National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for flexibility primarily affects

  1. Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, J.; Miller, M.; Zinaman, O.; Milligan, M.; Arent, D.; Palmintier, B.; O'Malley, M.; Mueller, S.; Lannoye, E.; Tuohy, A.; Kujala, B.; Sommer, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Soonee, S. K.

    2014-05-01

    Flexibility of operation--the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply--is a characteristic of all power systems. Flexibility is especially prized in twenty-first century power systems, with higher levels of grid-connected variable renewable energy (primarily, wind and solar). This paper summarizes the analytic frameworks that have emerged to measure this characteristic and distills key principles of flexibility for policy makers.

  2. FLEXIBLE COUPLING

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babelay, E.F.

    1962-02-13

    A flexible shaft coupling for operation at speeds in excess of 14,000 rpm is designed which requires no lubrication. A driving sleeve member and a driven sleeve member are placed in concentric spaced relationship. A torque force is transmitted to the driven member from the driving member through a plurality of nylon balls symmetrically disposed between the spaced sleeves. The balls extend into races and recesses within the respective sleeve members. The sleeve members have a suitable clearance therebetween and the balls have a suitable radial clearance during operation of the coupling to provide a relatively loose coupling. These clearances accommodate for both parallel and/or angular misalignments and avoid metal-tometal contact between the sleeve members during operation. Thus, no lubrication is needed, and a minimum of vibrations is transmitted between the sleeve members. (AEC)

  3. Flexible hydropower: boosting energy

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Flexible hydropower: boosting energy New hydroelectric resource for Northern New Mexico ... Abiquiu Dam's low-flow turbine for hydroelectric generation creates a flexible energy ...

  4. The presence of natural gas-primarily methane-in the shale layers...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    presence of natural gas-primarily methane-in the shale layers of sedimentary rock formations that were deposited in ancient seas has been recognized for many years. The difficulty ...

  5. New Study Shows Solar Manufacturing Costs Not Driven Primarily by Labor |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Shows Solar Manufacturing Costs Not Driven Primarily by Labor New Study Shows Solar Manufacturing Costs Not Driven Primarily by Labor September 5, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Production scale, not lower labor costs, drives China's current advantage in manufacturing photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, according to a new report released today by the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Although

  6. Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    Flexibility of operation--the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply--is a characteristic of all power systems. Flexibility is especially prized in twenty-first century power systems, with higher levels of grid-connected variable renewable energy (primarily, wind and solar). Sources of flexibility exist--and can be enhanced--across all of the physical and institutional elements of the power system, including system operations and markets, demand side resources and storage; generation; and transmission networks. Accessing flexibility requires significant planning to optimize investments and ensure that both short- and long-time power system requirements are met.

  7. Flexible hydropower: boosting energy

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Flexible hydropower: boosting energy Flexible hydropower: boosting energy New hydroelectric resource for Northern New Mexico supplies clean energy to homes, businesses and the Lab. December 16, 2014 Flexible hydropower: boosting energy Abiquiu Dam's low-flow turbine for hydroelectric generation creates a flexible energy source when water levels are lower or higher than usual. Energy sustainability is a daunting task: How do we develop top-notch innovations with some of the world's most powerful

  8. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    gasoline, E85, or any combination of the two. Today more than 7 million vehicles on U.S. highways are flexible fuel vehicles. The fact sheet discusses how E85 affects vehicle ...

  9. Flexible optical panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.

    2001-01-01

    A flexible optical panel includes laminated optical waveguides, each including a ribbon core laminated between cladding, with the core being resilient in the plane of the core for elastically accommodating differential movement thereof to permit winding of the panel in a coil.

  10. Sub-micrometre Particulate Matter is Primarily in Liquid Form over Amazon Rainforests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bateman, Adam P.; Gong, Z. H.; Liu, Pengfei; Sato, Bruno; Cirino, Glauber; Zhang, Yue; Artaxo, Paulo; Bertram, Allan K.; Manzi, A.; Rizzo, L. V.; Souza, Rodrigo A.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) occurs in the Earth’s atmosphere both in liquid and non-liquid forms. The physical state affects the available physical and chemical mechanisms of growth and reactivity, ultimately affecting the number, size, and composition of the atmospheric particle population. Herein, the physical state, including the response to relative humidity (RH), was investigated on-line and in real time for PM (< 1 μm) over the tropical rain forest of central Amazonia during both the wet and dry seasons of 2013. The results show that the PM was liquid for RH > 80% across 296 to 300 K. These results, in conjunction with the distributions of RH and temperature in Amazonia, imply that near-surface submicron PM in Amazonia is liquid most of the time. The observations are consistent with laboratory experiments showing that PM produced by isoprene photo-oxidation is liquid across these meteorological conditions. The findings have implications for the mechanisms of new particle production in Amazonia, the growth of submicron particles and hence dynamics of the cloud life cycle, and the sensitivity of these processes to anthropogenic activities. An approach for inclusion of particle physical state in chemical transport models is presented.

  11. LMFBR fuel-design environment for endurance testing, primarily of oxide fuel elements with local faults

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warinner, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    The US Department of Energy LMFBR Lines-of-Assurance are briefly stated and local faults are given perspective with an historical review and definition to help define the constraints of LMFBR fuel-element designs. Local-fault-propagation (fuel-element failure-propagation and blockage propagation) perceptions are reviewed. Fuel pin designs and major LMFBR parameters affecting pin performance are summarized. The interpretation of failed-fuel data is aided by a discussion of the effects of nonprototypicalities. The fuel-pin endurance expected in the US, USSR, France, UK, Japan, and West Germany is outlined. Finally, fuel-failure detection and location by delayed-neutron and gaseous-fission-product monitors are briefly discussed to better realize the operational limits.

  12. Flexible cryogenic conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brindza, Paul Daniel; Wines, Robin Renee; Takacs, James Joseph

    1999-01-01

    A flexible and relatively low cost cryogenic conduit is described. The flexible cryogenic conduit of the present invention comprises a first inner corrugated tube with single braided serving, a second outer corrugated tube with single braided serving concentric with the inner corrugated tube, and arranged outwardly about the periphery of the inner corrugated tube and between the inner and outer corrugated tubes: a superinsulation layer; a one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a spirally wound refrigeration tube; a second one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a second one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a second superinsulation layer; a third one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; and a spirally wound stretchable and compressible filament.

  13. Providing Grid Flexibility in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Providing Grid Flexibility in Wyoming and Montana Introduction Powder River Energy Corporation (PRECorp) is an electric cooperative serving approximately 11,900 customers in a 16,200 square-mile area of rural Wyoming and Montana. PRECorp's customers frequently experience harsh weather conditions. Severe weather conditions in PRECorp's rural and remote service territory present unique challenges in providing reliable electric service to PRECorp's customers. PRECorp's customers include coal mining

  14. Industrial Fuel Flexibility Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2006-09-01

    On September 28, 2006, in Washington, DC, ITP and Booz Allen Hamilton conducted a fuel flexibility workshop with attendance from various stakeholder groups. Workshop participants included representatives from the petrochemical, refining, food and beverage, steel and metals, pulp and paper, cement and glass manufacturing industries; as well as representatives from industrial boiler manufacturers, technology providers, energy and waste service providers, the federal government and national laboratories, and developers and financiers.

  15. Flexibility in Biofuel Manufacturing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Flexibility in Biofuel Manufacturing Dan Gaspar Sustainable Transportation Summit July 12, 2016 Fuel selection overview If we identify the critical fuel properties and target values that maximize efficiency and emissions performance for a given engine architecture, then fuels that have properties with those values (regardless of chemical composition) will provide comparable performance Governing Co-Optima hypotheses: There are engine architectures and strategies that provide higher thermodynamic

  16. Simple and Flexible Scene Graph

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-10-01

    The system implements a flexible and extensible scene graph for the visualization and analysis of scientific information.

  17. Rotating flexible drag mill

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pepper, W.B.

    1984-05-09

    A rotating parachute for decelerating objects travelling through atmosphere at subsonic or supersonic deployment speeds includes a circular canopy having a plurality of circumferentially arranged flexible panels projecting radially from a solid central disk. A slot extends radially between adjacent panels to the outer periphery of the canopy. Upon deployment, the solid disk diverts air radially to rapidly inflate the panels into a position of maximum diameter. Air impinging on the panels adjacent the panel slots rotates the parachute during its descent. Centrifugal force flattens the canopy into a constant maximum diameter during terminal descent for maximum drag and deceleration.

  18. Flexible composite radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooke, D. Wayne; Bennett, Bryan L.; Muenchausen, Ross E.; Wrobleski, Debra A.; Orler, Edward B.

    2006-12-05

    A flexible composite scintillator was prepared by mixing fast, bright, dense rare-earth doped powdered oxyorthosilicate (such as LSO:Ce, LSO:Sm, and GSO:Ce) scintillator with a polymer binder. The binder is transparent to the scintillator emission. The composite is seamless and can be made large and in a wide variety of shapes. Importantly, the composite can be tailored to emit light in a spectral region that matches the optimum response of photomultipliers (about 400 nanometers) or photodiodes (about 600 nanometers), which maximizes the overall detector efficiency.

  19. Flexible Assembly Solar Technology

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Flexible Assembly Solar Technology Fact Sheet explains a 2012 SunShot CSP R&D award project led by a team from BrightSource Industries. They will design and deploy a prototype of FAST, which is an automated collector-assembly platform that can be used for rapid assembly and installation of heliostats at a solar power tower plant. FAST has the potential to decrease costs related to permitting, construction, maintenance, operation, storage, and demolition of the heliostat assembly building, aiming to achieve SunShot Initiative’s target installed solar field cost of $75/m2.

  20. Flexible ocean upwelling pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Person, Abraham

    1980-01-01

    In an ocean thermal energy conversion facility, a cold water riser pipe is releasably supported at its upper end by the hull of the floating facility. The pipe is substantially vertical and has its lower end far below the hull above the ocean floor. The pipe is defined essentially entirely of a material which has a modulus of elasticity substantially less than that of steel, e.g., high density polyethylene, so that the pipe is flexible and compliant to rather than resistant to applied bending moments. The position of the lower end of the pipe relative to the hull is stabilized by a weight suspended below the lower end of the pipe on a flexible line. The pipe, apart from the weight, is positively buoyant. If support of the upper end of the pipe is released, the pipe sinks to the ocean floor, but is not damaged as the length of the line between the pipe and the weight is sufficient to allow the buoyant pipe to come to a stop within the line length after the weight contacts the ocean floor, and thereafter to float submerged above the ocean floor while moored to the ocean floor by the weight. The upper end of the pipe, while supported by the hull, communicates to a sump in the hull in which the water level is maintained below the ambient water level. The sump volume is sufficient to keep the pipe full during heaving of the hull, thereby preventing collapse of the pipe.

  1. Diversity & Flexibility Key to Sustainability | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Diversity & Flexibility Key to Sustainability Diversity & Flexibility Key to Sustainability Plenary V: Biofuels and Sustainability: Acknowledging Challenges and Confronting ...

  2. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-03-01

    Flexible Fuel vehicles are able to operate using more than one type of fuel. FFVs can be fueled with unleaded gasoline, E85, or any combination of the two. Today more than 7 million vehicles on U.S. highways are flexible fuel vehicles. The fact sheet discusses how E85 affects vehicle performance, the costs and benefits of using E85, and how to find E85 station locations.

  3. Flexible cloth seal assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bagepalli, B.S.; Taura, J.C.; Aksit, M.F.; Demiroglu, M.; Predmore, D.R.

    1999-06-29

    A seal assembly is described having a flexible cloth seal which includes a shim assemblage surrounded by a cloth assemblage. A first tubular end portion, such as a gas turbine combustor, includes a longitudinal axis and has smooth and spaced-apart first and second surface portions defining a notch there between which is wider at its top than at its bottom and which extends outward from the axis. The second surface portion is outside curved, and a first edge of the cloth seal is positioned in the bottom of the notch. A second tubular end portion, such as a first stage nozzle, is located near, spaced apart from, and coaxially aligned with, the first tubular end portion. The second tubular end portion has a smooth third surface portion which surrounds at least a portion of the first tubular end portion and which is contacted by the cloth seal. 7 figs.

  4. Flexible retinal electrode array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okandan, Murat; Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2006-10-24

    An electrode array which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array can include a large number of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, with electrode tips that can include an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis where the electrodes can be tailored to provide a uniform gentle contact pressure with optional sensing of this contact pressure at one or more of the electrodes.

  5. Flexible cloth seal assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumar; Taura, Joseph Charles; Aksit, Mahmut Faruk; Demiroglu, Mehmet; Predmore, Daniel Ross

    1999-01-01

    A seal assembly having a flexible cloth seal which includes a shim assemblage surrounded by a cloth assemblage. A first tubular end portion, such as a gas turbine combustor, includes a longitudinal axis and has smooth and spaced-apart first and second surface portions defining a notch therebetween which is wider at its top than at its bottom and which extends outward from the axis. The second surface portion is outside curved, and a first edge of the cloth seal is positioned in the bottom of the notch. A second tubular end portion, such as a first stage nozzle, is located near, spaced apart from, and coaxially aligned with, the first tubular end portion. The second tubular end portion has a smooth third surface portion which surrounds at least a portion of the first tubular end portion and which is contacted by the cloth seal.

  6. Flexible swivel connection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoh, J.C.

    1985-02-19

    A flexible swivel boot connector for connecting a first boot shield section to a second boot shield section, both first and second boot sections having openings therethrough, the second boot section having at least two adjacent accordian folds at the end having the opening, the second boot section being positioned through the opening of the first boot section such that a first of the accordian folds is within the first boot section and a second of the accordian folds is outside of the first boot, includes first and second annular discs, the first disc being positioned within and across the first accordian fold, the second disc being positioned within and across the second accordian fold, such that the first boot section is moveably and rigidly connected between the first and second accordian folds of the second boot section.

  7. Damped flexible seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DuBois, Neil J.; Amaral, Antonio M.

    1992-10-27

    A damped flexible seal assembly for a torpedo isolates the tailcone thereof rom vibrational energy present in the drive shaft assembly. A pair of outside flanges, each of which include an inwardly facing groove and an O-ring constrained therein, provide a watertight seal against the outer non-rotating surface of the drive shaft assembly. An inside flange includes an outwardly-facing groove and an O-ring constrained therein, and provides a watertight seal against the inner surface of the tail cone. Two cast-in-place elastomeric seals provide a watertight seal between the flanges and further provide a damping barrier between the outside flanges and the inside flanges for damping vibrational energy present in the drive shaft assembly before the energy can reach the tailcone through the seal assembly.

  8. Industrial Feedstock Flexibility Workshop Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozokwelu, Dickson; Margolis, Nancy; Justiniano, Mauricio; Monfort, Joe; Brueske, Sabine; Sabouni, Ridah

    2009-08-01

    This report (PDF 649 KB) summarizes the results of the 2009 Industrial Feedstock Flexibility Workshop, which took place in Atlanta, GA on August 19-20, 2009.

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Ethanol Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicles on Digg

  10. Flexible Spending Accounts (FSA) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Flexible Spending Accounts (FSA) Flexible Spending Accounts (FSA) FSAFEDS offers three different flexible spending accounts (FSAs): A health care flexible spending account A limited expense health care flexible spending account A dependent care flexible spending account. Eligible employees can enroll in FSAFEDS each year during the Federal Benefits Open Season (the November/December timeframe). Open Season enrollments are effective January 1 of the following year. Current enrollees must remember

  11. Photocatalytic reactor with flexible supports

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacoby, William A.; Blake, Daniel M.

    1995-01-01

    Organic pollutants and bioaerosols in a gaseous stream are oxidized by exposure to light (e.g., UV light) in the presence of semiconductor catalyst particles or coatings supported on flexible strips suspended in the gaseous stream.

  12. Photocatalytic reactor with flexible supports

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacoby, W.A.; Blake, D.M.

    1995-09-12

    Organic pollutants and bioaerosols in a gaseous stream are oxidized by exposure to light (e.g., UV light) in the presence of semiconductor catalyst particles or coatings supported on flexible strips suspended in the gaseous stream. 3 figs.

  13. PIA - Flexible Spending Accounts | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    PIA - Flexible Spending Accounts PIA - Flexible Spending Accounts (204.19 KB) More Documents & Publications PIA - INL PeopleSoft - Human Resource System PIA - Human Resources - ...

  14. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jenkins, Charles F.; Howard, Boyd D.

    1998-01-01

    A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprising a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present.

  15. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Pipe crawlers, pipe inspection {open_quotes}rabbits{close_quotes} and similar vehicles are widely used for inspecting the interior surfaces of piping systems, storage tanks and process vessels for damaged or flawed structural features. This paper describes the design of a flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus.

  16. ULTRA BARRIER TOPSHEET (UBT) FOR FLEXIBLE PHOTOVOLTAICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeScioli, Derek

    2013-06-01

    This slide-show presents 3M photovoltaic-related products, particularly flexible components. Emphasis is on the 3M Ultra Barrier Solar Films. Topics covered include reliability and qualification testing and flexible photovoltaic encapsulation costs.

  17. Flexible helical-axis stellarator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Jeffrey H.; Hender, Timothy C.; Carreras, Benjamin A.; Cantrell, Jack L.; Morris, Robert N.

    1988-01-01

    An 1=1 helical winding which spirals about a conventional planar, circular central conductor of a helical-axis stellarator adds a significant degree of flexibility by making it possible to control the rotational transform profile and shear of the magnetic fields confining the plasma in a helical-axis stellarator. The toroidal central conductor links a plurality of toroidal field coils which are separately disposed to follow a helical path around the central conductor in phase with the helical path of the 1=1 winding. This coil configuration produces bean-shaped magnetic flux surfaces which rotate around the central circular conductor in the same manner as the toroidal field generating coils. The additional 1=1 winding provides flexible control of the magnetic field generated by the central conductor to prevent the formation of low-order resonances in the rotational transform profile which can produce break-up of the equilibrium magnetic surfaces. Further, this additional winding can deepen the magnetic well which together with the flexible control provides increased stability.

  18. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

    1998-06-23

    A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprises a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present. 7 figs.

  19. Flexible Fuel Vehicle Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Vehicles » Flexible Fuel Vehicle Basics Flexible Fuel Vehicle Basics August 20, 2013 - 9:05am Addthis Photo of a gray van with 'E85 Ethanol' written on the side. Flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) have an internal combustion engine and are capable of operating on gasoline, E85 (a high-level blend of gasoline and ethanol), or a mixture of both. There are more than 10.6 million flexible fuel vehicles on U.S. roads today. However, many flexible fuel vehicle owners don't realize their car is an FFV and

  20. Biaxially corrugated flexible sheet material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmertz, John C. (5308 Ellsworth Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15232)

    1991-04-16

    A flexible biaxially corrugated sheet material is formed from a plurality of identical trapezium segments which are arranged in a plurality of long strips a single segment wide. Adjacent strips are mirror images of each other and connected along adjoining sides with the angles of the four corners of adjacent segments being alternately less than 360.degree. and greater than 360.degree. along the length of a strip such that the sheet material has an undulating configuration, and is inherently curved and cannot lie in a flat plane.

  1. Flexible network wireless transceiver and flexible network telemetry transceiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Kenneth D.

    2008-08-05

    A transceiver for facilitating two-way wireless communication between a baseband application and other nodes in a wireless network, wherein the transceiver provides baseband communication networking and necessary configuration and control functions along with transmitter, receiver, and antenna functions to enable the wireless communication. More specifically, the transceiver provides a long-range wireless duplex communication node or channel between the baseband application, which is associated with a mobile or fixed space, air, water, or ground vehicle or other platform, and other nodes in the wireless network or grid. The transceiver broadly comprises a communication processor; a flexible telemetry transceiver including a receiver and a transmitter; a power conversion and regulation mechanism; a diplexer; and a phased array antenna system, wherein these various components and certain subcomponents thereof may be separately enclosed and distributable relative to the other components and subcomponents.

  2. Project Profile: Flexible Assembly Solar Technology | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Concentrating Solar Power Project Profile: Flexible Assembly Solar Technology Project ... research that are in progress. SunShot Home About the SunShot Initiative Concentrating ...

  3. Flexible interconnects for fuel cell stacks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lenz, David J.; Chung, Brandon W.; Pham, Ai Quoc

    2004-11-09

    An interconnect that facilitates electrical connection and mechanical support with minimal mechanical stress for fuel cell stacks. The interconnects are flexible and provide mechanically robust fuel cell stacks with higher stack performance at lower cost. The flexible interconnects replace the prior rigid rib interconnects with flexible "fingers" or contact pads which will accommodate the imperfect flatness of the ceramic fuel cells. Also, the mechanical stress of stacked fuel cells will be smaller due to the flexibility of the fingers. The interconnects can be one-sided or double-sided.

  4. Solid flexible electrochemical supercapacitor using Tobacco mosaic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    mosaic virus nanostructures and ALD ruthenium oxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solid flexible electrochemical supercapacitor using Tobacco mosaic virus ...

  5. Profound changes affecting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Increasing needs for flexibility, reliability, and resilience in the transmission and distribution (T&D) system require technologies and techniques not conceived of when much of ...

  6. Semiconductor films on flexible iridium substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit

    2005-03-29

    A laminate semiconductor article includes a flexible substrate, an optional biaxially textured oxide buffer system on the flexible substrate, a biaxially textured Ir-based buffer layer on the substrate or the buffer system, and an epitaxial layer of a semiconductor. Ir can serve as a substrate with an epitaxial layer of a semiconductor thereon.

  7. High-flexibility, noncollapsing lightweight hose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, D.A.

    1993-04-20

    A high-flexibility, noncollapsing, lightweight, large-bore, wire-reinforced hose is inside fiber-reinforced PVC tubing that is flexible, lightweight, and abrasion resistant. It provides a strong, kink- and collapse-free conduit for moving large quantities of dangerous fluids, e.g., removing radioactive waste water or processing chemicals.

  8. High-flexibility, noncollapsing lightweight hose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, David A.

    1993-01-01

    A high-flexibility, noncollapsing, lightweight, large-bore, wire-reinforced hose is inside fiber-reinforced PVC tubing that is flexible, lightweight, and abrasion resistant. It provides a strong, kink- and collapse-free conduit for moving large quantities of dangerous fluids, e.g., removing radioactive waste water or processing chemicals.

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Flexible Fuel Vehicle Conversions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Ethanol Flexible Fuel Vehicle Conversions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Flexible Fuel Vehicle Conversions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Flexible Fuel Vehicle Conversions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Flexible Fuel Vehicle Conversions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Flexible Fuel Vehicle Conversions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Flexible Fuel

  10. Sources of Operational Flexibility, Greening the Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, Jessica; Milligan, Michael; Cochran, Jaquelin

    2015-05-01

    Changes in electricity demand and generation must be constantly balanced to maintain power system stability and reliability. Operational flexibility refers to the ability of a power system to respond to these changes. Power systems are designed and operated to efficiently manage variability and uncertainty in electricity demand and resource availability. Variable renewable energy (VRE) increases this inherent variability and uncertainty, and thus increases the need for flexibility. Systems with significant variability and uncertainty require flexible generators that can rapidly change output, operate efficiently at lower outputs, and operate for short durations. This flexibility in turn can reduce the need to curtail (decrease the output of) solar and wind generation; improve investor confidence in VRE and revenue streams; decrease the risk of negative market pricing (which results when conventional generators cannot turn down to low outputs during times of high VRE output); and reduce environmental impacts by increasing system efficiency and maximizing the utilization of VRE.

  11. Biaxially oriented film on flexible polymeric substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Finkikoglu, Alp T.; Matias, Vladimir

    2009-10-13

    A flexible polymer-based template having a biaxially oriented film grown on the surface of a polymeric substrate. The template having the biaxially oriented film can be used for further epitaxial growth of films of interest for applications such as photovoltaic cells, light emitting diodes, and the like. Methods of forming such a flexible template and providing the polymeric substrate with a biaxially oriented film deposited thereon are also described.

  12. Flexible Assembly Solar Technology | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Flexible Assembly Solar Technology Flexible Assembly Solar Technology This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. csp_review_meeting_042313_koretz.pdf (9.14 MB) More Documents & Publications 2016 CSP Summit Day 2 2014 Concentrating Solar Power Report EIS-0416: Final Environmental Impact Statement

  13. Flexible Hybrid Friction Stir Joining Technology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Flexible Hybrid Friction Stir Joining Technology Improved Efficiency and Flexibility through the Development of Hybrid Friction Stir Joining Technology Welding is one of the most important and widely used fabrica- tion technologies in modern industry. Traditional fusion welding processes (e.g. arc welding and laser welding) require signifcant heat inputs and frequently lead to property deterioration, such as cracking and porosity during solidifcation. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid-state

  14. Flexible receiver adapter formal design review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krieg, S.A.

    1995-06-13

    This memo summarizes the results of the Formal (90%) Design Review process and meetings held to evaluate the design of the Flexible Receiver Adapters, support platforms, and associated equipment. The equipment is part of the Flexible Receiver System used to remove, transport, and store long length contaminated equipment and components from both the double and single-shell underground storage tanks at the 200 area tank farms.

  15. Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics Metamaterial flexible sheets could transform optics Advances would boost security screening systems, infrared thermal cameras, energy harvesting, and radar systems June 5, 2013 A burst of laser energy 50 times greater than the worldwide output of electrical power slams into an extremely thin foil target to produce neutrons at Los Alamos National Laboratory's TRIDENT laser facility during a recent experiment, which proved that laser-driven

  16. Regulation of flexible arms under gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Luca, A.; Siciliano, B.

    1993-08-01

    A simple controller is presented for the regulation problem of robot arms with flexible links under gravity. It consists of a joint PD feedback plus a constant feedforward. Global asymptotic stability of the reference equilibrium state is shown under a structural assumption about link elasticity and a mild condition on the proportional gain. The result holds also in the absence of internal damping of the flexible arm. A numerical case study is presented.

  17. Electronic unit integrated into a flexible polymer body (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electronic unit integrated into a flexible polymer body Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electronic unit integrated into a flexible polymer body A peel and stick ...

  18. New Flexible Channels for Room Temperature Tunneling Field Effect...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    New Flexible Channels for Room Temperature Tunneling Field Effect Transistors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: New Flexible Channels for Room Temperature Tunneling Field ...

  19. Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power Capstone Turbine Corporation, ...

  20. System of fabricating a flexible electrode array (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    System of fabricating a flexible electrode array Title: System of fabricating a flexible electrode array An image is captured or otherwise converted into a signal in an artificial ...

  1. Rotary sequencing valve with flexible port plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Glenn Paul

    2005-05-10

    Rotary sequencing valve comprising a rotor having a rotor face rotatable about an axis perpendicular to the rotor face, wherein the rotor face has a plurality of openings, one or more of which are disposed at a selected radial distance from the axis, and wherein the rotor includes at least one passage connecting at least one pair of the plurality of openings. The valve includes a flexible port plate having a first side and a second side, wherein the first side faces the rotor and engages the rotor such that the flexible port plate can be rotated coaxially by the rotor and can move axially with respect to the rotor, wherein the flexible port plate has a plurality of ports between the first and second sides, which ports are aligned with the openings in the rotor face. The valve also includes a stator having a stator face disposed coaxially with the rotor and the flexible port plate, wherein the second side of the flexible port plate is in sealable, slidable rotary contact with the stator face, wherein the stator face has a plurality of openings, some of which are disposed at the selected radial distance from the axis, and wherein the plurality of openings extend as passages through the stator. The valve may be used in pressure or temperature swing adsorption systems.

  2. ITP Chemicals: Industrial Feedstock Flexibility Workshop Results, December 2009

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Report summarizing the results of the August 19–20, 2009, Industrial Feedstock Flexibility Workshop

  3. Operating flexibility for Title IV sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dayal, P.; Beckham, B.

    1995-12-31

    Developing a comprehensive permit strategy for electric utilities is probably the most critical step in achieving compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, (the Act). The two key components of a complete permit strategy are the permit shield and operational flexibility. Sources need to ensure that the permit shield is complete, and that an operational flexibility approach is developed. If sources design and draft their own permit, not just complete the application, there is a greater possibility of ensuring that the shield is complete and maximum operational flexibility is achieved. Finally, sources should begin to develop a reporting schedule and format, conduct operating permit training, and develop a compliance manual for plant operators.

  4. Superconducting Cable Having A Flexible Former

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hughey, Raburn L.; Sinha, Uday K.; Reece, David S.; Muller, Albert C.

    2005-08-30

    In order to provide a flexible oxide superconducting cable which is reduced in AC loss, tape-shaped superconducting wires covered with a stabilizing metal are wound on a flexible former. The superconducting wires are preferably laid on the former at a bending strain of not more than 0.2%. In laying on the former, a number of tape-shaped superconducting wires are laid on a core member in a side-by-side manner, to form a first layer. A prescribed number of tape-shaped superconducting wires are laid on top of the first layer in a side-by-side manner, to form a second layer. The former may be made of a metal, plastic, reinforced plastic, polymer, or a composite and provides flexibility to the superconducting wires and the cable formed therewith.

  5. Flexible shaft and roof drilling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blanz, John H.

    1981-01-01

    A system for drilling holes in the roof of a mine has a flexible shaft with a pair of oppositely wound, coaxial flat bands. One of the flat bands defines an inner spring that is wound right handed into a helical configuration, adjacent convolutions being in nesting relationship to one another. The other flat band defines an outer spring that is wound left handed into a helical configuration about the inner band, adjacent convolutions being nesting relationship with one another. A transition member that is configured to hold a rock bit is mounted to one end of the flexible shaft. When torque and thrust are applied to the flexible shaft by a driver, the inner spring expands outwardly and the outer spring contracts inwardly to form a relatively rigid shaft.

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicle Availability

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Availability to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicle Availability on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicle Availability on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicle Availability on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicle Availability on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicle Availability on Digg Find More places to share Alternative

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicle Conversions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Conversions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicle Conversions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicle Conversions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicle Conversions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicle Conversions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Flexible Fuel Vehicle Conversions on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels

  8. Robust Ag nanoplate ink for flexible electronics packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ruo -Zhou; Hu, Anming; Bridges, Denzel; Oakes, Ken D.; Peng, Rui; Tumuluri, Uma; Wu, Zili; Feng, Zhili; Zhang, Tong

    2015-03-24

    Nanoinks are currently a topic of heightened interest with respect to low temperature bonding processes and printable electronics. We have developed an innovative polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized Ag nanoplate ink amenable to very strong low temperature packaging, and investigated the relationship between bonding strength and electrical conductivity post-bonding. PVP shell plastic deformations observed in failure microcracks with the formation of PVP nanofibers, revealed bonding strength at low temperatures (<250 °C) was primarily due to adhesive bonding. It is found that, utilizing photonic sintering, ~70 °C reduction of transformation temperature from adhesive to metallic bonding was achieved compared to that of thermal sintering. A numerical simulation was developed to better understand the influences of the light-induced heat generation, which demonstrated near-infrared light can facilitate sintering. Bonding strengths of 27 MPa were achieved at room temperatures, and 29.4 MPa at 210 °C with photonic sintering. Moreover, the anisotropic resistivity was observed with different thermal dependences. Furthermore, these results demonstrate Ag nanoplate inks have potential for low temperature 3D interconnections in lead-free microcircuits, flexible electronic packaging, and diverse sensing applications.

  9. Robust Ag nanoplate ink for flexible electronics packaging

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Li, Ruo -Zhou; Hu, Anming; Bridges, Denzel; Oakes, Ken D.; Peng, Rui; Tumuluri, Uma; Wu, Zili; Feng, Zhili; Zhang, Tong

    2015-03-24

    Nanoinks are currently a topic of heightened interest with respect to low temperature bonding processes and printable electronics. We have developed an innovative polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized Ag nanoplate ink amenable to very strong low temperature packaging, and investigated the relationship between bonding strength and electrical conductivity post-bonding. PVP shell plastic deformations observed in failure microcracks with the formation of PVP nanofibers, revealed bonding strength at low temperatures (<250 °C) was primarily due to adhesive bonding. It is found that, utilizing photonic sintering, ~70 °C reduction of transformation temperature from adhesive to metallic bonding was achieved compared to that of thermal sintering.more » A numerical simulation was developed to better understand the influences of the light-induced heat generation, which demonstrated near-infrared light can facilitate sintering. Bonding strengths of 27 MPa were achieved at room temperatures, and 29.4 MPa at 210 °C with photonic sintering. Moreover, the anisotropic resistivity was observed with different thermal dependences. Furthermore, these results demonstrate Ag nanoplate inks have potential for low temperature 3D interconnections in lead-free microcircuits, flexible electronic packaging, and diverse sensing applications.« less

  10. Flexible hydrogel-based functional composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    2013-10-08

    A composite having a flexible hydrogel polymer formed by mixing an organic phase with an inorganic composition, the organic phase selected from the group consisting of a hydrogel monomer, a crosslinker, a radical initiator, and/or a solvent. A polymerization mixture is formed and polymerized into a desired shape and size.

  11. Flexible moldable conductive current-limiting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shea, John Joseph; Djordjevic, Miomir B.; Hanna, William Kingston

    2002-01-01

    A current limiting PTC device (10) has two electrodes (14) with a thin film of electric conducting polymer material (20) disposed between the electrodes, the polymer material (20) having superior flexibility and short circuit performance, where the polymer material contains short chain aliphatic diepoxide, conductive filler particles, curing agent, and, preferably, a minor amount of bisphenol A epoxy resin.

  12. Selective Gas Adsorption in the Flexible Metal-Organic Frameworks...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Selective Gas Adsorption in the Flexible Metal-Organic Frameworks Cu(BDTri)L (L DMF, DEF) ... that design of a flexible framework cavity can control the pore opening ...

  13. Vortex and structural dynamics of a flexible cylinder in cross...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Vortex and structural dynamics of a flexible cylinder in cross-flow Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Vortex and structural dynamics of a flexible cylinder in cross-flow A ...

  14. Flexible procurement strategies smooth price spikes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaalaas, T.

    2006-12-15

    Pace Global Energy Services has been predicting for some time that the recent peaks in spot coal prices were not sustainable and this has been borne out. The latest available data on coal supply and demand fundamental suggest that spot coal prices may decline even more rapidly than previously forecast. Price volatility over the last five years suggests that a flexible procurement strategy that is well adapted to volatile market conditions may be just as important as knowledge of market fundamentals. 3 figs.

  15. Flexible feature interface for multimedia sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coffland, Douglas R.

    2009-06-09

    A flexible feature interface for multimedia sources system that includes a single interface for the addition of features and functions to multimedia sources and for accessing those features and functions from remote hosts. The interface utilizes the export statement: export "C" D11Export void FunctionName(int argc, char ** argv,char * result, SecureSession *ctrl) or the binary equivalent of the export statement.

  16. Value of Flexibility in the Markets

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Value of Flexibility in the Markets * Basic overview of the SPP and MISO markets * Potential benefit to some SPA customers of using markets to schedule energy * Increasing need for ancillary services, and the value of ancillary services in the markets 3 From presentation by ERCOT: Operational Challenges due to High Wind * Higher frequency deviations due to large system excursions * Inadequate transmission for projected wind growth * Constraint management under high and low wind * Difficulty in

  17. Ultra-Thin Flexible LED Lighting Panels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Ultra-Thin Flexible LED Lighting Panels Ultra-Thin Flexible LED Lighting Panels Lead Performer: Lucent Optics Inc. - Sacramento, CA DOE Total Funding: $149,979 Project Term: June 13, 2016 - March 13, 2017 Funding Type: SBIR PROJECT OBJECTIVE This project will develop and demonstrate a revolutionary new type of thin and flexible SSL panel that combines the high luminous efficacy and low cost of LEDs with the ultra-thin form factor and flexibility of OLEDs. The proposed approach extends the

  18. Flexible fuel cell gas manifold system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cramer, Michael; Shah, Jagdish; Hayes, Richard P.; Kelley, Dana A.

    2005-05-03

    A fuel cell stack manifold system in which a flexible manifold body includes a pan having a central area, sidewall extending outward from the periphery of the central area, and at least one compound fold comprising a central area fold connecting adjacent portions of the central area and extending between opposite sides of the central area, and a sidewall fold connecting adjacent portions of the sidewall. The manifold system further includes a rail assembly for attachment to the manifold body and adapted to receive pins by which dielectric insulators are joined to the manifold assembly.

  19. Anticipate-Affect

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Anticipate-Affect Anticipate-Affect Scientists are developing sophisticated modeling and research techniques to give them an advantage in their ability to anticipate and affect explosive-related threats or events. v Sophisticated modeling and research techniques to counter threats What conditions lead an individual or group toward committing political violence? Is it possible to accurately forecast who will become radicalized or even estimate when they might resort to violence? These and similar

  20. Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-06-30

    Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

  1. Flexible ceramic gasket for SOFC generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zafred, Paolo; Prevish, Thomas

    2009-02-03

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator (10) contains stacks of hollow axially elongated fuel cells (36) having an open top end (37), an oxidant inlet plenum (52), a feed fuel plenum (11), a combustion chamber (94) for combusting reacted oxidant/spent fuel; and, optionally, a fuel recirculation chamber (106) below the combustion chamber (94), where the fuel recirculation chamber (94) is in part defined by semi-porous fuel cell positioning gasket (108), all within an outer generator enclosure (8), wherein the fuel cell gasket (108) has a laminate structure comprising at least a compliant fibrous mat support layer and a strong, yet flexible woven layer, which may contain catalytic particles facing the combustion chamber, where the catalyst, if used, is effective to further oxidize exhaust fuel and protect the open top end (37) of the fuel cells.

  2. Passivation coating for flexible substrate mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tracy, C. Edwin; Benson, David K.

    1990-01-01

    A protective diffusion barrier for metalized mirror structures is provided by a layer or coating of silicon nitride which is a very dense, transparent, dielectric material that is impervious to water, alkali, and other impurities and corrosive substances that typically attack the metal layers of mirrors and cause degradation of the mirrors' reflectivity. The silicon nitride layer can be deposited on the substrate before metal deposition thereon to stabilize the metal/substrate interface, and it can be deposited over the metal to encapsulate it and protect the metal from corrosion or other degradation. Mirrors coated with silicon nitride according to this invention can also be used as front surface mirrors. Also, the silver or other reflective metal layer on mirrors comprising thin, lightweight, flexible substrates of metal or polymer sheets coated with glassy layers can be protected with silicon nitride according to this invention.

  3. Rapid pressure cycle effects on flexible pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, R.T.; Upchurch, J.L.; McMahan, J.M. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    The use of subsea satellite wells tied back to a central manifold unit is a field development concept currently being used by operating companies for staged production of either commingled oil or gas. Remote platform operated control systems that couple the satellite wells and manifold require that safe operating pressure cycle parameters be established for all subsea components. Because of start-up and shut-in procedures, extreme pressure variations in the form of rapid pressurization and depressurization must be considered. This paper describes the test procedures, equipment and results specific to the evaluation of high pressure non-bonded flexible pipe used for subsea production jumpers between satellite wells and manifold system. Recommendation of safe rates of pressurization and depressurization are included.

  4. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Technologies Program (VTP) (Fact Sheet) | Department of Energy Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) (Fact Sheet) Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice, Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) (Fact Sheet) Flexible Fuel vehicles are able to operate using more than one type of fuel. FFVs can be fueled with unleaded gasoline, E85, or any combination of the two. Today more than 7 million vehicles on U.S. highways are

  5. Promoting Innovation for the Design of More Flexible Large Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Transformers | Department of Energy Promoting Innovation for the Design of More Flexible Large Power Transformers Promoting Innovation for the Design of More Flexible Large Power Transformers June 8, 2016 - 11:32am Addthis Patricia A. Hoffman Patricia A. Hoffman Assistant Secretary, Office of Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability Editor's note: the application deadline for the "Next Generation Transformers - Flexible Designs" Funding Opportunity Announcement has been

  6. Development of Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity Fuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    in Gas Turbines - Fact Sheet, May 2014 | Department of Energy Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines - Fact Sheet, May 2014 Development of Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines - Fact Sheet, May 2014 GE Global Research developed and tested new fuel-flexible gas turbine nozzle technology concepts that will enable end users to efficiently generate power and heat from industrial off-gases and gasified industrial,

  7. Saving Energy and Reducing Emissions with Fuel-Flexible Burners

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE Saving Energy and Reducing Emissions with Fuel-Flexible Burners This project developed fuel-flexible, low-emissions burner technology capable of using biomass-derived liquid fuels, such as glycerin or fatty acids, as a substitute for natural gas, thereby reducing energy consumption, lowering greenhouse gas emissions, and increasing fuel flexibility. Introduction The metal processing industry, one of

  8. Fabrication of flexible, aligned carbon nanotube/polymer composite...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    aligned carbon nanotubepolymer composite membranes by in-situ polymerization Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fabrication of flexible, aligned carbon nanotubepolymer ...

  9. Flexible flux plane simulations of parasitic absorption in nanoplasmon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    thin-film silicon solar cells Prev Next Title: Flexible flux plane simulations of parasitic absorption in nanoplasmonic thin-film silicon solar cells Authors: Chung, H. ...

  10. Fuel-Flexible, Low-Emissions Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    the Next Generation Manufacturing Processes project to develop a unique, fuel-flexible catalytic combustor capable of enabling ultra-low emission, lean premixed combustion of a ...

  11. Spatial atomic layer deposition on flexible substrates using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spatial atomic layer deposition on flexible substrates using a modular rotating cylinder reactor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spatial atomic layer deposition on...

  12. Flexibility Reserve Reductions from an Energy Imbalance Market...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Flexibility Reserve Reductions from an Energy Imbalance Market with High Levels of Wind Energy in the Western Interconnection J. King and B. Kirby Consultants M. Milligan National ...

  13. Fuel-Flexible, Low-Emissions Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    to develop a unique, fuel-flexible catalytic combustor capable of enabling ultra-low emission, lean premixed combustion of a wide range of gaseous opportunity fuels. Fact...

  14. Fragment-Based Exploration of Binding Site Flexibility in Mycobacteriu...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in Mycobacterium tuberculosis BioA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fragment-Based Exploration of Binding Site Flexibility in Mycobacterium tuberculosis BioA Authors: ...

  15. Flexible Distributed Energy and Water from Waste for the Food...

    Energy Savers

    Flexible Distributed Energy and Water from Waste for the Food and Beverage Industry (985.98 KB) More Documents & Publications 2011 CHPIndustrial Distributed Energy R&D Portfolio ...

  16. 241-SY-101 Flexible Receiver System operation and maintenance manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritter, G.A.

    1995-05-03

    This document provides the detailed procedures for the assembly, set up, installation, operation, and maintenance of the 241-SY-101 Flexible Receiver System.

  17. Electricity for road transport, flexible power systems and wind...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    systems and wind power (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Electricity for road transport, flexible power systems and wind power Country Denmark...

  18. Flexible Medical Radioisotope Production | U.S. DOE Office of...

    Office of Science (SC) [DOE]

    Flexible Medical Radioisotope Production Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory ...

  19. Flexible transparent conductors based on metal nanowire networks

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Guo, Chuan Fei; Ren, Zhifeng

    2015-04-01

    Few conductors are transparent and flexible. Metals have the best electrical conductivity, but they are opaque and stiff in bulk form. However, metals can be transparent and flexible when they are very thin or properly arranged on the nanoscale. This review focuses on the flexible transparent conductors based on percolating networks of metal. Specifically, we discuss the fabrication, the means to improve the electrical conductivity, the large stretchability and its mechanism, and the applications of these metal networks. We also suggest some criteria for evaluating flexible transparent conductors and propose some new research directions in this emerging field.

  20. Flexible Thin Film Solid State Lithium Ion Batteries - Energy...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Flexible Thin Film Solid State Lithium Ion Batteries National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Batteries are ...

  1. Flexible Distributed Energy & Water from Waste for the Food ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Distributed Energy & Water from Waste for the Food & Beverage Industry - Presentation by GE Global Research, June 2011 Flexible Distributed Energy & Water from Waste for the Food & ...

  2. Manager's Desk Reference on Human Capital Management Flexibilities...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    that can be used in day-to-day human capital management activities, especially ... Manager's Desk Reference on Human Capital Management Flexibilities (640.69 KB) Responsible ...

  3. Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. R. Laster; E. Anoshkina

    2008-01-31

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse has conducted a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1 - Implementation Plan, Phase 2 - Validation Testing and Phase 3 - Field Testing. Both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the program have been completed. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCLTM) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to oxidize a portion of the fuel, increasing the temperature of fuel/air mixture prior to the main combustion zone. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the technology necessary for the application of the catalytic concept to IGCC fuels was developed through detailed design and subscale testing. Phase III (currently not funded) will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

  4. Flexible Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijh, Aarohi; Cao, Simon; Mohring, Brad

    2014-01-11

    High fuel costs, environmental concerns and issues of national energy security have brought increasing attention to a distributed generation program for electricity based on solar technology. Rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems provide distributed generation since the power is consumed at the point of production, thus eliminating the need for costly additional transmission lines. However, most current photovoltaic modules are heavy and require a significant amount of labor and accessory hardware such as mounting frames for installation on rooftops. This makes rooftop systems impractical or cost prohibitive in many instances. Under this project, Xunlight has advanced its manufacturing process for the production of lightweight, flexible thin-film silicon based photovoltaic modules, and has enhanced the reliability and performance of Xunlight’s products. These modules are easily unrolled and adhered directly to standard commercial roofs without mounting structures or integrated directly into roofing membrane materials for the lowest possible installation costs on the market. Importantly, Xunlight has now established strategic alliances with roofing material manufacturers and other OEMs for the development of building integrated photovoltaic roofing and other PV-enabled products, and has deployed its products in a number of commercial installations with these business partners.

  5. Catalytic Combustor for Fuel-Flexible Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laster, W. R.; Anoshkina, E.

    2008-01-31

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse has conducted a three-year program to develop an ultra low NOx, fuel flexible catalytic combustor for gas turbine application in IGCC. The program is defined in three phases: Phase 1- Implementation Plan, Phase 2- Validation Testing and Phase 3 Field Testing. Both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the program have been completed. In IGCC power plants, the gas turbine must be capable of operating on syngas as a primary fuel and an available back-up fuel such as natural gas. In this program the Rich Catalytic Lean (RCLTM) technology is being developed as an ultra low NOx combustor. In this concept, ultra low NOx is achieved by stabilizing a lean premix combustion process by using a catalytic reactor to oxidize a portion of the fuel, increasing the temperature of fuel/air mixture prior to the main combustion zone. In Phase 1, the feasibility of the catalytic concept for syngas application has been evaluated and the key technology issues identified. In Phase II the technology necessary for the application of the catalytic concept to IGCC fuels was developed through detailed design and subscale testing. Phase III (currently not funded) will consist of full-scale combustor basket testing on natural gas and syngas.

  6. Strike a balance with flexible working arrangements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madison, Alison L.

