National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for foreign refiner regulations

  1. Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations By Tancred C.M. Lidderdale Contents * Introduction * Motor Gasoline Summer Volatility (RVP) Regulations o Table 1. Summer Volatility Regulations for Motor Gasoline o Table 2. Refinery Inputs and Production of Normal Butane o Figure 1. Refinery Inputs and Production of Normal Butane o Table 3. Price Relationship Between Normal Butane and Motor Gasoline o Table 4. Market Price Premium for Low Vapor Pressure (RVP) Gasoline *

  2. Environmental regulations and changes in petroleum refining operations

    SciTech Connect

    Lidderdale, T.C.M.

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. petroleum industry has responded to four major new federal rules on motor gasoline product quality in the last 6 years: Phase 1 Summer Volatility (Rvp) Regulation, June 1989; Phase 2 Summer Volatility (Rvp) regulation, May 1992; oxygenated Gasoline, November 1992; and reformulated Gasoline Phase I Simple Model, December 1994. These regulations have generated significant changes in domestic refinery operations, affecting marginal production costs and market prices, refinery yields, and the seasonality of production. Some changes have been dramatic. The price of motor gasoline has increased by as much as 60 {cents}/gal due to regulations. Refinery yields of motor gasoline (refinery output of motor gasoline as a fraction of refinery inputs or total refinery output), which historically peaked in the early summer to meet high summer driving demand, now are highest during the winter months. These changes in domestic refining operations are identified and related to the vapor pressure, oxygenated and reformulated gasoline (RFG) product quality regulations. This analysis uses linear regression equations from the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts appearing in the EIA`s Short-Term Energy Outlook.

  3. The effects of air pollution regulations on the US refining industry. Task 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Numerous air pollution regulations affecting petroleum refineries recently have been promulgated, have been proposed, or are under consideration at the federal, state, and local level. As shown in Figure ES-1, all of these environmental regulations are intended to take effect over the relatively short time period from 1989 through 1995. In the aggregate these regulatory activities have significant implications for the US refining industry and the Nation, including: Major investment requirements; changes in industry profitability; potential closure of some refineries; and potential changes in crude oil or product import dependence. At issue is whether the cumulative effect of these regulations could so adversely affect the US refining industry that US national security would be affected. In addition to the regulations outlined in Figure ES-1, President Bush recently presented a major new plan to improve the nation`s air quality. The aspects of the President`s plan that could strongly affect US refineries are summarized below.

  4. Petroleum movements and investments in the refining industry: The impact of worldwide environmental regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Guariguata U., G.

    1995-09-01

    Since the enactment of the US Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the worldwide refining industry has aligned itself to become increasing attuned to the future well-being of the environment. Refiners must now develop strategies which address careful selection of crude slates, significant increases and changes in product movements, and upgrading of facilities to meet growing demand--in short, strategies which allow them to make substantial increases in capital investments. The objective of this paper is to determine the regional capital investments refiners must make in order to comply with environmental legislation. The methodology in making this determination was founded on a comprehensive analysis of worldwide petroleum supply/demand and distribution patterns for the coming five years, and included evaluation of a set of linear programming (LP) models based on forecasts for regional product demands and projections of regional specifications. The models considered two scenarios, in which either (1) refinery expansion occurs chiefly in the market consuming regions, or (2) crude producers take control of incremental crude volumes and further expand their planned refining projects and the marketing of refined products. The results of these models, coupled with an understanding of geopolitical situations and economic analyses, provided estimates for capital expenditures for the coming decade. In specific, the following issues were addressed, and are discussed in this paper: refined product trade outlook; crude supply; crude quality; shipping; and capital investments.

  5. Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations (Released in the STEO June 1998)

    Reports and Publications

    1998-01-01

    Changes in domestic refining operations are identified and related to the summer Reid vapor pressure (RVP) restrictions and oxygenate blending requirements. This analysis uses published Energy Information Administration survey data and linear regression equations from the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts appearing in the Short-Term Energy Outlook.

  6. Reformulated Gasoline Foreign Refinery Rules

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    1995 Introduction On August 27, 1997, the EPA promulgated revised the rules that allow ... Notice Citation (1) Date Final Rule by EPA allows foreign refiners to establish ...

  7. Rietveld Refinement

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    profile Chi-squared value 4.944 Progress so far Inverse Modeling Method 2 Fourier Method Data Model Refined Structure 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0 1000 2000 3000 4000...

  8. Refiner Crude Oil Inputs

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Net Inputs (Refiner and Blender) of RBOB Blending Components Net Inputs (Refiner and Blender) of CBOB Blending Components Net Inputs (Refiner and Blender) of GTAB Blending ...

  9. Reformulated Gasoline Foreign Refinery Rules (Released in the STEO January 1998)

    Reports and Publications

    1998-01-01

    On August 27, 1997, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated revised the rules that allow foreign refiners to establish and use individual baselines, but it would not be mandatory (the optional use of an individual refinery baseline is not available to domestic refiners.) If a foreign refiner did not establish and use an individual baseline, the gasoline they export to the United States would be regulated through the importer, and subject to the importer's baseline (most likely the statutory baseline). Specific regulatory provisions are implemented to ensure that the option to use an individual baseline would not lead to adverse environmental impacts. This involves monitoring the average quality of imported gasoline, and if a specified benchmark is exceeded, remedial action would be taken by adjusting the requirements applicable to imported gasoline.

  10. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes bandwidth.pdf (1.16 MB) More Documents & Publications ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes Bandwidth Study U.S. Petroleum Refining ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry (November 2007) ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in

  11. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes bandwidth.pdf (1.16 MB) More Documents & Publications ITP ...

  12. ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in California: California Industries of the Future Program ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in ...

  13. Step 3: Project Refinement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    3: Project Refinement 2 1 Potential 3 Refinement 4 Implementation 5 Operations & Maintenance 2 Options 3 Refinement 1/28/2016 2 3 FUNDING AND FINANCING OPTIONS Project Ownership Financing structure is highly dependent on size of the project and the capital available for a given project: * Tribe owns the project (cash purchase or debt) * Tribe hosts the project and buys the electricity (power purchase agreement) * Tribe partners with private sector and co-owns the project (uncertainties about

  14. JAPAN: Refining options and liberalization plans

    SciTech Connect

    Totto, L.; Isaak, D.T.

    1988-01-01

    The reformulation of Japan's petroleum import policy is important to Japan and to the international energy community. The technical and economic factors involved in opening the Japanese market is unknown. Assuming that foreign refiners have the technical capability to meet Japanese product specifications, the prices and volumes that will prove economical to both parties are also little known. Japanese refiners have been investigating the possibility of exporting gasoline and processing crude for China and Malaysia. The study demonstrates that under certain trade policies, Japan could become a significant product exporter. This study's purpose is to investigate the economic efficiency of alternative petroleum supply options, i.e., combining Japan's refining and product imports. An evaluation of the current import program and the technically feasible alternatives will play a major role in a new import policy. For this evaluation, a linear programming (LP) model of Japan's domestic refinery capacity and the petroleum import system was constructed. 3 figs., 23 tabs.

  15. Refiners trade hydroprocessing experience

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-04-16

    Hydrogen treating and conversion processes less severe than hydrocracking abound in most refineries and therefore were a subject of high interest at the National Petroleum Refiners Association question and answer session on refining technology. The present paper, which is the second abstract of the transcript of the most recent meeting, covers hydroprocessing and some of its mechanical, process, and catalytic aspects.

  16. NAFTA opportunities: Petroleum refining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) creates a more transparent environment for the sale of refined petroleum products to Mexico, and locks in access to Canada's relatively open market for these products. Canada and Mexico are sizable United States export markets for refined petroleum products, with exports of $556 million and $864 million, respectively, in 1992. These markets represent approximately 24 percent of total U.S. exports of these goods.

  17. ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    California: California Industries of the Future Program | Department of Energy Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in California: California Industries of the Future Program ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in California: California Industries of the Future Program cpi_profile.pdf (363.14 KB) More Documents & Publications ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry (November 2007) ITP Petroleum

  18. Profiles of foreign direct investment in US energy, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-16

    The report reviews the patterns of foreign ownership interest in US energy enterprises, exclusive of portfolio investment (<10% ownership of a US enterprise). It profiles the involvement of foreign-affiliated US companies in the following areas: domestic petroleum production (including natural gas), reserve holdings, refining and marketing activities, coal production, and uranium exploration and development.

  19. The strategic outlook for petroleum refiners

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, C.

    1994-12-31

    After several years of acceptable and relatively reliable profitability, refiners were plunged into uncertainty once again following passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) in 1990. While many of the original uncertainties that attended these regulations have since been resolved, the industry now must prepare for the new manufacturing, distributions, and transportation challenges that undoubtedly will accompany the first stages of reformulated gasoline (RFG) compliance in early 1995. This impending challenge introduces several fundamental questions: (1) How has the industry changed and adjusted to respond to anticipated future needs? (2) What strategies are refiners employing today? (3) What are industry performance expectations over the next several years?

  20. Petroleum Refining | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Petroleum Refining Petroleum Refining Maintaining the viability of the U.S. petroleum refining industry requires continuous improvement in productivity and energy efficiency. The U.S. refining industry has worked with AMO to provide a range of resources that can provide energy and cost savings for the industry. Analytical Studies & Other Publications Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints provide a mapping of energy use, energy loss, and carbon emissions for selected industry sectors.

  1. Minimally refined biomass fuel

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, Richard K.; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1984-01-01

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water solubilizes the carbohydrates; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the vicosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  2. CLAMR (Compute Language Adaptive Mesh Refinement)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    CLAMR (Compute Language Adaptive Mesh Refinement) CLAMR (Compute Language Adaptive Mesh Refinement) CLAMR (Compute Language Adaptive Mesh Refinement) is being developed as a DOE...

  3. Refines Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    WRI

    2002-05-15

    Refinery processes that convert heavy oils to lighter distillate fuels require heating for distillation, hydrogen addition or carbon rejection (coking). Efficiency is limited by the formation of insoluble carbon-rich coke deposits. Heat exchangers and other refinery units must be shut down for mechanical coke removal, resulting in a significant loss of output and revenue. When a residuum is heated above the temperature at which pyrolysis occurs (340 C, 650 F), there is typically an induction period before coke formation begins (Magaril and Aksenova 1968, Wiehe 1993). To avoid fouling, refiners often stop heating a residuum before coke formation begins, using arbitrary criteria. In many cases, this heating is stopped sooner than need be, resulting in less than maximum product yield. Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed innovative Coking Index concepts (patent pending) which can be used for process control by refiners to heat residua to the threshold, but not beyond the point at which coke formation begins when petroleum residua materials are heated at pyrolysis temperatures (Schabron et al. 2001). The development of this universal predictor solves a long standing problem in petroleum refining. These Coking Indexes have great potential value in improving the efficiency of distillation processes. The Coking Indexes were found to apply to residua in a universal manner, and the theoretical basis for the indexes has been established (Schabron et al. 2001a, 2001b, 2001c). For the first time, a few simple measurements indicates how close undesired coke formation is on the coke formation induction time line. The Coking Indexes can lead to new process controls that can improve refinery distillation efficiency by several percentage points. Petroleum residua consist of an ordered continuum of solvated polar materials usually referred to as asphaltenes dispersed in a lower polarity solvent phase held together by intermediate polarity materials usually referred to as

  4. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes Prepared by Energetics Incorporated for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Industrial ...

  5. Midcourse Refinements of Financing Strategies

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Financing Peer Exchange Call: Midcourse Refinements of Financing Strategies, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, March 29, 2012. During this webinar participants discussed how programs have adapted and refined their financing strategies based on initial implementation experience and learning.

  6. Crystal structure refinement with SHELXL

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldrick, George M., E-mail: gsheldr@shelx.uni-ac.gwdg.de [Department of Structural Chemistry, Georg-August Universitt Gttingen, Tammannstrae 4, Gttingen 37077 (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    New features added to the refinement program SHELXL since 2008 are described and explained. The improvements in the crystal structure refinement program SHELXL have been closely coupled with the development and increasing importance of the CIF (Crystallographic Information Framework) format for validating and archiving crystal structures. An important simplification is that now only one file in CIF format (for convenience, referred to simply as a CIF) containing embedded reflection data and SHELXL instructions is needed for a complete structure archive; the program SHREDCIF can be used to extract the .hkl and .ins files required for further refinement with SHELXL. Recent developments in SHELXL facilitate refinement against neutron diffraction data, the treatment of H atoms, the determination of absolute structure, the input of partial structure factors and the refinement of twinned and disordered structures. SHELXL is available free to academics for the Windows, Linux and Mac OS X operating systems, and is particularly suitable for multiple-core processors.

  7. Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Diachin, L; Hornung, R; Plassmann, P; WIssink, A

    2005-03-04

    As large-scale, parallel computers have become more widely available and numerical models and algorithms have advanced, the range of physical phenomena that can be simulated has expanded dramatically. Many important science and engineering problems exhibit solutions with localized behavior where highly-detailed salient features or large gradients appear in certain regions which are separated by much larger regions where the solution is smooth. Examples include chemically-reacting flows with radiative heat transfer, high Reynolds number flows interacting with solid objects, and combustion problems where the flame front is essentially a two-dimensional sheet occupying a small part of a three-dimensional domain. Modeling such problems numerically requires approximating the governing partial differential equations on a discrete domain, or grid. Grid spacing is an important factor in determining the accuracy and cost of a computation. A fine grid may be needed to resolve key local features while a much coarser grid may suffice elsewhere. Employing a fine grid everywhere may be inefficient at best and, at worst, may make an adequately resolved simulation impractical. Moreover, the location and resolution of fine grid required for an accurate solution is a dynamic property of a problem's transient features and may not be known a priori. Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is a technique that can be used with both structured and unstructured meshes to adjust local grid spacing dynamically to capture solution features with an appropriate degree of resolution. Thus, computational resources can be focused where and when they are needed most to efficiently achieve an accurate solution without incurring the cost of a globally-fine grid. Figure 1.1 shows two example computations using AMR; on the left is a structured mesh calculation of a impulsively-sheared contact surface and on the right is the fuselage and volume discretization of an RAH-66 Comanche helicopter [35]. Note the

  8. Foreign-national Investigators

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    foreign national investigators Foreign-national Investigators Foreign National Investigators must have access to B174 shown on their badge. Foreign National Investigators must notify Beth Mariotti by e-mail of their first intended presence in B174. By September 2009, it is expected that there will be no restrictions on computer use by Foreign National Investigators at JLF. However, LLNL prohibits the use of personally-owned computers on-site

  9. MECS 2006 - Petroleum Refining | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Petroleum Refining MECS 2006 - Petroleum Refining Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Petroleum Refining (NAICS 324110) Sector with Total Energy Input, October 2012 (MECS 2006) All available footprints and supporting documents Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint Petroleum Refining (123.98 KB) More Documents & Publications Petroleum Refining (2010 MECS) MECS 2006 - Alumina and Aluminum MECS 2006 - Cement

  10. Electronic structure of superconductivity refined

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronic structure of superconductivity refined Electronic structure of superconductivity refined A team of physicists propose a new model that expands on a little understood aspect of the electronic structure in high-temperature superconductors. July 10, 2008 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma

  11. Renewable Energy Financial Instruments Guidance Tool (REFINe...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Guidance Tool (REFINe) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Renewable Energy Financial Instruments Guidance Tool (REFINe) Focus Area: Renewable Energy...

  12. ,"U.S. Refiner Petroleum Product Prices"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...AEPPRLPTGNUSDPG","EMAEPPRHPTGNUSDPG" "Date","U.S. Total Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per Gallon)","U.S. Aviation Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars ...

  13. Domestic and Foreign Distribution

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2008 Final May 2010 Domestic and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2008 (Thousand Short Tons) State Region Domestic Foreign...

  14. FOREIGN NATIONAL U.S. TAX INFORMATION

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    FOREIGN NATIONAL U.S. TAX INFORMATION Foreign nationals in the U.S. may be subject to U.S. Internal Revenue Service tax regulations and have to file U.S. income taxes. In order to determine your tax status in the U.S., please review the information in the following IRS Publication 519 - U.S. Tax Guide for Aliens: http://www.irs.gov/publications/p519/index.html A copy of this publication is available in the International Services Office in Room 44A of the VARC. FOREIGN BANK ACCOUNT DECLARATION

  15. Petroleum Refining (2010 MECS) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Petroleum Refining (2010 MECS) Petroleum Refining (2010 MECS) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Petroleum Refining Sector (NAICS 324110) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS (with adjustments) Footprint Last Revised: February 2014 View footprints for other sectors here. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint Petroleum Refining (125.36 KB) More Documents & Publications MECS 2006 - Petroleum Refining Cement (2010 MECS) Forest Products (2010 MECS) Manufacturing Energy Sankey

  16. GRAIN REFINEMENT OF URANIUM BILLETS

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, L.

    1964-02-25

    A method of refining the grain structure of massive uranium billets without resort to forging is described. The method consists in the steps of beta- quenching the billets, annealing the quenched billets in the upper alpha temperature range, and extrusion upset of the billets to an extent sufficient to increase the cross sectional area by at least 5 per cent. (AEC)

  17. Method for refining contaminated iridium

    DOEpatents

    Heshmatpour, B.; Heestand, R.L.

    1982-08-31

    Contaminated iridium is refined by alloying it with an alloying agent selected from the group consisting of manganese and an alloy of manganese and copper, and then dissolving the alloying agent from the formed alloy to provide a purified iridium powder.

  18. Official Foreign Travel

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-06-24

    The Order sets forth requirements and responsibilities governing official foreign travel by Federal and contractor employees. Cancels DOE O 551.1B.

  19. Official Foreign Travel

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2012-04-12

    The order establishes requirements and responsibilities governing official foreign travel by Federal and contractor employees. Cancels DOE O 551.1C.

  20. Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected Refiners Differently, 1995

    Reports and Publications

    1996-01-01

    This article focuses on the costs of producing reformulated gasoline (RFG) as experienced by different types of refiners and on how these refiners fared this past summer, given the prices for RFG at the refinery gate.

  1. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOEpatents

    Derbidge, T. Craig; Mulholland, James A.; Foster, Edward P.

    1986-01-01

    An air-purged burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired without the coking thereof on the burner components. The air-purged burner is designed for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal in a tangentially fired boiler.

  2. Official Foreign Travel

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2012-04-02

    The order establishes DOE requirements and responsibilities governing official foreign travel by Federal and contractor employees. The proposed revisions to the Official Foreign Travel Order align it with established leave policy and update organizational responsibilities. Supersedes DOE O 551.1D Chg 1 (Pg Chg).

  3. Unclassified Foreign Visits and Assignments

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-14

    International cooperation and collaboration is an important element in the effective planning and implementation of many Department of Energy (DOE) programs. DOE and its international partners benefit from the exchange of information that results from a managed process of unclassified visits and assignments by foreign nationals. These visits and assignments must be conducted in a manner consistent with U.S. and DOE national security policies, requirements, and objectives including export control laws and regulations. Canceled by DOE O 142.3. Does not cancel other directives.

  4. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry (November 2007) ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry ...

  5. Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II

    1992-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state`s total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation`s energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska`s 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources.

  6. Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II.

    1992-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state's total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation's energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska's 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources.

  7. Foreign Ownership, Control or Influence (FOCI) | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration | (NNSA) Foreign Ownership, Control or Influence (FOCI) The FOCI program regulates NNSA determinations to the degree of which a company is under foreign ownership, control, or influence. In accordance with 48 CFR Chapter 9, DOE Acquisition Regulation (DEAR), NNSA must obtain information about a company's FOCI that is sufficient in making determinations regarding risk to the common defense and security of the United States. the Office of Personnel and Facility Clearances and

  8. Foreign Affairs Specialist

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This position is located in the National Nuclear Security Administration , Office of International Operations. The incumbent serves as a Foreign Affairs Specialist in the U.S. Embassy in Astana,...

  9. Official Foreign Travel

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-08-25

    To establish Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) requirements and responsibilities governing official foreign travel by Federal and contractor employees. Cancels DOE O 551.1. Canceled by DOE O 551.1B.

  10. Official Foreign Travel

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2003-08-19

    To establish Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) requirements and responsibilities governing official foreign travel by Federal and contractor employees. Cancels DOE O 551.1A. Canceled by DOE O 551.1C.

  11. Official Foreign Travel

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-01-31

    Establishes Department of Energy (DOE) requirements and responsibilities governing official foreign travel by Federal and contract employees. Cancels DOE O 1500.3. Canceled by DOE O 551.1A.

  12. Official Foreign Travel

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2002-11-08

    To establish Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) requirements and responsibilities governing official foreign travel by Federal and contractor employees. The Page Change 1 to the CRD issued 11-8-02, will expand the requirements for country clearance for contractors to include all official foreign travel, including travel to nonsensitive countries. Cancels DOE O 551.1. Canceled by DOE O 551.1B.

  13. Improving the accuracy of macromolecular structure refinement

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    is challenging at low resolution. We compared refinement methods using synchrotron diffraction data of photosystem I at 7.4 resolution, starting from different initial models...

  14. Refiners Increasingly Employing Catalyst Regeneration as Alternative...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    million by the end of 2019. Refiners Benefit from Catalyst Regeneration Technology via Price Reductions and Lower Maintenance Costs The catalyst regeneration technology is the...

  15. Right rock: Finding/refining customer expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, R.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on methods of finding customer expectations of software and then refining the documentation and software to fit these expectations.

  16. Midcourse Refinements of Financing Strategies | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    March 29, 2012. During this webinar participants discussed how programs have adapted and refined their financing strategies based on initial implementation experience and learning. ...

  17. Pneumatic conveying of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOEpatents

    Lennon, Dennis R.

    1984-11-06

    A method for pneumatically conveying solvent refined coal to a burner under conditions of dilute phase pneumatic flow so as to prevent saltation of the solvent refined coal in the transport line by maintaining the transport fluid velocity above approximately 95 ft/sec.

  18. North Dakota Refining Capacity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

    2011-01-05

    According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

  19. Official Foreign Travel

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2012-04-02

    The order establishes DOE requirements and responsibilities governing official foreign travel by Federal and contractor employees. The Pg Chg removes the requirement to surrender official passports and replaces it with a process that requires travelers be responsible for safeguarding theirown official passports. Supersedes DOE O 551.1D, dated 4-12-12.

  20. Reporting Unofficial Foreign Travel

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-12-15

    Establishes requirements for the reporting of unofficial travel to foreign countries by DOE and DOE contractor employees that hold an access authorization (personnel security clearances). DOE N 251.40, dated 5/3/01, extended this directive until 12/31/01.

  1. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOEpatents

    Lennon, Dennis R.; Snedden, Richard B.; Foster, Edward P.; Bellas, George T.

    1990-05-15

    A burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired successfully without any performance limitations and without the coking of the solvent refined coal on the burner components. The burner is provided with a tangential inlet of primary air and pulverized fuel, a vaned diffusion swirler for the mixture of primary air and fuel, a center water-cooled conical diffuser shielding the incoming fuel from the heat radiation from the flame and deflecting the primary air and fuel steam into the secondary air, and a watercooled annulus located between the primary air and secondary air flows.

  2. U.S. Refining Capacity Utilization

    Reports and Publications

    1995-01-01

    This article briefly reviews recent trends in domestic refining capacity utilization and examines in detail the differences in reported crude oil distillation capacities and utilization rates among different classes of refineries.

  3. Hydrogen Piping Experience in Chevron Refining

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Piping Experience in Chevron Refining Ned Niccolls Materials Engineer Chevron Energy Technology Company Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop August 30-31, 2005 Outline 2 Overall perspectives from long term use of hydrogen piping in refining. Piping specifications and practices. The (few) problem areas. Related industry work: American Petroleum Institute corrosion and materials work on high temperature hydrogen attack. Overall Perspectives 3 Few problems with hydrogen piping operating at

  4. Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum April 9, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis W.R. Grace, a leading provider of refining technologies, and Pacific ...

  5. Unclassified Foreign Visits and Assignments

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-06-18

    To define a program for unclassified foreign national access to Department of Energy sites, information, and technologies. This Order cancels DOE P 142.1, Unclassified Foreign Visits and Assignments, dated 7-14-99; DOE N 142.1, Unclassified Foreign Visits and Assignments, dated 7-14-99; Secretarial Memorandum Unclassified Foreign Visits and Assignments, dated 7-14-99; Memorandum from Francis S. Blake, Departmental Use of Foreign Access Central Tracking System, dated 11-05-01; Memorandum from Kyle E. McSlarrow, Interim Guidance for Implementation of the Department's Unclassified Foreign Visits and Assignments Program, dated 12-17-02; and Secretarial Memorandum, Policy Exclusion for Unclassified Foreign National's Access to Department of Energy Facilities in Urgent or Emergency Medical Situations, dated 4-10-01. Cancels: DOE P 142.1 and DOE N 142.1

  6. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 5. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Wholesale Volumes 1995 Annual Averages Motor...

  7. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Day Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 3. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Retail Volumes 1997 Annual Averages Motor...

  8. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 5. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Wholesale Volumes 1997 Annual Averages Motor...

  9. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Day Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 3. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Retail Volumes 1995 Annual Averages Motor...

  10. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Day Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 3. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Retail Volumes 1996 Annual Averages Motor...

  11. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 5. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Wholesale Volumes 1996 Annual Averages Motor...

  12. ,"Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab ... Data for" ,"Data 1","Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users Refiner ...

  13. ,"U.S. Motor Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Motor Gasoline Refiner Sales ... AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Motor Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes" ...

  14. ITP Petroleum Refining: Impacts of Condition Assessment on Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Impacts of Condition Assessment on Energy Use: Selected Applications in Chemicals Processing and Petroleum Refining ITP Petroleum Refining: Impacts of Condition Assessment on ...

  15. Parallel tetrahedral mesh refinement with MOAB.

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David C.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2008-12-01

    In this report, we present the novel functionality of parallel tetrahedral mesh refinement which we have implemented in MOAB. This report details work done to implement parallel, edge-based, tetrahedral refinement into MOAB. The theoretical basis for this work is contained in [PT04, PT05, TP06] while information on design, performance, and operation specific to MOAB are contained herein. As MOAB is intended mainly for use in pre-processing and simulation (as opposed to the post-processing bent of previous papers), the primary use case is different: rather than refining elements with non-linear basis functions, the goal is to increase the number of degrees of freedom in some region in order to more accurately represent the solution to some system of equations that cannot be solved analytically. Also, MOAB has a unique mesh representation which impacts the algorithm. This introduction contains a brief review of streaming edge-based tetrahedral refinement. The remainder of the report is broken into three sections: design and implementation, performance, and conclusions. Appendix A contains instructions for end users (simulation authors) on how to employ the refiner.

  16. Trends in petroleum refining process technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalczyk, D.

    1995-12-31

    In the 1990`s, the shift toward reformulated fuels and the unrelenting economic pressures on the petroleum refining industry have led to the ongoing development of a series of technological advances to improve fuels quality and industry operating efficiency. In this paper, ten of the most innovative and high impact recent developments in petroleum refining process technology will be highlighted. Process improvements and innovations have occurred in all facets of petroleum refining operations including fluid catalytic cracking, ether production, desulfurization, hydrocracking, gas processing, environmental control and heavy oil processing. Discussed will be the technical and economic impact of each of these new technologies on the petroleum refinery of the late 20th and early 21st century.

  17. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2015-06-09

    A system and method for reactively refining hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20 degrees and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure, using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. A reaction portion of the system and method delivers lightweight, volatile hydrocarbons to an associated contacting unit which operates in mixed subcritical/supercritical or supercritical modes. Using thermal diffusion, multiphase contact, or a momentum generating pressure gradient, the contacting unit separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques.

  18. Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    2009-09-29

    This is a simulation code involving an ALE (arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) hydrocode with AMR (adaptive mesh refinement) and pluggable physics packages for material strength, heat conduction, radiation diffusion, and laser ray tracing developed a LLNL, UCSD, and Berkeley Lab. The code is an extension of the open source SAMRAI (Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement Application Interface) code/library. The code can be used in laser facilities such as the National Ignition Facility. The code is alsi being appliedmore » to slurry flow (landslides).« less

  19. Foreign National Access Request Form

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    by the Security and Counterintelligence Division. The visitor must have a valid passport and visa (or supplemental documentation) listed below. Foreign National Personal...

  20. Foreign Travel | The Ames Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Guidance Foreign Trip Report Template Trip Report Example 1 Trip Report Example 2 Insurance: Travelers are eligible for the Cultural Insurance Services International (CISI)...

  1. Unclassified Foreign National Visits & Assignments Questionnaire |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Services » Calibration Facilities » Unclassified Foreign National Visits & Assignments Questionnaire Unclassified Foreign National Visits & Assignments Questionnaire Visitors who are foreign nationals must complete and submit the Unclassified Foreign National Visits & Assignments Questionnaire 30 days before accessing facilities. Unclassified Foreign National Visits & Assignments Questionnaire (192.5 KB) More Documents & Publications HQ FNVA

  2. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum Refineries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    in California | Department of Energy Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum Refineries in California ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum Refineries in California refining_roadmap.pdf (1.34 MB) More Documents & Publications ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in California: California Industries of the Future Program ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum Refineries in California Bandwidth Study U.S.

  3. Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-10-01

    The petroleum refining energy bandwidth report analyzes the most energy-intensive unit operations used in U.S. refineries: crude oil distillation, fluid catalytic cracking, catalytic hydrotreating, catalytic reforming, and alkylation. The "bandwidth" provides a snapshot of the energy losses that can potentially be recovered through best practices and technology R&D.

  4. Focus on Venezuelan heavy crude: refining margins

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-25

    Of six crudes refined in the US Gulf Coast, heavy Venezuelan crude Lagunillas (15/sup 0/ API) provides the best margin per barrel. Data for end of December 1983 and the first three weeks of January show that margins on all crudes are on the rise in this market, due to a turnaround in product prices. The lighter crudes are showing the greatest increase in Gross Product Worth. This is having a modest shrinking effect on the margin differential between light and heavy crudes in this market. The domestic crude West Texas Intermediate, at 40/sup 0/ API, provides the highest GPW in this crude slate sample, over US $31 per barrel, compared to GPW of under US $28 per barrel for Lagunillas. Still, as Lagunillas cost about US $8 less than does WTI, refiners with sufficient residue conversion capacity can be earning about US $3.50 more in margin per barrel than they can with WTI. Although few refiners would be using a 15/sup 0/ API crude exclusively for any length of time, heavier oil's inclusion in modern refiners' diets is enhancing their competitive position more than any other single factor. This issue of Energy Detente presents the fuel price/tax series and industrial fuel prices for January 1984 for countries of the Western Hemisphere.

  5. Classified Visits Involving Foreign Nationals

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-01-13

    The Order establishes a program to manage the Department-wide program to facilitate, document, and assure accountability when approving foreign national access to classified DOE programs and facilities. Cancels portions of Chapter VIII, of DOE O 470.1 that pertain to foreign nationals who visit DOE sitess and require access to classified information. Canceled by DOE O 470.4B.

  6. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2014-11-25

    This is a method to reactively refine hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20.degree. and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. The reaction portion of the method delivers lighter weight, more volatile hydrocarbons to an attached contacting device that operates in mixed subcritical or supercritical modes. This separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques. This method produces valuable products with fewer processing steps, lower costs, increased worker safety due to less processing and handling, allow greater opportunity for new oil field development and subsequent positive economic impact, reduce related carbon dioxide, and wastes typical with conventional refineries.

  7. Refining quadrilateral and brick element meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Schneiders, R.; Debye, J.

    1995-12-31

    We consider the problem of refining unstructured quadrilateral and brick element meshes. We present an algorithm which is a generalization of an algorithm developed by Cheng et. al. for structured quadrilateral element meshes. The problem is solved for the two-dimensional case. Concerning three dimensions we present a solution for some special cases and a general solution that introduces tetrahedral and pyramidal transition elements.

  8. Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement Application Infrastructure

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    2010-07-15

    SAMRAI is an object-oriented support library for structured adaptice mesh refinement (SAMR) simulation of computational science problems, modeled by systems of partial differential equations (PDEs). SAMRAI is developed and maintained in the Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC) under ASCI ITS and PSE support. SAMRAI is used in a variety of application research efforts at LLNL and in academia. These applications are developed in collaboration with SAMRAI development team members.

  9. Plants found to regulate leaf temperature to boost carbon uptake

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Plants found to regulate leaf temperature to boost carbon uptake The research offers promise for refining Earth system models that help predict climate change impacts and ...

  10. Genealogy of major U.S. refiners - Energy Information Administration

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Genealogy of Major U.S. Refiners Release date: September 18, 2013 figre 1. World energy consumption, 1990-2040. The structure of the U.S. petroleum refining industry has changed ...

  11. ,"Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales ... "Back to Contents","Data 1: Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ...

  12. Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo

    2005-04-01

    Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

  13. Bandwidth Study U.S. Petroleum Refining | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Petroleum Refining Bandwidth Study U.S. Petroleum Refining Bandwidth Study U.S. Petroleum Refining Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. petroleum refining. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in nine individual process areas,

  14. ITP Petroleum Refining: Impacts of Condition Assessment on Energy Use:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Selected Applications in Chemicals Processing and Petroleum Refining | Department of Energy Impacts of Condition Assessment on Energy Use: Selected Applications in Chemicals Processing and Petroleum Refining ITP Petroleum Refining: Impacts of Condition Assessment on Energy Use: Selected Applications in Chemicals Processing and Petroleum Refining condition_assessment.pdf (319.56 KB) More Documents & Publications Effective Fouling Minimization Increases the Efficiency and Productivity of

  15. Unclassified Foreign Visits and Assignments

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-14

    To provide interim Department of Energy (DOE) requirements and responsibilities for unclassified visits and assignment by foreign nationals to DOE facilities for unclassified activities. This Notice supplements DOE P 142.1 dated 7-14-99, which sets overall Departmental policy on unclassified foreign visits and assignments. It is a complement to existing counterintelligence and security orders and policies. DOE N 251.53, dated 05/14/03, extends this directive until canceled. Cancels: DOE 1240.2B

  16. Benchmarking foreign electronics technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bostian, C.W.; Hodges, D.A.; Leachman, R.C.; Sheridan, T.B.; Tsang, W.T.; White, R.M.

