National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for flaring removing nonhydrocarbon

  1. ,"Virginia Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Virginia Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ... 2:52:09 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Virginia Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ...

  2. Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2,813 3,440 3,591 7,549 6,265 8,763 9,872 18,776 13,652 9,971 1990's 9,981 - 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  3. Oklahoma Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  4. Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  5. Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Arkansas 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2014 California 2,879 3,019 2,624 0 NA NA 1980-2014 California ... Federal Offshore California NA NA 2003-2014 Colorado 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980-2014 Federal ...

  6. Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    New Mexico 33,997 40,191 39,333 38,358 42,117 45,927 1980-2014 North Dakota 6,244 7,448 10,271 6,762 7,221 7,008 1984-2014 Ohio 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2014 Oklahoma 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996-2014 ...

  7. Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    6-2015 Arkansas NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 California NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2015 ... NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2015 Ohio NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2015 Oklahoma NA NA NA NA NA NA ...

  8. Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    6-2016 Arkansas NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 California NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Colorado NA NA NA NA NA NA 1996-2016 Federal Offshore Gulf of Mexico NA NA NA NA NA NA 1997-2016 ...

  9. Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Summary)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Pipeline and Distribution Use Price Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Vehicle Fuel Price Electric Power Price Proved Reserves as of 1231 Reserves ...

  10. Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Summary)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    & Distribution Use Delivered to Consumers Residential Commercial Industrial Vehicle Fuel Electric Power Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History ...

  11. Texas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 135,990 140,186 115,157 107,991 120,436 122,014 114,344 125,757 144,134 159,113 1990's 155,631 173,399 180,003 184,258 196,463 200,233 238,897 263,397 296,412 282,462 2000's 270,436 247,750 279,912 286,253 355,165 388,305 409,276 254,337 241,626 240,533 2010's 279,981 284,557 183,118 166,328 143,891 273,920

  12. Texas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 13,942 13,557 14,940 12,971 14,588 14,028 14,816 14,906 15,187 15,171 14,489 14,803 1992 15,418 14,446 14,043 15,744 15,716 14,929 15,203 15,313 14,243 15,567 14,513 14,868 1993 15,307 13,813 15,250 14,590 15,480 14,914 15,983 16,468 14,486 15,673 15,868 16,426 1994 16,557 15,133 16,303 16,449 16,781 16,234 14,410 15,490 16,853 17,348 17,080 17,827 1995 16,874 15,423 16,615 16,765 17,103 16,545 14,686 15,787 17,177 17,681 17,408 18,169

  13. Florida Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 5,106 3,468 2,353 2,103 1,248 1,045 879 822 757 790 1990's 681 531 682 721 762 642 700 793 751 ...

  14. Louisiana Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's - 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 0

  15. Louisiana Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  16. Maryland Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 0

  17. Maryland Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0

  18. Michigan Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's - 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 0

  19. Michigan Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0

  20. Mississippi Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 10,408 30,133 34,898 35,038 33,707 36,076 45,494 59,053 68,667 62,619 1990's 66,087 46,013 45,772 48,017 44,344 10,364 8,316 8,166 8,520 6,703 2000's 16,992 20,045 25,193 18,193 101,095 122,598 138,451 188,827 239,321 253,817 2010's 315,775 348,482 389,072 0 NA 0

  1. Mississippi Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 4,713 4,103 4,177 3,429 3,291 3,200 3,548 3,901 3,708 4,067 3,907 3,971 1992 3,944 3,653 3,861 3,656 3,806 4,011 4,105 4,107 2,254 4,223 4,138 4,015 1993 4,031 3,622 3,992 3,857 4,043 4,213 4,447 4,201 4,173 4,150 3,845 3,441 1994 3,468 3,196 3,665 3,492 3,683 3,619 3,903 3,999 3,578 4,030 3,792 3,920 1995 810 747 857 816 861 846 912 935 836 942 886 916 1996 829 744 786 751 808 750 776 725 326 427 693 701 1997 718 631 684 659

  2. Missouri Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 NA NA 2010's NA NA NA 0 0 0

  3. Missouri Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  4. Montana Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's - 0 518 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 NA NA NA 2010's NA NA 0 0 NA 0

  5. Montana Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 134 102 102 102 24 20 27 7 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  6. Florida Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    51 49 45 45 48 50 81 65 68 63 66 69 1997 69 66 79 72 70 58 67 65 67 59 57 64 1998 62 56 60 62 66 55 65 69 58 61 69 67 1999 67 58 64 59 55 51 65 74 68 68 73 65 2000 64 62 73 64 ...