    2012-12-15

    Monthly Economic Diversity column for the Tri-City Herald - Topic: Telworking - Excerpt below: As the holiday season kicks into high gear, work-life balance is on many of our minds. How can I meet all of my work commitments this month when no one will be in the office, and still strategically use very little vacation time to stretch the holiday break from four days to fourteen? Am I right? I think most all of us want to stay engaged with our professional lives while maintaining the freedom to prioritize our personal lives. And many employers have come up with ways to help us achieve that balance. Teleworking is not a brand new concept, but is certainly gaining steam as employers and employees alike try to find ways to meet a variety of wants and needs. There are benefits to both sides when it comes to offering flexible working arrangements such as teleworking. For businesses attempting to meet sustainability targets by reducing employee commuting and associated impacts to energy and environment, the benefits of this option can really add up.

  7. DAQMAN - A flexible configurable data acquisition system

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-08-01

    DAQMAN is a flexible configurable interface that allows the user to build and operate a VME-based data acquisition system on a Linux workstation. It consists of two parts: a Java-based Graphical User Interface to configure the system, and a C-based utility that reads out the data and creates the output ASCII data file, with two levels of diagnostic tools. The data acquisition system requires a CAEN CONET-VME Bridge to communicate between the hardware in themore » VME crate and the Linux workstation. Data acquisition modules, such as ADCs, TDC, Scalers, can be loaded into the system, or removed easily. The GUI allows users to activate modules, and channels within modules by clicking on icons. Running configurations are stored; data are collected and can be viewed either as raw numbers, or by charts and histograms that update as the data are accumulated. Data files are written to disk in ASCII format, with a date and time stamp.« less

  8. Flexible Language Constructs for Large Parallel Programs

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Rosing, Matt; Schnabel, Robert

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the research described in this article is to develop flexible language constructs for writing large data parallel numerical programs for distributed memory (multiple instruction multiple data [MIMD]) multiprocessors. Previously, several models have been developed to support synchronization and communication. Models for global synchronization include single instruction multiple data (SIMD), single program multiple data (SPMD), and sequential programs annotated with data distribution statements. The two primary models for communication include implicit communication based on shared memory and explicit communication based on messages. None of these models by themselves seem sufficient to permit the natural and efficient expression ofmore » the variety of algorithms that occur in large scientific computations. In this article, we give an overview of a new language that combines many of these programming models in a clean manner. This is done in a modular fashion such that different models can be combined to support large programs. Within a module, the selection of a model depends on the algorithm and its efficiency requirements. In this article, we give an overview of the language and discuss some of the critical implementation details.« less

  9. Flexible session management in a distributed environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Zach; Bradley, Dan; Tannenbaum, Todd; Sfiligoi, Igor; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Many secure communication libraries used by distributed systems, such as SSL, TLS, and Kerberos, fail to make a clear distinction between the authentication, session, and communication layers. In this paper we introduce CEDAR, the secure communication library used by the Condor High Throughput Computing software, and present the advantages to a distributed computing system resulting from CEDAR's separation of these layers. Regardless of the authentication method used, CEDAR establishes a secure session key, which has the flexibility to be used for multiple capabilities. We demonstrate how a layered approach to security sessions can avoid round-trips and latency inherent in network authentication. The creation of a distinct session management layer allows for optimizations to improve scalability by way of delegating sessions to other components in the system. This session delegation creates a chain of trust that reduces the overhead of establishing secure connections and enables centralized enforcement of system-wide security policies. Additionally, secure channels based upon UDP datagrams are often overlooked by existing libraries; we show how CEDAR's structure accommodates this as well. As an example of the utility of this work, we show how the use of delegated security sessions and other techniques inherent in CEDAR's architecture enables US CMS to meet their scalability requirements in deploying Condor over large-scale, wide-area grid systems.

  10. Tracking Provenance in ORNL's Flexible Research Platforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hensley, Zachary P; Sanyal, Jibonananda; New, Joshua Ryan

    2013-08-01

    Provenance is dened as information about the origin of objects, a concept that applies to both physical and digital objects and often overlaps both. The use of provenance in systems designed for research is an important but forgotten feature. Provenance allows for proper and exact tracking of information, its use, its lineage, its derivations and other metadata that are important for correctly adhering to the scien- tic method. In our project's prescribed use of provenance, researchers can determine detailed information about the use of sensor data in their experiments on ORNL's Flexible Research Platforms (FRPs). Our project's provenance system, Provenance Data Management System (ProvDMS), tracks information starting with the creation of information by an FRP sensor. The system determines station information, sensor information, and sensor channel information. The system allows researchers to derive generations of experiments from the sensor data and tracks their hierarchical flow. Key points can be seen in the history of the information as part of the information's workflow. The concept of provenance and its usage in science is relatively new and while used in other cases around the world, our project's provenance diers in a key area. To keep track of provenance, most systems must be designed or redesigned around the new provenance system. Our system is designed as a cohesive but sepa- rate entity and allows for researchers to continue using their own methods of analysis without being constrained in their ways in order to track the provenance. We have designed ProvDMS using a lightweight provenance library, Core Provenance Library (CPL) v.6 In addition to keeping track of sensor data experiments and its provenance, ProvDMS also provides a web-enabled visualization of the inheritance.

  11. Flexible collapse-resistant and length-stable vaccum hose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kashy, David H.

    2003-08-19

    A hose for containing a vacuum, which hose has an impermeable flexible tube capable of holding a vacuum and a braided or interwoven flexible interior wall, said wall providing support to said interior wall of said impermeable flexible tube. Optionally, an exterior braided or woven wall may be provided to the hose for protection or to allow the hose to be used as a pressure hose. The hose may delimit a vacuum space through which may travel a thermal transfer line containing, for example, cryogenic fluid.

  12. Fuel Flexible Turbine System (FFTS) Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-12-31

    In this fuel flexible turbine system (FFTS) program, the Parker gasification system was further optimized, fuel composition of biomass gasification process was characterized and the feasibility of running Capstone MicroTurbine(TM) systems with gasification syngas fuels was evaluated. With high hydrogen content, the gaseous fuel from a gasification process of various feed stocks such as switchgrass and corn stover has high reactivity and high flashback propensity when running in the current lean premixed injectors. The research concluded that the existing C65 microturbine combustion system, which is designed for natural gas, is not able to burn the high hydrogen content syngas due to insufficient resistance to flashback (undesired flame propagation to upstream within the fuel injector). A comprehensive literature review was conducted on high-hydrogen fuel combustion and its main issues. For Capstone?s lean premixed injector, the main mechanisms of flashback were identified to be boundary layer flashback and bulk flow flashback. Since the existing microturbine combustion system is not able to operate on high-hydrogen syngas fuels, new hardware needed to be developed. The new hardware developed and tested included (1) a series of injectors with a reduced propensity for boundary layer flashback and (2) two new combustion liner designs (Combustion Liner Design A and B) that lead to desired primary zone air flow split to meet the overall bulk velocity requirement to mitigate the risk of core flashback inside the injectors. The new injector designs were evaluated in both test apparatus and C65/C200 engines. While some of the new injector designs did not provide satisfactory performance in burning target syngas fuels, particularly in improving resistance to flashback. The combustion system configuration of FFTS-4 injector and Combustion Liner Design A was found promising to enable the C65 microturbine system to run on high hydrogen biomass syngas. The FFTS-4 injector was

  13. Apparatus and method for detecting tampering in flexible structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxey, Lonnie C. (Knoxville, TN); Haynes, Howard D. (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-02-01

    A system for monitoring or detecting tampering in a flexible structure includes taking electrical measurements on a sensing cable coupled to the structure, performing spectral analysis on the measured data, and comparing the spectral characteristics of the event to those of known benign and/or known suspicious events. A threshold or trigger value may used to identify an event of interest and initiate data collection. Alternatively, the system may be triggered at preset intervals, triggered manually, or triggered by a signal from another sensing device such as a motion detector. The system may be used to monitor electrical cables and conduits, hoses and flexible ducts, fences and other perimeter control devices, structural cables, flexible fabrics, and other flexible structures.

  14. The Flexible Solar Utility. Preparing for Solar's Impacts to...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Preparing for Solar's Impacts to Utility Planning and Operations This paper seeks to provide a flexible utility roadmap for identifying the steps that need to be taken to place the ...

  15. Low flammability cap-sensitive flexible explosive composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Martin G.

    1992-01-14

    A cap-sensitive flexible explosive composition of reduced flammability is provided by incorporating a finely divided, cap-sensitive explosive in a flame resistant polymeric binder system which contains a compatible flame retardant material.

  16. NREL: Awards and Honors - Lightweight, Flexible, Thin-Film CIGS...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    to them, for example, the CIGS systems: Are lighter, more flexible and portable; Are more efficient and reliable; Have two to three times the power-to-weight ratio; Have more than...

  17. Simple Analysis of Flame Dynamics via Flexible Convected Disturbance...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Simple Analysis of Flame Dynamics via Flexible Convected Disturbance ... OSTI Identifier: 1160232 Report Number(s): A-NETL-PUB-020 Journal ID: ISSN 0748-4658 ...

  18. Flexible Work Arrangements Go Outside the Box | GE Global Research

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Flexible Work Arrangements Go Outside the Box Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) ...

  19. Method for encapsulating the edge of a flexible sheet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keenihan, James R; Clarey, Todd M

    2013-02-19

    The present invention is premised upon an inventive method of producing an over-molded edge portion on a flexible substrate, wherein the edge portion is void of open areas due to support devices in the mold cavity.

  20. Flexible aerogel composite for mechanical stability and process of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA); Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A flexible aerogel and process of fabrication. An aerogel solution is mixed with fibers in a mold and allowed to gel. The gel is then processed by supercritical extraction, or by air drying, to produce a flexible aerogel formed to the shape of the mold. The flexible aerogel has excellent thermal and acoustic properties, and can be utilized in numerous applications, such as for energy absorption, insulation (temperature and acoustic), to meet the contours of aircraft shapes, and where space is limited since an inch of aerogel is a 4-5 times better insulator than an inch of fiberglass. The flexible aerogel may be of an inorganic (silica) type or an organic (carbon) type, but containing fibers, such as glass or carbon fibers.

  1. Flexible aerogel composite for mechanical stability and process of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA); Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A flexible aerogel and process of fabrication. An aerogel solution is mixed with fibers in a mold and allowed to gel. The gel is then processed by supercritical extraction, or by air drying, to produce a flexible aerogel formed to the shape of the mold. The flexible aerogel has excellent thermal and acoustic properties, and can be utilized in numerous applications, such as for energy absorption, insulation (temperature and acoustic), to meet the contours of aircraft shapes, and where space is limited since an inch of aerogel is a 4-5 times better insulator than an inch of fiberglass. The flexible aerogel may be of an inorganic (silica) type or an organic (carbon) type, but containing fibers, such as glass or carbon fibers.

  2. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2007-05-01

    This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes aspects of flexible fuel vehicles such as use of E85, special features, benefits of use, costs, and fueling locations. It discusses performance and lists additional resources.

  3. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clean Cities

    2010-03-01

    Flexible fuel vehicles can operate on either gasoline or E85, a mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline. The fact sheet discusses the costs, benefits, and vehicle performance of using E85.

  4. Flexible Hybrid Friction Stir Joining Technology | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Hybrid Friction Stir Joining Technology Flexible Hybrid Friction Stir Joining Technology flexible_hybrid_friction.pdf (590.95 KB) More Documents & Publications Class Patent Waiver W(C)2009-001 Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry

  5. Investing in the Innovative Design of More Flexible Large Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Transformers | Department of Energy Investing in the Innovative Design of More Flexible Large Power Transformers Investing in the Innovative Design of More Flexible Large Power Transformers September 28, 2016 - 12:33pm Addthis Patricia A. Hoffman Patricia A. Hoffman Assistant Secretary, Office of Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability Transformers are fundamental to the nation's power grid with essentially all electricity generated and delivered flowing through at least one. These

  6. EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Charging Infrastructure Enabling Flexible

    Energy Savers

    EV Design | Department of Energy Charging Infrastructure Enabling Flexible EV Design EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Charging Infrastructure Enabling Flexible EV Design Presentation given at the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge: Consumer Acceptance and Charging Infrastructure Workshop on July 30, 2012 held at the LAX Marriott, Los Angeles, CA 5_slezak_caci.pdf (2 MB) More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Framing Workshop - Report Out & Lessons Learned EV Everywhere Framing

  7. INL's Move to Google Apps Enables Flexibility, Scalability | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy INL's Move to Google Apps Enables Flexibility, Scalability INL's Move to Google Apps Enables Flexibility, Scalability December 7, 2011 - 1:42pm Addthis Brent Stacey, Chief Information Officer and Information Management Director at Energy's Idaho National Laboratory (INL) recently stated, "INL is moving to what we call a high performance workplace." How is INL doing this, you may ask? First INL (with lab-wide participation) has identified 10 improvement themes over 5 years.

  8. The active site of hen egg-white lysozyme: flexibility and chemical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    lysozyme: flexibility and chemical bonding Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The active site of hen egg-white lysozyme: flexibility and chemical bonding Chemical bonding ...

  9. Functional design criteria 241-AP-102 Flexible Receiver System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roblyer, S.P.

    1995-02-16

    A mixer pump was installed in the 1.07 m (42-in.) riser of the central pump pit of tank 241-AP-102 to mitigate potential fluid separation particle sedimentation by mixing the tank`s contents. The mixer pump performed this function until failure. Its removal is now necessary to meet possible tank content removal commitments or other corrective actions. The proposed removal procedure requires a flexible receiver that will provide a barrier to contamination during removal and transfer of the pump to the mixer pump storage container. This document describes the functional design criteria of the flexible receiver. These criteria include the functional and performance requirements of the flexible receiver as a barrier to contamination during normal conditions and contingencies and the instrumentation requirements.

  10. Flexible high-temperature pH probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bielawski, John C.; Outwater, John O.; Halbfinger, George P.

    2003-04-22

    A flexible pH probe device is provided for use in hot water and other high temperature environments up to about 590.degree. F. The pH probe includes a flexible, inert tubular probe member, an oxygen anion conducting, solid state electrolyte plug located at the distal end of the tubular member, oxide powder disposed at the distal end of the tubular member; a metal wire extending along the tubular member and having a distal end in contact with the oxide powder so as to form therewith an internal reference electrode; and a compression fitting forming a pressure boundary seal around a portion of the tubular member remote from the distal end thereof. Preferably, the tubular member is made of polytetrafluoroethylene, and the solid state electrolyte plug is made of stabilized zirconia. The flexibility of the probe member enables placement of the electrode into the area of interest, including around corners, into confined areas and the like.

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Flexible Fuel Cars Work Using

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Ethanol? Flexible Fuel Cars Work Using Ethanol? to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Flexible Fuel Cars Work Using Ethanol? on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Flexible Fuel Cars Work Using Ethanol? on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Flexible Fuel Cars Work Using Ethanol? on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Flexible Fuel Cars Work Using Ethanol? on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  12. Advancing System Flexibility for High Penetration Renewable Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, Michael; Frew, Bethany; Zhou, Ella; Arent, Douglas J.

    2015-10-01

    This report summarizes some of the issues discussed during the engagement on power system flexibility. By design, the focus is on flexibility options used in the United States. Exploration of whether and how U.S. experiences can inform Chinese energy planning will be part of the continuing project, and will benefit from the knowledge base provided by this report. We believe the initial stage of collaboration represented in this report has successfully started a process of mutual understanding, helping Chinese researchers to begin evaluating how lessons learned in other countries might translate to China's unique geographic, economic, social, and political contexts.

  13. New class of fuel cells offer increased flexibility, lower cost

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    New class of fuel cells offer increased flexibility, lower cost New class of fuel cells offer increased flexibility, lower cost A new class of fuel cells based on a newly discovered polymer-based material could bridge the gap between the operating temperature ranges of two existing types of polymer fuel cells. August 23, 2016 Yu Seung Kim (left) and Kwan-Soo Lee (right) Yu Seung Kim (left) and Kwan-Soo Lee (right) Contact Nancy Ambrosiano Communications Office (505) 667-0471 Email

  14. Molecular dynamics simulation of framework flexibility effects on noble gas diffusion in HKUST-1 and ZIF-8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkes, Marie V.; Demir, Hakan; Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie L.; Sholl, David S.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Allendorf, Mark D.

    2014-03-28

    Molecular dynamics simulations were used to investigate trends in noble gas (Ar, Kr, Xe) diffusion in the metal-organic frameworks HKUST-1 and ZIF-8. Diffusion occurs primarily through inter-cage jump events, with much greater diffusion of guest atoms in HKUST-1 compared to ZIF-8 due to the larger cage and window sizes in the former. We compare diffusion coefficients calculated for both rigid and flexible frameworks. For rigid framework simulations, in which the framework atoms were held at their crystallographic or geometry optimized coordinates, sometimes dramatic differences in guest diffusion were seen depending on the initial framework structure or the choice of framework force field parameters. When framework flexibility effects were included, argon and krypton diffusion increased significantly compared to rigid-framework simulations using general force field parameters. Additionally, for argon and krypton in ZIF-8, guest diffusion increased with loading, demonstrating that guest-guest interactions between cages enhance inter-cage diffusion. No inter-cage jump events were seen for xenon atoms in ZIF-8 regardless of force field or initial structure, and the loading dependence of xenon diffusion in HKUST-1 is different for rigid and flexible frameworks. Diffusion of krypton and xenon in HKUST-1 depends on two competing effects: the steric effect that decreases diffusion as loading increases, and the “small cage effect” that increases diffusion as loading increases. Finally, a detailed analysis of the window size in ZIF-8 reveals that the window increases beyond its normal size to permit passage of a (nominally) larger krypton atom.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulation of framework flexibility effects on noble gas diffusion in HKUST-1 and ZIF-8

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Parkes, Marie V.; Demir, Hakan; Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie L.; Sholl, David S.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Allendorf, Mark D.

    2014-03-28

    Molecular dynamics simulations were used to investigate trends in noble gas (Ar, Kr, Xe) diffusion in the metal-organic frameworks HKUST-1 and ZIF-8. Diffusion occurs primarily through inter-cage jump events, with much greater diffusion of guest atoms in HKUST-1 compared to ZIF-8 due to the larger cage and window sizes in the former. We compare diffusion coefficients calculated for both rigid and flexible frameworks. For rigid framework simulations, in which the framework atoms were held at their crystallographic or geometry optimized coordinates, sometimes dramatic differences in guest diffusion were seen depending on the initial framework structure or the choice of frameworkmore » force field parameters. When framework flexibility effects were included, argon and krypton diffusion increased significantly compared to rigid-framework simulations using general force field parameters. Additionally, for argon and krypton in ZIF-8, guest diffusion increased with loading, demonstrating that guest-guest interactions between cages enhance inter-cage diffusion. No inter-cage jump events were seen for xenon atoms in ZIF-8 regardless of force field or initial structure, and the loading dependence of xenon diffusion in HKUST-1 is different for rigid and flexible frameworks. Diffusion of krypton and xenon in HKUST-1 depends on two competing effects: the steric effect that decreases diffusion as loading increases, and the “small cage effect” that increases diffusion as loading increases. Finally, a detailed analysis of the window size in ZIF-8 reveals that the window increases beyond its normal size to permit passage of a (nominally) larger krypton atom.« less

  16. Flexible pipe crawling device having articulated two axis coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1994-05-10

    An apparatus is described for moving through the linear and non-linear segments of piping systems. The apparatus comprises a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly, a mechanism for extension and retraction of the front and rear leg assembles with respect to each other, such as an air cylinder, and a pivoting joint. One end of the flexible joint attaches to the front leg assembly and the other end to the air cylinder, which is also connected to the rear leg assembly. The air cylinder allows the front and rear leg assemblies to progress through a pipe in inchworm' fashion, while the joint provides the flexibility necessary for the pipe crawler to negotiate non-linear piping segments. The flexible connecting joint is coupled with a spring-force suspension system that urges alignment of the front and rear leg assemblies with respect to each other. The joint and suspension system cooperate to provide a firm yet flexible connection between the front and rear leg assemblies to allow the pivoting of one with respect to the other while moving around a non-linear pipe segment, but restoring proper alignment coming out of the pipe bend. 4 figures.

  17. Flexible pipe crawling device having articulated two axis coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zollinger, William T.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for moving through the linear and non-linear segments of piping systems. The apparatus comprises a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly, a mechanism for extension and retraction of the front and rear leg assembles with respect to each other, such as an air cylinder, and a pivoting joint. One end of the flexible joint attaches to the front leg assembly and the other end to the air cylinder, which is also connected to the rear leg assembly. The air cylinder allows the front and rear leg assemblies to progress through a pipe in "inchworm" fashion, while the joint provides the flexibility necessary for the pipe crawler to negotiate non-linear piping segments. The flexible connecting joint is coupled with a spring-force suspension system that urges alignment of the front and rear leg assemblies with respect to each other. The joint and suspension system cooperate to provide a firm yet flexible connection between the front and rear leg assemblies to allow the pivoting of one with respect to the other while moving around a non-linear pipe segment, but restoring proper alignment coming out of the pipe bend.

  18. Thin film with oriented cracks on a flexible substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Bao; McGilvray, Andrew; Shi, Bo

    2010-07-27

    A thermoelectric film is disclosed. The thermoelectric film includes a substrate that is substantially electrically non-conductive and flexible and a thermoelectric material that is deposited on at least one surface of the substrate. The thermoelectric film also includes multiple cracks oriented in a predetermined direction.

  19. Methods for Procuring Power System Flexibility, Greening the Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, Jessica; Cochran, Jaquelin; Miller, Mackay

    2015-05-01

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document, part of a Greening the Grid toolkit, introduces administrative and incentive-based mechanisms for procuring a cost-effective mix of flexibility sources.

  20. Gas microstrip detectors based on flexible printed circuit technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salomon, M.; Crowe, K.; Faszer, W.; Lindsay, P.; Maier, J.M.C.

    1996-06-01

    The authors have studied the properties of a new type of Gas Microstrip Counter built using flexible printed circuit technology. They describe the manufacturing procedures, the assembly of the device, as well as its operation under a variety of conditions, gases and types of radiation. They also describe two new passivation materials, tantalum and niobium, which produce effective surfaces.

  1. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    Clean Cities fact sheet describing aspects of flexible fuel vehicles such as use of E85, special features, benefits of use, costs, and fueling locations. It includes discussion on performance and how to identify these vehicles as well as listing additional resources.

  2. Do You Own a Flexible-Fuel Vehicle?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-04-01

    This two-page Clean Cities fact sheet describes flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) -- those that can run on ethanol, gasoline, or a combination of the two. It targets individual drivers and fleet operators who may not know they're already driving FFVs or who may want to purchase FFVs

  3. Moisture absorption and bakeout characteristics of rigid-flexible multilayer printed wiring boards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lula, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Moisture absorption and bakeout characteristics of Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD) rigid-flexible printed wiring boards were determined. It was found that test specimens had absorbed 0.95 weight percent moisture when equilibrated to a 50 percent RH, 25{degree}C environment. Heating those equilibrated specimens in a 120{degree}C static air oven removed 92 percent of this absorbed moisture in 24 h. Heating the samples in a 80{degree}C static air oven removed only 64 percent of the absorbed moisture at the end of 24 h. A 120{degree}C vacuum bake removed moisture at essentially the same rate with parylene slowed the absorption rate by approximately 50 percent but did not appreciably affect the equilibrium moisture content or the drying rate.

  4. The MSFR as a flexible CR reactor: the viewpoint of safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiorina, C.; Cammi, A.; Franceschini, F.; Krepel, J.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, the possibility has first been discussed of using the liquid-fuelled Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) as a flexible conversion ratio (CR) reactor without design modification. By tuning the reprocessing rate it is possible to determine the content of fission products in the core, which in turn can significantly affect the neutron economy without incurring in solubility problems. The MSFR can thus be operated as U-233 breeder (CR>1), iso-breeder (CR=1) and burner reactor (CR<1). In particular a 40 year doubling time can be achieved, as well as a considerable Transuranics and MA (minor actinide) burning rate equal to about 150 kg{sub HN}/GWE-yr. The safety parameters of the MSFR have then been evaluated for different fuel cycle strategies. Th use and a softer spectrum combine to give a strong Doppler coefficient, one order of magnitude higher compared to traditional fast reactors (FRs). The fuel expansion coefficient is comparable to the Doppler coefficient and is only mildly affected by core compositions, thus assisting the fuel cycle flexibility of the MSFR. ?eff and generation time are comparable to the case of traditional FRs, if a static fuel is assumed. A notable reduction of ?eff is caused by salt circulation, but a low value of this parameter is a limited concern in the MSFR thanks to the lack of a burnup reactivity swing and of positive feedbacks. A simple approach has also been developed to evaluate the MSFR capabilities to withstand all typical double-fault accidents, for different fuel cycle options.

  5. Flexible semi-transparent organic spin valve based on bathocuproine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiangnan; Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar; Llopis, Roger; Casanova, Fèlix; Hueso, Luis E.

    2014-08-25

    Organic semiconductors are attractive materials for advanced spintronic applications due to their long spin lifetimes and, simultaneously, their mechanical flexibility. With the aim of combining these advantages in a single device, we report on the fabrication and properties of a mechanically flexible bathocuproine-based spin valve. This organic spin device shows great stability on both electrical and magneto-transport properties upon mechanical bending at different radius (up to r = 5 mm), while featuring long-lasting endurance (on bending over 50 times). The room-temperature magnetoresistance ratio reaches up to 3.5%, and is notably preserved under air atmosphere. The observation of spin transport at room-temperature, combined with the outstanding mechanical properties and air stability, highlights the potential of bathocuproine-based spin devices towards applications.

  6. Mechanically flexible organic electroluminescent device with directional light emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duggal, Anil Raj; Shiang, Joseph John; Schaepkens, Marc

    2005-05-10

    A mechanically flexible and environmentally stable organic electroluminescent ("EL") device with directional light emission comprises an organic EL member disposed on a flexible substrate, a surface of which is coated with a multilayer barrier coating which includes at least one sublayer of a substantially transparent organic polymer and at least one sublayer of a substantially transparent inorganic material. The device includes a reflective metal layer disposed on the organic EL member opposite to the substrate. The reflective metal layer provides an increased external quantum efficiency of the device. The reflective metal layer and the multilayer barrier coating form a seal around the organic EL member to reduce the degradation of the device due to environmental elements.

  7. Flexible A-15 superconducting tape via the amorphous state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clapp, M.T.; Shi, D.

    1985-05-15

    The melt spinning technique was used to rapidly solidify superconducting materials. In the Ti/sub 3/Nb/sub 6/Mo/sub 3/Si/sub 4/ alloy system, it was possible to form metastable A-15 and amorphous ribbons as the quenching rate was increased. The liquid-quenched A-15 ribbons were extremely brittle, which is typical of this crystal structure. The metastable A-15 phase could also be formed by annealing the amorphous ribbons. These, however, were far more flexible, their percent elongation being up to 30 times greater than that of the liquid quenched A-15's. The flexibility appeared to depend on grain size, and increased as the grain size decreased. This is consistent with behavior observed in other brittle materials of a brittle to ductile transition as a function of grain size.

  8. The Integrated Waste Tracking System - A Flexible Waste Management Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Robert Stephen

    2001-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has fully embraced a flexible, computer-based tool to help increase waste management efficiency and integrate multiple operational functions from waste generation through waste disposition while reducing cost. The Integrated Waste Tracking System (IWTS)provides comprehensive information management for containerized waste during generation,storage, treatment, transport, and disposal. The IWTS provides all information necessary for facilities to properly manage and demonstrate regulatory compliance. As a platformindependent, client-server and Web-based inventory and compliance system, the IWTS has proven to be a successful tracking, characterization, compliance, and reporting tool that meets the needs of both operations and management while providing a high level of management flexibility.

  9. Elongated solid electrolyte cell configurations and flexible connections therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reichner, P.

    1989-10-17

    A flexible, high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cell stack configuration is made, comprising a plurality of flattened, elongated, connected cell combinations, each cell combination containing an interior electrode having a top surface and a plurality of interior gas feed conduits, through its axial length, electrolyte contacting the interior electrode and exterior electrode contacting electrolyte, where a major portion of the air electrode top surface is covered by interconnection material, and where each cell has at least one axially elongated, electronically conductive, flexible, porous, metal fiber felt material in electronic connection with the air electrode through contact with a major portion of the interconnection material, the metal fiber felt being effective as a shock absorbent body between the cells. 4 figs.

  10. Elongated solid electrolyte cell configurations and flexible connections therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reichner, Philip

    1989-01-01

    A flexible, high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cell stack configuration is made, comprising a plurality of flattened, elongated, connected cell combinations 1, each cell combination containing an interior electrode 2 having a top surface and a plurality of interior gas feed conduits 3, through its axial length, electrolyte 5 contacting the interior electrode and exterior electrode 8 contacting electrolyte, where a major portion of the air electrode top surface 7 is covered by interconnection material 6, and where each cell has at least one axially elongated, electronically conductive, flexible, porous, metal fiber felt material 9 in electronic connection with the air electrode 2 through contact with a major portion of the interconnection material 6, the metal fiber felt being effective as a shock absorbent body between the cells.

  11. Advancing System Flexibility for High Penetration Renewable Integration (Chinese Translation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, Michael; Frew, Bethany; Zhou, Ella; Arent, Douglas J.

    2015-10-01

    This is a Chinese translation of NREL/TP-6A20-64864. This report summarizes some of the issues discussed during the engagement on power system flexibility. By design, the focus is on flexibility options used in the United States. Exploration of whether and how U.S. experiences can inform Chinese energy planning will be part of the continuing project, and will benefit from the knowledge base provided by this report. We believe the initial stage of collaboration represented in this report has successfully started a process of mutual understanding, helping Chinese researchers to begin evaluating how lessons learned in other countries might translate to China's unique geographic, economic, social, and political contexts.

  12. Demonstrating Reliability of 3M Ultra-Barrier Film for Flexible...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Demonstrating Reliability of 3M Ultra-Barrier Film for Flexible PV Applications Demonstrating Reliability of 3M Ultra-Barrier Film for Flexible PV Applications Presented at the PV ...

  13. A Flexible, Low Cost, Beam Loss Monitor Evaluation System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoyes, George Garnet; Pimol, Piti; Juthong, Nawin; Attaphibal, Malee

    2007-01-19

    A flexible, low cost, Beam Loss Monitor (BLM) Evaluation System based on Bergoz BLMs has been developed. Monitors can easily be moved to any location for beam loss investigations and/or monitor usefulness evaluations. Different PC pulse counting cards are compared and tested for this application using the display software developed based on LabVIEW. Beam problems uncovered with this system are presented.

  14. Gas microstrip detectors based on flexible printed circuit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salomon, M.; Crowe, K.; Faszer, W.; Lindsay, P.; Curran Maier, J.M.

    1995-09-01

    Microstrip Gas Detectors (MSGC`s) were introduced some years ago as position sensitive detectors capable of operating at very high rates. The authors have studied the properties of a new type of Gas Microstrip Counter built using flexible printed circuit technology. They describe the manufacturing procedures, the assembly of the device, as well as its operation under a variety of conditions, gases and types of radiation. They also describe two new passivation materials, tantalum and niobium, which produce effective surfaces.

  15. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit

    2011-03-15

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, triaxially textured, single-crystal or single-crystal-like, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  16. Reliable, High Performance Transistors on Flexible Substrates - Energy

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Reliable, High Performance Transistors on Flexible Substrates Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Backplanes for Conformal Electronics and Sensors, "Nano Lett., 2011, 11, 5408-5413 (924 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Researchers at Berkeley Lab have produced uniform, high performance transistors on mechanically

  17. Flexible Assembly Solar Technology (FAST) Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toister, Elad

    2014-11-06

    The Flexible Assembly Solar Technology (FAST) project was initiated by BrightSource in an attempt to provide potential solar field EPC contractors with an effective set of tools to perform specific construction tasks. These tasks are mostly associated with heliostat assembly and installation, and require customized non-standard tools. The FAST concept focuses on low equipment cost, reduced setup time and increased assembly throughput as compared to the Ivanpah solar field construction tools.

  18. Flexible Coal: Evolution from Baseload to Peaking Plant (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, J.; Lew, D.; Kumar, N.

    2013-12-01

    Twenty-first century power systems, with higher penetration levels of low-carbon energy, smart grids, and other emerging technologies, will favor resources that have low marginal costs and provide system flexibility (e.g., the ability to cycle on and off to follow changes in variable renewable energy plant output). Questions remain about both the fate of coal plants in this scenario and whether they can cost-effectively continue to operate if they cycle routinely. The experience from the CGS plant demonstrates that coal plants can become flexible resources. This flexibility - namely the ability to cycle on and off and run at lower output (below 40% of capacity) - requires limited hardware modifications but extensive modifications to operational practice. Cycling does damage the plant and impact its life expectancy compared to baseload operations. Nevertheless, strategic modifications, proactive inspections and training programs, among other operational changes to accommodate cycling, can minimize the extent of damage and optimize the cost of maintenance. CGS's cycling, but not necessarily the associated price tag, is replicable. Context - namely, power market opportunities and composition of the generation fleet - will help determine for other coal plants the optimal balance between the level of cycling-related forced outages and the level of capital investment required to minimize those outages. Replicating CGS's experience elsewhere will likely require a higher acceptance of forced outages than regulators and plant operators are accustomed to; however, an increase in strategic maintenance can minimize the impact on outage rates.

  19. RELIABLE RADIOGRAPHIC INSPECTION OF FLEXIBLE RISERS FOR THE OIL INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almeida, Romulo M.; Rebello, Joao Marcos A. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering COPPE/UFRJ-Federal University of Rio de Janeiro P.O. Box 68505 CEP 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil); Vaz, Murilo A. [Department of Ocean Engineering-COPPE/UFRJ (Brazil)

    2010-02-22

    Flexible risers are composite tubular structures manufactured by the concentric assemblage of cylindrical polymeric and helically wound metallic layers employed to convey pressurized fluids such as oil, gas and water in the ocean environment. The metallic layers account for the flexible risers' structural strength and are dimensioned according to the static and dynamic loads. They are usually installed in a free hanging catenary configuration and are subjected to the direct action of waves and marine currents and wave induced motions from the oil production platform. The fatigue rupture of wire armours in the end fitting or within the riser segment protected by the bend stiffener is an object of major concern. Integrity models have been developed, however inspection techniques are mandatory to ensure that failure is detected. Gammagraphy has been used as a common inspection technique in all regions of the flexible riser, mainly with the single wall-single view method. On the other side, there is not any qualified radiographic procedure to this kind of structure. Radiographic simulation was adopted and its validation with actual gammagraphies and establishment of radiographic parameters to complex radiation geometries were done. Results show the viability of the radiographic inspection analyzing the armour wires' rupture and the displacement between wires.

  20. Measure Guideline: Optimizing the Configuration of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beach, R.; Burdick, A.

    2014-03-01

    This measure guideline offers additional recommendations to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system designers for optimizing flexible duct, constant-volume HVAC systems using junction boxes within Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual D guidance (Rutkowski, H. Manual D -- Residential Duct Systems, 3rd edition, Version 1.00. Arlington, VA: Air Conditioning Contractors of America, 2009.). IBACOS used computational fluid dynamics software to explore and develop guidance to better control the airflow effects of factors that may impact pressure losses within junction boxes among various design configurations (Beach, R., Prahl, D., and Lange, R. CFD Analysis of Flexible Duct Junction Box Design. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, submitted for publication 2013). These recommendations can help to ensure that a system aligns more closely with the design and the occupants' comfort expectations. Specifically, the recommendations described herein show how to configure a rectangular box with four outlets, a triangular box with three outlets, metal wyes with two outlets, and multiple configurations for more than four outlets. Designers of HVAC systems, contractors who are fabricating junction boxes on site, and anyone using the ACCA Manual D process for sizing duct runs will find this measure guideline invaluable for more accurately minimizing pressure losses when using junction boxes with flexible ducts.

  1. Importance of Flexible Electricity Supply: Solar Integration Series. 1 of 3 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-05-01

    The first out of a series of three fact sheets describing the importance of flexible electricity supply.

  2. Nanotubes "line-up" to form films for flexible electronics

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanotubes "line-up" to form films Nanotubes "line-up" to form films for flexible electronics A simple filtration process helped Rice University researchers create flexible, wafer-scale films of highly aligned and closely packed carbon nanotubes. April 10, 2016 Nanotubes "Line-Up" to form films for flexible electronics Bendable technology may come from nanotubes. Nanotubes "line-up" to form films for flexible electronics A simple filtration process helped

  3. Solvation Free Energies of Alanine Peptides: The Effect of Flexibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kokubo, Hironori; Harris, Robert C.; Asthagiri, Dilip; Pettitt, Bernard M.

    2013-12-03

    The electrostatic (?Gel), cavity-formation (?Gvdw), and total (?G) solvation free energies for 10 alanine peptides ranging in length (n) from 1 to 10 monomers were calculated. The free energies were computed both with xed, extended conformations of the peptides and again for some of the peptides without constraints. The solvation free energies, ?Gel, ?Gvdw, and ?G, were found to be linear in n, with the slopes of the best-fit lines being gamma_el, gamma_vdw, and gamma, respectively. Both gamma_el and gamma were negative for fixed and flexible peptides, and gamma_vdw was negative for fixed peptides. That gamma_vdw was negative was surprising, as experimental data on alkanes, theoretical models, and MD computations on small molecules and model systems generally suggest that gamma_vdw should be positive. A negative gamma_vdw seemingly contradicts the notion that ?Gvdw drives the initial collapse of the protein when it folds by favoring conformations with small surface areas, but when we computed ?Gvdw for the flexible peptides, thereby allowing the peptides to assume natural ensembles of more compact conformations, gamma-vdw was positive. Because most proteins do not assume extended conformations, a ?Gvdw that increases with increasing surface area may be typical for globular proteins. An alternative hypothesis is that the collapse is driven by intramolecular interactions. We show that the intramolecular van der Waal's interaction energy is more favorable for the flexible than for the extended peptides, seemingly favoring this hypothesis, but the large fluctuations in this energy may make attributing the collapse of the peptide to this intramolecular energy difficult.

  4. Ovarian tumor-initiating cells display a flexible metabolism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Angela S.; Roberts, Paul C.; Frisard, Madlyn I.; Hulver, Matthew W.; Schmelz, Eva M.

    2014-10-15

    An altered metabolism during ovarian cancer progression allows for increased macromolecular synthesis and unrestrained growth. However, the metabolic phenotype of cancer stem or tumor-initiating cells, small tumor cell populations that are able to recapitulate the original tumor, has not been well characterized. In the present study, we compared the metabolic phenotype of the stem cell enriched cell variant, MOSE-L{sub FFLv} (TIC), derived from mouse ovarian surface epithelial (MOSE) cells, to their parental (MOSE-L) and benign precursor (MOSE-E) cells. TICs exhibit a decrease in glucose and fatty acid oxidation with a concomitant increase in lactate secretion. In contrast to MOSE-L cells, TICs can increase their rate of glycolysis to overcome the inhibition of ATP synthase by oligomycin and can increase their oxygen consumption rate to maintain proton motive force when uncoupled, similar to the benign MOSE-E cells. TICs have an increased survival rate under limiting conditions as well as an increased survival rate when treated with AICAR, but exhibit a higher sensitivity to metformin than MOSE-E and MOSE-L cells. Together, our data show that TICs have a distinct metabolic profile that may render them flexible to adapt to the specific conditions of their microenvironment. By better understanding their metabolic phenotype and external environmental conditions that support their survival, treatment interventions can be designed to extend current therapy regimens to eradicate TICs. - Highlights: • Ovarian cancer TICs exhibit a decreased glucose and fatty acid oxidation. • TICs are more glycolytic and have highly active mitochondria. • TICs are more resistant to AICAR but not metformin. • A flexible metabolism allows TICs to adapt to their microenvironment. • This flexibility requires development of specific drugs targeting TIC-specific changes to prevent recurrent TIC outgrowth.

  5. Guide to the Regulatory Flexibility Act. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-01

    On March 29, 1996, the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act (P.L. 104-121) was signed into law. Among other things, the new law amended the Regulatory Flexibility Act of 1980 (5 U.S.C. 601-12) to allow judicial review of a federal agency`s compliance with the provisions of this law when promulgating new regulations. This publication contains an overview and legislative history of the act, as well as a clear description of the oversight process designed to implement it.

  6. Graphene oxide overprints for flexible and transparent electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogala, M. Wlasny, I.; Kowalczyk, P. J.; Busiakiewicz, A.; Kozlowski, W.; Klusek, Z.; Sieradzki, Z.; Krucinska, I.; Puchalski, M.; Skrzetuska, E.

    2015-01-26

    The overprints produced in inkjet technology with graphene oxide dispersion are presented. The graphene oxide ink is developed to be fully compatible with standard industrial printers and polyester substrates. Post-printing chemical reduction procedure is proposed, which leads to the restoration of electrical conductivity without destroying the substrate. The presented results show the outstanding potential of graphene oxide for rapid and cost efficient commercial implementation to production of flexible electronics. Properties of graphene-based electrodes are characterized on the macro- and nano-scale. The observed nano-scale inhomogeneity of overprints' conductivity is found to be essential in the field of future industrial applications.

  7. Flexible metallic seal for transition duct in turbine system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2014-04-22

    A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface member for interfacing with a turbine section. The turbine system further includes a flexible metallic seal contacting the interface member to provide a seal between the interface member and the turbine section.

  8. Flexible edge seal for vacuum insulating glazing units

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bettger, Kenneth J.; Stark, David H.

    2012-12-11

    A flexible edge seal is provided for a vacuum insulating glazing unit having a first glass pane and a second glass pane spaced-apart from the first. The edge seal comprises a seal member formed of a hermetically bondable material and having a first end, a second end and a center section disposed therebetween. The first end is hermetically bondable to a first glass pane. The second end is hermetically bondable to a second glass pane. The center section comprises a plurality of convolutes.

  9. Cryogenic flexible pipes for offshore LNG-LPG production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dumay, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Available in long, flexible pieces (up to several miles), the high-performance Coflexip pipe comprises four basic layers: (1) an interlocked, spiraled-steel carcass to resist crushing and prevent deformation, (2) an inner thermoplastic sheath to render the line internally leakproof, (3) two cross-laid steel-wire armors to oppose the stresses induced by internal pressure, and (4) an external thermoplastic sheath to ensure water-tightness and resist corrosion. Coflexip pipe is particularly suitable for transporting cryogenic liquids such as LNG from, for example, an offshore liquefaction plant.

  10. Non-pulsed electrochemical impregnation of flexible metallic battery plaques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maskalick, Nicholas J.

    1982-01-01

    A method of loading active battery material into porous, flexible, metallic battery plaques, comprises the following steps: precipitating nickel hydroxide active material within the plaque, by making the plaque cathodic, at a high current density, in an electro-precipitation cell also containing a consumable nickel anode and a solution comprising nickel nitrate, having a pH of between 2.0 and 2.8; electrochemically oxidizing the precipitate in caustic formation solution; and repeating the electro-precipitation step at a low current density.

  11. Printable, flexible and stretchable diamond for thermal management

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A; Kim, Tae Ho; Choi, Won Mook; Kim, Dae Hyeong; Meitl, Matthew; Menard, Etienne; Carlisle, John

    2013-06-25

    Various heat-sinked components and methods of making heat-sinked components are disclosed where diamond in thermal contact with one or more heat-generating components are capable of dissipating heat, thereby providing thermally-regulated components. Thermally conductive diamond is provided in patterns capable of providing efficient and maximum heat transfer away from components that may be susceptible to damage by elevated temperatures. The devices and methods are used to cool flexible electronics, integrated circuits and other complex electronics that tend to generate significant heat. Also provided are methods of making printable diamond patterns that can be used in a range of devices and device components.

  12. Means to flexibly attach lens frames to temple members

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Harry D.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a band hinge for flexibly connecting the temple member to the lens frame thereby preventing damage from inadvertent pressure or cyclic wear. A distinguishing feature of the invention is the use of a band hinge that holds together the temple member and the lens frame without the use of a pin or screw hinging mechanism. The invention allows for a high degree of freedom of movement for the temple member with respect to the lens frame which will prevent most forms of damages to the glasses from these types of events.

  13. New Flexible Channels for Room Temperature Tunneling Field Effect Transistors

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Hao, Boyi; Asthana, Anjana; Hazaveh, Paniz Khanmohammadi; Bergstrom, Paul L.; Banyai, Douglas; Savaikar, Madhusudan A.; Jaszczak, John A.; Yap, Yoke Khin

    2016-02-05

    Tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs) have been proposed to overcome the fundamental issues of Si based transistors, such as short channel effect, finite leakage current, and high contact resistance. Unfortunately, most if not all TFETs are operational only at cryogenic temperatures. Here we report that iron (Fe) quantum dots functionalized boron nitride nanotubes (QDs-BNNTs) can be used as the flexible tunneling channels of TFETs at room temperatures. The electrical insulating BNNTs are used as the one-dimensional (1D) substrates to confine the uniform formation of Fe QDs on their surface as the flexible tunneling channel. Consistent semiconductor-like transport behaviors under variousmore » bending conditions are detected by scanning tunneling spectroscopy in a transmission electron microscopy system (insitu STM-TEM). Ultimately, as suggested by computer simulation, the uniform distribution of Fe QDs enable an averaging effect on the possible electron tunneling pathways, which is responsible for the consistent transport properties that are not sensitive to bending.« less

  14. Optimizing operational flexibility and enforcement liability in Title V permits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCann, G.T.

    1997-12-31

    Now that most states have interim or full approval of the portions of their state implementation plans (SIPs) implementing Title V (40 CFR Part 70) of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), most sources which require a Title V permit have submitted or are well on the way to submitting a Title V operating permit application. Numerous hours have been spent preparing applications to ensure the administrative completeness of the application and operational flexibility for the facility. Although much time and effort has been spent on Title V permit applications, the operating permit itself is the final goal. This paper outlines the major Federal requirements for Title V permits as given in the CAAA at 40 CFR 70.6, Permit Content. These Federal requirements and how they will effect final Title V permits and facilities will be discussed. This paper will provide information concerning the Federal requirements for Title V permits and suggestions on how to negotiate a Title V permit to maximize operational flexibility and minimize enforcement liability.

  15. Reinforced Electrode Architecture for a Flexible Battery with Paperlike Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaikwad, AM; Chu, HN; Qeraj, R; Zamarayeva, AM; Steingart, DA

    2013-02-10

    Compliant energy storage has not kept pace with flexible electronics. Herein we demonstrate a technique to reinforce arbitrary battery electrodes by supporting them with mechanically tough, low-cost fibrous membranes, which also serve as the separator. The membranes were laminated to form a full cell, and this stacked membrane reinforcement bears the loads during flexing. This technique was used to make a high energy density, nontoxic Zn-MnO2 battery with printed current collectors. The Zn and MnO2 electrodes were prepared by using a solution-based embedding process. The cell had a nominal potential of 1.5 V and an effective capacity of approximately 3 mA h cm(-2). We investigated the effect of bending and fatigue on the electrochemical performance and mechanical integrity of the battery. The battery was able to maintain its capacity even after 1000 flex cycles to a bend radius of 2.54 cm. The battery showed an improvement in discharge capacity (ca. 10%) if the MnO2 electrode was flexed to tension as a result of the improvement of particle-to-particle contact. In a demonstration, the flexible battery was used to power a light-emitting diode display integrated with a strain sensor and microcontroller.