    1994-12-01

    This report has been drafted in response to a request from the Japanese Technology Evaluation Center`s (JTEC) Panel on Benchmarking Select Technologies. Since April 1991, the Competitive Semiconductor Manufacturing (CSM) Program at the University of California at Berkeley has been engaged in a detailed study of quality, productivity, and competitiveness in semiconductor manufacturing worldwide. The program is a joint activity of the College of Engineering, the Haas School of Business, and the Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy, under sponsorship of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, and with the cooperation of semiconductor producers from Asia, Europe and the United States. Professors David A. Hodges and Robert C. Leachman are the project`s Co-Directors. The present report for JTEC is primarily based on data and analysis drawn from that continuing program. The CSM program is being conducted by faculty, graduate students and research staff from UC Berkeley`s Schools of Engineering and Business, and Department of Economics. Many of the participating firms are represented on the program`s Industry Advisory Board. The Board played an important role in defining the research agenda. A pilot study was conducted in 1991 with the cooperation of three semiconductor plants. The research plan and survey documents were thereby refined. The main phase of the CSM benchmarking study began in mid-1992 and will continue at least through 1997. reports are presented on the manufacture of integrated circuits; data storage; wireless technology; human-machine interfaces; and optoelectronics. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. RNA-guided transcriptional regulation

    DOEpatents

    Church, George M.; Mali, Prashant G.; Esvelt, Kevin M.

    2016-02-23

    Methods of modulating expression of a target nucleic acid in a cell are provided including introducing into the cell a first foreign nucleic acid encoding one or more RNAs complementary to DNA, wherein the DNA includes the target nucleic acid, introducing into the cell a second foreign nucleic acid encoding a nuclease-null Cas9 protein that binds to the DNA and is guided by the one or more RNAs, introducing into the cell a third foreign nucleic acid encoding a transcriptional regulator protein or domain, wherein the one or more RNAs, the nuclease-null Cas9 protein, and the transcriptional regulator protein or domain are expressed, wherein the one or more RNAs, the nuclease-null Cas9 protein and the transcriptional regulator protein or domain co-localize to the DNA and wherein the transcriptional regulator protein or domain regulates expression of the target nucleic acid.

  18. Deformable elastic network refinement for low-resolution macromolecular crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Schröder, Gunnar F.; Levitt, Michael; Brunger, Axel T.

    2014-09-01

    An overview of applications of the deformable elastic network (DEN) refinement method is presented together with recommendations for its optimal usage. Crystals of membrane proteins and protein complexes often diffract to low resolution owing to their intrinsic molecular flexibility, heterogeneity or the mosaic spread of micro-domains. At low resolution, the building and refinement of atomic models is a more challenging task. The deformable elastic network (DEN) refinement method developed previously has been instrumental in the determinion of several structures at low resolution. Here, DEN refinement is reviewed, recommendations for its optimal usage are provided and its limitations are discussed. Representative examples of the application of DEN refinement to challenging cases of refinement at low resolution are presented. These cases include soluble as well as membrane proteins determined at limiting resolutions ranging from 3 to 7 Å. Potential extensions of the DEN refinement technique and future perspectives for the interpretation of low-resolution crystal structures are also discussed.

  19. Pollution prevention in the petroleum refining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Fromm, C.H.; White, S.L.

    1995-09-01

    Pollution prevention (P2) as applied to petroleum refining should seek opportunities to reduce waste by preventing oil/hydrocarbon loss, by decreasing consumption of auxiliary input materials, and by improving conversion of incoming impurities into useful products. This chapter will focus on P2 techniques that have found or could find applications in minimizing or eliminating reducible solid waste and wastewater from the petroleum refining process. Air emissions are not covered. The following commonly encountered wastes are considered in this chapter: oily sludges; spent caustics; spent catalysts; miscellaneous process wastes; wastewater; maintenance and materials handling wastes. Following a brief description of waste components and sources, specific P2 techniques are presented in tabular form for each of these wastestreams. None of the P2 techniques presented is discussed here in any detail--the intent is to give the reader a menu of potentially effective P2 options to consider, along with the references where a more detailed discussion may be found. Some of the options presented were advanced in the original references merely as suggestions or plans for improvement. No effort was made to verify their efficacy or applicability in this compilation.

  20. COSMOLOGICAL ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS WITH ENZO

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, David C.; Xu Hao; Norman, Michael L.; Li Hui; Li Shengtai

    2010-02-01

    In this work, we present EnzoMHD, the extension of the cosmological code Enzo to include the effects of magnetic fields through the ideal magnetohydrodynamics approximation. We use a higher order Godunov method for the computation of interface fluxes. We use two constrained transport methods to compute the electric field from those interface fluxes, which simultaneously advances the induction equation and maintains the divergence of the magnetic field. A second-order divergence-free reconstruction technique is used to interpolate the magnetic fields in the block-structured adaptive mesh refinement framework already extant in Enzo. This reconstruction also preserves the divergence of the magnetic field to machine precision. We use operator splitting to include gravity and cosmological expansion. We then present a series of cosmological and non-cosmological test problems to demonstrate the quality of solution resulting from this combination of solvers.

  1. Visualization Tools for Adaptive Mesh Refinement Data

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Gunther H.; Beckner, Vincent E.; Childs, Hank; Ligocki,Terry J.; Miller, Mark C.; Van Straalen, Brian; Bethel, E. Wes

    2007-05-09

    Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is a highly effective method for simulations that span a large range of spatiotemporal scales, such as astrophysical simulations that must accommodate ranges from interstellar to sub-planetary. Most mainstream visualization tools still lack support for AMR as a first class data type and AMR code teams use custom built applications for AMR visualization. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Science Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET) is currently working on extending VisIt, which is an open source visualization tool that accommodates AMR as a first-class data type. These efforts will bridge the gap between general-purpose visualization applications and highly specialized AMR visual analysis applications. Here, we give an overview of the state of the art in AMR visualization research and tools and describe how VisIt currently handles AMR data.

  2. Visualization of Scalar Adaptive Mesh Refinement Data

    SciTech Connect

    VACET; Weber, Gunther; Weber, Gunther H.; Beckner, Vince E.; Childs, Hank; Ligocki, Terry J.; Miller, Mark C.; Van Straalen, Brian; Bethel, E. Wes

    2007-12-06

    Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is a highly effective computation method for simulations that span a large range of spatiotemporal scales, such as astrophysical simulations, which must accommodate ranges from interstellar to sub-planetary. Most mainstream visualization tools still lack support for AMR grids as a first class data type and AMR code teams use custom built applications for AMR visualization. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Science Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET) is currently working on extending VisIt, which is an open source visualization tool that accommodates AMR as a first-class data type. These efforts will bridge the gap between general-purpose visualization applications and highly specialized AMR visual analysis applications. Here, we give an overview of the state of the art in AMR scalar data visualization research.

  3. Before the Senate Foreign Affairs Committee | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Senate Foreign Affairs Committee Before the Senate Foreign Affairs Committee Testimony of Ernest Moniz, Secretary of Energy Before the Senate Foreign Affairs Committee PDF icon ...

  4. Refiners Switch to RFG Complex Model

    Reports and Publications

    1998-01-01

    On January 1, 1998, domestic and foreign refineries and importers must stop using the "simple" model and begin using the "complex" model to calculate emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), toxic air pollutants (TAP), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from motor gasoline. The primary differences between application of the two models is that some refineries may have to meet stricter standards for the sulfur and olefin content of the reformulated gasoline (RFG) they produce and all refineries will now be held accountable for NOx emissions. Requirements for calculating emissions from conventional gasoline under the anti-dumping rule similarly change for exhaust TAP and NOx. However, the change to the complex model is not expected to result in an increase in the price premium for RFG or constrain supplies.

  5. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Petroleum Refining Industry (November 2007) | Department of Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry (November 2007) ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry (November 2007) profile.pdf (1.62 MB) More Documents & Publications ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry

  6. Secretary Bodman Tours Refinery and Calls for More Domestic Refining

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Capacity | Department of Energy Refinery and Calls for More Domestic Refining Capacity Secretary Bodman Tours Refinery and Calls for More Domestic Refining Capacity May 18, 2006 - 10:43am Addthis Highlights President Bush's Four-Point Plan to Combat High Energy Prices PORT ARTHUR, TX - Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today renewed the call for expanded oil refining capacity in the United States and discussed additional steps the Department of Energy (DOE) is taking to prepare for the

  7. REFINING PROGRAM HELPS REENERGIZE NEBRASKA UPGRADES | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    REFINING PROGRAM HELPS REENERGIZE NEBRASKA UPGRADES REFINING PROGRAM HELPS REENERGIZE NEBRASKA UPGRADES REFINING PROGRAM HELPS REENERGIZE NEBRASKA UPGRADES In a state where energy costs are low and the home performance workforce had not been established, Nebraska's two largest cities-Omaha and Lincoln-took on the challenge of promoting whole home energy upgrades to homeowners, businesses, and nonprofit organizations. Using $10 million in seed funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's)

  8. Parallel adaptive mesh refinement for electronic structure calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, S.; Weare, J.; Ong, E.; Baden, S.

    1996-12-01

    We have applied structured adaptive mesh refinement techniques to the solution of the LDA equations for electronic structure calculations. Local spatial refinement concentrates memory resources and numerical effort where it is most needed, near the atomic centers and in regions of rapidly varying charge density. The structured grid representation enables us to employ efficient iterative solver techniques such as conjugate gradients with multigrid preconditioning. We have parallelized our solver using an object-oriented adaptive mesh refinement framework.

  9. The Five-Step Development Process Step 3: Project Refinement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    3: Project Refinement 2 1 Potential 3 Refinement 4 Implementation 5 Operations & Maintenance 2 Options 3 Refinement 3 FUNDING AND FINANCING OPTIONS Project Ownership Financing structure is highly dependent on size of the project and the capital available for a given project: * Tribe owns the project (cash purchase or debt) * Tribe hosts the project and buys the electricity (power purchase agreement) * Tribe partners with private sector and co-owns the project (uncertainties about receipt of

  10. ,"U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...www.eia.govdnavpetpetprirefmg2cnusepm0rdpgalm.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information ... Reformulated Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per ...

  11. ,"U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...www.eia.govdnavpetpetprirefmg2cnusepm0udpgalm.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information ... Conventional Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per ...

  12. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1997 Table 43....

  13. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    1995 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued Geographic Area Month Premium All Grades Sales...

  14. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2000 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued Geographic Area Month Premium All Grades Sales...

  15. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1996 Table 43....

  16. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  17. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    250 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

  18. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

  19. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  20. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  1. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  2. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    - - - - W W - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 292 Energy...

  3. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    250 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

  4. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  5. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  6. ,"U.S. Total Refiner Petroleum Product Prices"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    NUSDPG","EMAEPPRPTGNUSDPG","EMAEPPRLPTGNUSDPG","EMAEPPRHPTGNUSDPG" "Date","U.S. Total Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per Gallon)","U.S. Aviation Gasoline...

  7. Bandwidth Study U.S. Petroleum Refining | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. petroleum refining. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy ...

  8. The Space-based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: The Space-based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris (STARE) mission Authors: Riot, V ; Devries, W ; Bauman, B ; Simms, L ; Carter, D ; Phillion, D ; Olivier, S ...

  9. The Space-Based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: The Space-Based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris Pathfinder Mission Authors: Simms, L ; De Vries, W ; RIot, V ; Olivier, S ; Pertica, A ; Bauman, B ; ...

  10. ITP Petroleum Refining: Petroleum Technology Vision 2020 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Petroleum Technology Vision 2020 ITP Petroleum Refining: Petroleum Technology Vision 2020 techvision.pdf (684.96 KB) More Documents & Publications Manufacturing Energy and Carbon ...

  11. Refiners react to changes in the pipeline infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, K.A.

    1997-06-01

    Petroleum pipelines have long been a critical component in the distribution of crude and refined products in the U.S. Pipelines are typically the most cost efficient mode of transportation for reasonably consistent flow rates. For obvious reasons, inland refineries and consumers are much more dependent on petroleum pipelines to provide supplies of crude and refined products than refineries and consumers located on the coasts. Significant changes in U.S. distribution patterns for crude and refined products are reshaping the pipeline infrastructure and presenting challenges and opportunities for domestic refiners. These changes are discussed.

  12. New Process for Grain Refinement of Aluminum. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Joseph A. Megy

    2000-09-22

    A new method of grain refining aluminum involving in-situ formation of boride nuclei in molten aluminum just prior to casting has been developed in the subject DOE program over the last thirty months by a team consisting of JDC, Inc., Alcoa Technical Center, GRAS, Inc., Touchstone Labs, and GKS Engineering Services. The Manufacturing process to make boron trichloride for grain refining is much simpler than preparing conventional grain refiners, with attendant environmental, capital, and energy savings. The manufacture of boride grain refining nuclei using the fy-Gem process avoids clusters, salt and oxide inclusions that cause quality problems in aluminum today.

  13. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum Refineries in California ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum Refineries in California refiningroadmap.pdf (1.34 ...

  14. The Space-Based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: The Space-Based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris Pathfinder Mission Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Space-Based Telescopes for ...

  15. Rocky Mountain area petroleum product availability with reduced PADD IV refining capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.; Chin, S.M.

    1994-02-01

    Studies of Rocky Mountain area petroleum product availability with reduced refining capacity in Petroleum Administration for Defense IV (PADD IV, part of the Rocky Mountain area) have been performed with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model, a linear program which has been updated to blend gasolines to satisfy constraints on emissions of nitrogen oxides and winter toxic air pollutants. The studies do not predict refinery closures in PADD IV. Rather, the reduced refining capacities provide an analytical framework for probing the flexibility of petroleum refining and distribution for winter demand conditions in the year 2000. Industry analysts have estimated that, for worst case scenarios, 20 to 35 percent of PADD IV refining capacity could be shut-down as a result of clean air and energy tax legislation. Given these industry projections, the study scenarios provide the following conclusions: The Rocky Mountain area petroleum system would have the capability to satisfy winter product demand with PADD IV refinery capacity shut-downs in the middle of the range of industry projections, but not in the high end of the range of projections. PADD IV crude oil production can be maintained by re-routing crude released from PADD IV refinery demands to satisfy increased crude oil demands in PADDs II (Midwest), III (Gulf Coast), and Washington. Clean Air Act product quality regulations generally do not increase the difficulty of satisfying emissions reduction constraints in the scenarios.

  16. Adaptive h -refinement for reduced-order models: ADAPTIVE h -refinement for reduced-order models

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Carlberg, Kevin T.

    2014-11-05

    Our work presents a method to adaptively refine reduced-order models a posteriori without requiring additional full-order-model solves. The technique is analogous to mesh-adaptive h-refinement: it enriches the reduced-basis space online by ‘splitting’ a given basis vector into several vectors with disjoint support. The splitting scheme is defined by a tree structure constructed offline via recursive k-means clustering of the state variables using snapshot data. This method identifies the vectors to split online using a dual-weighted-residual approach that aims to reduce error in an output quantity of interest. The resulting method generates a hierarchy of subspaces online without requiring large-scale operationsmore » or full-order-model solves. Furthermore, it enables the reduced-order model to satisfy any prescribed error tolerance regardless of its original fidelity, as a completely refined reduced-order model is mathematically equivalent to the original full-order model. Experiments on a parameterized inviscid Burgers equation highlight the ability of the method to capture phenomena (e.g., moving shocks) not contained in the span of the original reduced basis.« less

  17. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Blander, Milton; Cook, Glenn M.

    1988-01-01

    Apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

  18. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Blander, M.; Cook, G.M.

    1988-05-17

    Apparatus is described for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom. 2 figs.

  19. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Blander, M.; Cook, G.M.

    1985-05-21

    Disclosed is an apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

  20. Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    This report summarizes revisions to the design basis for the linear programing refining model that is being used in the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. This revision primarily reflects the addition of data for the upgrading of direct coal liquids.

  1. ,"Motor Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day)","New Mexico Total Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners ...87,16127.8,1684.4,1377.2,128.8,497.8,835.6,2030.3,1178.7,674.5,56.4,3.9,4678.6,764.1,9.3,1...

  2. ,"No. 2 Distillate Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day)","New Mexico No 2 Distillate Retail Sales by Refiners ...57.7,6018.7,64.6,101.5,691.5,1553.8,1576.9,2030.5,4320.3,1350.4,683.2,792.4,316.4,804.3,37...

  3. Reitveld refinement study of PLZT ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Rakesh; Bavbande, D. V.; Bafna, V. H.; Mohan, D.; Kothiyal, G. P.; Mishra, R.

    2013-02-05

    PLZT ceramics of composition Pb{sub 0.93}La{sub 0.07}(Zr{sub 0.60}Ti{sub 0.40})O{sub 3}, have been milled for 6hrs and 24hrs were prepared by solid state synthesis route. The 6hrs milled and 24hrs milled samples are represented as PLZT-6 and PLZT-24 ceramics respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern was recorded at room temperature. The XRD pattern has been analyzed by employing Rietveld refinement method. Phase identification shows that all the peaks observed in PLZT-6 and PLZT-24 ceramics could be indexed to P4mm space group with tetragonal symmetry. The unit cell parameters of 6hrs milled PLZT ceramics are found to be a=b=4.0781(5)A and c=4.0938(7)A and for 24hrs milled PLZT ceramics unit cell parameters are a=b=4.0679(4)A and c=4.1010(5)A . The axial ratio c/a and unit cell volume of PLZT-6 are 1.0038 and 68.09(2)A{sup 3} respectively. In PLZT-24 samples, the axial ratio c/a value is 1.0080 which is little more than that of the 6hr milled PLZT sample whereas the unit cell volume decrease to 67.88 (1) A{sup 3}. An average crystallite size was estimated by using Scherrer's formula. Dielectric properties were obtained by measuring the capacitance and tand loss using Stanford LCR meter.

  4. Report to the Congress on the storage of refined petroleum products and on regional supply interruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    This report describes petroleum and petroleum products storage and supply disruption. Information is presented under the following topics: Historical Perspective; Current Patterns of Supply and Disposition of Petroleum Products in the Primary Distribution System; PADD I Clean Products Supply/Demand; 1990 Regional Petroleum Reserve Annual Computation; Market Infrastructure and Commercial Practices in the California Motor Gasoline Market, as Related to Potential Refined Petroleum Product Reserve Structures and Sales Procedures; Infrastructure and Commercial Practices in the Northeast Distillate Market, as Related to Potential Refined Petroleum Product Reserve Structures and Sales Procedures; Storage Stability Characteristics of Petroleum Products and Crude Oil; Effect of 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on Demand for Petroleum Product Storage Capacity; and Environmental Regulations on Tanks.

  5. Proposed solutions to environmental regulations trade imbalances and unstable prices in the US petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    The United States petroleum industry is facing several critical problems as it struggles to meet the nation`s energy demands. Environmental demands place a burden on the domestic industry that is not shared by foreign countries. Environmental laws are, in effect, an assignment by society of the benefit-to-cost ratio of the pollutant(s) being regulated. Lawmakers and regulators seldom consider that the promulgated regulations require industry to invest part of their resources (and, thus, part of our GNP) to produce this result. This is an important consideration in determining if the mandated result is worth the resource investment. All regulations are not bad, but they do require an investment of finite resources to gain a desired result. It is important to determine if accomplishing the mandated goal justifies the allocation of the required resources. Another critical and frightening problem faced by the United States is the massive importation of foreign energy, which further erodes our national productivity and balance of payments. This continued growth or deficit energy financing results in the selling of ourselves to other countries. They own our energy deficit dollars and we pay an ever increasing amount of interest on our {open_quotes}energy loan{close_quotes}. The energy deficit problem is further compounded by market instability and variability primarily caused by the trading of crude oil and product futures on the Mercantile Exchange. This price {open_quotes}roller coaster{close_quotes} began in early 1986 and continues to create financial chaos in the U.S. refining industry.

  6. Integrated process for the solvent refining of coal

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar

    1983-01-01

    A process is set forth for the integrated liquefaction of coal by the catalytic solvent refining of a feed coal in a first stage to liquid and solid products and the catalytic hydrogenation of the solid product in a second stage to produce additional liquid product. A fresh inexpensive, throw-away catalyst is utilized in the second stage hydrogenation of the solid product and this catalyst is recovered and recycled for catalyst duty in the solvent refining stage without any activation steps performed on the used catalyst prior to its use in the solvent refining of feed coal.

  7. Unclassified Foreign Visits and Assignments Program

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-06-18

    The order defines a program for unclassified foreign national access to Department of Energy sites, information, and technologies. The page change streamlines the HQs Management Panel review process to include reviews by HSS, IN, and a representative of the cognizant under secretary for access requests involving foreign nationals. Cancels Secretarial Memorandum, Unclassified Foreign Visits and Assignments, dated 7-14-99; Memorandum from Francis S. Blake, Departmental Use of Foreign Access Central Tracking System, dated 11-05-01; Memorandum from Kyle E. McSlarrow, Interim Guidance for Implementation of the Department's Unclassified Foreign Visits and Assignments Program, dated 12-17-02; and Secretarial Memorandum, Policy Exclusion for Unclassified Foreign National's Access to Department of Energy Facilities in Urgent or Emergency Medical Situations, dated 4-10-01. Cancels: DOE P 142.1 and DOE N 142.1

  8. Briefing, Transclassified Foreign Nuclear Information - June 2014 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Transclassified Foreign Nuclear Information - June 2014 Briefing, Transclassified Foreign Nuclear Information - June 2014 June 2014 This briefing gives an overview of Transclassified Foreign Nuclear Information on the following questions: What is TFNI? What is transclassification? What do persons with access to documents containing TFNI need to know? What do persons who classify documents containing TFNI need to know? How are documents containing TFNI marked? Briefing,

  9. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    253.2 2,222.4 W W 206.4 134.3 - 340.7 See footnotes at end of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information...

  10. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    150.0 2,026.7 W W 234.5 161.7 - 396.3 See footnotes at end of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information...

  11. May 28 Webinar to Focus on Tribal Energy Project Refinement

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Register for the Tribal Renewable Energy Project Refinement webinar, which will be held on Wednesday, May 28, 2014, from 11 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. Mountain time.

  12. Management and Control of Foreign Intelligence

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1992-01-15

    The order provides for the management of and assign responsibilities for foreign intelligence activities of DOE. Supersedes DOE 5670.1.

  13. Foreign National Visit/Assignment Questionnaire

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Unclassified Foreign National Visits & Assignments Questionnaire Welcome to Department of Energy, Headquarters We are looking forward to your visit or assignment with us. In ...

  14. Unclassified Foreign Visits and Assignments Program

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-10-14

    The order defines a program for unclassified foreign national access to DOE sites, information, technologies, and equipment. Supersedes DOE O 142.3.

  15. Foreign WMD Proliferation Detection | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Foreign WMD Proliferation Detection NNSA develops the tools, technologies, techniques, and ... and analysis of the global proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, with ...

  16. Our addiction to foreign oil and

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    addiction to foreign oil and fossil fuels puts our economy, our environment, and ultimately our national security at risk. Furthermore, there is a growing recognition of the...

  17. Waste minimization for selected residuals in the petroleum refining industry

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This technical report on residuals in the petroleum refining industry provides an industry overview, process description, and process flow diagrams. It presents residual descriptions for each of the 29 petroleum refining residuals of concern and what source reduction option exist. It reviews the data sources - RCRA Section 2007 surveys, site visits, and journal articles. It also describes major findings and evaluates the quantity and quality of waste minization information for each source.

  18. Hydrogen Piping Experience in Chevron Refining | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Piping Experience in Chevron Refining Hydrogen Piping Experience in Chevron Refining Overall Perspectives: Few problems with hydrogen piping operating at ambient to at least 800F and pressures up to at least 3000psia as long as we stay within well-defined limits hpwgw_chevronrefining_niccolls.pdf (373.32 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop: Code for Hydrogen Pipelines A Review of Stress Corrosion

  19. Source category survey: secondary copper smelting and refining industry. Final report Oct 79-Jan 80

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, M.K.; Shobe, F.D.

    1980-05-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of the secondary copper smelting and refining industry to determine the probable impact of the development of new source performance standards under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act. The surveyed industry processes copper scrap to produce pure copper or copper alloy, other than brass and bronze. Secondary copper foundries, which melt and cast high-quality copper scrap without refining it, are excluded. Primary copper smelters and refiners, which produce copper from ore, are also excluded, although they also process copper scrap. Process, emissions, and economic data were gathered by literature searches, contacts with representatives of the industry, trade associations, federal government agencies, and state and local air pollution control agencies, and visits to two plants. The industry's production processes, actual and allowable air emissions, and emission control systems are described. State and local emission regulations are compared. Production and capacity are projected to 1989 and the impact of new source performance standards is assessed.

  20. EERE Success Story-Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum EERE Success Story-Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum April 9, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis W.R. Grace, a leading provider of refining ...

  1. The Common Sense Initiative: Petroleum refining sector

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, M.M.

    1995-12-31

    The Common Sense Initiative is trying to answer three questions: (1) ``How does one leverage the change in corporate attitudes for more efficient compliance with pollution prevention and greater use of innovative technologies?`` (2) ``How does one incorporate new approaches into the traditional menu of EPA compliance tools?`` (3) ``How can one accomplish cleaner, cheaper, smarter results?`` One answer is to create a process that includes all stakeholders that have to either implement or live with EPA decisions. This is being done by creating stake-holder groups representing labor, communities, national and grassroots environmental organization, industries and States. The focus is on realizing improvements in: pollution prevention; innovative technologies; permitting; regulations; compliance; and reporting and recordkeeping.

  2. Headquarters Facilities Master Security Plan - Chapter 6, Foreign

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Interaction | Department of Energy 6, Foreign Interaction Headquarters Facilities Master Security Plan - Chapter 6, Foreign Interaction 2016 Headquarters Facilities Master Security Plan - Chapter 6, Foreign Interaction DOE has adopted significant controls over the interaction of its employees and contractors with foreign nationals. When authorized by a treaty or international agreement, some DOE classified information can be shared with foreign government representatives. Unclassified

  3. Foreign Visits & Assignments Guidelines | The Ames Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Foreign Visits & Assignments Guidelines Foreign Visits and Assignments Requests (473's) and Specific Security Plans Please use the following links to reach Form 473, the Foreign Visits and Assignments Request Form, as well as the Ames Laboratory Specific Security Plan Form. Form 473 Foreign Visits and Assignments Request Form Specific Security Plan Program Overview. The USDOE considers hosting foreign visitors a critical responsibility. This is especially true when the foreign national is

  4. Before the House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Asia, the Pacific...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Asia, the Pacific and the Global Environment Before the House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Asia, the Pacific and the Global Environment Before...

  5. Beginning Foreign Obligation Balances for the Power Reactors...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Beginning Foreign Obligation Balances Beginning Foreign Obligation Balances for the Power Reactors for the Power Reactors Michael J. Smith Michael J. Smith NAC International NAC ...

  6. Toward parallel, adaptive mesh refinement for chemically reacting flow simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Devine, K.D.; Shadid, J.N.; Salinger, A.G. Hutchinson, S.A.; Hennigan, G.L.

    1997-12-01

    Adaptive numerical methods offer greater efficiency than traditional numerical methods by concentrating computational effort in regions of the problem domain where the solution is difficult to obtain. In this paper, the authors describe progress toward adding mesh refinement to MPSalsa, a computer program developed at Sandia National laboratories to solve coupled three-dimensional fluid flow and detailed reaction chemistry systems for modeling chemically reacting flow on large-scale parallel computers. Data structures that support refinement and dynamic load-balancing are discussed. Results using uniform refinement with mesh sequencing to improve convergence to steady-state solutions are also presented. Three examples are presented: a lid driven cavity, a thermal convection flow, and a tilted chemical vapor deposition reactor.

  7. The US petroleum refining industry in the 1980's

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-11

    As part of the EIA program on petroleum, The US Petroleum Refining Industry in the 1980's, presents a historical analysis of the changes that took place in the US petroleum refining industry during the 1980's. It is intended to be of interest to analysts in the petroleum industry, state and federal government officials, Congress, and the general public. The report consists of six chapters and four appendices. Included is a detailed description of the major events and factors that affected the domestic refining industry during this period. Some of the changes that took place in the 1980's are the result of events that started in the 1970's. The impact of these events on US refinery configuration, operations, economics, and company ownership are examined. 23 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. PROP re-refined oil engine test performance

    SciTech Connect

    Linnard, R.E.

    1980-11-01

    Using conventional, commercially-available nonproprietary (to Phillips) additive treatments, engine test programs have successfully demonstrated Phillips Re-refined Oil Process (PROP) oils' compliance with the performance requirements of MIL-L-46152A and API Services SE/CC. This paper reports on the engine testing experience with PROP refined oils as produced in a full-scale 2 MM GPY PROP plant operating with Buyer-collected used oil feedstocks. Comment is also made on the status of the first two PROP plants, one built for the state of North Carolina and the other for Mohawk Oil Company, Ltd., Vancouver B.C., Canada.

  9. Council on Foreign Relations | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Council on Foreign Relations Council on Foreign Relations January 13, 2005 - 9:47am Addthis Remarks Prepared for Energy Secretary Abraham Thank you. It's an honor to be here with you today. For over 80 years the Council has played a leading role in guiding American foreign policy. As Leslie Gelb once said, "If the Council as a body has stood for anything ... it has been for American internationalism based on American interests." This body has not just stood for American

  10. Foreign Ownership, Control, or Influence Program

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1993-06-14

    To establish the policies, responsibilities, and authorities for implementing the Department of Energy (DOE) Foreign Ownership, Control, or Influence (FOCI) program, which is designed to obtain information that indicates whether DOE offerors/bidders or contractors/subcontractors are owned, controlled, or influenced by foreign individuals, governments, or organizations, and whether that foreign involvement may pose an undue risk to the common defense and security. This directive does not cancel another directive. Canceled by DOE O 470.1 of 9-28-1995.

  11. Recovery Act - Refinement of Cross Flow Turbine Airfoils

    SciTech Connect

    McEntee, Jarlath

    2013-08-30

    Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC (ORPC) is a global leader in hydrokinetic technology and project development. ORPC develops hydrokinetic power systems and eco-conscious projects that harness the power of oceans and rivers to create clean, predictable renewable energy. ORPC’s technology consists of a family of modular hydrokinetic power systems: the TidGen® Power System, for use at shallow to medium-depth tidal sites; the RivGen™ Power System, for use at river and estuary sites; and the OCGen® Power System, presently under development, for use at deep tidal and offshore ocean current sites. These power systems convert kinetic energy in moving water into clean, renewable, grid-compatible electric power. The core technology component for all ORPC power systems is its patented turbine generator unit (TGU). The TGU uses proprietary advanced design cross flow (ADCF) turbines to drive an underwater permanent magnet generator mounted at the TGU’s center. It is a gearless, direct-drive system that has the potential for high reliability, requires no lubricants and releases no toxins that could contaminate the surrounding water. The hydrokinetic industry shows tremendous promise as a means of helping reduce the U.S.’s use of fossil fuels and dependence on foreign oil. To exploit this market opportunity, cross-flow hydrokinetic devices need to advance beyond the pre-commercial state and more systematic data about the structure and function of cross-flow hydrokinetic devices is required. This DOE STTR project, “Recovery Act - Refinement of Cross Flow Turbine Airfoils,” refined the cross-flow turbine design process to improve efficiency and performance and developed turbine manufacturing processes appropriate for volume production. The project proposed (1) to overcome the lack of data by extensively studying the properties of cross flow turbines, a particularly competitive design approach for extracting hydrokinetic energy and (2) to help ORPC mature its pre

  12. Techniques for Intravascular Foreign Body Retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Woodhouse, Joe B.; Uberoi, Raman

    2013-08-01

    As endovascular therapies increase in frequency, the incidence of lost or embolized foreign bodies is increasing. The presence of an intravascular foreign body (IFB) is well recognized to have the potential to cause serious complications. IFB can embolize and impact critical sites such as the heart, with subsequent significant morbidity or mortality. Intravascular foreign bodies most commonly result from embolized central line fragments, but they can originate from many sources, both iatrogenic and noniatrogenic. The percutaneous approach in removing an IFB is widely perceived as the best way to retrieve endovascular foreign bodies. This minimally invasive approach has a high success rate with a low associated morbidity, and it avoids the complications related to open surgical approaches. We examined the characteristics, causes, and incidence of endovascular embolizations and reviewed the various described techniques that have been used to facilitate subsequent explantation of such materials.

  13. Foreign Users | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Advance approval is required for users from Iran, Sudan or Syria. Foreign national users who were born in, are citizens of, or represent organizations from Iran, Sudan or Syria, ...

  14. New Hire Process for Foreign Nationals

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    New Hire Process New Hire Process for Foreign Nationals Employees and retirees are the building blocks of the Lab's success. Our employees get to contribute to the most pressing ...

  15. Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... Examples of persons: * John Q. Smith, a U.S. citizen. * XYZ corporation, a privately owned company incorporated in Delaware, that employs a number of U.S. citizens andor foreign ...

  16. Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Petroleum RefiningIndustry

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-05-01

    Information has proven to be an important barrier inindustrial energy efficiency improvement. Voluntary government programsaim to assist industry to improve energy efficiency by supplyinginformation on opportunities. ENERGY STAR(R) supports the development ofstrong strategic corporate energy management programs, by providingenergy management information tools and strategies. This paper summarizesENERGY STAR research conducted to develop an Energy Guide for thePetroleum Refining industry. Petroleum refining in the United States isthe largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually every economicsector, including the transport sector and the chemical industry.Refineries spend typically 50 percent of the cash operating costs (e.g.,excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy amajor cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction.The petroleum refining industry consumes about 3.1 Quads of primaryenergy, making it the single largest industrial energy user in the UnitedStates. Typically, refineries can economically improve energy efficiencyby 20 percent. The findings suggest that given available resources andtechnology, there are substantial opportunities to reduce energyconsumption cost-effectively in the petroleum refining industry whilemaintaining the quality of the products manufactured.

  17. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1995 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No. 4...

  18. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1997 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No....

  19. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1995 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No....

  20. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1996 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No. 4...

  1. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Prices J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1995 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Retail < or 1% Wholesale < or 1% Retail > 1% Wholesale > 1% 7. U.S. Refiner Residual...

  2. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1996 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No....

  3. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1997 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No. 4...

  4. Decontamination of transuranic contaminated metals by melt refining

    SciTech Connect

    Heshmatpour, B.; Copeland, G.L.; Heestand, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Melt refining of transuranic contaminated metals is a possible decontamination process with the potential advantages of producing metal for reuse and of simplifying chemical analyses. By routinely achieving the 10 nCi/g( about0.1ppm) level by melt refining, scrap metal can be removed from the transuranic waste category. (To demonstrate the effectiveness of this melt refining process, mild steel, stainless steel, nickel, and copper were contaminated with 500 ppm (..mu..g/g) PuO/sub 2/ and melted with various fluxes. The solidified slags and metals were analyzed for their plutonium contents, and corresponding partition ratios for plutonium were calculated. Some metals were double refined in order to study the effect of secondary slag treatment. The initial weight of the slags was also varied to investigate the effect of slag weight on the degree of plutonium removal. In general, all four metals could be decontaminated below 1 ppm (..mu..g/g) Pu ( about100 nCi/g) by a single slag treatment. Doubling the slag weight did not improve decontamination significantly; however, double slag treatment using 5 wt.% slag did decontaminate the metals to below 0.1 ppm (..mu..g/g) Pu (10 nCi/g).)

