted using the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) combined with aftertreatment component models developed at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL). A three-way catalyst model is used in simulations of gasoline powered vehicles while a lean NOx trap model in used to simulated NOx reduction in diesel powered vehicles. Both cases also use a previously reported methodology for simulating the temperature and species transients associated with the intermittent engine operation and typical drive cycle transients which are a significant departure from the usual experimental steady-state engine-map based approach adopted often in vehicle system simulations. Comparative simulations indicate a higher efficiency for diesel powered vehicles but the advantage is lowered by about a third (for both HEVs and PHEVs) when the fuel penalty associated with operating a lean NOx trap is included and may be reduced even more when fuel penalty associated with a particulate filter is included in diesel vehicle simulations. Through these preliminary studies, it is clearly demonstrated how accurate engine and exhaust systems models that can account for highly intermittent and transient engine operation in hybrid vehicles can be used to account for impact of emissions in comparative vehicle systems studies. Future plans with models for other devices such as particulate filters, diesel oxidation and selective reduction catalysts are also discussed.

  17. Driving "Back to the Future": Flex-Fuel Vehicle Awareness | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Today, about 8 million Flexible Fuel Vehicles (FFVs) on our roads are capable of running on either gasoline or gasoline blended with up to 85 percent ethanol (E85). By using E85, ...

  18. Methanol/ethanol/gasoline blend-fuels demonstration with stratified-charge-engine vehicles: Consultant report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pefley, R.; Adelman, H.; Suga, T.

    1980-03-01

    Four 1978 Honda CVCC vehicles have been in regular use by California Energy Commission staff in Sacramento for 12 months. Three of the unmodified vehicles were fueled with alcohol/gasoline blends (5% methanol, 10% methanol, and 10% ethanol) with the fourth remaining on gasoline as a control. The operators did not know which fuels were in the vehicles. At 90-day intervals the cars were returned to the Univerity of Santa Clara for servicing and for emissions and fuel economy testing in accordance with the Federal Test Procedures. The demonstration and testing have established the following: (1) the tested blends cause no significant degradation in exhaust emissions, fuel economy, and driveability; (2) the tested blends cause significant increases in evaporative emissions; (3) analysis of periodic oil samples shows no evidence of accelerated metal wear; and (4) higher than 10% alcohols will require substantial modification to most existing California motor vehicles for acceptable emissions, performance, and fuel economy. Many aspects of using methanol and ethanol fuels, both straight and in blends, in various engine technologies are discussed.

  19. Rigorous HDD Emissions Capabilities of Shell GTL Fuel | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    KB) More Documents & Publications Verification of Shell GTL Fuel as CARB Alternative Diesel Assessment of Environmental Impacts of Shell GTL Fuel An Evaluation of Shell GTL ...

  20. Analysis on fuel breeding capability of FBR core region based...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    contribution to reduce the excess reactivity in comparing to mixed oxide (MOX) fuel ... to absorp neutrons for reducing excess reactivity and additional contribution for fuel ...

  1. Lower gasoline prices ahead

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Lower gasoline prices ahead U.S. retail gasoline prices are expected to continue falling through the end of 2016, even though gasoline demand is projected to remain strong. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said the average monthly price for regular-grade gasoline is expected to decline to $1.92 a gallon by December the lowest for the month in eight years. Lower motor fuel prices are expected in the coming months, despite gasoline demand this year that is on

  2. Segregated exhaust SOFC generator with high fuel utilization capability

    DOEpatents

    Draper, Robert; Veyo, Stephen E.; Kothmann, Richard E.

    2003-08-26

    A fuel cell generator contains a plurality of fuel cells (6) in a generator chamber (1) and also contains a depleted fuel reactor or a fuel depletion chamber (2) where oxidant (24,25) and fuel (81) is fed to the generator chamber (1) and the depleted fuel reactor chamber (2), where both fuel and oxidant react, and where all oxidant and fuel passages are separate and do not communicate with each other, so that fuel and oxidant in whatever form do not mix and where a depleted fuel exit (23) is provided for exiting a product gas (19) which consists essentially of carbon dioxide and water for further treatment so that carbon dioxide can be separated and is not vented to the atmosphere.

  3. Capabilities

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Capabilities Capabilities Our world-class expertise, facilities, sensor capabilities-agile solutions. Extensive capabilities deliver integrated, innovative solutions. With a strong track-record from basic, interdisciplinary research to systems integration, Los Alamos' diverse experts have the knowledge and experience to effectively partner with you to deliver integrated, innovative solutions for national and global security. Explore our capabilities Biological Applications Chemical Explosives

  4. Capabilities

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Capabilities Profile Pages View profiles for scientists and researchers. Explore potential collaborations and project opportunities. Search the extensive range of capabilities by keyword to quickly find who and what you are looking for. Profile Pages Search Capabilities| Employees Capabilities Sort Capabilities Accelerators and Electrodynamics Search High power linear accelerator science and technology Search Accelerator operations Search Accelerator controls Search Neutron science Search Proton

  5. Capabilities

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Capabilities Capabilities LACED is built upon Los Alamos' unparalleled explosives detection capabilities derived from the expertise of award-winning scientists and state-of-the-art facilities. x x x x Key capabilities necessary to ensure national security Through LACED, Los Alamos offers the following capabilities: Explosives Science capabilities include: Analytical chemistry Micromechanical testing Performance testing of explosives from bench scale to demonstration scale Polymorphism

  6. The chemical origin of octane sensitivity in gasoline fuels containing nitroalkanes

    SciTech Connect

    Cracknell, R.F.; McAllister, L.J.; Norton, M.; Walmsley, H.L.; Andrae, J.C.G.

    2009-05-15

    Experimental octane measurements are presented for a standard gasoline to which has been added various quantities of nitromethane, nitroethane and 1-nitropropane. The addition of nitroalkanes was found to suppress the Motor Octane Number to a much greater extent than the Research Octane Number. In other words addition of nitroalkanes increases the octane sensitivity of gasoline. Density Functional Theory was used to model the equilibrium thermodynamics and the barrier heights for reactions leading to the break-up of nitroethane. These results were used to develop a chemical kinetic scheme for nitroalkanes combined with a surrogate gasoline (for which a mechanism has been developed previously). Finally the chemical kinetic simulations were combined with a quasi-dimensional engine model in order to predict autoignition in octane rating tests. Our results suggest that the chemical origin of octane sensitivity in gasoline/nitroalkane blends cannot be fully explained on the conventional basis of the extent to which NTC behaviour is absent. Instead we have shown that the contribution of the two pathways leading to autoignition in gasoline containing nitroalkanes becomes much more significant under the more severe conditions of the Motor Octane method than the Research Octane method. (author)

  7. Fuel Cell Vehicles Enhance NREL Hydrogen Research Capabilities...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    The vehicles are fueled with hydrogen produced by renewable electrolysis at NREL's Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility-wind turbines and solar panels power electrolyzers ...

  8. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL): Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Capabilities Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Laboratory (NREL) Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Capabilities Overview 2014 Fuel Cell Seminar and Energy Exposition National Lab Showcase Keith Wipke, NREL Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies Program Manager November 11, 2014 2 NREL Overview o Founded in 1977 o Location: Golden, Colorado o ~1,750 full-time staff o Full spectrum of RD&D, from basic science to deployment o Unique research and testing capabilities across multiple scales o Systems approach o Strong history of partnering with industry

  9. Advanced fuel assembly characterization capabilities based on gamma tomography at the Halden boiling water reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Holcombe, S.; Eitrheim, K.; Svaerd, S. J.; Hallstadius, L.; Willman, C.

    2012-07-01

    Characterization of individual fuel rods using gamma spectroscopy is a standard part of the Post Irradiation Examinations performed on experimental fuel at the Halden Boiling Water Reactor. However, due to handling and radiological safety concerns, these measurements are presently carried out only at the end of life of the fuel, and not earlier than several days or weeks after its removal from the reactor core. In order to enhance the fuel characterization capabilities at the Halden facilities, a gamma tomography measurement system is now being constructed, capable of characterizing fuel assemblies on a rod-by-rod basis in a more timely and efficient manner. Gamma tomography for measuring nuclear fuel is based on gamma spectroscopy measurements and tomographic reconstruction techniques. The technique, previously demonstrated on irradiated commercial fuel assemblies, is capable of determining rod-by-rod information without the need to dismantle the fuel. The new gamma tomography system will be stationed close to the Halden reactor in order to limit the need for fuel transport, and it will significantly reduce the time required to perform fuel characterization measurements. Furthermore, it will allow rod-by-rod fuel characterization to occur between irradiation cycles, thus allowing for measurement of experimental fuel repeatedly during its irradiation lifetime. The development of the gamma tomography measurement system is a joint project between the Inst. for Energy Technology - OECD Halden Reactor Project, Westinghouse (Sweden), and Uppsala Univ.. (authors)

  10. Short-Term Energy Outlook April 1999-Summer Gasoline Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    pump price for regular gasoline. d Refinery output plus motor gasoline field production, including fuel ethanol ... The forecasts were generated by simulation of the Short-Term ...

  11. Method to improve lubricity of low-sulfur diesel and gasoline fuels

    DOEpatents

    Erdemir, Ali

    2004-08-31

    A method for providing lubricity in fuels and lubricants includes adding a boron compound to a fuel or lubricant to provide a boron-containing fuel or lubricant. The fuel or lubricant may contain a boron compound at a concentration between about 30 ppm and about 3,000 ppm and a sulfur concentration of less than about 500 ppm. A method of powering an engine to minimize wear, by burning a fuel containing boron compounds. The boron compounds include compound that provide boric acid and/or BO.sub.3 ions or monomers to the fuel or lubricant.

  12. Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a Spark-Assisted HCCI Gasoline Engine

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Fuel, Engines, and Emissions Research Center

  13. Capability

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    mcnp Clouds go here Capability "Finding the proper balance between the near- term pulls from industry and the critical need for long-term science excellence is a constant challenge that often stresses our enterprise. In managing strategically the trade-o s that come with translational research we are nding win-win outcomes that bene t the Laboratory and our partners. Los Alamos is evolving to enable innovation to play a growing role in support of stable and enduring capabilities." -

  14. Compatibility Study for Plastic, Elastomeric, and Metallic Fueling Infrastructure Materials Exposed to Aggressive Formulations of Ethanol-blended Gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, Michael D; Pawel, Steven J; Theiss, Timothy J; Janke, Christopher James

    2012-07-01

    In 2008 Oak Ridge National Laboratory began a series of experiments to evaluate the compatibility of fueling infrastructure materials with intermediate levels of ethanol-blended gasoline. Initially, the focus was elastomers, metals, and sealants, and the test fuels were Fuel C, CE10a, CE17a and CE25a. The results of these studies were published in 2010. Follow-on studies were performed with an emphasis on plastic (thermoplastic and thermoset) materials used in underground storage and dispenser systems. These materials were exposed to test fuels of Fuel C and CE25a. Upon completion of this effort, it was felt that additional compatibility data with higher ethanol blends was needed and another round of experimentation was performed on elastomers, metals, and plastics with CE50a and CE85a test fuels. Compatibility of polymers typically relates to the solubility of the solid polymer with a solvent. It can also mean susceptibility to chemical attack, but the polymers and test fuels evaluated in this study are not considered to be chemically reactive with each other. Solubility in polymers is typically assessed by measuring the volume swell of the polymer exposed to the solvent of interest. Elastomers are a class of polymers that are predominantly used as seals, and most o-ring and seal manufacturers provide compatibility tables of their products with various solvents including ethanol, toluene, and isooctane, which are components of aggressive oxygenated gasoline as described by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1681. These tables include a ranking based on the level of volume swell in the elastomer associated with exposure to a particular solvent. Swell is usually accompanied by a decrease in hardness (softening) that also affects performance. For seal applications, shrinkage of the elastomer upon drying is also a critical parameter since a contraction of volume can conceivably enable leakage to occur. Shrinkage is also indicative of the removal of one or more

  15. Analysis on fuel breeding capability of FBR core region based on minor actinide recycling doping

    SciTech Connect

    Permana, Sidik; Novitrian,; Waris, Abdul; Ismail; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Saito, Masaki

    2014-09-30

    Nuclear fuel breeding based on the capability of fuel conversion capability can be achieved by conversion ratio of some fertile materials into fissile materials during nuclear reaction processes such as main fissile materials of U-233, U-235, Pu-239 and Pu-241 and for fertile materials of Th-232, U-238, and Pu-240 as well as Pu-238. Minor actinide (MA) loading option which consists of neptunium, americium and curium will gives some additional contribution from converted MA into plutonium such as conversion Np-237 into Pu-238 and it's produced Pu-238 converts to Pu-239 via neutron capture. Increasing composition of Pu-238 can be used to produce fissile material of Pu-239 as additional contribution. Trans-uranium (TRU) fuel (Mixed fuel loading of MOX (U-Pu) and MA composition) and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel compositions are analyzed for comparative analysis in order to show the effect of MA to the plutonium productions in core in term of reactor criticality condition and fuel breeding capability. In the present study, neptunium (Np) nuclide is used as a representative of MAin trans-uranium (TRU) fuel composition as Np-MOX fuel type. It was loaded into the core region gives significant contribution to reduce the excess reactivity in comparing to mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and in the same time it contributes to increase nuclear fuel breeding capability of the reactor. Neptunium fuel loading scheme in FBR core region gives significant production of Pu-238 as fertile material to absorp neutrons for reducing excess reactivity and additional contribution for fuel breeding.

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: GEFORCE: Gasoline Engine and Fuels Offering Reduced Fuel Consumption and Emissions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Fuel...

  17. Motor gasolines, summer 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, E.M.

    1980-02-01

    Analytical data for 2401 samples of motor gasoline, from service stations throughout the country, were collected and analyzed under agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center and the American Petroleum Institute. The samples represent the products of 48 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing areas and districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since 1949. Twelve octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded, regular, and premium grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The antiknock (octane) index ((R + M)/2) averages of gasoline sold in this country were 88.6, 89.3, and 93.7 unleaded, regular, and premium grades of gasolines, respectively.

  18. A perspective on the range of gasoline compression ignition combustion strategies for high engine efficiency and low NOx and soot emissions: Effects of in-cylinder fuel stratification

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Dempsey, Adam B.; Curran, Scott J.; Wagner, Robert M.

    2016-01-14

    Many research studies have shown that low temperature combustion in compression ignition engines has the ability to yield ultra-low NOx and soot emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency. To achieve low temperature combustion, sufficient mixing time between the fuel and air in a globally dilute environment is required, thereby avoiding fuel-rich regions and reducing peak combustion temperatures, which significantly reduces soot and NOx formation, respectively. It has been demonstrated that achieving low temperature combustion with diesel fuel over a wide range of conditions is difficult because of its properties, namely, low volatility and high chemical reactivity. On the contrary, gasolinemore » has a high volatility and low chemical reactivity, meaning it is easier to achieve the amount of premixing time required prior to autoignition to achieve low temperature combustion. In order to achieve low temperature combustion while meeting other constraints, such as low pressure rise rates and maintaining control over the timing of combustion, in-cylinder fuel stratification has been widely investigated for gasoline low temperature combustion engines. The level of fuel stratification is, in reality, a continuum ranging from fully premixed (i.e. homogeneous charge of fuel and air) to heavily stratified, heterogeneous operation, such as diesel combustion. However, to illustrate the impact of fuel stratification on gasoline compression ignition, the authors have identified three representative operating strategies: partial, moderate, and heavy fuel stratification. Thus, this article provides an overview and perspective of the current research efforts to develop engine operating strategies for achieving gasoline low temperature combustion in a compression ignition engine via fuel stratification. In this paper, computational fluid dynamics modeling of the in-cylinder processes during the closed valve portion of the cycle was used to illustrate the opportunities

  19. Improving Efficiency and Load Range of Boosted HCCI using Partial Fuel Stratification with Conventional Gasoline

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Explores the potential of partial fuel stratification to improve the efficiency of internal combustion engines utilizing the homogeneous charge compression-ignition cycle.

  20. Fuel Cell Technologies Office Hydrogen Storage R&D Core Characterization Capabilities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) Hydrogen Storage R&D Core Characterization Capabilities An NREL-led National Laboratory Collaboration between NREL, LBNL, PNNL, and NIST NREL CORE CHARACTERIZATION CAPABILITIES The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will offer specialized characterization for hydrogen storage materials through its DOE-FCTO core-capability validation laboratory. We offer PCT analysis of hydrogen storage materials to determine their gravimetric and volumetric

  1. Improving combustion stability in a bi-fuel engine

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This article describes how a new strategy for ignition timing control can reduce NOx emissions from engines using CNG and gasoline. Until a proper fueling infrastructure is established, a certain fraction of vehicles powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) must have bi-fuel capability. A bi-fuel engine, enjoying the longer range of gasoline and the cleaner emissions of CNG, can overcome the problem of having few CNG fueling stations. However, bi-fuel engines must be optimized to run on both fuels since low CNG volumetric efficiency causes power losses compared to gasoline.

  2. Toward developing a computational capability for PEM fuel cell design and optimization.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chao Yang; Luo, Gang; Jiang, Fangming; Carnes, Brian; Chen, Ken Shuang

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we report the progress made in our project recently funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) toward developing a computational capability, which includes a two-phase, three-dimensional PEM (polymer electrolyte membrane) fuel cell model and its coupling with DAKOTA (a design and optimization toolkit developed and being enhanced by Sandia National Laboratories). We first present a brief literature survey in which the prominent/notable PEM fuel cell models developed by various researchers or groups are reviewed. Next, we describe the two-phase, three-dimensional PEM fuel cell model being developed, tested, and later validated by experimental data. Results from case studies are presented to illustrate the utility of our comprehensive, integrated cell model. The coupling between the PEM fuel cell model and DAKOTA is briefly discussed. Our efforts in this DOE-funded project are focused on developing a validated computational capability that can be employed for PEM fuel cell design and optimization.

  3. Passive SCR for lean gasoline NOX control: Engine-based strategies to minimize fuel penalty associated with catalytic NH3 generation

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; Parks, James E.; Pihl, Josh A.; Toops, Todd J.

    2016-02-18

    Lean gasoline engines offer greater fuel economy than common stoichiometric gasoline engines. However, excess oxygen prevents the use of the current three-way catalyst (TWC) to control nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions in lean exhaust. A passive SCR concept, introduced by General Motors Global R&D, makes use of a TWC that is already onboard to generate NH3 under slightly rich conditions, which is stored on the downstream SCR. The stored NH3 is then used to reduce NOX emissions when the engine switches to lean operation. In this work, the effect of engine parameters, such as air-fuel equivalence ratio and spark timing, onmore » NH3 generation over a commercial Pd-only TWC with no dedicated oxygen storage component was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine. NOX reduction, NH3 formation, and reductant utilization processes were evaluated, and fuel efficiency was assessed and compared to the stoichiometric engine operation case. We found air-fuel equivalence ratio to be one of the most important parameters in controlling the NH3 production; however, the rich operation necessary for NH3 production results in a fuel consumption penalty. The fuel penalty can be minimized by adjusting spark timing to increase rich-phase engine out NOX emissions and, thereby, NH3 levels. Additionally, higher engine out NOX during engine load increase to simulate acceleration resulted in additional fuel savings. Ultimately, a 10% fuel consumption benefit was achieved with the passive SCR approach by optimizing rich air-fuel equivalence ratio and spark timing while also utilizing acceleration load conditions.« less

  4. Anti-air pollution & energy conservation system for automobiles using leaded or unleaded gasoline, diesel or alternate fuel

    DOEpatents

    Bose, Ranendra K.

    2002-06-04

    Exhaust gases from an internal combustion engine operating with leaded or unleaded gasoline or diesel or natural gas, are used for energizing a high-speed gas turbine. The convoluting gas discharge causes a first separation stage by stratifying of heavier and lighter exhaust gas components that exit from the turbine in opposite directions, the heavier components having a second stratifying separation in a vortex tube to separate combustible pollutants from non-combustible components. The non-combustible components exit a vortex tube open end to atmosphere. The lighter combustible, pollutants effected in the first separation are bubbled through a sodium hydroxide solution for dissolving the nitric oxide, formaldehyde impurities in this gas stream before being piped to the engine air intake for re-combustion, thereby reducing the engine's exhaust pollution and improving its fuel economy. The combustible, heavier pollutants from the second separation stage are piped to air filter assemblies. This gas stream convoluting at a high-speed through the top stator-vanes of the air filters, centrifugally separates the coalescent water, aldehydes, nitrogen dioxides, sulfates, sulfur, lead particles which collect at the bottom of the bowl, wherein it is periodically released to the roadway. Whereas, the heavier hydrocarbon, carbon particles are piped through the air filter's porous element to the engine air intake for re-combustion, further reducing the engine's exhaust pollution and improving its fuel economy.

  5. Laminar burning velocities at high pressure for primary reference fuels and gasoline: Experimental and numerical investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Jerzembeck, S.; Peters, N. [RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Pepiot-Desjardins, P.; Pitsch, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, CA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Spherical flames of n-heptane, iso-octane, PRF 87 and gasoline/air mixtures are experimentally investigated to determine laminar burning velocities and Markstein lengths under engine-relevant conditions by using the constant volume bomb method. Data are obtained for an initial temperature of 373 K, equivalence ratios varying from {phi}=0.7 to {phi}=1.2, and initial pressures from 10 to 25 bar. To track the flame front in the vessel a dark field He-Ne laser Schlieren measurement technique and digital image processing were used. The propagating speed with respect to the burned gases and the stretch rate are determined from the rate of change of the flame radius. The laminar burning velocities are obtained through a linear extrapolation to zero stretch. The experimentally determined Markstein numbers are compared to theoretical predictions. A reduced chemical kinetic mechanism for n-heptane and iso-octane was derived from the Lawrence Livermore comprehensive mechanisms. This mechanism was validated for ignition delay times and flame propagation at low and high pressures. In summary an overall good agreement with the various experimental data sets used in the validation was obtained. (author)

  6. SULFUR REDUCTION IN GASOLINE AND DIESEL FUELS BY EXTRACTION/ADSORPTION OF REFRACTORY DIBENZOTHIOPHENES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott G. McKinley; Celedonio M. Alvarez

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to remove thiophene, benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene from a simulated gasoline feedstock. We found that Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sup 2+} reacts with a variety of thiophenes (Th*), affording Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}(Th*){sup 2+}. We used this reactivity to design a biphasic extraction process that removes more than 50% of the dibenzothiophene in the simulated feedstock. This extraction system consists of a hydrocarbon phase (simulated petroleum feedstock) and extractant Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sup 2+} in an aqueous phase (70% dimethylformamide, 30% H{sub 2}O). The DBT is removed in situ from the newly formed Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}(DBT){sup 2+} by either an oxidation process or addition of H{sub 2}O, to regenerate Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sup 2+}.

  7. Hazard analysis of compressed natural gas fueling systems and fueling procedures used at retail gasoline service stations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-28

    An evaluation of the hazards associated with operations of a typical compressed natural gas (CNG) fueling station is presented. The evaluation includes identification of a typical CNG fueling system; a comparison of the typical system with ANSI/NFPA (American National Standards Institute/National Fire Protection Association) Standard 52, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicular Fuel System, requirements; a review of CNG industry safety experience as identified in current literature; hazard identification of potential internal (CNG system-specific causes) and external (interface of co-located causes) events leading to potential accidents; and an analysis of potential accident scenarios as determined from the hazard evaluation. The study considers CNG dispensing equipment and associated equipment, including the compressor station, storate vessels, and fill pressure sensing system.

  8. Motor gasolines, summer 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, C.L.; Woodward, P.W.

    1986-06-01

    Samples for this report were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, chemical companies, and research institutes. Analytical data for the 1571 motor gasoline and 206 motor gasoline/alcohol blend samples were submitted to the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER), Bartlesville, Oklahoma, for reporting. This work is jointly funded by the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Bartlesville Project Office (DOE cooperative agreement No. FC22-83FE60149). The data are representative of the products of 62 marketers, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. They are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map shows the marketing areas, districts, and sampling locations. The report includes trend charts of selected properties of motor fuels over the last twenty-five years. Twelve octane distribution graphs for leaded and unleaded grades of gasoline are presented for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4. The average antiknock (octane) index (R + M)/2 of gasoline sold in the United States during June, July, and August 1985 was 87.4 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.7 for unleaded 90.0 and above, and 88.8 for leaded below 93.0 grades of gasoline. Analyses of motor gasoline containing various alcohols are reported in separate tables beginning with this report. The average antiknock (octane) index (R + M)/2 of gasoline containing alcohols was 88.6 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.4 for unleaded 90.0 and above, and 90.2 for leaded below 93.0 grades of gasoline. 16 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. In-Cylinder Fuel Blending of Gasoline/Diesel for Improved Efficiency and Lowest Possible Emissions on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, Scott; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Wagner, Robert M; Parks, II, James E; Cho, Kukwon; Sluder, Scott; Kokjohn, Sage; Reitz, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    In-cylinder fuel blending of gasoline/diesel fuel is investigated on a multi-cylinder light-duty diesel engine as a potential strategy to control in-cylinder fuel reactivity for improved efficiency and lowest possible emissions. This approach was developed and demonstrated at the University of Wisconsin through modeling and single-cylinder engine experiments. The objective of this study is to better understand the potential and challenges of this method on a multi-cylinder engine. More specifically, the effect of cylinder-to-cylinder imbalances, heat rejection, and in-cylinder charge motion as well as the potential limitations imposed by real-world turbo-machinery were investigated on a 1.9-liter four-cylinder engine. This investigation focused on one engine condition, 2300 rpm, 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). Gasoline was introduced with a port-fuel-injection system. Parameter sweeps included gasoline-to-diesel fuel ratio, intake air mixture temperature, in-cylinder swirl number, and diesel start-of-injection phasing. In addition, engine parameters were trimmed for each cylinder to balance the combustion process for maximum efficiency and lowest emissions. An important observation was the strong influence of intake charge temperature on cylinder pressure rise rate. Experiments were able to show increased thermal efficiency along with dramatic decreases in oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and particulate matter (PM). However, indicated thermal efficiency for the multi-cylinder experiments were less than expected based on modeling and single-cylinder results. The lower indicated thermal efficiency is believed to be due increased heat transfer as compared to the model predictions and suggest a need for improved cylinder-to-cylinder control and increased heat transfer control.

  10. Diesel vs Gasoline Production | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    "swing" between diesel and gasoline production deer08leister.pdf (217.54 KB) More Documents & Publications Marathon Sees Diesel Fuel in Future ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy ...

  11. Summer 2003 Motor Gasoline Outlook.doc

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    ... d Average pump price for regular gasoline. ... production, including fuel ethanol blended into ... -Hill Forecast CONTROL0301. Energy Information AdministrationShort-Term Energy ...

  12. Effect of Premixed Fuel Preparation for Partially Premixed Combustion with a Low Octane Gasoline on a Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Compression Ignition Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, Adam B.; Curran, Scott; Wagner, Robert M.; Cannella, William C.