  16. 25 Year Lifetime for Flexible Buildings Integrated Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gross, Mark E.

    2010-07-10

    Although preliminary proof-of-principle of the efficacy of barrier materials and processes, first developed by Battelle at PNNL and commercialized by Vitex, has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale, there are several challenges to the practical commercial implementation of these developments in the Buildings Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) market. Two important issues that are addressed in this project are identifying a low cost substrate material that can survive in the outside environment (rain, heat, dust, hail, etc.) for 25 years and developing an encapsulation method for the photovoltaic (PV) cells that can meet the required barrier performance without driving the cost of the total barrier package out of range (remaining below $3.00/Wp). Without these solutions, current encapsulation technologies will limit the use of PV for BIPV applications. Flexible, light-weight packaging that can withstand 25 years in the field is required for a totally flexible integrated PV package. The benefit of this research is to make substantial progress in the development of a cost-effective, viable thin film barrier package which will be a critical enabling technology to meet the Solar America Initiative cost and device reliability goals, and to make photovoltaics (PV) more cost-competitive with electricity generated using fossil fuels. Increased PV installations will enable increased US electrical capacity and reduce dependence on imported oil through increased utilization of a widely abundant source of renewable energy (sunlight).

  17. Flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finnveden, Goeran Bjoerklund, Anna; Reich, Marcus Carlsson; Eriksson, Ola; Soerbom, Adrienne

    2007-07-01

    Treatment of solid waste continues to be on the political agenda. Waste disposal issues are often viewed from an environmental perspective, but economic and social aspects also need to be considered when deciding on waste strategies and policy instruments. The aim of this paper is to suggest flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden, and to discuss different policy instruments. Emphasis is on environmental aspects, but social and economic aspects are also considered. The results show that most waste treatment methods have a role to play in a robust and flexible integrated waste management system, and that the waste hierarchy is valid as a rule of thumb from an environmental perspective. A review of social aspects shows that there is a general willingness among people to source separate wastes. A package of policy instruments can include landfill tax, an incineration tax which is differentiated with respect to the content of fossil fuels and a weight based incineration tax, as well as support to the use of biogas and recycled materials.

  18. Improved HEPA Filter Technology for Flexible and Rigid Containment Barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. A. Pinson

    1998-07-01

    Safety and reliability in glovebox operations can be significantly improved and waste packaging efficiencies can be increased by inserting flexible, lightweight, high capacity HEPA filters into the walls of plastic sheet barriers. This HEPA filter/barrier technology can be adapted to a wide variety of applications: disposable waste bags, protective environmental barriers for electronic equipment, single or multiple use glovebag assemblies, flexible glovebox wall elements, and room partitions. These reliable and inexpensive filtered barriers have many uses in fields such as radioactive waste processing, HVAC filter changeout, vapor or grit blasting, asbestos cleanup, pharmaceutical, medical, biological, and electronic equipment containment. The applications can result in significant cost savings, improved operational reliability and safety, and total waste volume reduction. This technology was developed at the Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) in 1993 and has been used at ANL-W since then at the TRU Waste Characterization Chamber Gloveboxes. Another 1998 AGS Conference paper titled "TRU Waste Characterization Gloveboxes", presented by Mr. David Duncan of ANL-W, describes these boxes.

  19. Measure Guideline: Optimizing the Configuration of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beach, R.; Burdick, A.

    2014-03-01

    This measure guideline offers additional recommendations to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system designers for optimizing flexible duct, constant-volume HVAC systems using junction boxes within Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual D guidance. IBACOS used computational fluid dynamics software to explore and develop guidance to better control the airflow effects of factors that may impact pressure losses within junction boxes among various design configurations. These recommendations can help to ensure that a system aligns more closely with the design and the occupants' comfort expectations. Specifically, the recommendations described herein show how to configure a rectangular box with four outlets, a triangular box with three outlets, metal wyes with two outlets, and multiple configurations for more than four outlets. Designers of HVAC systems, contractors who are fabricating junction boxes on site, and anyone using the ACCA Manual D process for sizing duct runs will find this measure guideline invaluable for more accurately minimizing pressure losses when using junction boxes with flexible ducts.

  20. Vehiculos de Combustible Flexible: Brindando Opciones en Combustible Renovable (Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-05-01

    The fact sheet discusses how E85 affects vehicle performance, the costs and benefits of using E85, and how to find E85 station locations.

  1. Environmental issues affecting CCT development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reidy, M.

    1997-12-31

    While no final legislative schedule has been set for the new Congress, two issues with strong environmental ramifications which are likely to affect the coal industry seem to top the list of closely watched debates in Washington -- the Environmental Protection Agency`s proposed new ozone and particulate matter standards and utility restructuring. The paper discusses the background of the proposed standards, public comment, the Congressional review of regulations, other legislative options, and utility restructuring.

  2. Notices Affected Public: Individuals and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    23 Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 23 / Thursday, February 3, 2011 / Notices Affected Public: Individuals and households; not-for-profit institutions; State, Local, or Tribal Government, State Educational Agencies or Local Educational Agencies. Total Estimated Number of Annual Responses: 22,760. Total Estimated Number of Annual Burden Hours: 8,725. Abstract: The study is being conducted as part of the National Assessment of Title I, mandated by Title I, Part E, Section 1501 of the Elementary and

  3. Notices Respondents/Affected Public:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    5 Federal Register / Vol. 81, No. 120 / Wednesday, June 22, 2016 / Notices Respondents/Affected Public: Individuals or Households. Total Estimated Number of Annual Responses: 254,800. Total Estimated Number of Annual Burden Hours: 127,400. Abstract: The Discharge Application: Total and Permanent Disability serves as the means by which an individual who is totally and permanently disabled, as defined in section 437(a) of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended, applies for discharge of his

  4. Simulations of stretching a flexible polyelectrolyte with varying charge separation

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Stevens, Mark J.; Saleh, Omar A.

    2016-07-22

    We calculated the force-extension curves for a flexible polyelectrolyte chain with varying charge separations by performing Monte Carlo simulations of a 5000 bead chain using a screened Coulomb interaction. At all charge separations, the force-extension curves exhibit a Pincus-like scaling regime at intermediate forces and a logarithmic regime at large forces. As the charge separation increases, the Pincus regime shifts to a larger range of forces and the logarithmic regime starts are larger forces. We also found that force-extension curve for the corresponding neutral chain has a logarithmic regime. Decreasing the diameter of bead in the neutral chain simulations removedmore » the logarithmic regime, and the force-extension curve tends to the freely jointed chain limit. In conclusion, this result shows that only excluded volume is required for the high force logarithmic regime to occur.« less

  5. Photovoltaic sheathing element with a flexible connector assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Langmaid, Joseph A; Keenihan, James R; Mills, Michael E; Lopez, Leonardo C

    2016-07-12

    The present invention is premised upon an assembly including at least a photovoltaic sheathing element capable of being affixed on a building structure, the sheathing element including at least: a photovoltaic cell assembly, a body portion attached to one or more portions of the photovoltaic cell assembly; at least a first and a second connector assembly disposed on opposing sides of the sheathing element and capable of directly or indirectly electrically connecting the photovoltaic cell assembly to at least two adjoining devices that are affixed to the building structure and wherein at least one of the connector assemblies includes a flexible portion; one or more connector pockets disposed in the body portion the pockets capable of receiving at least a portion of the connector assembly.

  6. Fast antibody fragment motion: flexible linkers act as entropic spring

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Stingaciu, Laura R.; Ivanova, Oxana; Ohl, Michael; Biehl, Ralf; Richter, Dieter

    2016-03-29

    A flexible linker region between three fragments allows antibodies to adjust their binding sites to an antigen or receptor. Using Neutron Spin Echo Spectroscopy we observed fragment motion on a timescale of 7 ns with motional amplitudes of about 1 nm relative to each other. The mechanistic complexity of the linker region can be described by a spring model with Brownian motion of the fragments in a harmonic potential. Displacements, timescale, friction and force constant of the underlying dynamics are accessed. The force constant exhibits a similar strength to an entropic spring, with friction of the fragment matching the unboundmore » state. The observed fast motions are fluctuations in pre-existing equilibrium configurations. In conclusion, the Brownian motion of domains in a harmonic potential is the appropriate model to examine functional hinge motions dependent on the structural topology and highlights the role of internal forces and friction to function.« less

  7. Topsides equipment, operating flexibility key floating LNG design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yost, K.; Lopez, R.; Mok, J.

    1998-03-09

    Use of a large-scale floating liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant is an economical alternative to an onshore plant for producing from an offshore field. Mobil Technology Co., Dallas, has advanced a design for such a plant that is technically feasible, economical, safe, and reliable. Presented were descriptions of the general design basis, hull modeling and testing, topsides and storage layouts, and LNG offloading. But such a design also presents challenges for designing topsides equipment in an offshore environment and for including flexibility and safety. These are covered in this second article. Mobil`s floating LNG plant design calls for a square concrete barge with a moon-pool in the center. It is designed to produce 6 million tons/year of LNG with up to 55,000 b/d of condensate from 1 bcfd of raw feed gas.

  8. Accordian-folded boot shield for flexible swivel connection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoh, Joseph C.

    1986-01-01

    A flexible swivel boot connector for connecting a first boot shield section to a second boot shield section, both first and second boot sections having openings therethrough, the second boot section having at least two adjacent accordian folds at the end having the opening, the second boot section being positioned through the opening of the first boot section such that a first of the accordian folds is within the first boot section and a second of the accordian folds is outside of the first boot, includes first and second annular discs, the first disc being positioned within and across the first accordian fold, the second disc being positioned within and across the second accordian fold, such that the first boot section is moveably and rigidly connected between the first and second accordian folds of the second boot section.

  9. Flexible nuclear medicine camera and method of using

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dilmanian, F.A.; Packer, S.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1996-12-10

    A nuclear medicine camera and method of use photographically record radioactive decay particles emitted from a source, for example a small, previously undetectable breast cancer, inside a patient. The camera includes a flexible frame containing a window, a photographic film, and a scintillation screen, with or without a gamma-ray collimator. The frame flexes for following the contour of the examination site on the patient, with the window being disposed in substantially abutting contact with the skin of the patient for reducing the distance between the film and the radiation source inside the patient. The frame is removably affixed to the patient at the examination site for allowing the patient mobility to wear the frame for a predetermined exposure time period. The exposure time may be several days for obtaining early qualitative detection of small malignant neoplasms. 11 figs.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A FLEXIBLE, MULTIZONE, MULTIFAMILY BUILDING SIMULATION MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malhotra, Mini; Im, Piljae

    2012-01-01

    Weatherization of multifamily buildings is gaining increased attention in the U.S. Available energy audit tools for multifamily buildings were found to need desirable improvements. On the wish list of field experts for enhanced features was the basic ability to model multizone buildings (i.e., one thermal zone per dwelling unit) with simplified user inputs, which allows a better analysis of decentralized and centralized HVAC and domestic hot water systems of multifamily buildings without having to create detailed building models. To address the desired capabilities, development of an enhanced energy audit tool was begun in 2011. The tool is a strategically structured, flexible, one-zone-per-unit, DOE-2.1e model coupled with a simplified user interface to model small to large multifamily buildings with decentralized or centralized systems and associated energy measures. This paper describes the modeling concept and its implementation.

  11. Flexible nuclear medicine camera and method of using

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dilmanian, F. Avraham; Packer, Samuel; Slatkin, Daniel N.

    1996-12-10

    A nuclear medicine camera 10 and method of use photographically record radioactive decay particles emitted from a source, for example a small, previously undetectable breast cancer, inside a patient. The camera 10 includes a flexible frame 20 containing a window 22, a photographic film 24, and a scintillation screen 26, with or without a gamma-ray collimator 34. The frame 20 flexes for following the contour of the examination site on the patient, with the window 22 being disposed in substantially abutting contact with the skin of the patient for reducing the distance between the film 24 and the radiation source inside the patient. The frame 20 is removably affixed to the patient at the examination site for allowing the patient mobility to wear the frame 20 for a predetermined exposure time period. The exposure time may be several days for obtaining early qualitative detection of small malignant neoplasms.

  12. Direct printing and reduction of graphite oxide for flexible supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Hanyung; Ve Cheah, Chang; Jeong, Namjo; Lee, Junghoon

    2014-08-04

    We report direct printing and photo-thermal reduction of graphite oxide (GO) to obtain a highly porous pattern of interdigitated electrodes, leading to a supercapacitor on a flexible substrate. Key parameters optimized include the amount of GO delivered, the suitable photo-thermal energy level for effective flash reduction, and the substrate properties for appropriate adhesion after reduction. Tests with supercapacitors based on the printed-reduced GO showed performance comparable with commercial supercapacitors: the energy densities were 1.06 and 0.87 mWh/cm{sup 3} in ionic and organic electrolytes, respectively. The versatility in the architecture and choice of substrate makes this material promising for smart power applications.

  13. Separation of polar compounds using a flexible metal-organic framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motkuri, Radha K.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Annapureddy, Harsha V.; Dang, Liem X.; Krishna, Rajamani; Nune, Satish K.; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Liu, Jian; McGrail, B. Peter

    2015-01-01

    A flexible metal-organic framework constructed from a flexible linker is shown to possess the capability of separating mixtures of polar compounds by exploiting the differences in the saturation capacities of the constituents. The separation possibilities with the flexible MOF include mixtures of propanol isomers, and various azeotropes. Transient breakthrough simulations show that these sorption-based separations are in favor of the component with higher saturation capacity.

  14. Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions - Presentation by

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), June 2011 | Department of Energy Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions - Presentation by the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), June 2011 Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions - Presentation by the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), June 2011 Presentation on Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions, given by David Cygan of the Gas Technology Institute, at the U.S. DOE Industrial Distributed Energy Portfolio

  15. Fuel-Flexible, Low-Emissions Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity Fuels |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Flexible, Low-Emissions Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity Fuels Fuel-Flexible, Low-Emissions Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity Fuels This fact sheet provides an overview of the Next Generation Manufacturing Processes project to develop a unique, fuel-flexible catalytic combustor capable of enabling ultra-low emission, lean premixed combustion of a wide range of gaseous opportunity fuels. Fact sheet - Enabling Clean Consumption of Low Btu and Reactive Fuels in Gas

  16. ITO-ffree white OLEDs on flexible substrates with enhanced light outcoupling

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ITO-free white OLEDs on flexible substrates with enhanced light outcoupling 2016 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Barry P. Rand Princeton University brand@princeton.edu ITO-free white OLEDs on flexible substrates with enhanced light outcoupling PIs: Prof. Barry P. Rand, Prof. Craig B. Arnold and Prof. Stephen Y. Chou Princeton University Our proposed approach promises to unlock trapped photons in state-of-the-art WOLED structures on flexible substrates. The keys to our approach are: 1)

  17. Adhesive flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blizzard, John Donald; Weidner, William Kenneth

    2013-02-05

    An adhesive flexible barrier film comprises a substrate and a barrier layer disposed on the substrate. The barrier layer is formed from a barrier composition comprising an organosilicon compound. The adhesive flexible barrier film also comprises an adhesive layer disposed on the barrier layer and formed from an adhesive composition. A method of forming the adhesive flexible barrier film comprises the steps of disposing the barrier composition on the substrate to form the barrier layer, disposing the adhesive composition on the barrier layer to form the adhesive layer, and curing the barrier layer and the adhesive layer. The adhesive flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

  18. Flexible pulse delay control up to picosecond for high-intensity...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Flexible pulse delay control up to picosecond for high-intensity twin electron bunches Authors: Zhang, Zhen ; Ding, Yuantao ; Emma, Paul ; Huang, Zhirong ; Marinelli, ...

  19. Capturing the Impact of Storage and Other Flexible Technologies on Electric System Planning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Power systems of the future are likely to require additional flexibility due to the operating characteristics of many clean energy technologies, particularly those relying on renewable energy...

  20. Apparatus And Method Of Using Flexible Printed Circuit Board In Optical Transceiver Device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Gene R.; Armendariz, Marcelino G.; Bryan, Robert P.; Carson, Richard F.; Duckett, III, Edwin B.; McCormick, Frederick B.; Peterson, David W.; Peterson, Gary D.; Reysen, Bill H.

    2005-03-15

    This invention relates to a flexible printed circuit board that is used in connection with an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module. In one embodiment, the flexible printed circuit board has flexible metal layers in between flexible insulating layers, and the circuit board comprises: (1) a main body region orientated in a first direction having at least one electrical or optoelectronic device; (2) a plurality of electrical contact pads integrated into the main body region, where the electrical contact pads function to connect the flexible printed circuit board to an external environment; (3) a buckle region extending from one end of the main body region; and (4) a head region extending from one end of the buckle region, and where the head region is orientated so that it is at an angle relative to the direction of the main body region. The electrical contact pads may be ball grid arrays, solder balls or land-grid arrays, and they function to connect the circuit board to an external environment. A driver or amplifier chip may be adapted to the head region of the flexible printed circuit board. In another embodiment, a heat spreader passes along a surface of the head region of the flexible printed circuit board, and a window is formed in the head region of the flexible printed circuit board. Optoelectronic devices are adapted to the head spreader in such a manner that they are accessible through the window in the flexible printed circuit board.

  1. Flexible low-cost packaging for lithium ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jansen, A. N.; Amine, K.; Chaiko, D. J.; Henriksen, G. L.; Chemical Engineering

    2004-01-01

    Batteries with various types of chemistries are typically sold in rigid hermetically sealed containers that, at the simplest level, must contain the electrolyte while keeping out the exterior atmosphere. However, such rigid containers can have limitations in packaging situations where the form of the battery is important, such as in hand-held electronics like personal digital assistants (PDAs), laptops, and cell phones. Other limitations exist as well. At least one of the electrode leads must be insulated from the metal can, which necessitates the inclusion of an insulated metal feed-through in the containment hardware. Another limitation may be in hardware and assembly cost, such as exists for the lithium-ion batteries that are being developed for use in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The large size (typically 10-100 Ah) of these batteries usually results in electric beam or laser welding of the metal cap to the metal can. The non-aqueous electrolyte used in these batteries are usually based on flammable solvents and therefore require the incorporation of a safety rupture vent to relieve pressure in the event of overcharging or overheating. Both of these features add cost to the battery. Flexible packaging provides an alternative to the rigid container. A common example of this is the multi-layered laminates used in the food packaging industry, such as for vacuum-sealed coffee bags. However, flexible packaging for batteries does not come without concerns. One of the main concerns is the slow egress of the electrolyte solvent through the face of the inner laminate layer and at the sealant edge. Also, moisture and air could enter from the outside via the same method. These exchanges may be acceptable for brief periods of time, but for the long lifetimes required for batteries in electric/hybrid electric vehicles, batteries in remote locations, and those in satellites, these exchanges are unacceptable. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL

  2. Flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blizzard, John; Tonge, James Steven; Weidner, William Kenneth

    2013-03-26

    A flexible barrier film has a thickness of from greater than zero to less than 5,000 nanometers and a water vapor transmission rate of no more than 1.times.10.sup.-2 g/m.sup.2/day at 22.degree. C. and 47% relative humidity. The flexible barrier film is formed from a composition, which comprises a multi-functional acrylate. The composition further comprises the reaction product of an alkoxy-functional organometallic compound and an alkoxy-functional organosilicon compound. A method of forming the flexible barrier film includes the steps of disposing the composition on a substrate and curing the composition to form the flexible barrier film. The flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

  3. Flexible cadmium telluride thin films grown on electron-beam-irradiated graphene/thin glass substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Won-Oh; Kim, Jihyun; Koo, Yong Hwan; Kim, Byungnam; Lee, Byung Cheol; Kim, Donghwan

    2014-08-25

    We demonstrate the close-spaced sublimation growth of polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films on a flexible graphene electrode/thin glass substrate structure. Prior to the growth of CdTe films, chemical-vapor-deposited graphene was transferred onto a flexible glass substrate and subjected to electron-beam irradiation at an energy of 0.2 MeV in order to intentionally introduce the defects into it in a controlled manner. Micro-Raman spectroscopy and sheet resistance measurements were employed to monitor the damage and disorder in the electron-beam irradiated graphene layers. The morphology and optical properties of the CdTe thin films deposited on a graphene/flexible glass substrate were systematically characterized. The integration of the defective graphene layers with a flexible glass substrate can be a useful platform to grow various thin-film structures for flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  4. Simulation of Absorption Systems in Flexible and Modular Form

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-09-23

    The computer code has been developed for simulation of absorption systems at steady-state in a flexible and modular form, making it possible to investigate various cycle configurations with different working fluids. The code is based on unit subroutines containing the governing equations for the system''s components. When all the equations have been established, a mathematical solver routine is employed to solve them simultaneously. Property subroutines contained in a separate data base serve to provide thermodynamicmore » properties of the working fluids. The code is user-oriented and requires a relatively simple input containing the given operating conditions and the working fluid at each state point. the user conveys to the computer an image of the cycle by specifying the different components and their interconnections. Based on this information, the program calculates the temperature, flowrate, concentration, pressure and vapor fraction at each state point in the system and the heat duty at each unit, from which the coefficient of performance may be determined. A graphical user-interface is provided to facilitate interactive input and study of the output.« less

  5. A flexible framework for secure and efficient program obfuscation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solis, John Hector

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we present a modular framework for constructing a secure and efficient program obfuscation scheme. Our approach, inspired by the obfuscation with respect to oracle machines model of [4], retains an interactive online protocol with an oracle, but relaxes the original computational and storage restrictions. We argue this is reasonable given the computational resources of modern personal devices. Furthermore, we relax the information-theoretic security requirement for computational security to utilize established cryptographic primitives. With this additional flexibility we are free to explore different cryptographic buildingblocks. Our approach combines authenticated encryption with private information retrieval to construct a secure program obfuscation framework. We give a formal specification of our framework, based on desired functionality and security properties, and provide an example instantiation. In particular, we implement AES in Galois/Counter Mode for authenticated encryption and the Gentry-Ramzan [13]constant communication-rate private information retrieval scheme. We present our implementation results and show that non-trivial sized programs can be realized, but scalability is quickly limited by computational overhead. Finally, we include a discussion on security considerations when instantiating specific modules.

  6. flexible importance sampling method for integrating subgrid processes

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Raut, E. K.; Larson, V. E.

    2016-01-29

    Numerical models of weather and climate need to compute grid-box-averaged rates of physical processes such as microphysics. These averages are computed by integrating subgrid variability over a grid box. For this reason, an important aspect of atmospheric modeling is spatial integration over subgrid scales. The needed integrals can be estimated by Monte Carlo integration. Monte Carlo integration is simple and general but requires many evaluations of the physical process rate. To reduce the number of function evaluations, this paper describes a new, flexible method of importance sampling. It divides the domain of integration into eight categories, such as the portion that containsmore » both precipitation and cloud, or the portion that contains precipitation but no cloud. It then allows the modeler to prescribe the density of sample points within each of the eight categories. The new method is incorporated into the Subgrid Importance Latin Hypercube Sampler (SILHS). The resulting method is tested on drizzling cumulus and stratocumulus cases. In the cumulus case, the sampling error can be considerably reduced by drawing more sample points from the region of rain evaporation.« less

  7. A flexible importance sampling method for integrating subgrid processes

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Raut, E. K.; Larson, V. E.

    2015-10-22

    Numerical models of weather and climate need to compute grid-box-averaged rates of physical processes such as microphysics. These averages are computed by integrating subgrid variability over a grid box. For this reason, an important aspect of atmospheric modeling is integration. The needed integrals can be estimated by Monte Carlo integration. Monte Carlo integration is simple and general but requires many evaluations of the physical process rate. To reduce the number of function evaluations, this paper describes a new, flexible method of importance sampling. It divides the domain of integration into eight categories, such as the portion that contains bothmoreprecipitation and cloud, or the portion that contains precipitation but no cloud. It then allows the modeler to prescribe the density of sample points within each of the eight categories. The new method is incorporated into the Subgrid Importance Latin Hypercube Sampler (SILHS). The resulting method is tested on drizzling cumulus and stratocumulus cases. In the cumulus case, the sampling error can be considerably reduced by drawing more sample points from the region of rain evaporation.less

  8. Colloidal quantum dot solar cells on curved and flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, Illan J.; Moreno-Bautista, Gabriel; Minor, James C.; Kopilovic, Damir; Sargent, Edward H.

    2014-10-20

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals synthesized with, processed in, and deposited from the solution phase, potentially enabling low-cost, facile manufacture of solar cells. Unfortunately, CQD solar cell reports, until now, have only explored batch-processing methods—such as spin-coating—that offer limited capacity for scaling. Spray-coating could offer a means of producing uniform colloidal quantum dot films that yield high-quality devices. Here, we explore the versatility of the spray-coating method by producing CQD solar cells in a variety of previously unexplored substrate arrangements. The potential transferability of the spray-coating method to a roll-to-roll manufacturing process was tested by spray-coating the CQD active layer onto six substrates mounted on a rapidly rotating drum, yielding devices with an average power conversion efficiency of 6.7%. We further tested the manufacturability of the process by endeavoring to spray onto flexible substrates, only to find that spraying while the substrate was flexed was crucial to achieving champion performance of 7.2% without compromise to open-circuit voltage. Having deposited onto a substrate with one axis of curvature, we then built our CQD solar cells onto a spherical lens substrate having two axes of curvature resulting in a 5% efficient device. These results show that CQDs deposited using our spraying method can be integrated to large-area manufacturing processes and can be used to make solar cells on unconventional shapes.

  9. Proceedings of the flexible, midsize gas turbine program planning workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the California Energy Commission (CEC) held a program planning workshop on March 4--5, 1997 in Sacramento, California on the subject of a flexible, midsize gas turbine (FMGT). The workshop was also co-sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the Gas Research Institute (GRI), the Gas Turbine Association (GTA), and the Collaborative Advanced Gas Turbine Program (CAGT). The purpose of the workshop was to bring together a broad cross section of knowledgeable people to discuss the potential benefits, markets, technical attributes, development costs, and development funding approaches associated with making this new technology available in the commercial marketplace. The participants in the workshop included representatives from the sponsoring organizations, electric utilities, gas utilities, independent power producers, gas turbine manufacturers, gas turbine packagers, and consultants knowledgeable in the power generation field. Thirteen presentations were given on the technical and commercial aspects of the subject, followed by informal breakout sessions that dealt with sets of questions on markets, technology requirements, funding sources and cost sharing, and links to other programs.

  10. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Flexible Duct Junction Box Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beach, R.; Prahl, D.; Lange, R.

    2013-12-01

    IBACOS explored the relationships between pressure and physical configurations of flexible duct junction boxes by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to predict individual box parameters and total system pressure, thereby ensuring improved HVAC performance. Current Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) guidance (Group 11, Appendix 3, ACCA Manual D, Rutkowski 2009) allows for unconstrained variation in the number of takeoffs, box sizes, and takeoff locations. The only variables currently used in selecting an equivalent length (EL) are velocity of air in the duct and friction rate, given the first takeoff is located at least twice its diameter away from the inlet. This condition does not account for other factors impacting pressure loss across these types of fittings. For each simulation, the IBACOS team converted pressure loss within a box to an EL to compare variation in ACCA Manual D guidance to the simulated variation. IBACOS chose cases to represent flows reasonably correlating to flows typically encountered in the field and analyzed differences in total pressure due to increases in number and location of takeoffs, box dimensions, and velocity of air, and whether an entrance fitting is included. The team also calculated additional balancing losses for all cases due to discrepancies between intended outlet flows and natural flow splits created by the fitting. In certain asymmetrical cases, the balancing losses were significantly higher than symmetrical cases where the natural splits were close to the targets. Thus, IBACOS has shown additional design constraints that can ensure better system performance.

  11. ELLIPT2D: A Flexible Finite Element Code Written Python

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pletzer, A.; Mollis, J.C.

    2001-03-22

    The use of the Python scripting language for scientific applications and in particular to solve partial differential equations is explored. It is shown that Python's rich data structure and object-oriented features can be exploited to write programs that are not only significantly more concise than their counter parts written in Fortran, C or C++, but are also numerically efficient. To illustrate this, a two-dimensional finite element code (ELLIPT2D) has been written. ELLIPT2D provides a flexible and easy-to-use framework for solving a large class of second-order elliptic problems. The program allows for structured or unstructured meshes. All functions defining the elliptic operator are user supplied and so are the boundary conditions, which can be of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robbins type. ELLIPT2D makes extensive use of dictionaries (hash tables) as a way to represent sparse matrices.Other key features of the Python language that have been widely used include: operator over loading, error handling, array slicing, and the Tkinter module for building graphical use interfaces. As an example of the utility of ELLIPT2D, a nonlinear solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation is computed using a Newton iterative scheme. A second application focuses on a solution of the toroidal Laplace equation coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic stability code, a problem arising in the context of magnetic fusion research.

  12. Flexible indium zinc oxide/Ag/indium zinc oxide multilayer electrode grown on polyethersulfone substrate by cost-efficient roll-to-roll sputtering for flexible organic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Yong-Seok; Kim, Han-Ki

    2010-01-15

    The authors describe the preparation and characteristics of flexible indium zinc oxide (IZO)-Ag-IZO multilayer electrodes grown on flexible polyethersulfone (PES) substrates using a roll-to-roll sputtering system for use in flexible organic photovoltaics. By the continuous roll-to-roll sputtering of the bottom IZO, Ag, and top IZO layers at room temperature, they were able to fabricate a high quality IZO-Ag-IZO multilayer electrode with a sheet resistance of 6.15 {epsilon}/square, optical transmittance of 87.4%, and figure of merit value of 42.03x10{sup -3} {Omega}{sup -1} on the PES substrate. In addition, the IZO-Ag-IZO multilayer electrode exhibited superior flexibility to the roll-to-roll sputter grown single ITO electrode due to the existence of a ductile Ag layer between the IZO layers and stable amorphous structure of the IZO film. Furthermore, the flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) fabricated on the roll-to-roll sputter grown IZO-Ag-IZO electrode showed higher power efficiency (3.51%) than the OSCs fabricated on the roll-to-roll sputter grown single ITO electrode (2.67%).

  13. SU-E-I-12: Flexible Geometry Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The concept separates the mechanical connection between the radiation source and detector. This design allows the trajectory and orientation of the radiation source/detector to be customized to the object that is being imaged. This is in contrast to the formulaic rotation-translation image acquisition of conventional computed tomography(CT).Background/significance:CT devices that image a full range of: anatomy, patient populations, and imaging procedures are large. The root cause of the expanding size of comprehensive CT is due to the commitment to helical geometry that is hardwired into the image reconstruction. FGCT extends the application of alternative reconstruction techniques, i.e. tomosynthesis, by separating the two main components— radiation source and detector— and allow for 6 degrees of freedom motion for radiation source, detector, or both. The image acquisition geometry is then tailored to how the patient/object is positioned. This provides greater flexibility on the position and location that the patient/object is being imaged. Additionally, removing the need of a rotating gantry reduces the footprint so that CT is more mobile and more available to move to where the patient/object is at, instead of the other way around. Methods: As proof-of-principle, a reconstruction algorithm is designed to produce FGCT images. Using simulated detector data, voxels intersecting a line drawn between the radiation source and an individual detector are traced and modified using the detector signal. The detector signal is modified to compensate for changes in the source to detector distance. Adjacent voxels are modified in proportion to the detector signal, providing a simple image filter. Results: Image-quality from the proposed FGCT reconstruction technique is proving to be a challenge, producing hardily recognizable images from limited projections angles. Conclusion: Preliminary assessment of the reconstruction technique demonstrates the inevitable

  14. Analysis of Fuel Flexibility Opportunities and Constraints in the U.S. Industrial Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2007-03-07

    The purpose of this assessment was to determine if flexible, alternative fuel use in industry, beyond switching from natural gas to petroleum derivatives, presents a sizeable opportunity for the reduction in use of natural gas. Furthermore, the assessment was to determine what programmatic activities the DOE could undertake to accelerate a fuel flexibility program for industry. To this end, a six-part framework (see Figure ES-1) was used to identify the most promising fuel flexibility options, and what level of accomplishment could be achieved, based on DOE leadership.

  15. Flexible gas insulated transmission line having regions of reduced electric field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, Alan H.; Fischer, William H.; Yoon, Kue H.; Meyer, Jeffry R.

    1983-01-01

    A gas insulated transmission line having radially flexible field control means for reducing the electric field along the periphery of the inner conductor at predetermined locations wherein the support insulators are located. The radially flexible field control means of the invention includes several structural variations of the inner conductor, wherein careful controlling of the length to depth of surface depressions produces regions of reduced electric field. Several embodiments of the invention dispose a flexible connector at the predetermined location along the inner conductor where the surface depressions that control the reduced electric field are located.

  16. New Study Shows Solar Manufacturing Costs Not Driven Primarily...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    subsidies for PV manufacturing in China account for that country's dominance in PV ... The study's findings also suggest that the current advantages of China-based manufacturers ...

  17. Synthesis and Structural Flexibility of a Series of Copper(II...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Synthesis and Structural Flexibility of a Series of Copper(II) Azolate-Based Metal-Organic ... solvent molecules in the expanded framework 2 induced no change in the pore size, ...

  18. Impact of Generator Flexibility on Electric System Costs and Integration of Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palchak, D.; Denholm, P.

    2014-07-01

    Flexibility of traditional generators plays an important role in accommodating the increased variability and uncertainty of wind and solar on the electric power system. Increased flexibility can be achieved with changes to operational practices or upgrades to existing generation. One challenge is in understanding the value of increasing flexibility, and how this value may change given higher levels of variable generation. This study uses a commercial production cost model to measure the impact of generator flexibility on the integration of wind and solar generators. We use a system that is based on two balancing areas in the Western United States with a range of wind and solar penetrations between 15% and 60%, where instantaneous penetration of wind and solar is limited to 80%.

  19. Regulatory Impact Analysis and Regulatory Flexibility Act screening for operating permits regulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, R.M.

    1992-06-01

    The report presents the economic impact analysis performed to comply with the requirements of the Regulatory Flexibility Act and Executive Order 12291 for the Title V Operating permits Rule.

  20. A Flexible Approach to Big Data at the APS | Argonne National...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    A Flexible Approach to Big Data at the APS November 23, 2015 11:00AM to 12:00PM Presenter Ray Osborn (MSD), Senior Physicist Location Building 401, Room A1100 Type Seminar Series...

  1. Development of a TIM-based, flexible, broadband two-crystal spectromet...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Development of a TIM-based, flexible, broadband two-crystal spectrometer Authors: Steel, A B ; Dunn, J ; Emig, J ; Beiersdorfer, P ; Brown, G V ; Shepherd, R ; Marley, E V ; ...

  2. Shared Value in Utility and Efficiency Partnerships-- Lessons in Perseverance, Flexibility and Mutual Respect

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Shared Value in Utility and Efficiency Partnerships Lessons in Perseverance, Flexibility and Mutual Respect, July 10, 2012. Provides an overview of the complexity of partnerships between utilities and local energy efficiency programs, as well as the benefits.

  3. Technology Solutions Case Study: New Insights for Improving the Designs of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-01-01

    In this project, IBACOS explored the relationships between pressure and physical configurations of flexible duct junction boxes by using computational fluid dynamics simulations to predict individual box parameters and total system pressure, thereby ensuring improved HVAC performance.

  4. Impact of Generator Flexibility on Electric System Costs and Integration of Renewable Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Flexibility of traditional generators plays an important role in accommodating the increased variability and uncertainty of wind and solar on the electric power system. Increased flexibility can be achieved with changes to operational practices or upgrades to existing generation. One challenge is in understanding the value of increasing flexibility, and how this value may change given higher levels of variable generation. This study uses a commercial production cost model to measure the impact of generator flexibility on the integration of wind and solar generators. We use a system that is based on two balancing areas in the Western United States with a range of wind and solar penetrations between 15% and 60%, where instantaneous penetration of wind and solar is limited to 80%.

  5. Attaching solar collectors to a structural framework utilizing a flexible clip

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kruse, John S

    2014-03-25

    Methods and apparatuses described herein provide for the attachment of solar collectors to a structural framework in a solar array assembly. A flexible clip is attached to either end of each solar collector and utilized to attach the solar collector to the structural framework. The solar collectors are positioned to allow a member of the framework to engage a pair of flexible clips attached to adjacent solar collectors during assembly of the solar array. Each flexible clip may have multiple frame-engaging portions, each with a flange on one end to cause the flexible clip to deflect inward when engaged by the framework member during assembly and to guide each of the frame-engaging portions into contact with a surface of the framework member for attachment.

  6. BioSAXS: Ways and Means to Study Structural Flexibility of Biological...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    BioSAXS: Ways and Means to Study Structural Flexibility of Biological Macromolecules Thursday, November 17, 2011 - 10:30am SSRL Conference Room 137-322 Dr. Alexander V. Shkumatov,...

  7. Low-Cost, Highly Transparent, Flexible, Low-Emission Coating Film to Enable

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Electrochromic Windows with Increased Energy Savings | Department of Energy Highly Transparent, Flexible, Low-Emission Coating Film to Enable Electrochromic Windows with Increased Energy Savings Low-Cost, Highly Transparent, Flexible, Low-Emission Coating Film to Enable Electrochromic Windows with Increased Energy Savings ITN Energy Systems is using low-cost, high volume roll-to-roll coating techniques to develop a new low-e film with high visible transmission and high infrared reflectivity.

  8. ITO-free white OLEDs on Flexible Substrates with Enhanced Light Outcoupling

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    | Department of Energy ITO-free white OLEDs on Flexible Substrates with Enhanced Light Outcoupling ITO-free white OLEDs on Flexible Substrates with Enhanced Light Outcoupling Lead Performer: Princeton University - Princeton, NJ DOE Total Funding: $1,021,241 Cost Share: $255,661 Project Term: September 10, 2014 - November 9, 2016 Funding Opportunity: SSL R&D Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) (DE-FOA-0000973) Project Objective This project will integrate multiple aspects of

  9. Microsoft PowerPoint - HPC-FlexibleComputingStacks1_Final [Compatibility Mode]

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    5103 This document is approved for public release; further dissemination unlimited Flexible HPC Environments UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Flexible HPC Environments New computational paradigms require new tools and environments * A new class of data-analysis tools are available for scientists * These tools do not integrate well with traditional HPC resource management systems * Differing and often conflicting requirements exist * Some fields require validated environments * High energy physics *

  10. Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions - Fact Sheet, 2014 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions - Fact Sheet, 2014 Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions - Fact Sheet, 2014 The Gas Technology Institute, in collaboration with Cannon Boiler Works, Integrated CHP Systems Corp., Capstone Turbine Corporation, Johnston Boiler Company, and Inland Empire Foods has developed a Flexible Combined Heat and Power (FlexCHP) system that incorporates a supplemental Ultra-Low-NOx (ULN) burner into a 65 kW microturbine

  11. Flexible Distributed Energy & Water from Waste for the Food & Beverage

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Industry - Presentation by GE Global Research, June 2011 | Department of Energy Distributed Energy & Water from Waste for the Food & Beverage Industry - Presentation by GE Global Research, June 2011 Flexible Distributed Energy & Water from Waste for the Food & Beverage Industry - Presentation by GE Global Research, June 2011 Presentation on Flexible Distributed Energy & Water from Waste for the Food & Beverage Industry, given by Aditya Kumar of GE Global Research, at

  12. Reduced Energy Consumption through the Development of Fuel-Flexible Gas Turbines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Development of Fuel-Flexible Combustion Systems Utilizing Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE Reduced Energy Consumption through the Development of Fuel-Flexible Gas Turbines Introduction Gas turbines-heat engines that use high-temperature and high-pressure gas as the combustible fuel-are used extensively throughout U.S. industry to power industrial processes. The majority of turbines are operated using natural gas because of its availability, low cost, and

  13. DOE Award Selections for the Design of More Flexible and Adaptable Large

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Power Transformers (LPTs) | Department of Energy Award Selections for the Design of More Flexible and Adaptable Large Power Transformers (LPTs) DOE Award Selections for the Design of More Flexible and Adaptable Large Power Transformers (LPTs) As part of the Energy Department's commitment to a strong and secure power grid, DOE announced new funding to strengthen protection of the nation's electric grid from natural and manmade hazards on September 28, 2016. More than $1.5 million will

  14. Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions Introduction A combined heat and power (CHP) system can be a financially attractive energy option for many industrial and commercial facilities. This is particularly the case in areas of the country with high electricity rates. However, regions with air quality concerns often have strict limits on criteria pollutants, such as nitrogen oxide (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and

  15. Flexible Distributed Energy and Water from Waste for the Food and Beverage

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Industry - Fact Sheet, 2014 | Department of Energy Flexible Distributed Energy and Water from Waste for the Food and Beverage Industry - Fact Sheet, 2014 Flexible Distributed Energy and Water from Waste for the Food and Beverage Industry - Fact Sheet, 2014 GE Global Research, in collaboration with GE Water & Process Technologies, GE Intelligent Platforms, SRA International, and Anheuser-Busch, developed a systematic plant-wide automation for online monitoring and supervisory control. The

  16. Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    | Department of Energy Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power Capstone Turbine Corporation, in collaboration with the University of California-Irvine, Packer Engineering, and Argonne National Laboratory, will develop and demonstrate a prototype microturbine combined heat and power system fueled by synthesis gas and integrated with a biomass gasifier, enabling reduced fossil fuel

  17. Structural analysis of flexible proteins in solution by SmallAngle X-ray

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scattering combined with crystallography (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Structural analysis of flexible proteins in solution by SmallAngle X-ray Scattering combined with crystallography Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structural analysis of flexible proteins in solution by SmallAngle X-ray Scattering combined with crystallography In the last few years, SAXS of biological materials has been rapidly evolving and promises to move structural analysis to a new

  18. High-Performance Flexible Perovskite Solar Cells by Using a Combination of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ultrasonic Spray-Coating and Low Thermal Budget Photonic Curing (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect High-Performance Flexible Perovskite Solar Cells by Using a Combination of Ultrasonic Spray-Coating and Low Thermal Budget Photonic Curing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Performance Flexible Perovskite Solar Cells by Using a Combination of Ultrasonic Spray-Coating and Low Thermal Budget Photonic Curing Realizing the commercialization of high-performance and robust perovskite

  19. Examination system utilizing ionizing radiation and a flexible, miniature radiation detector probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Kross, Brian J.; Zorn, Carl J.; Majewski, Lukasz A.

    1996-01-01

    An optimized examination system and method based on the Reverse Geometry X-Ray.RTM. (RGX.RTM.) radiography technique are presented. The examination system comprises a radiation source, at least one flexible, miniature radiation detector probe positioned in appropriate proximity to the object to be examined and to the radiation source with the object located between the source and the probe, a photodetector device attachable to an end of the miniature radiation probe, and a control unit integrated with a display device connected to the photodetector device. The miniature radiation detector probe comprises a scintillation element, a flexible light guide having a first end optically coupled to the scintillation element and having a second end attachable to the photodetector device, and an opaque, environmentally-resistant sheath surrounding the flexible light guide. The probe may be portable and insertable, or may be fixed in place within the object to be examined. An enclosed, flexible, liquid light guide is also presented, which comprises a thin-walled flexible tube, a liquid, preferably mineral oil, contained within the tube, a scintillation element located at a first end of the tube, closures located at both ends of the tube, and an opaque, environmentally-resistant sheath surrounding the flexible tube. The examination system and method have applications in non-destructive material testing for voids, cracks, and corrosion, and may be used in areas containing hazardous materials. In addition, the system and method have applications for medical and dental imaging.

  20. Examination system utilizing ionizing radiation and a flexible, miniature radiation detector probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, S.; Kross, B.J.; Zorn, C.J.; Majewski, L.A.

    1996-10-22

    An optimized examination system and method based on the Reverse Geometry X-Ray{trademark} (RGX{trademark}) radiography technique are presented. The examination system comprises a radiation source, at least one flexible, miniature radiation detector probe positioned in appropriate proximity to the object to be examined and to the radiation source with the object located between the source and the probe, a photodetector device attachable to an end of the miniature radiation probe, and a control unit integrated with a display device connected to the photodetector device. The miniature radiation detector probe comprises a scintillation element, a flexible light guide having a first end optically coupled to the scintillation element and having a second end attachable to the photodetector device, and an opaque, environmentally-resistant sheath surrounding the flexible light guide. The probe may be portable and insertable, or may be fixed in place within the object to be examined. An enclosed, flexible, liquid light guide is also presented, which comprises a thin-walled flexible tube, a liquid, preferably mineral oil, contained within the tube, a scintillation element located at a first end of the tube, closures located at both ends of the tube, and an opaque, environmentally-resistant sheath surrounding the flexible tube. The examination system and method have applications in non-destructive material testing for voids, cracks, and corrosion, and may be used in areas containing hazardous materials. In addition, the system and method have applications for medical and dental imaging. 5 figs.

  1. Analysis of Transportation and Logistics Challenges Affecting...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Figure 1. Average land-based wind turbine size and levelized cost of energy through ... breakpoints affecting U.S. land-based turbine installations ......

  2. Analysis of Transportation and Logistics Challenges Affecting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Analysis of Transportation and Logistics Challenges Affecting the Deployment of Larger Wind Turbines: Summary of Results Analysis of Transportation and Logistics Challenges ...

  3. Analysis of Transportation and Logistics Challenges Affecting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Analysis of Transportation and Logistics Challenges Affecting the Deployment of Larger Wind Turbines: Summary of Results J. Cotrell, T. Stehly, J. Johnson, J. O. Roberts, Z. ...

  4. A bamboo-inspired nanostructure design for flexible foldable and twistable energy storage devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yongming; Sills, Ryan B; Hu, Xianluo; Wei Seh, Zhi; Xiao, Xu; Xu, Henghui; Luo, Wei; Jin, Huanyu; Xin, Ying; Li, Tianqi; Zhang, Zhaoliang; Zhou, Jun; Cai, Wei; Huang, Yunhui; Cui, Yi

    2015-05-26

    Flexible energy storage devices are critical components for emerging flexible electronics. Electrode design is key in the development of all-solid-state supercapacitors with superior electrochemical performances and mechanical durability. We propose a bamboo-like graphitic carbon nanofiber with a well-balanced macro-, meso-, and microporosity, enabling excellent mechanical flexibility, foldability, and electrochemical performances. Our design is inspired by the structure of bamboos, where a periodic distribution of interior holes along the length and graded pore structure at the cross section not only enhance their stability under different mechanical deformation conditions but also provide a high surface area accessible to the electrolyte and low ion-transport resistance. The prepared nanofiber network electrode recovers its initial state easily after 3-folded manipulation. The mechanically robust membrane is explored as a free-standing electrode for a flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor. Without the need for extra support, the volumetric energy and power densities based on the whole device are greatly improved compared to the state-of-the-art devices. Furthermore, even under continuous dynamic operations of forceful bending (90) and twisting (180), the as-designed device still exhibits stable electrochemical performances with 100% capacitance retention. As a result, such a unique supercapacitor holds great promise for high-performance flexible electronics.