  5. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    71.8 W 70.5 78.9 W 76.0 83.6 W 69.2 75.2 See footnotes at end of table. 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District and State 176 Energy Information...

  6. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    W 68.4 70.8 W W 78.6 W 85.7 81.8 W 69.3 73.8 See footnotes at end of table. 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District and State 176 Energy Information...

  7. Process for electroslag refining of uranium and uranium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, P.S. Jr.; Agee, W.A.; Bullock, J.S. IV; Condon, J.B.

    1975-07-22

    A process is described for electroslag refining of uranium and uranium alloys wherein molten uranium and uranium alloys are melted in a molten layer of a fluoride slag containing up to about 8 weight percent calcium metal. The calcium metal reduces oxides in the uranium and uranium alloys to provide them with an oxygen content of less than 100 parts per million. (auth)

  8. ITP Petroleum Refining: Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry ITP Petroleum Refining: Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry petroleumroadmap.pdf (338.1 KB) More Documents & Publications ITP Aluminum: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Aluminum Industry ITP Aluminum: Technical Working Group on Inert Anode Technologies 2011 Strategic Plan

  9. ,"Conventional Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day)","New Mexico Conventional Gasoline Retail Sales by ...928.8,,587,12358.1,196,1145.9,128.8,497.8,,2030.3,,459.7,56.4,3.9,4678.6,764.1,9.3,1677.4,...

  10. NEUP Foreign Travel Request Form | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Foreign Travel Request Form NEUP Foreign Travel Request Form NEUP Foreign Travel Request Form NEUP Foreign Travel Form 07_31_12.docx (62.57 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE F 551.1 NEUP Student Travel Request Form HQ FNVA Questionnaire

  11. Foreign offshore worker injuries in foreign waters: why a United States forum

    SciTech Connect

    Sutterfield, J.R.

    1981-07-01

    When foreigners are injured or killed in offshore oil operations in foreign jurisdictional waters, US laws do not always apply as they would if the plaintiffs are American or resident aliens. The courts must first consider whether the Jones Act, Death on the High Seas Act, general maritime law, or a combination of laws applies and whether the court should assume jurisdiction or use the doctrine of forum non conveniens. Cases involving foreign offshore workers are used to illustrate the factors involved in each application and to consider the foreign-policy implication when foreign nationals assume that American laws and morality accompany multinational business. Congress has yet to resolve the issues, although a bill was proposed in 1980. 75 references. (DCK)

  12. REFINING AND END USE STUDY OF COAL LIQUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-01-01

    This document summarizes all of the work conducted as part of the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. There were several distinct objectives set, as the study developed over time: (1) Demonstration of a Refinery Accepting Coal Liquids; (2) Emissions Screening of Indirect Diesel; (3) Biomass Gasification F-T Modeling; and (4) Updated Gas to Liquids (GTL) Baseline Design/Economic Study.

  13. Parallel Block Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement on Graphics Processing Units

    SciTech Connect

    Beckingsale, D. A.; Gaudin, W. P.; Hornung, R. D.; Gunney, B. T.; Gamblin, T.; Herdman, J. A.; Jarvis, S. A.

    2014-11-17

    Block-structured adaptive mesh refinement is a technique that can be used when solving partial differential equations to reduce the number of zones necessary to achieve the required accuracy in areas of interest. These areas (shock fronts, material interfaces, etc.) are recursively covered with finer mesh patches that are grouped into a hierarchy of refinement levels. Despite the potential for large savings in computational requirements and memory usage without a corresponding reduction in accuracy, AMR adds overhead in managing the mesh hierarchy, adding complex communication and data movement requirements to a simulation. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a native GPU-based AMR library, including: the classes used to manage data on a mesh patch, the routines used for transferring data between GPUs on different nodes, and the data-parallel operators developed to coarsen and refine mesh data. We validate the performance and accuracy of our implementation using three test problems and two architectures: an eight-node cluster, and over four thousand nodes of Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Titan supercomputer. Our GPU-based AMR hydrodynamics code performs up to 4.87× faster than the CPU-based implementation, and has been scaled to over four thousand GPUs using a combination of MPI and CUDA.

  14. Decontamination of steel by melt refining: A literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    It has been reported that a large amount of metal waste is produced annually by nuclear fuel processing and nuclear power plants. These metal wastes are contaminated with radioactive elements, such as uranium and plutonium. Current Department of Energy guidelines require retrievable storage of all metallic wastes containing transuranic elements above a certain level. Because of high cost, it is important to develop an effective decontamination and volume reduction method for low level contaminated metals. It has been shown by some investigators that a melt refining technique can be used for the processing of the contaminated metal wastes. In this process, contaminated metal is melted wit a suitable flux. The radioactive elements are oxidized and transferred to a slag phase. In order to develop a commercial process it is important to have information on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the removal. Therefore, a literature search was carried out to evaluate the available information on the decontamination uranium and transuranic-contaminated plain steel, copper and stainless steel by melt a refining technique. Emphasis was given to the thermodynamics and kinetics of the removal. Data published in the literature indicate that it is possible to reduce the concentration of radioactive elements to a very low level by the melt refining method. 20 refs.

  15. Mesh refinement for uncertainty quantification through model reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jing Stinis, Panos

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel way of deciding when and where to refine a mesh in probability space in order to facilitate uncertainty quantification in the presence of discontinuities in random space. A discontinuity in random space makes the application of generalized polynomial chaos expansion techniques prohibitively expensive. The reason is that for discontinuous problems, the expansion converges very slowly. An alternative to using higher terms in the expansion is to divide the random space in smaller elements where a lower degree polynomial is adequate to describe the randomness. In general, the partition of the random space is a dynamic process since some areas of the random space, particularly around the discontinuity, need more refinement than others as time evolves. In the current work we propose a way to decide when and where to refine the random space mesh based on the use of a reduced model. The idea is that a good reduced model can monitor accurately, within a random space element, the cascade of activity to higher degree terms in the chaos expansion. In turn, this facilitates the efficient allocation of computational sources to the areas of random space where they are more needed. For the Kraichnan–Orszag system, the prototypical system to study discontinuities in random space, we present theoretical results which show why the proposed method is sound and numerical results which corroborate the theory.

  16. What's needed next to refine the EU directive on cogeneration regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Verbruggen, Aviel

    2007-03-15

    Efforts to develop a more precise definition and measurement of cogenerated electricity than those contained in the European Union's 2004 Directive have made real progress, but additional improvements are needed to yield a better-founded, more transparent methodology. The author offers suggestions on how to complete this important job. (author)

  17. ,"Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or ... Data for" ,"Data 1","Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales ...

  18. RFA-14-0001 - In the Matter of Commonwealth Oil Refining Company...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    RFA-14-0001 - In the Matter of Commonwealth Oil Refining Company, Inc.Commonwealth of Puerto Rico RFA-14-0001 - In the Matter of Commonwealth Oil Refining Company, Inc....

  19. Catalytic hydroprocessing of solvent refined coal to provide a liquid and a solid fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Dabkowski, M.J.; Heck, R.H.; Stein, T.R.

    1980-04-29

    In the hydroprocessing of blends of solvent refined coal and recycle solvent, small pore hydrotreating catalysts cause separation of a solid phase from treating blends containing high concentration of solvent refined coal.

  20. Petroleum Refining Sector (NAICS 324110) Energy and GHG Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    69 2.4 PETROLEUM REFINING SECTOR (NAICS 324110) 2.4.1. Overview of the Petroleum Refining Manufacturing Sector Petroleum refining is a complex industry that generates a diverse slate of fuel products and petrochemicals, from gasoline to asphalt. Refining requires a range of processing steps, including distillation, cracking, reforming, and treating. Most of these processes are highly reliant on process heating and steam energy. Petroleum refineries are an essential part of the U.S. economy.

  1. Occupational employment survey, booklet of definitions. Petroleum refining, coal products, and related industries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The publication gives occupational definitions for 149 occupations in the petroleum refining, coal products, and related industries.

  2. Foreign National Access to DOE Cyber Systems

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-11-01

    DOE N 205.16, dated 9-15-05, extends this Notice until 9-30-06, unless sooner rescinded. To ensure foreign national access to DOE cyber systems continues to advance DOE program objectives while enforcing information access restrictions.

  3. Environmental control technology for mining, milling, and refining thorium

    SciTech Connect

    Weakley, S.A.; Blahnik, D.E.; Young, J.K.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate, in terms of cost and effectiveness, the various environmental control technologies that would be used to control the radioactive wastes generated in the mining, milling, and refining of thorium from domestic resources. The technologies, in order to be considered for study, had to reduce the radioactivity in the waste streams to meet Atomic Energy Commission (10 CFR 20) standards for natural thorium's maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in air and water. Further regulatory standards or licensing requirements, either federal, state, or local, were not examined. The availability and cost of producing thorium from domestic resources is addressed in a companion volume. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the major waste streams generated during the mining, milling, and refining of reactor-grade thorium oxide from domestic resources; and (2) to determine the cost and levels of control of existing and advanced environmental control technologies for these waste streams. Six potential domestic deposits of thorium oxide, in addition to stockpiled thorium sludges, are discussed in this report. A summary of the location and characteristics of the potential domestic thorium resources and the mining, milling, and refining processes that will be needed to produce reactor-grade thorium oxide is presented in Section 2. The wastes from existing and potential domestic thorium oxide mines, mills, and refineries are identified in Section 3. Section 3 also presents the state-of-the-art technology and the costs associated with controlling the wastes from the mines, mills, and refineries. In Section 4, the available environmental control technologies for mines, mills, and refineries are assessed. Section 5 presents the cost and effectiveness estimates for the various environmental control technologies applicable to the mine, mill, and refinery for each domestic resource.

  4. Headquarters Security Operations Foreign Ownership Control or Influence Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Headquarters Foreign Ownership Control or Influence (FOCI) Program is established by DOE Order to evaluate the foreign involvement of a company being considered for award of a contract that...

  5. Cogeneration handbook for the petroleum refining industry. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Fassbender, A.G.; Eakin, D.E.; Gorges, H.A.

    1984-03-01

    The decision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the petroleum refining industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

  6. Changing Trends in the Refining Industry (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications

    2006-01-01

    There have been some major changes in the U.S. refining industry recently, prompted in part by a significant decline in the quality of imported crude oil and by increasing restrictions on the quality of finished products. As a result, high-quality crudes, such as the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude that serves as a benchmark for oil futures on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), have been trading at record premiums to the OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) Basket price.

  7. Chapter_4_Foreign_Ownership_Control_or_Influence_Facility_Clearance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Foreign Ownership, Control, or Influence; Facility Clearance; and Classified Contract ... This chapter implements the FOCI, facility clearance, and contract registration ...

  8. Before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Foreign Affairs Before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs Testimony of Ernest Moniz, Secretary of Energy Before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs 7-28- Ernest_Moniz FT HFA.pdf (24.43 KB) More Documents & Publications Before the Senate Committee on Armed Services Before the Senate Foreign Affairs Committee Before the House Committee on Armed Services - Subcommittee on Strategic Forces

  9. PIA - Foreign Access Central Tracking System (FACTS) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Access Central Tracking System (FACTS) PIA - Foreign Access Central Tracking System (FACTS) PIA - Foreign Access Central Tracking System (FACTS) PIA - Foreign Access Central Tracking System (FACTS) (472.97 KB) More Documents & Publications PIA - INL SECURITY INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM BUSINESS ENCLAVE PIA - INL PeopleSoft - Human Resource System

  10. PIA - Foreign Travel Management System (FTMS) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Travel Management System (FTMS) PIA - Foreign Travel Management System (FTMS) PIA - Foreign Travel Management System (FTMS) PIA - Foreign Travel Management System (FTMS) (389.71 KB) More Documents & Publications PIA - INL PeopleSoft - Human Resource System PIA - INL SECURITY INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM BUSINESS ENCLAVE

  11. Foreign Direct Investment in U.S. Energy

    Reports and Publications

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the role of direct foreign ownership of U.S. energy enterprises with respect to their energy operations, capital investments, and net foreign investment flows (including net loans). In addition, since energy investments are made in a global context, the report examines patterns of direct investment in foreign energy enterprises by U.S.-based companies.

  12. Metal decontamination for waste minimization using liquid metal refining technology

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, E.L. Jr.; Lally, B.; Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J.

    1993-09-01

    The current Department of Energy Mixed Waste Treatment Project flowsheet indicates that no conventional technology, other than surface decontamination, exists for metal processing. Current Department of Energy guidelines require retrievable storage of all metallic wastes containing transuranic elements above a certain concentration. This project is in support of the National Mixed Low Level Waste Treatment Program. Because of the high cost of disposal, it is important to develop an effective decontamination and volume reduction method for low-level contaminated metals. It is important to be able to decontaminate complex shapes where surfaces are hidden or inaccessible to surface decontamination processes and destruction of organic contamination. These goals can be achieved by adapting commercial metal refining processes to handle radioactive and organic contaminated metal. The radioactive components are concentrated in the slag, which is subsequently vitrified; hazardous organics are destroyed by the intense heat of the bath. The metal, after having been melted and purified, could be recycled for use within the DOE complex. In this project, we evaluated current state-of-the-art technologies for metal refining, with special reference to the removal of radioactive contaminants and the destruction of hazardous organics. This evaluation was based on literature reports, industrial experience, plant visits, thermodynamic calculations, and engineering aspects of the various processes. The key issues addressed included radioactive partitioning between the metal and slag phases, minimization of secondary wastes, operability of the process subject to widely varying feed chemistry, and the ability to seal the candidate process to prevent the release of hazardous species.

  13. Biocide usage in cooling towers in the electric power and petroleum refining industries

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.; Rice, J.K.; Raivel, M.E.S.

    1997-11-01

    Cooling towers users frequently apply biocides to the circulating cooling water to control growth of microorganisms, algae, and macroorganisms. Because of the toxic properties of biocides, there is a potential for the regulatory controls on their use and discharge to become increasingly more stringent. This report examines the types of biocides used in cooling towers by companies in the electric power and petroleum refining industries, and the experiences those companies have had in dealing with agencies that regulate cooling tower blowdown discharges. Results from a sample of 67 electric power plants indicate that the use of oxidizing biocides (particularly chlorine) is favored. Quaternary ammonia salts (quats), a type of nonoxidizing biocide, are also used in many power plant cooling towers. The experience of dealing with regulators to obtain approval to discharge biocides differs significantly between the two industries. In the electric power industry, discharges of any new biocide typically must be approved in writing by the regulatory agency. The approval process for refineries is less formal. In most cases, the refinery must notify the regulatory agency that it is planning to use a new biocide, but the refinery does not need to get written approval before using it. The conclusion of the report is that few of the surveyed facilities are having any difficulty in using and discharging the biocides they want to use.

  14. Foreign Energy Company Competitiveness: Background information

    SciTech Connect

    Weimar, M.R.; Freund, K.A.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-10-01

    This report provides background information to the report Energy Company Competitiveness: Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994). The main body of this publication consists of data uncovered during the course of research on this DOE report. This data pertains to major government energy policies in each country studied. This report also provides a summary of the DOE report. In October 1993, the Office of Energy Intelligence, US Department of Energy (formerly the Office of Foreign Intelligence), requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepare a report addressing policies and actions used by foreign governments to enhance the competitiveness of their energy firms. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared the report Energy Company Competitiveness Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994), which provided the analysis requested by DOE. An appendix was also prepared, which provided extensive background documentation to the analysis. Because of the length of the appendix, Pacific Northwest Laboratory decided to publish this information separately, as contained in this report.

  15. Unclassified Foreign National Visits and Assignments

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Attached for your information is a March 9,201 0 Memorandum from the Deputy Secretary relaxing certain check and approval requirements relating to visits and assignments of foreign nationals to DOE facilities and National Laboratories, including National Nuclear Security Administration sites. This is part of an ongoing review of DOE Order 142.3. Please furnish a copy to affected contractors pending revision of the Order and its associated Contractor Requirements Document.

  16. Thick crystalline films on foreign substrates

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Henry I.; Atwater, Harry A.; Geis, Michael W.

    1986-01-01

    To achieve a uniform texture, large crystalline grains or, in some cases, a single crystalline orientation in a thick (>1 .mu.m) film on a foreign substrate, the film is formed so as to be thin (<1 .mu.m) in a certain section. Zone-melting recrystallization is initiated in the thin section and then extended into the thick section. The method may employ planar constriction patterns of orientation filter patterns.

  17. Thick crystalline films on foreign substrates

    DOEpatents

    Smith, H.I.; Atwater, H.A.; Geis, M.W.

    1986-03-18

    To achieve a uniform texture, large crystalline grains or, in some cases, a single crystalline orientation in a thick (>1 [mu]m) film on a foreign substrate, the film is formed so as to be thin (<1 [mu]m) in a certain section. Zone-melting recrystallization is initiated in the thin section and then extended into the thick section. The method may employ planar constriction patterns of orientation filter patterns. 2 figs.

  18. Acquisition Regulation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Career Development, Contracting Authority and Responsibilities Acquisition Regulation ... file, except for any documents required by regulation to be maintained in paper copy. ...

  19. ENZO: AN ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT CODE FOR ASTROPHYSICS

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Greg L.; Turk, Matthew J.; Norman, Michael L.; Bordner, James; Xu, Hao; Kritsuk, Alexei G.; O'Shea, Brian W.; Smith, Britton; Abel, Tom; Wang, Peng; Skillman, Samuel W.; Wise, John H.; Reynolds, Daniel R.; Collins, David C.; Harkness, Robert P.; Kim, Ji-hoon; Kuhlen, Michael; Goldbaum, Nathan; Hummels, Cameron; Collaboration: Enzo Collaboration; and others

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes the open-source code Enzo, which uses block-structured adaptive mesh refinement to provide high spatial and temporal resolution for modeling astrophysical fluid flows. The code is Cartesian, can be run in one, two, and three dimensions, and supports a wide variety of physics including hydrodynamics, ideal and non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics, N-body dynamics (and, more broadly, self-gravity of fluids and particles), primordial gas chemistry, optically thin radiative cooling of primordial and metal-enriched plasmas (as well as some optically-thick cooling models), radiation transport, cosmological expansion, and models for star formation and feedback in a cosmological context. In addition to explaining the algorithms implemented, we present solutions for a wide range of test problems, demonstrate the code's parallel performance, and discuss the Enzo collaboration's code development methodology.

  20. Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process

    DOEpatents

    Schlichting, Mark R.

    1994-01-01

    A furnace 10 for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron 20 is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance 40, through which a center stream of particulate coal 53 is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer 30. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon 51 enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen 52 is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream 51. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus 84 to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer 30, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace.

  1. Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process

    DOEpatents

    Schlichting, M.R.

    1994-11-22

    A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figs.

  2. A case study of energy conservation opportunities in copper refining

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, W.E.; Hughen, M.L.; Kurylko, L.; Stone, J.R.

    1982-07-01

    A study of energy usage and distribution in a copper refinery was conducted in an attempt to determine possible cost savings in operations of the plant. The study covered those processes which were the major users of energy, namely, smelting, anode casting, electrolytic refining, steam generation and distribution, and electricity distribution. The study involved obtaining data of mass and energy flows in the refinery; identifying energy conservation opportunities (ECO's); obtaining price, operating costs, and saving potentials; for each conservation measure; and analyzing the economical viability of each conservation proposal. Potential cost savings were found to be substantial in heat recovery from slag and anode furnace hot gases, modification of the central steam supply system, control, and redistribution of electrical loads, insulation of electrolytic tanks, and changes in the atomization of oil.

  3. A comparative assessment of resource efficiency in petroleum refining

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jeongwoo; Forman, Grant S.; Elgowainy, Amgad; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael; DiVita, Vincent B.

    2015-03-25

    Because of increasing environmental and energy security concerns, a detailed understanding of energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the petroleum refining industry is critical for fair and equitable energy and environmental policies. To date, this has proved challenging due in part to the complex nature and variability within refineries. In an effort to simplify energy and emissions refinery analysis, we delineated LP modeling results from 60 large refineries from the US and EU into broad categories based on crude density (API gravity) and heavy product (HP) yields. Product-specific efficiencies and process fuel shares derived from this study were incorporated in Argonne National Laboratory’s GREET life-cycle model, along with regional upstream GHG intensities of crude, natural gas and electricity specific to the US and EU regions. The modeling results suggest that refineries that process relatively heavier crude inputs and have lower yields of HPs generally have lower energy efficiencies and higher GHG emissions than refineries that run lighter crudes with lower yields of HPs. The former types of refineries tend to utilize energy-intensive units which are significant consumers of utilities (heat and electricity) and hydrogen. Among the three groups of refineries studied, the major difference in the energy intensities is due to the amount of purchased natural gas for utilities and hydrogen, while the sum of refinery feed inputs are generally constant. These results highlight the GHG emissions cost a refiner pays to process deep into the barrel to produce more of the desirable fuels with low carbon to hydrogen ratio.

  4. A comparative assessment of resource efficiency in petroleum refining

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Han, Jeongwoo; Forman, Grant S.; Elgowainy, Amgad; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael; DiVita, Vincent B.

    2015-03-25

    Because of increasing environmental and energy security concerns, a detailed understanding of energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the petroleum refining industry is critical for fair and equitable energy and environmental policies. To date, this has proved challenging due in part to the complex nature and variability within refineries. In an effort to simplify energy and emissions refinery analysis, we delineated LP modeling results from 60 large refineries from the US and EU into broad categories based on crude density (API gravity) and heavy product (HP) yields. Product-specific efficiencies and process fuel shares derived from this study weremore » incorporated in Argonne National Laboratory’s GREET life-cycle model, along with regional upstream GHG intensities of crude, natural gas and electricity specific to the US and EU regions. The modeling results suggest that refineries that process relatively heavier crude inputs and have lower yields of HPs generally have lower energy efficiencies and higher GHG emissions than refineries that run lighter crudes with lower yields of HPs. The former types of refineries tend to utilize energy-intensive units which are significant consumers of utilities (heat and electricity) and hydrogen. Among the three groups of refineries studied, the major difference in the energy intensities is due to the amount of purchased natural gas for utilities and hydrogen, while the sum of refinery feed inputs are generally constant. These results highlight the GHG emissions cost a refiner pays to process deep into the barrel to produce more of the desirable fuels with low carbon to hydrogen ratio.« less

  5. A Comparative Assessment of Resource Efficiency in Petroleum Refining

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jeongwoo; Forman, G; Elgowainy, Amgad; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael; Divita, V

    2015-10-01

    Because of increasing environmental and energy security concerns, a detailed understanding of energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the petroleum refining industry is critical for fair and equitable energy and environmental policies. To date, this has proved challenging due in part to the complex nature and variability within refineries. In an effort to simplify energy and emissions refinery analysis, we delineated LP modeling results from 60 large refineries from the US and EU into broad categories based on crude density (API gravity) and heavy product (HP) yields. Product-specific efficiencies and process fuel shares derived from this study were incorporated in Argonne National Laboratory's GREET life-cycle model, along with regional upstream GHG intensities of crude, natural gas and electricity specific to the US and EU regions. The modeling results suggest that refineries that process relatively heavier crude inputs and have lower yields of HPs generally have lower energy efficiencies and higher GHG emissions than refineries that run lighter crudes with lower yields of HPs. The former types of refineries tend to utilize energy-intensive units which are significant consumers of utilities (heat and electricity) and hydrogen. Among the three groups of refineries studied, the major difference in the energy intensities is due to the amount of purchased natural gas for utilities and hydrogen, while the sum of refinery feed inputs are generally constant. These results highlight the GHG emissions cost a refiner pays to process deep into the barrel to produce more of the desirable fuels with low carbon to hydrogen ratio. (c) 2015 Argonne National Laboratory. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Evaluation of tropical channel refinement using MPAS-A aquaplanet simulations: TROPICAL CHANNEL REFINEMENT IN MPAS-A

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Martini, Matus N.; Gustafson, William I.; O'Brien, Travis A.; Ma, Po-Lun

    2015-09-01

    Climate models with variable-resolution grids offer a computationally less expensive way to provide more detailed information at regional scales and increased accuracy for processes that cannot be resolved by a coarser grid. This study uses the Model for Prediction Across Scales–Atmosphere (MPAS22A), consisting of a nonhydrostatic dynamical core and a subset of Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model atmospheric physics that have been modified to include the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) cloud fraction parameterization, to investigate the potential benefits of using increased resolution in an tropical channel. The simulations are performed with an idealized aquaplanet configurationmore » using two quasi-uniform grids, with 30 km and 240 km grid spacing, and two variable-resolution grids spanning the same grid spacing range; one with a narrow (20°S–20°N) and one with a wide (30°S–30°N) tropical channel refinement. Results show that increasing resolution in the tropics impacts both the tropical and extratropical circulation. Compared to the quasi-uniform coarse grid, the narrow-channel simulation exhibits stronger updrafts in the Ferrel cell as well as in the middle of the upward branch of the Hadley cell. The wider tropical channel has a closer correspondence to the 30 km quasi-uniform simulation. However, the total atmospheric poleward energy transports are similar in all simulations. The largest differences are in the low-level cloudiness. The refined channel simulations show improved tropical and extratropical precipitation relative to the global 240 km simulation when compared to the global 30 km simulation. All simulations have a single ITCZ. The relatively small differences in mean global and tropical precipitation rates among the simulations are a promising result, and the evidence points to the tropical channel being an effective method for avoiding the extraneous numerical artifacts seen in earlier

  7. Influence of Alloy and Solidification Parameters on Grain Refinement in Aluminum Weld Metal due to Inoculation

    SciTech Connect

    Schempp, Philipp [BAM, Germany; Tang, Z. [BIAS, Germany; Cross, Carl E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Seefeld, T. [BIAS, Germany; Pittner, A. [BAM, Germany; Rethmeier, M. [BAM, Germany

    2012-06-28

    The goals are: (1) Establish how much Ti/B grain refiner is need to completely refine aluminum weld metal for different alloys and different welding conditions; (2) Characterize how alloy composition and solidification parameters affect weld metal grain refinement; and (3) Apply relevant theory to understand observed behavior. Conclusions are: (1) additions of Ti/B grain refiner to weld metal in Alloys 1050, 5083, and 6082 resulted in significant grain refinement; (2) grain refinement was more effective in GTAW than LBW, resulting in finer grains at lower Ti content - reason is limited time available for equiaxed grain growth in LBW (inability to occlude columnar grain growth); (3) welding travel speed did not markedly affect grain size within GTAW and LBW clusters; and (4) application of Hunt CET analysis showed experimental G to be on the order of the critical G{sub CET}; G{sub CET} was consistently higher for GTAW than for LBW.

  8. Just the crude oil, please: The oil imports - refining capacity connection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Steep growth has brought crude oil imports converging with the amount of US crude oil production in 1993. Meanwhile, petroleum product imports into the US have been falling because, among other reasons, only a few refiners outside the US can produce refined products to the specifications of environmentally minded US legislators. As refiners have concentrated investment to produce clean fuels only in select facilities, supply and logistical challenges loom closely in the future.

  9. Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability 1995-2001

    Reports and Publications

    2003-01-01

    This report assesses the effects of pollution abatement requirements on the financial performance of U.S. petroleum refining and marketing operations during the 1995 to 2001 period. This study is a follow-up to the October 1997 publication entitled The Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability, that focused on the financial impacts of U.S. refining pollution abatement investment requirements in the 1988 to1995 period.

  10. ,"U.S. Sales for Resale, Total Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Resale, Total Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ...

  11. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1999 295 Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  12. Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District and State, 1984-Present (Cents per Gallon...

  13. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

  14. Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 401 Table A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District and State, 1984-Present (Cents per Gallon...

  15. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type (Million Gallons per Day) - Continued Year...

  16. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Marketing Annual 1999 421 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  17. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Marketing Annual 1995 467 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  18. Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    retail outlets, e.g., sales to agricultural customers, commercial sales, and industrial sales. Source: Energy Information Administration Form EIA-782A, "Refiners'Gas...

  19. EERE Success Story-Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum EERE Success Story-Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum April 9, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis W.R. Grace, a leading provider of refining technologies, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are co-leading an effort to accelerate the development of technologies that enable the processing of bio-oils in petroleum refineries. The ability to leverage existing petroleum-refining infrastructure to produce "drop-in" biofuels (biofuels that

  20. Regulations | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Information Center Regulations Regulations Personnel Security Regulations Click Here FOIA Regulations Click Here Privacy Act Regulations Click Here Whistleblower Protection ...

  1. Unclassified Foreign National Visits & Assignments Questionnaire

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Unclassified Foreign National Visits & Assignments Questionnaire |Welcome to U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management! We are looking forward to your visit or assignment with us. In order to comply with our security requirements and ensure that your time with the Department of Energy goes smoothly we need to obtain some information from you prior to your arrival. Please take a few minutes to provide the information requested below for each member of your party that is not a U.S.

  2. VOLTAGE REGULATOR

    DOEpatents

    Von Eschen, R.L.; Scheele, P.F.

    1962-04-24

    A transistorized voltage regulator which provides very close voitage regulation up to about 180 deg F is described. A diode in the positive line provides a constant voltage drop from the input to a regulating transistor emitter. An amplifier is coupled to the positive line through a resistor and is connected between a difference circuit and the regulating transistor base which is negative due to the difference in voltage drop across thc diode and the resistor so that a change in the regulator output causes the amplifier to increase or decrease the base voltage and current and incrcase or decrease the transistor impedance to return the regulator output to normal. (AEC)

  3. JLab Registration/International Services - Hosting Foreign Nationals

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Hosting Foreign Nationals Steps for Hosting Foreign National Visitors/Researchers stop Please be sure to follow ALL the required steps for hosting ALL foreign national visitor/researchers (also includes interview participants) coming to JLab. An Invitation letter is required at the port of entry for all non US citizens requesting a business visa (B-1, WB) to participate in research, workshop, conferences and meetings at JLab. These activities are prohibited with Tourist Visa (B-2, WT) Review of

  4. Bioremediation of petroleum wastes from the refining of lubricant oils

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, M.; Sambasivam, Y. )

    1993-02-01

    The results of an initial feasibility study on the bioremediation of sludge are presented. The sludge used in the study was taken from a site containing waste produced during the refining of lubricant oils to which sulfuric acid had been added. The effectiveness of bioremediation was examined using shake flask experiments with indigenous and other bacteria sources and nutrient supplementation. The initial results show limited effectiveness of biological treatment at conditions employing indigenous bacteria and low (2%) sludge concentrations in Bushnell-Haas media. In addition, the indigenous bacteria were seen to degrade the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons naphthalene, penanthrene and pyrene which are present at some locations at the site. No apparent degradation of material was seen using conditions of high (30%) sludge concentrations in Bushnell-Haas medium under a variety of conditions. In addition, nutrients were rapidly depleted at these sludge concentrations, with the exception of sulfates which were produced when high sludge concentrations were used. 23 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Advances in Patch-Based Adaptive Mesh Refinement Scalability

    SciTech Connect

    Gunney, Brian T.N.; Anderson, Robert W.

    2015-12-18

    Patch-based structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR) is widely used for high-resolution simu- lations. Combined with modern supercomputers, it could provide simulations of unprecedented size and resolution. A persistent challenge for this com- bination has been managing dynamically adaptive meshes on more and more MPI tasks. The dis- tributed mesh management scheme in SAMRAI has made some progress SAMR scalability, but early al- gorithms still had trouble scaling past the regime of 105 MPI tasks. This work provides two critical SAMR regridding algorithms, which are integrated into that scheme to ensure efficiency of the whole. The clustering algorithm is an extension of the tile- clustering approach, making it more flexible and efficient in both clustering and parallelism. The partitioner is a new algorithm designed to prevent the network congestion experienced by its prede- cessor. We evaluated performance using weak- and strong-scaling benchmarks designed to be difficult for dynamic adaptivity. Results show good scaling on up to 1.5M cores and 2M MPI tasks. Detailed timing diagnostics suggest scaling would continue well past that.

  6. Cosmos++: Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics on Unstructured Grids with Local Adaptive Refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Anninos, P; Fragile, P C; Salmonson, J D

    2005-05-06

    A new code and methodology are introduced for solving the fully general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) equations using time-explicit, finite-volume discretization. The code has options for solving the GRMHD equations using traditional artificial-viscosity (AV) or non-oscillatory central difference (NOCD) methods, or a new extended AV (eAV) scheme using artificial-viscosity together with a dual energy-flux-conserving formulation. The dual energy approach allows for accurate modeling of highly relativistic flows at boost factors well beyond what has been achieved to date by standard artificial viscosity methods. it provides the benefit of Godunov methods in capturing high Lorentz boosted flows but without complicated Riemann solvers, and the advantages of traditional artificial viscosity methods in their speed and flexibility. Additionally, the GRMHD equations are solved on an unstructured grid that supports local adaptive mesh refinement using a fully threated oct-tree (in three dimensions) network to traverse the grid hierarchy across levels and immediate neighbors. A number of tests are presented to demonstrate robustness of the numerical algorithms and adaptive mesh framework over a wide spectrum of problems, boosts, and astrophysical applications, including relativistic shock tubes, shock collisions, magnetosonic shocks, Alfven wave propagation, blast waves, magnetized Bondi flow, and the magneto-rotational instability in Kerr black hole spacetimes.

  7. Advances in Patch-Based Adaptive Mesh Refinement Scalability

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Gunney, Brian T.N.; Anderson, Robert W.

    2015-12-18

    Patch-based structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR) is widely used for high-resolution simu- lations. Combined with modern supercomputers, it could provide simulations of unprecedented size and resolution. A persistent challenge for this com- bination has been managing dynamically adaptive meshes on more and more MPI tasks. The dis- tributed mesh management scheme in SAMRAI has made some progress SAMR scalability, but early al- gorithms still had trouble scaling past the regime of 105 MPI tasks. This work provides two critical SAMR regridding algorithms, which are integrated into that scheme to ensure efficiency of the whole. The clustering algorithm is an extensionmore » of the tile- clustering approach, making it more flexible and efficient in both clustering and parallelism. The partitioner is a new algorithm designed to prevent the network congestion experienced by its prede- cessor. We evaluated performance using weak- and strong-scaling benchmarks designed to be difficult for dynamic adaptivity. Results show good scaling on up to 1.5M cores and 2M MPI tasks. Detailed timing diagnostics suggest scaling would continue well past that.« less

  8. ORISE: Securing the Golden State from threats foreign and domestic

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ORISE helps California emergency planners with innovative training on state and local levels To protect the state of California from both foreign and domestic threats, ORISE ...

  9. Security of Foreign Intelligence Information and Sensitive Compartmented Information Facilities

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1993-07-23

    The order establishes responsibilities and authorities for protecting Foreign Intelligence Information (FII) and Sensitive Compartmented Information Facilities (SCIFs) within DOE. Supersedes DOE 5639.8.