  7. New Mexico Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1,695 2,047 1,599 1,884 2,016 40 38 2,430 1,408 1,942 1990's 1,772 1,876 2,751 2,753 3,164 3,282 ...

  8. Nebraska Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 NA 0

  9. Nebraska Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0

  10. Nevada Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 0

  11. New Mexico Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 8,529 7,949 8,687 8,339 8,740 8,289 7,875 7,987 7,677 7,773 7,824 8,089 1997 12,133 12,133 12,133 12,133 12,133 12,133 12,133 12,133 12,133 12,133 12,133 12,133 1998 11,177 11,177 11,177 11,177 11,177 11,177 11,177 11,177 11,177 11,177 11,177 11,177 1999 12,787 11,548 12,722 12,443 12,412 12,599 12,654 12,926 12,327 12,927 12,633 11,671 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0

  12. North Dakota Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 6,238 6,656 9,004 6,708 5,800 5,102 1990's 5,393 4,447 508 532 358 93 358 161 57 78 2000's 73 89 139 123 126 87 53 42 9,044 6,244 2010's 7,448 10,271 6,762 7,221 7,008 6,650

  13. North Dakota Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 18 12 17 15 21 64 67 60 36 32 9 8 1997 6 6 8 6 5 5 10 24 47 13 28 5 1998 5 4 5 3 5 5 5 5 5 6 5 5 1999 5 6 7 7 7 8 6 8 6 6 5 5 2000 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 8 8 8 9 2001 9 7 7 6 7 6 9 8 8 8 7 7 2002 9 10 15 14 12 13 14 13 9 10 10 10 2003 11 10 10 10 11 11 11 12 9 10 9 9 2004 10 10 12 12 18 13 14 11 7 8 5 6 2005 6 6 7 6 7 8 9 8 8 8 7 7 2006 8 5 5 5 3 4 4 4 5 4 3 3 2007 6 4 4 4 2 3 3 3 4 3 2 2 2008 567 495 642 623 697 761 801 818 853 935

  14. Oregon Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 924 554 265 166 152 214 2000's 198 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 0

  15. Oregon Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 35 22 31 35 20 19 20 16 19 19 16 14 1997 15 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 12 14 13 14 1998 13 11 14 13 13 13 13 13 13 12 12 12 1999 12 12 20 19 19 19 18 13 15 21 22 23 2000 20 17 17 16 17 15 15 16 16 18 16 15 2001 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0

  16. Other States Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    513 491 515 539 557 534 541 579 574 585 558 573 1998 578 536 591 581 517 456 486 486 471 477 457 468 1999 466 438 489 495 499 510 547 557 544 555 541 579 2000 587 539 605 587 ...

  17. Nevada Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  18. Nevada Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 ...

  19. Alabama Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 40,233 40,090 47,185 22,252 20,220 19,882 18,893 18,697 20,262 22,131 1990's 20,792 20,146 26,719 25,320 26,980 26,580 27,006 27,205 26,612 23,956 2000's 22,618 21,374 19,060 19,092 19,092 17,715 16,097 16,529 17,394 16,658 2010's 14,418 18,972 0 0 NA 0

  20. Alabama Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 1,825 1,776 1,759 1,668 1,765 1,492 1,869 1,541 2,011 857 1,610 1,972 1992 2,247 1,940 1,988 2,248 2,249 2,233 2,381 2,259 2,222 2,290 2,277 2,387 1993 2,340 1,872 2,111 1,945 1,407 1,747 2,269 2,331 2,270 2,338 2,232 2,457 1994 2,473 2,025 2,223 2,147 1,562 1,554 2,551 2,616 2,287 2,375 2,593 2,575 1995 2,412 2,008 2,181 2,136 1,597 1,475 2,496 2,591 2,213 2,314 2,581 2,576 1996 2,211 2,030 2,287 2,270 2,346 2,216 2,232 2,297 2,257 2,293

  1. Alaska Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's - 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 0