  5. A bamboo-inspired nanostructure design for flexible foldable and twistable energy storage devices

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Sun, Yongming; Sills, Ryan B; Hu, Xianluo; Wei Seh, Zhi; Xiao, Xu; Xu, Henghui; Luo, Wei; Jin, Huanyu; Xin, Ying; Li, Tianqi; et al

    2015-05-26

    Flexible energy storage devices are critical components for emerging flexible electronics. Electrode design is key in the development of all-solid-state supercapacitors with superior electrochemical performances and mechanical durability. We propose a bamboo-like graphitic carbon nanofiber with a well-balanced macro-, meso-, and microporosity, enabling excellent mechanical flexibility, foldability, and electrochemical performances. Our design is inspired by the structure of bamboos, where a periodic distribution of interior holes along the length and graded pore structure at the cross section not only enhance their stability under different mechanical deformation conditions but also provide a high surface area accessible to the electrolyte and lowmore » ion-transport resistance. The prepared nanofiber network electrode recovers its initial state easily after 3-folded manipulation. The mechanically robust membrane is explored as a free-standing electrode for a flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor. Without the need for extra support, the volumetric energy and power densities based on the whole device are greatly improved compared to the state-of-the-art devices. Furthermore, even under continuous dynamic operations of forceful bending (90°) and twisting (180°), the as-designed device still exhibits stable electrochemical performances with 100% capacitance retention. As a result, such a unique supercapacitor holds great promise for high-performance flexible electronics.« less

  6. A bamboo-inspired nanostructure design for flexible foldable and twistable energy storage devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yongming; Sills, Ryan B; Hu, Xianluo; Wei Seh, Zhi; Xiao, Xu; Xu, Henghui; Luo, Wei; Jin, Huanyu; Xin, Ying; Li, Tianqi; Zhang, Zhaoliang; Zhou, Jun; Cai, Wei; Huang, Yunhui; Cui, Yi

    2015-05-26

    Flexible energy storage devices are critical components for emerging flexible electronics. Electrode design is key in the development of all-solid-state supercapacitors with superior electrochemical performances and mechanical durability. We propose a bamboo-like graphitic carbon nanofiber with a well-balanced macro-, meso-, and microporosity, enabling excellent mechanical flexibility, foldability, and electrochemical performances. Our design is inspired by the structure of bamboos, where a periodic distribution of interior holes along the length and graded pore structure at the cross section not only enhance their stability under different mechanical deformation conditions but also provide a high surface area accessible to the electrolyte and low ion-transport resistance. The prepared nanofiber network electrode recovers its initial state easily after 3-folded manipulation. The mechanically robust membrane is explored as a free-standing electrode for a flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor. Without the need for extra support, the volumetric energy and power densities based on the whole device are greatly improved compared to the state-of-the-art devices. Furthermore, even under continuous dynamic operations of forceful bending (90°) and twisting (180°), the as-designed device still exhibits stable electrochemical performances with 100% capacitance retention. As a result, such a unique supercapacitor holds great promise for high-performance flexible electronics.

  7. Method of manufacturing flexible metallic photonic band gap structures, and structures resulting therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gupta, Sandhya; Tuttle, Gary L.; Sigalas, Mihail; McCalmont, Jonathan S.; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2001-08-14

    A method of manufacturing a flexible metallic photonic band gap structure operable in the infrared region, comprises the steps of spinning on a first layer of dielectric on a GaAs substrate, imidizing this first layer of dielectric, forming a first metal pattern on this first layer of dielectric, spinning on and imidizing a second layer of dielectric, and then removing the GaAs substrate. This method results in a flexible metallic photonic band gap structure operable with various filter characteristics in the infrared region. This method may be used to construct multi-layer flexible metallic photonic band gap structures. Metal grid defects and dielectric separation layer thicknesses are adjusted to control filter parameters.

  8. Thin-film solar cell fabricated on a flexible metallic substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuttle, John R.; Noufi, Rommel; Hasoon, Falah S.

    2006-05-30

    A thin-film solar cell (10) is provided. The thin-film solar cell (10) comprises a flexible metallic substrate (12) having a first surface and a second surface. A back metal contact layer (16) is deposited on the first surface of the flexible metallic substrate (12). A semiconductor absorber layer (14) is deposited on the back metal contact. A photoactive film deposited on the semiconductor absorber layer (14) forms a heterojunction structure and a grid contact (24) deposited on the heterjunction structure. The flexible metal substrate (12) can be constructed of either aluminium or stainless steel. Furthermore, a method of constructing a solar cell is provided. The method comprises providing an aluminum substrate (12), depositing a semiconductor absorber layer (14) on the aluminum substrate (12), and insulating the aluminum substrate (12) from the semiconductor absorber layer (14) to inhibit reaction between the aluminum substrate (12) and the semiconductor absorber layer (14).

  9. Single-Crystalline SrRuO3 Nanomembranes: A Platform for Flexible Oxide Electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fong, Dillon D.; Paskiewicz, Deborah M.; Sichel-Tissot, Rebecca; Stan, Liliana; Karapetrova, Evguenia

    2016-01-01

    The field of oxide electronics has benefited from the wide spectrum of functionalities available to the ABO3 perovskites, and researchers are now employing defect engineering in single crystalline heterostructures to tailor properties. However, bulk oxide single crystals are not conducive to many types of applications, particularly those requiring mechanical flexibility. Here, we demonstrate the realization of an all-oxide, single-crystalline nanomembrane heterostructure. With a surface-to-volume ratio of 2 × 107 , the nanomembranes are fully flexible and can be readily transferred to other materials for handling purposes or for new materials integration schemes. Using in situ synchrotron X-ray scattering, we find that the nanomembranes can bond to other host substrates near room temperature and demonstrate coupling between surface reactivity and electromechanical properties in ferroelectric nanomembrane systems. The synthesis technique described here represents a significant advancement in materials integration and provides a new platform for the development of flexible oxide electronics.

  10. Thin-Film Solar Cell Fabricated on a Flexible Metallic Substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuttle, J. R.; Noufi, R.; Hasoon, F. S.

    2006-05-30

    A thin-film solar cell (10) is provided. The thin-film solar cell (10) comprises a flexible metallic substrate (12) having a first surface and a second surface. A back metal contact layer (16) is deposited on the first surface of the flexible metallic substrate (12). A semiconductor absorber layer (14) is deposited on the back metal contact. A photoactive film deposited on the semiconductor absorber layer (14) forms a heterojunction structure and a grid contact (24) deposited on the heterjunction structure. The flexible metal substrate (12) can be constructed of either aluminium or stainless steel. Furthermore, a method of constructing a solar cell is provided. The method comprises providing an aluminum substrate (12), depositing a semiconductor absorber layer (14) on the aluminum substrate (12), and insulating the aluminum substrate (12) from the semiconductor absorber layer (14) to inhibit reaction between the aluminum substrate (12) and the semiconductor absorber layer (14).

  11. Electronic Durability of Flexible Transparent Films from Type-Specific Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, J; Iyer, S; Bernhardt, A; Huh, JY; Hudson, S; Fagan, J; Hobbie, E.

    2011-12-11

    The coupling between mechanical flexibility and electronic performance is evaluated for thin films of metallic and semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) deposited on compliant supports. Percolated networks of type-purified SWCNTs are assembled as thin conducting coatings on elastic polymer substrates, and the sheet resistance is measured as a function of compression and cyclic strain through impedance spectroscopy. The wrinkling topography, microstructure and transparency of the films are independently characterized using optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and optical absorption spectroscopy. Thin films made from metallic SWCNTs show better durability as flexible transparent conductive coatings, which we attribute to a combination of superior mechanical performance and higher interfacial conductivity.

  12. Probing flexible conformations in molecular junctions by inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Mingsen; Ye, Gui; Jiang, Jun; Cai, Shaohong; Sun, Guangyu

    2015-01-15

    The probe of flexible molecular conformation is crucial for the electric application of molecular systems. We have developed a theoretical procedure to analyze the couplings of molecular local vibrations with the electron transportation process, which enables us to evaluate the structural fingerprints of some vibrational modes in the inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS). Based on a model molecule of Bis-(4-mercaptophenyl)-ether with a flexible center angle, we have revealed and validated a simple mathematical relationship between IETS signals and molecular angles. Our results might open a route to quantitatively measure key geometrical parameters of molecular junctions, which helps to achieve precise control of molecular devices.

  13. 'Fore!' heads up, wide use of more flexible metallic glass coming your

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    way Flexible metallic glass coming your way 'Fore!' heads up, wide use of more flexible metallic glass coming your way Scientists are working toward even stronger and more elastic glass types which would fail in a ductile fashion instead of shattering. March 3, 2014 A piece of metallic glass that has been bent around onto itself with a 1mm radius and glued into place. It would spring back to a flat piece if the glue were removed. A piece of metallic glass that has been bent around onto

  14. Flexible CIGS Test and Evaluation: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-293

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempe, M.

    2015-03-01

    NREL will assist 3M in evaluating the application of 3M encapsulant materials on industry-supplied, flexible CIGS minimodules.

  15. Performance parameters for managment of AAR-affected structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charlwood, R.G.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of the paper is to present a framework for the application of {open_quotes}Performance Parameters{close_quotes} for the long-term management of existing AAR-affected dams and hydroelectric plants as a basis for discussion in the workshop on dam safety issues. In this paper, references are made to various cases and the reader is referred to the companion paper for supporting information. The concept of {open_quotes}Performance Parameters{close_quotes} is being introduced by USBR as part of their dam safety program development. The focus is on dam safety related issues and parameter development starts with identification of failure modes of a dam, key performance parameters, and then progresses into definition of instrumentation and monitoring systems and potential action plans. Dam safety deficiencies and powerplant operational problems have been identified in several dams around the world and structural modifications either implemented or planned. In others, where slow (ASSR) or indefinitely continuing reactions (with {open_quotes}auto-generation{close_quotes} of alkalis) are occurring, it is necessary to plan a suitable monitoring and long management program which addresses the apparently {open_quotes}mild{close_quotes} degree of the problem but addresses the future potential in a realistic but not overly pessimistic manner. {open_quotes}Generic{close_quotes} performance parameters to address AAR effects based on a review of cases are proposed here as a possible guide to site specific development in actual cases. These are extended from the USBR scope in two respects: firstly, to include dam, spillway and plant operational issues, and secondly, into two levels of detail and effort. This discussion will be primarily a review of failure modes and key parameters. Techniques for forecasting and monitoring these parameters in an AAR environment are briefly reviewed.

  16. A flexible metal–organic framework: Guest molecules controlled dynamic gas adsorption

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Li, Man -Rong; Wang, Hailong; Lu, Zhengliang; Chen, Banglin; Dai, Sheng; Yue, Yanfeng; Rabone, Jeremy A.; Liu, Hongjun; Wang, Jihang; et al

    2015-04-13

    A flexible metal–organic framework (MOF) of [Zn3(btca)2(OH)2]·(guest)n (H2btca = 1,2,3-benzotriazole-5-carboxylic acid) that exhibits guest molecule-controlled dynamic gas adsorption is reported in which carbon dioxide molecules rather than N2, He, and Ar induce a structural transition with a corresponding appearance of additional steps in the isotherms. Physical insights into the dynamic adsorption behaviors of flexible compound 1 were detected by gas adsorption at different temperatures and different pressures and confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and molecular simulations. Interestingly, by taking advantage of the flexible nature inherent to the framework, this MOF material enables highly selective adsorption of CO2/N2, CO2/Ar, andmore » CO2/He of 36.3, 32.6, and 35.9, respectively, at 298 K. Furthermore, this class of flexible MOFs has potential applications for controlled release, molecular sensing, noble gas separation, smart membranes, and nanotechnological devices.« less

  17. A flexible metal–organic framework: Guest molecules controlled dynamic gas adsorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Li, Man -Rong; Wang, Hailong; Lu, Zhengliang; Chen, Banglin; Dai, Sheng; Yue, Yanfeng; Rabone, Jeremy A.; Liu, Hongjun; Wang, Jihang; Fang, Youxing

    2015-04-13

    A flexible metal–organic framework (MOF) of [Zn3(btca)2(OH)2]·(guest)n (H2btca = 1,2,3-benzotriazole-5-carboxylic acid) that exhibits guest molecule-controlled dynamic gas adsorption is reported in which carbon dioxide molecules rather than N2, He, and Ar induce a structural transition with a corresponding appearance of additional steps in the isotherms. Physical insights into the dynamic adsorption behaviors of flexible compound 1 were detected by gas adsorption at different temperatures and different pressures and confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and molecular simulations. Interestingly, by taking advantage of the flexible nature inherent to the framework, this MOF material enables highly selective adsorption of CO2/N2, CO2/Ar, and CO2/He of 36.3, 32.6, and 35.9, respectively, at 298 K. Furthermore, this class of flexible MOFs has potential applications for controlled release, molecular sensing, noble gas separation, smart membranes, and nanotechnological devices.

  18. Impact of pulse thermal processing on the properties of inkjet printed metal and flexible sensors

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Joshi, Pooran C.; Kuruganti, Teja; Killough, Stephen M.

    2015-03-11

    In this paper, we report on the low temperature processing of environmental sensors employing pulse thermal processing (PTP) technique to define a path toward flexible sensor technology on plastic, paper, and fabric substrates. Inkjet printing and pulse thermal processing technique were used to realize mask-less, additive integration of low-cost sensors on polymeric substrates with specific focus on temperature, humidity, and strain sensors. The printed metal line performance was evaluated in terms of the electrical conductivity characteristics as a function of post-deposition thermal processing conditions. The PTP processed Ag metal lines exhibited high conductivity with metal sheet resistance values below 100more » mΩ/{whitesquare} using a pulse width as short as 250 μs. The flexible temperature and relative humidity sensors were defined on flexible polyimide substrates by direct printing of Ag metal structures. The printed resistive temperature sensor and capacitive humidity sensor were characterized for their sensitivity with focus on future smart-building applications. Strain gauges were printed on polyimide substrate to determine the mechanical properties of the silver nanoparticle films. Finally, the observed electrical properties of the printed metal lines and the sensitivity of the flexible sensors show promise for the realization of a high performance print-on-demand technology exploiting low thermal-budget PTP technique.« less

  19. Development of a new nickel containing alloy for flexible exhaust couplings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crum, J.R.; Smith, G.D.; Flower, H.L.

    1998-12-31

    In automotive exhaust flexible coupling applications commonly used stainless steels have failed by hot salt corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, pitting and fatigue with associated sensitization resulting from the high temperature exposure. This paper describes the development of an alloy designed specifically to overcome these failure mechanisms while maintaining good weldability and thermal stability.

  20. Assessing the operational life of flexible printed boards intended for continuous flexing applications : a case study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, David Franklin

    2011-01-01

    Through the vehicle of a case study, this paper describes in detail how the guidance found in the suite of IPC (Association Connecting Electronics Industries) publications can be applied to develop a high level of design assurance that flexible printed boards intended for continuous flexing applications will satisfy specified lifetime requirements.

  1. A flexible system for the simulation of turbocharged diesel engines and turbocharging systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bulaty, T.; Codan, E.; Skopil, M.

    1996-12-31

    A fully flexible simulation system enables substitution of the conventional tests performed on turbocharged diesel engines. The supercharging systems can be calculated either by filling and emptying or by the differential method for 1-D unsteady flow during steady-state or transient operation. During sophisticated simulations, some conservation problems were observed. Their theoretical explanation and a practical solution are presented.

  2. Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Powered by a Renewable U.S. Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2007-03-01

    Clean Cities fact sheet describing aspects of flexible fuel vehicles such as use of E85, special features, benefits of use, costs, and fueling locations. It includes discussion on performance and how to identify these vehicles as well as listing additional resources.

  3. Highly controllable and green reduction of graphene oxide to flexible graphene film with high strength

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Wubo [Carbon Research Laboratory, Liaoning Key Lab for Energy Materials and Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao, Zongbin, E-mail: zbzhao@dlut.edu.cn [Carbon Research Laboratory, Liaoning Key Lab for Energy Materials and Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Hu, Han [Carbon Research Laboratory, Liaoning Key Lab for Energy Materials and Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Gogotsi, Yury [Carbon Research Laboratory, Liaoning Key Lab for Energy Materials and Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and A.J. Drexel Nanotechnology Institute, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Qiu, Jieshan, E-mail: jqiu@dlut.edu.cn [Carbon Research Laboratory, Liaoning Key Lab for Energy Materials and Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Highly controllable and green reduction of GO to chemical converted graphene (CCG) was achieved with sodium citrate as a facile reductant. Self-assembly of the as-made CCG sheets results in a flexible CCG film, of which the tensile strength strongly depends on the deoxygenation degree of graphene sheets. - Highlights: Graphene was synthesized by an effective and environmentally friendly approach. We introduced a facile X-ray diffraction analysis method to investigate the reduction process from graphene oxide to graphene. Flexible graphene films were prepared by self-assembly of the graphene sheets. The strength of the graphene films depends on the reduction degree of graphene. - Abstract: Graphene film with high strength was fabricated by the assembly of graphene sheets derived from graphene oxide (GO) in an effective and environmentally friendly approach. Highly controllable reduction of GO to chemical converted graphene (CCG) was achieved with sodium citrate as a facile reductant, in which the reduction process was monitored by XRD analysis and UVvis absorption spectra. Self-assembly of the as-made CCG sheets results in a flexible CCG film. This method may open an avenue to the easy and scalable preparation of graphene film with high strength which has promising potentials in many fields where strong, flexible and electrically conductive films are highly demanded.

  4. Lessons Learned in the Design and Use of IP1 / IP2 Flexible Packaging - 13621

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, Mike; Reeves, Wendall; Smart, Bill

    2013-07-01

    For many years in the USA, Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLW), contaminated soils and construction debris, have been transported, interim stored, and disposed of, using IP1 / IP2 metal containers. The performance of these containers has been more than adequate, with few safety occurrences. The containers are used under the regulatory oversight of the US Department of Transportation (DOT), 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). In the late 90's the introduction of flexible packaging for the transport, storage, and disposal of low level contaminated soils and construction debris was introduced. The development of flexible packaging came out of a need for a more cost effective package, for the large volumes of waste generated by the decommissioning of many of the US Department of Energy (DOE) legacy sites across the US. Flexible packaging had to be designed to handle a wide array of waste streams, including soil, gravel, construction debris, and fine particulate dust migration. The design also had to meet all of the IP1 requirements under 49CFR 173.410, and be robust enough to pass the IP2 testing 49 CFR 173.465 required for many LLW shipments. Tens of thousands of flexible packages have been safely deployed and used across the US nuclear industry as well as for hazardous non-radioactive applications, with no recorded release of radioactive materials. To ensure that flexible packages are designed properly, the manufacturer must use lessons learned over the years, and the tests performed to provide evidence that these packages are suitable for transporting low level radioactive wastes. The design and testing of flexible packaging for LLW, VLLW and other hazardous waste streams must be as strict and stringent as the design and testing of metal containers. The design should take into consideration the materials being loaded into the package, and should incorporate the right materials, and manufacturing methods, to provide a quality, safe product. Flexible packaging can be

  5. Flexible Ultra Moisture Barrier Film for Thin-Film Photovoltaic Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David M. Dean

    2012-10-30

    Flexible Thin-film photovoltaic (TFPV) is a low cost alternative to incumbent c-Si PV products as it requires less volume of costly semiconductor materials and it can potentially reduce installation cost. Among the TFPV options, copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) has the highest efficiency and is believed to be one of the most attractive candidates to achieve PV cost reduction. However, CIGS cells are very moisture sensitive and require module water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of less than 1x10-4 gram of water per square meter per day (g-H2O/m2/day). Successful development and commercialization of flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film is the key to enable flexible CIGS TFPV products, and thus enable ultimate PV cost reduction. At DuPont, we have demonstrated at lab scale that we can successfully make polymer-based flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film by depositing alumina on polymer films using atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology. The layer by layer ALD approach results in uniform and amorphous structure which effectively reduces pinhole density of the inorganic coating on the polymer, and thus allow the fabrication of flexible barrier film with WVTR of 10-5 g-H2O/m2/day. Currently ALD is a time-consuming process suitable only for high-value, relatively small substrates. To successfully commercialize the ALD-on-plastic technology for the PV industry, there is the need to scale up this technology and improve throughput. The goal of this contract work was to build a prototype demonstrating that the ALD technology could be scaled-up for commercial use. Unfortunately, the prototype failed to produce an ultra-barrier film by the close of the project.

  6. Energy Savings Potential of Flexible and Adaptive HVAC Distribution Systems for Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loftness, Vivian; Brahme, Rohini; Mondazzi, Michelle; Vineyard, Edward; MacDonald, Michael

    2002-06-01

    It has been understood by architects and engineers that office buildings with easily re-configurable space and flexible mechanical and electrical systems are able to provide comfort that increases worker productivity while using less energy. Raised floors are an example of how fresh air, thermal conditioning, lighting needs, and network access can be delivered in a flexible manner that is not ''embedded'' within the structure. What are not yet documented is how well these systems perform and how much energy they can save. This area is being investigated in phased projects of the 21st Century Research Program of the Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute. For the initial project, research teams at the Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, documented the diversity, performance, and incidence of flexible and adaptive HVAC systems. Information was gathered worldwide from journal and conference articles, case studies, manufactured products and assemblies, and interviews with design professionals. Their report thoroughly describes the variety of system types along with the various design alternatives observed for plenums, diffusers, individual control, and system integration. Many of the systems are illustrated in the report and the authors provide quantitative and qualitative comparisons. Among conclusions regarding key design issues, and barriers to widespread adoption, the authors state that flexible and adaptive HVAC systems, such as underfloor air, perform as well if not better than ceiling-based systems. Leading engineers have become active proponents after their first experience, which is resulting in these flexible and adaptive HVAC systems approaching 10 percent of the new construction market. To encourage adoption of this technology that improves thermal comfort and indoor air quality, follow-on work is required to further document performance

  7. Methods of preparing flexible photovoltaic devices using epitaxial liftoff, and preserving the integrity of growth substrates used in epitaxial growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Lee, Kyusang; Shiu, Kuen-Ting

    2013-02-19

    There is disclosed methods of making photosensitive devices, such as flexible photovoltaic (PV) devices, through the use of epitaxial liftoff. Also described herein are methods of preparing flexible PV devices comprising a structure having a growth substrate, wherein the selective etching of protective layers yields a smooth growth substrate that us suitable for reuse.

  8. Methods of preparing flexible photovoltaic devices using epitaxial liftoff, and preserving the integrity of growth substrates used in epitaxial growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Lee, Kyusang; Shiu, Kuen-Ting

    2015-01-06

    There is disclosed methods of making photosensitive devices, such as flexible photovoltaic (PV) devices, through the use of epitaxial liftoff. Also described herein are methods of preparing flexible PV devices comprising a structure having a growth substrate, wherein the selective etching of protective layers yields a smooth growth substrate that us suitable for reuse.

  9. AFFECT 2016: Assisting Federal Facilities with Energy Conservation...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFFECT 2016: Assisting Federal Facilities with Energy Conservation Technologies Webinar AFFECT 2016: Assisting Federal Facilities with Energy Conservation Technologies Webinar ...

  10. Environmental issues affecting clean coal technology deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, M.J.

    1997-12-31

    The author outlines what he considers to be the key environmental issues affecting Clean Coal Technology (CCT) deployment both in the US and internationally. Since the international issues are difficult to characterize given different environmental drivers in various countries and regions, the primary focus of his remarks is on US deployment. However, he makes some general remarks, particularly regarding the environmental issues in developing vs. developed countries and how these issues may affect CCT deployment. Further, how environment affects deployment depends on which particular type of clean coal technology one is addressing. It is not the author`s intention to mention many specific technologies other than to use them for the purposes of example. He generally categorizes CCTs into four groups since environment is likely to affect deployment for each category somewhat differently. These four categories are: Precombustion technologies such as coal cleaning; Combustion technologies such as low NOx burners; Postcombustion technologies such as FGD systems and postcombustion NOx control; and New generation technologies such as gasification and fluidized bed combustion.

  11. Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatesan, Krishna

    2011-11-30

    The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to

  12. Flexible connector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Savage, M.E.; Simpson, W.W.

    1999-07-27

    An electrical connector accommodates high current, is not labor intensive to assemble and disassemble, and allows a wide range of motion to accommodate mechanical variations and movement of connected components. The connector comprises several parts with joints therebetween, wherein each joint provides electrical connection between and allows relative motion of the joined parts. The combination of parts and joints maintains electrical connection between two electrical components even if the components are misaligned or move after connection. 6 figs.

  13. Flexible connector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Savage, Mark E.; Simpson, Walter W.

    1999-01-01

    An electrical connector accommodates high current, is not labor intensive to assemble and disassemble, and allows a wide range of motion to accommodate mechanical variations and movement of connected components. The connector comprises several parts with joints therebetween, wherein each joint provides electrical connection between and allows relative motion of the joined parts. The combination of parts and joints maintains electrical connection between two electrical components even if the components are misaligned or move after connection.

  14. Flexible nanogenerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.; Wang, Xudong; Qin, Yong; Yang, Rusen

    2011-07-19

    A small scale electrical generator includes an elongated substrate and a first piezoelectric fine wire. The first piezoelectric fine wire is disposed along a surface of the substrate. The first piezoelectric fine wire has a first end and a spaced-apart second end. A first conductive contact secures the first end of the fine wire to a first portion of the substrate and a second conductive contact secures the second end of the fine wire to a second portion of the substrate. A fabric made of interwoven strands that includes fibers from which piezoelectric nanowires extend radially therefrom and conductive nanostructures extend therefrom is configured to generate electricity.

  15. Flexible horseshoe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ford, Donald F.

    1985-01-01

    A screw-on horseshoe formed from a plastic material is disclosed. A flex joint is provided that allows the horseshoe to expand and contract as pressure is applied to the horse's hoof, thereby reducing friction between the hoof and the shoe. The horseshoe also provides a lip portion projecting upwardly from a horseshoe base portion to protect the horse hoof wall from obstacles encountered during the movement of the horse. A novel screw having a double helix thread pattern including a high thread pattern and a low thread pattern is used to fasten the horseshoe to the horse's hoof without piercing the hoof wall. The screw includes a keyed recessed self-holding head that is complementary to, and therefore readily driven by, a power drill. A lightweight, yet wear-resistant, horseshoe that is readily attached to a horse's hoof with a minimum amount of labor and a minimum amount of damage to the hoof that can be constructed in many styles and sizes to match a large variety of horse uses is thus described.

  16. Effect of Back Contact and Rapid Thermal Processing Conditions on Flexible CdTe Device Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahabaduge, Hasitha; Meysing, D. M.; Rance, Will L.; Burst, James M.; Reese, Matthew O.; Wolden, C. A.; Gessert, Timothy A.; Metzger, Wyatt K.; Garner, S.; Barnes, Teresa M.

    2015-06-14

    Flexible CdTe solar cells on ultra-thin glass substrates can enable new applications that require high specific power, unique form-factors, and low manufacturing costs. To be successful, these cells must be cost competitive, have high efficiency, and have high reliability. Here we present back contact processing conditions that enabled us to achieve over 16% efficiency on flexible Corning (R) Willow (R) Glass substrates. We used co-evaporated ZnTe:Cu and Au as our back contact and used rapid thermal processing (RTP) to activate the back contact. Both the ZnTe to Cu ratio and the RTP activation temperature provide independent control over the device performance. We have investigated the influence of various RTP conditions to Cu activation and distribution. Current density-voltage, capacitance-voltage measurements along with device simulations were used to examine the device performance in terms of ZnTe to Cu ratio and rapid thermal activation temperature.

  17. A hydrogel capsule as gate dielectric in flexible organic field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dumitru, L. M.; Manoli, K.; Magliulo, M.; Torsi, L.; Ligonzo, T.; Palazzo, G.

    2015-01-01

    A jellified alginate based capsule serves as biocompatible and biodegradable electrolyte system to gate an organic field-effect transistor fabricated on a flexible substrate. Such a system allows operating thiophene based polymer transistors below 0.5 V through an electrical double layer formed across an ion-permeable polymeric electrolyte. Moreover, biological macro-molecules such as glucose-oxidase and streptavidin can enter into the gating capsules that serve also as delivery system. An enzymatic bio-reaction is shown to take place in the capsule and preliminary results on the measurement of the electronic responses promise for low-cost, low-power, flexible electronic bio-sensing applications using capsule-gated organic field-effect transistors.

  18. Semi-flexible gas-insulated transmission line using sandwiched discs for intermittent flexing joints

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kommineni, Prasad R.

    1983-02-15

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath, and insulating supports insulatably supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath. The inner conductor is provided with flexibility by the use of main conductor sections which are joined together through a conductor hub section and flexible flexing elements. Stress shields are provided to control the electric field at the locations of the conductor hub sections where the insulating supports are contacting the inner conductor. The flexing elements are formed by sandwiching together, by fusing, a pair of thin hollow discs which are fixedly secured to both the main conductor sections and the conductor hub section.

  19. Semi-flexible gas-insulated transmission line using sandwiched discs for intermittent flexing joints

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kommineni, P.R.

    1983-02-15

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath, and insulating supports insulatably supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath. The inner conductor is provided with flexibility by the use of main conductor sections which are joined together through a conductor hub section and flexible flexing elements. Stress shields are provided to control the electric field at the locations of the conductor hub sections where the insulating supports are contacting the inner conductor. The flexing elements are formed by sandwiching together, by fusing, a pair of thin hollow discs which are fixedly secured to both the main conductor sections and the conductor hub section. 4 figs.

  20. Semi-flexible gas-insulated transmission line using electric field stress shields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, A.H.; Dale, S.J.; Bolin, P.C.

    1982-12-28

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath, and insulating supports insulatably supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath. The inner conductor is provided with flexibility by use of main conductor sections which are joined together through a conductor hub section and flexible flexing elements. Stress shields are provided to control the electric field at the locations of the conductor hub sections where the insulating supports are contacting the inner conductor. The flexing elements and the stress shields may also be utilized in connection with a plug and socket arrangement for providing electrical connection between main conductor sections. 10 figs.

  1. ROSE{reg_sign} - A flexible process for upgrading heavy crude, atmospheric residue, or vaccum residue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynch, K.Z.; Hood, H.L.; Gomez, O.

    1995-12-31

    The ROSE{reg_sign} Pilot Plant was used to evaluate various fractions of Boscan and Zuata heavy crude oils. The results demonstrated the ability of the ROSE process to remove asphaltene fractions using n-pentane, n-butane, or propane as the solvent while leaving behind an oil that has been greatly reduced in its metal, nitrogen, sulfur, and Conradson carbon contents. The recovered oil could then be used as feedstock to a conventional hydrotreater/FCC process combination. The flexibility of the process is evidenced by its ability to process various feeds. Because of this flexibility, the opportunity exists to use the ROSE process at a wellhead location to reduce the diluent requirements for making a suitable pipeline feed. This technology is also able to process changing feeds when upstream units in a refinery are down during major turnarounds, for example, or when there are problems with a vacuum tower or downstream unit.

  2. Nanopowder molding method for creating implantable high-aspect-ratio electrodes on thin flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Zhiyu; Thundat, Thomas George

    2006-03-01

    Metal nanoparticles and a nanopowder molding process were used to fabricate 2D and 3D patternable structures having a height-to-width ratio of up to 10:1. By means of this process, an entire neural stimulation circuit, including stimulating electrode, connection trace, and contact pad, can be fused into one continuous, integrated structure where different sections can have different heights, widths, and shapes. The technique is suitable for mass production, and the fabricated electrode is robust and very flexible. More importantly for biomedical applications, the entire fabricated structure can be packed at room temperature onto a biocompatible flexible substrate, such as polydimethylsiloxane, parylene, and polyimide as well as other temperature-sensitive or vacuum-sensitive materials. The electrodes and wires have about the same electrical resistivities as bulk materials and desirable electrochemical properties, including low impedance.

  3. Semi-flexible gas-insulated transmission line using electric field stress shields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, Alan H.; Dale, Steinar J.; Bolin, Philip C.

    1982-12-28

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath, and insulating supports insulatably supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath. The inner conductor is provided with flexibility by use of main conductor sections which are joined together through a conductor hub section and flexible flexing elements. Stress shields are provided to control the electric field at the locations of the conductor hub sections where the insulating supports are contacting the inner conductor. The flexing elements and the stress shields may also be utilized in connection with a plug and socket arrangement for providing electrical connection between main conductor sections.

  4. Transparent flexible nanogenerator as self-powered sensor for transportation monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong Lin; Hu, Youfan; Lin, Long

    2016-06-14

    A traffic sensor includes a flexible substrate having a top surface. A piezoelectric structure extends from the first electrode layer. The piezoelectric structure has a top end. An insulating layer is infused into the piezoelectric structure. A first electrode layer is disposed on top of the insulating layer. A second electrode layer is disposed below the flexible substrate. A packaging layer is disposed around the substrate, the first electrode layer, the piezoelectric structure, the insulating layer and the second electrode layer. In a method of sensing a traffic parameter, a piezoelectric nanostructure-based traffic sensor is applied to a roadway. An electrical event generated by the piezoelectric nanostructure-based traffic sensor in response to a vehicle interacting with the piezoelectric nanostructure-based traffic sensor is detected. The electrical event is correlated with the traffic parameter.

  5. Photodetectors based on single-walled carbon nanotubes and thiamonomethinecyanine J-aggregates on flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedorov, I. V. Emel’yanov, A. V.; Romashkin, A. V.; Bobrinetskiy, I. I.

    2015-09-15

    The present paper is devoted to observations of the photoresistive effect in multilayer structures with a sensitive layer of J-aggregates of thiamonomethinecyanine polymethine dye and a transparent electrode of a conductive carbon-nanotube network on a flexible polyethylenenaphtalate substrate. The effect of narrow-band emission with a wavelength of 465 nm on a change in the conductivity of the fabricated structures is studied. The prepared samples are studied by atomic-force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and spectrophotometry methods. It is shown that these structures are photosensitive to the indicated spectral region, and the dye layer is a film of dye J-aggregates. The change in the sample conductivity upon exposure to light one hundred times exceeds the dark conductivity. In general, the principal possibility of developing a photoresistive detector based on J-aggregates of cyanine dyes on flexible supports on account of the use of transparent and conductive carbon-nanotube layers is shown.

  6. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices on {110}<100> oriented substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyal, Amit

    2014-08-05

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, oriented, semiconductor-based, electronic devices on {110}<100> textured substrates are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  7. [100] or [110] aligned, semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyal, Amit

    2015-03-24

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, [100] or [110] textured, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  8. Revealing the Fluctuations of Flexible DNA in 3D | U.S. DOE Office of

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Science (SC) Revealing the Fluctuations of Flexible DNA in 3D Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: Email Us More Information » 07.20.16 Revealing the Fluctuations

  9. Carbon nanotube network thin-film transistors on flexible/stretchable substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Takei, Kuniharu; Takahashi, Toshitake; Javey, Ali

    2016-03-29

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus for flexible thin-film transistors. In one aspect, a device includes a polymer substrate, a gate electrode disposed on the polymer substrate, a dielectric layer disposed on the gate electrode and on exposed portions of the polymer substrate, a carbon nanotube network disposed on the dielectric layer, and a source electrode and a drain electrode disposed on the carbon nanotube network.

  10. Chapter 3: Enabling Modernization of the Electric Power System Technology Assessment | Flexible and Distributed Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Resources Measurements, Communications, and Controls Transmission and Distribution Components ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF Quadrennial Technology Review 2015 1 Quadrennial Technology Review 2015 Flexible and Distributed Energy Resources Chapter 3: Technology Assessments Introduction The U.S. electric power system is undergoing significant changes. The reliance on large thermal generators of the past is giving way to a much more dynamic paradigm. In recent years, many new technologies have been

  11. Detonation wave detection probe including parallel electrodes on a flexible backing strip

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Uher, Kenneth J.

    1995-01-01

    A device for sensing the occurrence of destructive events and events involving mechanical shock in a non-intrusive manner. A pair of electrodes is disposed in a parallel configuration on a backing strip of flexible film. Electrical circuitry is used to sense the time at which an event causes electrical continuity between the electrodes or, with a sensor configuration where the electrodes are shorted together, to sense the time at which electrical continuity is lost.

  12. BioSAXS: Ways and Means to Study Structural Flexibility of Biological

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Macromolecules | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource BioSAXS: Ways and Means to Study Structural Flexibility of Biological Macromolecules Thursday, November 17, 2011 - 10:30am SSRL Conference Room 137-322 Dr. Alexander V. Shkumatov, Biological Small Angle Scattering Group, EMBL Hamburg Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is universal low-resolution method to study native particles in solution and analyze structural changes in response to variations of external conditions. SAXS is

  13. Detonation wave detection probe including parallel electrodes on a flexible backing strip

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Uher, K.J.

    1995-12-19

    A device is disclosed for sensing the occurrence of destructive events and events involving mechanical shock in a non-intrusive manner. A pair of electrodes is disposed in a parallel configuration on a backing strip of flexible film. Electrical circuitry is used to sense the time at which an event causes electrical continuity between the electrodes or, with a sensor configuration where the electrodes are shorted together, to sense the time at which electrical continuity is lost. 4 figs.

  14. On the flexibility of high temperature reactor cores for high-and low-enriched fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bzandes, S.; Lonhert, G.

    1982-07-01

    The operational flexibility of a high temperature reactor (HTR) is not restricted to either a low- or a high-enriched fuel cycle. Both fuel cycles are possible for the same core design. The fuel cycle cost is, however, penalized for low-enriched fuel; in addition, higher uranium consumption is required. Hence, an HTR is most economical to operate in the high-enriched thorium-uranium fuel cycle.

  15. FLEXIBLE NEUTRON SHIELDING FOR A GLOVEBOX WITHIN THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEM PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephanie Walsh

    2007-07-01

    Neutron shielding was desired to reduce worker exposure during handling of plutonium-238 (Pu-238) in a glovebox at the Idaho National Laboratory. Due to the unusual shape of the glovebox, standard methods of neutron shielding were impractical and would have interfered with glovebox operations. A silicon-based, boron-impregnated material was chosen due to its flexibility. This paper discusses the material, the installation, and the results from neutron source testing.

  16. Flexible riser and mooring system develops small oil fields in the North Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, A.M.; Holmes, G. ); Benstead, P.J. )

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports on the flexible riser and mooring system (FRAMS) which provides a technically straightforward, commercially attractive method of developing small oil fields. A passively moored 60,000-deadweight-ton (60,000-DWT) tanker with deck-mounted equipment provides a swivelless well fluid and injection water path from and to the wellheads. The system can be disconnected rapidly in severe weather.

  17. Fuel-Flexible, Low-Emissions Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-11-01

    Precision Combustion, Inc. will develop a unique, fuel-flexible Rich Catalytic Lean-Burn (RCL) injector with catalytic combustor capable of enabling ultralow-emission, lean premixed combustion of a wide range of gaseous opportunity fuels. This will broaden the range of opportunity fuels that can be utilized to include low- and ultralow-Btu gases, such as digester and blast furnace gases, and fuels containing reactive species, such as refinery, wellhead, and industrial byproduct gases.

  18. Using real options to evaluate the flexibility in the deployment of SMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Locatelli, G.; Mancini, M.

    2012-07-01

    According to recent estimations the financial gap between Large Reactors (LR) and Small Medium Reactors (SMRs) seems not as huge as the economy of scale would suggest, so the SMRs are going to be important players of the worldwide nuclear renaissance. POLIMIs INCAS model has been developed to compare the investment in SMR with respect to LR. It provides the value of IRR (Internal Rate of Return), NPV (Net Present Value), LUEC (Levelized Unitary Electricity Cost), up-front investment, etc. The aim of this research is to integrate the actual INCAS model, based on discounted cash flows, with the real option theory to measure flexibility of the investor to expand, defer or abandon a nuclear project, under future uncertainties. The work compares the investment in a large nuclear power plant with a series of smaller, modular nuclear power plants on the same site. As a consequence it compares the benefits of the large power plant, coming from the economy of scale, to the benefit of the modular project (flexibility) concluding that managerial flexibility can be measured and used by an investor to face the investment risks. (authors)

  19. Flexible Coal: An Example Evolution from Baseload to Peaking Plant (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, J.

    2014-05-01

    Twenty-first century power systems, with higher penetration levels of low-carbon energy, smart grids, and other emerging technologies, will favor resources that have low marginal costs and provide system flexibility (e.g., the ability to cycle on and off to follow changes in variable renewable energy plant output). Questions remain about both the fate of coal plants in this scenario and whether they can cost-effectively continue to operate if they cycle routinely. The experience from the CGS plant demonstrates that coal plants can become flexible resources. This flexibility - namely the ability to cycle on and off and run at lower output (below 40% of capacity) - requires limited hardware modifications but extensive modifications to operational practice. Cycling does damage the plant and impact its life expectancy compared to baseload operations. Nevertheless, strategic modifications, proactive inspections and training programs, among other operational changes to accommodate cycling, can minimize the extent of damage and optimize the cost of maintenance. CGS's cycling, but not necessarily the associated price tag, is replicable. Context - namely, power market opportunities and composition of the generation fleet - will help determine for other coal plants the optimal balance between the level of cycling-related forced outages and the level of capital investment required to minimize those outages. Replicating CGS's experience elsewhere will likely require a higher acceptance of forced outages than regulators and plant operators are accustomed to; however, an increase in strategic maintenance can minimize the impact on outage rates.

  20. Flexible Coal: An Example Evolution from Baseload to Peaking Plant (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, J.

    2014-08-01

    Twenty-first century power systems, with higher penetration levels of low-carbon energy, smart grids, and other emerging technologies, will favor resources that have low marginal costs and provide system flexibility (e.g., the ability to cycle on and off to follow changes in variable renewable energy plant output). Questions remain about both the fate of coal plants in this scenario and whether they can cost-effectively continue to operate if they cycle routinely. The experience from the CGS plant demonstrates that coal plants can become flexible resources. This flexibility - namely the ability to cycle on and off and run at lower output (below 40% of capacity) - requires limited hardware modifications but extensive modifications to operational practice. Cycling does damage the plant and impact its life expectancy compared to baseload operations. Nevertheless, strategic modifications, proactive inspections and training programs, among other operational changes to accommodate cycling, can minimize the extent of damage and optimize the cost of maintenance. CGS's cycling, but not necessarily the associated price tag, is replicable. Context - namely, power market opportunities and composition of the generation fleet - will help determine for other coal plants the optimal balance between the level of cycling-related forced outages and the level of capital investment required to minimize those outages. Replicating CGS's experience elsewhere will likely require a higher acceptance of forced outages than regulators and plant operators are accustomed to; however, an increase in strategic maintenance can minimize the impact on outage rates.

  1. Effects of repetitive bending on the magnetoresistance of a flexible spin-valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, J.-H.; Kwak, W.-Y.; Cho, B. K.; Choi, H. Y.; Kim, G. H.

    2015-05-07

    A positive magnetostrictive single layer (CoFe) and top-pinned spin-valve structure with positive magnetostrictive free (NiFe) and pinned (CoFe) layers were deposited on flexible polyethylene terephthalate film to investigate the changes in the magnetic properties in flexible environments, especially with a repetitive bending process. It was found that the stress, applied by repetitive bending, changes significantly the magnetic anisotropy of both layers in a single and spin-valve structure depending on the direction of applied stress. The changes in magnetic anisotropy were understood in terms of the inverse magnetostriction effect (the Villari effect) and the elastic recovery force from the flexibility of the polymer substrate. Repetitive bending with tensile stress transverse (or parallel) to the magnetic easy axis was found to enhance (or reduce) the magnetic anisotropy and, consequently, the magnetoresistance ratio of a spin-valve. The observed effects of bending stress in this study should be considered for the practical applications of electro-magnetic devices, especially magneto-striction sensor.

  2. Vortex and structural dynamics of a flexible cylinder in cross-flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shang, Jessica K., E-mail: jshang@princeton.edu; Stone, Howard A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Smits, Alexander J. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2014-05-15

    A low-density, flexible cantilevered cylinder was permitted to vibrate freely under the influence of vortex shedding in the laminar flow regime. We find that the vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of a flexible cantilever depart from those of a flexible cylinder that is fixed at both ends. In particular, we find discontinuous regions of VIV behavior here called states as a function of the reduced velocity U{sup *}. These states are demarcated by discrete changes in the dominant eigenmodes of the structural response as the cylinder vibrates in progressively higher structural modes with increasing U{sup *}. The contribution of structural modes can be identified readily by a modal projection of the cylinder oscillation onto known cantilever beam modes. Oscillation frequencies do not monotonically increase with U{sup *}. The wake response between different states is also found to have distinct characteristics; of particular note is the occurrence of a P+S wake over one of these regions, which is associated with a high-amplitude vibration of the cylinder that is due to the constructive interference of contributing eigenmodes.

  3. An overview of the NREL/SNL flexible turbine characterization project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bir, Gunjit; Kelley, Neil; McKenna, Ed; Osgood, Richard; Sutherland, Herbert; Wright, Alan

    1998-09-01

    There has been a desire to increase the generating capacity of the latest generation of wind turbine designs. In order to achieve these larger capacities, the dimensions of the turbine rotors are also increasing significantly. These larger structures are often much more flexible than their smaller predecessors. This higher degree of structural flexibility has placed increased demands on available analytical models to accurately predict the dynamic response to turbulence excitation, In this paper we present an overview and our progress to date of a joint effort of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Sandia National Laboratory (SNL). In this paper we present an overview and status of an ongoing program to characterize and analytically model the dynamics associated with the operation of one of the most flexible turbine designs currently available, the Cannon Wind Eagle 300 (CWE-300). The effort includes extensive measurements involving a detailed inventory of the turbine's physical properties, establishing the turbine component and fill-system vibrational modes, and documenting the dynamic deformations of the rotor system and support tower while in operation.

  4. Analysis to determine the maximum dimensions of flexible apertures in sensored security netting products.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murton, Mark; Bouchier, Francis A.; vanDongen, Dale T.; Mack, Thomas Kimball; Cutler, Robert Paul; Ross, Michael P.

    2013-08-01

    Although technological advances provide new capabilities to increase the robustness of security systems, they also potentially introduce new vulnerabilities. New capability sometimes requires new performance requirements. This paper outlines an approach to establishing a key performance requirement for an emerging intrusion detection sensor: the sensored net. Throughout the security industry, the commonly adopted standard for maximum opening size through barriers is a requirement based on square inches-typically 96 square inches. Unlike standard rigid opening, the dimensions of a flexible aperture are not fixed, but variable and conformable. It is demonstrably simple for a human intruder to move through a 96-square-inch opening that is conformable to the human body. The longstanding 96-square-inch requirement itself, though firmly embedded in policy and best practice, lacks a documented empirical basis. This analysis concluded that the traditional 96-square-inch standard for openings is insufficient for flexible openings that are conformable to the human body. Instead, a circumference standard is recommended for these newer types of sensored barriers. The recommended maximum circumference for a flexible opening should be no more than 26 inches, as measured on the inside of the netting material.