    2015-05-12

    Gasoline compression ignition concepts with the majority of the fuel being introduced early in the cycle are known as partially premixed combustion (PPC). Previous research on single- and multi-cylinder engines has shown that PPC has the potential for high thermal efficiency with low NOx and soot emissions. A variety of fuel injection strategies has been proposed in the literature. These injection strategies aim to create a partially stratified charge to simultaneously reduce NOx and soot emissions while maintaining some level of control over the combustion process through the fuel delivery system. The impact of the direct injection strategy to create a premixed charge of fuel and air has not previously been explored, and its impact on engine efficiency and emissions is not well understood. This paper explores the effect of sweeping the direct injected pilot timing from -91° to -324° ATDC, which is just after the exhaust valve closes for the engine used in this study. During the sweep, the pilot injection consistently contained 65% of the total fuel (based on command duration ratio), and the main injection timing was adjusted slightly to maintain combustion phasing near top dead center. A modern four cylinder, 1.9 L diesel engine with a variable geometry turbocharger, high pressure common rail injection system, wide included angle injectors, and variable swirl actuation was used in this study. The pistons were modified to an open bowl configuration suitable for highly premixed combustion modes. The stock diesel injection system was unmodified, and the gasoline fuel was doped with a lubricity additive to protect the high pressure fuel pump and the injectors. The study was conducted at a fixed speed/load condition of 2000 rpm and 4.0 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). The pilot injection timing sweep was conducted at different intake manifold pressures, swirl levels, and fuel injection GTP-15-1067, Dempsey 2 pressures. The gasoline used in this study has

  13. Effect of Premixed Fuel Preparation for Partially Premixed Combustion with a Low Octane Gasoline on a Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Compression Ignition Engine

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Dempsey, Adam B.; Curran, Scott; Wagner, Robert M.; Cannella, William C.

    2015-05-12

    Gasoline compression ignition concepts with the majority of the fuel being introduced early in the cycle are known as partially premixed combustion (PPC). Previous research on single- and multi-cylinder engines has shown that PPC has the potential for high thermal efficiency with low NOx and soot emissions. A variety of fuel injection strategies has been proposed in the literature. These injection strategies aim to create a partially stratified charge to simultaneously reduce NOx and soot emissions while maintaining some level of control over the combustion process through the fuel delivery system. The impact of the direct injection strategy to createmore » a premixed charge of fuel and air has not previously been explored, and its impact on engine efficiency and emissions is not well understood. This paper explores the effect of sweeping the direct injected pilot timing from -91° to -324° ATDC, which is just after the exhaust valve closes for the engine used in this study. During the sweep, the pilot injection consistently contained 65% of the total fuel (based on command duration ratio), and the main injection timing was adjusted slightly to maintain combustion phasing near top dead center. A modern four cylinder, 1.9 L diesel engine with a variable geometry turbocharger, high pressure common rail injection system, wide included angle injectors, and variable swirl actuation was used in this study. The pistons were modified to an open bowl configuration suitable for highly premixed combustion modes. The stock diesel injection system was unmodified, and the gasoline fuel was doped with a lubricity additive to protect the high pressure fuel pump and the injectors. The study was conducted at a fixed speed/load condition of 2000 rpm and 4.0 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). The pilot injection timing sweep was conducted at different intake manifold pressures, swirl levels, and fuel injection GTP-15-1067, Dempsey 2 pressures. The gasoline used in this study

  14. Fuel Fabrication Capability WBS 01.02.01.05 - HIP Bonding Experiments Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, Patricia O'Donnell; Summa, Deborah Ann; Liu, Cheng; Tucker, Laura Arias; Chen, Ching-Fong; Aikin, Beverly; Aragon, Daniel Adrian; Beard, Timothy Vance; Montalvo, Joel Dwayne; Pena, Maria Isela; Dombrowski, David E.

    2015-06-10

    The goals of this project were to demonstrate reliable, reproducible solid state bonding of aluminum 6061 alloy plates together to encapsulate DU-10 wt% Mo surrogate fuel foils. This was done as part of the CONVERT Fuel Fabrication Capability effort in Process Baseline Development . Bonding was done using Hot Isotatic Pressing (HIP) of evacuated stainless steel cans (a.k.a HIP cans) containing fuel plate components and strongbacks. Gross macroscopic measurements of HIP cans prior to HIP and after HIP were used as part of this demonstration, and were used to determine the accuracy of a finitie element model of the HIP bonding process. The quality of the bonding was measured by controlled miniature bulge testing for Al-Al, Al-Zr, and Zr-DU bonds. A special objective was to determine if the HIP process consistently produces good quality bonding and to determine the best characterization techniques for technology transfer.

  15. Impacts of ethanol fuel level on emissions of regulated and unregulated pollutants from a fleet of gasoline light-duty vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Karavalakis, Georgios; Durbin, Thomas; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Zheng, Zhongqing; Villella, Phillip M.; Jung, Hee-Jung

    2012-03-30

    The study investigated the impact of ethanol blends on criteria emissions (THC, NMHC, CO, NOx), greenhouse gas (CO2), and a suite of unregulated pollutants in a fleet of gasoline-powered light-duty vehicles. The vehicles ranged in model year from 1984 to 2007 and included one Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV). Emission and fuel consumption measurements were performed in duplicate or triplicate over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) driving cycle using a chassis dynamometer for four fuels in each of seven vehicles. The test fuels included a CARB phase 2 certification fuel with 11% MTBE content, a CARB phase 3 certification fuel with a 5.7% ethanol content, and E10, E20, E50, and E85 fuels. In most cases, THC and NMHC emissions were lower with the ethanol blends, while the use of E85 resulted in increases of THC and NMHC for the FFV. CO emissions were lower with ethanol blends for all vehicles and significantly decreased for earlier model vehicles. Results for NOx emissions were mixed, with some older vehicles showing increases with increasing ethanol level, while other vehicles showed either no impact or a slight, but not statistically significant, decrease. CO2 emissions did not show any significant trends. Fuel economy showed decreasing trends with increasing ethanol content in later model vehicles. There was also a consistent trend of increasing acetaldehyde emissions with increasing ethanol level, but other carbonyls did not show strong trends. The use of E85 resulted in significantly higher formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions than the specification fuels or other ethanol blends. BTEX and 1,3-butadiene emissions were lower with ethanol blends compared to the CARB 2 fuel, and were almost undetectable from the E85 fuel. The largest contribution to total carbonyls and other toxics was during the cold-start phase of FTP.

  16. Improving Ethanol-Gasoline Blends by Addition of Higher Alcohols |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Ethanol-Gasoline Blends by Addition of Higher Alcohols Improving Ethanol-Gasoline Blends by Addition of Higher Alcohols Mixtures of ethanol, gasoline, and higher alcohols were evaluated to determine if they offer superior performance to ethanol/gasoline blends in meeting the Renewal Fuels Standard II. deer12_ickes.pdf (1.45 MB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Certification Test Fuel and Ethanol Flex Fuel Quality Impact of ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on

  17. Dose Rate Analysis Capability for Actual Spent Fuel Transportation Cask Contents

    SciTech Connect

    Radulescu, Georgeta; Lefebvre, Robert A; Peplow, Douglas E.; Williams, Mark L; Scaglione, John M

    2014-01-01

    The approved contents for a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensed spent nuclear fuel casks are typically based on bounding used nuclear fuel (UNF) characteristics. However, the contents of the UNF canisters currently in storage at independent spent fuel storage installations are considerably heterogeneous in terms of fuel assembly burnup, initial enrichment, decay time, cladding integrity, etc. Used Nuclear Fuel Storage, Transportation & Disposal Analysis Resource and Data System (UNF ST&DARDS) is an integrated data and analysis system that facilitates automated cask-specific safety analyses based on actual characteristics of the as-loaded UNF. The UNF-ST&DARDS analysis capabilities have been recently expanded to include dose rate analysis of as-loaded transportation packages. Realistic dose rate values based on actual canister contents may be used in place of bounding dose rate values to support development of repackaging operations procedures, evaluation of radiation-related transportation risks, and communication with stakeholders. This paper describes the UNF-ST&DARDS dose rate analysis methodology based on actual UNF canister contents and presents sample dose rate calculation results.

  18. Flexible Fuel Vehicle Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Vehicles » Flexible Fuel Vehicle Basics Flexible Fuel Vehicle Basics August 20, 2013 - 9:05am Addthis Photo of a gray van with 'E85 Ethanol' written on the side. Flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) have an internal combustion engine and are capable of operating on gasoline, E85 (a high-level blend of gasoline and ethanol), or a mixture of both. There are more than 10.6 million flexible fuel vehicles on U.S. roads today. However, many flexible fuel vehicle owners don't realize their car is an FFV and

  19. Motor gasolines, summer 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, E.M.

    1984-02-01

    The samples were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in the laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, chemical companies, and research institutes. The analytical data for 1583 samples of motor gasoline, were submitted to the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, Oklahoma for study, necessary calculations, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). They represent the products of 48 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since 1959. Sixteen octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 90.0, unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 90.0 and above, and leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 93.0 grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The antiknock (octane) index (R+M)/2 averages of gasoline sold in this country were 87.5 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.4 for unleaded 90.0 and above, and 89.0 for leaded below 93.0 grades of gasoline. 16 figures, 5 tables.

  20. Motor gasolines, summer 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, E.M.

    1981-02-01

    Analytical data for 2062 samples of motor gasoline were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in the laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, and chemical companies. The data were submitted to the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for study, necessary calculations, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). The samples represent the products of 48 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since 1949. Twelve octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded, regular, and premium grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The anitknock (octane) index ((R + M)/2) averages of gasolines sold in this country were 87.8 for the unleaded below 90.0, 91.6 for the unleaded 90.0 and above, 88.9 for the regular, and 92.8 for the premium grades of gasoline.

  1. Motor gasolines, Summer 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, E.M.

    1983-03-01

    The samples were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in the laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, and chemical companies. The analytical data for 796 samples of motor gasoline, were submitted to the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for study, necessary calculations, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). They represent the products of 22 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since 1959. Sixteen octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded antiknock index (R + M)/2 below 90.0, unleaded antiknock index (R + M)/2 90.0 and above, leaded antiknock index (R + M)/2 below 93.0, and leaded antiknock index (R + M)/2 93.0 and above grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The antiknock (octane) index (R + M)/2 averages of gasoline sold in this country were 87.3 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.7 for unleaded 90.0 and above, 89.0 for leaded below 93.0, and no data in this report for 93.0 and above grades of leaded gasoline.

  2. Fact #824: June 9, 2014 EPA Sulfur Standards for Gasoline | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    4: June 9, 2014 EPA Sulfur Standards for Gasoline Fact 824: June 9, 2014 EPA Sulfur Standards for Gasoline Sulfur naturally occurs in gasoline and diesel fuel, contributing to ...

  3. Cost of Adding E85 Fueling Capability to Existing Gasoline Stations: NREL Survey and Literature Search (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-03-01

    Fact sheet provides framework for gas station owners to access what a reasonable cost would be to install E85 infrastructure.

  4. The ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor and New Advanced Fuel Testing Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Larry J; McDuffee, Joel Lee

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy s High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), was originally designed (in the 1960s) primarily as a part of the overall program to produce transuranic isotopes for use in the heavy-element research program of the United States. Today, the reactor is a highly versatile machine, producing medical and transuranic isotopes and performing materials test experimental irradiations and neutron-scattering experiments. The ability to test advanced fuels and cladding materials in a thermal neutron spectrum in the United States is limited, and a fast-spectrum irradiation facility does not currently exist in this country. The HFIR has a distinct advantage for consideration as a fuel/cladding irradiation facility because of the extremely high neutron fluxes that this reactor provides over the full thermal- to fast-neutron energy range. New test capabilities have been developed that will allow testing of advanced nuclear fuels and cladding materials in the HFIR under prototypic light-water reactor (LWR) and fast-reactor (FR) operating conditions.

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Efficiency-Optimized Duel Fuel Engine with In-Cylinder Gasoline/CNG Blending

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Fuel ...

  6. A Comparison of HCCI Engine Performance Data and Kinetic Modeling Results over a Wide Rangeof Gasoline Range Surrogate Fuel Blends

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kinetic models of fuels are needed to allow the simulation of engine performance for research, design, or verification purposes.

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Select Fuels Clear all All Fuels GasolineE10 Low Sulfur Diesel Biodiesel Compressed ... chart. More fuel information: Biodiesel EthanolE100 Electricity Hydrogen ...

  8. Evaluation of Nondestructive Assay/Nondestructive Examination Capabilities for Department of Energy Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Luptak, A.J.; Bulmahn, K.D.

    1998-09-01

    This report summarizes an evaluation of the potential use of nondestructive assay (NDA) and nondestructive examination (NDE) technologies on DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF). It presents the NDA/NDE information necessary for the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) and the SNF storage sites to use when defining that role, if any, of NDA/NDE in characterization and certification processes. Note that the potential role for NDA/NDE includes confirmatory testing on a sampling basis and is not restricted to use as a primary, item-specific, data collection method. The evaluation does not attempt to serve as a basis for selecting systems for development or deployment. Information was collected on 27 systems being developed at eight DOE locations. The systems considered are developed to some degree, but are not ready for deployment on the full range of DOE SNF and still require additional development. The system development may only involve demonstrating performance on additional SNF, packaging the system for deployment, and developing calibration standards, or it may be as extensive as performing additional basic research. Development time is considered to range from one to four years. We conclude that NDA/NDE systems are capable of playing a key role in the characterization and certification of DOE SNF, either as the primary data source or as a confirmatory test. NDA/NDE systems will be able to measure seven of the nine key SNF properties and to derive data for the two key properties not measured directly. The anticipated performance goals of these key properties are considered achievable except for enrichment measurements on fuels near 20% enrichment. NDA/NDE systems can likely be developed to measure the standard canisters now being considered for co-disposal of DOE SNF. This ability would allow the preparation of DOE SNF for storage now and the characterization and certification to be finalize later.

  9. Energy Department Announces First Regional Gasoline Reserve to Strengthen

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Fuel Resiliency | Department of Energy First Regional Gasoline Reserve to Strengthen Fuel Resiliency Energy Department Announces First Regional Gasoline Reserve to Strengthen Fuel Resiliency May 2, 2014 - 10:29am Addthis News Media Contact 202-586-4940 WASHINGTON - As part of the Obama Administration's response to Superstorm Sandy, Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz today announced the creation of the first federal regional refined petroleum product reserve containing gasoline. Based on the

  10. Fact #861 February 23, 2015 Idle Fuel Consumption for Selected...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    1 February 23, 2015 Idle Fuel Consumption for Selected Gasoline and Diesel Vehicles Fact 861 February 23, 2015 Idle Fuel Consumption for Selected Gasoline and Diesel Vehicles ...

  11. Fact #861 February 23, 2015 Idle Fuel Consumption for Selected...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    1 February 23, 2015 Idle Fuel Consumption for Selected Gasoline and Diesel Vehicles - Dataset Fact 861 February 23, 2015 Idle Fuel Consumption for Selected Gasoline and Diesel ...

  12. Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a Spark-Assisted...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a Spark-Assisted HCCI Gasoline Engine Combustion, Efficiency, and Fuel Effects in a Spark-Assisted HCCI Gasoline Engine 2004 Diesel ...

  13. Evaulation of power-reactor fuel-rod-analysis capabilities. Phase 1 topical report. Volume 2. Code evaluation. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, D.R.

    1983-09-01

    FRAPCON-2 (V1M4) was applied to generate fuel performance predictions for 60 rods of a recently evaluated power reactor data sample. Rod design, operational, and performance data was obtained from the RPRI Fuel Performance Data Base. The data was systematically processed to generate code input parameters. FRAPCON was initially applied for scoping studies to identify the best estimate mechanical response and fission gas release modeling options. Based on final scoping results, the balance of rods were analyzed with FRACAS-2 mechanics and FASTGRASS gas release models. Comparisons between measured and calculated fuel and cladding deformation, fission gas release, internal pressure, and gas composition are presented and interpreted relative to code error magnitudes, distributions, and trends versus rod design and operating parameters. The results indicate the FRAPCON-2 has best estimate capability for analysis of moderate duty fuel rod performance, provided that rod fabrication parameters are well characterized, and the fuel is dimensionally stable.

  14. Characterization of Bond Strength of U-Mo Fuel Plates Using the Laser Shockwave Technique: Capabilities and Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    J. A. Smith; D. L. Cottle; B. H. Rabin

    2013-09-01

    This report summarizes work conducted to-date on the implementation of new laser-based capabilities for characterization of bond strength in nuclear fuel plates, and presents preliminary results obtained from fresh fuel studies on as-fabricated monolithic fuel consisting of uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum alloys clad in 6061 aluminum by hot isostatic pressing. Characterization involves application of two complementary experimental methods, laser-shock testing and laser-ultrasonic imaging, collectively referred to as the Laser Shockwave Technique (LST), that allows the integrity, physical properties and interfacial bond strength in fuel plates to be evaluated. Example characterization results are provided, including measurement of layer thicknesses, elastic properties of the constituents, and the location and nature of generated debonds (including kissing bonds). LST provides spatially localized, non-contacting measurements with minimum specimen preparation, and is ideally suited for applications involving radioactive materials, including irradiated materials. The theoretical principles and experimental approaches employed in characterizing nuclear fuel plates are described, and preliminary bond strength measurement results are discussed, with emphasis on demonstrating the capabilities and limitations of these methods. These preliminary results demonstrate the ability to distinguish bond strength variations between different fuel plates. Although additional development work is necessary to validate and qualify the test methods, these results suggest LST is viable as a method to meet fuel qualification requirements to demonstrate acceptable bonding integrity.

  15. Monthly gasoline price to dip below $2 this winter

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Monthly gasoline price to dip below $2 this winter The nationwide average price for gasoline is expected to fall below $2 per gallon in January, as refiners have switched over to making the less expensive winter gasoline blend and because seasonal motor fuel consumption is typically lower than during the summer months. In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration estimates that gasoline demand in September alone hit a record high for that month and highway travel reached

  16. Leveraging National Lab Capabilities: 2014 Fuel Cell Seminar and Energy Exposition

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentations by Sunita Satyapal, Fuel Cell Technologies Office, and Chris Ainscough, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, as well as multiple National Labs, at the 2014 Fuel Cell Seminar and Energy Exposition, November 11, 2014, in Los Angeles, California.

  17. U.S. Motor Gasoline Prices

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Formulation Grade: Gasoline, Average Regular Gasoline Midgrade Gasoline Premium Gasoline Conventional, Average Conventional Regular Conventional Midgrade Conventional Premium ...

  18. Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Lean-NOx Trap

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Lean-burn improves PFI fuel economy by ~3% relative to best stoichiometric VCT/EGR conditions, when used in combination with VCT & EGR.

  19. SwRI's HEDGE Technology for High Efficiency, Low Emissions Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Efficiency Engine Technologies and an Introduction to SwRI's Dedicated EGR Concept Development of Dual-Fuel Engine for Class 8 Applications Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle...

  20. DEMONSTRATION OF LONG-TERM STORAGE CAPABILITY FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL IN L BASIN

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.; Deible, R.

    2011-04-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy decisions for the ultimate disposition of its inventory of used nuclear fuel presently in, and to be received and stored in, the L Basin at the Savannah River Site, and schedule for project execution have not been established. A logical decision timeframe for the DOE is following the review of the overall options for fuel management and disposition by the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (BRC). The focus of the BRC review is commercial fuel; however, the BRC has included the DOE fuel inventory in their review. Even though the final report by the BRC to the U.S. Department of Energy is expected in January 2012, no timetable has been established for decisions by the U.S. Department of Energy on alternatives selection. Furthermore, with the imminent lay-up and potential closure of H-canyon, no ready path for fuel disposition would be available, and new technologies and/or facilities would need to be established. The fuel inventory in wet storage in the 3.375 million gallon L Basin is primarily aluminum-clad, aluminum-based fuel of the Materials Test Reactor equivalent design. An inventory of non-aluminum-clad fuel of various designs is also stored in L Basin. Safe storage of fuel in wet storage mandates several high-level 'safety functions' that would be provided by the Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) of the storage system. A large inventory of aluminum-clad, aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel, and other nonaluminum fuel owned by the U.S. Department of Energy is in wet storage in L Basin at the Savannah River Site. An evaluation of the present condition of the fuel, and the Structures, Systems, or Components (SSCs) necessary for its wet storage, and the present programs and storage practices for fuel management have been performed. Activities necessary to validate the technical bases for, and verify the condition of the fuel and the SSCs under long-term wet storage have also been identified. The overall

  1. U.S. Aviation Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Product: Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Propane (Consumer Grade) Kerosene No. 1 Distillate No. 2 Distillate No. 2 Diesel Fuel No. 2 Diesel, Ultra Low-Sulfur No. 2 Diesel, ...

  2. U.S. gasoline consumption highest in 8 years

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    U.S. gasoline consumption highest in 8 years U.S. gasoline consumption this year is expected to be at the highest level since the record fuel demand seen back in 2007 as lower gasoline prices and more people finding jobs means more sales at the gasoline pump. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said gasoline consumption increased by 2.7% during the first eight months of 2015 and should rise by an average of 190,000 barrels per day this year to 9.1 million

  3. Second-Generation Fuel Cell Stack Durability and Freeze Capability from National FCV Learning Demonstration (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Garbak, J.

    2009-11-18

    This presentation provides information about the objectives and partners of the National Fuel Cell Vehicle Learning Demonstration, the status of vehicle and station deployment, and results of vehicle and infrastructure analysis.

  4. Leveraging National Lab Capabilities in Fuel Cells and Electrochemical Systems—Phoenix, Arizona

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    On October 12 and 13, the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office will host several events at the Electrochemical Energy Summit 2015 in Phoenix, Arizona, to foster increased collaboration between National Labs and industry.

  5. Assessing the Predictive Capability of the LIFEIV Nuclear Fuel Performance Code using Sequential Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, Christopher J.; Williams, Brian J.; Unal, Cetin

    2012-07-05

    This report considers the problem of calibrating a numerical model to data from an experimental campaign (or series of experimental tests). The issue is that when an experimental campaign is proposed, only the input parameters associated with each experiment are known (i.e. outputs are not known because the experiments have yet to be conducted). Faced with such a situation, it would be beneficial from the standpoint of resource management to carefully consider the sequence in which the experiments are conducted. In this way, the resources available for experimental tests may be allocated in a way that best 'informs' the calibration of the numerical model. To address this concern, the authors propose decomposing the input design space of the experimental campaign into its principal components. Subsequently, the utility (to be explained) of each experimental test to the principal components of the input design space is used to formulate the sequence in which the experimental tests will be used for model calibration purposes. The results reported herein build on those presented and discussed in [1,2] wherein Verification & Validation and Uncertainty Quantification (VU) capabilities were applied to the nuclear fuel performance code LIFEIV. In addition to the raw results from the sequential calibration studies derived from the above, a description of the data within the context of the Predictive Maturity Index (PMI) will also be provided. The PMI [3,4] is a metric initiated and developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to quantitatively describe the ability of a numerical model to make predictions in the absence of experimental data, where it is noted that 'predictions in the absence of experimental data' is not synonymous with extrapolation. This simply reflects the fact that resources do not exist such that each and every execution of the numerical model can be compared against experimental data. If such resources existed, the justification for numerical models

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    State Agency Vehicle Procurement and Management Requirement When purchasing a motor vehicle, a state agency must select one that is capable of being powered by cleaner fuels, including electricity and natural gas, if the total life cycle cost of ownership is less than or comparable to that of a gasoline-powered vehicle. A committee of representatives from the Minnesota Departments of Administration, Agriculture, Commerce, Natural Resources, and Transportation, as well as the Pollution Control

  7. High Ethanol Fuel Endurance: A Study of the Effects of Running Gasoline with 15% Ethanol Concentration in Current Production Outboard Four-Stroke Engines and Conventional Two-Stroke Outboard Marine Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Hilbert, D.

    2011-10-01

    Three Mercury Marine outboard marine engines were evaluated for durability using E15 fuel -- gasoline blended with 15% ethanol. Direct comparison was made to operation on E0 (ethanol-free gasoline) to determine the effects of increased ethanol on engine durability. Testing was conducted using a 300-hour wide-open throttle (WOT) test protocol, a typical durability cycle used by the outboard marine industry. Use of E15 resulted in reduced CO emissions, as expected for open-loop, non-feedback control engines. HC emissions effects were variable. Exhaust gas and engine operating temperatures increased as a consequence of leaner operation. Each E15 test engine exhibited some deterioration that may have been related to the test fuel. The 9.9 HP, four-stroke E15 engine exhibited variable hydrocarbon emissions at 300 hours -- an indication of lean misfire. The 300HP, four-stroke, supercharged Verado engine and the 200HP, two-stroke legacy engine tested with E15 fuel failed to complete the durability test. The Verado engine failed three exhaust valves at 285 endurance hours while the 200HP legacy engine failed a main crank bearing at 256 endurance hours. All E0-dedicated engines completed the durability cycle without incident. Additional testing is necessary to link the observed engine failures to ethanol in the test fuel.

  8. Reformulated gasoline quality issues

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, R.G.; Felch, D.E.; Edgar, M.D.

    1995-11-01

    One year ago, a panel of industry experts were interviewed in the November/December 1994 issue of Fuel Reformulation (Vol. 4, No. 6). With the focus then and now on refinery investments, the panelists were asked to forecast which refining processes would grow in importance. It is apparent from their response, and from other articles and discussions throughout the year, that hydroprocessing and catalytic conversion processes are synergistic in the overall refinery design, with flexibility and process objectives varying on a unit-by-unit case. To an extent, future refinery investments in downstream petrochemicals, such as for paraxylene production, are based on available catalytic reforming feedstock. Just a importantly, hydroprocessing units (hydrotreating, hydrocracking) needed for clean fuel production (gasoline, diesel, aviation fuel), are heavily dependent on hydrogen production from the catalytic reformer. Catalytic reforming`s significant influence in the refinery hydrogen balance, as well as its status as a significant naphtha conversion route to higher-quality fuels, make this unit a high-priority issue for engineers and planners striving for flexibility.

  9. The potential for low petroleum gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.; Webb, G.M.; Clauson, M.

    1996-06-01

    The Energy Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace at least 30 percent of the projected consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. The Act also requires the Secretary to determine the greenhouse gas implications of the use of replacement fuels. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including certain alcohols, ethers, and other components. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model has been used to study the cost and refinery impacts for production of {open_quotes}low petroleum{close_quotes} gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and a major contributor to cost increase is investment in processes to produce and etherify light olefins. High oxygenation can also increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon of gasoline, and with greenhouse gas emissions changes between a 3 percent increase and a 16 percent decrease. Crude oil reduction, with decreased dependence on foreign sources, is a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program. For year-round gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum components, crude oil use is reduced by 10 to 12 percent, at a cost $48 to $89 per barrel. Depending upon resolution of uncertainties about extrapolation of the Environmental Protection Agency Complex Model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues, costs could be lower or higher.

  10. Ford Taurus Ethanol-Fueled Sedan

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.

    1999-06-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is encouraging the use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). To support this activity, DOE has directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct projects to evaluate the performance and acceptability of light-duty AFVs. In this study, we tested a pair of 1998 Ford Tauruses: one E85 (85% gasoline/15% ethanol) model (which was tested on both E85 and gasoline) and a gasoline model as closely matched as possible. Each vehicle was run through a series of tests to evaluate acceleration, fuel economy, braking, and cold-start capabilities, as well as more subjective performance indicators such as handling, climate control, and noise.

  11. Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Lean-NOx Trap Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline ...

  12. Development and validation of capabilities to measure thermal properties of layered monolithic U-Mo alloy plate-type fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Burkes, Douglas; Casella, Andrew M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Edwards, Matthew K.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Pool, Karl N.; Smith, Frances N.; Steen, Franciska H.

    2014-07-19

    The uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloy in a monolithic form has been proposed as one fuel design capable of converting some of the world’s highest power research reactors from the use of high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU). One aspect of the fuel development and qualification process is to demonstrate appropriate understanding of thermal conductivity behavior of the fuel system as a function of temperature and expected irradiation conditions. The purpose of this paper is to verify and validate the functionality of equipment methods installed in hot cells for eventual measurements on irradiated uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) monolithic fuel specimens, procedures to operate the equipment, and models to extract the desired thermal properties. The results presented here demonstrate the adequacy of the equipment, procedures and models that have been developed for this purpose based on measurements conducted on surrogate depleted uranium-molybdenum (DU-Mo) alloy samples containing a zirconium diffusion barrier and clad in aluminum alloy 6061 (AA6061). The results are in excellent agreement with thermal property data reported in the literature for similar U-Mo alloys as a function of temperature.