  2. Alaska Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0

  3. Arkansas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 NA 0

  4. Arkansas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0

  5. California Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 349 371 540 437 95 127 5 3 832 1,103 1990's 849 788 1,142 1,130 1,126 920 932 239 726 208 2000's 263 246 3,136 3,478 3,287 3,153 3,365 3,178 3,119 2,879 2010's 3,019 2,624 0 0 NA 0

  6. California Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 71 76 80 78 78 76 80 79 77 79 78 80 1997 20 18 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 1998 62 56 62 60 62 60 62 62 60 62 60 62 1999 18 16 18 17 18 17 18 18 17 18 17 18 2000 22 20 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 2001 21 19 21 20 21 20 21 21 20 21 20 21 2002 224 203 227 211 219 217 217 410 274 304 330 299 2003 309 277 304 289 307 293 298 285 279 281 276 281 2004 284 260 273 270 278 269 278 275 270 279 272 277 2005 104 250 276 272 280 267 282

  7. New York Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0...

  8. New Mexico Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 1,695 2,047 1,599 1,884 2,016 40 38 2,430 1,408 1,942 1990's 1,772 1,876 2,751 2,753 3,164 3,282...

  9. Utah Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's - 0 0 0 2000's 9,329 15,086 15,219 13,810 10,592 8,883 6,116 6,205 5,177 3,343 2010's 1,573 778 0 0 NA 0

  10. Utah Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 730 790 769 1,205 963 766 715 704 861 583 478 765 2001 852 765 1,053 957 1,104 1,086 1,925 1,935 1,418 1,469 1,570 951 2002 1,221 1,265 1,334 1,269 1,197 1,224 1,354 1,285 1,259 1,525 1,172 1,115 2003 1,184 1,146 1,278 1,218 1,081 1,186 1,205 1,134 1,181 1,070 1,091 1,036 2004 991 932 942 895 880 864 744 961 883 886 823 790

  11. West Virginia Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 NA 0

  12. West Virginia Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  13. Wyoming Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 2,469 2,143 3,169 44,683 33,893 131,894 138,322 143,787 204,371 99,686 1990's 28,188 28,631 22,793 151,239 138,056 145,724 144,194 146,414 142,739 144,756 2000's 177,553 149,240 151,566 148,987 155,825 161,732 149,561 154,157 161,952 155,366 2010's 164,221 152,421 151,288 152,803 171,580 171,491

  14. Wyoming Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 2,374 2,117 2,567 2,440 2,313 2,308 2,342 2,478 2,317 2,472 2,521 2,381 1992 2,015 1,452 1,893 1,823 1,717 1,841 2,042 2,024 1,919 2,008 2,039 2,020 1993 13,055 11,433 13,119 12,645 13,201 6,119 12,956 13,525 13,301 13,884 14,076 13,925 1994 12,654 11,498 12,761 12,155 10,841 6,002 12,042 12,022 11,700 12,648 11,857 11,877 1995 13,054 11,340 12,181 12,297 12,586 12,154 12,287 10,493 12,228 12,613 12,100 12,391 1996 12,895 12,028 13,010

  15. Illinois Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0

  16. Kentucky Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 NA 0

  17. Kentucky Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0

  18. Kansas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 ...

  19. Kansas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0

  20. Michigan Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Michigan Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 395,529 395,529 395,529 395,529 395,529 395,180 396,744 396,491 396,293 396,099 395,934 395,790 1991 394,527 393,885 392,506 394,146 413,930 413,764 413,617 413,530 413,468 413,390 413,242 413,275 1992 413,430 413,426 413,356 413,302 413,258 413,224 413,182 413,226 413,225 413,194 413,136 413,069 1993 413,736 413,707 410,316 411,038

  1. Mississippi Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Feet) Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Mississippi Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 46,050 46,050 46,050 46,050 46,050 46,050 46,050 46,050 46,050 46,050 46,050 46,050 1991 47,530 47,483 47,483 47,483 47,483 47,868 48,150 48,150 48,150 48,150 48,150 48,150 1992 48,150 48,150 48,149 48,149 48,149 48,149 48,149 48,149 48,149 48,149 47,851 48,049 1993 48,039 48,049 48,049 48,049 47,792 48,049 48,049 48,049