  5. High-efficiency, flexible CdTe solar cells on ultra-thin glass substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahabaduge, H. P.; Rance, W. L.; Burst, J. M.; Reese, M. O.; Gessert, T. A.; Metzger, W. K.; Barnes, T. M.; Meysing, D. M.; Wolden, C. A.; Li, J.; Beach, J. D.; Garner, S.

    2015-03-30

    Flexible, high-efficiency, low-cost solar cells can enable applications that take advantage of high specific power, flexible form factors, lower installation and transportation costs. Here, we report a certified record efficiency of 16.4% for a flexible CdTe solar cell that is a marked improvement over the previous standard (14.05%). The improvement was achieved by replacing chemical-bath-deposited CdS with sputtered CdS:O and also replacing the high-temperature sputtered ZnTe:Cu back contact layer with co-evaporated and rapidly annealed ZnTe:Cu. We use quantum efficiency and capacitance-voltage measurements combined with device simulations to identify the reasons for the increase in efficiency. Both device simulations and experimental results show that higher carrier density can quantitatively account for the increased open circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) and Fill Factor (FF), and likewise, the increase in short circuit current density (J{sub SC}) can be attributed to the more transparent CdS:O.

  6. ACAA pavement manual. Recommended practice: Coal fly ash in pozzolanic stabilized mixtures for flexible pavement systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to guide pavement design engineers, materials engineers, and construction managers in the design and construction of flexible pavement systems in which low- to high-strength Pozzolanic Stabilized Mixtures' ( PSMs') serve as base layers. A PSM incorporates coal fly ash in combination with activators, aggregates and water. Each of three design methods is useful for determining the thickness of a PSM base layer for a flexible pavement system: Method A - American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) flexible pavement design procedures, using structural layer coefficients; Method B - Mechanistic pavement design procedures, using resilient modulus values for the pavement layers; and Method C - A combination of Method A and Method B, using mechanistic design concepts for determining pavement layer coefficients. PSMs offer several advantages: PSMs are strong, durable mixtures using locally available materials; PSMs are economically competitive with properly engineered full-depth asphalt or crushed stone base courses; PSMs are suited to stabilizing recycled base mixtures; and PSMs are placed and compacted with conventional construction equipment. To provide the needed guidance for capturing the long-term service and cost-saving features of a PSM design, this manual details the following: a procedure for proportioning PSMs; thickness design procedures which include base layer and asphalt wearing course; and proven techniques for PSM mixing and base layer construction.

  7. ZnO and MgZnO Nanocrystalline Flexible Films: Optical and Material Properties

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Huso, Jesse; Morrison, John L.; Che, Hui; Sundararajan, Jency P.; Yeh, Wei Jiang; McIlroy, David; Williams, Thomas J.; Bergman, Leah

    2011-01-01

    An emore » merging material for flexible UV applications is Mg x Zn 1 − x O which is capable of tunable bandgap and luminescence in the UV range of ~3.4 eV–7.4 eV depending on the composition x . Studies on the optical and material characteristics of ZnO and Mg 0.3 Zn 0.7 O nanocrystalline flexible films are presented. The analysis indicates that the ZnO and Mg 0.3 Zn 0.7 O have bandgaps of 3.34 eV and 4.02 eV, respectively. The photoluminescence (PL) of the ZnO film was found to exhibit a structural defect-related emission at ~3.316 eV inherent to the nanocrystalline morphology. The PL of the Mg 0.3 Zn 0.7 O film exhibits two broad peaks at 3.38 eV and at 3.95 eV that are discussed in terms of the solubility limit of the ZnO-MgO alloy system. Additionally, external deformation of the film did not have a significant impact on its properties as indicated by the Raman LO-mode behavior, making these films attractive for UV flexible applications.« less

  8. The Role of Electricity Markets and Market Design in Integrating The Importance of Flexible Electricity Supply: Solar Integration Series. 1 of 3 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-05-03

    The first out of a series of three fact sheets describing the importance of flexible electricity supply.

  9. Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study: Flexibility and High Penetrations of Wind and Solar; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloom, Aaron; Townsend, Aaron; Palchak, David

    2015-07-29

    Balancing wind and solar in a model is relatively easy. All you need to do is assume a very large system with infinite flexibility! But what if you don't have an infinitely flexible system? What if there are thousands of generators nestled in a handful of regions that are unlikely to change their operational practices? Would you still have enough flexibility to balance hundreds of gigawatts of wind and solar at a 5 minute level? At NREL, we think we can, and our industry partners agree. This presentation was presented at the IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting by Aaron Bloom, highlighting results of the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study.

  10. SGP CART Site Affected by Ice Storm

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    2 SGP CART Site Affected by Ice Storm Beginning on January 29, 2002, a major winter storm passed through the Plains states, leaving snow and ice in its path. Northern locales received snow, but most of the SGP CART site received a coating of thick, damaging ice. The intense storm system moved out of the Rocky Mountains, pulling in moisture from the Gulf of Mexico. A cold, shallow air mass already over Oklahoma and Kansas set up a temperature inversion in the atmosphere, with warmer air

  11. Exporting licensing regulations affecting US geothermal firms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-08-01

    This document presents a brief introduction and overview of the Department of Commerce's Export Administration Regulations which might affect potential US geothermal goods exporters. It is intended to make US geothermal firms officials aware of the existence of such regulations and to provide them with references, contacts and phone numbers where they can obtain specific and detailed information and assistance. It must be stressed however, that the ultimate responsibility for complying with the above mentioned regulations lies with the exporter who must consult the complete version of the regulations.

  12. Economic impact analysis and regulatory flexibility analysis of air pollution regulations: Architectural and industrial maintenance coatings. Draft report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conner, L.; Madariaga, B.

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the results of cost, economic impact, and regulatory flexibility analysis of a proposed federal rule for volatile organic compounds (VOC) for the architectural and industrial maintenance (AIM) coatings industry.

  13. An Annotated Bibliography of High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission and Flexible AC Transmission (FACTS) Devices, 1991-1993.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litzenberger, Wayne; Lava, Val

    1994-08-01

    References are contained for HVDC systems, converter stations and components, overhead transmission lines, cable transmission, system design and operations, simulation of high voltage direct current systems, high-voltage direct current installations, and flexible AC transmission system (FACTS).

  14. Binding of flexible and constrained ligands to the Grb2 SH2 domain: structural effects of ligand preorganization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, John H.; DeLorbe, John E.; Benfield, Aaron P.; Martin, Stephen F.

    2010-10-01

    Structures of the Grb2 SH2 domain complexed with a series of flexible and constrained replacements of the phosphotyrosine residue in tripeptides derived from Ac-pYXN (where X = V, I, E and Q) were compared to determine what, if any, structural differences arise as a result of ligand preorganization. Structures of the Grb2 SH2 domain complexed with a series of pseudopeptides containing flexible (benzyl succinate) and constrained (aryl cyclopropanedicarboxylate) replacements of the phosphotyrosine (pY) residue in tripeptides derived from Ac-pYXN-NH{sub 2} (where X = V, I, E and Q) were elucidated by X-ray crystallography. Complexes of flexible/constrained pairs having the same pY + 1 amino acid were analyzed in order to ascertain what structural differences might be attributed to constraining the phosphotyrosine replacement. In this context, a given structural dissimilarity between complexes was considered to be significant if it was greater than the corresponding difference in complexes coexisting within the same asymmetric unit. The backbone atoms of the domain generally adopt a similar conformation and orientation relative to the ligands in the complexes of each flexible/constrained pair, although there are some significant differences in the relative orientations of several loop regions, most notably in the BC loop that forms part of the binding pocket for the phosphate group in the tyrosine replacements. These variations are greater in the set of complexes of constrained ligands than in the set of complexes of flexible ligands. The constrained ligands make more direct polar contacts to the domain than their flexible counterparts, whereas the more flexible ligand of each pair makes more single-water-mediated contacts to the domain; there was no correlation between the total number of proteinligand contacts and whether the phosphotyrosine replacement of the ligand was preorganized. The observed differences in hydrophobic interactions between the complexes of each

  15. Financial Incentives Available for Facilities Affected by the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Financial Incentives Available for Facilities Affected by the US EPA Boiler MACT Proposed Rule, December 2012 Financial Incentives Available for Facilities Affected by the US EPA ...

  16. Study of Factors Affecting Shrub Establishment on the Monticello...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Study of Factors Affecting Shrub Establishment on the Monticello, Utah, Disposal Cell Cover Study of Factors Affecting Shrub Establishment on the Monticello, Utah, Disposal Cell...

  17. EO 13211: Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    EO 13211: Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use EO 13211: Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use I am...

  18. Key Parameters Affecting DPF Performance Degradation and Impact...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Parameters Affecting DPF Performance Degradation and Impact on Lifetime Fuel Economy Key Parameters Affecting DPF Performance Degradation and Impact on Lifetime Fuel Economy ...

  19. Kenya-Affecting Electricity Policy through a Community Micro...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Affecting Electricity Policy through a Community Micro Hydro Project Jump to: navigation, search Name Kenya-Affecting Electricity Policy through a Community Micro Hydro Project...

  20. Three-dimensional graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} nanostructures as cathode materials for flexible lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Y.H., E-mail: yhding@xtu.edu.cn [College of Chemical Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Institute of Rheology Mechanics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Ren, H.M. [Institute of Rheology Mechanics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Huang, Y.Y. [BTR New Energy Materials Inc., Shenzhen 518000 (China); Chang, F.H.; Zhang, P. [Institute of Rheology Mechanics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} composites as a high-performance cathode material for flexible lithium-ion batteries have been prepared by using a co-precipitation method to synthesize graphene/LiFePO4 powders as precursors and then followed by a solvent evaporation process. - Highlights: Flexible LiFePO{sub 4}/graphene films were prepared first time by a solvent evaporation process. The flexible electrode exhibited a high discharge capacity without conductive additives. Graphene network offers the electrode adequate strength to withstand repeated flexing. - Abstract: Three-dimensional graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} nanostructures for flexible lithium-ion batteries were successfully prepared by solvent evaporation method. Structural characteristics of flexible electrodes were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrochemical performance of graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} was examined by a variety of electrochemical testing techniques. The graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} nanostructures showed high electrochemical properties and significant flexibility. The composites with low graphene content exhibited a high capacity of 163.7 mAh g{sup ?1} at 0.1 C and 114 mAh g{sup ?1} at 5 C without further incorporation of conductive agents.

  1. Management of the baseline shift using a new and simple method for respiratory-gated radiation therapy: Detectability and effectiveness of a flexible monitoring system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tachibana, Hidenobu; Kitamura, Nozomi; Ito, Yasushi; Kawai, Daisuke; Nakajima, Masaru; Tsuda, Akihisa; Shiizuka, Hisao

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: In respiratory-gated radiation therapy, a baseline shift decreases the accuracy of target coverage and organs at risk (OAR) sparing. The effectiveness of audio-feedback and audio-visual feedback in correcting the baseline shift in the breathing pattern of the patient has been demonstrated previously. However, the baseline shift derived from the intrafraction motion of the patient's body cannot be corrected by these methods. In the present study, the authors designed and developed a simple and flexible system. Methods: The system consisted of a web camera and a computer running our in-house software. The in-house software was adapted to template matching and also to no preimage processing. The system was capable of monitoring the baseline shift in the intrafraction motion of the patient's body. Another marker box was used to monitor the baseline shift due to the flexible setups required of a marker box for gated signals. The system accuracy was evaluated by employing a respiratory motion phantom and was found to be within AAPM Task Group 142 tolerance (positional accuracy <2 mm and temporal accuracy <100 ms) for respiratory-gated radiation therapy. Additionally, the effectiveness of this flexible and independent system in gated treatment was investigated in healthy volunteers, in terms of the results from the differences in the baseline shift detectable between the marker positions, which the authors evaluated statistically. Results: The movement of the marker on the sternum [1.599 {+-} 0.622 mm (1 SD)] was substantially decreased as compared with the abdomen [6.547 {+-} 0.962 mm (1 SD)]. Additionally, in all of the volunteers, the baseline shifts for the sternum [-0.136 {+-} 0.868 (2 SD)] were in better agreement with the nominal baseline shifts than was the case for the abdomen [-0.722 {+-} 1.56 mm (2 SD)]. The baseline shifts could be accurately measured and detected using the monitoring system, which could acquire the movement of the marker on the

  2. Assembly of new polyoxometalate–templated metal–organic frameworks based on flexible ligands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Na; Mu, Bao; Lv, Lei; Huang, Rudan

    2015-03-15

    Four new polyoxometalate(POM)–templated metal–organic frameworks based on flexible ligands, namely, [Cu{sub 6}(bip){sub 12}(PMo{sup VI}{sub 12}O{sub 40}){sub 2}(PMo{sup V}Mo{sup VI}{sub 11}O{sub 40}O{sub 2})]·8H{sub 2}O(1), [Cu{sup I}{sub 3}Cu{sup II}{sub 3}(bip){sub 12}(PMo{sup VI}{sub 12}O{sub 40}){sub 2}(PMo{sup V}{sub 12}O{sub 34})]·8H{sub 2}O(2), [Ni{sub 6}(bip){sub 12}(PMo{sup VI}{sub 12}O{sub 40})(PMo{sup VI}{sub 11}Mo{sup V}O{sub 40}){sub 2}]Cl·6H{sub 2}O(3), [Co{sup II}{sub 3}Co{sup III}{sub 2}(H{sub 2}bib){sub 2}(Hbib){sub 2}(PW{sub 9}O{sub 34}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]·6H{sub 2}O(4) (bip=1,3-bis(imidazolyl)propane, bib=1,4-bis(imidazolyl)butane) have been obtained under hydrothermal condition and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, elemental analyses, and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. The studies of single crystal X-ray indicate that compounds 1–3 crystallize in the trigonal space group P-3, and compound 4 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1. Compounds 1 and 3 represent 3D frameworks, and POMs as the guest molecules are incorporated into the cages which are composed of the ligands and metals, while compounds 2 and 4 show 3D frameworks by hydrogen bonds. This compounds provide new examples of host–guest compounds based on flexible bis(imidazole) ligands. In addition, the electrochemical property and the catalytic property of compound 1 have also been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Four inorganic–organic hybrid compounds based polyoxometalates (POMs) and flexible ligands, namely, have been obtained under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, elemental analyses, IR spectra, and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. Compounds 1–3 are new examples of host–guest compounds based on flexible bis(imidazole) ligands and POMs as the guest molecules are incorporated into the cages which are composed of the ligands and metals. - Highlights: • Polyoxometalate

  3. xMDFF: molecular dynamics flexible fitting of low-resolution X-ray structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGreevy, Ryan; Singharoy, Abhishek; Li, Qufei; Zhang, Jingfen; Xu, Dong; Perozo, Eduardo; Schulten, Klaus

    2014-09-01

    A new real-space refinement method for low-resolution X-ray crystallography is presented. The method is based on the molecular dynamics flexible fitting protocol targeted at addressing large-scale deformations of the search model to achieve refinement with minimal manual intervention. An explanation of the method is provided, augmented by results from the refinement of both synthetic and experimental low-resolution data, including an independent electrophysiological verification of the xMDFF-refined crystal structure of a voltage-sensor protein. X-ray crystallography remains the most dominant method for solving atomic structures. However, for relatively large systems, the availability of only medium-to-low-resolution diffraction data often limits the determination of all-atom details. A new molecular dynamics flexible fitting (MDFF)-based approach, xMDFF, for determining structures from such low-resolution crystallographic data is reported. xMDFF employs a real-space refinement scheme that flexibly fits atomic models into an iteratively updating electron-density map. It addresses significant large-scale deformations of the initial model to fit the low-resolution density, as tested with synthetic low-resolution maps of d-ribose-binding protein. xMDFF has been successfully applied to re-refine six low-resolution protein structures of varying sizes that had already been submitted to the Protein Data Bank. Finally, via systematic refinement of a series of data from 3.6 to 7 resolution, xMDFF refinements together with electrophysiology experiments were used to validate the first all-atom structure of the voltage-sensing protein Ci-VSP.

  4. Roll-to-roll atomic layer deposition process for flexible electronics encapsulation applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maydannik, Philipp S. Kriinen, Tommi O.; Lahtinen, Kimmo; Cameron, David C.; Sderlund, Mikko; Soininen, Pekka; Johansson, Petri; Kuusipalo, Jurkka; Moro, Lorenza; Zeng, Xianghui

    2014-09-01

    At present flexible electronic devices are under extensive development and, among them, flexible organic light-emitting diode displays are the closest to a large market deployment. One of the remaining unsolved challenges is high throughput production of impermeable flexible transparent barrier layers that protect sensitive light-emitting materials against ambient moisture. The present studies deal with the adaptation of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) process to high-throughput roll-to-roll production using the spatial ALD concept. We report the development of such a process for the deposition of 20?nm thickness Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} diffusion barrier layers on 500?mm wide polymer webs. The process uses trimethylaluminum and water as precursors at a substrate temperature of 105?C. The observation of self-limiting film growth behavior and uniformity of thickness confirms the ALD growth mechanism. Water vapor transmission rates for 20?nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates were measured as a function of substrate residence time, that is, time of exposure of the substrate to one precursor zone. Moisture permeation levels measured at 38?C/90% relative humidity by coulometric isostaticisobaric method were below the detection limit of the instrument (<5??10{sup ?4}?g/m{sup 2} day) for films coated at web moving speed of 0.25?m/min. Measurements using the Ca test indicated water vapor transmission rates ?5??10{sup ?6} g/m{sup 2} day. Optical measurements on the coated web showed minimum transmission of 80% in the visible range that is the same as the original PEN substrate.

  5. Highly Flexible Self-Assembled V2O5 Cathodes Enabled by Conducting Diblock Copolymers

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    An, Hyosung; Mike, Jared; Smith, Kendall A.; Swank, Lisa; Lin, Yen-Hao; L. Pesek, Stacy; Verduzco, Rafael; Lutkenhaus, Jodie L.

    2015-09-22

    Mechanically robust battery electrodes are desired for applications in wearable devices, flexible displays, and structural energy and power. In this regard, the challenge is to balance mechanical and electrochemical properties in materials that are inherently brittle. Here, we demonstrate a unique water-based self-assembly approach that incorporates a diblock copolymer bearing electron- and ion-conducting blocks, poly(3-hexylthiophene)-block-poly(ethyleneoxide) (P3HT-b-PEO), with V2O5 to form a flexible, tough, carbon-free hybrid battery cathode. V2O5 is a promising lithium intercalation material, but it remains limited by its poor conductivity and mechanical properties. Our approach leads to a unique electrode structure consisting of interlocking V2O5 layers glued togethermore » with micellar aggregates of P3HT-b-PEO, which results in robust mechanical properties, far exceeding the those obtained from conventional fluoropolymer binders. Only 5 wt % polymer is required to triple the flexibility of V2O5, and electrodes comprised of 10 wt % polymer have unusually high toughness (293 kJ/m3) and specific energy (530 Wh/kg), both higher than reduced graphene oxide paper electrodes. Furthermore, addition of P3HT-b-PEO enhances lithium-ion diffusion, eliminates cracking during cycling, and boosts cyclability relative to V2O5 alone. These results highlight the importance of tradeoffs between mechanical and electrochemical performance, where polymer content can be used to tune both aspects.« less

  6. Eddy current probe with foil sensor mounted on flexible probe tip and method of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viertl, John R. M.; Lee, Martin K.

    2001-01-01

    A pair of copper coils are embedded in the foil strip. A first coil of the pair generates an electromagnetic field that induces eddy currents on the surface, and the second coil carries a current influenced by the eddy currents on the surface. The currents in the second coil are analyzed to obtain information on the surface eddy currents. An eddy current probe has a metal housing having a tip that is covered by a flexible conductive foil strip. The foil strip is mounted on a deformable nose at the probe tip so that the strip and coils will conform to the surface to which they are applied.

  7. Analysis Insights: Energy Storage - Possibilities for Expanding Electric Grid Flexibility (Brochure), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    764 F E B R U A R Y 2 0 1 6 A N A LY S I S I N S I G H T S ENERGY STORAGE Possibilities for Expanding Electric Grid Flexibility POTENTIAL GRID APPLICATIONS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CHARACTERISTICS 0.1 1 10 100 1000 Seconds Minutes Hours Days Generation Transmission & Distribution End Use E ciency 85-100% 70-85% 45-70% 30-45% Energy Management Operating & Ramping Reserves Frequency Response & Regulation Provide uninterruptable power supply-provide back-up power Optimize time of use retail

  8. Silicon-Based Thermoelectrics: Harvesting Low Quality Heat Using Economically Printed Flexible Nanostructured Stacked Thermoelectric Junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-03-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: UIUC is experimenting with silicon-based materials to develop flexible thermoelectric devices—which convert heat into energy—that can be mass-produced at low cost. A thermoelectric device, which resembles a computer chip, creates electricity when a different temperature is applied to each of its sides. Existing commercial thermoelectric devices contain the element tellurium, which limits production levels because tellurium has become increasingly rare. UIUC is replacing this material with microscopic silicon wires that are considerably cheaper and could be equally effective. Improvements in thermoelectric device production could return enough wasted heat to add up to 23% to our current annual electricity production.

  9. Modal testing of a very flexible 110 m wind turbine structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carne, T.G.; Lauffer, J.P.; Gomez, A.J.; Benjannet, Hassine

    1988-01-01

    Modal Testing of immense and very flexible structures poses a number of problems. It requires innovative excitation techniques since the modal frequencies of these stuctures can be quite low. Also, substantial energy must be input to the structure to obtain reasonable levels of response. In this paper, results are presented from a modal test of the 110 m tall EOLE wind turbine which had four modal frequencies below 1.0 Hz. Step-relaxation and wind were used to excite the structure. 5 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Impact of Generator Flexibility on Electric System Costs and Integration of Renewable Energy

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Impact of Generator Flexibility on Electric System Costs and Integration of Renewable Energy D. Palchak and P. Denholm Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-62275 July 2014 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 National Renewable

  11. Structural evaluation of W-211 flexible receiver platforms and tank pit walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrivastava, H.P.

    1997-11-03

    This document is a structural analysis of the Flexible Receiver Platforms and the tank-pit wall during removal of equipment and during a accidental drop of that equipment. The platform and the pit walls must withstand a accidental drop of a mixer and transfer pumps in specific pits in tanks 102-AP and 104-AP. A mixer pump will be removed from riser 11 in pit 2A on tank 241-AP-102. A transfer pump will be removed from riser 13 in pit 2D on tank 241-AP-102 and another transfer pump will be removed from riser 3A in pit 4A on tank 241-AP-104.

  12. Capturing the Impact of Storage and Other Flexible Technologies on Electric System Planning

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Capturing the Impact of Storage and Other Flexible Technologies on Electric System Planning Elaine Hale, Brady Stoll, and Trieu Mai National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-65726 May 2016 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications.

  13. Mechanisms affecting swelling in alloys with precipitates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansur, L.K.; Haynes, M.R.; Lee, E.H.

    1980-01-01

    In alloys under irradiation many mechanisms exist that couple phase instability to cavity swelling. These are compounded with the more familiar mechanisms associated with point defect behavior and the evolution of microstructure. The mechanisms may be classified according to three modes of operation. Some affect cavity swelling directly by cavity-precipitate particle association, others operate indirectly by precipitate-induced changes in sinks other than cavities and finally there are mechanisms that are mediated by precipitate-induced changes in the host matrix. The physics of one mechanism of each type is developed in detail and the results compared where possible to experimental measurements. In particular, we develop the theory necessary to treat the effects on swelling of precipitation-induced changes in overall sink density; precipitation-induced changes in point defect trapping by solute depletion and creation of precipitate particle-matrix interfacial trap sites.

  14. Cylinder surface, temperature may affect LPG odorization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McWilliams, H.

    1988-01-01

    A study of possible odorant fade in propane by the Arthur D. Little Co. (Boston) has indicated that oxidation of interior surfaces of LPG containers may cause the odorant, ethyl mercaptan, to fade. The oxidation, ferous oxide, is a black, easily oxidizable powder that is the monoxide of iron. The study, contracted for by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), is part of that agency's study of residential LP-gas systems. Another study is currently underway by an NLPGA task force headed by Bob Reid of Petrolane (Long Beach, Calif.). It may not be finished until the end of next year. Recently, the Propane Gas Association of Canada completed a study of odorant fade with the conclusion that much more study is needed on the subject. In addition to the cylinder surface problem, the CPSC study indicated that ambient temperatures might also affect the presence of odorant in product. This article reviews some of the results.

  15. Various factors affect coiled tubing limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Y.S.

    1996-01-15

    Safety and reliability remain the primary concerns in coiled tubing operations. Factors affecting safety and reliability include corrosion, flexural bending, internal (or external) pressure and tension (or compression), and mechanical damage due to improper use. Such limits as coiled tubing fatigue, collapse, and buckling need to be understood to avoid disaster. With increased use of coiled tubing, operators will gain more experience. But at the same time, with further research and development of coiled tubing, the manufacturing quality will be improved and fatigue, collapse, and buckling models will become more mature, and eventually standard specifications will be available. This paper reviews the uses of coiled tubing and current research on mechanical behavior of said tubing. It also discusses several models used to help predict fatigue and failure levels.

  16. Hydroprocessing conditions affect catalyst shape selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, B.H.; Donnis, B.B.L.; Moyse, B.

    1986-12-08

    Diffusion characteristics, pressure drop limitations, catalyst pore size, catalyst loading techniques, and catalytic activity requirements all affect the selection of the catalyst shape used in hydroprocessing of heavy distillates. Haldor Topsoe Inc. has studied the effects of these hydroprocessing conditions on various shapes of its TK-551 nickel-molybdenum hydroprocessing catalysts. The studies were carried out using Arabian Heavy vacuum gas oil (VGO). For hydroprocessing heavy distillates, polylobed catalysts and dense loading techniques have obvious advantages. The higher external surface of polylobed catalysts ensures better accessibility to the inner surface of the catalyst, and dense loading allows more catalytic activity in a given reactor volume. However there are drawbacks. Polylobed catalysts tend to pack less densely thus reducing volume activity. And dense loading results in higher pressure through the bed. The philosophy behind the use of polylobed catalysts is to improve the diffusion characteristics.

  17. Assisting Federal Facilities with Energy Conservation Technologies (AFFECT)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Funding Opportunity | Department of Energy Project Financing » Assisting Federal Facilities with Energy Conservation Technologies (AFFECT) Funding Opportunity Assisting Federal Facilities with Energy Conservation Technologies (AFFECT) Funding Opportunity The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides project assistance through the AFFECT funding opportunity. AFFECT provides grants for the development of capital projects to increase the energy efficiency and renewable energy

  18. Flexible Pillared Graphene-Paper Electrodes for High-Performance Electrochemical Supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Gongkai; Sun, Xiang; Lu, Fengyuan; Sun, Hongtao; Yu, Mingpeng; Jiang, Weilin; Liu, Changsheng; Lian, Jie

    2012-02-09

    Flexible graphene paper (GP) pillared by carbon black (CB) nanoparticles using a simple vacuum filtration method is developed as a high-performance electrode material for supercapacitors. Through the introduction of CB nanoparticles as spacers, the self-restacking of graphene sheets during the filtration process is mitigated to a great extent. The pillared GP-based supercapacitors exhibit excellent electrochemical performances and cyclic stabilities compared with GP without the addition of CB nanoparticles. At a scan rate of 10 mV s?1, the specific capacitance of the pillared GP is 138 F g^?1 and 83.2 F g^?1 with negligible 3.85% and 4.35% capacitance degradation after 2000 cycles in aqueous and organic electrolytes, respectively. At an extremely fast scan rate of 500 mV s ^?1, the specific capacitance can reach 80 F g^?1 in aqueous electrolyte. No binder is needed for assembling the supercapacitor cells and the pillared GP itself may serve as a current collector due to its intrinsic high electrical conductivity. The pillared GP has great potential in the development of promising flexible and ultralight-weight supercapacitors for electrochemical energy storage.

  19. A High-Flux, Flexible Membrane with Parylene-encapsulated Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, H G; In, J; Kim, S; Fornasiero, F; Holt, J K; Grigoropoulos, C P; Noy, A; Bakajin, O

    2008-03-14

    We present fabrication and characterization of a membrane based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and parylene. Carbon nanotubes have shown orders of magnitude enhancement in gas and water permeability compared to estimates generated by conventional theories [1, 2]. Large area membranes that exhibit flux enhancement characteristics of carbon nanotubes may provide an economical solution to a variety of technologies including water desalination [3] and gas sequestration [4]. We report a novel method of making carbon nanotube-based, robust membranes with large areas. A vertically aligned dense carbon nanotube array is infiltrated with parylene. Parylene polymer creates a pinhole free transparent film by exhibiting high surface conformity and excellent crevice penetration. Using this moisture-, chemical- and solvent-resistant polymer creates carbon nanotube membranes that promise to exhibit high stability and biocompatibility. CNT membranes are formed by releasing a free-standing film that consists of parylene-infiltrated CNTs, followed by CNT uncapping on both sides of the composite material. Thus fabricated membranes show flexibility and ductility due to the parylene matrix material, as well as high permeability attributed to embedded carbon nanotubes. These membranes have a potential for applications that may require high flux, flexibility and durability.

  20. Rigid versus Flexible Ligands on Carbon Nanotubes for the Enhanced Sensitivity of Cobalt Ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gou, Pingping; Kraut, Nadine D.; Feigel, Ian Matthew; Star, Alexander

    2013-02-26

    Carbon nanotubes have shown great promise in the fabrication of ultra-compact and highly sensitive chemical and biological sensors. Additional chemical functionalization schemes can controllably improve selectivity of the carbon nanotube-based sensors; however the exact transduction mechanism is still under debate. In this article we detail the synthesis and selective response of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) functionalized with polyazomethine (PAM) polymer towards the application of a specific trace metal ion detector. The response of the polymer system was compared to shape persistent macrocycle (MAC) comprised of identical ion coordination ligands. While ion detection with rigid MAC/SWNT chemiresistor was comparable to bare SWNT, flexible PAM offers significant SWNT signal amplification, allowing for picomolar detection of Co{sup 2+} ions with both selectivity and a fast response. We hypothesized that rearrangement of the flexible PAM on the SWNT network is a sensing mechanism which allows for ultrasensitive detection of metal ions. The electron transfer and polymer rearrangement on the SWNT was studied by a combination of optical spectroscopy and electrical measurements - ultimately allowing for a better understanding of fundamental mechanisms that prompt device response.

  1. Development of flexible, free-standing, thin films for additive manufacturing and localized energy generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Billy; McCollum, Jena; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    Film energetics are becoming increasingly popular because a variety of technologies are driving a need for localized energy generation in a stable, safe and flexible form. Aluminum (Al) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO₃) composites were mixed into a silicon binder and extruded using a blade casting technique to form flexible free-standing films ideal for localized energy generation. Since this material can be extruded onto a surface it is well suited to additive manufacturing applications. This study examines the influence of 0-35% by mass potassium perchlorate (KClO₄) additive on the combustion behavior of these energetic films. Without KClO₄ the film exhibits thermal instabilities that produce unsteady energy propagation upon reaction. All films were cast at a thickness of 1 mm with constant volume percent solids to ensure consistent rheological properties. The films were ignited and flame propagation was measured. The results show that as the mass percent KClO₄ increased, the flame speed increased and peaked at 0.43 cm/s and 30 wt% KClO₄. Thermochemical equilibrium simulations show that the heat of combustion increases with increasing KClO₄ concentration up to a maximum at 20 wt% when the heat of combustion plateaus, indicating that the increased chemical energy liberated by the additional KClO₄ promotes stable energy propagation. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis show that the silicone binder participates as a fuel and reacts with KClO₄ adding energy to the reaction and promoting propagation.

  2. Nanoalloy Printed and Pulse-Laser Sintered Flexible Sensor Devices with Enhanced Stability and Materials Compatibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Wei; Rovore, Thomas; Weerawarne, Darshana; Osterhoudt, Gavin; Kang, Ning; Joseph, Pharrah; Luo, Jin; Shim, Bonggu; Poliks, Mark; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2015-06-02

    While conformal and wearable devices have become one of the most desired formats for printable electronics, it is challenging to establish a scalable process that produces stable conductive patterns but also uses substrates compatible with widely available wearable materials. Here, we describe findings of an investigation of a nanoalloy ink printed and pulsed laser sintered conductive patterns as flexible functional devices with enhanced stability and materials compatibility. While nanoparticle inks are desired for printable electronics, almost all existing nanoparticle inks are based on single-metal component, which, as an electronic element, is limited by its inherent stabilities of the metal such as propensity of metal oxidation and mobility of metal ions, especially in sintering processes. The work here has demonstrated the first example in exploiting plasmonic coupling of nanoalloys and pulsed-laser energy with controllable thermal penetration. The experimental and theoretical results have revealed clear correlation between the pulsed laser parameters and the nanoalloy structural characteristics. The superior performance of the resulting flexible sensor device, upon imparting nanostructured sensing materials, for detecting volatile organic compounds has significant implications to developing stable and wearable sensors for monitoring environmental pollutants and breath biomarkers. This simple “nanoalloy printing 'laser sintering' nanostructure printing” process is entirely general to many different sensor devices and nanostructured sensing materials, enabling the ability to easily construct sophisticated sensor array.

  3. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The DOE is conducting a comprehensive technical analysis of a flexible-fuel transportation system in the United States -- that is, a system that could easily switch between petroleum and another fuel, depending on price and availability. The DOE Alternative Fuels Assessment is aimed directly at questions of energy security and fuel availability, but covers a wide range of issues. This report examines environmental, health, and safety concerns associated with a switch to alternative- and flexible-fuel vehicles. Three potential alternatives to oil-based fuels in the transportation sector are considered: methanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and electricity. The objective is to describe and discuss qualitatively potential environmental, health, and safety issues that would accompany widespread use of these three fuels. This report presents the results of exhaustive literature reviews; discussions with specialists in the vehicular and fuel-production industries and with Federal, State, and local officials; and recent information from in-use fleet tests. Each chapter deals with the end-use and process emissions of air pollutants, presenting an overview of the potential air pollution contribution of the fuel --relative to that of gasoline and diesel fuel -- in various applications. Carbon monoxide, particulate matter, ozone precursors, and carbon dioxide are emphasized. 67 refs., 6 figs. , 8 tabs.

  4. Development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems for Flexible Electricity and Reduced Fossil Fuel Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel Curtis; Charles Forsberg; Humberto Garcia

    2015-05-01

    We propose the development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems (NROSS) in northern Europe, China, and the western United States to provide large supplies of flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity and fossil fuel production with reduced CO2 emissions. NROSS are a class of large hybrid energy systems in which base-load nuclear reactors provide the primary energy used to produce shale oil from kerogen deposits and simultaneously provide flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity to the grid. Kerogen is solid organic matter trapped in sedimentary shale, and large reserves of this resource, called oil shale, are found in northern Europe, China, and the western United States. NROSS couples electricity generation and transportation fuel production in a single operation, reduces lifecycle carbon emissions from the fuel produced, improves revenue for the nuclear plant, and enables a major shift toward a very-low-carbon electricity grid. NROSS will require a significant development effort in the United States, where kerogen resources have never been developed on a large scale. In Europe, however, nuclear plants have been used for process heat delivery (district heating), and kerogen use is familiar in certain countries. Europe, China, and the United States all have the opportunity to use large scale NROSS development to enable major growth in renewable generation and either substantially reduce or eliminate their dependence on foreign fossil fuel supplies, accelerating their transitions to cleaner, more efficient, and more reliable energy systems.

  5. The Integrated Plasma Simulator: A Flexible Python Framework for Coupled Multiphysics Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foley, Samantha S; Elwasif, Wael R; Bernholdt, David E

    2011-11-01

    High-fidelity coupled multiphysics simulations are an increasingly important aspect of computational science. In many domains, however, there has been very limited experience with simulations of this sort, therefore research in coupled multiphysics often requires computational frameworks with significant flexibility to respond to the changing directions of the physics and mathematics. This paper presents the Integrated Plasma Simulator (IPS), a framework designed for loosely coupled simulations of fusion plasmas. The IPS provides users with a simple component architecture into which a wide range of existing plasma physics codes can be inserted as components. Simulations can take advantage of multiple levels of parallelism supported in the IPS, and can be controlled by a high-level ``driver'' component, or by other coordination mechanisms, such as an asynchronous event service. We describe the requirements and design of the framework, and how they were implemented in the Python language. We also illustrate the flexibility of the framework by providing examples of different types of simulations that utilize various features of the IPS.

  6. Vertical group III-V nanowires on si, heterostructures, flexible arrays and fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Deli; Soci, Cesare; Bao, Xinyu; Wei, Wei; Jing, Yi; Sun, Ke

    2015-01-13

    Embodiments of the invention provide a method for direct heteroepitaxial growth of vertical III-V semiconductor nanowires on a silicon substrate. The silicon substrate is etched to substantially completely remove native oxide. It is promptly placed in a reaction chamber. The substrate is heated and maintained at a growth temperature. Group III-V precursors are flowed for a growth time. Preferred embodiment vertical Group III-V nanowires on silicon have a core-shell structure, which provides a radial homojunction or heterojunction. A doped nanowire core is surrounded by a shell with complementary doping. Such can provide high optical absorption due to the long optical path in the axial direction of the vertical nanowires, while reducing considerably the distance over which carriers must diffuse before being collected in the radial direction. Alloy composition can also be varied. Radial and axial homojunctions and heterojunctions can be realized. Embodiments provide for flexible Group III-V nanowire structures. An array of Group III-V nanowire structures is embedded in polymer. A fabrication method forms the vertical nanowires on a substrate, e.g., a silicon substrate. Preferably, the nanowires are formed by the preferred methods for fabrication of Group III-V nanowires on silicon. Devices can be formed with core/shell and core/multi-shell nanowires and the devices are released from the substrate upon which the nanowires were formed to create a flexible structure that includes an array of vertical nanowires embedded in polymer.

  7. Flexible stainless steel hose liner used to rehab drain pipe for seal gates and outlet tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sauer, S.J.; Monsanto, R. )

    1993-08-01

    Not unlike other dams, the Bureau of Reclamation's 6,500-MW Grand Coulee Dam in Washington State has a large amount of embedded piping, conduits, and drains. Typically, these features were constructed of ductile iron, cast iron, or carbon steel materials. Over the years, excessive internal corrosion of the drains for 102-inch ring seal gates and outlet tubes created leaks that required attention. Reclamation performed a number of temporary repairs before it became evident that the drain system must be rehabilitated. After considering several alternatives for rehabilitation, Reclamation selected stainless steel flexible hose liners for the job. Reclamation is satisfied with the performance of the stainless steel flexible hose liner. The total cost for installing the liners for nine drain lines (for three outlet tubes) was $15,000. Of that, materials cost $7,500, and labor and overhead cost $7,500. The inserts themselves cost from $640 for an 18-foot by 6-inch section. While this was not the least expensive option, it was the best choice for this job. The procedure will be repeated for other outlet tubes at Grand Coulee. Information used in this rehabilitation is being made available to other Reclamation projects.

  8. Recovery Act : Near-Single-Crystalline Photovoltaic Thin Films on Polycrystalline, Flexible Substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkat Selvamanickam; Alex Freundlich

    2010-11-29

    III-V photovoltaics have exhibited efficiencies above 40%, but have found only a limited use because of the high cost of single crystal substrates. At the other end of the spectrum, polycrystalline and amorphous thin film solar cells offer the advantage of low-cost fabrication, but have not yielded high efficiencies. Our program is based on single-crystalline-like thin film photovoltaics on polycrystalline substrates using biaxially-textured templates made by Ion Beam-Assisted Deposition (IBAD). MgO templates made by IBAD on flexible metal substrate have been successfully used for epitaxial growth of germanium films. In spite of a 4.5% lattice mismatch, heteroepitaxial growth of Ge was achieved on CeO2 that was grown on IBAD MgO template. Room temperature optical bandgap of the Ge films was identified at 0.67 eV indicating minimal residual strain. Refraction index and extinction coefficient values of the Ge films were found to match well with that measured from a reference Ge single crystal. GaAs has been successfully grown epitaxially on Ge on metal substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. RHEED patterns indicate self annihilation of antiphase boundaries and the growth of a single domain GaAs. The GaAs is found to exhibit strong photoluminescence signal and, an existence of a relatively narrow (FWHM~20 meV) band-edge excitons measured in this film indicates a good optoelectronic quality of deposited GaAs. While excellent epitaxial growth has been achieved in GaAs on flexible metal substrates, the defect density of the films as measured by High Resolution X-ray Diffraction and etch pit experiments showed a high value of 5 * 10^8 per cm^2. Cross sectional transmission electron microscopy of the multilayer architecture showed concentration of threading dislocations near the germanium-ceria interface. The defect density was found decrease as the Ge films were made thicker. The defects appear to originate from the MgO layer presumably because of large lattice mismatches

  9. Cadmium affects retinogenesis during zebrafish embryonic development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hen Chow, Elly Suk; Yu Hui, Michelle Nga; Cheng, Chi Wa; Cheng, Shuk Han

    2009-02-15

    Ocular malformations are commonly observed in embryos of aquatic species after exposure to toxicants. Using zebrafish embryos as the model organism, we showed that cadmium exposure from sphere stage (4 hpf) to end of segmentation stage (24 hpf) induced microphthalmia in cadmium-treated embryos. Embryos with eye defects were then assessed for visual abilities. Cadmium-exposed embryos were behaviorally blind, showing hyperpigmentation and loss of camouflage response to light. We investigated the cellular basis of the formation of the small eyes phenotype and the induction of blindness by studying retina development and retinotectal projections. Retinal progenitors were found in cadmium-treated embryos albeit in smaller numbers. The number of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), the first class of retinal cells to differentiate during retinogenesis, was reduced, while photoreceptor cells, the last batch of retinal neurons to differentiate, were absent. Cadmium also affected the propagation of neurons in neurogenic waves. The neurons remained in the ventronasal area and failed to spread across the retina. Drastically reduced RGC axons and disrupted optic stalk showed that the optic nerves did not extend from the retina beyond the chiasm into the tectum. Our data suggested that impairment in neuronal differentiation of the retina, disruption in RGC axon formation and absence of cone photoreceptors were the causes of microphthalmia and visual impairment in cadmium-treated embryos.

  10. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muenster, M.; Meibom, P.

    2010-12-15

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO{sub 2} quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste incineration continues to treat the largest amount of waste. Investments in new waste incineration capacity may, however, be superseded by investments in new Waste-to-Energy technologies, particularly those utilising sorted fractions such as organic waste and refuse derived fuel. The changed use of waste proves to always affect a combination of technologies. What is affected varies among the different Waste-to-Energy technologies and is furthermore dependent on the CO{sub 2} quota costs and on the geographical scope. The necessity for investments in flexibility measures varies with the different technologies such as storage of heat and waste as well as expansion of district heating networks. Finally, inflexible technologies such as nuclear power plants are shown to be affected.

  11. An innovative platform for quick and flexible joining of assorted DNA fragments

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    De Paoli, Henrique Cestari; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Yang, Xiaohan

    2016-01-13

    Successful synthetic biology efforts rely on conceptual and experimental designs in combination with testing of multi-gene constructs. Despite recent progresses, several limitations still hinder the ability to flexibly assemble and collectively share different types of DNA segments. We describe an advanced system for joining DNA fragments from a universal library that automatically maintains open reading frames (ORFs) and does not require linkers, adaptors, sequence homology, amplification or mutation (domestication) of fragments in order to work properly. Moreover, we find that this system, which is enhanced by a unique buffer formulation, provides unforeseen capabilities for testing, and sharing, complex multi-gene circuitrymore » assembled from different DNA fragments.« less

  12. Decoupling optical function and geometrical form using conformal flexible dielectric metasurfaces

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Arbabi, Amir; Arbabi, Ehsan; Horie, Yu; Faraon, Andrei

    2016-05-19

    Physical geometry and optical properties of objects are correlated: cylinders focus light to a line, spheres to a point and arbitrarily shaped objects introduce optical aberrations. Multifunctional components with decoupled geometrical form and optical function are needed when specific optical functionalities must be provided while the shapes are dictated by other considerations like ergonomics, aerodynamics or aesthetics. Here we demonstrate an approach for decoupling optical properties of objects from their physical shape using thin and flexible dielectric metasurfaces which conform to objects' surface and change their optical properties. The conformal metasurfaces are composed of silicon nano-posts embedded in a polymermore » substrate that locally modify near-infrared (λ = 915 nm) optical wavefronts. As proof of concept, we show that cylindrical lenses covered with metasurfaces can be transformed to function as aspherical lenses focusing light to a point. Lastly, the conformal metasurface concept is highly versatile for developing arbitrarily shaped multi-functional optical devices.« less

  13. Increasing Sequence Diversity with Flexible Backbone Protein Design: The Complete Redesign of a Protein Hydrophobic Core

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Grant S.; Mills, Jeffrey L.; Miley, Michael J.; Machius, Mischa; Szyperski, Thomas; Kuhlman, Brian

    2015-10-15

    Protein design tests our understanding of protein stability and structure. Successful design methods should allow the exploration of sequence space not found in nature. However, when redesigning naturally occurring protein structures, most fixed backbone design algorithms return amino acid sequences that share strong sequence identity with wild-type sequences, especially in the protein core. This behavior places a restriction on functional space that can be explored and is not consistent with observations from nature, where sequences of low identity have similar structures. Here, we allow backbone flexibility during design to mutate every position in the core (38 residues) of a four-helix bundle protein. Only small perturbations to the backbone, 12 {angstrom}, were needed to entirely mutate the core. The redesigned protein, DRNN, is exceptionally stable (melting point >140C). An NMR and X-ray crystal structure show that the side chains and backbone were accurately modeled (all-atom RMSD = 1.3 {angstrom}).

  14. One step shift towards flexible supercapacitors based on carbon nanotubes - A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yar, A. E-mail: johndennis@petronas.com.my E-mail: asad-032@yahoo.com Dennis, J. O. E-mail: johndennis@petronas.com.my E-mail: asad-032@yahoo.com Mohamed, N. M. E-mail: johndennis@petronas.com.my E-mail: asad-032@yahoo.com Mumtaz, A. E-mail: johndennis@petronas.com.my E-mail: asad-032@yahoo.com Irshad, M. I. E-mail: johndennis@petronas.com.my E-mail: asad-032@yahoo.com; Ahmad, F.