  13. Fuel Tables.indd

    Annual Energy Outlook

    ... Where shown, (s) Btu value less than 0.05. Notes: Motor gasoline estimates include fuel ethanol blended into motor gasoline. * Totals may not equal sum of components due to ...

  14. Gasoline Biodesulfurization Fact Sheet

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This petroleum industry fact sheet describes how biodesulfurization can yield lower sulfur gasoline at lower production costs.

  15. Multispecies Diffusion Capability For The AMP Nuclear Fuel Performance Code (LANL Milestone M31MS060301 Final Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Dilts, Gary A.

    2012-03-29

    This work addresses only diffusion. The contact solver in AMP was not sufficiently developed this year to attempt treatment of species contact. A cylindrical tensor diffusion coefficient model was added to the AMP code, with the KHHS model [1] implemented into the AMP material library as a specific example. A cylindrical tensor diffusion operator manufactured solution verification example was coded. Before meeting the full text of the milestone task, it remains to: (1) code and run a cylindrical tensor diffusion solver manufactured solution (2) code and run the validation example of [1] (3) document results. These are dependent on developing new capabilities for the AMP code requiring close collaboration with the AMP team at ORNL. The model implemented provides a good intermediate first step toward a general multi-species solver. The multi-species capability of the AMP nuclear fuel code [2] is intended to allow the modeling of radiation-driven redistribution of various elements through solid metal nuclear reactor fuels. The initial model AMP provides for U-Pu-Zr fuels is based on the analysis of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel development program experiment X419 post-irradiation data described in [1], referred to here as the KHHS model. This model may be specific to that experiment, but it was thought to provide a good start for the AMP code, because it (1) is formulated at the engineering scale, (2) decouples the species from each other, (3) predetermines the phase boundaries so that reference to a phase diagram is not needed, and (4) one of the authors (Hayes) was the NEAMS Fuels IPSC manager for FY11. The KHHS model is formulated for radial fluxes as little axial redistribution is seen experimentally. As U-Pu-Zr fuel is irradiated, the constituents migrate to form three annular regions. The center region is Zr-enriched and U-depleted, the middle region is Zr-depleted and U-enriched, and the outer region is Zr-enriched and U-depleted. The Pu concentration

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Low-Temperature Gasoline

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Combustion (LTGC) Engine Research | Department of Energy Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) Engine Research Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) Engine Research Presentation given by Sandia National Laboratories at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about low-temperature gasoline combustion engine research. ace004_dec_2014_o.pdf (1.5 MB) More

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Low-Temperature Gasoline

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Combustion (LTGC) Engine Research | Department of Energy Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) Engine Research Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) Engine Research Presentation given by Sandia National Laboratories at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about low-temperature gasoline combustion engine research. ace004_dec_2015_o.pdf (1.46 MB) More

  18. Renewable Fuels and Vehicles Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    to choose hydrogen fuel cell vehicles by 2020. * Foster ... Green Gasoline & Olefins Green Diesel Petroleum Refinery 16 ... on land use o Avoids food vs fuel debate o Saline, ...

  19. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Counties included in New York City metro area The list below includes the counties in the EIA-878 definition for New York City Metro Area. Bergen County, NJ Bronx County, NY Essex County, NJ Fairfield County, CT Hudson County, NJ Hunterdon County, NJ Kings County, NY Litchfield County (partial), CT Middlesex County, NJ Monmouth County, NJ Morris County, NJ Nassau County, NY New Haven County (partial), CT New York County, NY Ocean County, NJ Orange County, NY Passaic County, NJ Putnam, NY Queens

  20. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    72 2.380 2.374 2.361 2.384 2.362 1993-2016 All Grades - Conventional Areas 2.385 2.395 2.385 2.370 2.373 2.349 1994-2016 All Grades - Reformulated Areas 2.349 2.354 2.356 2.347 2.403 2.385 1994-2016 Regular 2.229 2.237 2.232 2.219 2.240 2.217 1992-2016 Conventional Areas 2.241 2.251 2.243 2.227 2.228 2.201 1992-2016 Reformulated Areas 2.211 2.215 2.215 2.207 2.261 2.243 1994-2016 Midgrade 2.509 2.516 2.506 2.495 2.517 2.497 1994-2016 Conventional Areas 2.510 2.518 2.500 2.488 2.494 2.473

  1. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Holiday Release Schedule The prices are published around 5:00 p.m. Monday (Eastern time), except on government holidays, when the data are released on Tuesday (but still represent Monday's price). Data for: Alternate Release Date Release Day Holiday October 12, 2015 October 13, 2015 Tuesday Columbus January 18, 2016 January 19, 2016 Tuesday Martin Luther King Jr. February 15, 2016 February 16, 2016 Tuesday President's May 30, 2016 May 31, 2016 Tuesday Memorial July 4, 2016 July 5, 2016 Tuesday

  2. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Price Data Collection Procedures Every Monday, retail on-highway diesel prices are collected by telephone and fax from a sample of approximately 350 retail diesel outlets, including truck stops and service stations. The data represent the price of ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) which contains less than 15 parts-per-million sulfur. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires that all on-highway diesel sold be ULSD by December 1, 2010 (September 1, 2006 in California). In January 2007, the

  3. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    of truck stops and retail stations selected for each CSU. ... http:www.eia.govpuboilgaspetroleumdatapublicationsweeklyonhighwaydieselpricescurrenthtml2cycasr.htm

  4. Fact #720: March 26, 2012 Eleven Percent of New Light Trucks Sold have Gasoline Direct Injection

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Gasoline direct fuel injection (GDI) allows fuel to be injected directly into the cylinder so the timing and shape of the fuel mist can be controlled more precisely. The improved combustion and...

  5. Study Reveals Fuel Injection Timing Impact on Particle Number Emissions (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-12-01

    Start of injection can improve environmental performance of fuel-efficient gasoline direct injection engines.

  6. U.S. summer gasoline price to average 6 cents lower than last...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    price. Gasoline demand this summer is expected to be slightly below last year's level, as more fuel efficient vehicles more than offset the projected increase in highway travel

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Ford Motor Companyh at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced gasoline...

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Cummins at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced gasoline turbocharged direct...

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Alternative Fuel and Vehicle Tax Alternative fuels used to operate on-road vehicles are taxed at a rate of 0.162 per gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE). Alternative fuels are taxed ...

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Alternative Fuel and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Retrofit Regulations Converting a vehicle to operate on an alternative fuel in lieu of the original gasoline or diesel fuel is ...

  11. 3-Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ...% CO2 reduction) at a significantly lower on-cost. PDF icon deer09kirwan.pdf More Documents & Publications Gasoline Ultra Fuel Efficient Vehicle Reducing the Particulate Emission ...

  12. Diesel Fuel Price Pass-through

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 Home | Petroleum | Gasoline | Diesel | Propane | Natural Gas | Electricity | Coal | Nuclear Renewables | Alternative Fuels |...

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Ethanol Blend Requirement Suppliers that import gasoline for sale in North Carolina must offer fuel that is not pre-blended with fuel alcohol but that is suitable for future blending. Future contract provisions that restrict distributors or retailers from blending gasoline with fuel alcohol are void. (Reference North Carolina General Statutes 75-90, 105-449.60

  14. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice

    SciTech Connect

    Clean Cities

    2010-03-01

    Flexible fuel vehicles can operate on either gasoline or E85, a mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline. The fact sheet discusses the costs, benefits, and vehicle performance of using E85.

  15. Hige Compression Ratio Turbo Gasoline Engine Operation Using Alcohol Enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Heywood, John; Jo, Young Suk; Lewis, Raymond; Bromberg, Leslie; Heywood, John

    2015-10-31

    The overall objective of this project was to quantify the potential for improving the performance and efficiency of gasoline engine technology by use of alcohols to suppress knock. Knock-free operation is obtained by direct injection of a second “anti-knock” fuel such as ethanol, which suppresses knock when, with gasoline fuel, knock would occur. Suppressing knock enables increased turbocharging, engine downsizing, and use of higher compression ratios throughout the engine’s operating map. This project combined engine testing and simulation to define knock onset conditions, with different mixtures of gasoline and alcohol, and with this information quantify the potential for improving the efficiency of turbocharged gasoline spark-ignition engines, and the on-vehicle fuel consumption reductions that could then be realized. The more focused objectives of this project were therefore to: Determine engine efficiency with aggressive turbocharging and downsizing and high compression ratio (up to a compression ratio of 13.5:1) over the engine’s operating range; Determine the knock limits of a turbocharged and downsized engine as a function of engine speed and load; Determine the amount of the knock-suppressing alcohol fuel consumed, through the use of various alcohol-gasoline and alcohol-water gasoline blends, for different driving cycles, relative to the gasoline consumed; Determine implications of using alcohol-boosted engines, with their higher efficiency operation, in both light-duty and medium-duty vehicle sectors.

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Natural Gas Tax Compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) used as motor fuel must be sold in gasoline gallon equivalents (GGE) or diesel gallon equivalents ...

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    fuel or additive registered or verified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (other than standard gasoline or diesel) that provides particulate matter emission reductions. ...

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    which assigns a RIN to each gallon of renewable fuel. Entities regulated by RFS include oil refiners, blenders, and gasoline and diesel importers. The volumes required of each...

  19. Simulation: Gasoline Compression Ignition

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-13

    The Mira supercomputer at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility helped Argonne researchers model what happens inside an engine when you use gasoline in a diesel engine. Engineers are exploring this type of combustion as a sustainable transportation option because it may be more efficient than traditional gasoline combustion engines but produce less soot than diesel.

  20. 3-Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value Solution for Euro VI Emissions

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    3-cylindery gasoline direct injection engines offer similar value in CO2 reduction capability (Euros/% CO2 reduction) at a significantly lower on-cost.

  1. Detailed Kinetic Modeling of Gasoline Surrogate Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-03-09

    Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, a recently revised version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines. Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

  2. Fuel FX International Inc | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    on development and distribution of proprietary products focused on improving fuel economy and reducing environmental emissions in diesel and gasoline engines. References: Fuel...

  3. Motor gasolines, winter 1981-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, E M

    1982-07-01

    Analytical data for 905 samples of motor gasoline, were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in the laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, and chemical companies. The data were submitted to the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for study, necessary calculations, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). The samples represent the products of 30 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since winter 1959-1960 survey for the leaded gasolines, and since winter 1979-1980 survey for the unleaded gasolines. Sixteen octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 90.0, unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 90.0 and above, leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 93.0, and leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 93.0 and above grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The antiknock (octane) index (R+M)/2 averages of gasoline sold in this country were 87.4 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.7 for unleaded 90.0 and above, and 88.9 for leaded below 93.0. Only one sample was reported as 93.0 for leaded gasolines with an antiknock index (R+M)/2 93.0 and above.

  4. Fact #801: October 28, 2013 Gasoline Direct Injection Continues to Grow

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) is an engine technology that improves fuel economy and engine performance by injecting fuel directly into the combustion chamber, allowing for a more complete and...

  5. Diesel engines vs. spark ignition gasoline engines -- Which is ``greener``?

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbanks, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    Criteria emissions, i.e., NO{sub x}, PM, CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}, from recently manufactured automobiles, compared on the basis of what actually comes out of the engines, the diesel engine is greener than spark ignition gasoline engines and this advantage for the diesel engine increases with time. SI gasoline engines tend to get out of tune more than diesel engines and 3-way catalytic converters and oxygen sensors degrade with use. Highway measurements of NO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and CO revealed that for each model year, 10% of the vehicles produce 50% of the emissions and older model years emit more than recent model year vehicles. Since 1974, cars with SI gasoline engines have uncontrolled emission until the 3-way catalytic converter reaches operating temperature, which occurs after roughly 7 miles of driving. Honda reports a system to be introduced in 1998 that will alleviate this cold start problem by storing the emissions then sending them through the catalytic converter after it reaches operating temperature. Acceleration enrichment, wherein considerable excess fuel is introduced to keep temperatures down of SI gasoline engine in-cylinder components and catalytic converters so these parts meet warranty, results in 2,500 times more CO and 40 times more H{sub 2} being emitted. One cannot kill oneself, accidentally or otherwise, with CO from a diesel engine vehicle in a confined space. There are 2,850 deaths per year attributable to CO from SI gasoline engine cars. Diesel fuel has advantages compared with gasoline. Refinery emissions are lower as catalytic cracking isn`t necessary. The low volatility of diesel fuel results in a much lower probability of fires. Emissions could be improved by further reducing sulfur and aromatics and/or fuel additives. Reformulated fuel has become the term covering reducing the fuels contribution to emissions. Further PM reduction should be anticipated with reformulated diesel and gasoline fuels.

  6. Northeast Gasoline Supply Reserve

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Northeast region of the U.S. is particularly vulnerable to gasoline disruptions as a result of hurricanes and other natural events. Hurricane Sandy in 2012 caused widespread issues related to...

  7. Alternative Fuels Used in Transportation (5 Activities)

    Education - Teach & Learn

    Gasoline is the most commonly used fuel for transportation; however, there are multiple alternative fuels that are making their way to the market. These alternative fuels include propane, natural gas, electric hybrids, hydrogen fuel cells, and bio-diesel. Students will probably have heard of some of these alternative fuels, but they may not understand how and why they are better then ordinary gasoline.

  8. Fact #944: September 26, 2016 Public Opinion of Fuels Which Could Replace

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Gasoline - Dataset | Department of Energy 4: September 26, 2016 Public Opinion of Fuels Which Could Replace Gasoline - Dataset Fact #944: September 26, 2016 Public Opinion of Fuels Which Could Replace Gasoline - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Public Opinion of Fuels Which Could Replace Gasoline fotw#944_web.xlsx (17.54 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact #943: September 19, 2016 Fuel Economy Being Chosen as the Most Important Vehicle Attribute is Related to the Price of Gasoline -

  9. Chemistry Impacts in Gasoline HCCI

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P; Bunting, Bruce G

    2006-09-01

    The use of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion in internal combustion engines is of interest because it has the potential to produce low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions while providing diesel-like efficiency. In HCCI combustion, a premixed charge of fuel and air auto-ignites at multiple points in the cylinder near top dead center (TDC), resulting in rapid combustion with very little flame propagation. In order to prevent excessive knocking during HCCI combustion, it must take place in a dilute environment, resulting from either operating fuel lean or providing high levels of either internal or external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Operating the engine in a dilute environment can substantially reduce the pumping losses, thus providing the main efficiency advantage compared to spark-ignition (SI) engines. Low NOx and PM emissions have been reported by virtually all researchers for operation under HCCI conditions. The precise emissions can vary depending on how well mixed the intake charge is, the fuel used, and the phasing of the HCCI combustion event; but it is common for there to be no measurable PM emissions and NOx emissions <10 ppm. Much of the early HCCI work was done on 2-stroke engines, and in these studies the CO and hydrocarbon emissions were reported to decrease [1]. However, in modern 4-stroke engines, the CO and hydrocarbon emissions from HCCI usually represent a marked increase compared with conventional SI combustion. This literature review does not report on HCCI emissions because the trends mentioned above are well established in the literature. The main focus of this literature review is the auto-ignition performance of gasoline-type fuels. It follows that this discussion relies heavily on the extensive information available about gasoline auto-ignition from studying knock in SI engines. Section 2 discusses hydrocarbon auto-ignition, the octane number scale, the chemistry behind it, its

  10. Price of Motor Gasoline Through Retail Outlets

    Annual Energy Outlook

    & Stocks by State (Dollars per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Data Series: Retail Price - Motor Gasoline Retail Price - Regular Gasoline Retail Price - Midgrade Gasoline Retail Price...

  11. Fact #682: July 4, 2011 Federal Alternative Fuel Use

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Government used nearly 9 million gasoline-gallon equivalents of alternative fuel in 2010. The majority of the fuel used (92%) was E-85, a combination of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline....

  12. Balanced pressure gerotor fuel pump

    DOEpatents

    Raney, Michael Raymond; Maier, Eugen

    2004-08-03

    A gerotor pump for pressurizing gasoline fuel is capable of developing pressures up to 2.0 MPa with good mechanical and volumetric efficiency and satisfying the durability requirements for an automotive fuel pump. The pump has been designed with optimized clearances and by including features that promote the formation of lubricating films of pressurized fuel. Features of the improved pump include the use of a shadow port in the side plate opposite the outlet port to promote balancing of high fuel pressures on the opposite sides of the rotors. Inner and outer rotors have predetermined side clearances with the clearances of the outer rotor being greater than those of the inner rotor in order to promote fuel pressure balance on the sides of the outer rotor. Support of the inner rotor and a drive shaft on a single bushing with bearing sleeves maintains concentricity. Additional features are disclosed.

  13. High Thermal Efficiency and Low Emissions with Supercritical Gasoline Injection-Ignition in a Light Duty Engine

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    A novel fuel injector has been developed and tested that addresses the technical challenges of LTC, HCCI, gasoline PPC, and RCCI by reducing complexity and cost.

  14. Fuel Options

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Production Market Transformation Fuel Cells Predictive Simulation of Engines ... Twitter Google + Vimeo Newsletter Signup SlideShare Fuel Options HomeCapabilitiesFuel ...

  15. Characterization of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Premixed Gasoline and Direct-Injected Gasoline with a Cetane Improver on a Multi-Cylinder Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, Adam B.; Curran, Scott; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2015-04-14

    The focus of the present paper was to characterize Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) using a single-fuel approach of gasoline and gasoline mixed with a commercially available cetane improver on a multi-cylinder engine. RCCI was achieved by port-injecting a certification grade 96 research octane gasoline and direct-injecting the same gasoline mixed with various levels of a cetane improver, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN). The EHN volume percentages investigated in the direct-injected fuel were 10, 5, and 2.5%. The combustion phasing controllability and emissions of the different fueling combinations were characterized at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure over a variety of parametric investigations including direct injection timing, premixed gasoline percentage, and intake temperature. Comparisons were made to gasoline/diesel RCCI operation on the same engine platform at nominally the same operating condition. The experiments were conducted on a modern four cylinder light-duty diesel engine that was modified with a port-fuel injection system while maintaining the stock direct injection fuel system. The pistons were modified for highly premixed operation and feature an open shallow bowl design. The results indicate that the authority to control the combustion phasing through the fuel delivery strategy (e.g., direct injection timing or premixed gasoline percentage) is not a strong function of the EHN concentration in the direct-injected fuel. It was also observed that NOx emissions are a strong function of the global EHN concentration in-cylinder and the combustion phasing. Finally, in general, NOx emissions are significantly elevated for gasoline/gasoline+EHN operation compared with gasoline/diesel RCCI operation at a given operating condition.

  16. Characterization of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Premixed Gasoline and Direct-Injected Gasoline with a Cetane Improver on a Multi-Cylinder Engine

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Dempsey, Adam B.; Curran, Scott; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2015-04-14

    The focus of the present paper was to characterize Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) using a single-fuel approach of gasoline and gasoline mixed with a commercially available cetane improver on a multi-cylinder engine. RCCI was achieved by port-injecting a certification grade 96 research octane gasoline and direct-injecting the same gasoline mixed with various levels of a cetane improver, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN). The EHN volume percentages investigated in the direct-injected fuel were 10, 5, and 2.5%. The combustion phasing controllability and emissions of the different fueling combinations were characterized at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure over amore » variety of parametric investigations including direct injection timing, premixed gasoline percentage, and intake temperature. Comparisons were made to gasoline/diesel RCCI operation on the same engine platform at nominally the same operating condition. The experiments were conducted on a modern four cylinder light-duty diesel engine that was modified with a port-fuel injection system while maintaining the stock direct injection fuel system. The pistons were modified for highly premixed operation and feature an open shallow bowl design. The results indicate that the authority to control the combustion phasing through the fuel delivery strategy (e.g., direct injection timing or premixed gasoline percentage) is not a strong function of the EHN concentration in the direct-injected fuel. It was also observed that NOx emissions are a strong function of the global EHN concentration in-cylinder and the combustion phasing. Finally, in general, NOx emissions are significantly elevated for gasoline/gasoline+EHN operation compared with gasoline/diesel RCCI operation at a given operating condition.« less

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Tax Compressed natural gas used as a special motor fuel is subject to the state fuel excise tax of 0.31 per gasoline gallon equivalent, measured at 5.66 pounds (lbs.) or 126.67 ...

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels Tax Alternative fuels are subject to an excise tax at a rate of 0.205 per gasoline gallon equivalent, with a variable component equal to at least 5% of the average wholesale...

  19. NREL: Biomass Research - Capabilities

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    is then separated, purified, and recovered for use as a transportation fuel. NREL biomass researchers and scientists have strong capabilities in many facets of biomass...

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Low-Temperature Gasoline

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Combustion (LTGC) Engine Research | Department of Energy Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) Engine Research Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) Engine Research Presentation given by Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Combustion Engines ace004_dec_2016_o_web.pdf (1.4 MB) More Documents &

  1. CREATING THE NORTHEAST GASOLINE SUPPLY RESERVE

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2012, Superstorm Sandy made landfall in the northeastern United States and caused heavy damage to two refineries and left more than 40 terminals in New York Harbor closed due to water damage and loss of power. This left some New York gas stations without fuel for as long as 30 days. As part of the Obama Administration’s ongoing response to the storm, the Department of Energy created the first federal regional refined product reserve, the Northeast Gasoline Supply Reserve.

  2. Fuels Performance: Navigating the Intersection of Fuels and Combustion...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    And how can better engine design most effectively leverage ... Study Reveals Key to Low-Temperature Biodiesel Performance ... to improve the performance of gasoline and diesel fuels. ...

  3. European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Chambon, Paul H; Huff, Shean P; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Norman, Kevin M; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Thomas, John F

    2011-01-01

    Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW 1-series fitted with a 2.0l LGDI engine. The vehicle was instrumented and commissioned on a chassis dynamometer. The engine and after-treatment performance and emissions were characterized over US drive cycles (Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06)) and steady state mappings. The vehicle micro hybrid features (engine stop-start and intelligent alternator) were benchmarked as well during the course of that study. The data was analyzed to quantify the benefits and drawbacks of the lean gasoline direct injection and micro hybrid technologies from a fuel economy and emissions perspectives with respect to the US market. Additionally that data will be formatted to develop, substantiate, and exercise vehicle simulations with conventional and advanced powertrains.

  4. Correlation between speciated hydrocarbon emissions and flame ionization detector response for gasoline/alcohol blends .

    SciTech Connect

    Wallner, T.

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. renewable fuel standard has made it a requirement to increase the production of ethanol and advanced biofuels to 36 billion by 2022. Ethanol will be capped at 15 billion, which leaves 21 billion to come from other sources such as butanol. Butanol has a higher energy density and lower affinity for water than ethanol. Moreover, alcohol fueled engines in general have been shown to positively affect engine-out emissions of oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide compared with their gasoline fueled counterparts. In light of these developments, the variety and blend levels of oxygenated constituents is likely to increase in the foreseeable future. The effect on engine-out emissions for total hydrocarbons is less clear due to the relative insensitivity of the flame ionization detector (FID) toward alcohols and aldehydes. It is well documented that hydrocarbon (HC) measurement using a conventional FID in the presence of oxygenates in the engine exhaust stream can lead to a misinterpretation of HC emissions trends for alcohol fuel blends. Characterization of the exhaust stream for all expected hydrocarbon constituents is required to accurately determine the actual concentration of unburned fuel components in the exhaust. In addition to a conventional exhaust emissions bench, this characterization requires supplementary instrumentation capable of hydrocarbon speciation and response factor independent quantification. Although required for certification testing, this sort of instrumentation is not yet widely available in engine development facilities. Therefore, an attempt is made to empirically determine FID correction factors for oxygenate fuels. Exhaust emissions of an engine fueled with several blends of gasoline and ethanol, n-butanol and iso-Butanol were characterized using both a conventional FID and a Fourier transform infrared. Based on these results, a response factor predicting the actual hydrocarbon emissions based solely on FID results as a function of

  5. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) ...

  6. Optimally Controlled Flexible Fuel Powertrain System

    SciTech Connect

    Hakan Yilmaz; Mark Christie; Anna Stefanopoulou

    2010-12-31

    The primary objective of this project was to develop a true Flex Fuel Vehicle capable of running on any blend of ethanol from 0 to 85% with reduced penalty in usable vehicle range. A research and development program, targeting 10% improvement in fuel economy using a direct injection (DI) turbocharged spark ignition engine was conducted. In this project a gasoline-optimized high-technology engine was considered and the hardware and configuration modifications were defined for the engine, fueling system, and air path. Combined with a novel engine control strategy, control software, and calibration this resulted in a highly efficient and clean FFV concept. It was also intended to develop robust detection schemes of the ethanol content in the fuel integrated with adaptive control algorithms for optimized turbocharged direct injection engine combustion. The approach relies heavily on software-based adaptation and optimization striving for minimal modifications to the gasoline-optimized engine hardware system. Our ultimate objective was to develop a compact control methodology that takes advantage of any ethanol-based fuel mixture and not compromise the engine performance under gasoline operation.

  7. Model for Simulation of Hydride Precipitation in Zr-Based Used Fuel Claddings: A Status Report on Current Model Capabilities

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The report demonstrates a meso-scale, microstructural evolution model for simulation of zirconium hydride precipitation in the cladding of used fuels during long-term dry-storage.

  8. GREET 1.5 - transportation fuel-cycle model - Vol. 1 : methodology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... SYSTEMS; FUEL CONSUMPTION; ETHERS; GREENHOUSE GASES; LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS; AIR POLLUTION; FLY ASH; DIESEL FUELS; GASOLINE; LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES; METHANOL; FUEL ...

  9. A Historical Analysis of the Co-Evolution of Gasoline Octane Number and Spark Ignition Engines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    A Historical Analysis of the Co-Evolution of Gasoline Octane Number and Spark-Ignition Engines A HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CO-EVOLUTION OF GASOLINE OCTANE NUMBER AND SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Derek Splitter, Alex Pawlowski, Robert Wagner Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center Oak Ridge National Laboratory Sustainable Transportation Summit, July 12, 2016 2 A Historical Analysis of the Co-Evolution of Gasoline Octane Number and Spark-Ignition Engines FURTHER DETAIL AND SOURCES AVAILABLE IN

  10. The motor gasoline industry: Past, present, and future. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Motor gasoline constitutes the largest single component of US demand for petroleum products and is the Nation's most widely used transportation fuel. Because of its importance as a transportation fuel, motor gasoline has been the focus of several regulatory and tax policy initiatives in recent years. Much of the US refining capacity is specifically geared toward maximizing motor gasoline production, and future investments by the petroleum industry in refining infrastructure are likely to be made largely to produce larger volumes of clean motor gasoline. This report addresses major events and developments that have had an impact on motor gasoline supply, distribution, prices, and demand. The report provides historical perspective as well as analyses of important events from the 1970's and 1980's. Long-term forecasts are provided for the period from 1990 to 2010 in an effort to present and analyze possible future motor gasoline trends. Other forecasts examine the near-term impact of the invasion of Kuwait. 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Motor gasoline assessment, Spring 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The springs of 1996 and 1997 provide an excellent example of contrasting gasoline market dynamics. In spring 1996, tightening crude oil markets pushed up gasoline prices sharply, adding to the normal seasonal gasoline price increases; however, in spring 1997, crude oil markets loosened and crude oil prices fell, bringing gasoline prices down. This pattern was followed throughout the country except in California. As a result of its unique reformulated gasoline, California prices began to vary significantly from the rest of the country in 1996 and continued to exhibit distinct variations in 1997. In addition to the price contrasts between 1996 and 1997, changes occurred in the way in which gasoline markets were supplied. Low stocks, high refinery utilizations, and high imports persisted through 1996 into summer 1997, but these factors seem to have had little impact on gasoline price spreads relative to average spread.