  10. Microsoft PowerPoint - Foreign Obligations_Julie Hawkins [Compatibilit...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    treatiesagreements for peaceful uses of uranium Exports tied to assurances of ... Notice for Import of Foreign Obligated Uranium 5 Reconciling receipts to these ...

  11. Headquarters Facilities Master Security Plan - Chapter 6, Foreign...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    When authorized by a treaty or international agreement, some DOE classified information can be shared with foreign government representatives. Unclassified information can be ...

  12. Laboratory Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs) with Foreign Partners

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2012-05-14

    This memorandum establishes policy and procedures for any Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs) between DOE National Laboratories and any foreign entity, whether governmental or private.

  13. Aspects of Western Refining, Inc.'s Proposed Acquisition of Giant Industries, Inc.

    Reports and Publications

    2006-01-01

    Presentation of company-level, non-proprietary data and relevant aggregate data for U.S. refinery capacity and gasoline marketing of Western Refining and Giant Industries to inform discussions of Western Refining Inc.'s proposed acquisition of Giant Industries Inc. for a total of $1.5 billion, which was announced August 28, 2006.

  14. ,"No. 2 Diesel Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day)","New Mexico No 2 Diesel Retail Sales by Refiners ...17.9,1773.9,,,781.9,,3446.1,296.5,,,,129.9,2030.1,,,,182.8,,416.2,,60.5,369.8,1495.2,,76.6...

  15. PIA - e-Foreign Ownership, Control, or Influence (FOCI) | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy PIA - e-Foreign Ownership, Control, or Influence (FOCI) PIA - e-Foreign Ownership, Control, or Influence (FOCI) June 25, 2008 PIA - e-Foreign Ownership, Control, or Influence (FOCI) PIA - e-Foreign Ownership, Control, or Influence (FOCI) (343.72 KB) More Documents & Publications PIA - Weapons Data Control Systems PIA - FITPLUS PIA - Foreign Travel Management System (FTMS)

  16. Impact of oxygenates on petroleum refining, review and forecast

    SciTech Connect

    Unzelman, G.H.

    1995-09-01

    During the coming decade, oxygenates will continue to impact light oil processing and will steadily change the composition of the US gasoline pool. There are several major driving forces that will sustain the gradual influx of oxygen to US gasoline toward the regulatory limits: (1) the positive environmental characteristics of oxygenated compounds, (2) the high-octane quality of ethers that promote elimination of less desirable hydrocarbons and (3) the competitive need for ultra-clean gasoline to compete with alternatives. From 1995 forward, conventional gasoline will gradually shift to RFG (reformulated gasoline) containing a minimum of 2 wt% oxygen and less aromatics. As a result some processing changes, already in motion in the refining industry, will continue. For example, less severe naphtha reforming and cracking innovations to yield more feed for etherification and alkylation. While alternative fuel and vehicle technology will continue to develop, oxygenates in US gasoline will contribute the major alternative dimension to transportation fuel in the foreseeable future. With RFG, internal-combustion engine emissions will be progressively less toxic and lower in photochemical reactivity. The oxygenate mix will favor methyl ethers in spite of the recent methanol price spike. Ethyl ethers will be used on a more limited basis for specific situations where lower volatility and feedstock economics are an advantage. Downstream blending of ethanol will supplement ethers blended at the refinery in situations where economics are more favorable than refinery ethers. Long-range survival of ethanol, as a direct blending agent or feedstock for refinery ethers, depends on one or more of several factors: future crude oil costs, longevity of subsidies and/or mandates, and new production technology based on cellulose yielding ethanol economically competitive with hydrocarbons.

  17. RAM: a Relativistic Adaptive Mesh Refinement Hydrodynamics Code

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei-Qun; MacFadyen, Andrew I.; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

    2005-06-06

    The authors have developed a new computer code, RAM, to solve the conservative equations of special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) on parallel computers. They have implemented a characteristic-wise, finite difference, weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme using the full characteristic decomposition of the SRHD equations to achieve fifth-order accuracy in space. For time integration they use the method of lines with a third-order total variation diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme. They have also implemented fourth and fifth order Runge-Kutta time integration schemes for comparison. The implementation of AMR and parallelization is based on the FLASH code. RAM is modular and includes the capability to easily swap hydrodynamics solvers, reconstruction methods and physics modules. In addition to WENO they have implemented a finite volume module with the piecewise parabolic method (PPM) for reconstruction and the modified Marquina approximate Riemann solver to work with TVD Runge-Kutta time integration. They examine the difficulty of accurately simulating shear flows in numerical relativistic hydrodynamics codes. They show that under-resolved simulations of simple test problems with transverse velocity components produce incorrect results and demonstrate the ability of RAM to correctly solve these problems. RAM has been tested in one, two and three dimensions and in Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates. they have demonstrated fifth-order accuracy for WENO in one and two dimensions and performed detailed comparison with other schemes for which they show significantly lower convergence rates. Extensive testing is presented demonstrating the ability of RAM to address challenging open questions in relativistic astrophysics.

  18. Problems with packaged sources in foreign countries

    SciTech Connect

    Abeyta, Cristy L; Matzke, James L; Zarling, John; Tompkin, J. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Off-Site Source Recovery Project (OSRP), which is administered by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), removes excess, unwanted, abandoned, or orphan radioactive sealed sources that pose a potential threat to national security, public health, and safety. In total, GTRI/OSRP has been able to recover more than 25,000 excess and unwanted sealed sources from over 825 sites. In addition to transuranic sources, the GTRI/OSRP mission now includes recovery of beta/gamma emitting sources, which are of concern to both the U.S. government and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This paper provides a synopsis of cooperative efforts in foreign countries to remove excess and unwanted sealed sources by discussing three topical areas: (1) The Regional Partnership with the International Atomic Energy Agency; (2) Challenges in repatriating sealed sources; and (3) Options for repatriating sealed sources.

  19. Visa Document Guidelines Required for Travel Reimbursement for Foreign National Visitors

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Visa Document Guidelines Required for Travel Reimbursement for Foreign National Visitors JLab is a national laboratory supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and, as such, we must follow the regulations of the DOE and the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) relating to reimbursement of travel expenses. For visitors who are not U.S. citizens these include a number of requirements that are stringent and, at the same, time not so obvious. Please read this page carefully and

  20. An adaptive mesh-moving and refinement procedure for one-dimensional conservation laws

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, R.; Flaherty, J.E.; Arney, D.C. Rensselaer Polytech. Inst., Troy, NY Military Acad., West Point, NY )

    1993-01-01

    We examine the performance of an adaptive mesh-moving and /or local mesh refinement procedure for the finite difference solution of one-dimensional hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. Adaptive motion of a base mesh is designed to isolate spatially distinct phenomena, and recursive local refinement of the time step and cells of the stationary or moving base mesh is performed in regions where a refinement indicator exceeds a prescribed tolerance. These adaptive procedures are incorporated into a computer code that includes a MacCormack finite difference scheme wih Davis' artificial viscosity model and a discretization error estimate based on Richardson's extrapolation. Experiments are conducted on three problems in order to qualify the advantages of adaptive techniques relative to uniform mesh computations and the relative benefits of mesh moving and refinement. Key results indicate that local mesh refinement, with and without mesh moving, can provide reliable solutions at much lower computational cost than possible on uniform meshes; that mesh motion can be used to improve the results of uniform mesh solutions for a modest computational effort; that the cost of managing the tree data structure associated with refinement is small; and that a combination of mesh motion and refinement reliably produces solutions for the least cost per unit accuracy.

  1. Influence of Aluminum Content on Grain Refinement and Strength of AZ31 Magnesium GTA Weld Metal

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, N. Kishore; Cross, Carl E.

    2012-06-28

    The goal is to characterize the effect of Al content on AZ31 weld metal, the grain size and strength, and examine role of Al on grain refinement. The approach is to systematically vary the aluminum content of AZ31 weld metal, Measure average grain size in weld metal, and Measure cross-weld tensile properties and hardness. Conclusions are that: (1) increased Al content in AZ31 weld metal results in grain refinement Reason: higher undercooling during solidification; (2) weld metal grain refinement resulted in increased strength & hardness Reason: grain boundary strengthening; and (3) weld metal strength can be raised to wrought base metal levels.

  2. Fact #676: May 23, 2011 U.S. Refiners Produce about 19 Gallons of Gasoline

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    from a Barrel of Oil | Department of Energy 6: May 23, 2011 U.S. Refiners Produce about 19 Gallons of Gasoline from a Barrel of Oil Fact #676: May 23, 2011 U.S. Refiners Produce about 19 Gallons of Gasoline from a Barrel of Oil A standard U.S. barrel contains 42 gallons of crude oil which yields about 44 gallons of petroleum products. The additional 2 gallons of petroleum products come from refiner gains which result in an additional 6% of product. As shown in the figure below, a little more

  3. FIA-15-0002 - In the Matter of Alon Refining Krotz Springs, Inc. |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy 2 - In the Matter of Alon Refining Krotz Springs, Inc. FIA-15-0002 - In the Matter of Alon Refining Krotz Springs, Inc. This Decision concerns an Appeal that Alon Refining Krotz Springs, Inc. (Alon) filed in response to a determination that was issued to it by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Information Resources (OIR). In that determination, the OIR replied to a request for documents that Alon submitted under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), 5 U.S.C. §

  4. WC_1993_014_CLASS_WAIVER_of_the_Governments_US_and_Foreign_P...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    WC1993014CLASSWAIVERoftheGovernmentsUSandForeignP.pdf WC1993014CLASSWAIVERoftheGovernmentsUSandForeignP.pdf (725.57 KB) More Documents & Publications ...

  5. WC_1992_002_CLASS_WAIVER_of_the_Government_US_and_Foreign_Pa...

    Energy Saver

    2002CLASSWAIVERoftheGovernmentUSandForeignPa.pdf WC1992002CLASSWAIVERoftheGovernmentUSandForeignPa.pdf WC1992002CLASSWAIVERoftheGovernmentUSandForeig...

  6. Plants found to regulate leaf temperature to boost carbon uptake

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Plants found to regulate leaf temperature to boost carbon uptake Plants found to regulate leaf temperature to boost carbon uptake The research offers promise for refining Earth system models that help predict climate change impacts and feedbacks. August 30, 2016 The thermal traits of a leaf, critical for photosynthesis, may be under strong evolutionary selection that occurs in response to environmental temperatures. Here a thermal leaf image details temperature variation, which greatly affects

  7. Emissions credit trading: A new revenue stream for refiners

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, J.; Hirshfeld, D.

    1994-12-31

    This presentation describes several innovations in the fossil fuels and automotive/petroleum industries which have been improved or invented as a result of the necessity to comply with Clean Air Act regulations. Such innovations as boiler modifications, usage of low-sulfur coal, improved combustion, pre-combustion cleaning of coal, reformulated gasolines, and oxygenated fuels have all contributed to reductions in air pollution emissions from fossil fuel-powered plants and automotive emissions. Market alternatives for reducing the impacts of the usage of fossil fuels and automotive emissions on the ozone layer are also described.

  8. Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    A3. RefinerReseller Prices of Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Geographic Area Year No. 1 Distillate No. 2...

  9. Process for solvent refining of coal using a denitrogenated and dephenolated solvent

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Allentown, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A process is disclosed for the solvent refining of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures and pressure in a hydrogen atmosphere using a hydrocarbon solvent which before being recycled in the solvent refining process is subjected to chemical treatment to extract substantially all nitrogenous and phenolic constituents from the solvent so as to improve the conversion of coal and the production of oil in the solvent refining process. The solvent refining process can be either thermal or catalytic. The extraction of nitrogenous compounds can be performed by acid contact such as hydrogen chloride or fluoride treatment, while phenolic extraction can be performed by caustic contact or contact with a mixture of silica and alumina.

  10. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    839.2 135.0 1,251.9 See footnotes at end of table. 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State Energy Information Administration ...

  11. Table 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    3.3 3.4 7.9 3.3 W 11.3 See footnotes at end of table. 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 26 Energy Information Administration ...

  12. Table 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    88.4 87.8 80.1 70.0 NA 72.6 See footnotes at end of table. 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 16 Energy Information Administration ...

  13. Table 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    5.7 5.9 4.4 12.9 NA 17.3 See footnotes at end of table. 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 18 Energy Information Administration ...

  14. Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    92.8 92.5 84.0 72.5 W 80.7 See footnotes at end of table. 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 24 Energy Information Administration ...

  15. Table 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    87.4 86.9 78.3 68.5 W 70.8 See footnotes at end of table. 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 16 Energy Information Administration ...

  16. Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    92.4 92.1 83.7 74.1 W 80.9 See footnotes at end of table. 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 24 Energy Information Administration ...

  17. Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    98.0 98.0 86.6 75.0 - 80.1 See footnotes at end of table. 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 20 Energy Information Administration ...

  18. Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    94.0 93.9 83.2 73.8 - 79.3 See footnotes at end of table. 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 20 Energy Information Administration ...

  19. Table 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    3.6 3.7 7.9 3.1 W 11.0 See footnotes at end of table. 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 26 Energy Information Administration ...

  20. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    NA 26.6 See footnotes at end of table. 14 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type...

  1. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    NA 27.4 See footnotes at end of table. 14 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type...

  2. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    - W 73.5 See footnotes at end of table. A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present Energy Information Administration ...

  3. Table 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0.1 18.7 See footnotes at end of table. 18 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade...

  4. Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrino, Joan; Brueske, Sabine; Carole, Tracy; Andres, Howard

    2007-11-01

    This 2007 report provides an overview of the U.S. petroleum refining industry, including new data on market trends and energy and material consumption, as well as information on environmental performance.

  5. Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability

    Reports and Publications

    1997-01-01

    Assesses the effects of pollution abatement requirements on the financial performance of U.S. petroleum refining and marketing operations. The analysis draws heavily on financial and operating data from the Energy Information Administration's Financial Reporting System (FRS).

  6. Fact #676: May 23, 2011 U.S. Refiners Produce about 19 Gallons...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    A standard U.S. barrel contains 42 gallons of crude oil which yields about 44 gallons of ... and 10 gallons of diesel fuel are produced from a barrel of crudeoil by U.S. refiners. ...

  7. Our Dependence on Foreign Oil Is Declining | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Dependence on Foreign Oil Is Declining Our Dependence on Foreign Oil Is Declining March 1, 2012 - 11:02am Addthis Image courtesy of whitehouse.gov Image courtesy of whitehouse.gov Megan Slack Deputy Director of Digital Content, White House Office of Digital Strategy What are the key facts? America's dependence on foreign oil has decreased every year since President Obama took office. We need an all-out, all-of-the-above strategy to protect Americans from high energy prices in the long run.

  8. Refinements in the Los Alamos model of the prompt fission neutron spectrum

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Published Article: Refinements in the Los Alamos model of the prompt fission neutron spectrum Title: Refinements in the Los Alamos model of the prompt fission neutron spectrum Authors: Madland, D. G. ; Kahler, A. C. Publication Date: 2017-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1326113 Grant/Contract Number: AC5206NA25396 Type: Published Article Journal Name: Nuclear Physics. A Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 957; Journal Issue: C; Related Information: CHORUS

  9. Italian IGCC project sets pace for new refining era

    SciTech Connect

    Del Bravo, R.; Starace, F.; Chellini, I.M.; Chiantore, P.V.

    1996-12-09

    A joint venture company, api Energia S.p.A., is starting construction of a 280 mw integrated gasification combined cycle plant (IGCC) that will generate electricity for the Italian grid and steam in a refinery on Italy` Adriatic coast. The refinery will supply the heavy residue for the gasifiers. This is one of the three IGCC plants planned for construction in Italy following the liberalization of the electricity production sector there and the introduction of specific government decrees that regulate the exchange and wheeling of electricity. By the year 2000, approximately 1,300 mw of electricity produced by heavy residues with IGCC will be put on the Italian grid. The paper describes the project, its sponsors plant configuration for gasification, the combined cycle power plant, auxiliary systems, the economics, and contracts.

  10. Profiles of foreign direct investment in US energy, 1991. [Contains a table of completed foreign direct investment transactions for 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Profiles of Foreign Direct Investment in US Energy 1991 describes the role of foreign ownership in US energy enterprises, with respect to investment, energy operations, and financial performance. Additionally, since energy investments are made in a global context, outward investment in energy is reviewed trough an examination of US-based companies' patterns of investment in foreign petroleum. The data used in this report come from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the US Department of Commerce, company annual reports, and public disclosures of investment transactions.

  11. Acquisition Regulation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... The guidance contained herein is intended to serve as interim guidance for DOE until such time as the DOE Acquisition Regulation (DEAR) is amended to implement this policy on a ...

  12. Rob Goldston, Alex Glaser and Boaz Barak named among Foreign...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Editors of Foreign Policy magazine have named fusion physicist Rob Goldston, a Princeton ... of nuclear weapons since the Cold War, he added, "much more needs to and can be done." ...

  13. State Administration for Foreign Exchange | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    State Administration for Foreign Exchange Jump to: navigation, search TODO: More information needed This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. China's State...

  14. Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-10-08

    The order establishes the requirements and responsibilities for DOE in meeting its statutory obligations for the review of covered transactions filed with the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS). Admin Chg 1, dated 4-21-14.

  15. Grain refinement of permanent mold cast copper base alloys. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sadayappan, M.; Thomson, J. P.; Elboujdaini, M.; Gu, G. Ping; Sahoo, M.

    2004-04-29

    Grain refinement behavior of copper alloys cast in permanent molds was investigated. This is one of the least studied subjects in copper alloy castings. Grain refinement is not widely practiced for leaded copper alloys cast in sand molds. Aluminum bronzes and high strength yellow brasses, cast in sand and permanent molds, were usually fine grained due to the presence of more than 2% iron. Grain refinement of the most common permanent mold casting alloys, leaded yellow brass and its lead-free replacement EnviroBrass III, is not universally accepted due to the perceived problem of hard spots in finished castings and for the same reason these alloys contain very low amounts of iron. The yellow brasses and Cu-Si alloys are gaining popularity in North America due to their low lead content and amenability for permanent mold casting. These alloys are prone to hot tearing in permanent mold casting. Grain refinement is one of the solutions for reducing this problem. However, to use this technique it is necessary to understand the mechanism of grain refinement and other issues involved in the process. The following issues were studied during this three year project funded by the US Department of Energy and the copper casting industry: (1) Effect of alloying additions on the grain size of Cu-Zn alloys and their interaction with grain refiners; (2) Effect of two grain refining elements, boron and zirconium, on the grain size of four copper alloys, yellow brass, EnviroBrass II, silicon brass and silicon bronze and the duration of their effect (fading); (3) Prediction of grain refinement using cooling curve analysis and use of this method as an on-line quality control tool; (4) Hard spot formation in yellow brass and EnviroBrass due to grain refinement; (5) Corrosion resistance of the grain refined alloys; (6) Transfer the technology to permanent mold casting foundries; It was found that alloying elements such as tin and zinc do not change the grain size of Cu-Zn alloys

  16. Foreign Travel Health & Wellness Information | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Wellness Programs » Foreign Travel Health & Wellness Information Foreign Travel Health & Wellness Information All travelers should take the following precautions, no matter the destination: Wash hands often with soap and water. Because motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury among travelers, walk and drive defensively; avoid travel at night if possible and always use seat belts. Don't eat or drink dairy products unless you know they have been pasteurized. Never eat

  17. A Tradition of Welcoming Foreign Scientists and Engineers

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Tradition National Security Science Latest Issue:April 2016 past issues All Issues » submit A Tradition of Welcoming Foreign Scientists and Engineers Nuclear scientists, including future Nobel laureates, fleeing fascist persecution found a new home at Los Alamos during World War II, where they made a huge contribution to U.S. nuclear weapons research. July 1, 2015 A Tradition of Welcoming Foreign Scientists and Engineers Legendary Nobel Prize-winning physicist Hans Bethe with Enrico Fermi,

  18. Bush Administration Establishes Program to Reduce Foreign Oil Dependency,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy Establishes Program to Reduce Foreign Oil Dependency, Greenhouse Gases Bush Administration Establishes Program to Reduce Foreign Oil Dependency, Greenhouse Gases April 10, 2007 - 12:34pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - In step with the Bush Administration's call to increase the supply of alternative and renewable fuels nationwide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today established the nation's first comprehensive Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) program.

  19. The Department of Energy's Management of Foreign Travel, IG-0872

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    The Department of Energy's Management of Foreign Travel DOE/IG-0872 October 2012 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inspector General Office of Audits and Inspections Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 October 16, 2012 MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY FROM: Gregory H. Friedman Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Management Alert: "The Department of Energy's Management of Foreign Travel" INTRODUCTION The Department of Energy and its workforce of 116,000 Federal and contractor

  20. Impact of oxygenates on petroleum refining part 2: Future outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Unzelman, G.H.

    1995-07-01

    With the move to a more conservative political outlook in the U.S. in 1995, some have voiced the opinion there may be resistance to the Clean Air Act and specifically to reformulated gasoline (RFG). There has been some evidence that substantiates early resistance to RFG, brought about by price hikes as high as 10 cents/gal at the pump. Pennsylvania, Maine, New York and Wisconsin have elected to {open_quotes}opt out{close_quotes} about 200,000 b/d of RFG. Certainly a move of this nature may slow the {open_quotes}opt in{close_quotes} movement in other areas of the U.S. On the other hand, the basic RFG program for nine critical areas in the U.S. will remain in place, and as air-quality limits are exceeded in other regions, they will be forced into the program. The movement toward cleaner air is worldwide, and the U.S. has been a leader in fuel reformulation for the past 25 years. While the movement may falter for various reasons, and fine tuning of regulations is inevitable, the ultimate result will be a U.S. gasoline pool that is largely reformulated - and the presence of oxygenates is fundamental to reformulation.

  1. Economic incentives for US refiners to process incremental domestic heavy crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Guillermo, G.U.

    1995-12-31

    Faced with declining domestic crude supplies and increasing refined product demands, U.S. refiners devote a great deal of attention to securing alternate sources of crude oil. In addition to the traditional and cost-effective choice of imports, a potentially viable source is domestic heavy crude oil. Working with the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractor, the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bonner & Moore undertook a project to ascertain the necessary adjustments U.S. refiners would need to make in order to process incremental amounts of heavy crude oil added to domestic refining slates between now and 2010. Results of this study indicated that significant economic investments would be required in order to process these crudes; processing of lighter imports, however, would remain substantially less costly. It would seem, then, that U.S. refiners would elect to process imports over incremental domestic heavy crudes unless they were offered some type of economic incentive to process the heavy oil. This paper addresses the issue of what those economic incentives could be.

  2. Need for refining capacity creates opportunities for producers in Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, M.S.S. )

    1994-07-11

    Oil industry interest in refining has revived in the past few years in response to rising oil consumption. The trend creates opportunities, for countries in the Middle East, which do not own refining assets nearly in proportion to their crude oil reserved. By closing this gap between reserves and refining capacity, the countries can ease some of the instability now characteristic of the oil market. Some major oil producing countries have begun to move downstream. During the 1980s, Venezuela, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Libya, and other members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries acquired refining assets through direct total purchase or joint ventures. Nevertheless, the oil industry remains largely unintegrated, with the Middle East holding two thirds of worldwide oil reserves but only a small share downstream. As worldwide refining capacity swings from a period of surplus toward one in which the need for new capacity will be built. The paper discusses background of the situation, shrinking surplus, investment requirements, sources of capital, and shipping concerns.

  3. An adaptive grid refinement strategy for the simulation of negative streamers

    SciTech Connect

    Montijn, C. . E-mail: carolynne.montijn@cwi.nl; Hundsdorfer, W. . E-mail: willem.hundsdorfer@cwi.nl; Ebert, U. . E-mail: ute.ebert@cwi.nl

    2006-12-10

    The evolution of negative streamers during electric breakdown of a non-attaching gas can be described by a two-fluid model for electrons and positive ions. It consists of continuity equations for the charged particles including drift, diffusion and reaction in the local electric field, coupled to the Poisson equation for the electric potential. The model generates field enhancement and steep propagating ionization fronts at the tip of growing ionized filaments. An adaptive grid refinement method for the simulation of these structures is presented. It uses finite volume spatial discretizations and explicit time stepping, which allows the decoupling of the grids for the continuity equations from those for the Poisson equation. Standard refinement methods in which the refinement criterion is based on local error monitors fail due to the pulled character of the streamer front that propagates into a linearly unstable state. We present a refinement method which deals with all these features. Tests on one-dimensional streamer fronts as well as on three-dimensional streamers with cylindrical symmetry (hence effectively 2D for numerical purposes) are carried out successfully. Results on fine grids are presented, they show that such an adaptive grid method is needed to capture the streamer characteristics well. This refinement strategy enables us to adequately compute negative streamers in pure gases in the parameter regime where a physical instability appears: branching streamers.

  4. Adaptive h -refinement for reduced-order models: ADAPTIVE h -refinement for reduced-order models

    SciTech Connect

    Carlberg, Kevin T.

    2014-11-05

    Our work presents a method to adaptively refine reduced-order models a posteriori without requiring additional full-order-model solves. The technique is analogous to mesh-adaptive h-refinement: it enriches the reduced-basis space online by ‘splitting’ a given basis vector into several vectors with disjoint support. The splitting scheme is defined by a tree structure constructed offline via recursive k-means clustering of the state variables using snapshot data. This method identifies the vectors to split online using a dual-weighted-residual approach that aims to reduce error in an output quantity of interest. The resulting method generates a hierarchy of subspaces online without requiring large-scale operations or full-order-model solves. Furthermore, it enables the reduced-order model to satisfy any prescribed error tolerance regardless of its original fidelity, as a completely refined reduced-order model is mathematically equivalent to the original full-order model. Experiments on a parameterized inviscid Burgers equation highlight the ability of the method to capture phenomena (e.g., moving shocks) not contained in the span of the original reduced basis.

  5. Refining of fossil resin flotation concentrate from western coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, G.F.; Miller, J.D.

    1995-02-16

    During the past several years, significant research efforts have been made to develop process technology for the selective flotation of fossil resin from western coals. As a result of these efforts, several new flotation technologies have been developed. Operation of a proof-of-concept continuous flotation circuit showed the selective flotation process to be sufficiently profitable to justify the development of a fossil resin industry. However, little attention has been given to the refining of the fossil resin flotation concentrate although solvent refining is a critical step for the fossil resin to become a marketable product. In view of this situation, DOE funded this two-year project to evaluate the following aspects of the fossil resin refining technology: 1) Characterization of the fossil resin flotation concentrate and its refined products; 2) Kinetics of fossil resin extraction; 3) Effects of operating variables on solvent extraction; 4) Extraction solvents; 5) Proof-of-concept continuous refining tests; and 6) Technical and economic analysis. The results from this research effort have led to the following conclusions: Hexane- or heptane-refined fossil resin has a light-yellow color, a melting point of 140 - 142{degrees}C, a density of 1.034 gram/cm, and good solubility in nonpolar solvents. Among the four solvents evaluated (hexane, heptane, toluene and ethyl acetate), hexane is the most appropriate solvent based on overall technical and economic considerations. Batch extraction tests and kinetic studies suggest that the main interaction between the resin and the solvent is expected to be the forces associated with solvation phenomena. Temperature has the most significant effect on extraction rate. With hexane as the solvent, a recovery of 90% cam be achieved at 50{degrees}C and 10% solids concentration with moderate agitation for 1 hour.

  6. Free kick instead of cross-validation in maximum-likelihood refinement of macromolecular crystal structures

    SciTech Connect

    Pranikar, Jure [Institute Joef Stefan, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); University of Primorska, (Slovenia); Turk, Duan, E-mail: dusan.turk@ijs.si [Institute Joef Stefan, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Center of Excellence for Integrated Approaches in Chemistry and Biology of Proteins, (Slovenia)

    2014-12-01

    The maximum-likelihood free-kick target, which calculates model error estimates from the work set and a randomly displaced model, proved superior in the accuracy and consistency of refinement of crystal structures compared with the maximum-likelihood cross-validation target, which calculates error estimates from the test set and the unperturbed model. The refinement of a molecular model is a computational procedure by which the atomic model is fitted to the diffraction data. The commonly used target in the refinement of macromolecular structures is the maximum-likelihood (ML) function, which relies on the assessment of model errors. The current ML functions rely on cross-validation. They utilize phase-error estimates that are calculated from a small fraction of diffraction data, called the test set, that are not used to fit the model. An approach has been developed that uses the work set to calculate the phase-error estimates in the ML refinement from simulating the model errors via the random displacement of atomic coordinates. It is called ML free-kick refinement as it uses the ML formulation of the target function and is based on the idea of freeing the model from the model bias imposed by the chemical energy restraints used in refinement. This approach for the calculation of error estimates is superior to the cross-validation approach: it reduces the phase error and increases the accuracy of molecular models, is more robust, provides clearer maps and may use a smaller portion of data for the test set for the calculation of R{sub free} or may leave it out completely.

  7. New Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear Plants |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear Plants New Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear Plants January 31, 2012 - 2:09pm Addthis The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) released a new seismic study today that will help U.S. nuclear facilities in the central and eastern United States reassess seismic hazards. The Central and Eastern United

  8. Appendices: Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    DE P A R T M E N U E N I T E D S T A T S O F A E R IC A M Office of Energy Efficency and Renewable Energy U.S. Department of Energy Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries Appendices Appendices (This page intentionally left blank.) Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical

  9. ,"U.S. Aviation Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Aviation Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Aviation Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes",2,"Monthly","8/2016","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","11/1/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","12/1/2016" ,"Excel File

  10. ,"U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes",2,"Monthly","8/2016","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","11/1/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","12/1/2016" ,"Excel File

  11. ,"U.S. Total Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Total Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil",3,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1968" ,"Release Date:","11/1/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","12/1/2016" ,"Excel File

  12. Honduras geothermal development: Regulations and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.J.; Winchester, W.W.

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) through the Assistant Secretary for Policy, Planning, and Evaluation funded a project to review and evaluate existing power sector laws and regulations in Honduras. Also included in the scope of the project was a review of regulations pertaining to the privatization of state-run companies. We paid particular attention to regulations which might influence opportunities to develop and commercialize Honduras` geothermal resources. We believe that Honduras is well on the road to attracting foreign investment and has planned or has already in place much of the infrastructure and legal guarantees which encourage the influx of private funds from abroad. In addition, in light of current power rationing and Honduras` new and increasing awareness of the negative effects of power sector development on the environment, geothermal energy development is even more attractive. Combined, these factors create a variety of opportunities. The potential for private sector development of geothermal positive.

  13. Comparison of selected foreign plans and practices for spent fuel and high-level waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Hazelton, R.F.; Bradley, D.J.

    1990-04-01

    This report describes the major parameters for management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes in selected foreign countries as of December 1989 and compares them with those in the United States. The foreign countries included in this study are Belgium, Canada, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. All the countries are planning for disposal of spent fuel and/or high-level wastes in deep geologic repositories. Most countries (except Canada and Sweden) plan to reprocess their spent fuel and vitrify the resultant high-level liquid wastes; in comparison, the US plans direct disposal of spent fuel. The US is planning to use a container for spent fuel as the primary engineered barrier. The US has the most developed repository concept and has one of the earliest scheduled repository startup dates. The repository environment presently being considered in the US is unique, being located in tuff above the water table. The US also has the most prescriptive regulations and performance requirements for the repository system and its components. 135 refs., 8 tabs.

  14. Acquisition Regulation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    6 Rev. 1 Date 09/09/2015 Department of Energy No. FAL 2015-04 Rev. 1 Date 09/09/2015 Financial Assistance Regulations ACQUISITION/FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE LETTER This Acquisition/Financial Assistance Letter is issued under the authority of the Senior Procurement Executive of DOE. It is intended for use by procurement professionals of DOE, primarily Contracting Officers, and other officials of DOE that are involved in the acquisition process. Other parties are welcome to its information, but

  15. Taxation of foreign oil and gas income: a primer

    SciTech Connect

    Lashbrooke, E.C. Jr.

    1983-06-01

    The United States, just like many other countries of the world, uses the source of income, residence, citizenship, or a combination thereof as its bases of taxation. This makes double taxation, the result of a home and host countries both taxing the same income, an obstacle in the way of international investment and technology. Allowing a tax credit for certain taxes paid to foreign sovereigns is the American approach to help alleviate the double taxation problem. Special effort is taken to define foreign oil and gas extraction income (FOGEI) and foreign oil-related income (FORI) as they pertain to taxation. Several examples illustrate the latest means for calculating FOGEI and FORI taxable income based on the 1982 and 1983 limitations and provisions which were set forth in the Internal Revenue Code. 175 references.

  16. Studies on design of a process for organo-refining of coal to obtain super clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, C.S.; Sharma, D.K.

    1999-08-01

    Organo-refining of coal results in refining the coal to obtain super clean coal and residual coal. Super clean coal may be used to obtain value added chemicals, products, and cleaner fuels from coal. In the present work, studies on the design of a semicontinuous process for organo-refining of one ton of coal have been made. The results are reported. This is only a cursory attempt for the design, and further studies may be required for designing this process for use in the development of a scaled-up process of organo-refining of coal.

  17. Interim Guidance on DOE Personal Property Foreign Transactions

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The attached Acquisition Letter provides interim direction and procedural guidance to DOE and NNSA on proper protocol for personal property transactions executed with foreign entities, to include property title transfers, loans and abandonments and pertains to personal property in the hand of the Federal government, contractor or a third party. Direction and guidance is specific to accountable personal property, as defined in DOE Order 580.1. Guidance in this Acquisition Letter shall be followed until DOE Order 580.1 is updated to include foreign transactions.

  18. Hosting foreign educators | Y-12 National Security Complex

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Hosting foreign educators Hosting foreign educators Posted: November 27, 2013 - 11:16am Six Indonesian educators (seated) met with Y-12, UT’s Institute for Nuclear Security, and ORNL experts to learn about Y-12’s role in U.S. nuclear security. Y-12, in support of the University of Tennessee's Institute for Nuclear Security, recently welcomed a group of professors from Indonesia's Universitas Gadjah Mada, the only university in Indonesia that offers a nuclear engineering program. As part of a

  19. Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    71.6 92.3 78.2 101.8 83.6 87.5 74.7 See footnotes at end of table. A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District, and State, 1984-Present 452 Energy Information...

  20. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    61.5 67.3 89.8 89.5 82.2 69.4 71.1 74.9 See footnotes at end of table. 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 12 Energy Information Administration ...

  1. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    35.2 213.6 9.5 9.8 12.9 16.6 NA 29.5 See footnotes at end of table. 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 14 Energy Information Administration ...

  2. Table 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    W 5.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 - 0.9 See footnotes at end of table. 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 22 Energy Information Administration ...

  3. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    62.2 68.5 90.1 89.6 82.4 70.9 NA 75.9 See footnotes at end of table. 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 12 Energy Information Administration ...

  4. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    33.9 215.8 9.7 10.0 12.1 16.3 0.0 28.4 See footnotes at end of table. 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 14 Energy Information Administration ...