    2014-10-24

    Supercapacitors have emerged as prominent energy storage devices that offer high energy density compared to conventional capacitors and high power density which is not found in batteries. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) because of their high surface area and tremendous electrical properties are used as electrode material for supercapacitors. In this review we focused on the factors like surface area, role of the electrolyte and techniques adopted to improve performance of CNTs based supercapacitors. The supercapacitors are widely tested in liquid electrolytes which are normally hazardous in nature, toxic, flammable and their leakage has safety concerns. This review also focuses on research which is replacing these unsafe electrolytes by solid electrolytes with the combination of low cost CNTs deposited flexible supports for supercapacitors.

  15. Adhesion in flexible organic and hybrid organic/inorganic light emitting device and solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, D.; Kwabi, D.; Akogwu, O.; Du, J.; Oyewole, O. K.; Tong, T.; Anye, V. C.; Rwenyagila, E.; Asare, J.; Fashina, A.; Soboyejo, W. O.

    2014-08-21

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the adhesion between bi-material pairs that are relevant to organic light emitting devices, hybrid organic/inorganic light emitting devices, organic bulk heterojunction solar cells, and hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells on flexible substrates. Adhesion between the possible bi-material pairs is measured using force microscopy (AFM) techniques. These include: interfaces that are relevant to organic light emitting devices, hybrid organic/inorganic light emitting devices, bulk heterojunction solar cells, and hybrid combinations of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) and poly(3-hexylthiophene). The results of AFM measurements are incorporated into the Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov model for the determination of adhesion energies. The implications of the results are then discussed for the design of robust organic and hybrid organic/inorganic electronic devices.

  16. Influence of curvature on the device physics of thin film transistors on flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amalraj, Rex; Sambandan, Sanjiv

    2014-10-28

    Thin film transistors (TFTs) on elastomers promise flexible electronics with stretching and bending. Recently, there have been several experimental studies reporting the behavior of TFTs under bending and buckling. In the presence of stress, the insulator capacitance is influenced due to two reasons. The first is the variation in insulator thickness depending on the Poisson ratio and strain. The second is the geometric influence of the curvature of the insulator-semiconductor interface during bending or buckling. This paper models the role of curvature on TFT performance and brings to light an elegant result wherein the TFT characteristics is dependent on the area under the capacitance-distance curve. The paper compares models with simulations and explains several experimental findings reported in literature.

  17. Structural Flexibility and Alloying in Ultrathin Transition-Metal Chalcogenide Nanowires

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Lin, Junhao; Zhang, Yuyang; Zhou, Wu; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2016-01-18

    Metallic transition-metal chalcogenide (TMC) nanowires are an important building block for 2D electronics that may be fabricated within semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) monolayers. Tuning the geometric structure and electronic properties of such nanowires is a promising way to pattern diverse functional channels for wiring multiple units inside a 2D electronic circuit. Nevertheless, few experimental investigations have been reported exploring the structural and compositional tunability of these nanowires, due to difficulties in manipulating the structure and chemical composition of an individual nanowire. Here, using a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and density functional theory (DFT), we report that TMCmore » nanowires have substantial intrinsic structural flexibility and their chemical composition can be manipulated.« less

  18. Modeling and performance evaluation of flexible manufacturing systems using Petri nets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callotta, M.P.; Cimenez, C.; Tazza, M.

    1996-12-31

    A timed Petri net approach is used to model resource allocation-utilization-release patterns for performance evaluation. First, simple resource utilization sequences are derived from a directed graph representing the process plan of parts. Second, the place-transitions sequences are connected introducing places whose marking models the resources needed to perform the manufacturing operation indicated in the process plan. Time is introduced as a permanence time of tokens at the place-transition sequence, modeling the utilization time of resources. The corresponding model leads to a simultaneous resource possession problem. Finally, flow equations for the description of the quantitative behavior of the resulting timed Petri net are presented. A major conclusion of the paper is that performance evaluation can be adequately abstracted and analytically solved, in a simple way, even in presence of complicating factors like resource sharing and routing flexibility in process plans.

  19. Chemical bath deposition of cadmium sulfide on graphene-coated flexible glass substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Won-Oh; Jung, Younghun; Kim, Jihyun, E-mail: hyunhyun7@korea.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jiwan [Flexible Display Research Center, Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Yatap-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-816 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Donghwan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-31

    We demonstrate a flexible structure of cadmium sulfide (CdS) on graphene-coated glass substrate, where CdS was deposited by the chemical bath deposition method on defective tri-layer graphene. The defects in graphene, confirmed by micro-Raman spectroscopy, were created by a ultra-violet treatment with varying exposure time from 10 to 60?min. The number of defect sites in the graphene as a seed layer was related to the quality of the CdS thin films determined from the results from X-ray diffraction, optical transmittance, scanning electron microscopy, and room temperature micro-photoluminescence. Our film-on-substrate structure of CdS-graphene-on-glass was maintained up to a tensile strain of 0.3%, where graphene with a high failure strain was employed as a transparent conductive layer.

  20. Phonon dispersion and quantization tuning of strained carbon nanotubes for flexible electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gautreau, Pierre; Chu, Yanbiao; Basaran, Cemal; Ragab, Tarek

    2014-06-28

    Graphene and carbon nanotubes are materials with large potentials for applications in flexible electronics. Such devices require a high level of sustainable strain and an understanding of the materials electrical properties under strain. Using supercell theory in conjunction with a comprehensive molecular mechanics model, the full band phonon dispersion of carbon nanotubes under uniaxial strain is studied. The results suggest an overall phonon softening and open up the possibility of phonon quantization tuning with uniaxial strain. The change in phonon quantization and the resulting increase in electron-phonon and phonon-phonon scattering rates offer further explanation and theoretical basis to the experimental observation of electrical properties degradation for carbon nanotubes under uniaxial strain.

  1. Enhanced Oil Recovery Affects the Future Energy Mix | GE Global...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Enhanced Oil Recovery Affects the Future Energy Mix Click to email this to a friend (Opens ... Enhanced Oil Recovery Affects the Future Energy Mix Trevor Kirsten 2012.11.19 One of the ...

  2. New Insights for Improving the Designs of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    New Insights for Improving the Designs of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes PROJECT INFORMATION IBACOS www.ibacos.com Construction: Fiberglass duct board or sheet metal junction boxes Type: Flexible duct constant-volume HVAC systems Builders: Those using ACCA Manual D process for sizing duct runs Size: N/A Price Range: N/A Date completed: N/A Climate Zone: All PERFORMANCE DATA Pressure losses are high for flexible duct junction boxes relative to other standard duct fittings; however, contractors

  3. Composite molding of SPECTRA{reg_sign} extended chain polyethylene fibers in a flexible rubber matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKeehan, K.

    1997-08-01

    THETA Technologies, Inc. is a multidisciplinary research and development firm involved in the design and development of affordable, lightweight, high ballistic protection modular body armor ensemble for future military, law enforcement, and specialized commercial market applications. In the course of their research, THETA Technologies, Inc. identified that current state-of-the-art in ballistic protection and overall composite reinforcement is a high density extended chain polyethylene (HDECPE) fiber known as SPECTRA{reg_sign}, a product of AlliedSignal Fibers, Petersburg, VA. SPECTRA{reg_sign} is ten times stronger than steel of equal weight. As a non-aramid polyethylene, it offers highly desirable properties in areas of resistance to chemical degradation, virtual neutral buoyancy (0.97), and increased capacity for composite bonding over competing nylon-based fibers, such as KEVLAR{reg_sign}. SPECTRA Shield{trademark}, a woven ballistic-resistant fabric using the SPECTRA{reg_sign} fiber, is presently the most effective ballistic-resistant component for both flexible and hard plate composite armors. THETA Technologies, Inc. identified a market need for a boot sole design that would measurably increase protection to the wearer without significantly degrading performance in other areas, such as flexibility and overall weight. THETA Technologies, Inc. proposed a nitrile rubber and SPECTRA{reg_sign} fiber matrix to produce an optimal boot sole. The objective of this CRADA effort was to develop and test a process for combining the SPECTRA{reg_sign} fiber, in both chopped fiber and SPECTRA Shield{trademark} form, within a semiflexible nitrile composite having desirable and marketable properties in areas of resistance to penetration and mechanical stress.

  4. Ultra Barrier Topsheet Film for Flexible Photovoltaics with 3M Company

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Funkenbusch, Arnie; Ruth, Charles

    2014-12-30

    In this DOE sponsored program, 3M achieved the critical UBT features to enable durable flexible high efficiency modules to be produced by a range of customers who have now certified the 3M UBT and are actively developing said flexible modules. The specific objectives and accomplishments of the work under this program were; Scale-up the current Generation-1 UBT from 12” width, as made on 3M’s pilot line, to 1+meter width full-scale manufacturing, while maintaining baseline performance metrics (see table below); This objective was fully met; Validate service life of Generation-1 UBT for the 25+ year lifetime demanded by the photovoltaic market; Aggressive testing revealed potential failure modes in the Gen 1 UBT. Deficiencies were identified and corrective action taken in the Gen 2 UBT; Develop a Generation-2 UBT on the pilot line, targeting improved performance relative to baseline, including higher %T (percent transmission), lower water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) with targets based on what the technology needs for 25 year lifetime, proven lifetime of 25 years in solar module construction in the field, and lower cost; Testing of UBT Gen 2 under a wide range of conditions presented in this report failed to reveal any failure mode. Therefore UBT Gen 2 is known to be highly durable. 3M will continue to test towards statistically validating a 25 year lifetime under 3M funding; Transfer Generation-2 UBT from the pilot line to the full-scale manufacturing line within three years; and This objective was fully met.

  5. Development of flexible, free-standing, thin films for additive manufacturing and localized energy generation

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Clark, Billy; McCollum, Jena; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    Film energetics are becoming increasingly popular because a variety of technologies are driving a need for localized energy generation in a stable, safe and flexible form. Aluminum (Al) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO₃) composites were mixed into a silicon binder and extruded using a blade casting technique to form flexible free-standing films ideal for localized energy generation. Since this material can be extruded onto a surface it is well suited to additive manufacturing applications. This study examines the influence of 0-35% by mass potassium perchlorate (KClO₄) additive on the combustion behavior of these energetic films. Without KClO₄ the film exhibits thermalmore » instabilities that produce unsteady energy propagation upon reaction. All films were cast at a thickness of 1 mm with constant volume percent solids to ensure consistent rheological properties. The films were ignited and flame propagation was measured. The results show that as the mass percent KClO₄ increased, the flame speed increased and peaked at 0.43 cm/s and 30 wt% KClO₄. Thermochemical equilibrium simulations show that the heat of combustion increases with increasing KClO₄ concentration up to a maximum at 20 wt% when the heat of combustion plateaus, indicating that the increased chemical energy liberated by the additional KClO₄ promotes stable energy propagation. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis show that the silicone binder participates as a fuel and reacts with KClO₄ adding energy to the reaction and promoting propagation.« less

  6. Final Technical Report, Oct 2004 - Nov. 2006, High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan, Jie; Minh, Nguyen

    2007-02-21

    This report summarizes the work performed for the program entitled “High Performance Flexible Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell” under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-04GO14351 for the U. S. Department of Energy. The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate a single modular stack that generates electricity from a variety of fuels (hydrogen and other fuels such as biomass, distributed natural gas, etc.) and when operated in the reverse mode, produces hydrogen from steam. This project has evaluated and selected baseline cell materials, developed a set of materials for oxygen and hydrogen electrodes, and optimized electrode microstructures for reversible solid oxide fuel cells (RSOFCs); and demonstrated the feasibility and operation of a RSOFC multi-cell stack. A 10-cell reversible SOFC stack was operated over 1000 hours alternating between fuel cell (with hydrogen and methane as fuel) and steam electrolysis modes. The stack ran very successfully with high power density of 480 mW/cm2 at 0.7V and 80% fuel utilization in fuel cell mode and >6 SLPM hydrogen production in steam electrolysis mode using about 1.1 kW electrical power. The hydrogen generation is equivalent to a specific capability of 2.59 Nm3/m2 with electrical energy demand of 3 kWh/Nm3. The performance stability in electrolysis mode was improved vastly during the program with a degradation rate reduction from 8000 to 200 mohm-cm2/1000 hrs. This was accomplished by increasing the activity and improving microstructure of the oxygen electrode. Both cost estimate and technology assessment were conducted. Besides the flexibility running under both fuel cell mode and electrolysis mode, the reversible SOFC system has the potentials for low cost and high efficient hydrogen production through steam electrolysis. The cost for hydrogen production at large scale was estimated at ~$2.7/kg H2, comparing favorably with other electrolysis techology.

  7. AFFECT 2016: Assisting Federal Facilities with Energy Conservation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Technologies Webinar | Department of Energy AFFECT 2016: Assisting Federal Facilities with Energy Conservation Technologies Webinar AFFECT 2016: Assisting Federal Facilities with Energy Conservation Technologies Webinar Webinar describes the 2016 Assisting Federal Facilities with Energy Conservation Technologies (AFFECT) funding opportunity offered by the Federal Energy Management Program. View the webinar slides.

  8. Statistical model selection for better prediction and discovering science mechanisms that affect reliability

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Anderson-Cook, Christine M.; Morzinski, Jerome; Blecker, Kenneth D.

    2015-08-19

    Understanding the impact of production, environmental exposure and age characteristics on the reliability of a population is frequently based on underlying science and empirical assessment. When there is incomplete science to prescribe which inputs should be included in a model of reliability to predict future trends, statistical model/variable selection techniques can be leveraged on a stockpile or population of units to improve reliability predictions as well as suggest new mechanisms affecting reliability to explore. We describe a five-step process for exploring relationships between available summaries of age, usage and environmental exposure and reliability. The process involves first identifying potential candidatemore » inputs, then second organizing data for the analysis. Third, a variety of models with different combinations of the inputs are estimated, and fourth, flexible metrics are used to compare them. As a result, plots of the predicted relationships are examined to distill leading model contenders into a prioritized list for subject matter experts to understand and compare. The complexity of the model, quality of prediction and cost of future data collection are all factors to be considered by the subject matter experts when selecting a final model.« less

  9. Statistical model selection for better prediction and discovering science mechanisms that affect reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson-Cook, Christine M.; Morzinski, Jerome; Blecker, Kenneth D.

    2015-08-19

    Understanding the impact of production, environmental exposure and age characteristics on the reliability of a population is frequently based on underlying science and empirical assessment. When there is incomplete science to prescribe which inputs should be included in a model of reliability to predict future trends, statistical model/variable selection techniques can be leveraged on a stockpile or population of units to improve reliability predictions as well as suggest new mechanisms affecting reliability to explore. We describe a five-step process for exploring relationships between available summaries of age, usage and environmental exposure and reliability. The process involves first identifying potential candidate inputs, then second organizing data for the analysis. Third, a variety of models with different combinations of the inputs are estimated, and fourth, flexible metrics are used to compare them. As a result, plots of the predicted relationships are examined to distill leading model contenders into a prioritized list for subject matter experts to understand and compare. The complexity of the model, quality of prediction and cost of future data collection are all factors to be considered by the subject matter experts when selecting a final model.

  10. Inferring Group Processes from Computer-Mediated Affective Text Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schryver, Jack C; Begoli, Edmon; Jose, Ajith; Griffin, Christopher

    2011-02-01

    Political communications in the form of unstructured text convey rich connotative meaning that can reveal underlying group social processes. Previous research has focused on sentiment analysis at the document level, but we extend this analysis to sub-document levels through a detailed analysis of affective relationships between entities extracted from a document. Instead of pure sentiment analysis, which is just positive or negative, we explore nuances of affective meaning in 22 affect categories. Our affect propagation algorithm automatically calculates and displays extracted affective relationships among entities in graphical form in our prototype (TEAMSTER), starting with seed lists of affect terms. Several useful metrics are defined to infer underlying group processes by aggregating affective relationships discovered in a text. Our approach has been validated with annotated documents from the MPQA corpus, achieving a performance gain of 74% over comparable random guessers.

  11. Operation Hardtack. Project 3. 2. Response of earth-confined flexible-arch structures in high-overpressure regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeDoux, J.C.; Rush, P.J.

    1985-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine structural responses and failure criteria of earth-confined corrugated-steel flexible arches subjected to high overpressure blast loading from nuclear detonations. A flexible arch is considered as an arch structure whose ultimate supporting capacity is dependent upon confinement within a surrounding earth configuration. A collateral objective was to determine the radiation-shielding effectiveness of such structures with a minimum cover of five feet of coral sand. Because the soil and ground-water conditions at Eniwetok did not permit the placing of the steel arches below natural-grade level, the structures were confined within massive non-drag sensitive earthwork configurations of coral sand. Empirical determinations were made of the responses of (1) three earth-confined prefabricated corrugated-steel flexible arches when subjected to relatively long-duration blast loadings from a megaton range detonation; and (2) one similar earth-confined flexible-arch when subjected to relatively short-duration blast loadings from a kiloton-range detonation.

  12. Low-cost flexible packaging for high-power Li-Ion HEV batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jansen, A. N.; Amine, K.; Henriksen, G. L.

    2004-06-18

    Batteries with various types of chemistries are typically sold in rigid hermetically sealed containers that, at the simplest level, must contain the electrolyte while keeping out the exterior atmosphere. However, such rigid containers can have limitations in packaging situations where the form of the battery is important, such as in hand-held electronics like personal digital assistants (PDAs), laptops, and cell phones. Other limitations exist as well. At least one of the electrode leads must be insulated from the metal can, which necessitates the inclusion of an insulated metal feed-through in the containment hardware. Another limitation may be in hardware and assembly cost, such as exists for the lithium-ion batteries that are being developed for use in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The large size (typically 10-100 Ah) of these batteries usually results in electric beam or laser welding of the metal cap to the metal can. The non-aqueous electrolyte used in these batteries are usually based on flammable solvents and therefore require the incorporation of a safety rupture vent to relieve pressure in the event of overcharging or overheating. Both of these features add cost to the battery. Flexible packaging provides an alternative to the rigid container. A common example of this is the multi-layered laminates used in the food packaging industry, such as for vacuum-sealed coffee bags. However, flexible packaging for batteries does not come without concerns. One of the main concerns is the slow egress of the electrolyte solvent through the face of the inner laminate layer and at the sealant edge. Also, moisture and air could enter from the outside via the same method. These exchanges may be acceptable for brief periods of time, but for the long lifetimes required for batteries in electric/hybrid electric vehicles, batteries in remote locations, and those in satellites, these exchanges are unacceptable. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL

  13. SUBTASK 2.19 – OPERATIONAL FLEXIBILITY OF CO2 TRANSPORT AND STORAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Melanie; Schlasner, Steven; Sorensen, James; Hamling, John

    2014-12-31

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced in large quantities during electricity generation and by industrial processes. These CO2 streams vary in terms of both composition and mass flow rate, sometimes substantially. The impact of a varying CO2 stream on pipeline and storage operation is not fully understood in terms of either operability or infrastructure robustness. This study was performed to summarize basic background from the literature on the topic of operational flexibility of CO2 transport and storage, but the primary focus was on compiling real-world lessons learned about flexible operation of CO2 pipelines and storage from both large-scale field demonstrations and commercial operating experience. Modeling and pilot-scale results of research in this area were included to illustrate some of the questions that exist relative to operation of carbon capture and storage (CCS) projects with variable CO2 streams. It is hoped that this report’s real-world findings provide readers with useful information on the topic of transport and storage of variable CO2 streams. The real-world results were obtained from two sources. The first source consisted of five full-scale, commercial transport–storage projects: Sleipner, Snøhvit, In Salah, Weyburn, and Illinois Basin–Decatur. These scenarios were reviewed to determine the information that is available about CO2 stream variability/intermittency on these demonstration-scale projects. The five projects all experienced mass flow variability or an interruption in flow. In each case, pipeline and/or injection engineers were able to accommodate any issues that arose. Significant variability in composition has not been an issue at these five sites. The second source of real- world results was telephone interviews conducted with experts in CO2 pipeline transport, injection, and storage during which commercial anecdotal information was acquired to augment that found during the literature search of the five full-scale projects. The

  14. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Co-production Plant Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel Haynes; Justin Brumberg; Venkatraman Iyer; Jonathan Janssen; Ben Lacy; Matt Mosbacher; Craig Russell; Ertan Yilmaz; Williams York; Willy Ziminsky; Tim Lieuwen; Suresh Menon; Jerry Seitzman; Ashok Anand; Patrick May

    2008-12-31

    Future high-efficiency, low-emission generation plants that produce electric power, transportation fuels, and/or chemicals from fossil fuel feed stocks require a new class of fuel-flexible combustors. In this program, a validated combustor approach was developed which enables single-digit NO{sub x} operation for a future generation plants with low-Btu off gas and allows the flexibility of process-independent backup with natural gas. This combustion technology overcomes the limitations of current syngas gas turbine combustion systems, which are designed on a site-by-site basis, and enable improved future co-generation plant designs. In this capacity, the fuel-flexible combustor enhances the efficiency and productivity of future co-production plants. In task 2, a summary of market requested fuel gas compositions was created and the syngas fuel space was characterized. Additionally, a technology matrix and chemical kinetic models were used to evaluate various combustion technologies and to select two combustor concepts. In task 4 systems analysis of a co-production plant in conjunction with chemical kinetic analysis was performed to determine the desired combustor operating conditions for the burner concepts. Task 5 discusses the experimental evaluation of three syngas capable combustor designs. The hybrid combustor, Prototype-1 utilized a diffusion flame approach for syngas fuels with a lean premixed swirl concept for natural gas fuels for both syngas and natural gas fuels at FA+e gas turbine conditions. The hybrid nozzle was sized to accommodate syngas fuels ranging from {approx}100 to 280 btu/scf and with a diffusion tip geometry optimized for Early Entry Co-generation Plant (EECP) fuel compositions. The swozzle concept utilized existing GE DLN design methodologies to eliminate flow separation and enhance fuel-air mixing. With changing business priorities, a fully premixed natural gas & syngas nozzle, Protoytpe-1N, was also developed later in the program. It did

  15. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, Charles; Wilson, Robert

    2014-04-30

    This project culminated in the demonstration of a full-scale industrial burner which allows a broad range of “opportunity” gaseous fuels to be cost-effectively and efficiently utilized while generating minimal emissions of criteria air pollutants. The burner is capable of maintaining a stable flame when the fuel composition changes rapidly. This enhanced stability will contribute significantly to improving the safety and reliability of burner operation in manufacturing sites. Process heating in the refining and chemicals sectors is the primary application for this burner. The refining and chemical sectors account for more than 40% of total industrial natural gas use. Prior to the completion of this project, an enabling technology did not exist that would allow these energy-intensive industries to take full advantage of opportunity fuels and thereby reduce their natural gas consumption. Opportunity gaseous fuels include biogas (from animal and agricultural wastes, wastewater plants, and landfills) as well as syngas (from the gasification of biomass, municipal solid wastes, construction wastes, and refinery residuals). The primary challenge to using gaseous opportunity fuels is that their composition and combustion performance differ significantly from those of conventional fuels such as natural gas and refinery fuel gas. An effective fuel-flexible burner must accept fuels that range widely in quality and change in composition over time, often rapidly. In Phase 1 of this project, the team applied computational fluid dynamics analysis to optimize the prototype burner’s aerodynamic, combustion, heat transfer, and emissions performance. In Phase 2, full-scale testing and refinement of two prototype burners were conducted in test furnaces at Zeeco’s offices in Broken Arrow, OK. These tests demonstrated that the full range of conventional and opportunity fuels could be utilized by the project’s burner while achieving robust flame stability and very low levels of

  16. Factors Affecting PMU Installation Costs (October 2014) | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Factors Affecting PMU Installation Costs (October 2014) Factors Affecting PMU Installation Costs (October 2014) The Department of Energy investigated the major cost factors that affected PMU installation costs for the synchrophasor projects funded through the Recovery Act Smart Grid Programs. The data was compiled through interviews with the nine projects that deployed production grade synchrophasor systems. The study found that while the costs associated with PMUs as stand-alone

  17. FEMP's Assisting Federal Facilities with Energy Conservation Technologies (AFFECT)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    AFFECT 2016 Assisting Federal Facilities with Energy Conservation Technologies (AFFECT) June 8, 2016 David Boomsma AFFECT Program Manager Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program 2 Event Date FOA Issue Date May 26, 2016 Letter of Intent (LOI) Deadline June 27, 2016 5:00pm ET Full Application Deadline July 27, 2016 5:00pm ET Notification of Award Selections October 28, 2016 Timeframe for Award

  18. AlN texturing and piezoelectricity on flexible substrates for sensor applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smecca, Emanuele; Pellegrino, Giovanna; Alberti, Alessandra; Maita, Francesco; Maiolo, Luca; Fortunato, Guglielmo; Vinciguerra, Vincenzo; La Magna, Luigi; Mirabella, Salvo; Condorelli, Guglielmo G.

    2015-06-08

    We show that AlN-based piezocapacitors with relatively high piezoelectric coefficient (d{sub 33}) values (3–4 pC/N) can be fabricated on polyimide (PI) substrates at 160 °C or even at room temperature by sputtering processes. With respect to PI, a reduction of the piezoelectric performances was observed on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN). With the same approach, a d{sub 33} value as high as 8 pC/N was achieved on rigid substrates (SiO{sub 2}/Si). In all cases, a thin Al buffer layer was deposited, immediately before AlN, without breaking the vacuum in the deposition chamber, in order to preserve the interface from contaminations that would obstruct the optimal atomic stratification with the desired [0001] growth axis. The piezoelectric behavior was thus correlated to the degree of texturing of the AlN layer through the evaluation of the XRD texturing coefficients and to the morphology by means of AFM analyses. We show that a high level of roughness introduced by the PEN substrate, coupled with the effect of the substrate flexibility on the piezoelectric coefficient, reduces the impact of the AlN texturing on the d{sub 33} values.

  19. Characterizing performances of solder paste printing process at flexible manufacturing lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siew, Jit Ping; Low, Heng Chin; Teoh, Ping Chow

    2015-02-03

    Solder paste printing (SPP) has been a challenge on printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing, evident by the proliferation of solder paste inspection equipment, or substituted by rigorous non-value added activity of manual inspections. The objective of this study is to characterize the SPP performance of various products manufactured in flexible production lines with different equipment configurations, and determine areas for process improvement. The study began by collecting information on SPP performance relative to component placement (CP) process, and to the proportion of mixed products. Using a clustering algorithm to group similar elements together, SPP performance across all product-production line pairs are statistically modeled to discover the trend and the influential factors. The main findings are: (a) Ratio of overall dpku for CP and SPP processes are 2:1; (b) logistic regression models of SPP performance indicated that only effects of product-production line and solder paste printer configuration are significant; (c) PCB circuitry design with BGA components and single solder paste printer line configurations generated the highest monthly defects, with the highest variation in the latter.

  20. "Flexible aerogel as a superior thermal insulation for high temperature superconductor cable applications"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Shannon O. [Aspen Aerogel, Inc.; Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Tomich, A. [Aspen Aerogel, Inc.

    2010-01-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) cables are an advanced technology that can both strengthen and improve the national electrical distribution infrastructure. HTS cables require sufficient cooling to overcome inherent low temperature heat loading. Heat loads are minimized by the use of cryogenic envelopes or cryostats. Cryostats require improvement in efficiency, reliability, and cost reduction to meet the demanding needs of HTS conductors (1G and 2G wires). Aspen Aerogels has developed a compression resistant aerogel thermal insulation package to replace compression sensitive multi-layer insulation (MLI), the incumbent thermal insulation, in flexible cryostats for HTS cables. Oak Ridge National Laboratory tested a prototype aerogel package in a lab-scale pipe apparatus to measure the rate of heat invasion. The lab-scale pipe test results of the aerogel solution will be presented and directly compared to MLI. A compatibility assessment of the aerogel material with HTS system components will also be presented. The aerogel thermal insulation solution presented will meet the demanding needs of HTS cables.

  1. Flexibility and utility of pre-processing methods in converting STXM setups for ptychography - Final Paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fromm, Catherine

    2015-08-20

    Ptychography is an advanced diffraction based imaging technique that can achieve resolution of 5nm and below. It is done by scanning a sample through a beam of focused x-rays using discrete yet overlapping scan steps. Scattering data is collected on a CCD camera, and the phase of the scattered light is reconstructed with sophisticated iterative algorithms. Because the experimental setup is similar, ptychography setups can be created by retrofitting existing STXM beam lines with new hardware. The other challenge comes in the reconstruction of the collected scattering images. Scattering data must be adjusted and packaged with experimental parameters to calibrate the reconstruction software. The necessary pre-processing of data prior to reconstruction is unique to each beamline setup, and even the optical alignments used on that particular day. Pre-processing software must be developed to be flexible and efficient in order to allow experiments appropriate control and freedom in the analysis of their hard-won data. This paper will describe the implementation of pre-processing software which successfully connects data collection steps to reconstruction steps, letting the user accomplish accurate and reliable ptychography.

  2. Lightweight, flexible, high-performance carbon nanotube cables made by scalable flow coating

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Mirri, Francesca; Orloff, Nathan D.; Forser, Aaron M.; Ashkar, Rana; Headrick, Robert J.; Bengio, E. Amram; Long, Christian J.; Choi, April; Luo, Yimin; Hight Walker, Angela R.; et al

    2016-01-21

    Coaxial cables for data transmission are ubiquitous in telecommunications, aerospace, automotive, and robotics industries. Yet, the metals used to make commercial cables are unsuitably heavy and stiff. These undesirable traits are particularly problematic in aerospace applications, where weight is at a premium and flexibility is necessary to conform with the distributed layout of electronic components in satellites and aircraft. The cable outer conductor (OC) is usually the heaviest component of modern data cables; therefore, exchanging the conventional metallic OC for lower weight materials with comparable transmission characteristics is highly desirable. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have recently been proposed to replace themore » metal components in coaxial cables; however, signal attenuation was too high in prototypes produced so far. Here, we fabricate the OC of coaxial data cables by directly coating a solution of CNTs in chlorosulfonic acid (CSA) onto the cable inner dielectric. This coating has an electrical conductivity that is approximately 2 orders of magnitude greater than the best CNT OC reported in the literature to date. In conclusion, this high conductivity makes CNT coaxial cables an attractive alternative to commercial cables with a metal (tin-coated copper) OC, providing comparable cable attenuation and mechanical durability with a 97% lower component mass.« less

  3. Photochemical charges separation and photoelectric properties of flexible solar cells with two types of heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xiangyang E-mail: yzgu@henu.edu.cn; Wang, Shun; Zheng, Haiwu; Cheng, Xiuying; Gu, Yuzong E-mail: yzgu@henu.edu.cn

    2015-12-14

    Photochemical charges generation, separation, and transport at nanocrystal interfaces are central to energy conversion for solar cells. Here, Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} nanowires/Cu{sub 4}Bi{sub 4}S{sub 9} (ZTO/CBS), ZTO nanowires/CBS-reduced graphene oxide (ZTO/CBS-RGO), and bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells were measured. The signals of steady state and electric field-induced surface photovoltage indicate that RGO with high electron mobility can evidently improve the photovoltaic response. Besides, ZTO/CBS and ZTO/CBS-RGO cells exhibit the excellent performance and the highest efficiencies of 1.2% and 2.8%, respectively. The internal relations of photoelectric properties to some factors, such as film thickness, direct paths, RGO conductive network, energy level matching, etc., were discussed in detail. Qualitative and quantitative analyses further verified the comprehensive effect of RGO and other factors. Importantly, the fine bendable characteristic of BHJ solar cells with excellent efficiency and facile, scalable production gives the as-made flexible solar cells device potential for practical application in future.

  4. Some aspects of the orientational order distribution of flexible chains in a diblock mesophase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorthioir, Cédric Randriamahefa, Solo

    2013-12-14

    The segmental motions of flexible chains in the lamellar structure of a strongly segregated poly(styrene)-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PS-PDMS) diblock were investigated over a time scale of a few tens of microseconds. {sup 2}H NMR experiments were performed on the PDMS block, selectively perdeuterated. Transverse relaxation measurements show that the main part of the PDMS repeat units display anisotropic reorientational motions within the diblock lamellae and such a segmental ordering essentially results from interchain steric repulsions. {sup 2}H double quantum-based experiments evidenced a non-uniform local stretching of PDMS chains and enabled the underlying distribution of the orientational order parameter to be determined quantitatively. Besides, a fraction of the PDMS chain segments, about 14%, were found to display isotropic – or nearly isotropic – reorientations, which could be assigned to repeat units located within a thin sublayer (about 1–2 nm) at the lamellae midplane, but also deeper in the lamellae, close to folded parts of the chains. These experimental results were confronted to theoretical descriptions of opposing polymer brushes and, in particular, to the strong-stretching theory (SST) including the entropic contribution of free chain ends.

  5. New Insights for Improving the Designs of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-01-01

    IBACOS explored the relationships between pressure and physical configurations of flexible duct junction boxes by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to predict individual box parameters and total system pressure, thereby ensuring improved HVAC performance. Current Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) guidance (Group 11, Appendix 3, ACCA Manual D, Rutkowski 2009) allows for unconstrained variation in the number of takeoffs, box sizes, and takeoff locations. The only variables currently used in selecting an equivalent length (EL) are velocity of air in the duct and friction rate, given the first takeoff is located at least twice its diameter away from the inlet. This condition does not account for other factors impacting pressure loss across these types of fittings. For each simulation, the IBACOS team converted pressure loss within a box to an EL to compare variation in ACCA Manual D guidance to the simulated variation. IBACOS chose cases to represent flows reasonably correlating to flows typically encountered in the field and analyzed differences in total pressure due to increases in number and location of takeoffs, box dimensions, and velocity of air, and whether an entrance fitting is included. The team also calculated additional balancing losses for all cases due to discrepancies between intended outlet flows and natural flow splits created by the fitting. In certain asymmetrical cases, the balancing losses were significantly higher than symmetrical cases where the natural splits were close to the targets. Thus, IBACOS has shown additional design constraints that can ensure better system performance.

  6. INCREASED FLEXIBILITY OF TURBO-COMPRESSORS IN NATURAL GAS TRANSMISSION THROUGH DIRECT SURGE CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. McKee; Shane P. Siebenaler; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-02-25

    The objective of this Direct Surge Control project was to develop a new internal method to avoid surge of pipeline compressors. This method will safely expand the range and flexibility of compressor operations, while minimizing wasteful recycle flow at the lower end of the operating envelope. The approach is to sense the onset of surge with a probe that directly measures re-circulation at the impeller inlet. The signals from the probe are used by a controller to allow operation at low flow conditions without resorting to a predictive method requiring excessive margin to activate a recycle valve. The sensor developed and demonstrated during this project was a simple, rugged, and sensitive drag probe. Experiments conducted in a laboratory compressor clearly showed the effectiveness of the technique. Subsequent field demonstrations indicated that the increase in range without the need to recycle flow was on the order of 19% to 25%. The cost benefit of applying the direct surge control technology appears to be as much as $120 per hour per compressor for operation without the current level of recycle flow. This could amount to approximately $85 million per year for the U.S. Natural Gas Transmission industry, if direct surge control systems are applied to most pipeline centrifugal compressors.

  7. Superior mechanical flexibility of phosphorene and few-layer black phosphorus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Qun; Peng, Xihong

    2014-06-23

    Recently, fabricated two dimensional (2D) phosphorene crystal structures have demonstrated great potential in applications of electronics. Mechanical strain was demonstrated to be able to significantly modify the electronic properties of phosphorene and few-layer black phosphorus. In this work, we employed first principles density functional theory calculations to explore the mechanical properties of phosphorene, including ideal tensile strength and critical strain. It was found that a monolayer phosphorene can sustain tensile strain up to 27% and 30% in the zigzag and armchair directions, respectively. This enormous strain limit of phosphorene results from its unique puckered crystal structure. We found that the tensile strain applied in the armchair direction stretches the pucker of phosphorene, rather than significantly extending the P-P bond lengths. The compromised dihedral angles dramatically reduce the required strain energy. Compared to other 2D materials, such as graphene, phosphorene demonstrates superior flexibility with an order of magnitude smaller Young's modulus. This is especially useful in practical large-magnitude-strain engineering. Furthermore, the anisotropic nature of phosphorene was also explored. We derived a general model to calculate the Young's modulus along different directions for a 2D system.

  8. Theoretical Design of Molecular Electrocatalysts with Flexible Pendant Amines for Hydrogen Production and Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez, Laura; Horvath, Samantha; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2013-02-07

    The design of hydrogen oxidation and production catalysts is important for the development of alternative renewable energy sources. The overall objective is to maximize the turnover frequency and minimize the overpotential. In an effort to assist in the design of such catalysts, we use computational methods to examine a variety of nickel-based molecular electrocatalysts with pendant amines. Our studies focus on the proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) process involving electron transfer between the complex and the electrode and intramolecular proton transfer between the nickel center and the nitrogen of the pendant amine. The concerted PCET mechanism, which tends to require a lower overpotential, is favored by a smaller equilibrium Ni-N distance and a more flexible pendant amine ligand, thereby decreasing the energetic penalty for the nitrogen to approach the nickel center for proton transfer. These calculations provide design principles that will be useful for developing the next generation of hydrogen catalysts. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  9. Synthesis of reduced graphene oxide/ZnO nanorods composites on graphene coated PET flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Lei, E-mail: leihuang@shnu.edu.cn; Guo, Guilue; Liu, Yang; Chang, Quanhong; Shi, Wangzhou

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: ZnO nanorods synthesized on CVD-graphene and rGO surfaces, respectively. ZnO/CVD-graphene and ZnO/rGO form a distinctive porous 3D structure. rGO/ZnO nanostructures possibility in energy storage devices. - Abstract: In this work, reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/ZnO nanorods composites were synthesized on graphene coated PET flexible substrates. Both chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films were prepared following by hydrothermal growth of vertical aligned ZnO nanorods. Reduced graphene sheets were then spun coated on the ZnO materials to form a three dimensional (3D) porous nanostructure. The morphologies of the ZnO/CVD graphene and ZnO/rGO were investigated by SEM, which shows that the ZnO nanorods grown on rGO are larger in diameters and have lower density compared with those grown on CVD graphene substrate. As a result of fact, the rough surface of nano-scale ZnO on rGO film allows rGO droplets to seep into the large voids of ZnO nanorods, then to form the rGO/ZnO hierarchical structure. By comparison of the different results, we conclude that rGO/ZnO 3D nanostructure is more desirable for the application of energy storage devices.

  10. Scalable Heuristics for Planning, Placement and Sizing of Flexible AC Transmission System Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frolov, Vladmir; Backhaus, Scott N.; Chertkov, Michael

    2015-07-02

    Aiming to relieve transmission grid congestion and improve or extend feasibility domain of the operations, we build optimization heuristics, generalizing standard AC Optimal Power Flow (OPF), for placement and sizing of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices of the Series Compensation (SC) and Static VAR Compensation (SVC) type. One use of these devices is in resolving the case when the AC OPF solution does not exist because of congestion. Another application is developing a long-term investment strategy for placement and sizing of the SC and SVC devices to reduce operational cost and improve power system operation. SC and SVC devices are represented by modification of the transmission line inductances and reactive power nodal corrections respectively. We find one placement and sizing of FACTs devices for multiple scenarios and optimal settings for each scenario simultaneously. Our solution of the nonlinear and nonconvex generalized AC-OPF consists of building a convergent sequence of convex optimizations containing only linear constraints and shows good computational scaling to larger systems. The approach is illustrated on single- and multi-scenario examples of the Matpower case-30 model.

  11. Factors Affecting Power Output by Photovoltaic Cells Lesson

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Factors Affecting Power Output by Photovoltaic Cells Grade Level(s): IB 2 (Senior - 3 ... C.8 Photovoltaic cells and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) Understandings: * Solar ...

  12. Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah Michael Vanden Berg; Paul Anderson; Janae Wallace;...

  13. Ecosystem carbon storage capacity as affected by disturbance...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and tausub 1 is the residence time of the carbon pool affected by disturbances (biomass pool in this study). The disturbance regime is characterized by the mean disturbance...

  14. The microbe-mediated mechanisms affecting topsoil carbon stock...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    affecting topsoil carbon stock in Tibetan grasslands Warming has been shown to cause soil carbon (C) loss in northern grasslands owing to accelerated microbial decomposition...

  15. One in five online scholarly articles affected by 'reference...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Science Space Technology The Lab January Scholarly articles affected by 'reference rot' Supporting biosurveillance via the web Growing high-efficiency perovskite solar cells

  16. Fact #890: September 14, 2015 Gasoline Prices Are Affected by...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Gasoline Prices Are Affected by Changes in Refinery Output File fotw890web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Fact 858 February 2, 2015 Retail Gasoline Prices in 2014 ...

  17. INCREASED FLEXIBILITY OF TURBO-COMPRESSORS IN NATURAL GAS TRANSMISSION THROUGH DIRECT SURGE CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. Mckee; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2003-12-01

    This annual progress report describes the second year's technical progress in a three-year program. This report summarizes what is known about internal flows as surge precursors in centrifugal compressors and focuses on accessing factors that affect pre-surge detection. An attempt is made in this analysis to identify and quantify factors concerning compressor design and operations that affect the detection of pre-surge conditions. This progress report presents results from recent laboratory tests conducted during the course of this second year. This project is co-funded by the Gas Machinery Research Council (GMRC) and by Siemens Energy and Automation (Siemens). The most recently available measured pre-surge internal flow data is parameterized to help identify factors that affect the indications that a compressor is approaching surge. Theoretical arguments are applied to access the factors that influence surge precursors and surge initiation in different centrifugal compressors. This work is considered a step in accessing the factors that affect the success or limitations of pre-surge detection in natural gas pipeline compressors.

  18. Development of the Low Swirl Injector for Fuel-Flexible GasTurbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Littlejohn, D.; Cheng, R.K.; Nazeer,W.A.; Smith, K.O

    2007-02-14

    Industrial gas turbines are primarily fueled with natural gas. However, changes in fuel cost and availability, and a desire to control carbon dioxide emissions, are creating pressure to utilize other fuels. There is an increased interest in the use of fuels from coal gasification, such as syngas and hydrogen, and renewable fuels, such as biogas and biodiesel. Current turbine fuel injectors have had years of development to optimize their performance with natural gas. The new fuels appearing on the horizon can have combustion properties that differ substantially from natural gas. Factors such as turbulent flame speed, heat content, autoignition characteristics, and range of flammability must be considered when evaluating injector performance. The low swirl injector utilizes a unique flame stabilization mechanism and is under development for gas turbine applications. Its design and mode of operation allow it to operate effectively over a wide range of conditions. Studies conducted at LBNL indicate that the LSI can operate on fuels with a wide range of flame speeds, including hydrogen. It can also utilize low heat content fuels, such as biogas and syngas. We will discuss the low swirl injector operating parameters, and how the LSC performs with various alternative fuels.

  19. Flexible micro-supercapacitor based on in-situ assembled graphene on metal template at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, ZK; Lin, ZY; Li, LY; Song, B; Moon, KS; Bai, SL; Wong, CP

    2014-11-01

    Graphene based micro-supercapacitors (MSCs) have been extensively studied in recent years; however, few of them report room temperature fabricating methods for flexible MSC. Here we developed a convenient procedure based on simultaneous self-assembly and reduction of graphene oxide (GO) on Cu/Au interdigit at room temperature. The as-produced MSC shows a specific areal capacitance of 0.95 mF cm(-2) and maintains 98.3% after 11,000 cycles of charge and discharge. Extremely small relaxation time constants of 1.9 ms in aqueous electrolyte and 4.8 ms in gelled electrolyte are achieved. Also the device shows great flexibility and retains 93.5% of the capacitance after 5000 times of bending and twisting tests. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Air Force Air Program and Information Management System (APIMS): A flexible tool for managing your Title V Operating Permits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weston, A.A.; Gordon, S.R.

    1999-07-01

    The Air Force Command Core System (CCS) is an integrated, activity-based risk management system designed to support the information needs of Environment, Safety, and Occupational Health (ESOH) professionals. These professionals are responsible for managing a complex and often dynamic set of requirements, and therefore, have a need for an information system that can readily be customized to meet their specific needs. This dynamic environment also drives the need for flexibility in the system. The Air Program Information Management System (APIMS) is a module within CCS designed to not only manage permit compliance and emission inventories, but also support the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements related to air quality issues. This paper will describe the underlying foundation of CCS, the information linkages within the database, and then summarize the functionality available within the APIMS module to support the Air Quality Managers' information needs, placing emphasis on the flexibility the system provides to manage Title V Operating Permits.

  1. Semi-flexible gas-insulated transmission line using protection tube in conductor plug-in joint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kommineni, Prasad R.

    1983-01-25

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath, and insulating supports insulatably supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath. The inner conductor is provided with flexibility by main conductor sections which are joined together through a conductor hub section and flexible flexing elements. Stress shields are provided to control the electric field at the locations of the conductor hub sections where the insulating supports are contacting the inner conductor. A plug and socket arrangement is utilized for joining adjacent sections of the inner conductor, and a protection tube is utilized inside the hollow plug to maintain proper alignment of the joint when the transmission line is bent.

  2. Semi-flexible gas-insulated transmission line using protection tube in conductor plug-in joint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kommineni, P.R.

    1983-01-25

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath, and insulating supports insulatably supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath. The inner conductor is provided with flexibility by main conductor sections which are joined together through a conductor hub section and flexible flexing elements. Stress shields are provided to control the electric field at the locations of the conductor hub sections where the insulating supports are contacting the inner conductor. A plug and socket arrangement is utilized for joining adjacent sections of the inner conductor, and a protection tube is utilized inside the hollow plug to maintain proper alignment of the joint when the transmission line is bent. 3 figs.

  3. Transverse piezoelectric coefficient measurement of flexible lead zirconate titanate thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dufay, T.; Guiffard, B.; Seveno, R.; Thomas, J.-C.

    2015-05-28

    Highly flexible lead zirconate titanate, Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT), thin films have been realized by modified sol-gel process. The transverse piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 31} was determined from the tip displacement of bending-mode actuators made of PZT cantilever deposited onto bare or RuO{sub 2} coated aluminium substrate (16 μm thick). The influence of the thickness of ruthenium dioxide RuO{sub 2} and PZT layers was investigated for Pb(Zr{sub 0.57}Ti{sub 0.43})O{sub 3}. The modification of Zr/Ti ratio from 40/60 to 60/40 was done for 3 μm thick PZT thin films onto aluminium (Al) and Al/RuO{sub 2} substrates. A laser vibrometer was used to measure the beam displacement under controlled electric field. The experimental results were fitted in order to find the piezoelectric coefficient. Very large tip deflections of about 1 mm under low voltage (∼8 V) were measured for every cantilevers at the resonance frequency (∼180 Hz). For a given Zr/Ti ratio of 58/42, it was found that the addition of a 40 nm thick RuO{sub 2} interfacial layer between the aluminium substrate and the PZT layer induces a remarkable increase of the d{sub 31} coefficient by a factor of 2.7, thus corresponding to a maximal d{sub 31} value of 33 pC/N. These results make the recently developed PZT/Al thin films very attractive for both low frequency bending mode actuating applications and vibrating energy harvesting.