  12. EIS-0039: Motor Gasoline Deregulation and the Gasoline Tilt

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Economic Regulatory Administration developed this EIS to evaluate the environmental impacts, including social and economic impacts, that may result from either of two proposed regulatory changes: (1) the exemption of motor gasoline from the Department of Energy's Mandatory Petroleum Price and Allocation Regulations, and (2) the adoption of the gasoline tilt, a proposed regulation that would allow refiners to recover an additional amount of their total increased costs on gasoline.

  13. Effects of gasoline reactivity and ethanol content on boosted premixed and partially stratified low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC)

    SciTech Connect

    Dec, John E.; Yang, Yi; Ji, Chunsheng; Dernotte, Jeremie

    2015-04-14

    Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC), based on the compression ignition of a premixed or partially premixed dilute charge, can provide thermal efficiencies (TE) and maximum loads comparable to those of turbo-charged diesel engines, and ultra-low NOx and particulate emissions. Intake boosting is key to achieving high loads with dilute combustion, and it also enhances the fuel's autoignition reactivity, reducing the required intake heating or hot residuals. These effects have the advantages of increasing TE and charge density, allowing greater timing retard with good stability, and making the fuel ?- sensitive so that partial fuel stratification (PFS) can be applied for higher loads and further TE improvements. However, at high boost the autoignition reactivity enhancement can become excessive, and substantial amounts of EGR are required to prevent overly advanced combustion. Accordingly, an experimental investigation has been conducted to determine how the tradeoff between the effects of intake boost varies with fuel-type and its impact on load range and TE. Five fuels are investigated: a conventional AKI=87 petroleum-based gasoline (E0), and blends of 10 and 20% ethanol with this gasoline to reduce its reactivity enhancement with boost (E10 and E20). Furthermore, a second zero-ethanol gasoline with AKI=93 (matching that of E20) was also investigated (CF-E0), and some neat ethanol data are also reported.

  14. Effects of gasoline reactivity and ethanol content on boosted premixed and partially stratified low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC)

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Dec, John E.; Yang, Yi; Ji, Chunsheng; Dernotte, Jeremie

    2015-04-14

    Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC), based on the compression ignition of a premixed or partially premixed dilute charge, can provide thermal efficiencies (TE) and maximum loads comparable to those of turbo-charged diesel engines, and ultra-low NOx and particulate emissions. Intake boosting is key to achieving high loads with dilute combustion, and it also enhances the fuel's autoignition reactivity, reducing the required intake heating or hot residuals. These effects have the advantages of increasing TE and charge density, allowing greater timing retard with good stability, and making the fuel Φ- sensitive so that partial fuel stratification (PFS) can be applied for highermore » loads and further TE improvements. However, at high boost the autoignition reactivity enhancement can become excessive, and substantial amounts of EGR are required to prevent overly advanced combustion. Accordingly, an experimental investigation has been conducted to determine how the tradeoff between the effects of intake boost varies with fuel-type and its impact on load range and TE. Five fuels are investigated: a conventional AKI=87 petroleum-based gasoline (E0), and blends of 10 and 20% ethanol with this gasoline to reduce its reactivity enhancement with boost (E10 and E20). Furthermore, a second zero-ethanol gasoline with AKI=93 (matching that of E20) was also investigated (CF-E0), and some neat ethanol data are also reported.« less

  15. Effects of gasoline reactivity and ethanol content on boosted premixed and partially stratified low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC)

    SciTech Connect

    Dec, John E.; Yang, Yi; Ji, Chunsheng; Dernotte, Jeremie

    2015-04-14

    Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC), based on the compression ignition of a premixed or partially premixed dilute charge, can provide thermal efficiencies (TE) and maximum loads comparable to those of turbo-charged diesel engines, and ultra-low NOx and particulate emissions. Intake boosting is key to achieving high loads with dilute combustion, and it also enhances the fuel's autoignition reactivity, reducing the required intake heating or hot residuals. These effects have the advantages of increasing TE and charge density, allowing greater timing retard with good stability, and making the fuel Φ- sensitive so that partial fuel stratification (PFS) can be applied for higher loads and further TE improvements. However, at high boost the autoignition reactivity enhancement can become excessive, and substantial amounts of EGR are required to prevent overly advanced combustion. Accordingly, an experimental investigation has been conducted to determine how the tradeoff between the effects of intake boost varies with fuel-type and its impact on load range and TE. Five fuels are investigated: a conventional AKI=87 petroleum-based gasoline (E0), and blends of 10 and 20% ethanol with this gasoline to reduce its reactivity enhancement with boost (E10 and E20). Furthermore, a second zero-ethanol gasoline with AKI=93 (matching that of E20) was also investigated (CF-E0), and some neat ethanol data are also reported.

  16. Characterization of Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion with Alcohol-blended Fuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Analysis showed that gasoline direct injection engine particulates from alcohol-blended fuels are significantly different in morphology and nanostructures

  17. Two-Stage Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System to Increase Efficiency in Gasoline Powertrains

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents two-stage variable compression ratio mechanism realized by varying the connecting rod length, description of the system layout, working principle and expected fuel savings benefits when used in current and future gasoline engine concepts

  18. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Motor Gasoline Consumption Model

    Reports and Publications

    2011-01-01

    The motor gasoline consumption module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of total U.S. consumption of motor gasolien based on estimates of vehicle miles traveled and average vehicle fuel economy.

  19. Motor Gasoline Assessment, Spring 1997

    Reports and Publications

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes the factors causing the run up of motor gasoline prices during spring 1996 and the different market conditions during spring 1997 that caused prices to decline.

  20. California Gasoline Price Study, 2003

    Reports and Publications

    2003-01-01

    This is the final report to Congressman Ose describing the factors driving California's spring 2003 gasoline price spike and the subsequent price increases in June and August.

  1. Room at the Mountain: Estimated Maximum Amounts of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Capable of Disposal in a Yucca Mountain Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, John H.; Kemeny, John; King, Fraser; Ross, Alan M.; Ross, Benjamen

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an initial analysis of the maximum amount of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) that could be emplaced into a geological repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis identifies and uses programmatic, material, and geological constraints and factors that affect this estimation of maximum amount of CSNF for disposal. The conclusion of this initial analysis is that the current legislative limit on Yucca Mountain disposal capacity, 63,000 MTHM of CSNF, is a small fraction of the available physical capacity of the Yucca Mountain system assuming the current high-temperature operating mode (HTOM) design. EPRI is confident that at least four times the legislative limit for CSNF ({approx}260,000 MTHM) can be emplaced in the Yucca Mountain system. It is possible that with additional site characterization, upwards of nine times the legislative limit ({approx}570,000 MTHM) could be emplaced. (authors)

  2. Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components

    SciTech Connect

    Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

    2011-08-01

    This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

  3. Long Beach Transit: Two-Year Evaluation of Gasoline-Electric Hybrid Transit Buses

    SciTech Connect

    Lammert, M.

    2008-06-01

    This report focuses on a gasoline-electric hybrid transit bus propulsion system. The propulsion system is an alternative to standard diesel buses and allows for reductions in emissions (usually focused on reductions of particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen) and petroleum use. Gasoline propulsion is an alternative to diesel fuel and hybrid propulsion allows for increased fuel economy, which ultimately results in reduced petroleum use.

  4. Microsoft Word - Gasoline_2008 Supplement.doc

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    ... on gasoline are fixed, the money saved by switching to regular grade gasoline would therefore be equivalent to a 0.14 percent per year increase in total gasoline consumption. ...

  5. NREL: Transportation Research - Fuel Chemistry Research

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL evaluates a broad range of renewable gasoline and diesel fuels-ranging from currently available ethanol and biodiesel to future products such as dimethyl furan and ...

  6. Water Emissions from Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) emit approximately the same amount of water per mile as vehicles using gasoline-powered internal combustion engines (ICEs).

  7. Fact #817: February 17, 2014 Conventional and Alternative Fuel...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    The figure below shows quarterly price fluctuations for select fuel types from 2000 to 2013. Gasoline, diesel, propane, E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline), and B20 (20% biodiesel ...

  8. Fact #906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Opposition | Department of Energy 6: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in Opposition Fact #906: January 4, 2016 VMT and the Price of Gasoline Typically Move in Opposition SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week The prices of gasoline and diesel fuel affect the transportation sector in many ways. For example, fuel prices can impact the number of miles driven and affect the choices consumers make when purchasing vehicles. The graph below shows a three-month moving average

  9. Trends of petroleum fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, E.M.; Woodward, P.W.

    1985-02-01

    Trends in properties of motor gasolines for the years 1942 through 1984; diesel fuels for the years 1950 through 1983; aviation fuels for the years 1947 through 1983; and heating oils for the years 1955 through 1984, have been evaluated based upon data contained in surveys prepared and published by the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) formerly the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC). The surveys for motor gasolines were conducted under a cooperative agreement with the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) and the Bureau of Mines from 1935 through 1948 and in cooperation with the American Petroleum Institute (API) since 1948 for all surveys. The motor gasoline surveys have been published twice annually since 1935 describing the properties of motor gasolines throughout the country. Other surveys prepared in cooperation with API and the Bureau of Mines, the Energy Research and Development Administration, the Department of Energy, and currently NIPER were aviation gasolines beginning in 1947, diesel fuels in 1950, aviation turbine fuels in 1951, and heating oils, formerly burner fuel oils, in 1955. Various companies throughout the country obtain samples of motor gasolines from retail outlets and refinery samples for the other surveys, and analyze the samples using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) procedures. The analytical data are sent to the Bartlesville Center for survey preparation and distribution. A summary report has been assembled from data in 83 semiannual surveys for motor gasolines that shows trends throughout the entire era from winter 19

  10. Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans

    Annual Energy Outlook

    MTBE has apparently been making its way from leaking underground storage tanks, gasoline spills, and two-stroke gasoline engines into surface and ground water. (For more ...

  11. Gasoline prices decrease (short version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Gasoline prices decrease (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.68 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2.9 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  12. Gasoline prices decrease (short version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Gasoline prices decrease (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.67 a gallon on Monday. That's down 3-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  13. Gasoline prices increase (short version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    gasoline prices increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.69 a gallon on Monday. That's up 1.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  14. Topsoe integrated gasoline synthesis (TIGAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, H.K.; Joensen, F.

    1987-01-01

    Integration of Haldor Topsoe's oxygenate (MeOH, DME) synthesis and the MTG process into one single synthesis loop provides a new low investment route to gasoline from natural gas. The integrated process has been demonstrated in an industrial pilot with a capacity of 1 MTPD gasoline since 1984. The pilot has operated successfully for more than 10,000 hours.

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Measurement LNG is taxed based on the gasoline gallon equivalent, or 6.6 pounds of LNG for one gallon of motor fuel, unless a diesel gallon equivalent ...

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Tax LNG is taxed at a rate of 0.14 per gallon when used as a motor fuel. For taxation purposes, LNG is converted to its gasoline gallon equivalent ...

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Biofuel Specifications Ethanol-blended gasoline must conform to ASTM D4814, E85 must conform to ASTM D4806, and biodiesel-blended fuel containing at least 6%, but no more than 20%, ...

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Ethanol Fuel Blend Standard At least 85% of gasoline supplied to a retailer or sold in Hawaii must contain a minimum of 10% ethanol (E10), unless the Director determines that...

  19. Characteristics of isopentanol as a fuel for HCCI engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Blake Alexander; Dec, John E.; Yang, Yi; Dronniou, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    Long chain alcohols possess major advantages over the currently used ethanol as bio-components for gasoline, including higher energy content, better engine compatibility, and less water solubility. The rapid developments in biofuel technology have made it possible to produce C{sub 4}-C{sub 5} alcohols cost effectively. These higher alcohols could significantly expand the biofuel content and potentially substitute ethanol in future gasoline mixtures. This study characterizes some fundamental properties of a C{sub 5} alcohol, isopentanol, as a fuel for HCCI engines. Wide ranges of engine speed, intake temperature, intake pressure, and equivalence ratio are investigated. Results are presented in comparison with gasoline or ethanol data previously reported. For a given combustion phasing, isopentanol requires lower intake temperatures than gasoline or ethanol at all tested speeds, indicating a higher HCCI reactivity. Similar to ethanol but unlike gasoline, isopentanol does not show two-stage ignition even at very low engine speed (350 rpm) or with considerable intake pressure boost (200 kPa abs.). However, isopentanol does show considerable intermediate temperature heat release (ITHR) that is comparable to gasoline. Our previous work has found that ITHR is critical for maintaining combustion stability at the retarded combustion phasings required to achieve high loads without knock. The stronger ITHR causes the combustion phasing of isopentanol to be less sensitive to intake temperature variations than ethanol. With the capability to retard combustion phasing, a maximum IMEP{sub g} of 5.4 and 11.6 bar was achieved with isopentanol at 100 and 200 kPa intake pressure, respectively. These loads are even slightly higher than those achieved with gasoline. The ITHR of isopentanol depends on operating conditions and is enhanced by simultaneously increasing pressures and reducing temperatures. However, increasing the temperature seems to have little effect on ITHR at

  20. Lightweighting Automotive Materials for Increased Fuel Efficiency and Delivering Advanced Modeling and Simulation Capabilities to U.S. Manufacturers

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, Steve

    2013-09-11

    Abstract The National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), to bring together research and development (R&D) collaborations to develop and accelerate the knowledgebase and infrastructure for lightweighting materials and manufacturing processes for their use in structural and applications in the automotive sector. The purpose/importance of this DOE program: • 2016 CAFÉ standards. • Automotive industry technology that shall adopt the insertion of lightweighting material concepts towards manufacturing of production vehicles. • Development and manufacture of advanced research tools for modeling and simulation (M&S) applications to reduce manufacturing and material costs. • U.S. competitiveness that will help drive the development and manufacture of the next generation of materials. NCMS established a focused portfolio of applied R&D projects utilizing lightweighting materials for manufacture into automotive structures and components. Areas that were targeted in this program: • Functionality of new lightweighting materials to meet present safety requirements. • Manufacturability using new lightweighting materials. • Cost reduction for the development and use of new lightweighting materials. The automotive industry’s future continuously evolves through innovation, and lightweight materials are key in achieving a new era of lighter, more efficient vehicles. Lightweight materials are among the technical advances needed to achieve fuel/energy efficiency and reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions: • Establish design criteria methodology to identify the best materials for lightweighting. • Employ state-of-the-art design tools for optimum material development for their specific applications. • Match new manufacturing technology to production volume. • Address new process variability with new production-ready processes.

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Advanced Vehicle Acquisition and Biodiesel Fuel Use Requirement All gasoline-powered vehicles purchased with state funds must be flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) or fuel-efficient hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Fuel-efficient HEVs are defined as automobiles or light trucks that use a gasoline or diesel engine and an electric motor to provide power and that gain at least a 20% increase in combined U.S. Environmental Protection Agency city-highway fuel economy over the equivalent or most-similar

  2. Comparing Scales of Environmental Effects from Gasoline and Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect

    Parish, Esther S; Kline, Keith L; Dale, Virginia H; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; McBride, Allen; Johnson, Timothy L; Hilliard, Michael R; Bielicki, Dr Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the environmental effects of alternative fuel production is critical to characterizing the sustainability of energy resources to inform policy and regulatory decisions. The magnitudes of these environmental effects vary according to the intensity and scale of fuel production along each step of the supply chain. We compare the scales (i.e., spatial extent and temporal duration) of ethanol and gasoline production processes and environmental effects based on a literature review, and then synthesize the scale differences on space-time diagrams. Comprehensive assessment of any fuel-production system is a moving target, and our analysis shows that decisions regarding the selection of spatial and temporal boundaries of analysis have tremendous influences on the comparisons. Effects that strongly differentiate gasoline and ethanol supply chains in terms of scale are associated with when and where energy resources are formed and how they are extracted. Although both gasoline and ethanol production may result in negative environmental effects, this study indicates that ethanol production traced through a supply chain may impact less area and result in more easily reversed effects of a shorter duration than gasoline production.

  3. Reformulated Gasoline Complex Model

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Table 2. Statutory Baseline Fuel Compositions * Simple Model ... Related EIA Short-Term Forecast Analysis Products * RFG ... * Demand, Supply, and Price Outlook for Reformulated ...

  4. Biomass to Gasoline and DIesel Using Integrated Hydropyrolysis and Hydroconversion

    SciTech Connect

    Marker, Terry; Roberts, Michael; Linck, Martin; Felix, Larry; Ortiz-Toral, Pedro; Wangerow, Jim; Tan, Eric; Gephart, John; Shonnard, David

    2013-01-02

    Cellulosic and woody biomass can be directly converted to hydrocarbon gasoline and diesel blending components through the use of integrated hydropyrolysis plus hydroconversion (IH2). The IH2 gasoline and diesel blending components are fully compatible with petroleum based gasoline and diesel, contain less than 1% oxygen and have less than 1 total acid number (TAN). The IH2 gasoline is high quality and very close to a drop in fuel. The DOE funding enabled rapid development of the IH2 technology from initial proof-of-principle experiments through continuous testing in a 50 kg/day pilot plant. As part of this project, engineering work on IH2 has also been completed to design a 1 ton/day demonstration unit and a commercial-scale 2000 ton/day IH2 unit. These studies show when using IH2 technology, biomass can be converted directly to transportation quality fuel blending components for the same capital cost required for pyrolysis alone, and a fraction of the cost of pyrolysis plus upgrading of pyrolysis oil. Technoeconomic work for IH2 and lifecycle analysis (LCA) work has also been completed as part of this DOE study and shows IH2 technology can convert biomass to gasoline and diesel blending components for less than $2.00/gallon with greater than 90% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. As a result of the work completed in this DOE project, a joint development agreement was reached with CRI Catalyst Company to license the IH2 technology. Further larger-scale, continuous testing of IH2 will be required to fully demonstrate the technology, and funding for this is recommended. The IH2 biomass conversion technology would reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil, reduce the price of transportation fuels, and significantly lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is a breakthrough for the widespread conversion of biomass to transportation fuels.

  5. Hydrogen and Gaseous Fuel Safety and Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader; J. Sephen Herring

    2007-06-01

    Non-traditional motor fuels are receiving increased attention and use. This paper examines the safety of three alternative gaseous fuels plus gasoline and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The gaseous fuels are hydrogen, methane (natural gas), and propane. Qualitatively, the overall risks of the four fuels should be close. Gasoline is the most toxic. For small leaks, hydrogen has the highest ignition probability and the gaseous fuels have the highest risk of a burning jet or cloud.

  6. Chemical kinetic modeling of component mixtures relevant to gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-02-13

    Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, a recently revised version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines. Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

  7. Novel Characterization of GDI Engine Exhaust for Gasoline and Mid-Level Gasoline-Alcohol Blends

    SciTech Connect

    Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Szybist, James P; Thomas, John F; Barone, Teresa L; Eibl, Mary A; Nafziger, Eric J; Kaul, Brian C

    2014-01-01

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer improved fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet more stringent fuel economy standards. GDI engines typically emit the most particulate matter (PM) during periods of rich operation such as start-up and acceleration, and emissions of air toxics are also more likely during this condition. A 2.0 L GDI engine was operated at lambda of 0.91 at typical loads for acceleration (2600 rpm, 8 bar BMEP) on three different fuels; an 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline (E0), 30% ethanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel (E30), and 48% isobutanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel. E30 was chosen to maximize octane enhancement while minimizing ethanol-blend level and iBu48 was chosen to match the same fuel oxygen level as E30. Particle size and number, organic carbon and elemental carbon (OC/EC), soot HC speciation, and aldehydes and ketones were all analyzed during the experiment. A new method for soot HC speciation is introduced using a direct, thermal desorption/pyrolysis inlet for the gas chromatograph (GC). Results showed high levels of aromatic compounds were present in the PM, including downstream of the catalyst, and the aldehydes were dominated by the alcohol blending.

  8. Conversion of wood residues to diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kuester, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    The basic approach is indirect liquefaction, i.e., thermal gasification followed by catalytic liquefaction. The indirect approach results in separation of the oxygen in the biomass feedstock, i.e., oxygenated compounds do not appear in the liquid hydrocarbon fuel product. The general conversion scheme is shown. The process is capable of accepting a wide variety of feedstocks. Potential products include medium quality gas, normal propanol, paraffinic fuel and/or high octane gasoline. A flow diagram of the continuous laboratory unit is shown. A fluidized bed pyrolysis system is used for gasification. Capacity is about 10 lbs/h of feedstock. The pyrolyzer can be fluidized with recycle pyrolysis gas, steam or recycle liquefaction system off gas or some combination thereof. Tars are removed in a wet scrubber. Unseparated pyrolysis gases are utilized as feed to a modified Fischer-Tropsch reactor. The liquid condensate from the reactor consists of a normal propanol-water phase and a paraffinic hydrocarbon phase. The reactor can be operated to optimize for either product. If a high octane gasoline is desired, the paraffinic fuel is passed through a conventional catalytic reformer. The normal propanol could be used as a fuel extender if blended with the hydrocarbon fuel products. Off gases from the downstream reactors are of high quality due to the accumulation of low molecular weight paraffins.

  9. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Technologies Program (VTP) (Fact Sheet) | Department of Energy Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) (Fact Sheet) Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) (Fact Sheet) Flexible Fuel vehicles are able to operate using more than one type of fuel. FFVs can be fueled with unleaded gasoline, E85, or any combination of the two. Today more than 7 million vehicles on U.S. highways are

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Low Carbon Fuel Standard California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) Program requires a reduction in the carbon intensity of transportation fuels that are sold, supplied, or offered for sale in the state by a minimum of 10% by 2020. The California Air Resources Board (ARB) regulations require transportation fuel producers and importers to meet specified average carbon intensity requirements for fuel. In the regulations, carbon intensity reductions are based on reformulated gasoline mixed with

  11. Direct determination of PB in gasoline emulsions using Ar and Ar-oxygen ICPs

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, I.B.; Zander, A.; Shkolnik, J.; Kim, S.

    1995-12-31

    Lead in gasoline emulsions was determined by argon and argon-oxygen ICP-AES. Intensity variations of inorganic and organic lead species in aqueous solution and in gasoline and decalin emulsions were studied. In an aqueous solution Pb II intensities were higher than those observed in gasoline and decalin emulsions and were higher in the argon ICP than in an argon-oxygen plasma. Pb intensities were influenced by aerosol flow rate, oxygen doping and emulsion composition, which were all compensated by Y II the internal standard. Pb LODs in the emulsions were not significantly degraded relative to an aqueous solution, and were adequate for the direct determination of lead in gasoline at the mg/kg concentration. The accuracy of Pb determination in spiked gasoline emulsions and in NIST reference fuels was satisfactory. Mg II/Mg I ratios indicate that emulsion plasmas are similar to ICPs containing water only.

  12. Advanced Biomass to Gasoline Technology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... Temperature ( o C) Reaction Time (Sec) Enzymatic Reactions Exelus Biomass-to-Gasoline (BTG) Gasification Pyrolysis 0.1 Grant EE0002991 Exelus 16 Innovations 0.00001 0.0001 ...

  13. Gasoline Price Pass-through

    Annual Energy Outlook

    differences, whereas stationary series can be estimated in level form. The unit root test could not reject the hypothesis that the retail and spot gasoline price series have a...

  14. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:www.nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  15. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  16. Info Capabilities

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Capabilities SensorNexus: Specialty Applications Optimized Sensing Networking Design Stead State Acoustic Wavenumber Spectromer

  17. Fuels

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing ... Heavy Duty Fuels DISI Combustion HCCISCCI Fundamentals Spray Combustion Modeling ...

  18. Stocks of Conventional Gasoline

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Nuclear & Uranium Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Status of U.S. nuclear outages (interactive) Nuclear power plants Uranium & nuclear fuel Spent nuclear fuel All nuclear data reports Analysis & Projections Major Topics Most popular Nuclear plants and reactors Projections Recurring Uranium All reports Browse by Tag Alphabetical Frequency Tag Cloud ‹ See all Nuclear Reports State Nuclear Profiles Data for 2010 (See also State Electricity Profiles) | Release Date: April 26, 2012 |

  19. Investigation of Knock limited Compression Ratio of Ethanol Gasoline Blends

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P; Youngquist, Adam D; Wagner, Robert M; Moore, Wayne; Foster, Matthew; Confer, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Ethanol offers significant potential for increasing the compression ratio of SI engines resulting from its high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. A study was conducted to determine the knock limited compression ratio of ethanol gasoline blends to identify the potential for improved operating efficiency. To operate an SI engine in a flex fuel vehicle requires operating strategies that allow operation on a broad range of fuels from gasoline to E85. Since gasoline or low ethanol blend operation is inherently limited by knock at high loads, strategies must be identified which allow operation on these fuels with minimal fuel economy or power density tradeoffs. A single cylinder direct injection spark ignited engine with fully variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) is operated at WOT conditions to determine the knock limited compression ratio (CR) of ethanol fuel blends. The geometric compression ratio is varied by changing pistons, producing CR from 9.2 to 13.66. The effective CR is varied using an electro-hydraulic valvetrain that changed the effective trapped displacement using both Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC) and Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC). The EIVC and LIVC strategies result in effective CR being reduced while maintaining the geometric expansion ratio. It was found that at substantially similar engine conditions, increasing the ethanol content of the fuel results in higher engine efficiency and higher engine power. These can be partially attributed to a charge cooling effect and a higher heating valve of a stoichiometric mixture for ethanol blends (per unit mass of air). Additional thermodynamic effects on and a mole multiplier are also explored. It was also found that high CR can increase the efficiency of ethanol fuel blends, and as a result, the fuel economy penalty associated with the lower energy content of E85 can be reduced by about a third. Such operation necessitates that the engine be operated in a de-rated manner for

  20. Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Lightweighting Materials Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory: Focus Lightweighting Materials 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells ...

  1. U.S. gasoline price expected to drop further below $3 per gallon

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Declining fuel prices to push U.S. gasoline demand to an 8-year high In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said domestic gasoline consumption this year should be about 60,000 barrels per day higher than in 2014 rising to an average 9 million barrels per day the highest since 2007. The average pump price is forecast to fall to $2.16 per gallon in the first quarter of 2015 with gasoline already selling for less than $2 a gallon in several states

  2. Fact #869: April 20, 2015 Gasoline Direct Injection Captures 38% Market Share in Just Seven Years from First Significant Use

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) has seen rapid adoption since its first significant use. As automakers strive for improved fuel economy, many have turned to the combined benefits of GDI and turbo...

  3. Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from Wyoming State's Clean Coal Task Force, Western Research Institute and Thermosolv LLC studied the direct conversion of Wyoming coals and coal-lignin mixed feeds into liquid fuels in conditions highly

  4. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H; Norman, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    Proper maintenance can help vehicles perform as designed, positively affecting fuel economy, emissions, and the overall drivability. This effort investigates the effect of one maintenance factor, intake air filter replacement, with primary focus on vehicle fuel economy, but also examining emissions and performance. Older studies, dealing with carbureted gasoline vehicles, have indicated that replacing a clogged or dirty air filter can improve vehicle fuel economy and conversely that a dirty air filter can be significantly detrimental to fuel economy. The effect of clogged air filters on the fuel economy, acceleration and emissions of five gasoline fueled vehicles is examined. Four of these were modern vehicles, featuring closed-loop control and ranging in model year from 2003 to 2007. Three vehicles were powered by naturally aspirated, port fuel injection (PFI) engines of differing size and cylinder configuration: an inline 4, a V6 and a V8. A turbocharged inline 4-cylinder gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine powered vehicle was the fourth modern gasoline vehicle tested. A vintage 1972 vehicle equipped with a carburetor (open-loop control) was also examined. Results reveal insignificant fuel economy and emissions sensitivity of modern vehicles to air filter condition, but measureable effects on the 1972 vehicle. All vehicles experienced a measured acceleration performance penalty with clogged intake air filters.