  5. Table 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    - 4.9 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 - 0.7 See footnotes at end of table. 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 22 Energy Information Administration ...

  6. Towards solution and refinement of organic crystal structures by fitting to the atomic pair distribution function

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Prill, Dragica; Juhas, Pavol; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a method towards the solution and refinement of organic crystal structures by fitting to the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) is developed. Approximate lattice parameters and molecular geometry must be given as input. The molecule is generally treated as a rigid body. The positions and orientations of the molecules inside the unit cell are optimized starting from random values. The PDF is obtained from carefully measured X-ray powder diffraction data. The method resembles `real-space' methods for structure solution from powder data, but works with PDF data instead of the diffraction pattern itself. As such it may bemore » used in situations where the organic compounds are not long-range-ordered, are poorly crystalline, or nanocrystalline. The procedure was applied to solve and refine the crystal structures of quinacridone (β phase), naphthalene and allopurinol. In the case of allopurinol it was even possible to successfully solve and refine the structure in P1 with four independent molecules. As an example of a flexible molecule, the crystal structure of paracetamol was refined using restraints for bond lengths, bond angles and selected torsion angles. In all cases, the resulting structures are in excellent agreement with structures from single-crystal data.« less

  7. Tools for macromolecular model building and refinement into electron cryo-microscopy reconstructions

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Alan; Long, Fei; Nicholls, Robert A.; Toots, Jaan; Emsley, Paul; Murshudov, Garib

    2015-01-01

    A description is given of new tools to facilitate model building and refinement into electron cryo-microscopy reconstructions. The recent rapid development of single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) now allows structures to be solved by this method at resolutions close to 3 Å. Here, a number of tools to facilitate the interpretation of EM reconstructions with stereochemically reasonable all-atom models are described. The BALBES database has been repurposed as a tool for identifying protein folds from density maps. Modifications to Coot, including new Jiggle Fit and morphing tools and improved handling of nucleic acids, enhance its functionality for interpreting EM maps. REFMAC has been modified for optimal fitting of atomic models into EM maps. As external structural information can enhance the reliability of the derived atomic models, stabilize refinement and reduce overfitting, ProSMART has been extended to generate interatomic distance restraints from nucleic acid reference structures, and a new tool, LIBG, has been developed to generate nucleic acid base-pair and parallel-plane restraints. Furthermore, restraint generation has been integrated with visualization and editing in Coot, and these restraints have been applied to both real-space refinement in Coot and reciprocal-space refinement in REFMAC.

  8. EIS-0069: Solvent Refined Coal-II Demonstration Project, Fort Martin, Monongalia County, West Virginia

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed this statement to assess the potential environmental, economic and social impacts associated with the construction and short-term operation of a 6,000-tons-per-stream-day-capacity facility that will demonstrate the technical operability, economic viability, and environmental acceptability of the solvent refined coal process at Fort Martin, West Virginia.

  9. Towards solution and refinement of organic crystal structures by fitting to the atomic pair distribution function

    SciTech Connect

    Prill, Dragica; Juhas, Pavol; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a method towards the solution and refinement of organic crystal structures by fitting to the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) is developed. Approximate lattice parameters and molecular geometry must be given as input. The molecule is generally treated as a rigid body. The positions and orientations of the molecules inside the unit cell are optimized starting from random values. The PDF is obtained from carefully measured X-ray powder diffraction data. The method resembles `real-space' methods for structure solution from powder data, but works with PDF data instead of the diffraction pattern itself. As such it may be used in situations where the organic compounds are not long-range-ordered, are poorly crystalline, or nanocrystalline. The procedure was applied to solve and refine the crystal structures of quinacridone (β phase), naphthalene and allopurinol. In the case of allopurinol it was even possible to successfully solve and refine the structure in P1 with four independent molecules. As an example of a flexible molecule, the crystal structure of paracetamol was refined using restraints for bond lengths, bond angles and selected torsion angles. In all cases, the resulting structures are in excellent agreement with structures from single-crystal data.

  10. Exploiting structure similarity in refinement: automated NCS and target-structure restraints in BUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Smart, Oliver S. Womack, Thomas O.; Flensburg, Claus; Keller, Peter; Paciorek, Włodek; Sharff, Andrew; Vonrhein, Clemens; Bricogne, Gérard

    2012-04-01

    Local structural similarity restraints (LSSR) provide a novel method for exploiting NCS or structural similarity to an external target structure. Two examples are given where BUSTER re-refinement of PDB entries with LSSR produces marked improvements, enabling further structural features to be modelled. Maximum-likelihood X-ray macromolecular structure refinement in BUSTER has been extended with restraints facilitating the exploitation of structural similarity. The similarity can be between two or more chains within the structure being refined, thus favouring NCS, or to a distinct ‘target’ structure that remains fixed during refinement. The local structural similarity restraints (LSSR) approach considers all distances less than 5.5 Å between pairs of atoms in the chain to be restrained. For each, the difference from the distance between the corresponding atoms in the related chain is found. LSSR applies a restraint penalty on each difference. A functional form that reaches a plateau for large differences is used to avoid the restraints distorting parts of the structure that are not similar. Because LSSR are local, there is no need to separate out domains. Some restraint pruning is still necessary, but this has been automated. LSSR have been available to academic users of BUSTER since 2009 with the easy-to-use -autoncs and @@target target.pdb options. The use of LSSR is illustrated in the re-refinement of PDB entries http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm, where -target enables the correct ligand-binding structure to be found, and http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm, where -autoncs contributes to the location of an additional copy of the cyclic peptide ligand.

  11. Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-10-08

    The order establishes the requirements and responsibilities for DOE in meeting its statutory obligations for the review of covered transactions filed with the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS). Admin Chg 1, dated 4-21-2014, supersedes DOE O 142.5.

  12. Secretary Moniz's Testimony Before the Senate Foreign affairs Committee on the Iran Deal-- As Prepared

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Secretary Ernest Moniz's testimony on the Iran Deal before the Senate Foreign Affairs Committee as prepared on July 23, 2015.

  13. Table 10 Costs of Foreign Travel, IG-0397 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Table 10 Costs of Foreign Travel, IG-0397 Table 10 Costs of Foreign Travel, IG-0397 Table 10 Costs of Foreign Travel, IG-0397 Table 10 Costs of Foreign Travel, IG-0397 (242.36 KB) More Documents & Publications Inspection Report: IG-0397 Audit of Department of Energy International Charter Flights, IG-0397 John C. Layton: Before The Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations Committee on Commerce

  14. WA_01_018_IBM_Waiver_of_Governement_US_and_Foreign_Patent_Ri.pdf |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy 1_018_IBM_Waiver_of_Governement_US_and_Foreign_Patent_Ri.pdf WA_01_018_IBM_Waiver_of_Governement_US_and_Foreign_Patent_Ri.pdf (18.1 MB) More Documents & Publications WA_04_053_IBM_CORP_Waiver_of_the_Government_U.S._and_Foreign.pdf WA_00_015_COMPAQ_FEDERAL_LLC_Waiver_Domestic_and_Foreign_Pat.pdf Advance Patent Waiver W(A)2002-023

  15. WC_1993_015_CLASS_WAIVER_of_the_Governments_US_and_Foreign_P.pdf |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy 15_CLASS_WAIVER_of_the_Governments_US_and_Foreign_P.pdf WC_1993_015_CLASS_WAIVER_of_the_Governments_US_and_Foreign_P.pdf (488.5 KB) More Documents & Publications Class Patent Waiver W(C)2008-001 WC_1993_003_CLASS_WAIVER__of_the_Government_US_and_Foreign_P.pdf WC_1993_005__CLASS_WAIVER_of_the_Goernment_US_and_Foreign_Pa

  16. WC_1994_005__CLASS_WAIVER_of_the_Governments_US_and_Foreign.pdf |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy 4_005__CLASS_WAIVER_of_the_Governments_US_and_Foreign.pdf WC_1994_005__CLASS_WAIVER_of_the_Governments_US_and_Foreign.pdf (229.21 KB) More Documents & Publications WC_1993_004_CLASS_WAIVER_of_the_Governemnt_US_and_Foreign_Pa.pdf WC_1990_006_CLASS_WAIVER_of_the_Government_US_and_Foreign_Pa.pdf WC_1997_002_CLASS_WAIVER_FOR_CRADA_Agreements_BECHTEL_NEVADA

  17. Magnesium Recycling of Partially Oxidized, Mixed Magnesium-Aluminum Scrap Through Combined Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Xiaofei; Zink, Peter; Pal, Uday

    2012-03-11

    Pure magnesium (Mg) is recycled from 19g of partially oxidized 50.5wt.%Mg-Aluminum (Al) alloy. During the refining process, potentiodynamic scans (PDS) were performed to determine the electrorefining potential for magnesium. The PDS show that the electrorefining potential increases over time as the Mg content inside the Mg-Al scrap decreases. Up to 100% percent of magnesium is refined from the Mg-Al scrap by a novel refining process of dissolving magnesium and its oxide into a flux followed by vapor phase removal of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapors in a separate condenser. The solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process is employed in the refining system to enable additional recycling of magnesium from magnesium oxide (MgO) in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. The combination of the refining and SOM processes yields 7.4g of pure magnesium; could not collect and weigh all of the magnesium recovered.

  18. Magnesium Recycling of Partially Oxidized, Mixed Magnesium-Aluminum Scrap through Combined Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane Electrolysis Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaofei Guan; Peter A. Zink; Uday B. Pal; Adam C. Powell

    2012-01-01

    Pure magnesium (Mg) is recycled from 19g of partially oxidized 50.5wt.% Mg-Aluminum (Al) alloy. During the refining process, potentiodynamic scans (PDS) were performed to determine the electrorefining potential for magnesium. The PDS show that the electrorefining potential increases over time as the magnesium content inside the Mg-Al scrap decreases. Up to 100% percent of magnesium is refined from the Mg-Al scrap by a novel refining process of dissolving magnesium and its oxide into a flux followed by vapor phase removal of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapor. The solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process is employed in the refining system to enable additional recycling of magnesium from magnesium oxide (MgO) in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. The combination of the refining and SOM processes yields 7.4g of pure magnesium.

  19. Regulations | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Regulations Regulations Security Reviews Click Here FOIA Appeals Click Here Whistleblower Protection Click Here Procedural Regulations Click Here Browse Title 10 Energy Click Here

  20. Interviewee Travel Regulations Scope

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    232012 Interviewee Travel Regulations Scope These regulations apply to the reimbursement of round-trip travel expenses incurred by interviewees. These regulations do not apply to ...

  1. Profiling of selenium removal in hydrogen ambient zone-refined tellurium bar using RF-GDOES

    SciTech Connect

    Anil, G. . E-mail: anilpillai_99@yahoo.com; Reddy, M.R.P.; Prasad, D.S.; Ali, S.T.; Munirathnam, N.R.; Prakash, T.L.

    2007-01-15

    Ultrapure tellurium (Te) metal has become an important metal in the strategic sector for fabricating high performance infrared devices for thermal imaging and night vision cameras. Zone refining (ZR) is a proven technique for purification of Te. Selenium (Se), present as an impurity in Te, is not easily removed by ZR under normal conditions as the segregation coefficient (K) is around 0.44-0.50. Hence, ZR was performed in a hydrogen atmosphere, during which Se gets converted to hydrogen selenide at the molten moving zones and carried away into the sodium hydroxide scrubbers. In this study a radio-frequency glow discharge optical emission spectrometer (RF-GDOES) was used for determining the concentration of Se along the 56 cm Te zone-refined bar. It was observed that the initial concentration of 1100 ppb Se was decreased to 30 ppb after 2 cycles.

  2. Implications of Increasing Light Tight Oil Production for U.S. Refining -

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Energy Information Administration Implications of Increasing Light Tight Oil Production for U.S. Refining Release date: May 5, 2015 Revised: May 12, 2015 (revision) 1. Background and Analytical Framework Background Recent and projected increases in U.S. crude production have sparked discussion about the implications of current limitations on crude oil exports for prices, including both world and domestic crude oil and petroleum product prices, and for the level of domestic crude production

  3. Grain refinement of cast zinc through magnesium inoculation: Characterisation and mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhilin; Qiu, Dong; Wang, Feng; Taylor, John A.; Zhang, Mingxing

    2015-08-15

    It was previously found that peritectic-forming solutes are more favourable for the grain refinement of cast Al alloys than eutectic-forming solutes. In this work, we report that the eutectic-forming solute, Mg, can also significantly grain refine cast Zn. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) of a Zn–Mg alloy, in which efficient grain refinement occurred, evidenced an unexpected peak that appeared before the nucleation of η-Zn grains on the DTA spectrum. Based on extensive examination using X-ray diffraction, high resolution SEM and EDS, it was found that: (a) some faceted Zn–Mg intermetallic particles were reproducibly observed; (b) the particles were located at or near grain centres; (c) the atomic ratio of Mg to Zn in the intermetallic compound was determined to be around 1/2. Using tilting selected area diffraction (SAD) and convergent beam Kikuchi line diffraction pattern (CBKLDP) techniques, these faceted particles were identified as MgZn{sub 2} and an orientation relationship between such grain-centred MgZn{sub 2} particles and the η-Zn matrix was determined. Hence, the unexpected peak on the DTA spectrum is believed to correspond to the formation of MgZn{sub 2} particles, which act as effective heterogeneous nucleation sites in the alloy. Together with the effect of Mg solute on restricting grain growth, such heterogeneous nucleation is cooperatively responsible for the grain size reduction in Zn–Mg alloys. - Highlights: • A new eutectic-based grain refiner for the cast Zn was found. • The formation process of an intermetallic compound (MgZn{sub 2}) was characterised. • MgZn{sub 2} can act as potent heterogeneous nucleation sites above the liquidus. • A new OR between MgZn{sub 2} and η-Zn was determined using the CBKLDP technique.

  4. Application of a catalyst deactivation model for hydrotreating solvent refined coal feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Nalitham, R.V.

    1983-10-01

    A simple kinetic model, including a first-order catalyst deactivation rate, is applied to upgrading of coal-derived feedstocks prepared from two solvent refined coal fractions. A catalyst deactivation mechanism is proposed which involves the adsorption and surface reaction of coke precursors on catalytic active sites. The effect of feedstock composition, temperature and pressure on kinetic parameters, and in particular the catalyst deactivation rate, is determined.

  5. NREL Refines Method to Convert Lignin to Nylon Precursor - News Releases |

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL NREL Refines Method to Convert Lignin to Nylon Precursor Recent Findings Published in Energy & Environmental Science February 26, 2015 A new study from the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) demonstrates the conversion of lignin-derived compounds to adipic acid, an important industrial dicarboxylic acid produced for its use as a precursor to nylon, plasticizers, lubricants, polyesters, and other popular products and chemicals. The demonstration is an

  6. Refined BCF-type boundary conditions for mesoscale surface step dynamics

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Zhao, Renjie; Ackerman, David M.; Evans, James W.

    2015-06-24

    Deposition on a vicinal surface with alternating rough and smooth steps is described by a solid-on-solid model with anisotropic interactions. Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations of the model reveal step pairing in the absence of any additional step attachment barriers. We explore the description of this behavior within an analytic Burton-Cabrera-Frank (BCF)-type step dynamics treatment. Without attachment barriers, conventional kinetic coefficients for the rough and smooth steps are identical, as are the predicted step velocities for a vicinal surface with equal terrace widths. However, we determine refined kinetic coefficients from a two-dimensional discrete deposition-diffusion equation formalism which accounts for stepmore » structure. These coefficients are generally higher for rough steps than for smooth steps, reflecting a higher propensity for capture of diffusing terrace adatoms due to a higher kink density. Such refined coefficients also depend on the local environment of the step and can even become negative (corresponding to net detachment despite an excess adatom density) for a smooth step in close proximity to a rough step. Incorporation of these refined kinetic coefficients into a BCF-type step dynamics treatment recovers quantitatively the mesoscale step-pairing behavior observed in the KMC simulations.« less

  7. Refined BCF-type boundary conditions for mesoscale surface step dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Renjie; Ackerman, David M.; Evans, James W.

    2015-06-24

    Deposition on a vicinal surface with alternating rough and smooth steps is described by a solid-on-solid model with anisotropic interactions. Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations of the model reveal step pairing in the absence of any additional step attachment barriers. We explore the description of this behavior within an analytic Burton-Cabrera-Frank (BCF)-type step dynamics treatment. Without attachment barriers, conventional kinetic coefficients for the rough and smooth steps are identical, as are the predicted step velocities for a vicinal surface with equal terrace widths. However, we determine refined kinetic coefficients from a two-dimensional discrete deposition-diffusion equation formalism which accounts for step structure. These coefficients are generally higher for rough steps than for smooth steps, reflecting a higher propensity for capture of diffusing terrace adatoms due to a higher kink density. Such refined coefficients also depend on the local environment of the step and can even become negative (corresponding to net detachment despite an excess adatom density) for a smooth step in close proximity to a rough step. Incorporation of these refined kinetic coefficients into a BCF-type step dynamics treatment recovers quantitatively the mesoscale step-pairing behavior observed in the KMC simulations.

  8. The value of continuity: Refined isogeometric analysis and fast direct solvers

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Garcia, Daniel; Pardo, David; Dalcin, Lisandro; Paszynski, Maciej; Collier, Nathan; Calo, Victor M.

    2016-08-24

    Here, we propose the use of highly continuous finite element spaces interconnected with low continuity hyperplanes to maximize the performance of direct solvers. Starting from a highly continuous Isogeometric Analysis (IGA) discretization, we introduce C0-separators to reduce the interconnection between degrees of freedom in the mesh. By doing so, both the solution time and best approximation errors are simultaneously improved. We call the resulting method “refined Isogeometric Analysis (rIGA)”. To illustrate the impact of the continuity reduction, we analyze the number of Floating Point Operations (FLOPs), computational times, and memory required to solve the linear system obtained by discretizing themore » Laplace problem with structured meshes and uniform polynomial orders. Theoretical estimates demonstrate that an optimal continuity reduction may decrease the total computational time by a factor between p2 and p3, with pp being the polynomial order of the discretization. Numerical results indicate that our proposed refined isogeometric analysis delivers a speed-up factor proportional to p2. In a 2D mesh with four million elements and p=5, the linear system resulting from rIGA is solved 22 times faster than the one from highly continuous IGA. In a 3D mesh with one million elements and p=3, the linear system is solved 15 times faster for the refined than the maximum continuity isogeometric analysis.« less

  9. Charge regulation circuit

    DOEpatents

    Ball, Don G.

    1992-01-01

    A charge regulation circuit provides regulation of an unregulated voltage supply in the range of 0.01%. The charge regulation circuit is utilized in a preferred embodiment in providing regulated voltage for controlling the operation of a laser.

  10. Re-refinement from deposited X-ray data can deliver improved models for most PDB entries

    SciTech Connect

    Joosten, Robbie P.; Womack, Thomas; Vriend, Gert; Bricogne, Gérard

    2009-02-01

    An evaluation of validation and real-space intervention possibilities for improving existing automated (re-)refinement methods. The deposition of X-ray data along with the customary structural models defining PDB entries makes it possible to apply large-scale re-refinement protocols to these entries, thus giving users the benefit of improvements in X-ray methods that have occurred since the structure was deposited. Automated gradient refinement is an effective method to achieve this goal, but real-space intervention is most often required in order to adequately address problems detected by structure-validation software. In order to improve the existing protocol, automated re-refinement was combined with structure validation and difference-density peak analysis to produce a catalogue of problems in PDB entries that are amenable to automatic correction. It is shown that re-refinement can be effective in producing improvements, which are often associated with the systematic use of the TLS parameterization of B factors, even for relatively new and high-resolution PDB entries, while the accompanying manual or semi-manual map analysis and fitting steps show good prospects for eventual automation. It is proposed that the potential for simultaneous improvements in methods and in re-refinement results be further encouraged by broadening the scope of depositions to include refinement metadata and ultimately primary rather than reduced X-ray data.

  11. Market power and foreign involvement by US multinationals

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschey, M.

    1982-05-01

    This study considers the relationship between market power and multinational involvement through use of a market-valuation approach. Estimation results for a sample of large US multinationals reveal superior valuation effects due to returns from foreign as opposed to domestic operations. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that returns from the US market tend to be less secure, and therefore less valued, than are returns from foreign markets due to both real (market size, entry barriers, etc.) and institutional (antitrust policies, etc.) differences in competitive environments. Such findings are also consistent with previous suggestions that firms develop markets abroad in order to exploit economic-rent opportunities. These findings remain tentative, however, and await verification in future studies of data from both the United States and abroad. 13 references, 1 table.

  12. Major new foreign exploration plays during 1983-1987

    SciTech Connect

    Emmet, P.A.; Hedberg, J.D.; McIver, N.U.; Tyrrell, W.W. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    About 30 billion bbl of recoverable oil have been found in new foreign plays during the last 5 years; significant gas reserves also were found. Most of the foreign oil discoveries are in Mesozoic sandstone reservoirs onshore, but Marlim, the largest single field with estimated reserves of 2.5 billion bbl, is located offshore in the deep-water part of the Campos basin, Brazil. Approximately 8-10 billion bbl of oil were found in South America, 6 billion in the Near East, 5 billion in western Europe, 5 billion in Africa, 2 billion in Asia (outside the USSR), and 0.5-0.7 billion in Australasia. Some of the giant discoveries include: Cano Limo, Colombia (1983); Alif, North Yemen, and Draugen, Norway (1984); Marlim, Brazil, and Heidrun, Norway (1985); El Furrial, Venezuela (1986); and Musipan-1, Venezuela (1987). Most of these and several smaller discoveries are in new plays or trends.

  13. BEFORE THE HOUSE COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN AFFAIRS, SUBCOMMITTEE ON WESTERN

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    HEMISPHERE | Department of Energy Melanie Kenderdine, Director of the Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis Subject: Hearing to Examine the Impact of Low Oil Prices in the Western Hemisphere 6-9-16_Melanie_Kenderdine FT HFAC.pdf (181.38 KB) More Documents & Publications ORDER NO. 3465: LNG DEVELOPMENT COMPANY, LLC BEFORE THE HOUSE COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN AFFAIRS, SUBCOMMITTEE ON WESTERN HEMISPHERE Order 3690: American LNG Marketing LLC

  14. Conducting business under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act

    SciTech Connect

    Ittig, J.

    1982-07-01

    The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act inhibits many businesses conducting international transactions. Although the Senate has proposed revisions to the FCPA to alleviate some of the handicaps of U.S. citizens doing business abroad, the House of Representatives has yet to approve a bill. This study identifies the critical interpretive problems, and suggests protective measures a company can take to avoid problems until the FCPA is amended.

  15. Foreign Research Reactor/Domestic Research Reactor Receipt Coordinator,

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Savannah River Nuclear Solutions | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Foreign Research Reactor/Domestic Research Reactor Receipt Coordinator, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions Mike Dunsmuir receiving award from Chuck Munns Mike Dunsmuir August 2009 Award of appreciation from NNSA Administrator Tom D'Agostino Mike Dunsmuir, FRR/DRR Receipt Coordinator with Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS) Nuclear Materials Storage was presented with an award of appreciation from NNSA

  16. Alternative American foreign policy for Ukraine. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.G.

    1993-06-01

    American policy makers have largely ignored Ukraine in their global policy planning. This lack of consideration shows a neglect of the potential for conflict in Eastern Europe. American foreign policy toward Ukraine, that is rooted in the START and NPT Treaties, is doomed to fail, and will actually sow the seeds of chaos, unless the United States: (1) comes to understand the motivations that drive Ukrainian foreign policy, and (2) facilitate significant positive alterations to the security and economic environment that has developed since the breakup of the Soviet Union. This thesis examines Western security goals and analyzes the current means available to achieve those goals. The contention of this thesis is that present Western policy pursuits will lead to a regenerated authoritarian Russian superpower that will be a threat to the security of Ukraine and Europe. The potentially dangerous consequences of an authoritarian Russia could be avoided by facilitating the development of a strong and stable Ukraine to act as a balance to Russian power in Eastern Europe. United States, Ukraine, Foreign policy, Nuclear arms negotiations, Economic aid, Russia.

  17. Regulators, Requirements, Statutes

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Regulators, Requirements, Statutes Regulators, Requirements, Statutes The Laboratory must comply with environmental laws and regulations that apply to Laboratory operations. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email Environmental laws and regulations LANL complies with more than 30 state and federal regulations and policies designed to protect human health and the environment. Regulators Regulators Environmental

  18. Steam system opportunity assessment for the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries: Main report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  19. Evaluation of tropical channel refinement using MPAS-A aquaplanet simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Martini, Matus N.; Gustafson, Jr., William I.; O'Brien, Travis A.; Ma, Po -Lun

    2015-09-13

    Climate models with variable-resolution grids offer a computationally less expensive way to provide more detailed information at regional scales and increased accuracy for processes that cannot be resolved by a coarser grid. This study uses the Model for Prediction Across Scales–Atmosphere (MPAS22A), consisting of a nonhydrostatic dynamical core and a subset of Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model atmospheric physics that have been modified to include the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) cloud fraction parameterization, to investigate the potential benefits of using increased resolution in an tropical channel. The simulations are performed with an idealized aquaplanet configuration using two quasi-uniform grids, with 30 km and 240 km grid spacing, and two variable-resolution grids spanning the same grid spacing range; one with a narrow (20°S–20°N) and one with a wide (30°S–30°N) tropical channel refinement. Results show that increasing resolution in the tropics impacts both the tropical and extratropical circulation. Compared to the quasi-uniform coarse grid, the narrow-channel simulation exhibits stronger updrafts in the Ferrel cell as well as in the middle of the upward branch of the Hadley cell. The wider tropical channel has a closer correspondence to the 30 km quasi-uniform simulation. However, the total atmospheric poleward energy transports are similar in all simulations. The largest differences are in the low-level cloudiness. The refined channel simulations show improved tropical and extratropical precipitation relative to the global 240 km simulation when compared to the global 30 km simulation. All simulations have a single ITCZ. Furthermore, the relatively small differences in mean global and tropical precipitation rates among the simulations are a promising result, and the evidence points to the tropical channel being an effective method for avoiding the extraneous numerical artifacts seen in earlier

  20. Direct Reduction of Waste through Refining of DOE Metal Assets - 13632

    SciTech Connect

    Hargett, Michael C.; Terekhov, Dimitri; Khozan, Kamran M.

    2013-07-01

    CVMR{sup R} presents a technology for refining nickel from the enrichment barrier materials of the DOE that is proven through 100 years of use by the metals industry. CVMR{sup R} applies modern controls, instrumentation for process and monitoring of the system, and innovative production methods to produce a wide spectrum of products that generate new technology applications and improvements to our society and economy. CVMR{sup R} will receive barrier materials as a secure operation and size reduce the metal to a shred that is fed to a carbonylation reactor where nickel is reacted with carbon monoxide and generate nickel carbonyl. The carbonyl will be filtered and decomposed with heat to form a variety of products that include high value nano powders, coated substrates, net shapes and pure nickel. The residue from the reactor will retain radionuclides from enrichment activities. The carbon monoxide will only react and extract nickel under the operating conditions to leave volumetric contamination in the unreacted residue. A demonstration plant was designed and built by CVMR{sup R} and operated by BWXT, to demonstrate the systems capabilities to DOE in 2006. A pilot plant operation precedes the detailed design of the nickel refinery and provides essential data for design, safe work practices, waste characterizations and system kinetics and confirms the project feasibility. CVMR{sup R} produces nickel products that are cleaner than the nickel in U.S. commerce and used by industry today. The CVMR{sup R} process and systems for nickel refining is well suited for DOE materials and will provide value through environmental stewardship, recovery of high value assets, and support of the DOE environmental remediation programs as the refined nickel generates additional long term benefits to local communities. (authors)

  1. Evaluation of Tropical Channel Refinement using MPAS-A Aquaplanet Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Martini, Matus; Gustafson, William I.; O'Brien, Travis A.; Ma, Po-Lun

    2015-09-13

    Climate models with variable-resolution grids offer a computationally less expensive way to provide more detailed information at regional scales and increased accuracy for processes that cannot be resolved by a coarser grid. This study uses the Model for Prediction Across Scales–Atmosphere (MPAS22A), consisting of a nonhydrostatic dynamical core and a subset of Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model atmospheric physics that have been modified to include the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) cloud fraction parameterization, to investigate the potential benefits of using increased resolution in an tropical channel. The simulations are performed with an idealized aquaplanet configuration using two quasi-uniform grids, with 30 km and 240 km grid spacing, and two variable-resolution grids spanning the same grid spacing range; one with a narrow (20°S–20°N) and one with a wide (30°S–30°N) tropical channel refinement. Results show that increasing resolution in the tropics impacts both the tropical and extratropical circulation. Compared to the quasi-uniform coarse grid, the narrow-channel simulation exhibits stronger updrafts in the Ferrel cell as well as in the middle of the upward branch of the Hadley cell. The wider tropical channel has a closer correspondence to the 30 km quasi-uniform simulation. However, the total atmospheric poleward energy transports are similar in all simulations. The largest differences are in the low-level cloudiness. The refined channel simulations show improved tropical and extratropical precipitation relative to the global 240 km simulation when compared to the global 30 km simulation. All simulations have a single ITCZ. The relatively small differences in mean global and tropical precipitation rates among the simulations are a promising result, and the evidence points to the tropical channel being an effective method for avoiding the extraneous numerical artifacts seen in earlier studies that

  2. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Petroleum Refining (NAICS 324110), October 2012 (MECS 2006)

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Petroleum Refining (NAICS 324110) Process Energy Electricity and Steam Generation Losses Process Losses 245 Nonprocess Losses 3,546 641 Steam Distribution Losses 145 20 Nonprocess Energy 2,994 Electricity Generation Steam Generation 3,546 110 Prepared for the Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) by Energetics Incorporated 62 2,779 127 Generation and Transmission Losses Generation and Transmission Losses 41 275 Onsite Generation 2,840 2,304 927 3,231 402 151 682 9.6 24.3 33.8 64.7 64.3 144.5 176.0

  3. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-03-15

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  4. MX-2500 thermal processor for the treatment of petroleum refining wastes and contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Swanberg, C. )

    1993-05-01

    Separation and Recovery Systems, Inc. (SRS) of Irvine, California is the market leader in supplying hazardous waste and secondary material dewatering and drying services to the petroleum refining industry. In late 1991, SRS introduced the new generation of dryer technology, the MX-2500. The MX-2500 is an electrically heated dryer system that recovers virtually all of the hydrocarbon value of refinery wastes and secondary materials, while producing a solid residue meeting EPA Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) treatment levels which allows the refinery to land dispose of the solids, thereby realizing two objectives: waste minimization and oil recovery/recycling. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Managing process innovation through incremental improvements: Empirical evidence in the petroleum refining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, J.Z.

    1994-11-01

    This paper developed a present value index (PVI) model to offer a new solution to differing the effects of radical innovation and incremental improvement. After comparing the return from an initial-radical-process innovation and the return from the incremental changes in petroleum refining processes, it was found that incremental improvements generated higher returns than from its initial innovations. The findings suggest that, in contrast to a conventional research and development (R&D) strategy with a focus on state-of-art innovations, manufacturing companies should place sufficient emphasis on incremental capital and operating improvements to fully exploit economic benefits from an innovation. 49 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Refinement of overlapping local/global iteration method based on Monte Carlo/p-CMFD calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, Y.; Yun, S.; Cho, N. Z.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, the overlapping local/global (OLG) iteration method based on Monte Carlo/p-CMFD calculations is refined in two aspects. One is the consistent use of estimators to generate homogenized scattering cross sections. Another is that the incident or exiting angular interval is divided into multi-angular bins to modulate albedo boundary conditions for local problems. Numerical tests show that, compared to the one angle bin case in a previous study, the four angle bin case shows significantly improved results. (authors)

  7. Quantitative phase analysis of Mg:ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles by Rietveld refinement method

    SciTech Connect

    Balaji, V. Senthilkumaran, S. Thangadurai, P.

    2014-04-24

    To quantify the structural phases of nanocrystalline ZrO{sub 2} doped with Mg ions of varying concentrations (3, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) and annealed at different temperatures. Magnesia doped zirconia was prepared by chemical co-precipitation method and annealed up to 1000°C. The monoclinic and tetragonal phases present in Mg:ZrO{sub 2} were quantified using Rietveld refinement analysis of the X-ray diffraction data and compared with the Direct method based on peak intensity calculations. Tetragonal phase was dominant in the 600°C annealed Mg:ZrO{sub 2} for all Mg concentrations.

  8. Table 3a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Constant Dollars" " (constant dollars per barrel in ""dollar year"" specific to each AEO)" ,"AEO $ Year",1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO 1994",1992,16.69,16.42999,16.9899,17.66,18.28,19.0599,19.89,20.72,21.65,22.61,23.51,24.29,24.9,25.6,26.3,27,27.64,28.16

  9. European refiners must seek creative processes to justify heavy-ends projects

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, P.

    1996-12-09

    There are strong reasons for wanting to upgrade the bottom of the crude oil barrel. But European refiners will not find it easy to get approval and funding for major capital investment projects. In most cases, investment justification will have to be creative and may need to rely on factors traditionally considered to be outside the conventional refinery fence. Examples of such creative upgrading schemes are those employed in four gasification projects planned for refineries in Italy. It is clear that the major obstacles to heavy residue processing are not technical, but economic. A review of these obstacles will set the stage for European investment in bottom-of-the-barrel processing.

  10. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Savings Opportunities in U.S. Petroleum Refining

    SciTech Connect

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. petroleum refining. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in nine individual process areas, representing 68% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  11. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, Thomas E; Cohen, Steven A; Gildon, Demond L

    2015-04-07

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  12. ,"U.S. Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil",3,"Monthly","9/2016","1/15/1974" ,"Release Date:","11/1/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","12/1/2016" ,"Excel File

  13. Inspection of the Secretary of Energy`s foreign travel

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-07

    On December 9, 1995, the Secretary of Energy requested that the Department`s Inspector General (IG) conduct a thorough examination of all Secretarial foreign travel from 1993 to December 1995 to include the purpose of each trip, the activities of each Federal participant in each trip, the funding of each trip, and claims for reimbursements for expenses by Federal trip participants. The Secretary also requested that the review include an assessment of travel authorization, voucher, traveler reimbursement, and auditing systems employed by the Department to identify steps that could be taken to reduce errors and improve accounting oversight. Additionally, the Secretary requested that the Inspector General conduct a thorough examination of the establishment and filling of the Department`s Ombudsman position. The Office of Inspector General (OIG) initiated a review into these matters and assigned primary responsibility for the review to the Office of Inspections. The purpose of this inspection was to conduct a thorough examination of the 16 Secretarial foreign trips from June 1993 to December 1995. This report focuses on the four trade missions because of their extent and cost. We examined a number of Departmental management systems and processes involved in planning and executing the 16 foreign trips. To determine the actual cost of the 16 trips, it was necessary to determine who participated in the trips and to identify the individual travel costs. We were required to perform extensive reviews of records and conduct a large number of interviews because the Department could not provide any specific documents that could accurately account for who actually participated on the 16 trips. Having identified who participated, it was then necessary to examine key aspects of the Department`s management systems. Our report contains 31 recommendations for corrective action.