  2. Missouri Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Missouri Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 21,600 21,600 21,600 21,600 21,600 21,600 21,600 21,600 21,600 21,600 21,600 21,600 1991 21,600 21,600 21,600 21,600 21,600 21,600 21,600 21,600 21,600 21,600 21,600 21,600 1992 21,600 21,600 21,600 21,600 21,600 21,600 21,600 21,600 21,600 21,600 21,600 21,600 1993 21,600 21,600 21,600 21,600 21,600 21,600 21,600 21,600 21,600

  3. Montana Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Montana Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 109,573 109,573 109,573 109,573 112,573 109,573 109,573 109,573 109,573 109,573 109,573 109,573 1991 109,573 109,573 109,573 109,573 109,573 109,573 109,573 109,573 109,573 109,573 109,573 109,573 1992 169,892 169,892 169,892 169,892 169,892 169,892 169,892 169,892 169,892 169,892 169,892 169,892 1993 169,892 169,892 169,892 169,892

  4. Nebraska Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Nebraska Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 27,312 27,312 27,312 27,312 27,312 27,312 27,312 27,312 27,312 27,312 27,312 27,312 1991 27,312 27,312 27,312 27,312 27,312 27,312 27,312 27,312 27,312 27,312 27,312 27,312 1992 27,312 27,312 27,312 27,312 27,312 27,312 27,312 27,312 27,312 27,312 27,312 27,312 1993 27,312 27,312 27,312 27,312 27,312 27,312 27,312 27,312 27,312

  5. Nevada Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0

  6. New Mexico Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Feet) Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 20,204 20,204 20,204 20,204 16,500 20,204 20,204 20,204 20,204 20,204 20,204 20,204 1991 20,204 20,204 20,204 30,426 30,426 30,426 30,413 30,410 30,410 30,426 30,426 30,426 1992 30,426 30,426 30,426 30,426 30,426 30,426 30,426 30,426 30,426 30,426 30,426 30,426 1993 30,426 30,426 30,426 30,426 30,426 30,426 30,426 30,426

  7. North Dakota Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Separation 143 152 141 105 91 45 1979-2014 Adjustments 11 -5 3 -24 0 32 1979-2014 Revision Increases 28 245 26 1 1 8 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 8 264 32 15 8 81 1979-2014 Sales 0 2 1 0 0 0 2000-2014 Acquisitions 0 24 2 1 0 0 2000-2014 Extensions 6 21 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 9 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Estimated Production 13 10 9 8 7 Feet)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 18 12 17 15 21

  8. Oklahoma Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 167,385 163,458 167,385 163,458 167,385 167,385 167,385 167,385 167,385 167,385 173,097 172,762 1991 172,757 172,757 172,757 172,757 172,757 172,757 172,757 172,757 172,757 172,757 172,757 172,757 1992 172,757 172,757 172,368 172,573 172,757 172,757 172,757 172,757 172,757 172,757 176,765 176,765 1993 228,593 227,252 227,560 226,942

  9. Oregon Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Oregon Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 1991 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 1992 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 1993 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 3,291 1994 3,291 3,291 3,291 4,896 4,896

  10. Texas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 134,707 134,707 134,707 160,665 160,663 160,663 160,663 160,697 160,697 160,697 160,697 160,697 1991 165,309 165,039 165,039 164,407 164,407 164,407 164,407 168,776 169,114 169,114 170,183 170,183 1992 170,483 170,633 170,631 170,630 170,630 170,631 170,630 170,630 170,630 171,139 171,359 171,360 1993 248,991 239,554 235,259 239,554

  11. Utah Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Utah Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 46,944 46,944 46,944 46,944 48,144 46,944 49,350 50,457 51,244 51,397 42,464 42,464 1991 42,454 42,454 44,628 44,342 45,120 49,179 51,258 49,908 48,558 47,678 47,118 47,118 1992 47,118 47,739 48,770 49,900 50,972 52,189 53,369 54,688 55,934 57,208 49,578 49,736 1993 49,736 49,742 49,749 50,238 51,803 51,028 52,377 53,704 54,973 54,847