  5. Gasoline Days of Supply

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    All Petrolem Reports Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales With Data for 2014 | Release Date: December 22, 2015 | Next Release Date: November 2016 Previous Issues Year: 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 Go EIA is considering changes to the survey Form EIA-821, "Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report," such as deleting kerosene and adding propane. If you would like to participate in a discussion on these proposed changes contact

  6. This Week In Petroleum Gasoline Section

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Regular gasoline retail prices (dollars per gallon) U.S. Average Conventional Reformulated U.S. retail regular gasoline prices graph Retail average regular gasoline prices graph Retail conventional regular gasoline prices graph Retail reformulated regular gasoline prices graph Retail average regular gasoline prices (dollars per gallon) more price data › Year ago Most recent 11/16/15 11/14/16 11/07/16 10/31/16 10/24/16 10/17/16 10/10/16 10/03/16 U.S. 2.178 2.184 2.233 2.230 2.243 2.257 2.272

  7. Research & Capabilities

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Applications National Solar Thermal Test Facility ... EnergyWater Nexus EnergyWater History Water Monitoring & ... Market Transformation Fuel Cells Predictive Simulation of ...

  8. Info Capabilities

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Quality Analyzer An in-line hydrogen fuel quality analyzer to detect trace amounts of CO and H2S present in hydrogen fuel cells. LAUR: 16-23430 Benefits/Features LANL's Sensor Is More Sensitive To Impurities- LANL has developed a dispersed platinum-type membrane electrode assembly (MEA) that is more sensitive to impurities and more durable to harsh conditions than a regular fuel cell MEA. LANL's analyzer operates as a hydrogen pump and uses a potentiostat to probe its Pt electrode with a

  9. The potential for alcohols and related ethers to displace conventional gasoline components

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.; McNutt, B.D.

    1996-02-01

    The United States Department of Energy is required by law to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace 30 percent of the projected United States consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including alcohols, natural gas and certain other components. A linear program has been used to study refinery impacts for production of ``low petroleum`` gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and major contributors to cost increase can include investment in processes to produce olefins for etherification with alcohols. High oxygenation can increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon, with substantial decreases in greenhouse gas emissions in some cases. Cost estimates are sensitive to assumptions about extrapolation of a national model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues. Reduction in crude oil use, a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program, is 10 to 17 percent in the analysis.

  10. Fuel Modification t Facilitate Future Combustion Regimes? | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Modification t Facilitate Future Combustion Regimes? Fuel Modification t Facilitate Future ... Merit Review 2015: RCM Studies to Enable Gasoline-Relevant Low Temperature Combustion

  11. Microsoft PowerPoint - 2012_summer_fuels.pptx

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... ethanol blending * Slight decline in fuel ethanol blending * Stronger refining ... Summer regular-grade gasoline retail price forecast averages 3.95 per gallon dollars per ...

  12. EERE and Auto Manufacturers Demonstrate and Evaluate Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Auto manufacturers demonstrate that switching from a gasoline to a hydrogen fuel cell engine could reduce emissions by more than 90%.

  13. Expanding the Use of Biogas with Fuel Cell Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    & Commercial Petroleum 37% Natural Gas ... fuel cell patents issued in 2011. * Nearly double the second place holder, solar, which ... reduction for FCEVs (vs. today's gasoline ...

  14. Leveraging National Lab Capabilities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    2/13/2015 eere.energy.gov Fuel Cell Seminar & Energy Exposition Los Angeles, California November 11, 2014 Leveraging National Lab Capabilities Dr. Sunita Satyapal, Director Chris Ainscough, P.E., NREL Fuel Cell Technologies Office U.S. Department of Energy 2 | Fuel Cell Technologies Office Source: US DOE 2/13/2015 eere.energy.gov All-of-the-Above Energy Strategy "We've got to invest in a serious, sustained, all-of-the-above energy strategy that develops every resource available for the

  15. Prices of Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales to End Users

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Product Sales Type: Gasoline, All Grades - Sales to End Users (U.S. only) Gasoline, All Grades - Through Retail Outlets Gasoline, All Grades - Other End Users Gasoline, All Grades ...

  16. Fuel Cell Technologies Office FY 2015 Budget At-A-Glance

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    hydrogen to be cost-competitive with gasoline (at less than 4 per gallon gasoline equivalent (gge), delivered and dispensed). What We Do To achieve its goals, the Fuel Cell ...

  17. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) (Fact Sheet)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    an FFV? An FFV, as its name implies, has the flex- ibility of running on more than one type of fuel. FFVs can be fueled with unleaded gasoline, E85, or any combination of the two. Like conventional gasoline vehicles, FFVs have a single fuel tank, fuel system, and engine. And they are available in a wide range of models such as sedans, pickups, and minivans. Light-duty FFVs are designed to operate with at least 15% gasoline in the fuel, mainly to ensure they start in cold weather. FFVs are

  18. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) (Fact Sheet)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    What is an FFV? An FFV, as its name implies, has the flex- ibility of running on more than one type of fuel. FFVs can be fueled with unleaded gasoline, E85, or any combination of the two. Like conventional gasoline vehicles, FFVs have a single fuel tank, fuel system, and engine. And they are available in a wide range of models such as sedans, pickups, and minivans. Light-duty FFVs are designed to operate with at least 15% gasoline in the fuel, mainly to ensure they start in cold weather. FFVs

  19. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    gasoline, E85, or any combination of the two. Today more than 7 million vehicles on U.S. highways are flexible fuel vehicles. The fact sheet discusses how E85 affects vehicle ...

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Weight Limit Exemption Gross vehicle weight rating limits for AFVs are 1,000 pounds greater than those for comparable conventional vehicles, as long as the AFVs operate using an alternative fuel or both alternative and conventional fuel, when operating on a highway that is not part of the interstate system. For the purpose of this exemption, alternative fuel is defined as compressed natural gas, propane, ethanol, or any mixture containing 85% or more ethanol (E85) with gasoline or other fuels,

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit for Residents Through the Residential Energy Tax Credit program, qualified residents may receive a tax credit for 25% of alternative fuel infrastructure project costs, up to $750. Qualified residents may receive a tax credit for 50% of project costs, up to $750. Qualified alternative fuels include electricity, natural gas, gasoline blended with at least 85% ethanol (E85), propane, and other fuels that the Oregon Department of Energy approves. A

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    and Infrastructure Tax Credit for Businesses Business owners and others may be eligible for a tax credit of 35% of eligible costs for qualified alternative fuel infrastructure projects, or the incremental or conversion cost of two or more AFVs. Qualified infrastructure includes facilities for mixing, storing, compressing, or dispensing fuels for vehicles operating on alternative fuels. Qualified alternative fuels include electricity, natural gas, gasoline blended with at least 85% ethanol (E85),

  3. Finished Motor Gasoline Net Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Adjustment Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene-Type Jet, Commercial Kerosene-Type Jet, Military Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate Fuel Oil, 15 ppm Sulfur and Under Distillate Fuel Oil ...

  4. Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

  5. Fuel Economy and Emissions of a Vehicle Equipped with an Aftermarket Flexible-Fuel Conversion Kit

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2012-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) grants Certificates of Conformity for alternative fuel conversion systems and also offers other forms of premarket registration of conversion kits for use in vehicles more than two model years old. Use of alternative fuels such as ethanol, natural gas, and propane are encouraged by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Several original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) produce emissions-certified vehicles capable of using alternative fuels, and several alternative fuel conversion system manufacturers produce EPA-approved conversion systems for a variety of alternative fuels and vehicle types. To date, only one manufacturer (Flex Fuel U.S.) has received EPA certifications for ethanol fuel (E85) conversion kits. This report details an independent evaluation of a vehicle with a legal installation of a Flex Fuel U.S. conversion kit. A 2006 Dodge Charger was baseline tested with ethanol-free certification gasoline (E0) and E20 (gasoline with 20 vol % ethanol), converted to flex-fuel operation via installation of a Flex Box Smart Kit from Flex Fuel U.S., and retested with E0, E20, E50, and E81. Test cycles included the Federal Test Procedure (FTP or city cycle), the highway fuel economy test (HFET), and the US06 test (aggressive driving test). Averaged test results show that the vehicle was emissions compliant on E0 in the OEM condition (before conversion) and compliant on all test fuels after conversion. Average nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions exceeded the Tier 2/Bin 5 intermediate life NO{sub X} standard with E20 fuel in the OEM condition due to two of three test results exceeding this standard [note that E20 is not a legal fuel for non-flexible-fuel vehicles (non-FFVs)]. In addition, one E0 test result before conversion and one E20 test result after conversion exceeded the NOX standard, although the average result in these two cases was below the standard. Emissions of ethanol and acetaldehyde increased with increasing ethanol

  6. EIA lowers forecast for summer gasoline prices

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    EIA lowers forecast for summer gasoline prices U.S. gasoline prices are expected to be ... according to the new monthly forecast from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. ...

  7. ,"New York Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Gasoline and Diesel Retail ... 4:27:01 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New York Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices" ...

  8. Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.

    2000-08-16

    Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

  9. Price Changes in the Gasoline Market - Are Midwestern Gasoline Prices Downward Sticky?

    Reports and Publications

    1999-01-01

    The report concentrates on regional gasoline prices in the Midwest from October 1992 through June 1998.

  10. Distillate Fuel Oil Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Product: Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Conventional Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate F.O., 15 ppm and under Distillate F.O., Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Distillate F.O., Greater 500 ppm Residual Fuel Oil Propane/Propylene Period-Units: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources &

  11. Selective Catalytic Reduction of Oxides of Nitrogen with Ethanol/Gasoline Blends over a Silver/Alumina Catalyst on Lean Gasoline Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J; Thomas, John F; Parks, II, James E; West, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a very effective reductant of nitrogen oxides (NOX) over silver/alumina (Ag/Al2O3) catalysts in lean exhaust environment. With the widespread availability of ethanol/gasoline-blended fuel in the USA, lean gasoline engines equipped with an Ag/Al2O3 catalyst have the potential to deliver higher fuel economy than stoichiometric gasoline engines and to increase biofuel utilization while meeting exhaust emissions regulations. In this work a pre-commercial 2 wt% Ag/Al2O3 catalyst was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOX with ethanol/gasoline blends. The ethanol/gasoline blends were delivered via in-pipe injection upstream of the Ag/Al2O3 catalyst with the engine operating under lean conditions. A number of engine conditions were chosen to provide a range of temperatures and space velocities for the catalyst performance evaluations. High NOX conversions were achieved with ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol; however, higher C1/N ratio was needed to achieve greater than 90% NOX conversion, which also resulted in significant HC slip. Temperature and HC dosing were important in controlling selectivity to NH3 and N2O. At high temperatures, NH3 and N2O yields increased with increased HC dosing. At low temperatures, NH3 yield was very low, however, N2O levels became significant. The ability to generate NH3 under lean conditions has potential for application of a dual SCR approach (HC SCR + NH3 SCR) to reduce fuel consumption needed for NOX reduction and/or increased NOX conversion, which is discussed in this work.

  12. GASOLINE VEHICLE EXHAUST PARTICLE SAMPLING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Kittelson, D; Watts, W; Johnson, J; Zarling, D Schauer,J Kasper, K; Baltensperger, U; Burtscher, H

    2003-08-24

    The University of Minnesota collaborated with the Paul Scherrer Institute, the University of Wisconsin (UWI) and Ricardo, Inc to physically and chemically characterize the exhaust plume from recruited gasoline spark ignition (SI) vehicles. The project objectives were: (1) Measure representative particle size distributions from a set of on-road SI vehicles and compare these data to similar data collected on a small subset of light-duty gasoline vehicles tested on a chassis dynamometer with a dilution tunnel using the Unified Drive Cycle, at both room temperature (cold start) and 0 C (cold-cold start). (2) Compare data collected from SI vehicles to similar data collected from Diesel engines during the Coordinating Research Council E-43 project. (3) Characterize on-road aerosol during mixed midweek traffic and Sunday midday periods and determine fleet-specific emission rates. (4) Characterize bulk- and size-segregated chemical composition of the particulate matter (PM) emitted in the exhaust from the gasoline vehicles. Particle number concentrations and size distributions are strongly influenced by dilution and sampling conditions. Laboratory methods were evaluated to dilute SI exhaust in a way that would produce size distributions that were similar to those measured during laboratory experiments. Size fractionated samples were collected for chemical analysis using a nano-microorifice uniform deposit impactor (nano-MOUDI). In addition, bulk samples were collected and analyzed. A mixture of low, mid and high mileage vehicles were recruited for testing during the study. Under steady highway cruise conditions a significant particle signature above background was not measured, but during hard accelerations number size distributions for the test fleet were similar to modern heavy-duty Diesel vehicles. Number emissions were much higher at high speed and during cold-cold starts. Fuel specific number emissions range from 1012 to 3 x 1016 particles/kg fuel. A simple

  13. Gasoline prices decrease (long version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Gasoline prices decrease (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.70 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.4 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast region at 4.01 a gallon, down 4.2 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Rocky Mountain States at 3.47 a gallon, remaining unchanged from last week

  14. Gasoline prices decrease (long version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    5, 2014 Gasoline prices decrease (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.68 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2.9 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast states at 4.06 a gallon, down 1.8 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast region at 3.47 a gallon, down 2.6 cents.This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington.

  15. Research Capabilities

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Capabilities Research Capabilities These capabilities are our science and engineering at work for the national security interest in areas from global climate to cyber security, from nonproliferation to new materials, from clean energy, to supercomputing. thumbnail of Bioscience At Los Alamos, scientists and engineers are working to unlock many of the mechanisms found in nature to improve humanity's ability to battle diseases, create new forms of environmentally friendly and abundant

  16. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine ...

  17. Evaluation of processes for producing gasoline from wood. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    Three processes for producing gasoline from wood by pyrolysis have been investigated. Technical and economic comparisons among the processes have been made, based on a hypothetical common plant size of 2000 tons per day green wood chip feedstock. In order to consider the entire fuel production process, the energy and cost inputs for producing and delivering the feedstock were included in the analysis. In addition, perspective has been provided by comparisons of the wood-to-gasoline technologies with other similar systems, including coal-to-methanol and various biomass-to-alcohol systems. Based on several assumptions that were required because of the candidate processes' information gaps, comparisons of energy efficiency were made. Several descriptors of energy efficiency were used, but all showed that methanol production from wood, with or without subsequent processing by the Mobil route to gasoline, appears most promising. It must be emphasized, however, that the critical wood-to-methanol system remains conceptual. Another observation was that the ethanol production systems appear inferior to the wood-to-gasoline processes. Each of the processes investigated requires further research and development to answer the questions about their potential contributions confidently. The processes each have so many unknowns that it appears unwise to pursue any one while abandoning the others.

  18. Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Vehicles Reduce Tailpipe Emissions While

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Weekly Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 10/07/16 10/14/16 10/21/16 10/28/16 11/04/16 11/11/16 View History U.S. 24.3 25.1 24.7 24.6 24.3 24.1 1991 Maintaining Fuel Economy - News Releases | NREL

    Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Vehicles Reduce Tailpipe Emissions While Maintaining Fuel Economy February 23, 2011 The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy

  19. Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans

    Reports and Publications

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending state bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year.

  20. CONVERTING PYROLYSIS OILS TO RENEWABLE TRANSPORT FUELS: PROCESSING CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Holmgren, Jennifer; Nair, Prabhakar N.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Bain, Richard; Marinangelli, Richard

    2008-03-11

    To enable a sustained supply of biomass-based transportation fuels, the capability to process feedstocks outside the food chain must be developed. Significant industry efforts are underway to develop these new technologies, such as converting cellulosic wastes to ethanol. UOP, in partnership with U.S. Government labs, NREL and PNNL, is developing an alternate route using cellulosic feedstocks. The waste biomass is first subjected to a fast pyrolysis operation to generate pyrolysis oil (pyoil for short). Current efforts are focused on developing a thermochemical platform to convert pyoils to renewable gasoline, diesel and jet fuel. The fuels produced will be indistinguishable from their fossil fuel counterparts and, therefore, will be compatible with existing transport and distribution infrastructure.

  1. Missouri Renewable Fuel Standard Brochure

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    The Missouri Renewable Fuel Standard requires ethanol in most gasoline beginning January 1, 2008. ARE YOU READY? TEN THINGS MISSOURI TANK OWNERS AND OPERATORS NEED TO KNOW ABOUT ETHANOL 1. Ethanol is a type of alcohol made usually from corn in Missouri and other states. 2. E10 is a blend of 10% ethanol and 90% unleaded gasoline. E85 is a blend of 75% to 85% fuel ethanol and 25% to 15% unleaded gasoline. Blends between E10 and E85 are not allowed to be sold at retail. 3. Any vehicle or small

  2. Gasoline prices - January 7, 2013

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline showed little movement from last week. Prices remained flat at $3.30 a gallon on Monday, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington. For more information, contact Amerine Woodyard on

  3. Gasoline prices decrease (Short version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.65 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2.8 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration

  4. Gasoline prices decrease (short version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.63 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2.9 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration

  5. Technoeconomic Comparison of Biofuels: Ethanol, Methanol, and Gasoline from Gasification of Woody Residues (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Tarud, J.; Phillips, S.

    2011-08-01

    This presentation provides a technoeconomic comparison of three biofuels - ethanol, methanol, and gasoline - produced by gasification of woody biomass residues. The presentation includes a brief discussion of the three fuels evaluated; discussion of equivalent feedstock and front end processes; discussion of back end processes for each fuel; process comparisons of efficiencies, yields, and water usage; and economic assumptions and results, including a plant gate price (PGP) for each fuel.

  6. Comparative urban drive cycle simulations of light-duty hybrid vehicles with gasoline or diesel engines and emissions controls

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart; Smith, David E

    2013-01-01

    Electric hybridization is a very effective approach for reducing fuel consumption in light-duty vehicles. Lean combustion engines (including diesels) have also been shown to be significantly more fuel efficient than stoichiometric gasoline engines. Ideally, the combination of these two technologies would result in even more fuel efficient vehicles. However, one major barrier to achieving this goal is the implementation of lean-exhaust aftertreatment that can meet increasingly stringent emissions regulations without heavily penalizing fuel efficiency. We summarize results from comparative simulations of hybrid electric vehicles with either stoichiometric gasoline or diesel engines that include state-of-the-art aftertreatment emissions controls for both stoichiometric and lean exhaust. Fuel consumption and emissions for comparable gasoline and diesel light-duty hybrid electric vehicles were compared over a standard urban drive cycle and potential benefits for utilizing diesel hybrids were identified. Technical barriers and opportunities for improving the efficiency of diesel hybrids were identified.

  7. Effects of High Octane Ethanol Blends on Four Legacy Flex-Fuel Vehicles, and a Turbocharged GDI Vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, John F; West, Brian H; Huff, Shean P

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting engine and vehicle research to investigate the potential of high-octane fuels to improve fuel economy. Ethanol has very high research octane number (RON) and heat of vaporization (HoV), properties that make it an excellent spark ignition engine fuel. The prospects of increasing both the ethanol content and the octane number of the gasoline pool has the potential to enable improved fuel economy in future vehicles with downsized, downsped engines. This report describes a small study to explore the potential performance benefits of high octane ethanol blends in the legacy fleet. There are over 17 million flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs) on the road today in the United States, vehicles capable of using any fuel from E0 to E85. If a future high-octane blend for dedicated vehicles is on the horizon, the nation is faced with the classic chicken-and-egg dilemma. If today’s FFVs can see a performance advantage with a high octane ethanol blend such as E25 or E30, then perhaps consumer demand for this fuel can serve as a bridge to future dedicated vehicles. Experiments were performed with four FFVs using a 10% ethanol fuel (E10) with 88 pump octane, and a market gasoline blended with ethanol to make a 30% by volume ethanol fuel (E30) with 94 pump octane. The research octane numbers were 92.4 for the E10 fuel and 100.7 for the E30 fuel. Two vehicles had gasoline direct injected (GDI) engines, and two featured port fuel injection (PFI). Significant wide open throttle (WOT) performance improvements were measured for three of the four FFVs, with one vehicle showing no change. Additionally, a conventional (non-FFV) vehicle with a small turbocharged direct-injected engine was tested with a regular grade of gasoline with no ethanol (E0) and a splash blend of this same fuel with 15% ethanol by volume (E15). RON was increased from 90.7 for the E0 to 97.8 for the E15 blend. Significant wide open throttle and thermal efficiency performance

  8. Experimental Capabilities

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    experimental capabilities Experimental Capabilities The National Ignition Facility is the premier high energy density science facility in the world, with laser energies 10 times greater than any other high-energy inertial confinement fusion (ICF) laser system. A major focus of NIF is a national effort to demonstrate ignition and thermonuclear burn in the laboratory. NIF also conducts a variety of experiments to study matter at the extremes, including studies of material properties,

  9. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    DOEpatents

    Song, Chunshan; Ma, Xiaoliang; Sprague, Michael J.; Subramani, Velu

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  10. Fuel Cells Fact Sheet

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Fuel cells are the most energy efficient devices for extracting power from fuels. Capable of running on a variety of fuels, including hydrogen, natural gas, and biogas, fuel cells ...

  11. Chemical kinetic modeling of component mixtures relevant to gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Dooley, S; Westbrook, C K

    2008-05-29

    Detailed kinetic models of pyrolysis and combustion of hydrocarbon fuels are nowadays widely used in the design of internal combustion engines and these models are effectively applied to help meet the increasingly stringent environmental and energetic standards. In previous studies by the combustion community, such models not only contributed to the understanding of pure component combustion, but also provided a deeper insight into the combustion behavior of complex mixtures. One of the major challenges in this field is now the definition and the development of appropriate surrogate models able to mimic the actual features of real fuels. Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. Their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. Aside the most commonly used surrogates containing iso-octane and n-heptane only, the so called Primary Reference Fuels (PRF), new mixtures have recently been suggested to extend the reference components in surrogate mixtures to also include alkenes and aromatics. It is generally agreed that, including representative species for all the main classes of hydrocarbons which can be found in real fuels, it is possible to reproduce very effectively in a wide range of operating conditions not just the auto-ignition propensity of gasoline or Diesel fuels, but also their physical properties and their combustion residuals [1]. In this work, the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation is computationally examined. The attention is focused on the autoignition of iso-octane, hexene and their mixtures. Some important issues relevant to the experimental and modeling investigation of such fuels are discussed with the help of rapid compression machine data and calculations. Following the model validation, the behavior of mixtures is discussed on the

  12. Experimental Investigation of Spark-Ignited Combustion with High-Octane Biofuels and EGR. 2. Fuel and EGR Effects on Knock-Limited Load and Speed

    SciTech Connect

    Splitter, Derek A; Szybist, James P

    2013-01-01

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in midlevel alcohol gasoline blends with 24% vol/vol isobutanol gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol/vol ethanol gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with an 11.85:1 compression ratio, hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and was capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Experiments were conducted with all fuels to full-load conditions with = 1, using both 0% and 15% external-cooled EGR. Higher octane number biofuel blends exhibited increased stoichiometric torque capability at this compression ratio, where the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with E30 as compared to that of 87AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg (indicating mean effective pressure gross) at = 1. The results demonstrate that for all fuels, EGR is a key enabler for increasing engine efficiency but is less useful for knock mitigation with E30 than for 87AKI gasoline or IB24. Under knocking conditions, 15% EGR is found to offer 1 CA of CA50 timing advance with E30, whereas up to 5 CA of CA50 advance is possible with knock-limited 87AKI gasoline. Compared to 87AKI, both E30 and IB24 are found to have reduced adiabatic flame temperature and shorter combustion durations, which reduce knocking propensity beyond that indicated by the octane number. However, E30+0% EGR is found to exhibit the better antiknock properties than either 87AKI+15% EGR or IB24+15% EGR, expanding the knock limited operating range and engine stoichiometric torque capability at high compression ratio. Furthermore, the fuel sensitivity (S) of E30 was attributed to reduced speed sensitivity of E30, expanding the low-speed stoichiometric torque capability at high compression ratio. The results illustrate that intermediate alcohol gasoline blends exhibit exceptional antiknock properties and performance beyond that indicated by the octane

  13. Dispensing Equipment Testing with Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline Test Fluid: Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Boyce, K.; Chapin, J. T.

    2010-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Nonpetroleum-Based Fuel Task addresses the hurdles to commercialization of biomass-derived fuels and fuel blends. One such hurdle is the unknown compatibility of new fuels with current infrastructure, such as the equipment used at service stations to dispense fuel into automobiles. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technology Program and the Biomass Program have engaged in a joint project to evaluate the potential for blending ethanol into gasoline at levels higher than nominal 10 volume percent. This project was established to help DOE and NREL better understand any potentially adverse impacts caused by a lack of knowledge about the compatibility of the dispensing equipment with ethanol blends higher than what the equipment was designed to dispense. This report provides data about the impact of introducing a gasoline with a higher volumetric ethanol content into service station dispensing equipment from a safety and a performance perspective.

  14. An experimental investigation of low octane gasoline in diesel engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Ciatti, S. A.; Subramanian, S.

    2011-09-01

    Conventional combustion techniques struggle to meet the current emissions norms. In particular, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) emissions have limited the utilization of diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. Advance combustion concepts have proved the potential to combine fuel efficiency and improved emission performance. Low-temperature combustion (LTC) offers reduced NO{sub x} and PM emissions with comparable modern diesel engine efficiencies. The ability of premixed, low-temperature compression ignition to deliver low PM and NO{sub x} emissions is dependent on achieving optimal combustion phasing. Diesel operated LTC is limited by early knocking combustion, whereas conventional gasoline operated LTC is limited by misfiring. So the concept of using an unconventional fuel with the properties in between those two boundary fuels has been experimented in this paper. Low-octane (84 RON) gasoline has shown comparable diesel efficiencies with the lowest NO{sub x} emissions at reasonable high power densities (NO{sub x} emission was 1 g/kW h at 12 bar BMEP and 2750 rpm).

  15. Biofuels Fuels Technology Pathway Options for Advanced Drop-in Biofuels Production

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L Kenney

    2011-09-01

    Advanced drop-in hydrocarbon biofuels require biofuel alternatives for refinery products other than gasoline. Candidate biofuels must have performance characteristics equivalent to conventional petroleum-based fuels. The technology pathways for biofuel alternatives also must be plausible, sustainable (e.g., positive energy balance, environmentally benign, etc.), and demonstrate a reasonable pathway to economic viability and end-user affordability. Viable biofuels technology pathways must address feedstock production and environmental issues through to the fuel or chemical end products. Potential end products include compatible replacement fuel products (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and JP8 and JP5 jet fuel) and other petroleum products or chemicals typically produced from a barrel of crude. Considering the complexity and technology diversity of a complete biofuels supply chain, no single entity or technology provider is capable of addressing in depth all aspects of any given pathway; however, all the necessary expert entities exist. As such, we propose the assembly of a team capable of conducting an in-depth technology pathway options analysis (including sustainability indicators and complete LCA) to identify and define the domestic biofuel pathways for a Green Fleet. This team is not only capable of conducting in-depth analyses on technology pathways, but collectively they are able to trouble shoot and/or engineer solutions that would give industrial technology providers the highest potential for success. Such a team would provide the greatest possible down-side protection for high-risk advanced drop-in biofuels procurement(s).