  14. Part 810-ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES Sec.

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    10 CFR Part 810 1986 Version Final Rule (effective March 25, 2015) Comments Part 810-ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES Sec. 810.1 Purpose. 810.2 Scope. 810.3 Definitions. 810.4 Communications. 810.5 Interpretations. 810.6 Authorization requirement. 810.7 Generally authorized activities. 810.8 Activities requiring specific authorization. 810.9 Restrictions on general and specific authorization. 810.10 Grant of specific authorization. 810.11 Revocation, suspension, or modification of

  15. Molecular dynamics force-field refinement against quasi-elastic neutron scattering data

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Borreguero Calvo, Jose M.; Lynch, Vickie E.

    2015-11-23

    Quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) is one of the experimental techniques of choice for probing the dynamics at length and time scales that are also in the realm of full-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. This overlap enables extension of current fitting methods that use time-independent equilibrium measurements to new methods fitting against dynamics data. We present an algorithm that fits simulation-derived incoherent dynamical structure factors against QENS data probing the diffusive dynamics of the system. We showcase the difficulties inherent to this type of fitting problem, namely, the disparity between simulation and experiment environment, as well as limitations in the simulationmore » due to incomplete sampling of phase space. We discuss a methodology to overcome these difficulties and apply it to a set of full-atom MD simulations for the purpose of refining the force-field parameter governing the activation energy of methyl rotation in the octa-methyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane molecule. Our optimal simulated activation energy agrees with the experimentally derived value up to a 5% difference, well within experimental error. We believe the method will find applicability to other types of diffusive motions and other representation of the systems such as coarse-grain models where empirical fitting is essential. In addition, the refinement method can be extended to the coherent dynamic structure factor with no additional effort.« less

  16. Decontamination of metals by melt refining/slagging: First year progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Mizia, R.E.; Worcester, S.A.; Twidwell, L.G.; Paolini, D.J.; Weldon, T.A.

    1994-03-01

    As the number of nuclear installations undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) increases, current radioactive waste storage space is consumed and establishment of new waste storage areas becomes increasingly difficult. The problem of handling and storing radioactive scrap metal (RSM) gains increasing importance in the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. To alleviate present and future waste storage problems, Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) is managing a program for the recycling of RSM for beneficial use within the DOE complex. As part of that effort, Montana Tech has been awarded a contract to help optimize melting and refining technologies for the recycling of stainless steel RSM. The scope of the Montana Tech program includes a literature survey, a decontaminating slag design study, small scale melting studies to determine optimum slag compositions for removal of radioactive contaminant surrogates, analysis of preferred melting techniques, and coordination of pilot scale melting demonstrations (100-500 lbs) to be conducted at selected commercial facilities. This program will identify methods that can be used to recycle stainless steel RSM which will be used to fabricate high and low level waste canisters for the Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility. This report summarizes the results of an extensive literature review and the first year`s progress on slag design, small-scale melt refining of surrogate-containing stainless steel (presently only a three month effort), and pilot-scale preparation of surrogate master ingots.

  17. Projected refined product balances in key Latin American countries: A preliminary examination

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Over the years, the East-West Center (EWC) has developed considerable expertise in refinery modeling, especially in the area of forecasting product balances for countries, given planned capacity changes, changes in product demand, changes in crude slates, and changes in product specifications. This expertise has been applied on an ongoing basis to the major refiners in the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific region, along with the US West Coast as region in its own right. Refinery modeling in these three areas has been ongoing for nearly 15 years at the Center, and the tools and information sources are now well developed. To date, the EWC has not applied these tools to Latin America. Although research on Latin America has been an ongoing area of concern at the Center in recent years, the information gathered to date is still not of the level of detail nor quality available for other areas. The modeling efforts undertaken in this report are of a ``baseline`` nature, designed to outline the major issues, attempt a first cut at emerging product balances, and, above all, to elicit commentary from those directly involved in the oil industry in the key countries modeled. Our experience in other regions has shown that it takes a few years dialogue with refiners and government planner in individual countries to develop a reliable database, as well as the insights into operational constraints and practices that make accurate modeling possible. This report is no more than a first step down the road.

  18. Molecular dynamics force-field refinement against quasi-elastic neutron scattering data

    SciTech Connect

    Borreguero Calvo, Jose M.; Lynch, Vickie E.

    2015-11-23

    Quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) is one of the experimental techniques of choice for probing the dynamics at length and time scales that are also in the realm of full-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. This overlap enables extension of current fitting methods that use time-independent equilibrium measurements to new methods fitting against dynamics data. We present an algorithm that fits simulation-derived incoherent dynamical structure factors against QENS data probing the diffusive dynamics of the system. We showcase the difficulties inherent to this type of fitting problem, namely, the disparity between simulation and experiment environment, as well as limitations in the simulation due to incomplete sampling of phase space. We discuss a methodology to overcome these difficulties and apply it to a set of full-atom MD simulations for the purpose of refining the force-field parameter governing the activation energy of methyl rotation in the octa-methyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane molecule. Our optimal simulated activation energy agrees with the experimentally derived value up to a 5% difference, well within experimental error. We believe the method will find applicability to other types of diffusive motions and other representation of the systems such as coarse-grain models where empirical fitting is essential. In addition, the refinement method can be extended to the coherent dynamic structure factor with no additional effort.

  19. Conformation-dependent backbone geometry restraints set a new standard for protein crystallographic refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, Nigel W.; Tronrud, Dale E.; Adams, Paul D.; Karplus, P. Andrew

    2014-06-17

    Ideal values of bond angles and lengths used as external restraints are crucial for the successful refinement of protein crystal structures at all but the highest of resolutions. The restraints in common usage today have been designed based on the assumption that each type of bond or angle has a single ideal value independent of context. However, recent work has shown that the ideal values are, in fact, sensitive to local conformation, and as a first step toward using such information to build more accurate models, ultra-high resolution protein crystal structures have been used to derive a conformation-dependent library (CDL) of restraints for the protein backbone (Berkholz et al. 2009. Structure. 17, 1316). Here, we report the introduction of this CDL into the Phenix package and the results of test refinements of thousands of structures across a wide range of resolutions. These tests show that use of the conformation dependent library yields models that have substantially better agreement with ideal main-chain bond angles and lengths and, on average, a slightly enhanced fit to the X-ray data. No disadvantages of using the backbone CDL are apparent. In Phenix usage of the CDL can be selected by simply specifying the cdl=True option. This successful implementation paves the way for further aspects of the context-dependence of ideal geometry to be characterized and applied to improve experimental and predictive modelling accuracy.

  20. Conformation-dependent backbone geometry restraints set a new standard for protein crystallographic refinement

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Moriarty, Nigel W.; Tronrud, Dale E.; Adams, Paul D.; Karplus, P. Andrew

    2014-06-17

    Ideal values of bond angles and lengths used as external restraints are crucial for the successful refinement of protein crystal structures at all but the highest of resolutions. The restraints in common usage today have been designed based on the assumption that each type of bond or angle has a single ideal value independent of context. However, recent work has shown that the ideal values are, in fact, sensitive to local conformation, and as a first step toward using such information to build more accurate models, ultra-high resolution protein crystal structures have been used to derive a conformation-dependent library (CDL)more » of restraints for the protein backbone (Berkholz et al. 2009. Structure. 17, 1316). Here, we report the introduction of this CDL into the Phenix package and the results of test refinements of thousands of structures across a wide range of resolutions. These tests show that use of the conformation dependent library yields models that have substantially better agreement with ideal main-chain bond angles and lengths and, on average, a slightly enhanced fit to the X-ray data. No disadvantages of using the backbone CDL are apparent. In Phenix usage of the CDL can be selected by simply specifying the cdl=True option. This successful implementation paves the way for further aspects of the context-dependence of ideal geometry to be characterized and applied to improve experimental and predictive modelling accuracy.« less

  1. US imports. Part II. Refined product market shares, then and now

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-08

    Unlike imports of crude oil to the US, which were up 45.7% between 1977 and 1986, imports of petroleum products have fallen by about 8.6% during the same period. The crude oil price crash of 1986 deepened US dependency on imports of crude, from 21.4% in 1977 to 25.4% in 1986, but reduced the dependency in the case of total refined products from 11.32% in 1977 to 11.13% in 1986. Comparing the first four months of 1987 with 1986, US dependency on imported petroleum products is down 2.73 percentage points; import dependency on OPEC petroleum products is down 4.60 percentage points; dependency on Arab OPEC countries product imports is down 1.88 percentage points; and for Eastern Hemisphere exporters, that dependency has fallen 2.17 percentage points. This issue also contains: (1) ED refining netback data from the US Gulf and West coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore for early July 1987; and (2) ED fuel price/tax series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, July 1987 edition. 4 figures, 5 tables.

  2. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1979-March 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Project by the Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. for the Department of Energy for the period January 1, 1979 to March 31, 1979. Activities included the operation and modification of the Solvent Refined Coal Pilot Plant at Fort Lewis, Washington; the Process Development Unit P-99 at Harmarville, Pennsylvania; and research at Merriam Laboratory in Merriam, Kansas. The Pilot Plant processed Powhatan No. 5 Coal in the SRC-II mode of operation studying the effect of coal particle size and system temperature on coal slurry blending and the effect of carbon monoxide concentration in the reaction feed gas on process yields. January and February were spent completing installation of a fourth High Pressure Separator on Process Development Unit P-99 to better simulate operating conditions for the proposed Demonstration Plant. During March, one run was completed at P-99 feeding Pittsburgh Seam Coal from the Powhatan No. 5 Mine. Merriam investigations included a study of the effect of iron containing additives on SRC-I operation, the addition of carbon monoxide to the feed gas, utilization of a hydrogenated solvent (Cresap process solvent) in the SRC-I mode under both normal and short residence time operating conditions, and development of a simulated distillation technique to determine the entire boiling range distribution of product oils.

  3. WA_00_015_COMPAQ_FEDERAL_LLC_Waiver_Domestic_and_Foreign_Pat.pdf |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy 15_COMPAQ_FEDERAL_LLC_Waiver_Domestic_and_Foreign_Pat.pdf WA_00_015_COMPAQ_FEDERAL_LLC_Waiver_Domestic_and_Foreign_Pat.pdf (1.8 MB) More Documents & Publications WA_01_018_IBM_Waiver_of_Governement_US_and_Foreign_Patent_Ri.pdf Advance Patent Waiver W(A)2002-023 WC_1997_004_CLASS_ADVANCE_WAIVER_Under_Domestic_First_and_Se

  4. WA_1993_033_GOLDEN_PHOTON_INC_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Foreign.pdf |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy 3_033_GOLDEN_PHOTON_INC_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Foreign.pdf WA_1993_033_GOLDEN_PHOTON_INC_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Foreign.pdf (1.15 MB) More Documents & Publications WA_1995_030_GOLDEN_PHOTON_INC_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Foreign.pdf WA_1994_003_GOLDEN_PHOTOCON_INC_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Forei

  5. WA_1995_030_GOLDEN_PHOTON_INC_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Foreign.pdf |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy 5_030_GOLDEN_PHOTON_INC_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Foreign.pdf WA_1995_030_GOLDEN_PHOTON_INC_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Foreign.pdf (8.82 MB) More Documents & Publications WA_1994_003_GOLDEN_PHOTOCON_INC_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Forei.pdf WA_1993_033_GOLDEN_PHOTON_INC_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Foreign

  6. WA_97_019_INTEROTEX_LTD_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Foreign_Right.pdf |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy 19_INTEROTEX_LTD_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Foreign_Right.pdf WA_97_019_INTEROTEX_LTD_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Foreign_Right.pdf (3.96 MB) More Documents & Publications WA_97_020_LENNOX_INDUSTRIES_INC_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Forei.pdf WA_01_026_UNITED_TECHNOLOGIES_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Foreign.pdf Advance Patent Waiver W(A)2005-03

  7. Locally Employed Staff (LES)/Foreign Service National (FSN) of the Year

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Award | Department of Energy Locally Employed Staff (LES)/Foreign Service National (FSN) of the Year Award Locally Employed Staff (LES)/Foreign Service National (FSN) of the Year Award The Locally Employed Staff (LES)/Foreign Service National (FSN) of the Year Award is designed to recognize special contributions made by the Department's LES/FSN's in achieving the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) and United States Government's (USG) foreign policy goals and objectives. The LES/FSN of the

  8. Domestic and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    1 " "State Region ","Domestic ","Foreign ","Total "," " "Alabama ",14828,4508,19336," " "Alaska ",825,698,1524," " "Arizona ",13143,"-",13143," " "Arkansas ",13,"-",13," "...

  9. Domestic and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4 (Thousand Short Tons) " "State Region ","Domestic ","Foreign ","Total "," " "Alabama",18367,3744,22111," " "Alaska",957,546,1502," " "Arizona",13041,"-",13041," "...

  10. Microsoft PowerPoint - 8_Martyn_NMMSS_2013_Foreign Obligations...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Martyn Foreign Obligations Tracking - Why? US, Canada, Australia, etc. treatiesagreements for peaceful uses of uranium Exports tied to assurances of peaceful uses ...

  11. Microsoft PowerPoint - 10_ROSE_MARTYN_UPDATED_NMMSS_2014_Foreign...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    treatiesagreements for peaceful uses of uranium Exports tied to assurances of ... notice for import of foreign obligated uranium NRC Notice for Future Import NRC has ...

  12. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE'S H-CANYON FACILITY: IMPACTS OF FOREIGN OBLIGATIONS ON SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Magoulas, V.

    2013-06-03

    The US has a non-proliferation policy to receive foreign and domestic research reactor returns of spent fuel materials of US origin. These spent fuel materials are returned to the Department of Energy (DOE) and placed in storage in the L-area spent fuel basin at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The foreign research reactor returns fall subject to the 123 agreements for peaceful cooperation. These “123 agreements” are named after section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and govern the conditions of nuclear cooperation with foreign partners. The SRS management of these foreign obligations while planning material disposition paths can be a challenge.

  13. Evaluation of tropical channel refinement using MPAS-A aquaplanet simulations

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Martini, Matus N.; Gustafson, Jr., William I.; O'Brien, Travis A.; Ma, Po -Lun

    2015-09-13

    Climate models with variable-resolution grids offer a computationally less expensive way to provide more detailed information at regional scales and increased accuracy for processes that cannot be resolved by a coarser grid. This study uses the Model for Prediction Across Scales–Atmosphere (MPAS22A), consisting of a nonhydrostatic dynamical core and a subset of Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model atmospheric physics that have been modified to include the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) cloud fraction parameterization, to investigate the potential benefits of using increased resolution in an tropical channel. The simulations are performed with an idealized aquaplanet configurationmore » using two quasi-uniform grids, with 30 km and 240 km grid spacing, and two variable-resolution grids spanning the same grid spacing range; one with a narrow (20°S–20°N) and one with a wide (30°S–30°N) tropical channel refinement. Results show that increasing resolution in the tropics impacts both the tropical and extratropical circulation. Compared to the quasi-uniform coarse grid, the narrow-channel simulation exhibits stronger updrafts in the Ferrel cell as well as in the middle of the upward branch of the Hadley cell. The wider tropical channel has a closer correspondence to the 30 km quasi-uniform simulation. However, the total atmospheric poleward energy transports are similar in all simulations. The largest differences are in the low-level cloudiness. The refined channel simulations show improved tropical and extratropical precipitation relative to the global 240 km simulation when compared to the global 30 km simulation. All simulations have a single ITCZ. Furthermore, the relatively small differences in mean global and tropical precipitation rates among the simulations are a promising result, and the evidence points to the tropical channel being an effective method for avoiding the extraneous numerical artifacts seen in

  14. Multimedia regulated chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.C.; Huffman, G.L.; Mao, Y.L.

    1999-10-01

    This article examines those chemicals that are listed in either environmental laws or regulations. Its objective is to help readers determine which laws regulate what types of chemicals and which types of chemicals are regulated by what laws. It is multimedia in scope, describing the various chemicals that are regulated in the different media (i.e., air, water, or land).

  15. Early F-type stars - refined classification, confrontation with Stromgren photometry, and the effects of rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R.O.; Garrison, R.F.

    1989-02-01

    The classification for early F-type stars in the MK spectral classification system presented by Gray and Garrison (1987) is refined. The effect of rotation on spectral classification and ubvy-beta photometry of early F-type stars is examined. It is found that the classical luminosity criterion, the 4417 A/4481 A ratio gives inconsistent results. It is shown that most of the stars in the Delta Delphini class of metallic-line stars are either normal or are indistinguishable from proto-Am stars. It is suggested that the designation Delta Delphini should be dropped. The classifications are compared with Stromgren photometry. The effects of rotation on the delta-c sub 1 index in the early-F field dwarfs is demonstrated. 55 references.

  16. On the Computation of Integral Curves in Adaptive Mesh Refinement Vector Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Deines, Eduard; Weber, Gunther H.; Garth, Christoph; Van Straalen, Brian; Borovikov, Sergey; Martin, Daniel F.; Joy, Kenneth I.

    2011-06-27

    Integral curves, such as streamlines, streaklines, pathlines, and timelines, are an essential tool in the analysis of vector field structures, offering straightforward and intuitive interpretation of visualization results. While such curves have a long-standing tradition in vector field visualization, their application to Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) simulation results poses unique problems. AMR is a highly effective discretization method for a variety of physical simulation problems and has recently been applied to the study of vector fields in flow and magnetohydrodynamic applications. The cell-centered nature of AMR data and discontinuities in the vector field representation arising from AMR level boundaries complicate the application of numerical integration methods to compute integral curves. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to alleviate these problems and show its application to streamline visualization in an AMR model of the magnetic field of the solar system as well as to a simulation of two incompressible viscous vortex rings merging.

  17. Effects of gas injection condition on mixing efficiency in the ladle refining process

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, S.M.; Chiang, J.D.; Hwang, W.S.

    1997-02-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of injection condition on the mixing efficiency of the gas injection treatment of the ladle refining process in steelmaking. A water modeling approach was employed. A NaCl solution was injected into the vessel and the electric conductivity value of the water solution was measured to represent the concentration of the additive. The results of this investigation reveal that up to a certain level, mixing efficiency is improved as the gas flow rate increases. Off-center injection is better than centerline injection. However, the injection lance should not be too close to the wall. Also, mixing efficiency is improved when the submerged depth of the immersion lance increases. The immersion hood has a optimal size as far as mixing efficiency is concerned. A larger or smaller hood would reduce its efficiency. The submerged depth of the immersion hood should be kept to a minimum to improve mixing efficiency.

  18. 3D Adaptive Mesh Refinement Simulations of Pellet Injection in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    R. Samtaney; S.C. Jardin; P. Colella; D.F. Martin

    2003-10-20

    We present results of Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) simulations of the pellet injection process, a proven method of refueling tokamaks. AMR is a computationally efficient way to provide the resolution required to simulate realistic pellet sizes relative to device dimensions. The mathematical model comprises of single-fluid MHD equations with source terms in the continuity equation along with a pellet ablation rate model. The numerical method developed is an explicit unsplit upwinding treatment of the 8-wave formulation, coupled with a MAC projection method to enforce the solenoidal property of the magnetic field. The Chombo framework is used for AMR. The role of the E x B drift in mass redistribution during inside and outside pellet injections is emphasized.

  19. Lance for fuel and oxygen injection into smelting or refining furnace

    DOEpatents

    Schlichting, M.R.

    1994-12-20

    A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figures.

  20. Lance for fuel and oxygen injection into smelting or refining furnace

    DOEpatents

    Schlichting, Mark R.

    1994-01-01

    A furnace 10 for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron 20 is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance 40, through which a center stream of particulate coal 53 is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer 30. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon 51 enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen 52 is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream 51. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus 84 to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer 30, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace.

  1. Table 3a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Constant Dollars (constant dollars per barrel in "dollar year" specific to each AEO) AEO $ Year 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 1992 16.69 16.43 16.99 17.66 18.28 19.06 19.89 20.72 21.65 22.61 23.51 24.29 24.90 25.60 26.30 27.00 27.64 28.16 AEO 1995 1993 14.90 16.41 16.90 17.45 18.00 18.53 19.13 19.65 20.16 20.63

  2. Methods of refining natural oils and methods of producing fuel compositions

    DOEpatents

    Firth, Bruce E; Kirk, Sharon E; Gavaskar, Vasudeo S

    2015-11-04

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent selected from the group consisting of phosphorous acid, phosphinic acid, and a combination thereof; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  3. Methods of refining natural oils, and methods of producing fuel compositions

    DOEpatents

    Firth, Bruce E.; Kirk, Sharon E.

    2015-10-27

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent that comprises nitric acid; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  4. A technical and economic assessment of petroleum, heavy oil, shale oil and coal liquid refining

    SciTech Connect

    Sikonia, J.G.; Shah, B.R.; Ulowetz, M.A.

    1983-11-01

    Decreasing availability of conventional crude oil will result in the utilization of alternative raw materials for the production of transportation fuels. Based on currently available processes and as a result of detailed pilot plant studies, the differences in the technical and economic aspects of refining alternative feedstocks of heavy oil, coal liquids and shale oil have indicated that heavy, hydrogen-deficient materials require more complex and costly upgrading techniques. Compared to the base case of Arabian Light crude oil, the Mexican Maya heavy oil is worth about $4.35/B less, the coal liquid about $2.38/B less and the shale oil about $5.98/B less. All of these alternative fuels can be upgraded into high quality transportation fuels.

  5. Solvent-refined-coal (SRC) process. Volume II. Sections V-XIV. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    This report documents the completion of development work on the Solvent Refined Coal Process by The Pittsburgh and Midway Coal Mining Co. The work was initiated in 1966 under Office of Coal Research, US Department of Interior, Contract No. 14-01-0001-496 and completed under US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC05-79ET10104. This report discusses work leading to the development of the SRC-I and SRC-II processes, construction of the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant for the successful development of these processes, and results from the operation of this pilot plant. Process design data generated on a 1 ton-per-day Process Development Unit, bench-scale units and through numerous research projects in support of the design of major demonstration plants are also discussed in summary form and fully referenced in this report.

  6. Pillowing doublets: Refining a mesh to ensure that faces share at most one edge

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, S.A.; Tautges, T.J.

    1995-11-01

    Occasionally one may be confronted by a hexahedral or quadrilateral mesh containing doublets, two faces sharing two edges. In this case, no amount of smoothing will produce a mesh with agreeable element quality: in the planar case, one of these two faces will always have an angle of at least 180 degrees between the two edges. The authors describe a robust scheme for refining a hexahedral or quadrilateral mesh to separate such faces, so that any two faces share at most one edge. Note that this also ensures that two hexahedra share at most one face in the three dimensional case. The authors have implemented this algorithm and incorporated it into the CUBIT mesh generation environment developed at Sandia National Laboratories.

  7. Methods of refining and producing isomerized fatty acid esters and fatty acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.; Beltran, Leslie V.; Kunz, Linda A.; Pals, Tessa M.; Quinn, Jordan R; Behrends, Jr., Raymond T.; Bernhardt, Randal J.

    2016-07-05

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing isomerized esters and acids. The methods comprise providing a C4-C18 unsaturated fatty ester or acid, and isomerizing the fatty acid ester or acid in the presence of heat or an isomerization catalyst to form an isomerized fatty ester or acid. In some embodiments, the methods comprise forming a dibasic ester or dibasic acid prior to the isomerizing step. In certain embodiments, the methods further comprise hydrolyzing the dibasic ester to form a dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin is formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having unsaturated esters.

  8. A node-centered local refinement algorithm for poisson's equation in complex geometries

    SciTech Connect

    McCorquodale, Peter; Colella, Phillip; Grote, David P.; Vay, Jean-Luc

    2004-05-04

    This paper presents a method for solving Poisson's equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions on an irregular bounded three-dimensional region. The method uses a nodal-point discretization and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) on Cartesian grids, and the AMR multigrid solver of Almgren. The discrete Laplacian operator at internal boundaries comes from either linear or quadratic (Shortley-Weller) extrapolation, and the two methods are compared. It is shown that either way, solution error is second order in the mesh spacing. Error in the gradient of the solution is first order with linear extrapolation, but second order with Shortley-Weller. Examples are given with comparison with the exact solution. The method is also applied to a heavy-ion fusion accelerator problem, showing the advantage of adaptivity.

  9. Exploratory research on solvent refined coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1-June 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Exploratory Research on Solvent Refined Coal Liquefaction project by The Pittsburgh and Midway Coal Mining Company's Merriam Laboratory for the period April 1, 1979 through June 30, 1979. Experimental work included a number of short residence time runs, but discussion of that work has been delayed until a later report. Experimental work reported focuses on an investigation of the decline in solvent quality experienced by the Wilsonville Pilot Plant during runs in support of the SRC I Demonstration Plant. A four run series was initiated with Wilsonville solvent; both the coal used at Wilsonville (Kentucky 6/11 - Pyro Mine) and Kentucky 9/14 coal from the Colonial Mine were used. The effect of pyrite addition to the Pyro Mine coal was investigated. No solvent quality or coking problems were experienced in the Merriam runs. Significant changes in solvent composition were apparent and equilibrated solvent samples were returned to Wilsonville for solvent quality testing.

  10. REFINING THE ASSOCIATIONS OF THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE SOURCE CATALOGS

    SciTech Connect

    Massaro, F.; D’Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A.; Smith, Howard A.; Landoni, M.; Masetti, N.; Giroletti, M.; Otí-Floranes, H.; Jiménez-Bailón, E.; Chavushyan, V.; Patiño-Álvarez, V.; Digel, S. W.; Tosti, G.

    2015-03-15

    The Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) First Source Catalog (1FGL) was released in 2010 February and the Fermi-LAT 2-Year Source Catalog (2FGL) appeared in 2012 April, based on data from 24 months of operation. Since they were released, many follow up observations of unidentified γ-ray sources have been performed and new procedures for associating γ-ray sources with potential counterparts at other wavelengths have been developed. Here we review and characterize all of the associations as published in the 1FGL and 2FGL catalogs on the basis of multifrequency archival observations. In particular, we located 177 spectra for the low-energy counterparts that were not listed in the previous Fermi catalogs, and in addition we present new spectroscopic observations of eight γ-ray blazar candidates. Based on our investigations, we introduce a new counterpart category of “candidate associations” and propose a refined classification for the candidate low-energy counterparts of the Fermi sources. We compare the 1FGL-assigned counterparts with those listed in 2FGL to determine which unassociated sources became associated in later releases of the Fermi catalogs. We also search for potential counterparts to all of the remaining unassociated Fermi sources. Finally, we prepare a refined and merged list of all of the associations of 1FGL plus 2FGL that includes 2219 unique Fermi objects. This is the most comprehensive and systematic study of all the associations collected for the γ-ray sources available to date. We conclude that 80% of the Fermi sources have at least one known plausible γ-ray emitter within their positional uncertainty regions.

  11. Petroleum refining industry of developed capitalist countries in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Prokhorova, A.A.

    1994-07-01

    Crude oil is the principal source of energy today and in the immediate future. The increases in the consumption of crude oil (1.7% per year up to 2005) will be offset mainly by additional supplies from the countries of the Near East. Data on the imports of oil by the developed capitalists countries are presented in Table 2. In the United States, according to a projection made by Conoco, by the year 2000 the volume of imports will be twice the volume of domestic production; according to another prediction, the amount of Near East crude will increase from 34% in 1990 to 42% in 2000. Since the mid-1980s, the energy policy of the USA has been based on importing so-called cheap crude. Laws have been passed to mandate not only energy saving, but also cuts in the oil and gas production on U.S. territory. The volume of U.S. oil production will be 20% lower in 2000 than in 1990. Some 90% of the worldwide demand for oil is met by light and medium-density crudes, but such crudes account for only 25% of the oil resources. Projections indicate that the oil supplied to refiners in the future will be heavier and will have higher sulfur contents. The U.S. production of low-sulfur crude will drop off sharply in the next 10-15 years. The drop in oil production of the CIS [former USSR] and the consequent drop in exports from these countries will have a destabilizing effect on the world market. The average price of the {open_quotes}market basket{close_quotes} of OPEC crudes in 1991 was $149/ton (in 1990 $178/ton), in comparison with a 1992 price of $148/ton. This report presents data on refining process capacities and the ratio of secondary capacity to primary distillation capacity.

  12. Refining the site conceptual model at a former uranium mill site in Riverton, Wyoming, USA

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Dam, William; Campbell, Sam; Johnson, Ray; Looney, Brian; Denham, Miles E.; Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.; Babits, Steven J.

    2015-07-07

    Milling activities at a former uranium mill site near Riverton, Wyoming, USA, contaminated the shallow groundwater beneath and downgradient of the site. Although the mill operated for <6 years (1958-1963), its impact remains an environmental liability. Groundwater modeling predicted that contaminant concentrations were declining steadily, which confirmed the conceptual site model (CSM). However, local flooding in 2010 mobilized contaminants that migrated downgradient from the Riverton site and resulted in a dramatic increase in groundwater contaminant concentrations. This observation indicated that the original CSM was inadequate to explain site conditions and needed to be refined. In response to the new observationsmore » after the flood, a collaborative investigation to better understand site conditions and processes commenced. This investigation included installing 103 boreholes to collect soil and groundwater samples, sampling and analysis of evaporite minerals along the bank of the Little Wind River, an analysis of evaportranspiration in the shallow aquifer, and sampling naturally organic-rich sediments near groundwater discharge areas. The enhanced characterization revealed that the existing CSM did not account for high uranium concentrations in groundwater remaining on the former mill site and groundwater plume stagnation near the Little Wind River. Observations from the flood and subsequent investigations indicate that additional characterization is still needed to continue refining the CSM and determine the viability of the natural flushing compliance strategy. Additional sampling, analysis, and testing of soil and groundwater are necessary to investigate secondary contaminant sources, mobilization of contaminants during floods, geochemical processes, contaminant plume stagnation, distribution of evaporite minerals and organic-rich sediments, and mechanisms and rates of contaminant transfer from soil to groundwater. Future data collection will be used to

  13. Refining the site conceptual model at a former uranium mill site in Riverton, Wyoming, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Dam, William; Campbell, Sam; Johnson, Ray; Looney, Brian; Denham, Miles E.; Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.; Babits, Steven J.

    2015-07-07

    Milling activities at a former uranium mill site near Riverton, Wyoming, USA, contaminated the shallow groundwater beneath and downgradient of the site. Although the mill operated for <6 years (1958-1963), its impact remains an environmental liability. Groundwater modeling predicted that contaminant concentrations were declining steadily, which confirmed the conceptual site model (CSM). However, local flooding in 2010 mobilized contaminants that migrated downgradient from the Riverton site and resulted in a dramatic increase in groundwater contaminant concentrations. This observation indicated that the original CSM was inadequate to explain site conditions and needed to be refined. In response to the new observations after the flood, a collaborative investigation to better understand site conditions and processes commenced. This investigation included installing 103 boreholes to collect soil and groundwater samples, sampling and analysis of evaporite minerals along the bank of the Little Wind River, an analysis of evaportranspiration in the shallow aquifer, and sampling naturally organic-rich sediments near groundwater discharge areas. The enhanced characterization revealed that the existing CSM did not account for high uranium concentrations in groundwater remaining on the former mill site and groundwater plume stagnation near the Little Wind River. Observations from the flood and subsequent investigations indicate that additional characterization is still needed to continue refining the CSM and determine the viability of the natural flushing compliance strategy. Additional sampling, analysis, and testing of soil and groundwater are necessary to investigate secondary contaminant sources, mobilization of contaminants during floods, geochemical processes, contaminant plume stagnation, distribution of evaporite minerals and organic-rich sediments, and mechanisms and rates of contaminant transfer from soil to groundwater. Future data collection will be used to

  14. Development of a performance-based industrial energy efficiency indicator for corn refining plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; USEPA

    2006-07-31

    Organizations that implement strategic energy management programs have the potential to achieve sustained energy savings if the programs are carried out properly. A key opportunity for achieving energy savings that plant managers can take is to determine an appropriate level of energy performance by comparing their plant's performance with that of similar plants in the same industry. Manufacturing facilities can set energy efficiency targets by using performance-based indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program, has been developing plant energy performance indicators (EPIs) to encourage a variety of U.S. industries to use energy more efficiently. This report describes work with the corn refining industry to provide a plant-level indicator of energy efficiency for facilities that produce a variety of products--including corn starch, corn oil, animal feed, corn sweeteners, and ethanol--for the paper, food, beverage, and other industries in the United States. Consideration is given to the role that performance-based indicators play in motivating change; the steps needed to develop indicators, including interacting with an industry to secure adequate data for an indicator; and the actual application and use of an indicator when complete. How indicators are employed in the EPA's efforts to encourage industries to voluntarily improve their use of energy is discussed as well. The report describes the data and statistical methods used to construct the EPI for corn refining plants. Individual equations are presented, as are the instructions for using them in an associated Excel spreadsheet.

  15. An enriched finite element model with q-refinement for radiative boundary layers in glass cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, M. Shadi; Seaid, Mohammed; Trevelyan, Jon; Laghrouche, Omar

    2014-02-01

    Radiative cooling in glass manufacturing is simulated using the partition of unity finite element method. The governing equations consist of a semi-linear transient heat equation for the temperature field and a stationary simplified P{sub 1} approximation for the radiation in non-grey semitransparent media. To integrate the coupled equations in time we consider a linearly implicit scheme in the finite element framework. A class of hyperbolic enrichment functions is proposed to resolve boundary layers near the enclosure walls. Using an industrial electromagnetic spectrum, the proposed method shows an immense reduction in the number of degrees of freedom required to achieve a certain accuracy compared to the conventional h-version finite element method. Furthermore the method shows a stable behaviour in treating the boundary layers which is shown by studying the solution close to the domain boundaries. The time integration choice is essential to implement a q-refinement procedure introduced in the current study. The enrichment is refined with respect to the steepness of the solution gradient near the domain boundary in the first few time steps and is shown to lead to a further significant reduction on top of what is already achieved with the enrichment. The performance of the proposed method is analysed for glass annealing in two enclosures where the simplified P{sub 1} approximation solution with the partition of unity method, the conventional finite element method and the finite difference method are compared to each other and to the full radiative heat transfer as well as the canonical Rosseland model.

  16. Profiles of foreign direct investment in U.S. energy 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-05

    Profiles of Foreign Direct Investment in US Energy 1993 describes the role of foreign ownership in US energy resources. This report also looks at the investment patterns of US energy companies in other countries. The data used in this report come from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the US Department of Commerce, company annual reports, and public disclosures of investment activities.