  12. West Virginia Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Feet) Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 310,640 310,640 310,640 310,640 310,640 310,640 311,765 311,765 311,765 311,765 312,670 309,331 1991 331,618 332,229 331,898 332,278 332,288 332,288 331,275 332,283 332,269 332,264 332,259 332,070 1992 336,854 336,689 335,303 335,602 335,965 336,044 336,309 336,528 336,527 336,526 336,525 305,441 1993 305,478 304,578

  13. Wyoming Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Wyoming Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 31,205 31,205 31,205 31,205 31,353 31,205 31,501 31,638 31,735 31,754 30,652 30,652 1991 34,651 34,651 34,651 34,651 34,651 34,651 34,651 34,651 34,651 34,651 34,651 34,651 1992 59,130 59,130 59,130 59,130 59,130 59,130 59,130 59,130 59,130 59,130 59,127 59,382 1993 59,382 59,382 59,382 59,382 59,382 59,382 59,382 59,427 59,427 59,427

  14. Illinois Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 NA 0

  15. Kansas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0...

  16. Arizona Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's - 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0...

  17. Arizona Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0...

  18. Oklahoma Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.97 2.48 2.79 2000's 4.54 4.62 3.55 5.58 6.14 8.28 6.58 6.69 8.18 3.92 2010's 4.84 W 3.04 4.13 Thousand Cubic Feet)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2002 W W W W W W W W W W W 4.82 2003 5.25 6.70 7.70 5.23 W 6.09 5.51 5.21 5.14 4.94 W 5.61 2004 6.39 5.76 5.75 W 6.08 6.68 6.31 5.91 5.31 6.24 W W 2005 W W W 7.31 7.03 6.78 7.39 8.09 9.89 11.44 10.53 W 2006 8.95

  19. California Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Feet) Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) California Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 243,944 243,944 243,944 243,944 243,944 243,944 243,944 243,944 243,944 243,944 243,944 243,944 1991 243,944 243,944 243,944 243,944 243,944 243,944 243,944 243,944 248,389 248,389 248,389 248,389 1992 248,389 248,389 248,389 248,389 248,389 248,389 248,389 248,389 248,389 248,389 248,389 250,206 1993 250,206 250,206

  20. Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 39,062 39,062 39,062 39,062 39,062 39,062 39,062 39,062 39,062 39,062 39,062 45,393 1991 45,258 45,263 45,263 45,252 45,252 45,252 45,252 45,252 45,252 45,252 45,252 45,252 1992 45,237 45,237 45,237 45,237 45,237 45,237 45,237 45,237 45,237 45,237 45,237 45,237 1993 45,210 45,210 45,210 45,210 45,210 45,210 45,210 45,210 45,210

  1. Florida Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Separation 0 26 4 16 14 0 1979-2014 Adjustments 0 33 -26 0 0 0 1979-2014 Revision Increases 0 0 13 16 0 0 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 0 0 9 4 2 14 1979-2014 Sales 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000-2014 Extensions 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Estimated Production 0 7 0 0 0 0

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 51 49 45 45 48 50 81 65 68 63 66 69 1997

  2. Kansas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Kansas Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 179,462 179,462 179,462 179,462 179,462 179,462 179,462 179,462 179,462 179,462 191,402 190,669 1991 188,597 191,203 191,198 191,198 191,126 192,733 192,736 192,798 192,798 192,805 192,563 192,563 1992 190,943 190,963 190,914 190,591 190,765 190,714 190,611 190,578 190,606 190,643 189,320 186,399 1993 184,254 180,510 181,152 186,315

  3. Kentucky Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Kentucky Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 105,889 105,889 105,889 105,889 105,889 105,889 105,889 105,889 105,889 105,889 105,889 105,889 1991 103,881 103,881 103,881 103,881 103,881 103,881 103,881 103,881 103,881 103,881 103,881 103,881 1992 105,481 105,481 105,481 105,481 105,481 105,481 105,481 105,481 105,481 105,481 105,481 105,481 1993 105,430 105,394 105,392 105,446

  4. Louisiana Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Feet) Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 262,136 262,136 262,136 262,136 262,136 262,136 262,136 262,136 262,136 262,136 262,136 1991 264,324 264,324 264,304 264,497 265,121 265,448 265,816 266,390 262,350 266,030 267,245 267,245 1992 267,245 267,245 265,296 262,230 262,454 263,788 266,852 260,660 257,627 258,575 259,879 262,144 1993 261,841 255,035 251,684