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    E85 Fueling Infrastructure Grants The Illinois Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity's (Department) Renewable Fuels Development Program is partnered with the Illinois Corn Marketing Board to fund new E85 fueling infrastructure at retail gasoline stations. The American Lung Association of Illinois-Iowa administers grants of up to $15,000 for a blender pump installation, $10,000 for a new E85 dispenser installation, and $7,500 to convert existing stations to dispense E85. The maximum

  17. Sustainable Alternative Jet Fuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Sustainable Alternative Jet Fuels Life Cycle GHG Emissions Modeling Jim Hileman U.S. Federal Aviation Administration May 18, 2012 2 Federal Aviation Administration Life Cycle GHG Emissions Stage #1: Extraction of resource (e.g., crude oil, natural gas, coal, biomass) Stage #2: Pipeline, tanker, rail and truck transport to refinery Stage #3: Refinement to produce transportation fuel (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) Stage #4: Pipeline transportation, blending with additives, transport to

  18. Fact #635: August 9, 2010 Fuel Consumption from Lawn and Garden...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    The fuel used in this equipment accounts for only 1.8% of total gasoline use. Fuel Consumption from Lawn and Garden Equipment, 2008 Bar graph showing the fuel consumption ...

  19. Effects of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Operating Parameters on Particle Number Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    He, X.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Zigler, B. T.

    2012-04-19

    A single-cylinder, wall-guided, spark ignition direct injection engine was used to study the impact of engine operating parameters on engine-out particle number (PN) emissions. Experiments were conducted with certification gasoline and a splash blend of 20% fuel grade ethanol in gasoline (E20), at four steady-state engine operating conditions. Independent engine control parameter sweeps were conducted including start of injection, injection pressure, spark timing, exhaust cam phasing, intake cam phasing, and air-fuel ratio. The results show that fuel injection timing is the dominant factor impacting PN emissions from this wall-guided gasoline direct injection engine. The major factor causing high PN emissions is fuel liquid impingement on the piston bowl. By avoiding fuel impingement, more than an order of magnitude reduction in PN emission was observed. Increasing fuel injection pressure reduces PN emissions because of smaller fuel droplet size and faster fuel-air mixing. PN emissions are insensitive to cam phasing and spark timing, especially at high engine load. Cold engine conditions produce higher PN emissions than hot engine conditions due to slower fuel vaporization and thus less fuel-air homogeneity during the combustion process. E20 produces lower PN emissions at low and medium loads if fuel liquid impingement on piston bowl is avoided. At high load or if there is fuel liquid impingement on piston bowl and/or cylinder wall, E20 tends to produce higher PN emissions. This is probably a function of the higher heat of vaporization of ethanol, which slows the vaporization of other fuel components from surfaces and may create local fuel-rich combustion or even pool-fires.

  20. Washington: Seattle Rises Above with Alternative Fuels | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    on fuel due to the cost differential between compresses natural gas (CNG) and gasoline. ... who was a veteran started a taxi company with a 100% alternative fuel fleet-CNG For Hire. ...

  1. Microsoft PowerPoint - 2013_summer_fuels.pptx

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    ... Fuel ethanol blending doesn't recover from the drought * Fuel ethanol blending doesn't ... Source: Short-Term Energy Outlook, April 2013 Regular-grade gasoline retail price forecast ...

  2. Optimally Controlled Flexible Fuel Powertrain System

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan Sheppard; Bruce Woodrow; Paul Kilmurray; Simon Thwaite

    2011-06-30

    A multi phase program was undertaken with the stated goal of using advanced design and development tools to create a unique combination of existing technologies to create a powertrain system specification that allowed minimal increase of volumetric fuel consumption when operating on E85 relative to gasoline. Although on an energy basis gasoline / ethanol blends typically return similar fuel economy to straight gasoline, because of its lower energy density (gasoline ~ 31.8MJ/l and ethanol ~ 21.1MJ/l) the volume based fuel economy of gasoline / ethanol blends are typically considerably worse. This project was able to define an initial engine specification envelope, develop specific hardware for the application, and test that hardware in both single and multi-cylinder test engines to verify the ability of the specified powertrain to deliver reduced E85 fuel consumption. Finally, the results from the engine testing were used in a vehicle drive cycle analysis tool to define a final vehicle level fuel economy result. During the course of the project, it was identified that the technologies utilized to improve fuel economy on E85 also enabled improved fuel economy when operating on gasoline. However, the E85 fueled powertrain provided improved vehicle performance when compared to the gasoline fueled powertrain due to the improved high load performance of the E85 fuel. Relative to the baseline comparator engine and considering current market fuels, the volumetric fuel consumption penalty when running on E85 with the fully optimized project powertrain specification was reduced significantly. This result shows that alternative fuels can be utilized in high percentages while maintaining or improving vehicle performance and with minimal or positive impact on total cost of ownership to the end consumer. The justification for this project was two-fold. In order to reduce the US dependence on crude oil, much of which is imported, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA

  3. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from High Ethanol Content Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, D.; Bardon, M.; Pucher, G.

    2008-10-01

    Study determined the flammability of fuel tank headspace vapors as a function of ambient temperature for seven E85 fuel blends, two types of gasoline, and denatured ethanol at a low tank fill level.

  4. Fact #943: September 19, 2016 Fuel Economy Being Chosen as the Most

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Important Vehicle Attribute is Related to the Price of Gasoline - Dataset | Department of Energy 3: September 19, 2016 Fuel Economy Being Chosen as the Most Important Vehicle Attribute is Related to the Price of Gasoline - Dataset Fact #943: September 19, 2016 Fuel Economy Being Chosen as the Most Important Vehicle Attribute is Related to the Price of Gasoline - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Fuel Economy Being Chosen as the Most Important Vehicle Attribute is Related to the Price of

  5. PCI Capability Development and Challenge Problem Progress

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    BISON Fuel Performance Code: Capability Overview and V&V Status and Plans Rich Williamson, ... Assurance - V&V Status and Plans for LWR fuel - PCMI and RIA Benchmarks - Uncertainty ...

  6. Gasoline prices expected to fall below $2 per gallon in January on lower oil prices and lower seasonal demand

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Gasoline prices expected to fall below $2 per gallon in January on lower oil prices and lower seasonal demand Falling crude oil prices along with refiners making less expensive winter-blend gasoline and the normal seasonal decline in motor fuel demand are expected to push the average pump price for gasoline below $2 per gallon in January. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said drivers are expected to pay an average of $1.97 per gallon to fill up at the

  7. Areas Participating in the Reformulated Gasoline Program

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Reformulated Gasoline Program Contents * Introduction * Mandated RFG Program Areas o Table 1. Mandated RFG Program Areas * RFG Program Opt-In Areas o Table 2. RFG Program Opt-In Areas * RFG Program Opt-Out Procedures and Areas o Table 3. History of EPA Rulemaking on Opt-Out Procedures o Table 4. RFG Program Opt-Out Areas * State Programs o Table 5. State Reformulated Gasoline Programs * Endnotes Spreadsheets Referenced in this Article * Reformulated Gasoline Control Area Populations Related EIA

  8. Capability Highlights:

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    + U.S. patents available as a bundle for a license fee of $25K (Flip Over for Complete Listing) Capability Highlights: * Sample concentration & efficient delivery to chip * Mass manufacturing methods * Multiple fluidic connections * Increased number of external components Potential Applications: * Bioscience R&D * Medical Point-of-Care * Remote Sampling * Pharmaceuticals * Veterinary Contact Us: For more information, please contact: Tristan Mahyera Sandia National Laboratories

  9. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direction Injection (GTDI) Engine Development

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Terrance

    2015-12-31

    This program was undertaken in response to US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-FOA-0000079, resulting in a cooperative agreement with Ford and MTU to demonstrate improvement of fuel efficiency in a vehicle equipped with an advanced GTDI engine. Ford Motor Company has invested significantly in GTDI engine technology as a cost effective, high volume, fuel economy solution, marketed globally as EcoBoost technology. Ford envisions additional fuel economy improvement in the medium and long term by further advancing EcoBoost technology. The approach for the project was to engineer a comprehensive suite of gasoline engine systems technologies to achieve the project objectives, and to progressively demonstrate the objectives via concept analysis / computer modeling, single-cylinder and multi-cylinder engine testing on engine dynamometer, and vehicle level testing on chassis rolls.

  10. STEO January 2013 - average gasoline prices

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    drivers to see lower average gasoline prices in 2013 and 2014 U.S. retail gasoline prices are expected to decline over the next two years. The average pump price for regular unleaded gasoline was $3.63 a gallon during 2012. That is expected to fall to $3.44 this year and then drop to $3.34 in 2014, according to the new forecast from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Expected lower crude oil prices.....which accounted for about two-thirds of the price of gasoline in 2012....will

  11. ,"Motor Gasoline Sales Through Retail Outlets Prices "

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Motor Gasoline Sales Through Retail Outlets Prices ",60,"Annual",2014,"6301984" ,"Release...

  12. Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    in 2006. Companies' decisions to eliminate MTBE have been driven by State bans due to water contamination concerns, continuing liability exposure from adding MTBE to gasoline,...

  13. DOE's Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    DOE's GasolineDiesel PM Split Study Eric M. Fujita, David E. Campbell, William P. Arnott, Barbara Zielinska and Judith C. Chow Division of Atmospheric Sciences Desert Research ...

  14. California Gasoline Price Study, 2003 Preliminary Findings

    Reports and Publications

    2003-01-01

    This is the preliminary report to Congressman Ose describing the factors driving California's spring 2003 gasoline price spike and the subsequent price increases in June and August.

  15. Gasoline Biodesulfurization DE-FC07-97ID13570 FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Pienkos, Philip T.

    2002-01-15

    Nine strains were identified to grow with gasoline as sole sulfur source. Two different genes were cloned from Gordonia terrae KGB1 and tested for the ability to support gasoline BDS. The first of these, fmoA, was cloned by screening a KGB1 gene library for the ability to convert indole to indigo (a sulfur-regulated capability in KGB1). The fmoA gene was overexpressed in a gasoline tolerant strain of Pseudomonas putida PpG1 and the recombinant strain was shown to convert thiophene to a dimer of thiophene sulfoxide at rates nearly two orders of magnitude higher than KGB1 could catalyze the reaction. Despite this high activity the recombinant PpG1 was unable to demonstrate any activity against gasoline either in shake flask or in bench-scale gasoline BDS bioreactor. A second gene (toeA) was cloned from KGB1 and shown to support growth of Rhodococcus erythropolis JB55 on gasoline. The toeA gene was also identified in another gasoline strain T. wratislaviensis EMT4, and was identified as a homolog of dszA from R. erythropolis IGTS8. Expression of this gene in JB55 supported conversion of DBTO2 (the natural substrate for DszA) to HPBS, but activity against gasoline was low and BDS results were inconsistent. It appeared that activity was directed against C2- and C3-thiophenes. Efforts to increase gene expression by plasmid manipulation, by addition of flavin reductase genes, or by expression in PpG1 were unsuccessful. The DszC protein (DBT monooxygenase) from IGTS8 has very little activity against the sulfur compounds in gasoline, but a mutant enzyme with a substitution of phenylalanine for valine at position 261 was shown to have an altered substrate range. This alteration resulted in increased activity against gasoline, with activity towards mainly C3- and C4-thiophenes and benzothiophene. A mutant library of dszB was constructed by RACHITT (W. C. Coco et al., DNA shuffling method for generating highly recombined genes and evolved enzymes. 2001. Nature Biotech. 19

  16. Light-Duty Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Drive Cycle Fuel Economy and Emissions Estimates

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Vehicle systems simulations using experimental data demonstrate improved modeled fuel economy of 15% for passenger vehicles solely from powertrain efficiency relative to a 2009 PFI gasoline baseline.

  17. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-03-01

    Flexible Fuel vehicles are able to operate using more than one type of fuel. FFVs can be fueled with unleaded gasoline, E85, or any combination of the two. Today more than 7 million vehicles on U.S. highways are flexible fuel vehicles. The fact sheet discusses how E85 affects vehicle performance, the costs and benefits of using E85, and how to find E85 station locations.

  18. Kinetic Modeling of Gasoline Surrogate Components and Mixtures under Engine Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Mehl, M; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Curran, H J

    2010-01-11

    Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, an improved version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multicomponent gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines (3-50 atm, 650-1200K, stoichiometric fuel/air mixtures). Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Parking Space Regulation An individual is not allowed to park a motor vehicle within any parking space specifically designated for public parking and fueling of AFVs unless the motor vehicle is an AFV fueled by electricity, natural gas, methanol, propane, gasoline blended with at least 85% ethanol (E85), or other fuel the Oregon Department of Energy approves. Eligible AFVs must also be in the process of fueling or charging to park in the space. A person found responsible for a

  20. Life Cycle Assessment of Gasoline and Diesel Produced via Fast Pyrolysis and Hydroprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, D. D.

    2011-03-01

    In this work, a life cycle assessment (LCA) estimating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and net energy value (NEV) of the production of gasoline and diesel from forest residues via fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing, from production of the feedstock to end use of the fuel in a vehicle, is performed. The fast pyrolysis and hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes are based on a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) design report. The LCA results show GHG emissions of 0.142 kg CO2-equiv. per km traveled and NEV of 1.00 MJ per km traveled for a process using grid electricity. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis shows a range of results, with all values better than those of conventional gasoline in 2005. Results for GHG emissions and NEV of gasoline and diesel from pyrolysis are also reported on a per MJ fuel basis for comparison with ethanol produced via gasification. Although pyrolysis-derived gasoline and diesel have lower GHG emissions and higher NEV than conventional gasoline does in 2005, they underperform ethanol produced via gasification from the same feedstock. GHG emissions for pyrolysis could be lowered further if electricity and hydrogen are produced from biomass instead of from fossil sources.

  1. 5-Carbon Alcohols for Drop-in Gasoline Replacement - Energy Innovation

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search 5-Carbon Alcohols for Drop-in Gasoline Replacement Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryJay Keasling and Howard Chou of Berkeley Lab and the Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) have invented a fermentation process to produce 5-carbon alcohols from genetically modified E. coli host cells regardless of the

  2. Scheduling & delivery of America`s new clean fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Copenhaver, B.

    1994-12-31

    This presentation was given by Bill Copenhaver, Senior manager for Transportation Services Central with Colonial Pipeline. This report discusses the effects that reformulated gasolines will have on transportation services such as Colonial`s pipeline system. Currently, Colonial is delivering about 1.2 million barrels per day of gasolines, as well as over 700,000 barrels per day of kerosene, diesel fuel, and fuel oil. Colonial anticipates that there will be additional demands for moving gasolines as a result of the reformulated gasoline regulations.

  3. Gasoline prices - January 7, 2013

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline showed little movement from last week. Prices remained flat at $3.30 a gallon on Monday, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the New England and Central Atlantic regions, at 3.52 a gallon, up around 2 cents in both regions from a week ago. For the second week in a row, prices were lowest in the Rocky Mountain States at 2.94 a gallon, down 8.1 cents. This is

  4. Gasoline prices decrease (long version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.65 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2.8 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast region at 3.93 a gallon, down 1.9 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast States at 3.37 a gallon, down 2.6 cents

  5. Gasoline prices decrease (long version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.63 a gallon on Monday. That's down 2.9 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast region at 3.89 a gallon, up a penny from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast States at 3.38 a gallon, down 3.9 cents

  6. Alternative Fuel Price Report - March 28, 2005

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    At the national average gasoline price of 2.109 per gallon, the fuel cost of an electric Ranger is less than that of its conventional counterpart for electricity price up...

  7. Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing

    SciTech Connect

    Erekson, E.J.; Miao, F.Q.

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process, called the HSM (Hydrogen Sulfide-Methane) Process, consists of two steps that each utilize a catalyst and sulfur-containing intermediates: (1) converting natural gas to CS{sub 2} and (2) converting CS{sub 2} to gasoline range liquids. Catalysts have been found that convert methane to carbon disulfide in yields up to 98%. This exceeds the target of 40% yields for the first step. The best rate for CS{sub 2} formation was 132 g CS{sub 2}/kg-cat-h. The best rate for hydrogen production is 220 L H{sub 2} /kg-cat-h. A preliminary economic study shows that in a refinery application hydrogen made by the HSM technology would cost $0.25-R1.00/1000 SCF. Experimental data will be generated to facilitate evaluation of the overall commercial viability of the process.

  8. ,"Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab ... Data for" ,"Data 1","Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users Refiner ...

  9. ,"Finished Motor Gasoline Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Finished Motor Gasoline Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and ... "Date","U.S. Finished Motor Gasoline Stocks at Refineries, Bulk ...

  10. ,"U.S. Motor Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Motor Gasoline Refiner Sales ... AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Motor Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes" ...

  11. Impact of Ethanol Blending on U.S. Gasoline Prices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-11-01

    This study assesses the impact of ethanol blending on gasoline prices in the US today and the potential impact of ethanol on gasoline prices at higher blending concentrations.

  12. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, ...

  13. Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods ...

  14. Oxidation characteristics of gasoline direct-injection (GDI)...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    characteristics of gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engine soot: Catalytic effects of ash and modified kinetic correlation Title Oxidation characteristics of gasoline...

  15. Fact #890: September 14, 2015 Gasoline Prices Are Affected by...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Gasoline Prices Are Affected by Changes in Refinery Output File fotw890web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Fact 858 February 2, 2015 Retail Gasoline Prices in 2014 ...

  16. High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Engine Designs for Gasoline and Diesel Engines High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engine Designs for Gasoline and Diesel Engines 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies ...

  17. End-user tax survey: Government displacement of economic rent on gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-30

    Taxes on motor fuels have continued to climb over the past two years as oil producers and oil consumers continue to help fill government coffers. Governments claim the taxes lead to fuel conservation, promote {open_quotes}alternative fuels,{close_quotes} and provide revenue that would need to be provided by some other tax if not for the fuel tax. In this issue, Energy Detente examines the level of taxation on gasoline in selected countries and how it has changed over the past two years.

  18. Dispensing Equipment Testing With Mid-Level Ethanol/Gasoline Test Fluid

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL) Nonpetroleum-Based Fuel Task addresses the hurdles to commercialization of biomass-derived fuels and fuel blends. One such hurdle is the unknown compatibility of new fuels with current infrastructure, such as the equipment used at service stations to dispense fuel into automobiles. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Vehicle Technology Program and the Biomass Program have engaged in a joint project to evaluate the potential for blending ethanol into gasoline at levels higher than nominal 10 volume percent. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is considering a waiver application for 15% by volume ethanol blended into gasoline (E15). Should the waiver be granted, service stations may be able to use their current equipment to dispense the new fuel. This project was established to help DOE and NREL better understand any potentially adverse impacts caused by a lack of knowledge about the compatibility of the dispensing equipment with ethanol blends higher than what the equipment was designed to dispense. This report provides data about the impact of introducing a gasoline with a higher volumetric ethanol content into service station dispensing equipment from a safety and a performance perspective.

  19. Gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.29 a gallon on Monday. That's down 3-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  20. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.44 a gallon on Monday. That's up 6.4 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  1. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.48 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3 ½ cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  2. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.51 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3.3 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  3. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.55 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3½ cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  4. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4, 2014 Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.65 a gallon on Monday. That's up 5½ cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington.

  5. Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    1, 2014 Gasoline prices continue to increase (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.68 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington.

  6. Gasoline prices continue to rise (Short version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Gasoline prices continue to rise (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.67 a gallon on Monday. That's up 7 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  7. Renewable Fuels For All Modes Of Transport

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Fuels For All Modes Of Transport D2 DIESEL HIGH OCTANE RACING FUEL GASOLINE COMMERCIAL JET FUEL Jet-A / Jet A-1 MILITARY GRADE JET FUEL JP-58 / JP-5 MILITARY GRADE DIESEL F-76 Marine HEAVY BUNKER DIESEL JET FUEL Basic Definitions * JET FUEL "Standalone" hydrocarbon that can be used in turbine engines * BLENDSTOCK Hydrocarbon product that can "only" be used as an additive to FUEL * DROP-IN FUEL JET FUEL that is the result of "Blending" JET FUEL & BLENDSTOCK *

  8. Improved oil refinery operations and cheaper crude oil to help reduce gasoline prices

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Improved oil refinery operations and cheaper crude oil to help reduce gasoline prices U.S. gasoline prices are expected to fall as more oil refineries come back on line and crude oil prices decline. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration expects pump prices will average $3.38 a gallon during the second half of this year. That's down from the current weekly price of $3.50. A recovery in oil refinery fuel production, particularly from facilities that were temporary

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Tax CNG used in motor vehicles is subject to a state motor fuel tax rate of $0.26 per gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE). For taxation purposes, one GGE is equal to 5.66 pounds or 126.67 standard cubic feet of natural gas. (Reference House Bill 5466, 2014, and Special Notice 2014-2

  10. Fuel from Bacteria: Bioconversion of Carbon Dioxide to Biofuels by Facultatively Autotrophic Hydrogen Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    Electrofuels Project: Ohio State is genetically modifying bacteria to efficiently convert carbon dioxide directly into butanol, an alcohol that can be used directly as a fuel blend or converted to a hydrocarbon, which closely resembles a gasoline. Bacteria are typically capable of producing a certain amount of butanol before it becomes too toxic for the bacteria to survive. Ohio State is engineering a new strain of the bacteria that could produce up to 50% more butanol before it becomes too toxic for the bacteria to survive. Finding a way to produce more butanol more efficiently would significantly cut down on biofuel production costs and help make butanol cost competitive with gasoline. Ohio State is also engineering large tanks, or bioreactors, to grow the biofuel-producing bacteria in, and they are developing ways to efficiently recover biofuel from the tanks.

  11. Bioventing approach to remediate a gasoline contaminated subsurface. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Kampbell, D.H.; Wilson, J.T.; Griffin, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Bioventing is a subsurface process using an air stream to enhance biodegradation of oily contaminants. Two pilot-scale bioventing systems were installed at a field site. Process operations began in October 1990. The field site is located at an air station. A spill in 1969 of about 100,000 kilograms aviation gasoline was caused by a broken underground transfer line. A major portion of the spilled product still persists as an oily-phase residue in a 80x360 meter plume. The subsurface is a uniform beach sand with the ground water level near five meters. Prior to startup of the venting systems, a grass cover was established and a nutrient solution was dispersed throughout the unsaturated subsurface. Subsurface air flow patterns are being determined with a tracer gas of sulfur hexafloride. Soil gas, core material, and underground water are being monitored to determine the extent of remediation. Objectives of the study are to demonstrate that surface emissions of gasoline are minimal, oily residue will be reduced to <100 mg fuel carbon/Kg core material, and the process will be applicable to full-scale remediation. Flow rate is based on a calculated residence time of 24 hours. Surface emission of fuel hydrocarbons have not exceeded 1 micrograms/liter soil gas.

  12. Fact #944: September 26, 2016 Public Opinion of Fuels Which Could Replace

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Gasoline | Department of Energy 4: September 26, 2016 Public Opinion of Fuels Which Could Replace Gasoline Fact #944: September 26, 2016 Public Opinion of Fuels Which Could Replace Gasoline SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week A public opinion survey from June 2016 posed this question: Consider a future date when gasoline is no longer available. Which of the following do you think would be the BEST fuel for use in personal vehicles? Would you say natural gas, electricity, ethanol, or hydrogen?

  13. Performance and emissions characteristics of alternative fuels in spark ignition engines

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, M.R.; Maxwell, R.L.; Swain, M.N.; Bedsworth, K.; Adt, R.R. Jr.; Pappas, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    A formal ongoing program to characterize the performance and exhaust characteristics of automotive-type powerplants fueled by conventional and alternative fuels is reported. This report contains the information obtained during the past three years when four alternative fuels and two baseline fuels were evaluated in three engines. The four alternative fuels were a simulated gasoline made to represent coal derived gasoline, methyl aryl ethers blended at the 10% level in an unleaded gasoline, gasoline made from methanol, and a blend of Indolene plus methanol and higher alcohols. The two baseline fuels were, Indolene and Gulf unleaded regular gasoline. The engines tested were a pre-mixed carbureted SI (spark ignition) engine, a carbureted three-valve stratified-charge SI engine and a pre-mixed carbureted SI engine with a closed-loop three-way catalyst emission control system.

  14. Direct production of fractionated and upgraded hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOEpatents

    Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Marker, Terry L.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2014-08-26

    Multistage processing of biomass to produce at least two separate fungible fuel streams, one dominated by gasoline boiling-point range liquids and the other by diesel boiling-point range liquids. The processing involves hydrotreating the biomass to produce a hydrotreatment product including a deoxygenated hydrocarbon product of gasoline and diesel boiling materials, followed by separating each of the gasoline and diesel boiling materials from the hydrotreatment product and each other.

  15. Assessment of Summer 1997 Motor Gasoline Price Increase

    Reports and Publications

    1998-01-01

    Assesses the 1997 late summer gasoline market and some of the important issues surrounding that event.

  16. Gasoline distribution cycle and vapor emissions in Mexico City metropolitan area

    SciTech Connect

    Molina, M.M.; Secora, I.S.; Gallegos, J.R.M.; Grapain, V.M.G.; Villegas, F.M.R.; Flores, L.A.M.

    1997-12-31

    Ozone in the main air pollutant in Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). This kind of pollution is induced by the emissions of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons. According to Official Statistics National Air Pollution Quality Standard is exceeded over 300 days a year. Volatile hydrocarbons are generated in the cycle of storage transport and distribution of fuel (Gasoline Distribution Cycle). Above 17 millions of liters are handled daily in MCMA. Evaporative emission control is a complex task involving: floating roof tanks and vapor recovery units installation at bulk terminals and implementation of Phase 1 and Phase 2 vapor recovery systems at service stations. Since 1990, IMP has been involved in researching vapor emissions associated to gasoline storage and distribution cycle. Besides, the authors evaluate several technologies for bulk terminals and service stations. In this job, the authors present the results of an evaluation according to Mexican Official Standard of 500 vehicles. The gasoline vapors are trapped during refueling of cars and they are conduced to an equipment that includes an activated charcoal canister in order to adsorb them. Another Activated charcoal canister adsorbs ambient air as a reference. Experimental results showed that refueling hydrocarbon emissions are between 0.4 and 1.2 grams per liter with averages of 0.79 and 0.88 grams per liter according with two different gasoline types. These results were applied to Mexico City Vehicular fleet for the gasoline distribution cycle in order to obtain a total volatile hydrocarbon emission in Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Prohibition of the Sale of Ethanol-Blended Gasoline A person or distributor may not offer, sell, or distribute gasoline that contains ethanol at a level greater than 10% (E10) or contains corn-based ethanol as an additive. The prohibition does not take effect until at least ten other states or a number of states with a collective population of 30 million have enacted laws preventing the sale of these fuel blends. (Reference Maine Revised Statutes Title 38, Section 585M and Title 10, Section

  18. Ethanol Fuel Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Ethanol Fuel Basics Ethanol Fuel Basics July 30, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis biomass in beekers Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be made from various plant materials, collectively known as "biomass." Studies have estimated that ethanol and other biofuels could replace 30% or more of U.S. gasoline demand by 2030. More than 95% of U.S. gasoline contains ethanol in a low-level blend to oxygenate the fuel and reduce air pollution. Ethanol is also increasingly available in a high-level blend

  19. Insights into Spring 2008 Gasoline Prices

    Reports and Publications

    2008-01-01

    Gasoline prices rose rapidly in spring 2007 due a variety of factors, including refinery outages and lower than expected imports. This report explores those factors and looks at the implications for 2008.

  20. Inquiry into August 2003 Gasoline Price Spike

    Reports and Publications

    2003-01-01

    U.S. Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham requested that the Energy Information Administration conduct an inquiry into the causes of the price increases of gasoline in July and August of 2003.

  1. Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected Refiners Differently, 1995

    Reports and Publications

    1996-01-01

    This article focuses on the costs of producing reformulated gasoline (RFG) as experienced by different types of refiners and on how these refiners fared this past summer, given the prices for RFG at the refinery gate.