  17. U.S. Domestic and Foreign Coal Distribution by State of Origin

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Domestic and Foreign Coal Distribution by State of Origin _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution Report 2015 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution Report 2015 Domestic and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2015 (thousand short tons)

  18. Characterization report. Bulgarian petroleum refining sector. A sector overview of capability, energy consumption, environmental impacts, May 1992. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, N.

    1992-05-01

    The objective of the report is to provide data that will serve as a basis for the modernization and optimization of the economic performance of the petroleum refining industry of Bulgaria. It addresses the current status of the petroleum refining industry so that recommendations providing low cost economies to improve energy efficiency and environmental control at each refinery can be prepared. Both short and long term improvement possibilities were established and given to the second round team for detailed evaluation. Following the collection of data on operating variables, equipment and refinery impact on the environment, a data base was prepared reflecting refinery characteristics and is the subject of a separate report.

  19. Characterization report. Romanian petroleum refining sector. A sector overview of capability, energy consumption, environmental impacts, May 1992. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The objective of the report is to provide data that will serve as a basis for the modernization and optimization of the economic performance of the petroleum refining industry of Romania. The report addresses the current status of the petroleum refining industry so that recommendations providing low cost economies to improve energy efficiency and environmental control at each refinery can be prepared. Following the collection of data on operating variables, equipment, and refinery impact on the environment, a computerized data base was prepared, which is the subject of a separate report.

  20. Characterization report. Polish petroleum refining sector. A sector overview of capability, energy consumption, environmental impacts, May 1992. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The objective of the report is to provide data that will serve as a basis for the modernization and optimization of the economic performance of the petroleum refining industry of Poland. The report addresses the current status of the petroleum refining industry so that recommendations providing low cost economies to improve energy efficiency and environmental control at each refinery can be prepared. Following the collection of data on operating variables, equipment, and refinery impact on the environment, a computerized database was prepared which is the subject of a separate report.

  1. Local timespace mesh refinement for simulation of elastic wave propagation in multi-scale media

    SciTech Connect

    Kostin, Victor; Lisitsa, Vadim; Reshetova, Galina; Tcheverda, Vladimir

    2015-01-15

    This paper presents an original approach to local timespace grid refinement for the numerical simulation of wave propagation in models with localized clusters of micro-heterogeneities. The main features of the algorithm are the application of temporal and spatial refinement on two different surfaces; the use of the embedded-stencil technique for the refinement of grid step with respect to time; the use of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)-based interpolation to couple variables for spatial mesh refinement. The latter makes it possible to perform filtration of high spatial frequencies, which provides stability in the proposed finite-difference schemes. In the present work, the technique is implemented for the finite-difference simulation of seismic wave propagation and the interaction of such waves with fluid-filled fractures and cavities of carbonate reservoirs. However, this approach is easy to adapt and/or combine with other numerical techniques, such as finite elements, discontinuous Galerkin method, or finite volumes used for approximation of various types of linear and nonlinear hyperbolic equations.

  2. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-12-15

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

  3. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Lawrence M.; Strum, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

  4. Synthesis and Rietveld refinement of the small-pore zeolite SSZ-16

    SciTech Connect

    Lobo, R.F.; Zones, S.I.; Medrud, R.C.

    1996-10-01

    Recent research efforts invested in the synthesis of new high-silica zeolites have yielded several novel materials with medium ({approximately}5.6 {Angstrom}) and large ({approximately}7.2 {Angstrom}) pores. Examples include new zeolites with intersecting 10 and 12 member rings-i.e., pores bounded by 10 and 12 tetrahedral (T) atoms respectively-like SSZ-26, NU-87, SSZ-37, SSZ-25, MCM-22, CIT-1 (CON), and the aluminophosphate-based DAF-1 (DFO). However, except for the zeolites SSZ-28 (DDR) and SSZ-13 (CHA), no new high-silica zeolites with small pores have been reported. High-silica small-pore zeolites could be potentially useful for several catalytic reactions including the synthesis of dimethylamine, the reduction of NO{sub x} from combustion gases and the dewaxing of fuels for octane upgrading. The authors present here the synthesis and structural characterization using Rietveld refinement of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data of the zeolite SSZ-16. 27 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Refined rotational period, pole solution, and shape model for (3200) Phaethon

    SciTech Connect

    Ansdell, Megan; Meech, Karen J.; Kaluna, Heather; Hainaut, Olivier; Buie, Marc W.; Bauer, James; Dundon, Luke

    2014-09-20

    (3200) Phaethon exhibits both comet- and asteroid-like properties, suggesting it could be a rare transitional object such as a dormant comet or previously volatile-rich asteroid. This justifies detailed study of (3200) Phaethon's physical properties as a better understanding of asteroid-comet transition objects can provide insight into minor body evolution. We therefore acquired time series photometry of (3200) Phaethon over 15 nights from 1994 to 2013, primarily using the Tektronix 2048 2048 pixel CCD on the University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescope. We utilized light curve inversion to (1) refine (3200) Phaethon's rotational period to P = 3.6032 0.0008 hr; (2) estimate a rotational pole orientation of ? = +85 13 and ? = 20 10; and (3) derive a shape model. We also used our extensive light curve data set to estimate the slope parameter of (3200) Phaethon's phase curve as G ? 0.06, consistent with C-type asteroids. We discuss how this highly oblique pole orientation with a negative ecliptic latitude supports previous evidence for (3200) Phaethon's origin in the inner main asteroid belt as well as the potential for deeply buried volatiles fueling impulsive yet rare cometary outbursts.

  6. Refinement, Validation and Application of Cloud-Radiation Parameterization in a GCM

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Graeme L. Stephens

    2009-04-30

    The research performed under this award was conducted along 3 related fronts: (1) Refinement and assessment of parameterizations of sub-grid scale radiative transport in GCMs. (2) Diagnostic studies that use ARM observations of clouds and convection in an effort to understand the effects of moist convection on its environment, including how convection influences clouds and radiation. This aspect focuses on developing and testing methodologies designed to use ARM data more effectively for use in atmospheric models, both at the cloud resolving model scale and the global climate model scale. (3) Use (1) and (2) in combination with both models and observations of varying complexity to study key radiation feedback Our work toward these objectives thus involved three corresponding efforts. First, novel diagnostic techniques were developed and applied to ARM observations to understand and characterize the effects of moist convection on the dynamical and thermodynamical environment in which it occurs. Second, an in house GCM radiative transfer algorithm (BUGSrad) was employed along with an optimal estimation cloud retrieval algorithm to evaluate the ability to reproduce cloudy-sky radiative flux observations. Assessments using a range of GCMs with various moist convective parameterizations to evaluate the fidelity with which the parameterizations reproduce key observable features of the environment were also started in the final year of this award. The third study area involved the study of cloud radiation feedbacks and we examined these in both cloud resolving and global climate models.

  7. Chemical coal cleaning process and costs refinement for coal-water slurry manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Bhasin, A.K.; Berggren, M.H.; Ronzio, N.J.; Smit, F.J.

    1985-12-31

    This report describes the results of process and cost refinement studies for the manufacture of ultra-clean coal-slurry fuel for direct-fired gas turbines. The work was performed as an extension to an earlier contract in which AMAX R and D supplied METC with two lots of highly beneficiated coal slurry fuel for use in the Heat Engines program. A conceptual design study and cost estimate supplied to METC at that time indicated that a combined physical and chemical cleaning process could produce ultra-clean fuel at a competitive price. Laboratory and pilot plant studies performed for the contract extension further defined the process conditions and operating and capital costs to prepare coals containing from 0.2 to 1.0% ash as slurry fuels. A base-case fuel containing coal cleaned to 0.5% ash in a 1000 cp slurry containing 55% coal was $4.16 per million Btu when produced in quantities required to fuel a 500 MW gas-turbine generating station. Coal slurry fuel production costs as low as $3.66 per million Btu were projected for coals cleaned to 1.0% ash. 12 refs., 23 figs., 63 tabs.

  8. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1979-June 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Project for the period March 25, 1979, through June 24, 1979. SRC-I turnaround activities at the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant and several other problems delayed successful startup until April 11. Slurry was injected to the Lummus Deashing Unit for the first time April 12. After approximately eight days, slurry feed was diverted because of indications that solids were accumulating in the settler vessel. The Fort Lewis Pilot Plant was shut down from April 28 to May 12, 1979, while the Lummus Unit settler vessel was hydroblasted. Cleaning of the settler vessel was complete May 10. Modifications to the unit were nearly complete at the end of the reporting period. Slurry feed to the Lummus Unit was reestablished June 15. To date, continuous production of specification product at design rates has not been achieved. One material balance run, MBR 79-1, was completed using Kentucky No. 9/14 coal at proposed design conditions for the SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Process Development Unit P-99 was on-stream for all of the second quarter of 1979, with the exception of a two-week scheduled turn-around. Six different run conditions were tested feeding Pittsburgh Seam coal from the Powhatan No. 5 Mine.

  9. Aluminum doped zirconia nanopowders: Wet-chemical synthesis and structural analysis by Rietveld refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Srdic, Vladimir V. Rakic, Srdan; Cvejic, Zeljka

    2008-10-02

    Alumina/zirconia nanopowders, with up to 20 mol% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, were prepared by wet-chemical synthesis technique, using controlled hydrolysis of alkoxides. The as-synthesized powders are amorphous, have very high specific surface area and the corresponding particle size smaller than 4 nm. Amorphous powders with 0, 10 and 20 mol% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystallize at 460, 692 and 749 deg. C, respectively, as a single-phase tetragonal zirconia, without any traces of alumina phases. Rietvled refinement of X-ray diffraction data, used for the detailed structural analysis of annealed nanopowders, showed that the high-temperature zirconia phase is stabilized due to the formation of ZrO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} solid solutions. High solubility of alumina in the tetragonal zirconia (up to 28.6 at% Al{sup 3+}) and stabilization of tetragonal zirconia solid solution up to high temperature (as high as 1150 deg. C) were also confirmed.

  10. A Predictive Model of Fragmentation using Adaptive Mesh Refinement and a Hierarchical Material Model

    SciTech Connect

    Koniges, A E; Masters, N D; Fisher, A C; Anderson, R W; Eder, D C; Benson, D; Kaiser, T B; Gunney, B T; Wang, P; Maddox, B R; Hansen, J F; Kalantar, D H; Dixit, P; Jarmakani, H; Meyers, M A

    2009-03-03

    Fragmentation is a fundamental material process that naturally spans spatial scales from microscopic to macroscopic. We developed a mathematical framework using an innovative combination of hierarchical material modeling (HMM) and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to connect the continuum to microstructural regimes. This framework has been implemented in a new multi-physics, multi-scale, 3D simulation code, NIF ALE-AMR. New multi-material volume fraction and interface reconstruction algorithms were developed for this new code, which is leading the world effort in hydrodynamic simulations that combine AMR with ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) techniques. The interface reconstruction algorithm is also used to produce fragments following material failure. In general, the material strength and failure models have history vector components that must be advected along with other properties of the mesh during remap stage of the ALE hydrodynamics. The fragmentation models are validated against an electromagnetically driven expanding ring experiment and dedicated laser-based fragmentation experiments conducted at the Jupiter Laser Facility. As part of the exit plan, the NIF ALE-AMR code was applied to a number of fragmentation problems of interest to the National Ignition Facility (NIF). One example shows the added benefit of multi-material ALE-AMR that relaxes the requirement that material boundaries must be along mesh boundaries.

  11. Dimensional reduction as a tool for mesh refinement and trackingsingularities of PDEs

    SciTech Connect

    Stinis, Panagiotis

    2007-06-10

    We present a collection of algorithms which utilizedimensional reduction to perform mesh refinement and study possiblysingular solutions of time-dependent partial differential equations. Thealgorithms are inspired by constructions used in statistical mechanics toevaluate the properties of a system near a critical point. The firstalgorithm allows the accurate determination of the time of occurrence ofa possible singularity. The second algorithm is an adaptive meshrefinement scheme which can be used to approach efficiently the possiblesingularity. Finally, the third algorithm uses the second algorithm untilthe available resolution is exhausted (as we approach the possiblesingularity) and then switches to a dimensionally reduced model which,when accurate, can follow faithfully the solution beyond the time ofoccurrence of the purported singularity. An accurate dimensionallyreduced model should dissipate energy at the right rate. We construct twovariants of each algorithm. The first variant assumes that we have actualknowledge of the reduced model. The second variant assumes that we knowthe form of the reduced model, i.e., the terms appearing in the reducedmodel, but not necessarily their coefficients. In this case, we alsoprovide a way of determining the coefficients. We present numericalresults for the Burgers equation with zero and nonzero viscosity toillustrate the use of the algorithms.

  12. Decontamination of metals by melt refinings/slagging: An annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Mizia, R.E.; Worcester, S.A.; Twidwell, L.G.; Paolini, D.J.; Weldon, T.A.

    1993-07-01

    As the number of nuclear installations undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) increases, current radioactive waste storage space is consumed and establishment of new waste storage areas becomes increasingly difficult, the problem of handling and storing radioactive scrap metal (RSM) gains increasing importance in the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. To alleviate present and future waste storage problems, Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) is managing a program for the recycling of RSM for beneficial use within the DOE complex. As part of that effort, Montana Tech has been awarded a contract to help optimize melting and refining technology for the recycling of stainless steel RSM. The scope of the Montana Tech program includes a literature survey, a decontaminating slag design study, small scale melting studies to determine optimum slag compositions for removal of radioactive contaminant surrogates, analysis of preferred melting techniques, and coordination of large scale melting demonstrations (100--500 lbs) to be conducted at selected facilities. The program will support recycling and decontaminating stainless steel RSM for use in waste canisters for Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility densified high level waste. This report is the result of the literature search conducted to establish a basis for experimental melt/slag program development.

  13. Detection of foreign body using fast thermoacoustic tomography with a multielement linear transducer array

    SciTech Connect

    Nie Liming; Xing Da; Yang Diwu; Zeng Lvming; Zhou Quan

    2007-04-23

    Current imaging modalities face challenges in clinical applications due to limitations in resolution or contrast. Microwave-induced thermoacoustic imaging may provide a complementary modality for medical imaging, particularly for detecting foreign objects due to their different absorption of electromagnetic radiation at specific frequencies. A thermoacoustic tomography system with a multielement linear transducer array was developed and used to detect foreign objects in tissue. Radiography and thermoacoustic images of objects with different electromagnetic properties, including glass, sand, and iron, were compared. The authors' results demonstrate that thermoacoustic imaging has the potential to become a fast method for surgical localization of occult foreign objects.

  14. Unique Auxin Regulation Mechanism Discovered

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Unique Auxin Regulation Mechanism Discovered Unique Auxin Regulation Mechanism Discovered Print Wednesday, 29 August 2007 00:00 The plant hormone auxin regulates many plant growth ...

  15. Methods and constructs for expression of foreign proteins in photosynthetic organisms

    DOEpatents

    Laible, Philip D.; Hanson, Deborah K.

    2002-01-01

    A method for expressing and purifying foreign proteins in photosynthetic organisms comprising the simultaneous expression of both the heterologous protein and a means for compartmentalizing or sequestering of the protein.

  16. EA-0912: Urgent-Relief Acceptance of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to accept 409 spent fuel elements from eight foreign research reactors in seven European countries.  The spent fuel would be shipped across...

  17. TOWARD MORE EFFECTIVE REGULATION

    SciTech Connect

    J. GRAF

    2000-06-01

    This paper proposes a model relationship between the operator engaged in a hazardous activity, the regulator of that activity, and the general public. The roles and responsibilities of each entity are described in a way that allows effective communication flow. The role of the regulator is developed using the steam boiler as an example of a hazard subject to regulation; however, the model applies to any regulated activity. In this model the safety analyst has the extremely important role of communicating sometimes difficult technical information to the regulator in a way that the regulator can provide credible assurance to the general public as to the adequacy of the control of the hazardous activity. The conclusion asserts that acceptance of the model, understanding of the roles and responsibilities and definition of who communicates what information to whom will mitigate frustration on the part of each of the three entities.

  18. Pressure reducing regulator

    DOEpatents

    Whitehead, John C. (Davis, CA); Dilgard, Lemoyne W. (Willits, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes.

  19. Pressure reducing regulator

    DOEpatents

    Whitehead, J.C.; Dilgard, L.W.

    1995-10-10

    A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure is disclosed. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes. 10 figs.

  20. OPEC and lower oil prices: Impacts on production capacity, export refining, domestic demand and trade balances

    SciTech Connect

    Fesharaki, F.; Fridley, D.; Isaak, D.; Totto, L.; Wilson, T.

    1988-12-01

    The East-West Center has received a research grant from the US Department of Energy's Office of Policy, Planning, and Analysis to study the impact of lower oil prices on OPEC production capacity, on export refineries, and petroleum trade. The project was later extended to include balance-of-payments scenarios and impacts on OPEC domestic demand. As the study progressed, a number of preliminary presentations were made at the US Department of Energy in order to receive feedback from DOE officials and to refine the focus of our analysis. During one of the presentations on June 4, 1987, the then Director of Division of Oil and Gas, John Stanley-Miller, advised us to focus our work on the Persian Gulf countries, since these countries were of special interest to the United States Government. Since then, our team has visited Iran, the United Arab Emirates, and Saudi Arabia and obtained detailed information from other countries. The political turmoil in the Gulf, the Iran/Iraq war, and the active US military presence have all worked to delay the final submission of our report. Even in countries where the United States has close ties, access to information has been difficult. In most countries, even mundane information on petroleum issues are treated as national secrets. As a result of these difficulties, we requested a one-year no cost extension to the grant and submitted an Interim Report in May 1988. As part of our grant extension request, we proposed to undertake additional tasks which appear in this report. 20 figs., 21 tabs.

  1. Petropower energia project under way in Chile promises refiner better economics at lower cost

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    Construction of the Republic of Chile`s first public/private industrial partnership project is well under way. Ground was broken for the $232-million Petropower Energia Limitada project early this year, shortly after the final contract between the parties - Foster Wheeler Power Systems, Inc. (FWPS); Petrox S.A. Refineria de Petroleo and Empresa Nacional del Petroleo (ENAP) - was signed. The Petropower project, located adjacent to Petrox`s 84,000-b/d refinery in Talcahuano, represents the first project ever to combine petroleum coking technology with cogeneration technology in a single project financing. Petropower is 85% owned by FWPS, 7.5% by ENAP, the Chilean national oil company and parent of Petrox S.A. When completed in mid-1998, the Petropower project will enable Petrox to refine heavier crudes and enhance the refinery`s flexibility and economics. The project will consist of a delayed coking facility (a 12,000-b/d delayed coking unit and a 7,000-b/d hydrotreating plant) and a 67-MW (59 MW net) cogeneration plant. The coke produced will fuel a Foster Wheeler proprietary-design circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) boiler which will generate all the high-pressure steam and electric power needs of the Petrox refinery. This unit will be the first circulating fluidized-bed boiler to be built in Latin America. The cogeneration facility, using limestone as a reagent and equipped with a baghouse, will control SO{sub x} emissions from combustion of the green coke fuel and easily meet all Chilean environmental standards. Moreover, by constructing the cogeneration facility, Petrox will not have to proceed with capital improvements to existing facilities to ensure a reliable source of steam and electricity, resulting in substantial savings for Petrox. The cogeneration plant provides a permanent {open_quotes}disposal{close_quotes} for all coke produced by the delayed coker, thereby solving any future problems of unwanted or excess coke.

  2. Rob Goldston, Alex Glaser and Boaz Barak named among Foreign Policy

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    magazine's 100 top global thinkers | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Rob Goldston, Alex Glaser and Boaz Barak named among Foreign Policy magazine's 100 top global thinkers By John Greenwald November 18, 2014 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Alex Glaser, left, and Rob Goldston, seen here with a non-nuclear test object. The two were named to Foreign Policy magazine's list of "100 Leading Global Thinkers of 2014." (Photo by Elle Starkman/ PPPL Office of Communications) Alex

  3. Unclassified Foreign National Visits and Assignments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Unclassified Foreign National Visits and Assignments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory INS-O-13-05 September 2013 Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 September 16, 2013 MEMORANDUM FOR THE MANAGER, OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY SITE OFFICE FROM: Sandra D. Bruce Assistant Inspector General for Inspections Office of Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Inspection Report on "Unclassified Foreign National Visits and Assignments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory" BACKGROUND In support

  4. Policy and Regulations | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Regulations Policy and Regulations map-1019833_960_720.jpg

  5. Resources for Utility Regulators

    SciTech Connect

    SEE Action

    2012-06-01

    Provides a summary of State and Local Energy Efficiency Action Network (SEE Action) information resources available to utility regulators, organized by topic.

  6. Directory of financing sources for foreign energy projects

    SciTech Connect

    La Ferla, L.

    1995-09-01

    The Office of National Security Policy has produced this Directory of Financing Sources for Foreign Energy Projects. The Directory reviews programs that offer financing from US government agencies, multilateral organizations, public, private, and quasi-private investment funds, and local commercial and state development banks. The main US government agencies covered are the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the Export-Import Bank of the US (EXIM Bank), Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), US Department of Energy, US Department of Defense, and the US Trade and Development Agency (TDA). Other US Government Sources includes market funds that have been in part capitalized using US government agency funds. Multilateral organizations include the World Bank, International Finance Corporation (IFC), Asian Development Bank (ADB), European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), and various organizations of the United Nations. The Directory lists available public, private, and quasi-private sources of financing in key emerging markets in the Newly Independent States and other developing countries of strategic interest to the US Department of Energy. The sources of financing listed in this directory should be considered indicative rather than inclusive of all potential sources of financing. Initial focus is on the Russian Federation, Ukraine, india, China, and Pakistan. Separate self-contained sections have been developed for each of the countries to enable the user to readily access market-specific information and to support country-specific Departmental initiatives. For each country, the directory is organized to follow the project life cycle--from prefeasibility, feasibility, project finance, cofinancing, and trade finance, through to technical assistance and training. Programs on investment and export insurance are excluded.

  7. Study of deactivation and regeneration of catalysts used in the LC-fining of solvent refined coal

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W. (Auburn Univ., AL); Guin, J.A.; Nalitham, R.; mohsin, A.; Tarrer, A.R.; Potts, J.D.; Hastings, K.E.

    1981-03-29

    Batch experiments as well as results from LC-Fining catalytic upgrading of coal extracts indicate deactivation of the Shell 324 Ni/Mo catalyst in the presence of solvent refined coal (SRC). At increased levels of SRC loading, deactivation increases. The chief cause of catalyst deactivation appears to be coking. The Shell 324 catalyst can be substantially regenerated after the upgrading reaction by medium temperature ashing followed by presulfiding.

  8. Techno-Economic Analysis of the Deacetylation and Disk Refining Process. Characterizing the Effect of Refining Energy and Enzyme Usage on Minimum Sugar Selling Price and Minimum Ethanol Selling Price

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiaowen; Shekiro, Joseph; Pschorn, Thomas; Sabourin, Marc; Tucker, Melvin P.; Tao, Ling

    2015-10-29

    A novel, highly efficient deacetylation and disk refining (DDR) process to liberate fermentable sugars from biomass was recently developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The DDR process consists of a mild, dilute alkaline deacetylation step followed by low-energy-consumption disk refining. The DDR corn stover substrates achieved high process sugar conversion yields, at low to modest enzyme loadings, and also produced high sugar concentration syrups at high initial insoluble solid loadings. The sugar syrups derived from corn stover are highly fermentable due to low concentrations of fermentation inhibitors. The objective of this work is to evaluate the economic feasibility of the DDR process through a techno-economic analysis (TEA). A large array of experiments designed using a response surface methodology was carried out to investigate the two major cost-driven operational parameters of the novel DDR process: refining energy and enzyme loadings. The boundary conditions for refining energy (128–468 kWh/ODMT), cellulase (Novozyme’s CTec3) loading (11.6–28.4 mg total protein/g of cellulose), and hemicellulase (Novozyme’s HTec3) loading (0–5 mg total protein/g of cellulose) were chosen to cover the most commercially practical operating conditions. The sugar and ethanol yields were modeled with good adequacy, showing a positive linear correlation between those yields and refining energy and enzyme loadings. The ethanol yields ranged from 77 to 89 gallons/ODMT of corn stover. The minimum sugar selling price (MSSP) ranged from $0.191 to $0.212 per lb of 50 % concentrated monomeric sugars, while the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) ranged from $2.24 to $2.54 per gallon of ethanol. The DDR process concept is evaluated for economic feasibility through TEA. The MSSP and MESP of the DDR process falls within a range similar to that found with the deacetylation/dilute acid pretreatment process modeled in NREL’s 2011 design report. The DDR

  9. Techno-Economic Analysis of the Deacetylation and Disk Refining Process. Characterizing the Effect of Refining Energy and Enzyme Usage on Minimum Sugar Selling Price and Minimum Ethanol Selling Price

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Chen, Xiaowen; Shekiro, Joseph; Pschorn, Thomas; Sabourin, Marc; Tucker, Melvin P.; Tao, Ling

    2015-10-29

    A novel, highly efficient deacetylation and disk refining (DDR) process to liberate fermentable sugars from biomass was recently developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The DDR process consists of a mild, dilute alkaline deacetylation step followed by low-energy-consumption disk refining. The DDR corn stover substrates achieved high process sugar conversion yields, at low to modest enzyme loadings, and also produced high sugar concentration syrups at high initial insoluble solid loadings. The sugar syrups derived from corn stover are highly fermentable due to low concentrations of fermentation inhibitors. The objective of this work is to evaluate the economic feasibilitymore » of the DDR process through a techno-economic analysis (TEA). A large array of experiments designed using a response surface methodology was carried out to investigate the two major cost-driven operational parameters of the novel DDR process: refining energy and enzyme loadings. The boundary conditions for refining energy (128–468 kWh/ODMT), cellulase (Novozyme’s CTec3) loading (11.6–28.4 mg total protein/g of cellulose), and hemicellulase (Novozyme’s HTec3) loading (0–5 mg total protein/g of cellulose) were chosen to cover the most commercially practical operating conditions. The sugar and ethanol yields were modeled with good adequacy, showing a positive linear correlation between those yields and refining energy and enzyme loadings. The ethanol yields ranged from 77 to 89 gallons/ODMT of corn stover. The minimum sugar selling price (MSSP) ranged from $0.191 to $0.212 per lb of 50 % concentrated monomeric sugars, while the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) ranged from $2.24 to $2.54 per gallon of ethanol. The DDR process concept is evaluated for economic feasibility through TEA. The MSSP and MESP of the DDR process falls within a range similar to that found with the deacetylation/dilute acid pretreatment process modeled in NREL’s 2011 design report. The

  10. Monitoring the refinement of crystal structures with {sup 15}N solid-state NMR shift tensor data

    SciTech Connect

    Kalakewich, Keyton; Eloranta, Harriet; Harper, James K.; Iuliucci, Robbie; Mueller, Karl T.

    2015-11-21

    The {sup 15}N chemical shift tensor is shown to be extremely sensitive to lattice structure and a powerful metric for monitoring density functional theory refinements of crystal structures. These refinements include lattice effects and are applied here to five crystal structures. All structures improve based on a better agreement between experimental and calculated {sup 15}N tensors, with an average improvement of 47.0 ppm. Structural improvement is further indicated by a decrease in forces on the atoms by 2–3 orders of magnitude and a greater similarity in atom positions to neutron diffraction structures. These refinements change bond lengths by more than the diffraction errors including adjustments to X–Y and X–H bonds (X, Y = C, N, and O) of 0.028 ± 0.002 Å and 0.144 ± 0.036 Å, respectively. The acquisition of {sup 15}N tensors at natural abundance is challenging and this limitation is overcome by improved {sup 1}H decoupling in the FIREMAT method. This decoupling dramatically narrows linewidths, improves signal-to-noise by up to 317%, and significantly improves the accuracy of measured tensors. A total of 39 tensors are measured with shifts distributed over a range of more than 400 ppm. Overall, experimental {sup 15}N tensors are at least 5 times more sensitive to crystal structure than {sup 13}C tensors due to nitrogen’s greater polarizability and larger range of chemical shifts.

  11. WIPP Documents - Federal Regulations

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Federal Regulations 40 CFR Part 191 Environmental radiation protection standards for management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel, high-level and transuranic radioactive wastes. 40 CFR Part 194 Criteria for the certification and re-certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's compliance with the 40 CFR Part 191 disposal regulations.

  12. Rainwater Harvesting Regulations Map

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Rainwater collection is currently regulated by individual states. There was no centralized information source on state-level regulations on rainwater harvesting maintained by a federal agency. To fill this information gap, the Federal Energy Management Program compiled state-level information and provided it in this map tool.

  13. Projections of the impact of expansion of domestic heavy oil production on the U.S. refining industry from 1990 to 2010. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Strycker, A.R.; Guariguata, G.; Salmen, F.G.

    1994-12-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production. This report provides a compendium of the United States refining industry and analyzes the industry by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) and by ten smaller refining areas. The refining capacity, oil source and oil quality are analyzed, and projections are made for the U.S. refining industry for the years 1990 to 2010. The study used publicly available data as background. A linear program model of the U.S. refining industry was constructed and validated using 1990 U.S. refinery performance. Projections of domestic oil production (decline) and import of crude oil (increases) were balanced to meet anticipated demand to establish a base case for years 1990 through 2010. The impact of additional domestic heavy oil production, (300 MB/D to 900 MB/D, originating in select areas of the U.S.) on the U.S. refining complex was evaluated. This heavy oil could reduce the import rate and the balance of payments by displacing some imported, principally Mid-east, medium crude. The construction cost for refining units to accommodate this additional domestic heavy oil production in both the low and high volume scenarios is about 7 billion dollars for bottoms conversion capacity (delayed coking) with about 50% of the cost attributed to compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990.

  14. Of Refrigerators & Regulations

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Editor's Note: This entry has been cross-posted from The White House Blog. The President took a moment during his speech to put the debate over regulation in a different perspective.

  15. HIGH PRESSURE GAS REGULATOR

    DOEpatents

    Ramage, R.W.

    1962-05-01

    A gas regulator operating on the piston and feedback principle is described. The device is particularly suitable for the delicate regulation of high pressure, i.e., 10,000 psi and above, gas sources, as well as being perfectly adaptable for use on gas supplies as low as 50 psi. The piston is adjustably connected to a needle valve and the movement of the piston regulates the flow of gas from the needle valve. The gas output is obtained from the needle valve. Output pressure is sampled by a piston feedback means which, in turn, regulates the movement of the main piston. When the output is other than the desired value, the feedback system initiates movement of the main piston to allow the output pressure to be corrected or to remain constant. (AEC)

  16. Study on Evaluation of Project Management Data for Decommissioning of Uranium Refining and Conversion Plant - 12234

    SciTech Connect

    Usui, Hideo; Izumo, Sari; Tachibana, Mitsuo; Shibahara, Yuji; Morimoto, Yasuyuki; Tokuyasu, Takashi; Takahashi, Nobuo; Tanaka, Yoshio; Sugitsue, Noritake

    2012-07-01

    Some of nuclear facilities that would no longer be required have been decommissioned in JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). A lot of nuclear facilities have to be decommissioned in JAEA in near future. To implement decommissioning of nuclear facilities, it was important to make a rational decommissioning plan. Therefore, project management data evaluation system for dismantling activities (PRODIA code) has been developed, and will be useful for making a detailed decommissioning plan for an object facility. Dismantling of dry conversion facility in the uranium refining and conversion plant (URCP) at Ningyo-toge began in 2008. During dismantling activities, project management data such as manpower and amount of waste generation have been collected. Such collected project management data has been evaluated and used to establish a calculation formula to calculate manpower for dismantling equipment of chemical process and calculate manpower for using a green house (GH) which was a temporary structure for preventing the spread of contaminants during dismantling. In the calculation formula to calculate project management data related to dismantling of equipment, the relation of dismantling manpower to each piece of equipment was evaluated. Furthermore, the relation of dismantling manpower to each chemical process was evaluated. The results showed promise for evaluating dismantling manpower with respect to each chemical process. In the calculation formula to calculate project management data related to use of the GH, relations of GH installation manpower and removal manpower to GH footprint were evaluated. Furthermore, the calculation formula for secondary waste generation was established. In this study, project management data related to dismantling of equipment and use of the GH were evaluated and analyzed. The project management data, manpower for dismantling of equipment, manpower for installation and removal of GH, and secondary waste generation from GH were considered

  17. Development of Adaptive Model Refinement (AMoR) for Multiphysics and Multifidelity Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Turinsky, Paul

    2015-02-09

    This project investigated the development and utilization of Adaptive Model Refinement (AMoR) for nuclear systems simulation applications. AMoR refers to utilization of several models of physical phenomena which differ in prediction fidelity. If the highest fidelity model is judged to always provide or exceeded the desired fidelity, than if one can determine the difference in a Quantity of Interest (QoI) between the highest fidelity model and lower fidelity models, one could utilize the fidelity model that would just provide the magnitude of the QoI desired. Assuming lower fidelity models require less computational resources, in this manner computational efficiency can be realized provided the QoI value can be accurately and efficiently evaluated. This work utilized Generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT) to evaluate the QoI, by convoluting the GPT solution with the residual of the highest fidelity model determined using the solution from lower fidelity models. Specifically, a reactor core neutronics problem and thermal-hydraulics problem were studied to develop and utilize AMoR. The highest fidelity neutronics model was based upon the 3D space-time, two-group, nodal diffusion equations as solved in the NESTLE computer code. Added to the NESTLE code was the ability to determine the time-dependent GPT neutron flux. The lower fidelity neutronics model was based upon the point kinetics equations along with utilization of a prolongation operator to determine the 3D space-time, two-group flux. The highest fidelity thermal-hydraulics model was based upon the space-time equations governing fluid flow in a closed channel around a heat generating fuel rod. The Homogenous Equilibrium Mixture (HEM) model was used for the fluid and Finite Difference Method was applied to both the coolant and fuel pin energy conservation equations. The lower fidelity thermal-hydraulic model was based upon the same equations as used for the highest fidelity model but now with coarse spatial

  18. Nuclear sensing of viral DNA, epigenetic regulation of herpes simplex virus infection, and innate immunity

    SciTech Connect

    Knipe, David M.

    2015-05-15

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) undergoes a lytic infection in epithelial cells and a latent infection in neuronal cells, and epigenetic mechanisms play a major role in the differential gene expression under the two conditions. HSV viron DNA is not associated with histones but is rapidly loaded with heterochromatin upon entry into the cell. Viral proteins promote reversal of the epigenetic silencing in epithelial cells while the viral latency-associated transcript promotes additional heterochromatin in neuronal cells. The cellular sensors that initiate the chromatinization of foreign DNA have not been fully defined. IFI16 and cGAS are both essential for innate sensing of HSV DNA, and new evidence shows how they work together to initiate innate signaling. IFI16 also plays a role in the heterochromatinization of HSV DNA, and this review will examine how IFI16 integrates epigenetic regulation and innate sensing of foreign viral DNA to show how these two responses are related. - Highlights: • HSV lytic and latent gene expression is regulated differentially by epigenetic processes. • The sensors of foreign DNA have not been defined fully. • IFI16 and cGAS cooperate to sense viral DNA in HSV-infected cells. • IFI16 plays a role in both innate sensing of HSV DNA and in restricting its expression.