  5. Maryland Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Maryland Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 46,677 46,677 46,677 46,677 46,677 46,677 46,677 46,677 46,677 46,677 46,677 46,677 1991 46,677 46,677 46,677 46,677 46,677 46,677 46,677 46,677 46,677 46,677 46,677 46,677 1992 46,677 46,677 46,677 46,677 46,677 46,677 46,677 46,677 46,677 46,677 46,677 46,677 1993 46,677 46,677 46,677 46,677 46,677 46,677 46,677 46,677 46,677

  6. U.S. Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1980's 199,063 221,878 208,492 221,937 224,118 326,497 336,851 376,033 459,883 362,457 1990's 289,374 275,831 280,370 413,971 412,178 388,392 518,425 598,691 616,715 615,014 2000's 505,472 462,738 502,176 498,724 654,124 711,095 730,946 661,168 718,674 721,507 2010's 836,698 867,922 768,598 368,469 322,620 452,477

  7. ,"Indiana Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030in2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030in2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"10/28/2016 10:26:26 PM" "Back to

  8. ,"Indiana Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Monthly","8/2016" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030in2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030in2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"10/28/2016 10:26:26 PM" "Back

  9. ,"Virginia Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030va2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030va2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"10/28/2016 10:26:30 PM" "Back to

  10. New York Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 88,911 88,911 88,911 88,911 88,911 88,911 88,911 88,911 88,911 88,911 91,985 91,764 1991 88,494 88,494 88,494 88,494 88,494 88,494 88,494 88,494 88,794 89,294 89,794 89,789 1992 96,390 96,390 96,148 96,199 96,390 96,390 96,390 96,514 96,574 96,574 96,525 102,539 1993 102,502 102,394 102,178 102,031 102,962 102,978 102,978 108,606

  11. ,"Ohio Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030oh2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030oh2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"10/28/2016 10:26:29 PM" "Back to

  12. ,"Ohio Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Monthly","8/2016" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030oh2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030oh2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"10/28/2016 10:26:29 PM" "Back

  13. ,"Pennsylvania Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030pa2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030pa2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"10/28/2016 10:26:29 PM" "Back to

  14. ,"Pennsylvania Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Monthly","8/2016" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030pa2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030pa2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"10/28/2016 10:26:29 PM" "Back

  15. ,"South Dakota Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030sd2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030sd2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"10/28/2016 10:26:29 PM" "Back to

  16. ,"South Dakota Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Monthly","8/2016" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030sd2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030sd2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"10/28/2016 10:26:29 PM" "Back

  17. ,"Tennessee Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Annual",2015 ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030tn2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030tn2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"10/28/2016 10:26:30 PM" "Back to

  18. ,"Tennessee Natural Gas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed (Million Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Monthly","8/2016" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","n9030tn2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9030tn2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"10/28/2016 10:26:30 PM" "Back

  19. Federal Offshore--Gulf of Mexico Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 0

  20. Federal Offshore--Gulf of Mexico Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0

  1. New York Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) New York Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 262,859 270,218 285,031 1990's 281,717 310,941 315,974 298,020 301,499 308,760 315,855 314,613 348,694 352,026 2000's 361,524 363,913 367,440 386,479 367,597 376,566 397,737 393,997 373,798 375,603 2010's 377,416 378,005 379,396 381,228 389,889 397,656 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA =

  2. U.S. Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1973 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1974 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1975 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1976 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1977 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1978 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1979 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1980 18,000 16,000 17,000 16,000 17,000 16,000 17,000 17,000 17,000 15,000 17,000 18,000 1981 20,000 18,000 18,000 18,000 18,000 19,000 20,000 18,000 18,000

  3. Interferometric at-wavelength flare characterization of EUV optical systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Goldberg, Kenneth Alan

    2001-01-01

    The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI) provides the high-accuracy wavefront characterization critical to the development of EUV lithography systems. Enhancing the implementation of the PS/PDI can significantly extend its spatial-frequency measurement bandwidth. The enhanced PS/PDI is capable of simultaneously characterizing both wavefront and flare. The enhanced technique employs a hybrid spatial/temporal-domain point diffraction interferometer (referred to as the dual-domain PS/PDI) that is capable of suppressing the scattered-reference-light noise that hinders the conventional PS/PDI. Using the dual-domain technique in combination with a flare-measurement-optimized mask and an iterative calculation process for removing flare contribution caused by higher order grating diffraction terms, the enhanced PS/PDI can be used to simultaneously measure both figure and flare in optical systems.