  2. Gasoline prices show sharp increase (short version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline saw its sharpest increase this year at 3.54 a gallon on Monday. That's up 18.1 cents from a week ago, based on ...

  3. Gasoline prices show sharp increase (long version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline saw its sharpest increase this year at 3.54 a gallon on Monday. That's up 18.1 cents from a week ago, based on the ...

  4. Performance and emissions of non-petroleum fuels in a direct-injection stratified charge Sl engine

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.E.; Chui, G.K.; Roby, R.J.

    1982-10-01

    Seven fuels derived from coal and shale resources were evaluated using a direct-injection stratified charge engine. The fuels were refined to different degrees which ranged from those typical of gasoline blending components to those similar to current gasoline. Results showed that fuels refined to have properties similar to gasoline performed like gasoline. The less refined fuels were limited in performance. The total carbon monoxide and the hydrocarbon emissions varied with the volatility of the fuels. Most fuels with a higher overall distillation curve generally gave higher hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions. The NOx emissions increased with the percent aromatics in the fuels. The hydrocarbon emissions were found to increase with fuel viscosity. Within the range of engine operation, nearly all the fuels evaluated gave satisfactory performance. With some modifications, even the less refined fuels can be potentially suitable for use in this engine.

  5. The Alternative Fuel Price Report

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    December 17, 2001 his is the fifth issue of the Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, a quarterly newsletter keeping you up to date on the price of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue discusses prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders during the weeks of October 15 and October 22, 2001, with comparisons to the prices in the previous Price Report for the week of June 4, 2001. Gasoline and Diesel Prices

  6. Trends in motor gasolines: 1942-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, E M; Whisman, M L; Woodward, P W

    1982-06-01

    Trends in motor gasolines for the years of 1942 through 1981 have been evaluated based upon data contained in surveys that have been prepared and published by the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC). These surveys have been published twice annually since 1935 describing the properties of motor gasolines from throughout the country. The surveys have been conducted in cooperation with the American Petroleum Institute (API) since 1948. Various companies from throughout the country obtain samples from retail outlets, analyze the samples by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) procedures, and report data to the Bartlesville center for compilation, tabulation, calculation, analysis and publication. A typical motor gasoline report covers 2400 samples from service stations throughout the country representing some 48 companies that manufacture and supply gasoline. The reports include trend charts, octane plots, and tables of test results from about a dozen different tests. From these data in 77 semiannual surveys, a summary report has thus been assembled that shows trends in motor gasolines throughout the entire era of winter 1942 to 1943 to the present. Trends of physical properties including octane numbers, antiknock ratings, distillation temperatures, Reid vapor pressure, sulfur and lead content are tabulated, plotted and discussed in the current report. Also included are trend effects of technological advances and the interactions of engine design, societal and political events and prices upon motor gasoline evolution during the 40 year period.

  7. Fact #818: April 21, 2014 The Effect of Winter Weather on Fuel Economy

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Winter driving conditions and cold temperatures can have a significant effect on a vehicle’s fuel economy. For a conventional gasoline-powered vehicle, fuel economy at 20°F is about 12% lower than...

  8. Outlook for Light-Duty-Vehicle Fuel Demand | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Outlook for Light-Duty-Vehicle Fuel Demand Outlook for Light-Duty-Vehicle Fuel Demand Gasoline and distillate demand impact of the Energy Independance and Security Act of 2007 PDF ...

  9. Maintenance and operation of the US Alternative Fuel Center

    SciTech Connect

    Erwin, J.; Ferrill, J.L.; Hetrick, D.L.

    1994-08-01

    The Alternative Fuels Utilization Program (AFUP) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy has investigated the possibilities and limitations of expanded scope of fuel alternatives and replacement means for transportation fuels from alternative sources. Under the AFUP, the Alternative Fuel Center (AFC) was created to solve problems in the DOE programs that were grappling with the utilization of shale oil and coal liquids for transportation fuels. This report covers the first year at the 3-year contract. The principal objective was to assist the AFUP in accomplishing its general goals with two new fuel initiatives selected for tasks in the project year: (1) Production of low-sulfur, low-olefin catalytically cracked gasoline blendstock; and (2) production of low-reactivity/low-emission gasoline. Supporting goals included maintaining equipment in good working order, performing reformulated gasoline tests, and meeting the needs of other government agencies and industries for fuel research involving custom processing, blending, or analysis of experimental fuels.

  10. Exhaust particle characterization for lean and stoichiometric DI vehicles operating on ethanol-gasoline blends

    SciTech Connect

    Storey, John Morse; Barone, Teresa L; Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P

    2012-01-01

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer better fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet the U.S. fuel economy standards for 2016. Furthermore, lean-burn GDI engines can offer even higher fuel economy than stoichiometric GDI engines and have overcome challenges associated with cost-effective aftertreatment for NOx control. Along with changes in gasoline engine technology, fuel composition may increase in ethanol content beyond the current 10% due to the recent EPA waiver allowing 15% ethanol. In addition, the Renewable Fuels Standard passed as part of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) mandates the use of biofuels in upcoming years. GDI engines are of environmental concern due to their high particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to port-fuel injected (PFI) gasoline vehicles; widespread market penetration of GDI vehicles may result in additional PM from mobile sources at a time when the diesel contribution is declining. In this study, we characterized particulate emissions from a European certified lean-burn GDI vehicle operating on ethanol-gasoline blends. Particle mass and particle number concentration emissions were measured for the Federal Test Procedure urban driving cycle (FTP 75) and the more aggressive US06 driving cycle. Particle number-size distributions and organic to elemental carbon ratios (OC/EC) were measured for 30 MPH and 80 MPH steady-state operation. In addition, particle number concentration was measured during wide open throttle accelerations (WOTs) and gradual accelerations representative of the FTP 75. Fuels included certification gasoline and 10% (E10) and 20% (E20) ethanol blends from the same supplier. The particle

  11. Conversion of cellulosic wastes to liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Kuester, J.L.

    1980-09-01

    The current status and future plans for a project to convert waste cellulosic (biomass) materials to quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels is described. The basic approach is indirect liquefaction, i.e., thermal gasification followed by catalytic liquefaction. The indirect approach results in separation of the oxygen in the biomass feedstock, i.e., oxygenated compounds do not appear in the liquid hydrocarbon fuel product. The process is capable of accepting a wide variety of feedstocks. Potential products include medium quality gas, normal propanol, diesel fuel and/or high octane gasoline. A fluidized bed pyrolysis system is used for gasification. The pyrolyzer can be fluidized with recycle pyrolysis gas, steam or recycle liquefaction system off gas or some combination thereof. Tars are removed in a wet scrubber. Unseparated pyrolysis gases are utilized as feed to a modified Fischer-Tropsch reactor. The liquid condensate from the reactor consists of a normal propanol-water phase and a paraffinic hydrocarbon phase. The reactor can be operated to optimize for either product. The following tasks were specified in the statement of work for the contract period: (1) feedstock studies; (2) gasification system optimization; (3) waste stream characterization; and (4) liquid fuels synthesis. In addition, several equipment improvements were implemented.

  12. U.S. average gasoline prices falling to near $2 in December

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said high gasoline production, cheaper winter-grade gasoline, and lower gasoline demand following this summer's peak ...

  13. EV Everywhere: Saving on Fuel and Vehicle Costs

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Plug-in electric vehicles (also known as electric cars or EVs) can save you money, with much lower fuel costs on average than conventional gasoline vehicles. Electricity prices are lower and more stable than gasoline prices. On a national average, it costs less than half as much to travel the same distance in an EV than a conventional vehicle.

  14. Fact #817: February 17, 2014 Conventional and Alternative Fuel Price Trends

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    from 2000 to 2013 | Department of Energy 7: February 17, 2014 Conventional and Alternative Fuel Price Trends from 2000 to 2013 Fact #817: February 17, 2014 Conventional and Alternative Fuel Price Trends from 2000 to 2013 Retail prices for most transportation fuels have been highly volatile over the past 13 years. The figure below shows quarterly price fluctuations for select fuel types from 2000 to 2013. Gasoline, diesel, propane, E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline), and B20 (20% biodiesel

  15. Fuel Processors for PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Levi T. Thompson

    2008-08-08

    Fuel cells are being developed to power cleaner, more fuel efficient automobiles. The fuel cell technology favored by many automobile manufacturers is PEM fuel cells operating with H2 from liquid fuels like gasoline and diesel. A key challenge to the commercialization of PEM fuel cell based powertrains is the lack of sufficiently small and inexpensive fuel processors. Improving the performance and cost of the fuel processor will require the development of better performing catalysts, new reactor designs and better integration of the various fuel processing components. These components and systems could also find use in natural gas fuel processing for stationary, distributed generation applications. Prototype fuel processors were produced, and evaluated against the Department of Energy technical targets. Significant advances were made by integrating low-cost microreactor systems, high activity catalysts, π-complexation adsorbents, and high efficiency microcombustor/microvaporizers developed at the University of Michigan. The microreactor system allowed (1) more efficient thermal coupling of the fuel processor operations thereby minimizing heat exchanger requirements, (2) improved catalyst performance due to optimal reactor temperature profiles and increased heat and mass transport rates, and (3) better cold-start and transient responses.

  16. Automotive Fuel Processor Development and Demonstration with Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nuvera Fuel Cells

    2005-04-15

    The potential for fuel cell systems to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions over conventional power systems has generated significant interest in fuel cell technologies. While fuel cells are being investigated for use in many applications such as stationary power generation and small portable devices, transportation applications present some unique challenges for fuel cell technology. Due to their lower operating temperature and non-brittle materials, most transportation work is focusing on fuel cells using proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. Since PEM fuel cells are fueled by hydrogen, major obstacles to their widespread use are the lack of an available hydrogen fueling infrastructure and hydrogen's relatively low energy storage density, which leads to a much lower driving range than conventional vehicles. One potential solution to the hydrogen infrastructure and storage density issues is to convert a conventional fuel such as gasoline into hydrogen onboard the vehicle using a fuel processor. Figure 2 shows that gasoline stores roughly 7 times more energy per volume than pressurized hydrogen gas at 700 bar and 4 times more than liquid hydrogen. If integrated properly, the fuel processor/fuel cell system would also be more efficient than traditional engines and would give a fuel economy benefit while hydrogen storage and distribution issues are being investigated. Widespread implementation of fuel processor/fuel cell systems requires improvements in several aspects of the technology, including size, startup time, transient response time, and cost. In addition, the ability to operate on a number of hydrocarbon fuels that are available through the existing infrastructure is a key enabler for commercializing these systems. In this program, Nuvera Fuel Cells collaborated with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop efficient, low-emission, multi-fuel processors for transportation applications. Nuvera's focus was on (1) developing fuel processor

  17. Report - Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: A Design Case

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S. B.; Valkenburg, C.; Walton, C. W.; Elliott, D. C.; Holladay, J. E.; Stevens, D. J.; Kinchin, C.; Czernik, S.

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this design case study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio-oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels.

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Alternative Fuel Tax Rate A license tax of $0.24 per gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) or diesel gallon equivalent (DGE) is collected on all alternative fuel used, sold, or distributed for sale or use in Wyoming. Alternative fuels include compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (propane), electricity, and renewable diesel. For taxation purposes, one GGE of CNG is equal to 5.66 pounds (lbs.), one DGE of LNG is equal to 6.06 lbs., one GGE of propane is

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office: Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Fuel Efficiency & Emissions » Vehicle Technologies Office: Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Vehicle Technologies Office: Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion More than 90 percent of transportation relies on petroleum-based fuels: gasoline and diesel. While alternative fuels and plug-in electric vehicles offer great promise to reduce America's petroleum consumption, petroleum-based fuels are likely to play a substantial role for years to come. However, the sources

  20. Commercialization potential of the china lake trash-to-gasoline process

    SciTech Connect

    Diebold, J.; Smith, G.

    1980-01-01

    The title process involves a series of noncatalytic petrochemical processes to convert organic wastes to a synthetic crude oil containing approximately 90% high-octane gasoline and 10% fuel and lubricating oils. By-product char and gases are consumed for process energy. The key features of the process, the relative confidence of the commercial scale-up and the projected economics based on an independent 3rd-party evaluation are discussed.

  1. Alternative Fuel Price Report - June 29, 2004

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    ALTERNATIVE FUEL PRICE REPORT Alternative Fuel Prices Across the Nation June 29, 2004 his is the twelfth issue of the Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, a quarterly newsletter keeping you up to date on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue discusses prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between June 14 and June 25, 2004, with comparisons to the prices in the previous Price Report,

  2. Alternative Fuel Price Report - November 26, 2004

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    THE ALTERNATIVE FUEL PRICE REPORT Alternative Fuel Prices Across the Nation November 26, 2004 his is the thirteenth issue of the Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, a quarterly newsletter keeping you up to date on the prices of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue discusses prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders between November 8 and November 19, 2004, with comparisons to the prices in the previous

  3. Multiple fuel supply system for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Crothers, William T.

    1977-01-01

    A multiple fuel supply or an internal combustion engine wherein phase separation of components is deliberately induced. The resulting separation permits the use of a single fuel tank to supply components of either or both phases to the engine. Specifically, phase separation of a gasoline/methanol blend is induced by the addition of a minor amount of water sufficient to guarantee separation into an upper gasoline phase and a lower methanol/water phase. A single fuel tank holds the two-phase liquid with separate fuel pickups and separate level indicators for each phase. Either gasoline or methanol, or both, can be supplied to the engine as required by predetermined parameters. A fuel supply system for a phase-separated multiple fuel supply contained in a single fuel tank is described.

  4. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  5. Fact #648: November 8, 2010 Conventional and Alternative Fuel...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    prices for the period July 12 through July 23, 2010 for the following fuels: gasoline (regular), diesel, CNG, ethanol (E85), propane, biodiesel (B20), and biodiesel (B99-B100). ...

  6. Overview of DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... FC Distrib Solar PV BEV Solar PV Electr. BEV ... Petroleum Analysis reported previously: 50% reduction for FCEVs with H2 from NG vs. today's gasoline vehicle Fuel Cell Technologies ...

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Benefits and Considerations

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    ... Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends Fueling a High Octane Future, 2016 Ethanol Industry Outlook Water Usage for Current and Future ...

  8. Gasoline from Wood via Integrated Gasification, Synthesis, and Methanol-to-Gasoline Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S. D.; Tarud, J. K.; Biddy, M. J.; Dutta, A.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) assessment of the feasibility of making gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline route using syngas from a 2,000 dry metric tonne/day (2,205 U.S. ton/day) biomass-fed facility. A new technoeconomic model was developed in Aspen Plus for this study, based on the model developed for NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007). The necessary process changes were incorporated into a biomass-to-gasoline model using a methanol synthesis operation followed by conversion, upgrading, and finishing to gasoline. Using a methodology similar to that used in previous NREL design reports and a feedstock cost of $50.70/dry ton ($55.89/dry metric tonne), the estimated plant gate price is $16.60/MMBtu ($15.73/GJ) (U.S. $2007) for gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) produced from biomass via gasification of wood, methanol synthesis, and the methanol-to-gasoline process. The corresponding unit prices for gasoline and LPG are $1.95/gallon ($0.52/liter) and $1.53/gallon ($0.40/liter) with yields of 55.1 and 9.3 gallons per U.S. ton of dry biomass (229.9 and 38.8 liters per metric tonne of dry biomass), respectively.

  9. FedEx Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 6-Month Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Barnitt, R.

    2010-05-01

    This interim report presents partial (six months) results for a technology evaluation of gasoline hybrid electric parcel delivery trucks operated by FedEx in and around Los Angeles, CA. A 12 month in-use technology evaluation comparing in-use fuel economy and maintenance costs of GHEVs and comparative diesel parcel delivery trucks was started in April 2009. Comparison data was collected and analyzed for in-use fuel economy and fuel costs, maintenance costs, total operating costs, and vehicle uptime. In addition, this interim report presents results of parcel delivery drive cycle collection and analysis activities as well as emissions and fuel economy results of chassis dynamometer testing of a gHEV and a comparative diesel truck at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) ReFUEL laboratory. A final report will be issued when 12 months of in-use data have been collected and analyzed.

  10. Accelerating the Computation of Detailed Chemical Reaction Kinetics for Simulating Combustion of Complex Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Grout, Ray W

    2012-01-01

    Combustion of hydrocarbon fuels has been a very challenging scientific and engineering problem due to the complexity of turbulent flows and hydrocarbon reaction kinetics. There is an urgent need to develop an efficient modeling capability to accurately predict the combustion of complex fuels. Detailed chemical kinetic models for the surrogates of fuels such as gasoline, diesel and JP-8 consist of thousands of chemical species and Arrhenius reaction steps. Oxygenated fuels such as bio-fuels and heavier hydrocarbons, such as from newer fossil fuel sources, are expected to have a much more complex chemistry requiring increasingly larger chemical kinetic models. Such models are beyond current computational capability, except for homogeneous or partially stirred reactor type calculations. The advent of highly parallel multi-core processors and graphical processing units (GPUs) promises a steep increase in computational performance in the coming years. This paper will present a software framework that translates the detailed chemical kinetic models to high- performance code targeted for GPU accelerators.

  11. DOE's Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    More Documents & Publications DOE's GasolineDiesel PM Split Study DOE's GasolineDiesel PM Split Study Long-Term Changes in Gas- and Particle-Phase Emissions from On-Road Diesel ...

  12. Motor Gasoline Market Spring 2007 and Implications for Spring 2008

    Reports and Publications

    2008-01-01

    This report focuses on the major factors that drove the widening difference between wholesale gasoline and crude oil prices in 2007 and explores how those factors might impact gasoline prices in 2008.

  13. Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    35: Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 fotw835web.xlsx (21.31 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact 915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, ...

  14. ,"New York City Gasoline and Diesel Retail Prices"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York City Gasoline and Diesel Retail ... 4:27:10 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New York City Gasoline and Diesel Retail ...

  15. U.S. gasoline price falls under $3 (long version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    November 3, 2014 U.S. gasoline price falls under 3 (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to its lowest level since December 2010 at 2.99 a gallon ...

  16. U.S. gasoline price falls under $3 (short version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2014 U.S. gasoline price falls under 3 (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to its lowest level since December 2010 at 2.99 a gallon on Monday. ...

  17. Note on the structural stability of gasoline demand and the welfare economics of gasoline taxation

    SciTech Connect

    Kwast, M.L.

    1980-04-01

    A partial adjustment model is used to investigate how the 1973 to 1974 oil embargo affected the structural stability of gasoline demand and to compute the welfare effects of higher gasoline taxes. A variety of statistical tests are used to demonstrate the structural stability of gasoline demand in spite of higher prices. A case study demonstrates only modest price elasticity in response to increased taxes. Higher excise taxes are felt to be justified, however, as an efficient source of revenue even though their effect on demand is limited. 17 references, 4 tables. (DCK)

  18. Gasoline prices continue to decrease (long version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    3, 2014 Gasoline prices continue to decrease (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.29 a gallon on Monday. That's down 3-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast states at 3.49 a gallon, up 6-tenths of a penny from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast region at 3.08 a gallon, down 9-tenths of a penny. This is Amerine Woodyard, with

  19. Gasoline prices continue to decrease (long version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    19, 2014 Gasoline prices continue to decrease (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.67 a gallon on Monday. That's down 3-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast states at 4.02 a gallon, down 7-tenths of a penny from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast region at 3.44 a gallon, up 2-tenths of a penny.

  20. Gasoline prices continue to fall (long version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Gasoline prices continue to fall (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline decreased for the second week in a row to $3.71 a gallon on Monday. That's down 4.9 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast region at 4.05 a gallon, down 2 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Rocky Mountain States at 3.47 a gallon, down 7-tenths of a penny

  1. Gasoline prices continue to fall (long version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Gasoline prices continue to fall (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.61 a gallon on Monday. That's down 3.7 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast region at 3.93 a gallon, down 1.7 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast States at 3.43 a gallon, down 4.6

  2. Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    , 2014 Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.48 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3 ½ cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast states at 3.71 a gallon, up 5.6 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast region at 3.23 a gallon, up 1.8 cents. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  3. Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    March 10, 2014 Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.51 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3.3 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast states at 3.76 a gallon, up 4.7 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast region at 3.25 a gallon, up 2 ½ cents.

  4. Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    7, 2014 Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.55 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3½ cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast states at 3.81 a gallon, up 5½ cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast region at 3.28 a gallon, up 3.1 cents. This is Marcela Rourk, with EIA, in Washington.

  5. Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    14, 2014 Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.65 a gallon on Monday. That's up 5½ cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast states at 3.98 a gallon, up 9.7 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Rocky Mountain states at 3.44 a gallon, down 8-tenths of a penny

  6. Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    21, 2014 Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.68 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast states at 4.03 a gallon, up a nickel from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Rocky Mountain states at 3.45 a gallon, up 8-tenths of a penny

  7. Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    24, 2014 Gasoline prices continue to increase (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.44 a gallon on Monday. That's up 6.4 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast states at 3.65 a gallon, up 8 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast region at 3.21 a gallon, up

  8. Gasoline prices continue to rise (long version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Gasoline prices continue to rise (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.67 a gallon on Monday. That's up 7 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast region at 3.95 a gallon, up 1.4 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast States at 3.39 a gallon, up 2.8 cents. The Midwest region boasted the highest weekly increase at 18.8 cents with

  9. Gasoline prices inch down (long version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Gasoline prices inch down (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.68 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.6 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast region at 3.96 a gallon, down 4.2 cents from a week ago and marking the first dip below the 4 dollar mark since mid-February. Prices were lowest in the Rocky Mountain States at 3.47 a gallon, remaining unchanged

  10. NAFTA and gasoline: Canada, U. S. , Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-31

    The North American Free Trade Agreement has become a hotly debated topic all over the world, but especially in the countries involved: Mexico, United States, and Canada. Comments made by high ranking officials imply there are differences to reconcile before the agreement is passed. Toward seeing these countries in trio, this issue compares gasoline markets and some energy perspectives. The purpose of this article is to contribute to understanding of the three countries through their petroleum industry structure. Gasoline consumption and retail delivery infrastructure are compared and contrasted to illustrate the differences among the NAFTA countries.

  11. Motor Gasoline Market Model documentation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Motor Gasoline Market Model (MGMM), describe its basic approach and to provide detail on model functions. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. The MGMM performs a short-term (6- to 9-month) forecast of demand and price for motor gasoline in the US market; it also calculates end of month stock levels. The model is used to analyze certain market behavior assumptions or shocks and to determine the effect on market price, demand and stock level.

  12. What Drives U.S. Gasoline Prices?

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    What Drives U.S. Gasoline Prices? October 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | What Drives U.S. Gasoline Prices? i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States

  13. Fact #565: April 6, 2009 Household Gasoline Expenditures by Income |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy 5: April 6, 2009 Household Gasoline Expenditures by Income Fact #565: April 6, 2009 Household Gasoline Expenditures by Income In the annual Consumer Expenditure Survey, household incomes are grouped into five equal parts called quintiles (each quintile is 20%). Households in the second and third quintiles consistently have a higher share of spending on gasoline each year than households in the other quintiles. Household Gasoline Expenditures by Income Quintile Bar graph

  14. DOE Gasoline Price Watch Website and Hotline | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Gasoline Price Watch Website and Hotline DOE Gasoline Price Watch Website and Hotline April 20, 2006 - 12:26pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today is reminding consumers about the Department of Energy's (DOE) gasoline price reporting system. Consumers can report activity at local gasoline filling stations that they believe may constitute "gouging" or "price fixing" by visiting gaswatch.energy.gov/. "There are many legitimate factors

  15. Why Do Motor Gasoline Prices Vary Regionally? California Case Study

    Reports and Publications

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the difference between the retail gasoline prices in California and the average U.S. retail prices.

  16. National Survey of E85 and Gasoline Prices

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, P.

    2008-10-01

    Study compares the prices of E85 and regular gasoline nationally and regionally over time for one year.

  17. Blender Pump Fuel Survey: CRC Project E-95

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, T. L.

    2011-07-01

    To increase the number of ethanol blends available in the United States, several states have 'blender pumps' that blend gasoline with flex-fuel vehicle (FFV) fuel. No specification governs the properties of these blended fuels, and little information is available about the fuels sold at blender pumps. No labeling conventions exist, and labeling on the blender pumps surveyed was inconsistent.; The survey samples, collected across the Midwestern United States, included the base gasoline and FFV fuel used in the blends as well as the two lowest blends offered at each station. The samples were tested against the applicable ASTM specifications and for critical operability parameters. Conventional gasoline fuels are limited to 10 vol% ethanol by the U.S. EPA. The ethanol content varied greatly in the samples. Half the gasoline samples contained some ethanol, while the other half contained none. The FFV fuel samples were all within the specification limits. No pattern was observed for the blend content of the higher ethanol content samples at the same station. Other properties tested were specific to higher-ethanol blends. This survey also tested the properties of fuels containing ethanol levels above conventional gasoline but below FFV fuels.

  18. Fact #794: August 26, 2013 How Much Does an Average Vehicle Owner Pay in Fuel Taxes Each Year?

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    According to the Federal Highway Administration, the average fuel economy for all light vehicles on the road today is 21.4 miles per gallon (mpg). A person owning a gasoline vehicle with that fuel...

  19. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the first compilation by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of information on alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuel. The purpose of the report is: (1) to provide background information on alternative transportation fuels and replacement fuels compared with gasoline and diesel fuel, and (2) to furnish preliminary estimates of alternative transportation fuels and alternative fueled vehicles as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), Title V, Section 503, ``Replacement Fuel Demand Estimates and Supply Information.`` Specifically, Section 503 requires the EIA to report annually on: (1) the number and type of alternative fueled vehicles in existence the previous year and expected to be in use the following year, (2) the geographic distribution of these vehicles, (3) the amounts and types of replacement fuels consumed, and (4) the greenhouse gas emissions likely to result from replacement fuel use. Alternative fueled vehicles are defined in this report as motorized vehicles licensed for on-road use, which may consume alternative transportation fuels. (Alternative fueled vehicles may use either an alternative transportation fuel or a replacement fuel.) The intended audience for the first section of this report includes the Secretary of Energy, the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the automobile manufacturing industry, the transportation fuel manufacturing and distribution industries, and the general public. The second section is designed primarily for persons desiring a more technical explanation of and background for the issues surrounding alternative transportation fuels.

  20. Ohio Fuel Cell Initiative

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Top 5 Fuel Cell States: Why Local Policies Mean Green Growth Jun 21 st , 2011 2 * Ohio Fuel Cell Initiative * Ohio Fuel Cell Coalition * Accomplishments * Ohio Successes Discussion Areas 3 Ohio's Fuel Cell Initiative * Announced on 5/9/02 * Part of Ohio Third Frontier Initiative * $85 million investment to date * Core focus areas: 1) Expand the state's research capabilities; 2) Participate in demonstration projects; and 3) Expand the fuel cell industry in Ohio 4 OHIO'S FUEL CELL INITIATIVE

  1. Report: Efficiency, Alternative Fuels to Impact Market Through 2040

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fuel efficiency improvements and increased use of alternative fuels, will shrink gasoline's share of the fuel market 14% by 2040, according to a new report based on analysis of the U.S. Energy Information Administration in its Annual Energy Outl

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Measurement Effective November 1, 2015, the Oklahoma Department of Labor (DOL) must standardize compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) measurements for retail motor vehicle fuel, unless the National Conference on Weights and Measures has established equivalent measures. Until the DOL standardizes measurements, a gasoline gallon equivalent is equal to 5.66 pounds (lbs.) of CNG and a diesel gallon equivalent is equal to 6.06 lbs. of LNG. (Reference House Bill 1283, 2015, and

  3. Development of OTM Syngas Process and Testing of Syngas Derived Ultra-clean Fuels in Diesel Engines and Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    E.T. Robinson; John Sirman; Prasad Apte; Xingun Gui; Tytus R. Bulicz; Dan Corgard; John Hemmings

    2005-05-01

    This final report summarizes work accomplished in the Program from January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2004. Most of the key technical objectives for this program were achieved. A breakthrough material system has lead to the development of an OTM (oxygen transport membrane) compact planar reactor design capable of producing either syngas or hydrogen. The planar reactor shows significant advantages in thermal efficiency and a step change reduction in costs compared to either autothermal reforming or steam methane reforming with CO{sub 2} recovery. Syngas derived ultra-clean transportation fuels were tested in the Nuvera fuel cell modular pressurized reactor and in International Truck and Engine single cylinder test engines. The studies compared emission and engine performance of conventional base fuels to various formulations of ultra-clean gasoline or diesel fuels. A proprietary BP oxygenate showed significant advantage in both applications for reducing emissions with minimal impact on performance. In addition, a study to evaluate new fuel formulations for an HCCI engine was completed.