  19. Computer aided detection of surgical retained foreign object for prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjiiski, Lubomir Marentis, Theodore C.; Rondon, Lucas; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chaudhury, Amrita R.; Chronis, Nikolaos

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Surgical retained foreign objects (RFOs) have significant morbidity and mortality. They are associated with approximately $1.5 × 10{sup 9} annually in preventable medical costs. The detection accuracy of radiographs for RFOs is a mediocre 59%. The authors address the RFO problem with two complementary technologies: a three-dimensional (3D) gossypiboma micro tag, the μTag that improves the visibility of RFOs on radiographs, and a computer aided detection (CAD) system that detects the μTag. It is desirable for the CAD system to operate in a high specificity mode in the operating room (OR) and function as a first reader for the surgeon. This allows for fast point of care results and seamless workflow integration. The CAD system can also operate in a high sensitivity mode as a second reader for the radiologist to ensure the highest possible detection accuracy. Methods: The 3D geometry of the μTag produces a similar two dimensional (2D) depiction on radiographs regardless of its orientation in the human body and ensures accurate detection by a radiologist and the CAD. The authors created a data set of 1800 cadaver images with the 3D μTag and other common man-made surgical objects positioned randomly. A total of 1061 cadaver images contained a single μTag and the remaining 739 were without μTag. A radiologist marked the location of the μTag using an in-house developed graphical user interface. The data set was partitioned into three independent subsets: a training set, a validation set, and a test set, consisting of 540, 560, and 700 images, respectively. A CAD system with modules that included preprocessing μTag enhancement, labeling, segmentation, feature analysis, classification, and detection was developed. The CAD system was developed using the training and the validation sets. Results: On the training set, the CAD achieved 81.5% sensitivity with 0.014 false positives (FPs) per image in a high specificity mode for the surgeons in the OR and 96

  20. A Freestream-Preserving High-Order Finite-Volume Method for Mapped Grids with Adaptive-Mesh Refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Guzik, S; McCorquodale, P; Colella, P

    2011-12-16

    A fourth-order accurate finite-volume method is presented for solving time-dependent hyperbolic systems of conservation laws on mapped grids that are adaptively refined in space and time. Novel considerations for formulating the semi-discrete system of equations in computational space combined with detailed mechanisms for accommodating the adapting grids ensure that conservation is maintained and that the divergence of a constant vector field is always zero (freestream-preservation property). Advancement in time is achieved with a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method.

  1. ,"U.S. Sales to End Users Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Sales Volumes"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Sales to End Users Refiner Residual Fuel Oil and No. 4 Fuel Sales Volumes",4,"Monthly","8/2016","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","11/1/2016" ,"Next Release

  2. Refining and end use study of coal liquids II - linear programming analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, C.; Tam, S.

    1995-12-31

    A DOE-funded study is underway to determine the optimum refinery processing schemes for producing transportation fuels that will meet CAAA regulations from direct and indirect coal liquids. The study consists of three major parts: pilot plant testing of critical upgrading processes, linear programming analysis of different processing schemes, and engine emission testing of final products. Currently, fractions of a direct coal liquid produced form bituminous coal are being tested in sequence of pilot plant upgrading processes. This work is discussed in a separate paper. The linear programming model, which is the subject of this paper, has been completed for the petroleum refinery and is being modified to handle coal liquids based on the pilot plant test results. Preliminary coal liquid evaluation studies indicate that, if a refinery expansion scenario is adopted, then the marginal value of the coal liquid (over the base petroleum crude) is $3-4/bbl.

  3. H. R. 1671: A bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 with respect to the treatment of foreign oil and gas income, introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, April 9, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The bill explains special rules for foreign tax credit with respect to foreign oil and gas income by amending the following sections: certain taxes not creditable; separate baskets for foreign oil and gas extraction income and foreign oil related income; and elimination of deferral for foreign oil and gas extraction income. The effective date would be December 31, 1991.

  4. ORISE: After a Brief Decline, Recent Foreign Ph.D. Graduates are Staying in

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    the U.S. at Near-record Levels After a Brief Decline, Recent Foreign Ph.D. Graduates are Staying in the U.S. at Near-record Levels FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: Feb. 3, 2010 FY10-20 OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-Two years after completing doctoral degrees at United States (U.S.) universities, 67% of foreign students graduating in 2005 remained in the U.S., according to a new report issued by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) and funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). This is a

  5. Unique Auxin Regulation Mechanism Discovered

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Unique Auxin Regulation Mechanism Discovered Print The plant hormone auxin regulates many plant growth and development processes, including shoot growth, root branching, fruit ...

  6. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: CONTINUOUS DYNAMIC GRID ADAPTATION IN A GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC MODEL: APPLICATION AND REFINEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Gutowski, William J.; Prusa, Joseph M.; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.

    2012-05-08

    This project had goals of advancing the performance capabilities of the numerical general circulation model EULAG and using it to produce a fully operational atmospheric global climate model (AGCM) that can employ either static or dynamic grid stretching for targeted phenomena. The resulting AGCM combined EULAG's advanced dynamics core with the "physics" of the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM). Effort discussed below shows how we improved model performance and tested both EULAG and the coupled CAM-EULAG in several ways to demonstrate the grid stretching and ability to simulate very well a wide range of scales, that is, multi-scale capability. We leveraged our effort through interaction with an international EULAG community that has collectively developed new features and applications of EULAG, which we exploited for our own work summarized here. Overall, the work contributed to over 40 peer-reviewed publications and over 70 conference/workshop/seminar presentations, many of them invited. 3a. EULAG Advances EULAG is a non-hydrostatic, parallel computational model for all-scale geophysical flows. EULAG's name derives from its two computational options: EULerian (flux form) or semi-LAGrangian (advective form). The model combines nonoscillatory forward-in-time (NFT) numerical algorithms with a robust elliptic Krylov solver. A signature feature of EULAG is that it is formulated in generalized time-dependent curvilinear coordinates. In particular, this enables grid adaptivity. In total, these features give EULAG novel advantages over many existing dynamical cores. For EULAG itself, numerical advances included refining boundary conditions and filters for optimizing model performance in polar regions. We also added flexibility to the model's underlying formulation, allowing it to work with the pseudo-compressible equation set of Durran in addition to EULAG's standard anelastic formulation. Work in collaboration with others also extended the demonstrated range of

  7. Reviving regulation - and antitrust

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, W.G.

    1994-06-01

    The ills of utility regulation have been overstated by interested players and at least some academics. One can have the best features of both competition and regulation by a paradigm that combines some regulation with stronger antitrust enforcement. It is now obvious that the success of deregulation actually depends crucially on whether antitrust policy is effective in preventing monopoly. In fact, antitrust policies have been extremely weak since 1980, under a deliberate Reagan administration withdrawal of enforcement. Where deregulation has led to market dominance, which antitrust cannot well cure, the policy changes of the 1980`s may have created costly and irreversible mistakes in a number of major sectors. Yet fast-paced events are currently creating a frenzy of even more deregulation, supposedly to fit new {open_quotes}revolutions{close_quotes} in technology and the impacts of large mergers. Instead it is time for particular caution in electricity.

  8. Key FAR: Federal Acquisition Regulation DEAR: DOE Acquisition Regulation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    as of 11/4/2016. Highlighted areas denote changes from the last update. Key FAR: Federal Acquisition Regulation DEAR: DOE Acquisition Regulation For the official and most up to date status of a specific rule, please see the Federal Register at https://www.regulations.gov/. Regulation Identifier Number Title/Subject/Purpose Rule Type Status 1901-AB37 Enforcement of Classified Information Security Requirements: The proposed rule amends DOE's statutory prescribed regulation, which sets forth the

  9. OSTI Brings Foreign Research to U.S. Science Community | OSTI, US Dept of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information Each year the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) - through its participation in two multilateral R&D information exchange agreements - gains access to approximately 80,000 foreign energy-related research summaries

  10. EIS-0218: Proposed Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This study analyzes the potential environmental impacts of adopting a policy to manage foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel containing uranium enriched in the United States. In particular, the study examines the comparative impacts of several alternative approaches to managing the spent fuel.

  11. A revised partiality model and post-refinement algorithm for X-ray free-electron laser data

    SciTech Connect

    Ginn, Helen Mary; Brewster, Aaron S.; Hattne, Johan; Evans, Gwyndaf; Wagner, Armin; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Sutton, Geoff; Stuart, David Ian

    2015-05-23

    An updated partiality model and post-refinement algorithm for XFEL snapshot diffraction data is presented and confirmed by observing anomalous density for S atoms at an X-ray wavelength of 1.3 . Research towards using X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) data to solve structures using experimental phasing methods such as sulfur single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) has been hampered by shortcomings in the diffraction models for X-ray diffraction from FELs. Owing to errors in the orientation matrix and overly simple partiality models, researchers have required large numbers of images to converge to reliable estimates for the structure-factor amplitudes, which may not be feasible for all biological systems. Here, data for cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus type 17 (CPV17) collected at 1.3 wavelength at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) are revisited. A previously published definition of a partiality model for reflections illuminated by self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) pulses is built upon, which defines a fraction between 0 and 1 based on the intersection of a reflection with a spread of Ewald spheres modelled by a super-Gaussian wavelength distribution in the X-ray beam. A method of post-refinement to refine the parameters of this model is suggested. This has generated a merged data set with an overall discrepancy (by calculating the R{sub split} value) of 3.15% to 1.46 resolution from a 7225-image data set. The atomic numbers of C, N and O atoms in the structure are distinguishable in the electron-density map. There are 13 S atoms within the 237 residues of CPV17, excluding the initial disordered methionine. These only possess 0.42 anomalous scattering electrons each at 1.3 wavelength, but the 12 that have single predominant positions are easily detectable in the anomalous difference Fourier map. It is hoped that these improvements will lead towards XFEL experimental phase determination and structure determination by sulfur SAD and will

  12. ELECTRON EMISSION REGULATING MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Brenholdt, I.R.

    1957-11-19

    >An electronic regulating system is described for controlling the electron emission of a cathode, for example, the cathode in a mass spectrometer. The system incorporates a transformer having a first secondary winding for the above-mentioned cathode and a second secondary winding for the above-mentioned cathode and a second secondary winding load by grid controlled vacuum tubes. A portion of the electron current emitted by the cathode is passed through a network which develops a feedback signal. The system arrangement is completed by using the feedback signal to control the vacuum tubes in the second secondary winding through a regulator tube. When a change in cathode emission occurs, the feedback signal acts to correct this change by adjusting the load on the transformer.

  13. Regulation of Meiotic Recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory p. Copenhaver

    2011-11-09

    Meiotic recombination results in the heritable rearrangement of DNA, primarily through reciprocal exchange between homologous chromosome or gene conversion. In plants these events are critical for ensuring proper chromosome segregation, facilitating DNA repair and providing a basis for genetic diversity. Understanding this fundamental biological mechanism will directly facilitate trait mapping, conventional plant breeding, and development of genetic engineering techniques that will help support the responsible production and conversion of renewable resources for fuels, chemicals, and the conservation of energy (1-3). Substantial progress has been made in understanding the basal recombination machinery, much of which is conserved in organisms as diverse as yeast, plants and mammals (4, 5). Significantly less is known about the factors that regulate how often and where that basal machinery acts on higher eukaryotic chromosomes. One important mechanism for regulating the frequency and distribution of meiotic recombination is crossover interference - or the ability of one recombination event to influence nearby events. The MUS81 gene is thought to play an important role in regulating the influence of interference on crossing over. The immediate goals of this project are to use reverse genetics to identify mutants in two putative MUS81 homologs in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, characterize those mutants and initiate a novel forward genetic screen for additional regulators of meiotic recombination. The long-term goal of the project is to understand how meiotic recombination is regulated in higher eukaryotes with an emphasis on the molecular basis of crossover interference. The ability to monitor recombination in all four meiotic products (tetrad analysis) has been a powerful tool in the arsenal of yeast geneticists. Previously, the qrt mutant of Arabidopsis, which causes the four pollen products of male meiosis to remain attached, was developed as a facile system

  14. Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A L; Griffith, William {Bill} L

    2009-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

  15. Enhancing adaptive sparse grid approximations and improving refinement strategies using adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Jakeman, J. D.; Wildey, T.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an algorithm for adaptive sparse grid approximations of quantities of interest computed from discretized partial differential equations. We use adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates of the interpolation error in the sparse grid to enhance the sparse grid approximation and to drive adaptivity. We show that utilizing these error estimates provides significantly more accurate functional values for random samples of the sparse grid approximation. We also demonstrate that alternative refinement strategies based upon a posteriori error estimates can lead to further increases in accuracy in the approximation over traditional hierarchical surplus based strategies. Throughout this papermore » we also provide and test a framework for balancing the physical discretization error with the stochastic interpolation error of the enhanced sparse grid approximation.« less

  16. Enhancing adaptive sparse grid approximations and improving refinement strategies using adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Jakeman, J.D. Wildey, T.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an algorithm for adaptive sparse grid approximations of quantities of interest computed from discretized partial differential equations. We use adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates of the physical discretization error and the interpolation error in the sparse grid to enhance the sparse grid approximation and to drive adaptivity of the sparse grid. Utilizing these error estimates provides significantly more accurate functional values for random samples of the sparse grid approximation. We also demonstrate that alternative refinement strategies based upon a posteriori error estimates can lead to further increases in accuracy in the approximation over traditional hierarchical surplus based strategies. Throughout this paper we also provide and test a framework for balancing the physical discretization error with the stochastic interpolation error of the enhanced sparse grid approximation.

  17. Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) and Its Application to Grain Refinement of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Tekeli, Sueleyman; Gueral, Ahmet

    2011-12-10

    Microstructure of a metal can be considerably changed by severe plastic deformation techniques such as high pressure torsion, extrusion and equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP). Among these methods, ECAP is particularly attractive because it has a potential for introducing significant grain refinement and homogeneous microstructure into bulk materials. Typically, it reduces the grain size to the submicrometer level or even nanometer range and thus produces materials that are capable of exhibiting unusual mechanical properties. In the present study, a test unites for equal channel angular pressing was constructed and this system was used for Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy. After the optimization tests, it was seen that the most effective lubricant for the dies was MoS{sub 2}, the pressing pressure was around 25-35 ton and the pressing speed was 2 mm/s. By using these parameters, the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy was successfully ECAPed up to 14 passes at 200 deg. C using route C. After ECAP tests, the specimens were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), hardness and macrostructural investigations. It was seen that the plastic deformation in the ECAPed specimens occurred from edge to the centre like whirlpool. In addition, the deformation intensity increased with increasing pass number. The grain size of the specimens effectively also decreased with increasing pass number. That is, while the grain size of unECAPed specimen was 10 {mu}m, this value decreased to 300 nm after 14 passes. At the beginning, while there was a banding tendency in the grains toward deformation direction, homogeneous and equiaxed grains were formed with increasing pass number. This grain refinement was as a result of an interaction between shear strain and thermal recovery during ECAP processing. Hardness measurements showed that the hardness values increased up to 4 passes, decreased effectively at 6th pass, again increased at 8th pass and after this pass, the hardness again decreased due to

  18. A revised partiality model and post-refinement algorithm for X-ray free-electron laser data

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Ginn, Helen Mary; Brewster, Aaron S.; Hattne, Johan; Evans, Gwyndaf; Wagner, Armin; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Sutton, Geoff; Stuart, David Ian

    2015-05-23

    Research towards using X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) data to solve structures using experimental phasing methods such as sulfur single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) has been hampered by shortcomings in the diffraction models for X-ray diffraction from FELs. Owing to errors in the orientation matrix and overly simple partiality models, researchers have required large numbers of images to converge to reliable estimates for the structure-factor amplitudes, which may not be feasible for all biological systems. Here, data for cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus type 17 (CPV17) collected at 1.3 Å wavelength at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) are revisited. A previously published definitionmore » of a partiality model for reflections illuminated by self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) pulses is built upon, which defines a fraction between 0 and 1 based on the intersection of a reflection with a spread of Ewald spheres modelled by a super-Gaussian wavelength distribution in the X-ray beam. A method of post-refinement to refine the parameters of this model is suggested. This has generated a merged data set with an overall discrepancy (by calculating theRsplitvalue) of 3.15% to 1.46 Å resolution from a 7225-image data set. The atomic numbers of C, N and O atoms in the structure are distinguishable in the electron-density map. There are 13 S atoms within the 237 residues of CPV17, excluding the initial disordered methionine. These only possess 0.42 anomalous scattering electrons each at 1.3 Å wavelength, but the 12 that have single predominant positions are easily detectable in the anomalous difference Fourier map. It is hoped that these improvements will lead towards XFEL experimental phase determination and structure determination by sulfur SAD and will generally increase the utility of the method for difficult cases.« less

  19. Refinement of the Kansas City Plant site conceptual model with respect to dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL)

    SciTech Connect

    Korte, N.E.; Hall, S.C.; Baker, J.L.

    1995-10-01

    This document presents a refinement of the site conceptual model with respect to dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) at the US Department of Energy Kansas City Plant (KCP). This refinement was prompted by a review of the literature and the results of a limited study that was conducted to evaluate whether pools of DNAPL were present in contaminated locations at the KCP. The field study relied on the micropurge method of sample collection. This method has been demonstrated as a successful approach for obtaining discrete samples within a limited aquifer zone. Samples were collected at five locations across 5-ft well screens located at the base of the alluvial aquifer at the KCP. The hypothesis was that if pools of DNAPL were present, the dissolved concentration would increase with depth. Four wells with highly contaminated groundwater were selected for the test. Three of the wells were located in areas where DNAPL was suspected, and one where no DNAPL was believed to be present. The results demonstrated no discernible pattern with depth for the four wells tested. A review of the data in light of the available technical literature suggests that the fine-grained nature of the aquifer materials precludes the formation of pools. Instead, DNAPL is trapped as discontinuous ganglia that are probably widespread throughout the aquifer. The discontinuous nature of the DNAPL distribution prevents the collection of groundwater samples with concentrations approaching saturation. Furthermore, the results indicate that attempts to remediate the aquifer with conventional approaches will not result in restoration to pristine conditions because the tortuous groundwater flow paths will inhibit the efficiency of fluid-flow-based treatments.

  20. A revised partiality model and post-refinement algorithm for X-ray free-electron laser data

    SciTech Connect

    Ginn, Helen Mary; Brewster, Aaron S.; Hattne, Johan; Evans, Gwyndaf; Wagner, Armin; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Sutton, Geoff; Stuart, David Ian

    2015-05-23

    Research towards using X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) data to solve structures using experimental phasing methods such as sulfur single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) has been hampered by shortcomings in the diffraction models for X-ray diffraction from FELs. Owing to errors in the orientation matrix and overly simple partiality models, researchers have required large numbers of images to converge to reliable estimates for the structure-factor amplitudes, which may not be feasible for all biological systems. Here, data for cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus type 17 (CPV17) collected at 1.3 Å wavelength at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) are revisited. A previously published definition of a partiality model for reflections illuminated by self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) pulses is built upon, which defines a fraction between 0 and 1 based on the intersection of a reflection with a spread of Ewald spheres modelled by a super-Gaussian wavelength distribution in the X-ray beam. A method of post-refinement to refine the parameters of this model is suggested. This has generated a merged data set with an overall discrepancy (by calculating theRsplitvalue) of 3.15% to 1.46 Å resolution from a 7225-image data set. The atomic numbers of C, N and O atoms in the structure are distinguishable in the electron-density map. There are 13 S atoms within the 237 residues of CPV17, excluding the initial disordered methionine. These only possess 0.42 anomalous scattering electrons each at 1.3 Å wavelength, but the 12 that have single predominant positions are easily detectable in the anomalous difference Fourier map. It is hoped that these improvements will lead towards XFEL experimental phase determination and structure determination by sulfur SAD and will generally increase the utility of the method for difficult cases.

  1. Interrelationship of Program Regulations and Financial Assistance Regulations

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1980-04-24

    The purpose of this Order is to set forth the interrelationship between all program regulations which will result in assistance awards (Program Regulations) and the Department of Energy Assistance Regulations (DOE-AR, 10 CRF Part 600), including procedures for exceptions, deviations or waivers.

  2. Characterization report. CSFR petroleum refining sector. A sector overview of capability, energy consumption, environmental impacts, May 1992. Export trade information. [Czecho-Slovakian Federal Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, P.D.

    1992-05-01

    The objective of the report is to provide data that will serve as a basis for the modernization and optimization of the economic performance of the petroleum refining industry of CSFR. It addresses the current status of the petroleum refining industry so that recommendations providing low cost economies to improve energy efficiency and environmental control at each refinery can be prepared. Both short and long term improvement possibilities were established and given to the second round team for detailed evaluation. Following the collection of data on operating variables, equipment and refinery impact on the environment, a data base has been organized for use in a linear programming model.

  3. Issues affecting the refining sector of the petroleum industry. Hearings before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session, May 19, 1992 and May 28, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    The purpose of this hearing is to look at the challenges facing the petroleum refining industry that are a direct result of recent Federal Government policy changes. A major challenge is the form of compliance with the new Federal environmental laws. The biggest challenge will be the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Compliance will require the refining industry to change both the way it operates and the motor fuels that it produces. The witnesses first address how these new laws affect refinery operations, refinery output, and the distribution of refined products. Secondly, what will it cost the refining industry to implement these laws and how will this affect the cost of refined products. Thirdly, how will these laws affect the structure and competitiveness of the refining industry. Statements of various senators and industry representatives are included in the hearing. Statistical data for 1989 is presented showing the scope of industry activities. 8 figs., 16 refs., 32 tabs.

  4. Technology demonstration for reducing mercury emissions from small-scale gold refining facilities.

    SciTech Connect

    Habegger, L. J.; Fernandez, L. E.; Engle, M.; Bailey, J. L.; Peterson, D. P.; MacDonell, M. M.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    2008-06-30

    coagulation and collection of the mercury aerosols in exhaust ducts, which is dependent on the hood and collector configuration, was also evaluated. Prototype demonstration tests verified the theoretical basis for mercury aerosol capture that can be used to optimize the baffle plate design, flow rates, and hood exhaust ducts and plenum to achieve 80% or higher removal efficiencies. Results indicated that installation configuration significantly influences a system's capture efficiency. Configurations that retained existing inlet ducts resulted in system efficiencies of more than 80%, whereas installation configurations without inlet ducts significantly reduced capture efficiency. As an alternative to increasing the volume of inlet ducts, the number of baffle plates in the system baffle assembly could be doubled to increase efficiency. Recommended installation and operation procedures were developed on the basis of these results. A water-based mercury capture system developed in Indonesia for installation in smaller shops was also tested and shown to be effective for certain applications. The cost of construction and installation of the baffle plate prototype was approximately US$400. These costs were reported as acceptable by local gold shop owners and government regulators, and were significantly lower than the cost of an alternate charcoal/copper mesh mercury filter available in the region, which costs about US$10,000. A sampling procedure that consists of a particle filter combined with a vapor analyzer was demonstrated as an effective procedure for analyzing both the aerosol and vapor components of the mercury concentrations. Two key findings for enhancing higher mercury collection were identified. First, the aerosol/vapor mercury emissions must be given sufficient time for the mercury particles to coagulate to a size that can be readily captured by the baffle plates. An interval of at least 6 seconds of transit time between the point of evaporation and contact with the

  5. Weatherization Rules and Regulations Resources

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Federal regulations provide the framework for the Weatherization Assistance Program. These rules and regulations give state and local weatherization programs guidelines to provide the energy efficiency improvements to low-income dwellings.

  6. Self-regulating valve

    DOEpatents

    Humphreys, D.A.

    1982-07-20

    A variable, self-regulating valve having a hydraulic loss coefficient proportional to a positive exponential power of the flow rate. The device includes two objects in a flow channel and structure which assures that the distance between the two objects is an increasing function of the flow rate. The range of spacing between the objects is such that the hydraulic resistance of the valve is an increasing function of the distance between the two objects so that the desired hydraulic loss coefficient as a function of flow rate is obtained without variation in the flow area.

  7. Assessment of foreign decommissioning technology with potential application to US decommissioning needs

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.P.; Konzek, G.J.; Schneider, K.J.; Smith, R.I.

    1987-09-01

    This study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to identify and technically assess foreign decommissioning technology developments that may represent significant improvements over decommissioning technology currently available or under development in the United States. Technology need areas for nuclear power reactor decommissioning operations were identified and prioritized using the results of past light water reactor (LWR) decommissioning studies to quantitatively evaluate the potential for reducing cost and decommissioning worker radiation dose for each major decommissioning activity. Based on these identified needs, current foreign decommissioning technologies of potential interest to the US were identified through personal contacts and the collection and review of an extensive body of decommissioning literature. These technologies were then assessed qualitatively to evaluate their uniqueness, potential for a significant reduction in decommissioning costs and/or worker radiation dose, development status, and other factors affecting their value and applicability to US needs.

  8. Temperature controlled high voltage regulator

    DOEpatents

    Chiaro, Jr., Peter J.; Schulze, Gerald K.

    2004-04-20

    A temperature controlled high voltage regulator for automatically adjusting the high voltage applied to a radiation detector is described. The regulator is a solid state device that is independent of the attached radiation detector, enabling the regulator to be used by various models of radiation detectors, such as gas flow proportional radiation detectors.

  9. OSTIblog Articles in the foreign Topic | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scientific and Technical Information foreign Topic WorldWideScience - Easy Access to Text, Multimedia, and Data! by Lorrie Johnson 27 Mar, 2013 in Products and Content 5444 wws_April2013.jpg WorldWideScience - Easy Access to Text, Multimedia, and Data! Read more about 5444 For many years, scientific information was provided primarily in text-based formats, such as journal articles, conference proceedings, and technical reports. Increasingly, however, scientists are communicating through

  10. This document, concerning Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities, is a

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    This document, concerning Assistance to Foreign Atomic Energy Activities, is a rulemaking action issued by the Department of Energy. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document. 1 6450-01-P DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR

  11. Microsoft PowerPoint - 8_Martyn_NMMSS_2013_Foreign Obligations.pptx

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Martyn Foreign Obligations Tracking - Why?  US, Canada, Australia, etc. treaties/agreements for peaceful uses of uranium  Exports tied to assurances of peaceful uses  Obligation quantities are based on 741 transactions  Annual reports provided by NMMSS to countries with agreements 2 Obligation Tracking  Tracked by codes - increases with receipts, decreases with shipments  Receipts - Codes/quantities noted on 741 (Domestic)  Receipts - NRC notices for international shippers

  12. OSTI Brings Foreign Research to U.S. Science Community | OSTI, US Dept of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information August 19, 2005 Oak Ridge, TN - Each year the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) - through its participation in two multilateral R&D information exchange agreements - gains access to approximately 80,000 foreign energy-related research summaries. One agreement is under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) in Paris while the other is under the auspices of the

  13. STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS CLASS WAIVER OF THE GOVERNMENT'S DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    THE GOVERNMENT'S DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN PATENT RIGHTS IN CERTAIN IDENTIFIED INVENTIONS TO LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL SECURITY, LLC (LLNS), MADE AND TO BE MADE UNDER CONTRACT DE-AC52-07NA27344 WITH THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY'S NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION (NNSA) FOR THE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATION OF THE LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY, INCLUDING A CLASS ADVANCE WAIVER OF TITLE TO INVENTIONS MADE IN THE PERFORMANCE OF COOPERATIVE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT AGREEMENTS (CRADAS) ENTERED

  14. Environmental Assessment of Urgent-Relief Acceptance of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Department of Energy has completed the Environmental Assessment (EA) of Urgent-Relief Acceptance of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel and issued a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the proposed action. The EA and FONSI are enclosed for your information. The Department has decided to accept a limited number of spent nuclear fuel elements (409 elements) containing uranium that was enriched in the United States from eight research reactors in Austria, Denmark, Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Switzerland. This action is necessary to maintain the viability of a major US nuclear weapons nonproliferation program to limit or eliminate the use of highly enriched uranium in civil programs. The purpose of the EA is to maintain the cooperation of the foreign research reactor operators with the nonproliferation program while a more extensive Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is prepared on a proposed broader policy involving the acceptance of up to 15,000 foreign research reactor spent fuel elements over a 10 to 15 year period. Based on an evaluation of transport by commercial container liner or chartered vessel, five eastern seaboard ports, and truck and train modes of transporting the spent fuel overland to the Savannah River Sits, the Department has concluded that no significant impact would result from any combination of port and made of transport. In addition, no significant impacts were found from interim storage of spent fuel at the Savannah River Site.

  15. Surface Protonation at the Rutile (110) Interface: Explicit Incorporation of Solvation Structure within the Refined MUSIC Model Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Machesky, Michael L.; Predota, M.; Wesolowski, David J

    2008-11-01

    The detailed solvation structure at the (110) surface of rutile ({alpha}-TiO{sub 2}) in contact with bulk liquid water has been obtained primarily from experimentally verified classical molecular dynamics (CMD) simulations of the ab initio-optimized surface in contact with SPC/E water. The results are used to explicitly quantify H-bonding interactions, which are then used within the refined MUSIC model framework to predict surface oxygen protonation constants. Quantum mechanical molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations in the presence of freely dissociable water molecules produced H-bond distributions around deprotonated surface oxygens very similar to those obtained by CMD with nondissociable SPC/E water, thereby confirming that the less computationally intensive CMD simulations provide accurate H-bond information. Utilizing this H-bond information within the refined MUSIC model, along with manually adjusted Ti-O surface bond lengths that are nonetheless within 0.05 {angstrom} of those obtained from static density functional theory (DFT) calculations and measured in X-ray reflectivity experiments (as well as bulk crystal values), give surface protonation constants that result in a calculated zero net proton charge pH value (pHznpc) at 25 C that agrees quantitatively with the experimentally determined value (5.4 {+-} 0.2) for a specific rutile powder dominated by the (110) crystal face. Moreover, the predicted pH{sub znpc} values agree to within 0.1 pH unit with those measured at all temperatures between 10 and 250 C. A slightly smaller manual adjustment of the DFT-derived Ti-O surface bond lengths was sufficient to bring the predicted pH{sub znpc} value of the rutile (110) surface at 25 C into quantitative agreement with the experimental value (4.8 {+-} 0.3) obtained from a polished and annealed rutile (110) single crystal surface in contact with dilute sodium nitrate solutions using second harmonic generation (SHG) intensity measurements as a function of ionic

  16. Microsoft PowerPoint - 10_ROSE_MARTYN_UPDATED_NMMSS_2014_Foreign Obligations.ppt [Compatibility Mode]

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Martyn - Global Nuclear Fuel Foreign Obligations Update  Review of origin of obligations tracking  How obligations are tracked  NRC notice to facilities  Obligations codes being tracked by NMMSS  Obligation codes being tracked by Euratom  Obligation codes being tracked by Japan  Creation of obligated material onsite  Reconciliation of obligations balances 2 Origin of Foreign Obligations Tracking  US, Canada, Australia, Japan, Euratom, etc. treaties/agreements for

  17. Microsoft PowerPoint - Dynamics Complexities Accounting for Foreign Obligated Unobligated_Richard Meehan_Mitch Hembree [Compati

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Dynamics and Complexities of Accounting for Foreign Obligated and Unobligated Nuclear material Richard Meehan Mitch Hembree NNSA NMMSS Purpose 2 * Accurate tracking of foreign obligated material in the U.S. is vital to U.S. national security. * 123 Agreements provide country-specific provisions for tracking material, equipment, and components. These may include limitations on use and re-transfers. * This presentation covers the analytical framework used to account for obligated and unobligated

  18. Microsoft PowerPoint - NMMSS Assistance to Industry Related to Foreign Obligations_Mitch Hembree [Compatibility Mode]

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Assistance to Industry Related to Foreign Obligations Mitch Hembree NMMSS Introduction 2 Transit Matching of Communications with NMMSS State of NMMSS Obligation Accounting Prior to Enhancement Benefits of NMMSS Obligation Accounting Enhancement 123 Agreement Communications & NMMSS Where NMMSS fits into the Foreign Obligation story? 3 Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS) Key Import: Export: Domestic Activity: Report to NMMSS: US Facility: Transactions (741) Physical

  19. Oil dependence and Thai foreign-policy behavior during the Arab-Israeli war of October 1973

    SciTech Connect

    Keophumihae, S.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain Thai foreign-policy behavior toward the Arab-Israeli conflict during the Arab oil embargo of 1973-1974 in the wake of the October 1973 War. The major hypothesis is that Thai foreign policy behavior shifted from a neutral to a pro-Arab position after the Arab oil embargo. This shift was motivated by Thai oil-import dependence on OAPEC (Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries). Oil has assumed an economic as well as a political dimension. Therefore, its political influence over the oil-dependent states cannot be dismissed. Thai foreign-policy behavior in the Arab-Israeli conflict is analyzed through the use of the dependence approach, which contends that external reliance is a potent factor for explaining behavior of actors. Thailand's foreign-policy stand is first delineated through the use of documents containing policy statements by Thai delegates to the United Nations. It was found that although Thai public policy statements were never bluntly anti-Israel, they moved from between neutrality before the oil crisis to a pro-Arab position after the oil crisis of 1973-1974. This shift of Thailand's foreign policy behavior position was then measured against its UN voting records. Results of the voting analysis indicated that the shifting of Thai foreign policy behavior during the October war was motivated by Thailand's oil-import dependence.

  20. Regulation of business activities of petroleum contractors in Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Ivory Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Frilet, M.; Newman, J.

    1982-03-01

    Foreign companies engaging in business in Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Ivory Coast are subject to a broad range of regulations. This article deals only with those aspects of the regulations that are most important to petroleum contractors intending to engage in business in these countries. The regulator scheme actually applicable in a given case will depend on the legal structure through which a corporation operates. An American corporation may envisage engaging in business on a long-term basis through a local subsidiary or branch. On the other hand, it may wish only to perform temporary activities pursuant to one or more fixed-duration contracts with petroleum companies operating in one of countries. Each of these situations is dealt with. Common features of each area of regulation were described and the differences in regulations were presented. These topics were included: exchange control regulation, corporate forms of business association, authorization to engage in business, requirement of government or local participation in capital, investment code incentives, labor law requirements, taxation of corporations, taxation of profits, taxation of income from movable capital, taxation of amounts paid abroad as technical assistance fees, royalties and similar compensation, turnover taxes, payroll taxes, taxation of business performed without forming a local company or branch, taxation of employees and Social Security contributions. (DP)