  4. The Flexible Solar Utility. Preparing for Solar's Impacts to Utility Planning and Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterling, John; Davidovich, Ted; Cory, Karlynn; Aznar, Alexandra; McLaren, Joyce

    2015-09-01

    This paper seeks to provide a flexible utility roadmap for identifying the steps that need to be taken to place the utility in the best position for addressing solar in the future. Solar growth and the emergence of new technologies will change the electric utility of tomorrow. Although not every utility, region, or market will change in the same way or magnitude, developing a path forward will be needed to reach the Electric System of the Future in the coming decades. In this report, a series of potential future states are identified that could result in drastically different energy mixes and profiles: 1) Business as Usual, 2) Low Carbon, Centralized Generation, 3) Rapid Distributed Energy Resource Growth, 4) Interactivity of Both the Grid and Demand, and 5) Grid or Load Defection. Complicating this process are a series of emerging disruptions; decisions or events that will cause the electric sector to change. Understanding and preparing for these items is critical for the transformation to any of the future states to be successful. Predicting which future state will predominate 15 years from now is not possible; however, utilities still will need to look ahead and try to anticipate how factors will impact their planning, operations, and business models. In order to dig into the potential transformations facing the utility industry, the authors conducted a series of utility interviews, held a working session at a major industry solar conference, and conducted a quantitative survey. To focus conversations, the authors leveraged the Rapid Distributed Energy Resource (DER) Growth future to draw out how utilities would have to adapt from current processes and procedures in order to manage and thrive in that new environment. Distributed solar was investigated specifically, and could serve as a proxy resource for all distributed generation (DG). It can also provide the foundation for all DERs.

  5. INCREASED FLEXIBILITY OF TURBO-COMPRESSORS IN NATURAL GAS TRANSMISSION THROUGH DIRECT SURGE CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. McKee; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2004-12-01

    This annual progress report describes the third year's technical progress in a three-year program. This report introduces the benefits of improved surge detection and summarizes what is known about internal flows as surge precursors in centrifugal compressors. Early research results and findings concerning surge in centrifugal compressors and possible precursors to surge are presented. Laboratory test results in modern compressors with 3D impellers are described in detail and used to show the changes in internal flow patterns that occur as a compressor approaches surge. It was found that older compressors with recessed impeller blading (2D geometry) do not have the same accessible flow patterns. The laboratory test results indicate a large increase in potential operating range for modern compressors. This annual report also presents results from the field testing conducted during the course of this third year. The field test results showed similar changes in the surge probe strain signals and the same type, although of less magnitude, of indication that the compressor is approaching surge. An algorithm for identifying the nearness of surge has been proposed and evaluated with the available data. This project is co-funded by the Gas Machinery Research Council (GMRC) and by Siemens Energy and Automation (Siemens). The results of the project include a step-by-step process for design, sizing, and installation of surge detection probes and for implementation of the direct surge control in centrifugal compressor controllers. This work is considered a step towards the successful implementation of direct surge control for improved flexibility and efficiency in natural gas transmission compressors.

  6. High-precision flexible fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds using distinct polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Chuang; Cai, Lei; Sonawane, Bhushan; Wang, Shanfeng; Dong, Jingyan

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional porous structures using biodegradable materials with excellent biocompatibility are critically important for tissue engineering applications. We present a multi-nozzle-based versatile deposition approach to flexibly construct porous tissue engineering scaffolds using distinct polymeric biomaterials such as thermoplastic and photo-crosslinkable polymers. We first describe the development of the deposition system and fabrication of scaffolds from two types of biodegradable polymers using this system. The thermoplastic sample is semi-crystalline poly({var_epsilon}-caprolactone) (PCL) that can be processed at a temperature higher than its melting point and solidifies at room temperature. The photo-crosslinkable one is polypropylene fumarate (PPF) that has to be dissolved in a reactive solvent as a resin for being cured into solid structures. Besides the direct fabrication of thermoplastic PCL scaffolds, we specifically develop a layer molding approach for the fabrication of crosslinkable polymers, which traditionally can only be fabricated by stereolithography. In this approach, a thermoplastic supporting material (paraffin wax) is first deposited to make a mold for each specific layer, and then PPF is deposited on demand to fill the mold and cured by the UV light. The supporting material can be removed to produce a porous scaffold of crosslinked PPF. Both PCL and crosslinked PPF scaffolds fabricated using the developed system have been characterized in terms of compressive mechanical properties, morphology, pore size and porosity. Mouse MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cell studies on the fabricated scaffolds have been performed to demonstrate their capability of supporting cell proliferation and ingrowth, aiming for bone tissue engineering applications.

  7. {100}<100> or 45.degree.-rotated {100}<100>, semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit

    2012-05-15

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, {100}<100> or 45.degree.-rotated {100}<100> oriented, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  8. The Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study: Flexibility and High Penetrations of Wind and Solar (Presentation), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study: Flexibility and High Penetrations of Wind and Solar Aaron Bloom, Aaron Townsend, and David Palchak The National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. NREL/PR-6A20-64795 IEEE PES General Meeting Denver, Colorado July 26-30, 2015 2 Simulated dispatch for high solar period in FRCC Simulated

  9. FEEDSTOCK-FLEXIBLE REFORMER SYSTEM (FFRS) FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL (SOFC)- QUALITY SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jezierski, Kelly; Tadd, Andrew; Schwank, Johannes; Kibler, Roland; McLean, David; Samineni, Mahesh; Smith, Ryan; Parvathikar, Sameer; Mayne, Joe; Westrich, Tom; Mader, Jerry; Faubert, F. Michael

    2010-07-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory funded this research collaboration effort between NextEnergy and the University of Michigan, who successfully designed, built, and tested a reformer system, which produced highquality syngas for use in SOFC and other applications, and a novel reactor system, which allowed for facile illumination of photocatalysts. Carbon and raw biomass gasification, sulfur tolerance of non-Platinum Group Metals (PGM) based (Ni/CeZrO2) reforming catalysts, photocatalysis reactions based on TiO2, and mild pyrolysis of biomass in ionic liquids (ILs) were investigated at low and medium temperatures (primarily 450 to 850 C) in an attempt to retain some structural value of the starting biomass. Despite a wide range of processes and feedstock composition, a literature survey showed that, gasifier products had narrow variation in composition, a restriction used to develop operating schemes for syngas cleanup. Three distinct reaction conditions were investigated: equilibrium, autothermal reforming of hydrocarbons, and the addition of O2 and steam to match the final (C/H/O) composition. Initial results showed rapid and significant deactivation of Ni/CeZrO2 catalysts upon introduction of thiophene, but both stable and unstable performance in the presence of sulfur were obtained. The key linkage appeared to be the hydrodesulfurization activity of the Ni reforming catalysts. For feed stoichiometries where high H2 production was thermodynamically favored, stable, albeit lower, H2 and CO production were obtained; but lower thermodynamic H2 concentrations resulted in continued catalyst deactivation and eventual poisoning. High H2 levels resulted in thiophene converting to H2S and S surface desorption, leading to stable performance; low H2 levels resulted in unconverted S and loss in H2 and CO production, as well as loss in thiophene conversion. Bimetallic catalysts did not outperform Ni-only catalysts, and small Ni particles were

  10. Flexible pulse delay control up to picosecond for high-intensity twin electron bunches

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Zhang, Zhen; Ding, Yuantao; Emma, Paul; Huang, Zhirong; Marinelli, Agostino; Tang, Chuanxiang

    2015-09-10

    Two closely spaced electron bunches have attracted strong interest due to their applications in two color X-ray free-electron lasers as well as witness bunch acceleration in plasmas and dielectric structures. In this paper, we propose a new scheme of delay system to vary the time delay up to several picoseconds while not affecting the bunch compression. Numerical simulations based on the Linac Coherent Light Source are performed to demonstrate the feasibility of this method.

  11. How the Koontz Decision May Affect Climate Change Policy

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Please join us for a Sept. 10 webinar to discuss the Supreme Court's controversial decision in Koontz v. St. Johns River Water Management District and explore how the decision may affect the...

  12. Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah Citation Details In-Document Search ...

  13. Federal Energy Management Program Issues 2016 AFFECT Funding Opportunity Announcement

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    On May 26, 2016, the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) issued a funding opportunity announcement (FOA) on the EERE Exchange titled Assisting Federal Facilities with Energy Conservation Technologies (AFFECT) 2016.

  14. Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Water-re...

  15. Single-cell sequencing of Thiomargarita reveals genomic flexibility for adaptation to dynamic redox conditions

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Winkel, Matthias; Salman-Carvalho, Verena; Woyke, Tanja; Richter, Michael; Schulz-Vogt, Heide N.; Flood, Beverly E.; Bailey, Jake V.; Mußmann, Marc

    2016-06-21

    Large, colorless sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (LSB) of the family Beggiatoaceae form thick mats at sulfidic sediment surfaces, where they efficiently detoxify sulfide before it enters the water column. The genus Thiomargarita harbors the largest known free-living bacteria with cell sizes of up to 750 μm in diameter. In addition to their ability to oxidize reduced sulfur compounds, some Thiornargarita spp. are known to store large amounts of nitrate, phosphate and elemental sulfur internally. To date little is known about their energy yielding metabolic pathways, and how these pathways compare to other Beggiatoaceae. Here, we present a draft single-cell genome of amore » chain-forming "Candidatus Thiomargarita nelsonii Thio36", and conduct a comparative analysis to five draft and one full genome of other members of the Beggiatoaceae. "Ca. T. nelsonii Thio36" is able to respire nitrate to both ammonium and dinitrogen, which allows them to flexibly respond to environmental changes. Genes for sulfur oxidation and inorganic carbon fixation confirmed that "Ca. T. nelsonii Thio36" can function as a chemolithoautotroph. Carbon can be fixed via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle, which is common among the Beggiatoaceae. In addition we found key genes of the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle that point toward an alternative CO2 fixation pathway. Surprisingly, "Ca. T. nelsonii Thio36" also encodes key genes of the C2-cycle that convert 2-phosphoglycolate to 3-phosphoglycerate during photorespiration in higher plants and cyanobacteria. Moreover, we identified a novel trait of a flavin-based energy bifurcation pathway coupled to a Na+-translocating membrane complex (Rnf). The coupling of these pathways may be key to surviving long periods of anoxia. As other Beggiatoaceae "Ca. T. nelsonii Thio36" encodes many genes similar to those of (filamentous) cyanobacteria. In conclusion, the genome of "Ca. T. nelsonii Thio36" provides additional insight into the ecology of giant sulfur

  16. INCREASED FLEXIBILITY OF TURBO-COMPRESSORS IN NATURAL GAS TRANSMISSION THROUGH DIRECT SURGE CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. McKee

    2003-05-01

    This preliminary phase 1 report summarizes the background and the work on the ''Increased Flexibility of Turbo-Compressors in Natural Gas Transmission through Direct Surge Control'' project to date. The importance of centrifugal compressors for natural gas transmission is discussed, and the causes of surge and the consequences of current surge control approaches are explained. Previous technology development, including findings from early GMRC research, previous surge detection work, and selected publications, are presented. The project is divided into three Phases to accomplish the project objectives of verifying near surge sensing, developing a prototype surge control system (sensor and controller), and testing/demonstrating the benefits of direct surge control. Specification for the direct surge control sensor and controller developed with guidance from the industry Oversight Committee is presented in detail. Results of CFD modeling conducted to aid in interpreting the laboratory test results are shown and explained. An analysis of the system dynamics identified the data sampling and handling requirements for direct surge control. A detailed design process for surge detection probes has been developed and explained in this report and has been used to prepare drag probes for the laboratory compressor test and the first field test. The surge detection probes prepared for testing have been bench tested and flow tested to determine and calibrate their sensitivity to flow forces as shown in data presented in this report. The surge detection drag probes have been shown to perform as expected and as required to detect approaching surge. Laboratory test results of surge detection in the SwRI centrifugal compressor demonstrated functionality of the surge detection probes and a change in the impeller inlet flow pattern prior to surge. Although the recirculation cannot be detected because of the specific geometry of this compressor, there are changes that indicate the

  17. Fuel Economy and Emissions of a Vehicle Equipped with an Aftermarket Flexible-Fuel Conversion Kit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2012-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) grants Certificates of Conformity for alternative fuel conversion systems and also offers other forms of premarket registration of conversion kits for use in vehicles more than two model years old. Use of alternative fuels such as ethanol, natural gas, and propane are encouraged by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Several original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) produce emissions-certified vehicles capable of using alternative fuels, and several alternative fuel conversion system manufacturers produce EPA-approved conversion systems for a variety of alternative fuels and vehicle types. To date, only one manufacturer (Flex Fuel U.S.) has received EPA certifications for ethanol fuel (E85) conversion kits. This report details an independent evaluation of a vehicle with a legal installation of a Flex Fuel U.S. conversion kit. A 2006 Dodge Charger was baseline tested with ethanol-free certification gasoline (E0) and E20 (gasoline with 20 vol % ethanol), converted to flex-fuel operation via installation of a Flex Box Smart Kit from Flex Fuel U.S., and retested with E0, E20, E50, and E81. Test cycles included the Federal Test Procedure (FTP or city cycle), the highway fuel economy test (HFET), and the US06 test (aggressive driving test). Averaged test results show that the vehicle was emissions compliant on E0 in the OEM condition (before conversion) and compliant on all test fuels after conversion. Average nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions exceeded the Tier 2/Bin 5 intermediate life NO{sub X} standard with E20 fuel in the OEM condition due to two of three test results exceeding this standard [note that E20 is not a legal fuel for non-flexible-fuel vehicles (non-FFVs)]. In addition, one E0 test result before conversion and one E20 test result after conversion exceeded the NOX standard, although the average result in these two cases was below the standard. Emissions of ethanol and acetaldehyde increased with increasing ethanol

  18. Technology trends, energy prices affect worldwide rig activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rappold, K.

    1995-09-25

    The major worldwide offshore rig markets have improved slightly this year, while the onshore markets generally lagged slightly. Offshore rig utilization rates have remained strong worldwide, with some areas reaching nearly 100%. Total worldwide offshore rig (jack ups, semisubmersible, drillships, submersibles, and barges) utilization was about 86%. Offshore drilling activity is driven primarily by oil and natural gas price expectations. Natural gas prices tend to drive North American offshore drilling activity, including the shallow waters in the Gulf of Mexico. International offshore drilling activity and deepwater projects in the Gulf of Mexico are more closely tied to oil prices. The paper discusses US rig count, directional drilling activity, jack up rig demand, semisubmersibles demand, rig replacement costs, and new construction.

  19. SUSTAINABILITY NEWS Assisting Federal Facilities with Energy Conservation Technologies (AFFECT)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Assisting Federal Facilities with Energy Conservation Technologies (AFFECT) DOE's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) recently issued a notice of intent to release a Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) for its new AFFECT program. The program intends to provide direct funding awards of up to $1 million per project to help finance renewable energy and combined heat and power (CHP) projects. Projects that apply for the funding are expected to leverage other financing mechanisms (such as

  20. One in five online scholarly articles affected by 'reference rot'

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Scholarly articles affected by 'reference rot' One in five online scholarly articles affected by 'reference rot' Los Alamos authors focus on reference rot, the combination of link rot and content drift to which references to web resources included in STM articles are subject. January 26, 2015 From left, Los Alamos National Laboratory authors Lyudmila Balakireva, Herbert Van De Sompel and Harihar Shankar, and Martin Klein and Robert Sanderson (on computer screens). Their work was published in the

  1. TSPA Model Development and Sensitivity Analysis of Processes Affecting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Performance of a Salt Repository for Disposal of Heat-Generating Nuclear Waste | Department of Energy TSPA Model Development and Sensitivity Analysis of Processes Affecting Performance of a Salt Repository for Disposal of Heat-Generating Nuclear Waste TSPA Model Development and Sensitivity Analysis of Processes Affecting Performance of a Salt Repository for Disposal of Heat-Generating Nuclear Waste The document describes the initial work on designing and developing requirements for a total

  2. Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: New Insights for Improving the Designs of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes (Fact Sheet)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    IBACOS explored the relationships between pressure and physical configurations of flexible duct junction boxes by using computational fluid dynamics simulations to predict individual box parameters and total system pressure, thereby ensuring improved HVAC performance.

  3. Tandem Microwire Solar Cells for Flexible High Efficiency Low Cost Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atwater, Harry A.

    2015-03-10

    This project has developed components of a waferless, flexible, low-cost tandem multijunction III-V/Si microwire array solar cell technology which combines the efficiency of wafered III-V photovoltaic technologies with the process designed to meet the Sunshot object. The project focused on design of lattice-matched GaAsP/SiGe two junction cell design and lattice-mismatched GaInP/Si tandem cell design. Combined electromagnetic simulation/device physics models using realistic microwire tandem structures were developed that predict >22% conversion efficiency for known material parameters, such as tunnel junction structure, window layer structure, absorber lifetimes and optical absorption and these model indicate a clear path to 30% efficiency for high quality III-V heterostructures. SiGe microwire arrays were synthesized via Cu-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth with inexpensive chlorosilane and chlorogermance precursors in an atmospheric pressure reactor. SiGe alloy composition in microwires was found to be limited to a maximum of 12% Ge incorporation during chlorogermane growth, due to the melting of the alloy near the solidus composition. Lattice mismatched InGaP double heterostructures were grown by selective epitaxy with a thermal oxide mask on Si microwire substrates using metallorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis confirms the growth of individual step graded layers and a high density of defects near the wire/III-V interface. Selective epitaxy was initiated with a low temperature nucleation scheme under “atomic layer epitaxy” or “flow mediated epitaxy” conditions whereby the Ga and P containing precursors are alternately introduced into the reactor to promote layer-bylayer growth. In parallel to our efforts on conformal GaInP heteroepitaxy on selectively masked Si microwires, we explored direct, axial growth of GaAs on Si wire arrays as another route to a tandem junction architecture. We proposed axial

  4. Manufacture of YBCO Superconducting Flexible Tapes from Nanoparticle Films Derived from Sedimentation and by Flame Deposition of Nanoparticles from Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiesmann, Harold

    2008-02-24

    The objective of this CRADA was to develop the experimental and theoretical basis of a technology to produce yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) superconducting flexible tapes derived from nanoparticle metal oxide sols. The CRADA was a joint effort between Oxford Superconducting Technology, Brookhaven National Laboratory and Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry. The effort was divided into three main tasks, the synthesis of a heteroepitaxial oxide buffer layer, and the manufacture of a flexible biaxially textured metallic substrate and the synthesis of a heteroepitaxial crystalline YBCO layer. The formation of a heteroepitaxial buffer layer was implemented using technology developed at the Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry for the synthesis, stabilization and deposition of polymer stabilized nanoparticle metal oxide sols. Using this technology, flexible oriented RABiTS nickel tapes, manufactured and supplied by the CRADA partner, Oxford Superconducting Technology, Carteret, New Jersey, were coated with a film of metal oxide nanoparticles. After coating the RABiTS nickel tapes with the nanoparticle sols the nickel tape/nanoparticle composite structure was sintered in order to form a dense crystalline heteroepitaxial oxide layer on the surface of the tape, also known as a ‘buffer’ layer. The final phase of the research was the formation of a heteroepitaxial YBCO layer, grown on top of the metal oxide buffer layer. This work was scheduled to follow the development of the heteroepitaxial oxide buffer layer as described above. Three different polymer stabilized sols, yttrium hydroxide, Y(OH){sub 3}, copper hydroxide, Cu(OH){sub 2}, and barium fluoride, BaF{sub 2}, were synthesized and combined in the appropriate stoichiometric ratio. This metal oxide sol was then be deposited onto the buffer layer and reacted to form a crystalline heteroepitaxial YBCO film ranging from 1–5 microns thick.

  5. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Flexibility Retrofits for Coal and Gas-Fueled Power Plants: August 2012 - December 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkataraman, S.; Jordan, G.; O'Connor, M.; Kumar, N.; Lefton, S.; Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Palchak, D.; Cochran, J.

    2013-12-01

    High penetrations of wind and solar power plants can induce on/off cycling and ramping of fossil-fueled generators. This can lead to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions for fossil-fueled generators. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) determined these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations to investigate the full impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This report studies the costs and benefits of retrofitting existing units for improved operational flexibility (i.e., capability to turndown lower, start and stop faster, and ramp faster between load set-points).

  6. RCRA Part B permit modifications for cost savings and increased flexibility at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jierree, C.; Ticknor, K.

    1996-10-01

    With shrinking budgets and downsizing, a need for streamlined compliance initiatives became evident at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). Therefore, Rocky Mountain Remediation Services (RMRS) at the RFETS successfully and quickly modified the RFETS RCRA Part B Permit to obtain significant cost savings and increased flexibility. This `was accomplished by requesting operations personnel to suggest changes to the Part B Permit which did not diminish overall compliance and which would be most. cost beneficial. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) subsequently obtained approval of those changes from the Colorado Department of Public Health and the Environment (CDPHE).

  7. Low-Cost, Highly Transparent Flexible low-e Coating Film to Enable Electrochromic Windows with Increased Energy Savings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Berland, bberland@itnes.com ITN Energy Systems Low-Cost, Highly Transparent Flexible low-e Coating Film to Enable Electrochromic Windows with Increased Energy Savings 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review 2 Project Summary Timeline: Start date: October 1, 2013 Planned end date: September 30, 2014 Key Milestones 1.Low-e Film: 90% T,vis & R,ir (100 cm 2 ) (Q2) 2.Low-e Film: 90% T,vis & R,ir (2m long, %T,%R variation < 2% cross web) (Q3) 3.Demonstrate Low-e/EC Film (Q3) Budget:

  8. Environmentally benign graphite intercalation compound composition for exfoliated graphite, flexible graphite, and nano-scaled graphene platelets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Bor Z.

    2014-06-17

    A carboxylic-intercalated graphite compound composition for the production of exfoliated graphite, flexible graphite, or nano-scaled graphene platelets. The composition comprises a layered graphite with interlayer spaces or interstices and a carboxylic acid residing in at least one of the interstices, wherein the composition is prepared by a chemical oxidation reaction which uses a combination of a carboxylic acid and hydrogen peroxide as an intercalate source. Alternatively, the composition may be prepared by an electrochemical reaction, which uses a carboxylic acid as both an electrolyte and an intercalate source. Exfoliation of the invented composition does not release undesirable chemical contaminants into air or drainage.

  9. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Flexibility Retrofits for Coal and Gas Fueled Power Plants: August 2012 - December 2013

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Cost-Benefit Analysis of Flexibility Retrofits for Coal and Gas-Fueled Power Plants August 2012 - December 2013 S. Venkataraman, G. Jordan, and M. O'Connor GE Energy Schenectady, New York N. Kumar and S. Lefton Intertek AIM Sunnyvale, California D. Lew, G. Brinkman, D. Palchak, and J. Cochran National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Golden, Colorado NREL Technical Monitors: Debra Lew and Kara Clark Subcontract Report NREL/SR-6A20-60862 December 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S.

  10. New features on ROVs and control systems add flexibility and cut costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rothberg, R.H.; Hall, J.E. ); Douglas, L.D. ); Kirkland, K.G. ); Manuel, W.S. )

    1993-04-05

    Subsea maintenance with remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) has a substantial role in defining diverless subsea operations. System complexity, and hence also cost and reliability, are affected by the types of maintenance interfaces available. This concluding part of a three-part series covers Amoco's development of ROV tooling that incorporates variable buoyancy, a vertical running tool, and an electrohydraulic power package that includes a horizontal torque tool. In the development of a diverless subsea production system (DSPS), Amoco also has concentrated on designing new control systems and ROVs that can remain subsea for extended periods of time. The paper describes ROVs in general; maintenance ROVs; resident ROVs for monitoring and operation of remote seafloor installations; control systems; umbilical terminations; instrument packages; hydraulic control; local shutdown; and on-going development efforts.

  11. The leucine-rich amelogenin protein (LRAP) is primarily monomeric and unstructured in physiological solution

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Philo, John S.; Maluf, Nasib Karl; Krueger, Susan; Buchko, Garry W.; Lin, Genyao; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2014-10-25

    Amelogenin proteins are critical to the formation of enamel in teeth and may have roles in promoting nucleation, controlling growth, and regulating microstructures of the intricately woven hydroxyapatite (HAP). Leucine-rich amelogenin protein (LRAP) is a 59-residue splice variant of amelogenin and contains the N- and C-terminal charged regions of the full-length protein thought to control crystal growth. Although the quaternary structure of full-length amelogenin in solution has been well studied and can consist of self-assemblies of monomers called nanospheres, the quaternary structure of LRAP is not as well studied. Here, analytical ultracentrifugation sedimentation velocity (SV) and small angle neutron scatteringmore » (SANS) were used to study the tertiary and quaternary structure of LRAP over a range of pH values, ionic strengths, and concentrations. SV has advantages over other techniques in accurately quantifying protein speciation in polydisperse solutions. We found that the monomer was the dominant species of phosphorylated LRAP (LRAP(+P)) over a range of solution conditions (pH 2.7 to 4.1, pH 4.5 to 8, 50 mmol/L( mM) to 200 mM NaCl, 0.065 to 2 mg/mL). The monomer was also the dominant species for unphosphorylated LRAP (LRAP(-P)) at pH 7.4 and LRAP(+P) in the presence of 2.5 mM calcium at pH 7.4. LRAP aggregated in a narrow pH range near the isoelectric point (pH 4.1). We conclude that LRAP does not form nanospheres under physiological solution conditions. Both SV and SANS showed that the LRAP monomer has a radius of ~2.0 nm and adopts an extended structure which solution NMR studies show is intrinsically disordered. This work provides new insights into the tertiary and quaternary structure of LRAP and further evidence that the monomeric species is an important functional form of amelogenins« less

  12. Affinity Maturation of a Potent Family of HIV Antibodies Is Primarily...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Leopold ; Puchades, Cristina ; Hua, Yuanzi ; Stanfield, Robyn L. ; Burton, Dennis R. ; Moore, John P. ; Sanders, Rogier W. ; Ward, Andrew B. ; Wilson, Ian A. Publication Date: ...

  13. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  14. High performance flexible top-emitting warm-white organic light-emitting devices and chromaticity shift mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Hongying; Deng, Lingling; Chen, Shufen E-mail: wei-huang@njupt.edu.cn; Xu, Ying; Zhao, Xiaofei; Cheng, Fan; Huang, Wei E-mail: wei-huang@njupt.edu.cn; Jiangsu-Singapore Joint Research Center for Organic/Bio- Electronics and Information Displays and Institute of Advanced Materials, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 211816

    2014-04-15

    Flexible warm-white top-emitting organic light-emitting devices (TEOLEDs) are fabricated onto PET substrates with a simple semi-transparent cathode Sm/Ag and two-color phosphors respectively doped into a single host material TCTA. By adjusting the relative position of the orange-red EML sandwiched between the blue emitting layers, the optimized device exhibits the highest power/current efficiency of 8.07 lm/W and near 13 cd/A, with a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 4105 K and a color rendering index (CRI) of 70. In addition, a moderate chromaticity variation of (-0.025, +0.008) around warm white illumination coordinates (0.45, 0.44) is obtained over a large luminance range of 1000 to 10000 cd/m{sup 2}. The emission mechanism is discussed via delta-doping method and single-carrier device, which is summarized that the carrier trapping, the exciton quenching, the mobility change and the recombination zone alteration are negative to color stability while the energy transfer process and the blue/red/blue sandwiched structure are contributed to the color stability in our flexible white TEOLEDs.

  15. Predicting Individual Affect of Health Interventions to Reduce HPV Prevalence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corley, Courtney D.; Mihalcea, Rada; Mikler, Armin R.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2011-04-01

    Recently, human papilloma virus has been implicated to cause several throat and oral cancers and hpv is established to cause most cervical cancers. A human papilloma virus vaccine has been proven successful to reduce infection incidence in FDA clinical trials and it is currently available in the United States. Current intervention policy targets adolescent females for vaccination; however, the expansion of suggested guidelines may extend to other age groups and males as well. This research takes a first step towards automatically predicting personal beliefs, regarding health intervention, on the spread of disease. Using linguistic or statistical approaches, sentiment analysis determines a texts affective content. Self-reported HPV vaccination beliefs published in web and social media are analyzed for affect polarity and leveraged as knowledge inputs to epidemic models. With this in mind, we have developed a discrete-time model to facilitate predicting impact on the reduction of HPV prevalence due to arbitrary age and gender targeted vaccination schemes.

  16. Factors affecting route selection and survival of steelhead kelts at Snake River dams in 2012 and 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harnish, Ryan A.; Colotelo, Alison H. A.; Li, Xinya; Fu, Tao; Ham, Kenneth D.; Deng, Zhiqun; Green, Ethan D.

    2015-03-31

    In 2012 and 2013, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a study that summarized the passage route proportions and route-specific survival rates of steelhead kelts that passed through Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) dams. To accomplish this, a total of 811 steelhead kelts were tagged with Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) transmitters. Acoustic receivers, both autonomous and cabled, were deployed throughout the FCRPS to monitor the downstream movements of tagged kelts. Kelts were also tagged with passive integrated transponder tags to monitor passage through juvenile bypass systems (JBS) and detect returning fish. The current study evaluated data collected in 2012 and 2013 to identify environmental, temporal, operational, individual, and behavioral variables that were related to forebay residence time, route of passage, and survival of steelhead kelts at FCRPS dams on the Snake River. Multiple approaches, including 3-D tracking, bivariate and multivariable regression modeling, and decision tree analyses were used to identify the environmental, temporal, operational, individual, and behavioral variables that had the greatest effect on forebay residence time, route of passage, and route-specific and overall dam passage survival probabilities for tagged kelts at Lower Granite (LGR), Little Goose (LGS), and Lower Monumental (LMN) dams. In general, kelt behavior and discharge appeared to work independently to affect forebay residence times. Kelt behavior, primarily approach location, migration depth, and “searching” activities in the forebay, was found to have the greatest influence on their route of passage. The condition of kelts was the single most important factor affecting their survival. The information gathered in this study may be used by dam operators and fisheries managers to identify potential management actions to improve in-river survival of kelts or collection methods for kelt reconditioning programs to aid

  17. Survey of state water laws affecting coal slurry pipeline development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogozen, M.B.

    1980-11-01

    This report summarizes state water laws likely to affect the development of coal slurry pipelines. It was prepared as part of a project to analyze environmental issues related to energy transportation systems. Coal slurry pipelines have been proposed as a means to expand the existing transportation system to handle the increasing coal shipments that will be required in the future. The availability of water for use in coal slurry systems in the coal-producing states is an issue of major concern.

  18. Model Captures How Nitrogen Limitation Affects Hydrological Processes |

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Model Captures How Nitrogen Limitation Affects Hydrological Processes Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) Community Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23/Germantown Building 1000

  19. Assessing How Renewables Affect Water Used for Thermoelectric Cooling |

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Assessing How Renewables Affect Water Used for Thermoelectric Cooling Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) Community Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23/Germantown Building 1000

  20. TIMESCALES ON WHICH STAR FORMATION AFFECTS THE NEUTRAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stilp, Adrienne M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Warren, Steven R.; Skillman, Evan; Ott, Juergen; Dolphin, Andrew E.

    2013-08-01

    Turbulent neutral hydrogen (H I) line widths are often thought to be driven primarily by star formation (SF), but the timescale for converting SF energy to H I kinetic energy is unclear. As a complication, studies on the connection between H I line widths and SF in external galaxies often use broadband tracers for the SF rate, which must implicitly assume that SF histories (SFHs) have been constant over the timescale of the tracer. In this paper, we compare measures of H I energy to time-resolved SFHs in a number of nearby dwarf galaxies. We find that H I energy surface density is strongly correlated only with SF that occurred 30-40 Myr ago. This timescale corresponds to the approximate lifetime of the lowest mass supernova progenitors ({approx}8 M{sub Sun }). This analysis suggests that the coupling between SF and the neutral interstellar medium is strongest on this timescale, due either to an intrinsic delay between the release of the peak energy from SF or to the coherent effects of many supernova explosions during this interval. At {Sigma}{sub SFR} > 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}, we find a mean coupling efficiency between SF energy and H I energy of {epsilon} = 0.11 {+-} 0.04 using the 30-40 Myr timescale. However, unphysical efficiencies are required in lower {Sigma}{sub SFR} systems, implying that SF is not the primary driver of H I kinematics at {Sigma}{sub SFR} < 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}.

  1. Analysis of operations and cyber security policies for a system of cooperating Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Laurence R.; Tejani, Bankim; Margulies, Jonathan; Hills, Jason L.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Baca, Micheal J.; Weiland, Laura

    2005-12-01

    Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices are installed on electric power transmission lines to stabilize and regulate power flow. Power lines protected by FACTS devices can increase power flow and better respond to contingencies. The University of Missouri Rolla (UMR) is currently working on a multi-year project to examine the potential use of multiple FACTS devices distributed over a large power system region in a cooperative arrangement in which the FACTS devices work together to optimize and stabilize the regional power system. The report describes operational and security challenges that need to be addressed to employ FACTS devices in this way and recommends references, processes, technologies, and policies to address these challenges.

  2. The effect of voltage waveform and tube diameter on transporting cold plasma strings through a flexible dielectric tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sohbatzadeh, Farshad; Omran, Azadeh Valinataj

    2014-11-15

    In this work, we developed transporting atmospheric pressure cold plasma using single electrode configuration through a sub-millimetre flexible dielectric tube beyond 100 cm. It was shown that the waveform of the applied high voltage is essential for controlling upstream and downstream plasma inside the tube. In this regard, sawtooth waveform enabled the transport of plasma with less applied high voltage compared to sinusoidal and pulsed form voltages. A cold plasma string as long as 130 cm was obtained by only 4 kV peak-to-peak sawtooth high voltage waveform. Optical emission spectroscopy revealed that reactive chemical species, such as atomic oxygen and hydroxyl, are generated at the tube exit. The effect of tube diameter on the transported plasma was also examined: the smaller the diameter, the higher the applied voltage. The device is likely to be used for sterilization, decontamination, and therapeutic endoscopy as already suggested by other groups in recent past years.

  3. An experimental investigation on the mechanical properties of the interface between large-sized graphene and a flexible substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Chaochen; Guo, Jiangang Song, Haibin; Xie, Haimei; Xue, Tao; Qin, Qinghua; Wu, Sen

    2015-04-28

    In this paper, the interfacial mechanical properties of large-sized monolayer graphene attached to a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate are investigated. Using a micro-tensile test and Raman spectroscopy, in situ measurements are taken to obtain the full-field deformation of graphene subjected to a uniaxial tensile loading and unloading cycle. The results of the full-field deformation are subsequently used to identify the status of the interface between the graphene and the substrate as one of perfect adhesion, one showing slide or partial debonding, and one that is fully debonded. The interfacial stress/strain transfer and the evolution of the interface from one status to another during the loading and unloading processes are discussed and the mechanical parameters, such as interfacial strength and interfacial shear strength, are obtained quantitatively demonstrating a relatively weak interface between large-sized graphene and PET.

  4. An efficient parallelization scheme for molecular dynamics simulations with many-body, flexible, polarizable empirical potentials: Application to water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fanourgakis, Georgios S.; Tipparaju, Vinod; Nieplocha, Jarek; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2007-01-01

    An efficient parallelization scheme for classical Molecular Dynamics simulations with flexible polarizable empirical potentials is presented. It is based on the standard Ewald summation technique to handle the long-range electrostatic and induction interactions. The algorithm for this parallelization scheme is designed for systems containing several thousands of polarizable sites in the simulation box. Its performance is evaluated during Molecular Dynamics simulations under periodic boundary conditions with unit cell sizes ranging from 128-512 water molecules employing two exible, polarizable water models [POL1(F) and TTM2-F] containing 1 and 3 polarizable sites respectively. The efficiency of the algorithm, is evaluated against a flexible, pairwise-additive water model (TIP4F). The benchmarks were performed on both shared and distributed memory platforms. As a result of the efficient calculations of the induced dipole moments, a superlinear scaling as a function of the number of the processors is observed in several cases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt for a parallel implementation of a polarizable potential under periodic boundary conditions. Guidelines for adapting the algorithm for larger systems are also discussed. This research was performed in part using the Molecular Science Computing Facility (MSCF) in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energys Office of Biological and Environmental Research located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-76RL01830.

  5. Cu{sup II} coordination polymers based on 5-methoxyisophthalate and flexible N-donor ligands: Structures and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Xin-Hong; Qin, Jian-Hua; Ma, Lu-Fang; Wang, Li-Ya

    2014-04-01

    Three Cu{sup II} coordination polymers, ([Cu{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}O-ip){sub 2}(bmib)]){sub n} (1), ([Cu{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}O-ip){sub 2}(bmib){sub 2}]){sub n} (2) and ([Cu(CH{sub 3}O-ip)(bbip)]∙2H{sub 2}O){sub n} (3) (CH{sub 3}O-H{sub 2}ip is 5-methoxyisophthalic acid, bmib is 1,4-bis(2-methylimidazol-1-yl)butane and bbip is 1,3-bis(1H-benzimidazolyl)propane), have been synthesized by hydrothermal methods. Complexes 1–3 were structurally characterized by elemental analysis, infrared (IR) spectra and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. Complex 1 shows a 3D six-connected self-penetrating network based on paddlewheel secondary building units. Complex 2 has a 3-fold interpenetrating 3D diamond framework. Complex 3 possesses a 1D tube-like chain. Thermo-gravimetric and magnetic properties of 1–3 were also investigated. - Graphical abstract: Structures and magnetic properties of copper(II) coordination polymers constructed from 5-methoxyisophthalate linker and two flexible N-donor ancillary ligands. Three copper(II) coordination polymers with 5-methoxyisophthalate and two related flexible N-donor ancillary ligands have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Moreover, thermal behaviors and magnetic properties of these complexes have also been investigated. - Highlights: • Three Cu(II) coordination polymers were synthesized. • The conformations of N-donor ligands and pH value have an effect on the final structures. • The magnetic properties of 1–3 have been investigated.

  6. Process for selectively treating a subterranean formation using coiled tubing without affecting or being affected by the two adjacent zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vercaemer, C.; Lemanczyk, R.; Piot, B.

    1989-06-27

    A process is described for selectively treating a subterranean formation without affecting adjacent zones above and below the formation characterized by: injecting a treatment fluid into a wellbore annulus adjacent the formation to be treated and simultaneously injecting two protection fluids, immiscible with the treatment fluid, into the annulus adjacent the zones wherein the treatment fluid and protection fluids are separated with the wellbore annulus solely by a fluid interface between the treatment fluid and each of the immiscible protection fluids.

  7. Legal and regulatory issues affecting aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1981-10-01

    This document updates and expands the report with a similar title issued in October 1980. This document examines a number of legal and regulatory issues that potentially can affect implementation of the aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) concept. This concept involves the storage of thermal energy in an underground aquifer until a later date when it can be effectively utilized. Either heat energy or chill can be stored. Potential end uses of the energy include district space heating and cooling, industrial process applications, and use in agriculture or aquaculture. Issues are examined in four categories: regulatory requirements, property rights, potential liability, and issues related to heat or chill delivery.

  8. High Strength Stainless Steel Properties that Affect Resistance Welding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanne, W.R.

    2001-08-01

    This report discusses results of a study on selected high strength stainless steel alloy properties that affect resistance welding. The austenitic alloys A-286, JBK-75 (Modified A-286), 21-6-9, 22-13-5, 316 and 304L were investigated and compared. The former two are age hardenable, and the latter four obtain their strength through work hardening. Properties investigated include corrosion and its relationship to chemical cleaning, the effects of heat treatment on strength and surface condition, and the effect of mechanical properties on strength and weldability.

  9. Microbial Carbon Cycling in Permafrost-Affected Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vishnivetskaya, T.; Liebner, Susanne; Wilhelm, Ronald; Wagner, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic plays a key role in Earth s climate system as global warming is predicted to be most pronounced at high latitudes and because one third of the global carbon pool is stored in ecosystems of the northern latitudes. In order to improve our understanding of the present and future carbon dynamics in climate sensitive permafrost ecosystems, present studies concentrate on investigations of microbial controls of greenhouse gas fluxes, on the activity and structure of the involved microbial communities, and on their response to changing environmental conditions. Permafrost-affected soils can function as both a source and a sink for carbon dioxide and methane. Under anaerobic conditions, caused by flooding of the active layer and the effect of backwater above the permafrost table, the mineralization of organic matter can only be realized stepwise by specialized microorganisms. Important intermediates of the organic matter decomposition are hydrogen, carbon dioxide and acetate, which can be further reduced to methane by methanogenic archaea. Evolution of methane fluxes across the subsurface/atmosphere boundary will thereby strongly depend on the activity of anaerobic methanogenic archaea and obligately aerobic methane oxidizing proteobacteria, which are known to be abundant and to significantly reduce methane emissions in permafrost-affected soils. Therefore current studies on methane-cycling microorganisms are the object of particular attention in permafrost studies, because of their key role in the Arctic methane cycle and consequently of their significance for the global methane budget.

  10. Three-dimensional skeleton networks of graphene wrapped polyaniline nanofibers: An excellent structure for high-performance flexible solid-state supercapacitors

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Hu, Nantao; Zhang, Liling; Yang, Chao; Zhao, Jian; Yang, Zhi; Wei, Hao; Liao, Hanbin; Feng, Zhenxing; Fisher, Adrian; Zhang, Yafei; et al

    2016-01-22

    Thin, robust, lightweight, and flexible supercapacitors (SCs) have aroused growing attentions nowadays due to the rapid development of flexible electronics. Graphene-polyaniline (PANI) hybrids are attractive candidates for high performance SCs. In order to utilize them in real devices, it is necessary to improve the capacitance and the structure stability of PANI. Here we report a hierarchical three-dimensional structure, in which all of PANI nanofibers (NFs) are tightly wrapped inside reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheet skeletons, for high-performance flexible SCs. The as-fabricated film electrodes with this unique structure showed a highest gravimetric specific capacitance of 921 F/g and volumetric capacitance ofmore » 391 F/cm3. The assembled solid-state SCs gave a high specific capacitance of 211 F/g (1 A/g), a high area capacitance of 0.9 F/cm2, and a competitive volumetric capacitance of 25.6 F/cm3. The SCs also exhibited outstanding rate capability (~75% retention at 20 A/g) as well as excellent cycling stability (100% retention at 10 A/g for 2000 cycles). Additionally, no structural failure and loss of performance were observed under the bending state. Lastly, this structure design paves a new avenue for engineering rGO/PANI or other similar hybrids for high performance flexible energy storage devices.« less

  11. Performance oriented packaging testing of the six-foot flexible linear shaped charge box for packing group II hazardous materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Libbert, K.J.

    1992-10-01

    The wood box (Drawing 53711-6665109) for six-foot flexible linear shaped charges was tested for conformance to Performance Oriented Packaging standards specified by the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49 CFR, Parts 107 through 178, dated 31 December 1991. The box was tested with a gross weight of 14 kilograms and met all the requirements.

  12. The influence of time dependent flight and maneuver velocities and elastic or viscoelastic flexibilities on aerodynamic and stability derivatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochrane, Alexander P.; Merrett, Craig G.; Hilton, Harry H.

    2014-12-10

    The advent of new structural concepts employing composites in primary load carrying aerospace structures in UAVs, MAVs, Boeing 787s, Airbus A380s, etc., necessitates the inclusion of flexibility as well as viscoelasticity in static structural and aero-viscoelastic analyses. Differences and similarities between aeroelasticity and aero-viscoelasticity have been investigated in [2]. An investigation is undertaken as to the dependence and sensitivity of aerodynamic and stability derivatives to elastic and viscoelastic structural flexibility and as to time dependent flight and maneuver velocities. Longitudinal, lateral and directional stabilities are investigated. It has been a well established fact that elastic lifting surfaces are subject to loss of control effectiveness and control reversal at certain flight speeds, which depend on aerodynamic, structural and material properties [5]. Such elastic analyses are extended to linear viscoelastic materials under quasi-static, dynamic, and sudden and gradual loading conditions. In elastic wings one of the critical static parameters is the velocity at which control reversal takes place (V{sub REV}{sup E}). Since elastic formulations constitute viscoelastic initial conditions, viscoelastic reversal may occur at speeds V{sub REV<}{sup ≧}V{sub REV}{sup E}, but furthermore does so in time at 0 < t{sub REV} ≤ ∞. The influence of the twin effects of viscoelastic and elastic materials and of variable flight velocities on longitudinal, lateral, directional and spin stabilities are also investigated. It has been a well established fact that elastic lifting surfaces are subject to loss of control effectiveness and control reversal at certain flight speeds, which depend on aerodynamic, structural and material properties [5]. Such elastic analyses are here extended to linear viscoelastic materials under quasi-static, dynamic, and sudden and gradual loading conditions. In elastic wings the critical parameter is the velocity at

  13. Laboratory measurements of parameters affecting wet deposition of methyl iodide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maeck, W.J.; Honkus, R.J.; Keller, J.H.; Voilleque, P.G.

    1984-09-01

    The transfer of gaseous methyl iodide (CH/sub 3/I) to raindrops and the initial retention by vegetation of CH/sub 3/I in raindrops have been studied in a laboratory experimental program. The measured air-to-drop transfer parameters and initial retention factors both affect the wet deposition of methyl iodide onto vegetation. No large effects on the air-to-drop transfer due to methyl iodide concentration, temperature, acidity, or rain type were observed. Differences between laboratory measurements and theoretical values of the mass transfer coefficient were found. Pasture grass, lettuce, and alfalfa were used to study the initial retention of methyl iodide by vegetation. Only a small fraction of the incident CH/sub 3/I in raindrops was held by any of the three vegetation types.

  14. Microscale Confinement features in microfluidic devices can affect biofilm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Aloke; Karig, David K; Neethirajan, Suresh; Acharya, Rajesh K; Mukherjee, Partha P; Retterer, Scott T; Doktycz, Mitchel John

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms are aggregations of microbes that are encased by extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS) and adhere to surfaces and interfaces. Biofilm development on abiotic surfaces is a dynamic process, which typically proceeds through an initial phase of adhesion of plankntonic microbes to the substrate, followed by events such as growth, maturation and EPS secretion. However, the coupling of hydrodynamics, microbial adhesion and biofilm growth remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the effect of semiconfined features on biofilm formation. Using a microfluidic device and fluorescent time-lapse microscopy, we establish that confinement features can significantly affect biofilm formation. Biofilm dynamics change not only as a function of confinement features, but also of the total fluid flow rate, and our combination of experimental results and numerical simulations reveal insights into the link between hydrodynamics and biofilm formation.

  15. Factors that affect electric-utility stranded commitments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirst, E.; Hadley, S.; Baxter, L.