  4. Compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas as alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Moussavi, M.; Al-Turk, M. . Civil Engineering Dept.)

    1993-12-01

    The use of alternative fuels in the transportation industry has gained a strong support in recent years. In this paper an attempt was made to evaluate the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (NG) by 25 LPG-bifuel and 14 NG-bifuel vehicles that are operated by 33 transit systems throughout Nebraska. A set of performance measures such as average fuel efficiency in kilometers per liter, average fuel cost per kilometer, average oil consumption, and average operation and maintenance cost for alternatively fueled vehicles were calculated and compared with similar performance measures of gasoline powered vehicles. The results of the study showed that the average fuel efficiency of gasoline is greater than those of LPG and NG, and the average fuel costs (dollars per kilometer) for LPG and NG are smaller than those for gasoline for most of the vehicles under this study.

  5. The Sasol route to fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Dry, M.E.

    1982-12-01

    Details are given of the Sasol operation in South Africa. Flow sheets are provided for Sasol 1 and Sasol 2 and 3. The Sasol 1 plant produces waxes, liquid fuels, pipeline gas and chemicals; the Sasol 2 and 3 plants primarily produce ethylene, gasoline and diesel fuel. The versatility of the process is emphasized. The product selectivities of the fixed bed and Synthol reactors are shown and the properties of the products are compared. The influence of the catalyst on selectivity is examined.

  6. Renewable Fuel Standards Program Update

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Fuel Standard Program (RFS) Paul Argyropoulos US EPA Office of Transportation and Air Quality May, 2012 1 Agenda * Refresher: The RFS -- EPACT 2005 and EISA 2007 * Compliance with RFS2 - The Basics * New Fuel Pathways - The Process * Where do things Stand in 2012 * What's Next? * Other Items of Interest * Questions / Discussion 2 EPACT 2005 vs. EISA 2007 * EPACT 2005 RFS1 ▫ National Standard ▫ 7.5 billion gallons ▫ 2012 Full Implementation ▫ Obligation based on gasoline - onroad only ▫

  7. Price changes in the gasoline market: Are Midwestern gasoline prices downward sticky?

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    This report examines a recurring question about gasoline markets: why, especially in times of high price volatility, do retail gasoline prices seem to rise quickly but fall back more slowly? Do gasoline prices actually rise faster than they fall, or does this just appear to be the case because people tend to pay more attention to prices when they`re rising? This question is more complex than it might appear to be initially, and it has been addressed by numerous analysts in government, academia and industry. The question is very important, because perceived problems with retail gasoline pricing have been used in arguments for government regulation of prices. The phenomenon of prices at different market levels tending to move differently relative to each other depending on direction is known as price asymmetry. This report summarizes the previous work on gasoline price asymmetry and provides a method for testing for asymmetry in a wide variety of situations. The major finding of this paper is that there is some amount of asymmetry and pattern asymmetry, especially at the retail level, in the Midwestern states that are the focus of the analysis. Nevertheless, both the amount asymmetry and pattern asymmetry are relatively small. In addition, much of the pattern asymmetry detected in this and previous studies could be a statistical artifact caused by the time lags between price changes at different points in the gasoline distribution system. In other words, retail gasoline prices do sometimes rise faster than they fall, but this is largely a lagged market response to an upward shock in the underlying wholesale gasoline or crude oil prices, followed by a return toward the previous baseline. After consistent time lags are factored out, most apparent asymmetry disappears.

  8. Gasoline price shows small increase (Short version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    shows small increase (Short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.32 a gallon on Monday. That's up 1.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  9. Gasoline price shows small increase (short version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline showed little movement from last week. Prices rose 4/10 of a cent to $3.30 a gallon on Monday, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  10. Gasoline price up this week (short version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.36 a gallon on Monday. That's up 4.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  11. Gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.65 a gallon on Monday. That's down 3 1/2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington.

  12. Gasoline prices continue to decrease (short version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.50 a gallon on Monday. That's down 8.1 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  13. Gasoline prices continue to fall (short version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.54 a gallon on Monday. That's down 6.6 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  14. Gasoline prices continue to fall (short version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline decreased for the second week in a row to $3.71 a gallon on Monday. That's down 4.9 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington.

  15. Gasoline prices continue to fall (short version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.70 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.4 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington.

  16. Gasoline prices continue to fall (short version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.61 a gallon on Monday. That's down 3.7 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington.

  17. Gasoline prices continue to fall (short version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.52 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.6 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  18. Gasoline prices fall slightly (short version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell slightly to $3.49 a gallon on Monday. That's down 4-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  19. Gasoline prices inch down (Short version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose slightly to $3.66 a gallon on Monday. That's up nine tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration

  20. Gasoline prices inch down (short version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell to $3.68 a gallon on Monday. That's down 1.6 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. This is Amerine Woodyard, with EIA, in Washington.

  1. Gasoline prices inch down slightly (short version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline fell slightly to $3.54 a gallon on Monday. That's down 6-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  2. Gasoline prices up this week (short version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.61 a gallon on Monday. That's up 7.3 cents from a week ago and up 25.4 cents from two weeks ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  3. Gasoline prices up this week (short version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.75 a gallon on Monday. That's up almost 14 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  4. Gasoline prices up this week (short version)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.78 a gallon on Monday. That's up 3.7 cents from a week ago and up almost 43 cents from 4 weeks ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  5. Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006

    Reports and Publications

    2006-01-01

    A review of the market implications resulting from the rapid change from methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to ethanol-blended reformulated gasoline (RFG) on the East Coast and in Texas. Strains in ethanol supply and distribution will increase the potential for price volatility in these regions this summer.

  6. Emergency fuels utilization guidebook. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The basic concept of an emergency fuel is to safely and effectively use blends of specification fuels and hydrocarbon liquids which are free in the sense that they have been commandeered or volunteered from lower priority uses to provide critical transportation services for short-duration emergencies on the order of weeks, or perhaps months. A wide variety of liquid hydrocarbons not normally used as fuels for internal combustion engines have been categorized generically, including limited information on physical characteristics and chemical composition which might prove useful and instructive to fleet operators. Fuels covered are: gasoline and diesel fuel; alcohols; solvents; jet fuels; kerosene; heating oils; residual fuels; crude oils; vegetable oils; gaseous fuels.

  7. An experimental study of the combustion characteristics in SCCI and CAI based on direct-injection gasoline engine

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.

    2007-08-15

    Emissions remain a critical issue affecting engine design and operation, while energy conservation is becoming increasingly important. One approach to favorably address these issues is to achieve homogeneous charge combustion and stratified charge combustion at lower peak temperatures with a variable compression ratio, a variable intake temperature and a trapped rate of the EGR using NVO (negative valve overlap). This experiment was attempted to investigate the origins of these lower temperature auto-ignition phenomena with SCCI and CAI using gasoline fuel. In case of SCCI, the combustion and emission characteristics of gasoline-fueled stratified-charge compression ignition (SCCI) engine according to intake temperature and compression ratio was examined. We investigated the effects of air-fuel ratio, residual EGR rate and injection timing on the CAI combustion area. In addition, the effect of injection timing on combustion factors such as the start of combustion, its duration and its heat release rate was also investigated. (author)

  8. Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    56.9 57.3 73.4 65.7 March ... 105.0 100.6 59.0 59.6 69.0 68.0 April ... 111.4 107.5 66.0 65.3 80.5 75.1 May...

  9. Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel

    Annual Energy Outlook

    114.6 105.9 57.6 58.1 64.5 57.4 July ... NA 104.7 56.7 56.9 63.1 56.8 August ... 114.6 109.0 59.1 59.1 64.9 60.6...

  10. Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel

    Annual Energy Outlook

    88.4 45.3 45.9 65.3 47.5 April ... 99.3 92.8 46.6 46.7 56.7 46.1 May ... 101.1 97.3 46.7 47.0 56.0 45.6 June...

  11. Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    99.6 92.9 52.3 52.2 67.4 56.6 February ... 99.8 93.2 52.2 52.0 62.8 55.2 March ... 99.0 93.1 50.5 50.1 59.4 52.8 April...

  12. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update Data Revision Notice

    Annual Energy Outlook

    for some stations in the West Coast less California region. EIA has corrected this error and provides a revision to the affected areas for December 28, 2015 in this...

  13. Lean Gasoline System Development for Fuel Efficient Small Car

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... SCR-4 Passive Sys GM SCR-5 Supplier Data SCR-5 Modified SCR 1 Cone SCR-6 "Torpedo" SCR eta SCR-4 NH3 slip Post SCR1 SCR-5 NH3 slip Post SCR1 SCR-6 "Torpedo" Slip ; NOx conversion ...

  14. From Gasoline to Grassoline: Microbes Produce Fuels Directly from Biomass

    DOE R&D Accomplishments

    Yarris, Lynn

    2011-03-28

    A microbe that can produce an advanced biofuel directly from biomass was developed by researchers with the U.S. Department of Energy's Joint BioEnergy Institute.

  15. Study Reveals Fuel Injection Timing Impact on Particle Number Emissions (Fact Sheet), Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Start of injection can improve environmental performance of fuel-efficient gasoline direct injection engines. In an ongoing quest to meet ever-more-rigorous fuel economy and emissions requirements, vehicle manufacturers are increasingly turning to gasoline direct injection (GDI) coupled with turbocharging as a cost-effective option for improving the efficiency and performance of gasoline engines. While GDI engines are expected to account for 60% of the U.S. market by 2016, and the technology

  16. Ethanol Demand in United States Regional Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.

    2000-08-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (the Act) outlined a national energy strategy that called for reducing the nation's dependency on petroleum imports. The Act directed the Secretary of Energy to establish a program to promote and expand the use of renewable fuels. The Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT) within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has evaluated a wide range of potential fuels and has concluded that cellulosic ethanol is one of the most promising near-term prospects. Ethanol is widely recognized as a clean fuel that helps reduce emissions of toxic air pollutants. Furthermore, cellulosic ethanol produces less greenhouse gas emissions than gasoline or any of the other alternative transportation fuels being considered by DOE.

  17. Synthetic carbonaceous fuels and feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Steinberg, Meyer

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to the use of a three compartment electrolytic cell in the production of synthetic carbonaceous fuels and chemical feedstocks such as gasoline, methane and methanol by electrolyzing an aqueous sodium carbonate/bicarbonate solution, obtained from scrubbing atmospheric carbon dioxide with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution, whereby the hydrogen generated at the cathode and the carbon dioxide liberated in the center compartment are combined thermocatalytically into methanol and gasoline blends. The oxygen generated at the anode is preferably vented into the atmosphere, and the regenerated sodium hydroxide produced at the cathode is reused for scrubbing the CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere.

  18. Potential VNIITF capabilities on the area of SOFC power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Chukharev, V.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes a poster presentation on the capabilities of the VNIITF to produce solid oxide fuel cells. Research areas, personnel, technology, and test facilities are described.

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Alternative Fuels Tax The state motor fuel tax on liquefied natural gas (LNG) is imposed based on the diesel gallon equivalent (DGE) and the tax on propane and compressed natural gas (CNG) is based on the gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE). For taxation purposes, one GGE of propane and CNG is equal to 5.75 pounds (lbs.) and 5.66 lbs., respectively, and one DGE of LNG is equal to 6.06 lbs. The North Carolina Department of Revenue will determine the equivalent rate for all other non-liquid

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Alternative Fuel Vehicle Conversion Grant Program In early 2017, the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency will administer a one-time, $5 million grant program to replace or convert Class 7 and Class 8 diesel or gasoline trucks to natural gas or propane trucks. Vehicles must be privately operated in Ohio at least 50% of the time. Maximum grant awards will be 50% of the fuel components of the new vehicle or 50% of the cost of the conversion parts, up to $25,000. Total grants to any recipient may

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Tax Compressed natural gas used as a special motor fuel is subject to the state fuel excise tax rate of $0.32 per gasoline gallon equivalent, measured at 5.66 lbs. or 126.67 cubic feet at a base temperature of 60 degrees Fahrenheit and a pressure of 14.7 lbs. per square inch. Liquefied natural gas is also subject to the excise tax rate of $0.349 per diesel gallon equivalent, measured at 6.06 lbs. (Reference House Bill 343, 2016, and Idaho Statutes 63-2402 and 63-2424

  2. Carbonyl Emissions from Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Destaillats, Hugo; Jakober, Chris A.; Robert, Michael A.; Riddle, Sarah G.; Destaillats, Hugo; Charles, M. Judith; Green, Peter G.; Kleeman, Michael J.

    2007-12-01

    Carbonyls from gasoline powered light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and heavy-duty diesel powered vehicles (HDDVs) operated on chassis dynamometers were measured using an annular denuder-quartz filter-polyurethane foam sampler with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine derivatization and chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Two internal standards were utilized based on carbonyl recovery, 4-fluorobenzaldehyde for_C8 compounds. Gas- and particle-phase emissions for 39 aliphatic and 20 aromatic carbonyls ranged from 0.1 ? 2000 ?g/L fuel for LDVs and 1.8 - 27000 mu g/L fuel for HDDVs. Gas-phase species accounted for 81-95percent of the total carbonyls from LDVs and 86-88percent from HDDVs. Particulate carbonyls emitted from a HDDV under realistic driving conditions were similar to concentrations measured in a diesel particulate matter (PM) standard reference material. Carbonyls accounted for 19percent of particulate organic carbon (POC) emissions from low-emission LDVs and 37percent of POC emissions from three-way catalyst equipped LDVs. This identifies carbonyls as one of the largest classes of compounds in LDV PM emissions. The carbonyl fraction of HDDV POC was lower, 3.3-3.9percent depending upon operational conditions. Partitioning analysis indicates the carbonyls had not achieved equilibrium between the gas- and particle-phase under the dilution factors of 126-584 used in the current study.

  3. Gasoline Type Proliferation and Price Volatility

    Reports and Publications

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on the potential effect/role of implementation of a national menu of fuels to address the proliferation of boutique fuels.

  4. Ethanol fuel modification for highway vehicle use. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A number of problems that might occur if ethanol were used as a blending stock or replacement for gasoline in present cars are identified and characterized as to the probability of occurrence. The severity of their consequences is contrasted to those found with methanol in a previous contract study. Possibilities for correcting several problems are reported. Some problems are responsive to fuel modifications but others require or are better dealt with by modification of vehicles and the bulk fuel distribution system. In general, problems with ethanol in blends with gasoline were found to be less severe than those with methanol. Phase separation on exposure to water appears to be the major problem with ethanol/gasoline blends. Another potentially serious problem with blends is the illict recovery of ethanol for beverage usage, or bootlegging, which might be discouraged by the use of select denaturants. Ethanol blends have somewhat greater tendency to vapor lock than base gasoline but less than methanol blends. Gasoline engines would require modification to operate on fuels consisting mostly of ethanol. If such modifications were made, cold starting would still be a major problem, more difficult with ethanol than methanol. Startability can be provided by adding gasoline or light hydrocarbons. Addition of gasoline also reduces the explosibility of ethanol vapor and furthermore acts as denaturant.

  5. Capabilities: Science Pillars

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Pillars Capabilities: Science Pillars The Lab's four Science Pillars harness our scientific capabilities for national security solutions. What are the Los Alamos National ...

  6. Long Term Processing Using Integrated Hydropyrolysis plus Hydroconversion (IH2) for the Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Marker, Terry; Roberts, Michael; Linck, Martin; Felix, Larry; Ortiz-Toral, Pedro; Wangerow, Jim; McLeod, Celeste; Del Paggio, Alan; Gephart, John; Starr, Jack; Hahn, John

    2013-06-09

    Cellulosic and woody biomass can be directly converted to hydrocarbon gasoline and diesel blending components through the use of a new, economical, technology named integrated hydropyrolysis plus hydroconversion (IH2). The IH2 gasoline and diesel blending components are fully compatible with petroleum based gasoline and diesel, contain less than 1% oxygen and have less than 1 total acid number (TAN). The IH2 gasoline is high quality and very close to a drop in fuel. The life cycle analysis (LCA) shows that the use of the IH2 process to convert wood to gasoline and diesel results in a greater than 90% reduction in greenhouse gas emission compared to that found with fossil derived fuels. The technoeconomic analysis showed the conversion of wood using the IH2 process can produce gasoline and diesel at less than $2.00/gallon. In this project, the previously reported semi-continuous small scale IH2 test results were confirmed in a continuous 50 kg/day pilot plant. The continuous IH2 pilot plant used in this project was operated round the clock for over 750 hours and showed good pilot plant operability while consistently producing 26-28 wt % yields of high quality gasoline and diesel product. The IH2 catalyst showed good stability, although more work on catalyst stability is recommended. Additional work is needed to commercialize the IH2 technology including running large particle size biomass, modeling the hydropyrolysis step, studying the effects of process variables and building and operating a 1-50 ton/day demonstration scale plant. The IH2 is a true game changing technology by utilizing U.S. domestic renewable biomass resources to create transportation fuels, sufficient in quantity and quality to substantially reduce our reliance on foreign crude oil. Thus, the IH2 technology offers a path to genuine energy independence for the U. S., along with the creation of a significant number of new U.S. jobs to plant, grow, harvest, and process biomass crops into fungible

  7. The origin of organic pollutants from the combustion of alternative fuels: Phase 5/6 report

    SciTech Connect

    Sidhu, S.; Graham, J.; Taylor, P.; Dellinger, B.

    1998-05-01

    As part of the US Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on alternative automotive fuels, the subcontractor has been conducting studies on the origin and fate of organic pollutants from the combustion of alternative fuels. Laboratory experiments were conducted simulating cold start of four alterative fuels (compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol-gasoline mix, and ethanol-gasoline mix) using a commercial three-way catalyst under fuel-lean conditions. This report summarizes the results of these experiments. It appears that temperature of the catalyst is a more important parameter for fuel conversion and pollutant formation than oxygen concentration or fuel composition.

  8. The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize Emission in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2011-12-31

    This report summarizes activities conducted for the project “The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimized Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel” under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-07NT43271, which are as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated March 2007 and in the supplemental SOPO dated October 2010. The project objective was to develop and demonstrate an internal combustion engine that is optimized for E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) fuel operation to achieve substantially improved fuel economy while operating with E85 fuel and that is also production viable in the near- to medium-term. The key engine technology selected for research and development was turbocharging, which is known to improve fuel economy thru downsizing and is in particular capable of exploiting ethanol fuel’s characteristics of high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. The engine further integrated synergistic efficiency improving technologies of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), direct fuel injection and dual continuously variable intake and exhaust cam phasers. On the vehicle level, fuel economy was furthered thru powertrain system optimization by mating a state-of-the-art six-speed automatic transmission to the engine. In order to achieve the project’s objective of near- to medium-term production viability, it was essential to develop the engine to be flex-fuel capable of operating with fuels ranging from E0 (0% ethanol and 100% gasoline) to E85 and to use three-way type of catalyst technology for exhaust aftertreatment. Within these scopes, various technologies were developed through systems approach to focus on ways to help accelerate catalyst light-off. Significant amount of development took place during the course of the project within General Motors, LLC. Many prototype flex-fuel engines were designed, built and developed with various hardware configurations selected to achieve the project

  9. Use of alcohol fuel: engine-conversion demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, W.K.

    1982-01-01

    The use of ethanol as a fuel extender when mixed with gasoline, and the use of both hydrated and anhydrous ethanol as a fuel in gasoline and diesel engines are discussed. Required engine modifications for efficient use of ethanol are described, and include engine compression alterations, carburetor adjustments, and arrangement for fuel preheating. In 1981 and 1982 a demonstration of ethanol use in spark ignition engines was conducted at a major public park in South Carolina. The demonstration included a controlled road test with a pick-up truck and a demonstration of ethanol use in small, air cooled gasoline engines. One problem that was identified was that of contaminated fuel that clogged the fuel system after a few days' operation. (LEW)

  10. Alternative Fuels Price Report July 3, 2001

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    July 3, 2001 his is the fourth issue of the Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report, a quarterly newsletter keeping you up to date on the price of alternative fuels in the U.S. and their relation to gasoline and diesel prices. This issue discusses prices that were gathered from Clean Cities coordinators and stakeholders during the weeks of May 28 and June 4, 2001, with comparisons to the prices in the previous Price Report for the week of October 9, 2000. Gasoline and Diesel Prices asoline

  11. Reformulated gasoline deal with Venezuela draws heat

    SciTech Connect

    Begley, R.

    1994-04-06

    A fight is brewing in Congress over a deal to let Venezuela off the hook in complying with the Clean Air Act reformulated gasoline rule. When Venezuela threatened to call for a GATT panel to challenge the rule as a trade barrier, the Clinton Administration negotiated to alter the rule, a deal that members of Congress are characterizing as {open_quotes}secret{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}back door.{close_quotes}

  12. Education Highlights: Gasoline Compression Ignition | Argonne...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    combustion ---Powertrain research --Building design ---Construction --Manufacturing ... ---Nuclear fuel cycle ---Reactors -Energy usage --Energy storage ---Batteries ...

  13. Capabilities | Argonne National Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Staff Directory About HEP at Work Career Opportunities Staff Directory Argonne National Laboratory High Energy Physics Research Facilities Capabilities Initiatives Publications News & Events Capabilities Electronics Design and Fabrication High Performance Computing Mechanical Engineering Monte Carlo Simulations Capabilities Argonne's High Energy Physics division maintains a number of key capabilities to augment the research capacities of scientists at Argonne and throughout the high-energy

  14. Capabilities | Argonne National Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Catalysis Partnerships Licensing Sponsored Research Technical Services Technologist in Residence News Press Releases Feature Stories In the News Photos Videos Ombudsman Ombudsman Argonne National Laboratory Technology Development and Commercialization About Technologies Available for Licensing Capabilities Partnerships News Capabilities Catalysis Capabilities Argonne offers a wide range of R&D capabilities that collaborators from private industry, federal agencies, and state and local

  15. Statement of Capabilities

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Statement of Capabilities Statement of Capabilities World-class experts and capabilities countering all aspects of explosive threats, and aiming predominantly at enhanced detection capabilities. What is a SOC Letter? A nonbinding letter, a SOC is written by LACED to a requesting organization. The SOC describes a unique capability or service available from LACED on a non-exclusive basis. A SOC letter is not an endorsement of the requester and does not constitute a guarantee that LACED will

  16. Well-to-wheels analysis of fuel-cell vehicle/fuel systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.

    2002-01-22

    Major automobile companies worldwide are undertaking vigorous research and development efforts aimed at developing fuel-cell vehicles (FCVs). Proton membrane exchange (PEM)-based FCVs require hydrogen (H{sub 2}) as the fuel-cell (FC) fuel. Because production and distribution infrastructure for H{sub 2} off board FCVs as a transportation fuel does not exist yet, researchers are developing FCVs that can use hydrocarbon fuels, such as methanol (MeOH) and gasoline, for onboard production of H{sub 2} via fuel processors. Direct H{sub 2} FCVs have no vehicular emissions, while FCVs powered by hydrocarbon fuels have near-zero emissions of criteria pollutants and some carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. However, production of H{sub 2} can generate a large amount of emissions and suffer significant energy losses. A complete evaluation of the energy and emission impacts of FCVs requires an analysis of energy use and emissions during all stages, from energy feedstock wells to vehicle wheels--a so-called ''well-to-wheels'' (WTW) analysis. This paper focuses on FCVs powered by several transportation fuels. Gasoline vehicles (GVs) equipped with internal combustion engines (ICEs) are the baseline technology to which FCVs are compared. Table 1 lists the 13 fuel pathways included in this study. Petroleum-to-gasoline (with 30-ppm sulfur [S] content) is the baseline fuel pathway for GVs.

  17. Alternative transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Askew, W.S.; McNamara, T.M.; Maxfield, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    The commercialization of alternative fuels is analyzed. Following a synopsis of US energy use, the concept of commercialization, the impacts of supply shortages and demand inelasticity upon commercialization, and the status of alternative fuels commercialization to date in the US are discussed. The US energy market is viewed as essentially numerous submarkets. The interrelationship among these submarkets precludes the need to commercialize for a specific fuel/use. However, the level of consumption, the projected growth in demand, and the inordinate dependence upon foreign fuels dictate that additional fuel supplies in general be brought to the US energy marketplace. Commercialization efforts encompass a range of measures designed to accelerate the arrival of technologies or products in the marketplace. As discussed in this paper, such a union of willing buyers and willing sellers requires that three general conditions be met: product quality comparable to existing products; price competitiveness; and adequate availability of supply. Product comparability presently appears to be the least problematic of these three requirements. Ethanol/gasoline and methanol/gasoline blends, for example, demonstrate the fact that alternative fuel technologies exist. Yet price and availability (i.e., production capacity) remain major obstacles. Given inelasticity (with respect to price) in the US and abroad, supply shortages - actual or contrived - generate upward price pressure and should make once-unattractive alternative fuels more price competitive. It is noted, however, that actual price competitiveness has been slow to occur and that even with price competitiveness, the lengthy time frame needed to achieve significant production capacity limits the near-term impact of alternative fuels.

  18. Off-Highway Gasoline Consuption Estimation Models Used in the Federal Highway Administration Attribution Process: 2008 Updates

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Ho-Ling; Davis, Stacy Cagle

    2009-12-01

    This report is designed to document the analysis process and estimation models currently used by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to estimate the off-highway gasoline consumption and public sector fuel consumption. An overview of the entire FHWA attribution process is provided along with specifics related to the latest update (2008) on the Off-Highway Gasoline Use Model and the Public Use of Gasoline Model. The Off-Highway Gasoline Use Model is made up of five individual modules, one for each of the off-highway categories: agricultural, industrial and commercial, construction, aviation, and marine. This 2008 update of the off-highway models was the second major update (the first model update was conducted during 2002-2003) after they were originally developed in mid-1990. The agricultural model methodology, specifically, underwent a significant revision because of changes in data availability since 2003. Some revision to the model was necessary due to removal of certain data elements used in the original estimation method. The revised agricultural model also made use of some newly available information, published by the data source agency in recent years. The other model methodologies were not drastically changed, though many data elements were updated to improve the accuracy of these models. Note that components in the Public Use of Gasoline Model were not updated in 2008. A major challenge in updating estimation methods applied by the public-use model is that they would have to rely on significant new data collection efforts. In addition, due to resource limitation, several components of the models (both off-highway and public-us models) that utilized regression modeling approaches were not recalibrated under the 2008 study. An investigation of the Environmental Protection Agency's NONROAD2005 model was also carried out under the 2008 model update. Results generated from the NONROAD2005 model were analyzed, examined, and compared, to the extent that is

  19. ,"U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...www.eia.govdnavpetpetprirefmg2cnusepm0rdpgalm.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information ... Reformulated Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per ...

  20. ,"U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...www.eia.govdnavpetpetprirefmg2cnusepm0udpgalm.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information ... Conventional Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per ...