    1996-07-01

    Estimates of stranded commitments for U.S. investor-owned utilities range widely, with many falling in the range of $100 to $200 billion. These potential losses exist because some utility-owned power plants, long-term power-purchase contracts and fuel-supply contracts, regulatory assets, and expenses for public-policy programs have book values that exceed their expected market values under full competition. This report quantifies the sensitivity of stranded- commitment estimates to the various factors that lead to these above- market-value estimates. The purpose of these sensitivity analyses is to improve understanding on the part of state and federal regulators, utilities, customers, and other electric-industry participants about the relative importance of the factors that affect stranded- commitment amounts.

  16. Factors affecting expanded electricity trade in North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    The authors explore factors that affect electricity trade between enterprises in the US and Canada and the US and Mexico. They look to those underlying policy and institutional factors that affect the relative costs of producing electricity in the three countries. In particular, they consider six factors that appear to have a significant impact on electricity trade in North America: differences in the types of economic regulation of power leading to differences in cost recovery for wholesale and retail power and wheeling charges; changing regulatory attitudes, placing more emphasis on demand-side management and environmental concerns; differences in energy and economic policies; differences in national and subnational environmental policies; changing organization of electric power industries which may foster uncertainty, change historical relationships, and provide other potentially important sources of power for distribution utilities; and differences in the ability of enterprises to gain access to electric power markets because of restrictions placed on transmission access. In Section 2, the authors discuss the regulation of electricity trade in North America and provide an overview of the recent trading experience for electricity between Canada and the US and between Mexico and the US, including the volume of that trade over the past decade and existing transmission capacity between regions of the three countries. In Section 3, they look at the benefits that accrue to trading counties and what those benefits are likely to be for the three countries. The discussion in Section 4 centers on the relevant provisions of the Canada Free Trade Agreement and the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement. In Section 5, they set the stage for the discussion of policy and institutional differences presented in Section 6 by outlining differences in the organization of the electric power sectors of Canada, the US, and Mexico. The study is synthesized in Section 7.

  17. Insights into the Temperature-Dependent “Breathing” of a Flexible Fluorinated Metal-Organic Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez, Carlos A.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2012-10-08

    The framework expansion and contraction upon carbon dioxide uptake was studied in a partially fluorinated metal-organic framework, FMOF-2. The results show framework expansion and contraction (breathing) as a function of pressure and temperature. Even at temperatures as low as -30 ºC, two phase transitions seem to take place with a pressure step (corresponding to the second transition) that is greatly dependent on temperature. This behavior is described by the model proposed by Coudert and co-workers showing that the material seems to undergo two phase transitions that are temperature dependent. The isosteric heats of adsorption at high pressures show a minimum that is concurrent with the region of CO2 loadings where the second pressure step occurs. It was deduced that these lower enthalpy values are a consequence of the energy cost related to the expansion or reopening of the framework. Lastly, the large and reversible breathing behavior may be a product of the combination of the high elasticity of zinc (II) coordination and the apparent high flexibility of the V-shaped organic building block.

  18. Cost and Reliability Improvement for CIGS-Based PV on Flexible Substrate: May 24, 2006 -- July 31, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiedeman, S.

    2011-05-01

    Global Solar Energy rapidly advances the cost and performance of commercial thin-film CIGS products using roll-to-roll processing on steel foil substrate in compact, low cost deposition equipment, with in-situ sensors for real-time intelligent process control. Substantial increases in power module efficiency, which now exceed 13%, are evident at GSE factories in two countries with a combined capacity greater than 75 MW. During 2009 the average efficiency of cell strings (3780 cm2) was increased from 7% to over 11%, with champion results exceeding 13% Continued testing of module reliability in rigid product has reaffirmed extended life expectancy for standard glass product, and has qualified additional lower-cost methods and materials. Expected lifetime for PV in flexible packages continues to increase as failure mechanisms are elucidated, and resolved by better methods and materials. Cost reduction has been achieved through better materials utilization, enhanced vendor and material qualification and selection. The largest cost gains have come as a result of higher cell conversion efficiency and yields, higher processing rates, greater automation and improved control in all process steps. These improvements are integral to this thin film PV partnership program, and all realized with the 'Gen2' manufacturing plants, processes and equipment.

  19. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN FOR A RADICALLY SMALLER, HIGHLY ADAPTIVE AND APPLICATION-FLEXIBLE MINING MACHINE FOR UTILITY AND DEVELOPMENT WORK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew H. Stern

    2004-12-20

    The aim of this research project was to develop a preliminary ''conceptual design'' for a radically smaller, highly adaptive and application-flexible underground coal mining machine, for performing non-production utility work and/or also undertake limited production mining for the recovery of reserves that would otherwise be lost. Whereas historically, mining philosophies have reflected a shift to increasing larger mechanized systems [such as the continuous miner (CM)], specific mining operations that do not benefit from the economy of the large mining equipment are often ignored or addressed with significant inefficiencies. Developing this prototype concept will create a new class of equipment that can provide opportunities to re-think the very structure of the mining system across a broad range of possibilities, not able to be met by existing machinery. The approach involved pooling the collective input from mining professionals, using a structured listing of desired inputs in the form of a questionnaire, which was used to define the range of desired design specifications. From these inputs, a conceptual specification was blended, by the author, to embody the general concurrence of mission concepts for this machine.

  20. How new ozone particulate matter rules will affect fuel choices?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, L.

    1998-07-01

    EPA, OTC and OTAG are all coming out with new air emissions rules for electric utility plants. The economic impact of these new rules is certain to be far-reaching and influence fuel choices, capital investments and electric plant dispatch decisions. Recent studies by Hill and Associates of these emerging rules and their economic impacts under deregulation indicate significant shifting of fuel choices and strong inter-regional wheeling of electricity. The author discusses the following: Which NERC regions fare best and worst under the combination of deregulation and the environmental rules? Whether just switching to cleaner coal will be enough for most coal plants? How coal usage is stimulated by electric utility deregulations? How electric utility mergers affect the economics of environmental compliance? Projections of future SO{sub 2} allowance prices. Why NO{sub x} allowance will likely follow a different price path then SO{sub 2} allowances? How coal prices are likely to respond to increased fuel switching? Which electric transmission bottlenecks are critical to environmental and economic dispatch?

  1. Fermentation and Hydrogen Metabolism Affect Uranium Reduction by Clostridia

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Gao, Weimin; Francis, Arokiasamy J.

    2013-01-01

    Previously, it has been shown that not only is uranium reduction under fermentation condition common among clostridia species, but also the strains differed in the extent of their capability and the pH of the culture significantly affected uranium(VI) reduction. In this study, using HPLC and GC techniques, metabolic properties of those clostridial strains active in uranium reduction under fermentation conditions have been characterized and their effects on capability variance of uranium reduction discussed. Then, the relationship between hydrogen metabolism and uranium reduction has been further explored and the important role played by hydrogenase in uranium(VI) and iron(III) reduction bymore » clostridia demonstrated. When hydrogen was provided as the headspace gas, uranium(VI) reduction occurred in the presence of whole cells of clostridia. This is in contrast to that of nitrogen as the headspace gas. Without clostridia cells, hydrogen alone could not result in uranium(VI) reduction. In alignment with this observation, it was also found that either copper(II) addition or iron depletion in the medium could compromise uranium reduction by clostridia. In the end, a comprehensive model was proposed to explain uranium reduction by clostridia and its relationship to the overall metabolism especially hydrogen (H 2 ) production.« less

  2. Flexibility in Testing Configurations

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    PSEL also has a demonstrated history of appropriately ... characterization of cells, modules, arrays, and ... and the National Solar Thermal Test Facility to ...

  3. Flexible programmable logic module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  4. Interim Action Determination Flexible ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... be modified to allow for processing fuel pellets and fuel rods of different diameters and ... Both boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel pellets, rods ...

  5. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  6. Providing Grid Flexibility in

    Energy Savers

    ... what happens on the "last mile" and isolate substations ... than Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Hawaii combined. ... of the Smart Grid Project three months ahead of schedule ...

  7. Fuel Flexibility in Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLendon, T. Robert; Pineault, Richard L.; Richardson, Steven W.; Rockey, John M.; Beer, Stephen K.; Lui, Alain P.; Batton, William A.

    2001-11-06

    In order to increase efficiencies of carbonizers, operation at high pressures is needed. In addition, waste biomass fuels of opportunity can be used to offset fossil fuel use. The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Fluidized Bed Gasifier/Combustor (FBG/C) was used to gasify coal and mixtures of coal and biomass (sawdust) at 425 psig. The purpose of the testing program was to generate steady state operating data for modeling efforts of carbonizers. A test program was completed with a matrix of parameters varied one at a time in order to avoid second order interactions. Variables were: coal feed rate, pressure, and varying mixtures of sawdust and coal types. Coal types were Montana Rosebud subbituminous and Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous. The sawdust was sanding waste from a furniture manufacturer in upstate New York. Coal was sieved from -14 to +60 mesh and sawdust was sieved to -14 mesh. The FBG/C operates at a nominal 425 psig, but pressures can be lowered. For the tests reported it was operated as a jetting, fluidized bed, ash-agglomerating gasifier. Preheated air and steam are injected into the center of the bottom along with the solid feed that is conveyed with cool air. Fairly stable reactor internal flow patterns develop and temperatures stabilize (with some fluctuations) when steady state is reached. At nominal conditions the solids residence time in the reactor is on the order of 1.5 to 2 hours, so changes in feed types can require on the order of hours to equilibrate. Changes in operating conditions (e.g. feed rate) usually require much less time. The operating periods of interest for these tests were only the steady state periods, so transient conditions were not monitored as closely. The test matrix first established a base case of operations to which single parameter changes in conditions could be compared. The base case used Montana Rosebud at a coal feed rate of 70 lbm/hr at 425 psig. The coal sawdust mixtures are reported as percent by weight coal to percent by weight sawdust. The mixtures of interest were: 65/35 subbituminous, 75/25 subbituminous, 85/15 subbituminous, and 75/25 bituminous. Steady state was achieved quickly when going from one subbituminous mixture to another, but longer when going from subbituminous to bituminous coal. The most apparent observation when comparing the base case to subbituminous coal/sawdust mixtures is that operating conditions are nearly the same. Product gas does not change much in composition and temperatures remain nearly the same. Comparisons of identical weight ratios of sawdust and subbituminous and bituminous mixtures show considerable changes in operating conditions and gas composition. The highly caking bituminous coal used in this test swelled up and became about half as dense as the comparable subbituminous coal char. Some adjustments were required in accommodating changes in solids removal during the test. Nearly all the solids in the bituminous coal sawdust were conveyed into the upper freeboard section and removed at the mid-level of the reactor. This is in marked contrast to the ash-agglomerating condition where most solids are removed at the very bottom of the gasifier. Temperatures in the bottom of the reactor during the bituminous test were very high and difficult to control. The most significant discovery of the tests was that the addition of sawdust allowed gasification of a coal type that had previously resulted in nearly instant clinkering of the gasifier. Several previous attempts at using Pittsburgh No. 8 were done only at the end of the tests when shutdown was imminent anyway. It is speculated that the fine wood dust somehow coats the pyrolyzed sticky bituminous coal particles and prevents them from agglomerating quickly. As the bituminous coal char particles swell, they are carried to the cooler upper regions of the reactor where they re-solidify. Other interesting phenomena were revealed regarding the transport (rheological) properties of the coal sawdust mixtures. The coal sawdust mixtures segregate quickly when transported. This is visibly apparent. To prevent bridges and ratholes from developing in the lowest coal feed hopper, it is normally fluidized. When feeding the coal sawdust mixtures the fluidizing gas was turned off to prevent segregation. The feed system worked as well with no fluidizing gas when using the mixtures as it did with fluidizing gas and only coal. In addition, it was inadvertently discovered that greatly increased pressure above the feeder resulted in greatly increased flow with the mixtures. Increased pressure above the feeder with coal only results in quickly plugging the feed system. Also, it was learned that addition of sawdust reduces the system loss during conveying compared to coal only. This is in spite of overall smaller particle sizes with the coal sawdust mixtures.

  8. ORNL Flexible Research Platforms

    Energy Savers

    Transducers * 4 Refrigerant Mass Flow Sensors * 2 Natural Gas Mass Flowmeters * 2 Airflow Measurement Stations * 9 HVAC Power Measurements (Wattnode and CTs) * 16 General ...

  9. High mobility single-crystalline-like GaAs thin films on inexpensive flexible metal substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, P. Rathi, M.; Gao, Y.; Yao, Y.; Selvamanickam, V.; Zheng, N.; Ahrenkiel, P.; Martinez, J.

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate heteroepitaxial growth of single-crystalline-like n and p-type doped GaAs thin films on inexpensive, flexible, and light-weight metal foils by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Single-crystalline-like Ge thin film on biaxially textured templates made by ion beam assisted deposition on metal foil served as the epitaxy enabling substrate for GaAs growth. The GaAs films exhibited strong (004) preferred orientation, sharp in-plane texture, low grain misorientation, strong photoluminescence, and a defect density of ?10{sup 7?}cm{sup ?2}. Furthermore, the GaAs films exhibited hole and electron mobilities as high as 66 and 300?cm{sup 2}/V-s, respectively. High mobility single-crystalline-like GaAs thin films on inexpensive metal substrates can pave the path for roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible III-V solar cells for the mainstream photovoltaics market.

  10. Self-assembled Ag nanoparticle network passivated by a nano-sized ZnO layer for transparent and flexible film heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Ki-Won; Kim, Han-Ki; Kim, Min-Yi; Chang, Hyo-Sik

    2015-12-15

    We investigated a self-assembled Ag nanoparticle network electrode passivated by a nano-sized ZnO layer for use in high-performance transparent and flexible film heaters (TFFHs). The low temperature atomic layer deposition of a nano-sized ZnO layer effectively filled the uncovered area of Ag network and improved the current spreading in the self-assembled Ag network without a change in the sheet resistance and optical transmittance as well as mechanical flexibility. The time-temperature profiles and heat distribution analysis demonstrate that the performance of the TFTH with the ZnO/Ag network is superior to that of a TFFH with Ag nanowire electrodes. In addition, the TFTHs with ZnO/Ag network exhibited better stability than the TFFH with a bare Ag network due to the effective current spreading through the nano-sized ZnO layer.

  11. Syntheses, structures, molecular and cationic recognitions and catalytic properties of two lanthanide coordination polymers based on a flexible tricarboxylate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yu; Wang, Yan-Mei; Xu, Ji; Liu, Pan; Weththasinha, H.A.B.M.D.; Wu, Yun-Long; Lu, Xiao-Qing; Xie, Ji-Min

    2014-11-15

    Two lanthanide coordination polymers, namely, ([La(TTTA)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·2H{sub 2}O){sub n} (La-TTTA) and [Nd(TTTA)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·2H{sub 2}O){sub n} (Nd-TTTA) have been hydrothermally synthesized through the reaction of lanthanide ions (La{sup 3+} and Nd{sup 3+}) with the flexible tripodal ligand 2,2′,2″-[1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyltris(thio)]tris-acetic acid (H{sub 3}TTTA). La-TTTA and Nd-TTTA are isostructural and both show three dimensional structures. La-TTTA and Nd-TTTA show good recognition of amine molecules via quenching the luminescent intensities in amines emulsions. They can also recognize Fe{sup 3+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+} and Co{sup 2+} ions with the quenching the peak around 361 nm when the compounds immersed in ionic solutions. The two compounds act as efficient Lewis acid catalysts for the cyanosilylation of benzaldehyde and derivatives in high yields shortly due to the strong Lewis acidity and the possible open sites of the lanthanide ions. - Graphical abstract: We have synthesized two isostructural 3D compounds based on H{sub 3}TTTA. They are chemical sensor of amine solvents and cations. They have higher yields and TOFs to catalyze cyanosilylation reactions. - Highlights: • The compounds show recognition of amine molecules via quenching luminescent intensities. • The compounds recognize Fe{sup 3+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+} and Co{sup 2+} ions via quenching the peak around 361 nm. • They act as efficient Lewis acid catalysts for the cyanosilylation reactions in high yields.

  12. Five new Mn(II)/Co(II) coordination polymers constructed from flexible multicarboxylate ligands with varying magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Sui-Jun; Zeng, Yong-Fei; Hu, Xin; Xue, Li; Han, Song-De; Jia, Ji-Min; Hu, Tong-Liang

    2013-08-15

    Five new Mn(II)/Co(II) coordination polymers [Mn{sub 2}(Adi){sub 2}(DMA)]{sub n} (1), [Mn{sub 2}(Adi){sub 2}(DMF)]{sub n} (2), [Mn{sub 4}(Adi){sub 4}(DMF){sub 2}]{sub n} (3), [Co{sub 4}(Adi){sub 4}(DMF){sub 2}]{sub n} (4) and ([Co{sub 3}(Cit){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]·(H{sub 2}O)){sub n} (5) [Adi=adipate anion, Cit=citrate anion, DMA=N,N′-dimethylacetamide and DMF=N,N′-dimethylformamide] have been successfully constructed from two flexible multicarboxylate ligands under solvothermal conditions. Complexes 1 and 2 exhibit 2-D network featured 1-D Mn{sup II} chain, 3 and 4 are 3-D frameworks containing different 1-D carboxylate–metal chain, while 5 shows a 3-D structure based on Co{sub 6} wheel clusters. Magnetic investigations indicate antiferromagnetic behaviors for 1–4 and weak ferromagnetic behavior for 5 because of distinct linkage modes of metal ions. - Graphical abstract: Five new Mn(II)/Co(II) coordination polymers display 2-D/3-D structures containing 1-D carboxylate–metal chains or wheel clusters. Magnetic analyses reveal that they show antiferromagnetic, canted antiferromagnetic and weak ferromagnetic behaviors, respectively. Highlights: ●Five new Mn(II)/Co(II) coordination polymers have been synthesized. ●A complex-based Co{sub 6} wheel cluster was obtained. ●The different magnetic properties of the complexes are discussed.

  13. Microfluidics without channels: highly-flexible synthesis on a digital-microfluidic chip for production of diverse PET tracers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Dam, Robert Michael [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is used for fundamental studies of living biological organisms and microbial ecosystems in applications ranging from biofuel production to environmental remediation to the study, diagnosis, and treatment monitoring of human disease. Routine access to PET imaging, to monitor biochemical reactions in living organisms in real time, could accelerate a broad range of research programs of interest to DOE. Using PET requires access to short-lived radioactive-labeled compounds that specifically probe the desired living processes. The overall aims of this project were to develop a miniature liquid-handling technology platform (called microfluidics) that increases the availability of diverse PET probes by reducing the cost and complexity of their production. Based on preliminary experiments showing that microfluidic chips can synthesis such compounds, we aimed to advance this technology to improve its robustness, increase its flexibility for a broad range of probes, and increase its user-friendliness. Through the research activities of this project, numerous advances were made; Tools were developed to enable the visualization of radioactive materials within microfluidic chips; Fundamental advances were made in the microfluidic chip architecture and fabrication process to increase its robustness and reliability; The microfluidic chip technology was shown to produce useful quantities of an example PET probes, and methods to further increase the output were successfully pursued; A universal chip was developed that could produce multiple types of PET probes, enabling the possibility of on demand synthesis of different probes; and Operation of the chip was automated to ensure minimal radiation exposure to the operator Based on the demonstrations of promising technical feasibility and performance, the microfluidic chip technology is currently being commercialized. It is anticipated that costs of microfluidic chips can be

  14. Crystallographic and kinetic study of riboflavin synthase from Brucella abortus, a chemotherapeutic target with an enhanced intrinsic flexibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serer, Mara I.; Bonomi, Hernn R.; Guimares, Beatriz G.; Rossi, Rolando C.; Goldbaum, Fernando A.; Klinke, Sebastin

    2014-05-01

    This work reports crystal structures of trimeric riboflavin synthase from the pathogen B. abortus both as the apo protein and in complex with several ligands of interest. It is shown that ligand binding drives the assembly of the unique active site of the trimer, and these findings are complemented by a detailed kinetic study on this enzyme, in which marked inhibition by substrate and product was observed. Riboflavin synthase (RS) catalyzes the last step of riboflavin biosynthesis in microorganisms and plants, which corresponds to the dismutation of two molecules of 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine to yield one molecule of riboflavin and one molecule of 5-amino-6-ribitylamino-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione. Owing to the absence of this enzyme in animals and the fact that most pathogenic bacteria show a strict dependence on riboflavin biosynthesis, RS has been proposed as a potential target for antimicrobial drug development. Eubacterial, fungal and plant RSs assemble as homotrimers lacking C{sub 3} symmetry. Each monomer can bind two substrate molecules, yet there is only one active site for the whole enzyme, which is located at the interface between two neighbouring chains. This work reports the crystallographic structure of RS from the pathogenic bacterium Brucella abortus (the aetiological agent of the disease brucellosis) in its apo form, in complex with riboflavin and in complex with two different product analogues, being the first time that the structure of an intact RS trimer with bound ligands has been solved. These crystal models support the hypothesis of enhanced flexibility in the particle and also highlight the role of the ligands in assembling the unique active site. Kinetic and binding studies were also performed to complement these findings. The structural and biochemical information generated may be useful for the rational design of novel RS inhibitors with antimicrobial activity.

  15. Screening Hofmann Compounds as CO{sub 2} Sorbents: Nontraditional Synthetic Route to Over 40 Different Pore-Functionalized and Flexible Pillared Cyanonickelates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Culp, Jeffrey T; Madden, Catherine; Kauffman, Kristi; Shi, Fan; Matranga, Christopher

    2013-03-29

    A simple reaction scheme based on the heterogeneous intercalation of pillaring ligands (HIPLs) provides a convenient method for systematically tuning pore size, pore functionality, and network flexibility in an extended series of pillared cyanonickelates (PICNICs), commonly referred to as Hofmann compounds. The versatility of the approach is demonstrated through the preparation of over 40 different PICNICs containing pillar ligands ranging from ∼4 to ∼15 Å in length and modified with a wide range of functional groups, including fluoro, aldehyde, alkylamine, alkyl, aryl, trifluoromethyl, ester, nitro, ether, and nonmetalated 4,4′-bipyrimidine. The HIPL method involves reaction of a suspension of preformed polymeric sheets of powdered anhydrous nickel cyanide with an appropriate pillar ligand in refluxing organic solvent, resulting in the conversion of the planar [Ni{sub 2}(CN){sub 4}]{sub n} networks into polycrystalline three-dimensional porous frameworks containing the organic pillar ligand. Preliminary investigations indicate that the HIPL reaction is also amenable to forming Co(L)Ni(CN){sub 4}, Fe(L)Ni(CN){sub 4}, and Fe(L)Pd(CN){sub 4} networks. The materials show variable adsorption behavior for CO{sub 2} depending on the pillar length and pillar functionalization. Several compounds show structurally flexible behavior during the adsorption and desorption of CO{sub 2}. Interestingly, the newly discovered flexible compounds include two flexible Fe(L)Ni(CN){sub 4} derivatives that are structurally related to previously reported porous spin-crossover compounds. The preparations of 20 pillar ligands based on ring-functionalized 4,4′-dipyridyls, 1,4-bis(4- pyridyl)benzenes, and N-(4-pyridyl)isonicotinamides are also described.

  16. Screening Hofmann Compounds as CO 2 Sorbents: Nontraditional Synthetic Route to Over 40 Different Pore-Functionalized and Flexible Pillared Cyanonickelates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Culp, Jeffrey T.; Madden, Catherine; Kauffman, Kristi; Shi, Fan; Matranga, Christopher

    2013-04-15

    A simple reaction scheme based on the heterogeneous intercalation of pillaring ligands (HIPLs) provides a convenient method for systematically tuning pore size, pore functionality, and network flexibility in an extended series of pillared cyanonickelates (PICNICs), commonly referred to as Hofmann compounds. The versatility of the approach is demonstrated through the preparation of over 40 different PICNICs containing pillar ligands ranging from 4 to 15 Å in length and modified with a wide range of functional groups, including fluoro, aldehyde, alkylamine, alkyl, aryl, trifluoromethyl, ester, nitro, ether, and nonmetalated 4,4'-bipyrimidine. The HIPL method involves reaction of a suspension of preformed polymeric sheets of powdered anhydrous nickel cyanide with an appropriate pillar ligand in refluxing organic solvent, resulting in the conversion of the planar [Ni{sub 2}(CN){sub 4}]{sub n} networks into polycrystalline three-dimensional porous frameworks containing the organic pillar ligand. Preliminary investigations indicate that the HIPL reaction is also amenable to forming Co(L)Ni(CN){sub 4}, Fe(L)Ni(CN){sub 4}, and Fe(L)Pd(CN){sub 4} networks. The materials show variable adsorption behavior for CO{sub 2} depending on the pillar length and pillar functionalization. Several compounds show structurally flexible behavior during the adsorption and desorption of CO{sub 2}. Interestingly, the newly discovered flexible compounds include two flexible Fe(L)Ni(CN){sub 4} derivatives that are structurally related to previously reported porous spin-crossover compounds. The preparations of 20 pillar ligands based on ring-functionalized 4,4'-dipyridyls, 1,4-bis(4-pyridyl)benzenes, and N-(4-pyridyl)isonicotinamides are also described.

  17. High-Performance Flexible Perovskite Solar Cells by Using a Combination of Ultrasonic Spray-Coating and Low Thermal Budget Photonic Curing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanjib, Das; Yang, Bin; Gu, Gong; Joshi, Pooran C; Ivanov, Ilia N; Rouleau, Christopher; Aytug, Tolga; Geohegan, David B; Xiao, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Realizing the commercialization of high-performance and robust perovskite solar cells urgently requires the development of economically scalable processing techniques. Here we report a high-throughput ultrasonic spray-coating (USC) process capable of fabricating perovskite film-based solar cells on glass substrates with power conversion efficiency (PCE) as high as 13.04%. Perovskite films with high uniformity, crystallinity, and surface coverage are obtained in a single step. Moreover, we report USC processing on TiOx/ITO-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates to realize flexible perovskite solar cells with PCE as high as 8.02% that are robust under mechanical stress. In this case, an optical curing technique was used to achieve a highly-conductive TiOx layer on flexible PET substrates for the first time. The high device performance and reliability obtained by this combination of USC processing with optical curing appears very promising for roll-to-roll manufacturing of high-efficiency, flexible perovskite solar cells.

  18. Liquid-phase exfoliation of chemical vapor deposition-grown single layer graphene and its application in solution-processed transparent electrodes for flexible organic light-emitting devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Chaoxing; Li, Fushan E-mail: gtl-fzu@hotmail.com; Wu, Wei; Chen, Wei; Guo, Tailiang E-mail: gtl-fzu@hotmail.com

    2014-12-15

    Efficient and low-cost methods for obtaining high performance flexible transparent electrodes based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene are highly desirable. In this work, the graphene grown on copper foil was exfoliated into micron-size sheets through controllable ultrasonication. We developed a clean technique by blending the exfoliated single layer graphene sheets with conducting polymer to form graphene-based composite solution, which can be spin-coated on flexible substrate, forming flexible transparent conducting film with high conductivity (?8 ?/?), high transmittance (?81% at 550?nm), and excellent mechanical robustness. In addition, CVD-grown-graphene-based polymer light emitting diodes with excellent bendable performances were demonstrated.

  19. AFFECT Notice of Intent June 27, 2013 CO and Legal Comments July...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    AFFECT Notice of Intent June 27, 2013 CO and Legal Comments July 3, 2013 AFFECT Notice of Intent June 27, 2013 CO and Legal Comments July 3, 2013 Document details the Assisting ...

  20. How Has a Ceiling Fan Affected the Way You Heat and Cool Your...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Has a Ceiling Fan Affected the Way You Heat and Cool Your Home? How Has a Ceiling Fan Affected the Way You Heat and Cool Your Home? September 23, 2010 - 7:30am Addthis On Monday, ...

  1. THE EMPLOYEE'S GUIDE TO BENEFITS FOR THOSE AFFECTED BY REDUCTION IN FORCE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    EMPLOYEE'S THE EMPLOYEE'S THE EMPLOYEE'S THE EMPLOYEE'S GUIDE TO BENEFITS GUIDE TO BENEFITS GUIDE TO BENEFITS GUIDE TO BENEFITS FOR THOSE FOR THOSE FOR THOSE FOR THOSE AFFECTED BY AFFECTED BY AFFECTED BY AFFECTED BY REDUCTION IN REDUCTION IN REDUCTION IN REDUCTION IN FORCE FORCE FORCE FORCE U.S. OFFICE OF U.S. OFFICE OF U.S. OFFICE OF U.S. OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT WORKFORCE WORKFORCE WORKFORCE WORKFORCE RESTRUCTURING OFFICE

  2. Mixed ligand coordination polymers with flexible bis-imidazole linker and angular sulfonyldibenzoate: Crystal structure, photoluminescence and photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bisht, Kamal Kumar; Rachuri, Yadagiri; Parmar, Bhavesh; Suresh, Eringathodi

    2014-05-01

    Four ternary coordination polymers (CPs) namely, ([Ni(SDB)(BITMB)(H{sub 2}O)]·H{sub 2}O){sub n} (CP1), ([Cd(SDB)(BITMB) (H{sub 2}O)]·(THF)(H{sub 2}O)){sub n} (CP2), ([Zn{sub 2}(SDB){sub 2}(BITMB)]·(THF){sub 2}){sub n} (CP3) and ([Co{sub 2}(SDB){sub 2}(BITMB)]·(Dioxane){sub 3}){sub n} (CP4) composed of angular dicarboxylate SDB (4,4'-sulfonyldibenzoate) and N-donor BITMB (1,3-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)-2,4,6-trimethyl benzene) have been synthesized by solvothermal reactions and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and other physico-chemical techniques. CP1 possesses one-dimensional ribbon type metal–organic motifs glued together by H-bonds and π⋯π interactions, whereas CP2–CP4, exhibit non-interpenetrated sql networks supported by weak supramolecular interactions. Structural diversity of these CPs can be attributed to the coordination geometry adopted by the metal nodes, versatile coordination modes of SDB and conformational flexibility of BITMB. Solid state luminescence properties of CP1–CP4 were explored. Photocatalytic performance of all CPs for the decomposition of metanil yellow by dilute hydrogen peroxide in the presence of visible light was also investigated. 25–83% dye removal from aqueous solutions in the presence of CP1–CP4 was observed. - Graphical abstract: Four new ternary transition metal CPs have been hydrothermally prepared and their structural aspects as well as photocatalytic activity for decolourization of metanil yellow (MY) dye have been investigated. - Highlights: • Four ternary coordination polymers containing Ni, Cd, Zn and Co center are prepared. • Crystal structure and thermal stability of all four CPs has been described. • PL and diffuse reflectance spectra of synthesized CPs have also been examined. • Band gap values suggest semiconducting behavior of prepared CPs. • Photocatalytic activity of CPs for oxidative degradation of metanil yellow is studied.

  3. FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Vladimir Zamansky; Linda Denton; Hana Loreth; Tomasz Wiltowski

    2001-07-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the thermodynamic efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. General Electric Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (GE EER) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Advanced Gasification-Combustion (AGC) concept to produce H{sub 2} and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from solid fuels. The AGC module offers potential for reduced cost and increased energy efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems. GE EER was awarded a Vision-21 program from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the AGC technology. Work on this three-year program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE EER, California Energy Commission, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the AGC technology, coal/opportunity fuels and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) pure hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure oxygen-depleted air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on preliminary modeling work in the first quarter of this program, has an estimated process efficiency of approximately 67% based on electrical and H{sub 2} energy outputs relative to the higher heating value of coal. The three-year R&D program will determine the operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the AGC concept. This is the third quarterly technical progress report for the Vision-21 AGC program supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract: DE-FC26-00FT40974). This report summarizes program

  4. Fuel-Flexible Gasification-Combustion Technology for Production of H2 and Sequestration-Ready CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parag Kulkarni; Jie Guan; Raul Subia; Zhe Cui; Jeff Manke; Arnaldo Frydman; Wei Wei; Roger Shisler; Raul Ayala; om McNulty; George Rizeq; Vladimir Zamansky; Kelly Fletcher

    2008-03-31

    In the near future, the nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It is necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact of fossil fuel utilization including greenhouse gas management. GE Global Research (GEGR) investigated an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology with potential to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP technology offers the long-term potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions. GE was awarded a contract from U.S. DOE NETL to investigate and develop the UFP technology. Work started on the Phase I program in October 2000 and on the Phase II effort in April 2005. In the UFP technology, coal, water and air are simultaneously converted into (1) hydrogen rich stream that can be utilized in fuel cells or turbines, (2) CO{sub 2} rich stream for sequestration, and (3) high temperature/pressure vitiated air stream to produce electricity in a gas turbine expander. The process produces near-zero emissions with an estimated efficiency higher than Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) process with conventional CO{sub 2} separation. The Phase I R&D program established the chemical feasibility of the major reactions of the integrated UFP technology through lab-, bench- and pilot-scale testing. A risk analysis session was carried out at the end of Phase I effort to identify the major risks in the UFP technology and a plan was developed to mitigate these risks in the Phase II of the program. The Phase II effort focused on three high-risk areas: economics, lifetime of solids used in the UFP process, and product gas quality for turbines (or the impact of impurities in the coal on the overall system). The economic analysis included estimating the capital cost as well as the costs of hydrogen

  5. Fuel-Flexible Gasification-Combustion Technology for Production of H2 and Sequestration-Ready CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Rizeq; Parag Kulkarni; Wei Wei; Arnaldo Frydman; Thomas McNulty; Roger Shisler

    2005-11-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Global Research is developing an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GE was awarded a contract from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on the Phase I program started in October 2000, and work on the Phase II effort started in April 2005. In the UFP technology, coal and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) high-purity hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells or turbines, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure vitiated air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions with an estimated efficiency higher than IGCC with conventional CO2 separation. The Phase I R&D program established the feasibility of the integrated UFP technology through lab-, bench- and pilot-scale testing and investigated operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The Phase I effort integrated experimental testing, modeling and preliminary economic studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. The Phase II effort will focus on three high-risk areas: economics, sorbent attrition and lifetime, and product gas quality for turbines. The economic analysis will include estimating the capital cost as well as the costs of hydrogen and electricity for a full-scale UFP plant. These costs will be

  6. Right-Sized Reuse - Use a Systematic Process, and Design for a Specialized, Yet Flexible Result - 13558

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cusick, Lesley T.; Schiesswohl, Steven R.

    2013-07-01

    factor. What are some of the things you can do to address those time and risk issues? Issues of time and complexity arise from several variables. Short-sighted vision and lack of project definition lead to wasted effort and lengthy delays. Some variability on the input side of the process can be controlled in a way that will save you time and actually work to your advantage. Steps can be taken to systematize the transfer process on the agency's part and on the requester/grantee's part. Having the right mix of dedicated people from the beginning, planning with flexibility, coordinating with the clean-up program at your site, knowing the interests and issues of your stakeholders, and working with the CRO/economic development authorities - all of these measures and others can and will help you. The key is not simply knowing the steps and making a punch-list, but understanding the steps and how to work with and use them. These concepts can be applied to create a vision of success for those engaged in real property transfer. (authors)

  7. Influence of the steric effect of flexible isomeric phenylenediacetic acids on the resultant lead(II) coordination polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Yunlong; Zhao, Yanqing; Yang, Guo-Ping Guo, Yanjun; Wang, Yao-Yu Shi, Qi-Zhen

    2015-03-15

    To study the steric effect of the flexible dicarboxylate ligands on the resultant formations of coordination polymers (CPs), four new Pb{sup II} CPs [Pb(1,2-pda)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (1), [Pb(1,3-pda)]{sub n}·nH{sub 2}O (2), [Pb{sub 2}(1,4-pda){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n}·2nH{sub 2}O (3a and 3b) have been produced by the isomeric phenylenediacetic acids (H{sub 2}pda). The X-ray crystallography study reveals that CP 1 is a two-dimensional (2D) 4-connected sql (4{sup 4}.6{sup 2}) network via the weak Pb···O interactions built on 1D chain-like structure. CP 2 crystallizes in orthorhombic system with chiral space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, showing a 4-connected sra (4{sup 2}.6{sup 3}.8) framework where a left-handed helical motif is formed by Pb{sup II} ions and trans-1,3-pda ligands. More interestingly, CPs 3a and 3b are two true 3D polymorphs and have the different morphology. Topologically, the framework of 3a exhibits a 4-connected lon 6{sup 6} motif, while that of 3b is a (4,6)-connected fsh (4{sup 3}.6{sup 3}){sub 2}(4{sup 6}.6{sup 6}.8{sup 3}) net. It is found that the three isomeric pda anions display the various coordination fashions in four CPs. The different structural arrangements show that the steric effect of the isomeric H{sub 2}pda tectons has a positive role in directing the final products of Pb{sup II} CPs. Also, the fluorescent properties of the CPs were studied in the solid state at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Four new Pb{sup II}-based CPs have been produced by the isomeric phenylenediacetic acids (H{sub 2}pda). The different structural arrangements show that the steric effect of the isomeric H{sub 2}pda tectons has a positive role in directing the final products of Pb{sup II} CPs. Also, the fluorescent properties of the CPs were studied in the solid state at room temperature. - Highlights: • Four Pb{sup II}-based coordination polymers were produced by phenylenediacetic acids. • The crystal and topological structures of the

  8. Structural insight and flexible features of NS5 proteins from all four serotypes of Dengue virus in solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saw, Wuan Geok; Tria, Giancarlo; Grüber, Ardina; Subramanian Manimekalai, Malathy Sony; Zhao, Yongqian; Chandramohan, Arun; Srinivasan Anand, Ganesh; Matsui, Tsutomu; Weiss, Thomas M.; Vasudevan, Subhash G.; Grüber, Gerhard

    2015-10-31

    Infection by the four serotypes ofDengue virus(DENV-1 to DENV-4) causes an important arthropod-borne viral disease in humans. The multifunctional DENV nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) is essential for capping and replication of the viral RNA and harbours a methyltransferase (MTase) domain and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain. In this study, insights into the overall structure and flexibility of the entire NS5 of all fourDengue virusserotypes in solution are presented for the first time. The solution models derived revealed an arrangement of the full-length NS5 (NS5FL) proteins with the MTase domain positioned at the top of the RdRP domain. The DENV-1 to DENV-4 NS5 forms are elongated and flexible in solution, with DENV-4 NS5 being more compact relative to NS5 from DENV-1, DENV-2 and DENV-3. Solution studies of the individual MTase and RdRp domains show the compactness of the RdRp domain as well as the contribution of the MTase domain and the ten-residue linker region to the flexibility of the entire NS5. Swapping the ten-residue linker between DENV-4 NS5FL and DENV-3 NS5FL demonstrated its importance in MTase–RdRp communication and in concerted interaction with viral and host proteins, as probed by amide hydrogen/deuterium mass spectrometry. Conformational alterations owing to RNA binding are presented.

  9. Highly Flexible Self-Assembled V2O5 Cathodes Enabled by Conducting Diblock Copolymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    An, Hyosung; Mike, Jared; Smith, Kendall A.; Swank, Lisa; Lin, Yen-Hao; L. Pesek, Stacy; Verduzco, Rafael; Lutkenhaus, Jodie L.

    2015-09-22

    Mechanically robust battery electrodes are desired for applications in wearable devices, flexible displays, and structural energy and power. In this regard, the challenge is to balance mechanical and electrochemical properties in materials that are inherently brittle. Here, we demonstrate a unique water-based self-assembly approach that incorporates a diblock copolymer bearing electron- and ion-conducting blocks, poly(3-hexylthiophene)-block-poly(ethyleneoxide) (P3HT-b-PEO), with V2O5 to form a flexible, tough, carbon-free hybrid battery cathode. V2O5 is a promising lithium intercalation material, but it remains limited by its poor conductivity and mechanical properties. Our approach leads to a unique electrode structure consisting of interlocking V2O5 layers glued together with micellar aggregates of P3HT-b-PEO, which results in robust mechanical properties, far exceeding the those obtained from conventional fluoropolymer binders. Only 5 wt % polymer is required to triple the flexibility of V2O5, and electrodes comprised of 10 wt % polymer have unusually high toughness (293 kJ/m3) and specific energy (530 Wh/kg), both higher than reduced graphene oxide paper electrodes. Furthermore, addition of P3HT-b-PEO enhances lithium-ion diffusion, eliminates cracking during cycling, and boosts cyclability relative to V2O5 alone. These results highlight the importance of tradeoffs between mechanical and electrochemical performance, where polymer content can be used to tune both aspects.

  10. DOE-EMSP Final Report: Characterization of Changes in Colloid and DNAPL Affecting Surface Chemistry and Remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan E. Powers; Stefan J. Grimberg; Miles Denham

    2007-02-07

    The waste disposal to the M-area basin and A-14 outfall at the Savannah River Department of Energy facility in Aiken SC (USA) included a wide variety of inorganic aqueous flows and organic solvents in the form of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL). The DNAPL has migrated through the subsurface resulting in widespread groundwater contamination. The goal of this research was to identify and quantify processes that could have affected the migration and remediation of the DNAPL in the subsurface. It was hypothesized that the variety of waste disposed at this site could have altered the mineral, microbial and DNAPL properties at this site relative to other DNAPL sites. The DNAPL was determined to have a very low interfacial tension and is suspected to be distributed in fine grained media, thereby reducing the effectiveness of soil vapor extraction remediation efforts. Although the DNAPL is primarily comprised of tetrachloroethene and trichloroethane, it also contains organic acids and several heavy metals. Experimental results suggest that iron from the aqueous and DNAPL phases undergoes precipitation and dechlorination reactions at the DNAPL-water interface, contributing to the low interfacial tension and acidity of the DNAPL. Biological activity in the contaminated region can also contribute to the low interfacial tension. PCE degrading bacteria produce biosurfactants and adhere to the DNAPL-water interface when stressed by high tetrachloroethene or low dissolved oxygen concentrations. The presence of iron can reduce the interfacial tension by nearly an order of magnitude, while the PCE degraders reduced the interfacial tension by nearly 50%. Abiotic changes in the mineral characteristics were not found to be substantially different between contaminated and background samples. The research completed here begins to shed some insight into the complexities of DNAPL fate and migration at sites where co-disposal of many different waste products occurred. Quantifying

  11. Financial Incentives Available for Facilities Affected by the US EPA Boiler

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    MACT Proposed Rule, December 2012 | Department of Energy Financial Incentives Available for Facilities Affected by the US EPA Boiler MACT Proposed Rule, December 2012 Financial Incentives Available for Facilities Affected by the US EPA Boiler MACT Proposed Rule, December 2012 Financial Incentives available for facilities affected by the US EPA "National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process

  12. Fact #890: September 14, 2015 Gasoline Prices Are Affected by Changes in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Refinery Output - Dataset | Department of Energy 0: September 14, 2015 Gasoline Prices Are Affected by Changes in Refinery Output - Dataset Fact #890: September 14, 2015 Gasoline Prices Are Affected by Changes in Refinery Output - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Gasoline Prices Are Affected by Changes in Refinery Output fotw#890_web.xlsx (22.68 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact #858 February 2, 2015 Retail Gasoline Prices in 2014 Experienced the Largest Decline since 2008 -

  13. THE EMPLOYEE'S GUIDE TO BENEFITS FOR THOSE AFFECTED BY REDUCTION IN FORCE |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy THE EMPLOYEE'S GUIDE TO BENEFITS FOR THOSE AFFECTED BY REDUCTION IN FORCE THE EMPLOYEE'S GUIDE TO BENEFITS FOR THOSE AFFECTED BY REDUCTION IN FORCE THE EMPLOYEE'S GUIDE TO BENEFITS FOR THOSE AFFECTED BY REDUCTION IN FORCE (228.35 KB) More Documents & Publications Questions and Answers POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #39 Phased Retirement OPM Briefing on Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act Training

  14. AFFECT 2016: Assisting Federal Facilities with Energy Conservation Technologies Webinar Slides

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Webinar slides describe the 2016 Assisting Federal Facilities with Energy Conservation Technologies (AFFECT) funding opportunity offered by the Federal Energy Management Program.

  15. 30 TAC, part 1, chapter 39, rule 39.605 Notice to Affected Agencies...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    AgenciesLegal Abstract This rule explains the notice to affected agencies requirement for air quality permit applications in Texas. Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 1999...

  16. AFFECT Notice of Intent June 27, 2013 CO and Legal Comments July 3, 2013

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Document details the Assisting Federal Facilities with Energy Conservation Technologies (AFFECT) Notice of Intent on June 27, 2013 and the legal comments on July 3, 2013.

  17. FCV Learning Demonstration: First-Generation Vehicle Results and Factors Affecting Fuel Cell Degradation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Thomas, H.; Garbak, J.

    2007-10-17

    Presentaion on the FCV Learning Demonstration and factors affecting fuel cell degradation given at the Fuel Cell Seminar on October 17, 2007 in San Antonio, TX.

  18. Key Parameters Affecting DPF Performance Degradation and Impact on Lifetime Fuel Economy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Summarizes latest findings on impact of specific parameters affecting ash-related diesel particulate filter performance degradation and information useful to enhance performance and extend service life

  19. Analysis of Transportation and Logistics Challenges Affecting the Deployment of Larger Wind Turbines: Summary of Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cotrell, J.; Stehly, T.; Johnson, J.; Roberts, J. O.; Parker, Z.; Scott, G.; Heimiller, D.

    2014-01-01

    There is relatively little literature that characterizes transportation and logistics challenges and the associated effects on U.S. wind markets. The objectives of this study were to identify the transportation and logistics challenges, assess the associated impacts, and provide recommendations for strategies and specific actions to address the challenges. The authors primarily relied on interviews with wind industry project developers, original equipment manufacturers, and transportation and logistics companies to obtain the information and industry perspectives needed for this study. They also reviewed published literature on trends and developments in increasing wind turbine size, logistics, and transportation issues.

  20. A C-terminal Hydrophobic, Solvent-protected Core and a Flexible N-terminus are Potentially Required for Human Papillomavirus 18 E7 Protein Functionality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, S.; Tian, Y; Greenaway, F; Sun, M

    2010-01-01

    The oncogenic potential of the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) relies on the expression of genes specifying the E7 and E6 proteins. To investigate further the variation in oligomeric structure that has been reported for different E7 proteins, an HPV-18 E7 cloned from a Hispanic woman with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia was purified to homogeneity most probably as a stable monomeric protein in aqueous solution. We determined that one zinc ion is present per HPV-18 E7 monomer by amino acid and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy analysis. Intrinsic fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic results indicate that the zinc ion is important for the correct folding and thermal stability of HPV-18 E7. Hydroxyl radical mediated protein footprinting coupled to mass spectrometry and other biochemical and biophysical data indicate that near the C-terminus, the four cysteines of the two Cys-X{sub 2}-Cys motifs that are coordinated to the zinc ion form a solvent inaccessible core. The N-terminal LXCXE pRb binding motif region is hydroxyl radical accessible and conformationally flexible. Both factors, the relative flexibility of the pRb binding motif at the N-terminus and the C-terminal metal-binding hydrophobic solvent-protected core, combine together and facilitate the biological functions of HPV-18 E7.