  4. Gamma-ray burst flares: X-ray flaring. II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swenson, C. A.; Roming, P. W. A., E-mail: cswenson@astro.psu.edu [Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    We present a catalog of 498 flaring periods found in gamma-ray burst (GRB) light curves taken from the online Swift X-Ray Telescope GRB Catalogue. We analyzed 680 individual light curves using a flare detection method developed and used on our UV/optical GRB Flare Catalog. This method makes use of the Bayesian Information Criterion to analyze the residuals of fitted GRB light curves and statistically determines the optimal fit to the light curve residuals in an attempt to identify any additional features. These features, which we classify as flares, are identified by iteratively adding additional 'breaks' to the light curve. We find evidence of flaring in 326 of the analyzed light curves. For those light curves with flares, we find an average number of ?1.5 flares per GRB. As with the UV/optical, flaring in our sample is generally confined to the first 1000 s of the afterglow, but can be detected to beyond 10{sup 5} s. Only ?50% of the detected flares follow the 'classical' definition of ?t/t ? 0.5, with many of the largest flares exceeding this value.

  5. Enclosed ground-flare incinerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiseman, Thomas R.

    2000-01-01

    An improved ground flare is provided comprising a stack, two or more burner assemblies, and a servicing port so that some of the burner assemblies can be serviced while others remain in operation. The burner assemblies comprise a burner conduit and nozzles which are individually fitted to the stack's burner chamber and are each removably supported in the chamber. Each burner conduit is sealed to and sandwiched between a waste gas inlet port and a matching a closure port on the other side of the stack. The closure port can be opened for physically releasing the burner conduit and supplying sufficient axial movement room for extracting the conduit from the socket, thereby releasing the conduit for hand removal through a servicing port. Preferably, the lower end of the stack is formed of one or more axially displaced lower tubular shells which are concentrically spaced for forming annular inlets for admitting combustion air. An upper tubular exhaust stack, similarly formed, admits additional combustion air for increasing the efficiency of combustion, increasing the flow of exhausted for improved atmospheric dispersion and for cooling the upper stack.

  6. PRECURSOR FLARES IN OJ 287

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pihajoki, P.; Berdyugin, A.; Lindfors, E.; Reinthal, R.; Sillanpaeae, A.; Takalo, L.; Valtonen, M.; Nilsson, K.; Zola, S.; Koziel-Wierzbowska, D.; Liakos, A.; Drozdz, M.; Winiarski, M.; Ogloza, W.; Provencal, J.; Santangelo, M. M. M.; Salo, H.; Chandra, S.; Ganesh, S.; Baliyan, K. S.; and others

    2013-02-10

    We have studied three most recent precursor flares in the light curve of the blazar OJ 287 while invoking the presence of a precessing binary black hole in the system to explain the nature of these flares. Precursor flare timings from the historical light curves are compared with theoretical predictions from our model that incorporate effects of an accretion disk and post-Newtonian description for the binary black hole orbit. We find that the precursor flares coincide with the secondary black hole descending toward the accretion disk of the primary black hole from the observed side, with a mean z-component of approximately z{sub c} = 4000 AU. We use this model of precursor flares to predict that precursor flare of similar nature should happen around 2020.96 before the next major outburst in 2022.

  7. Virginia Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Vented and Flared Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and ...

  8. Oklahoma Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Vented and Flared Oklahoma Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and ...

  9. KEPLER FLARES. II. THE TEMPORAL MORPHOLOGY OF WHITE-LIGHT FLARES ON GJ 1243

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davenport, James R. A.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Johnson, Emily C.; Peraza, Jesus; Jansen, Tiffany C.; Larsen, Daniel M.; Hebb, Leslie; Wisniewski, John P.; Malatesta, Michael; Keil, Marcus; Silverberg, Steven M.; Scheffler, Matthew S.; Berdis, Jodi R.; Kowalski, Adam F.; Hilton, Eric J.

    2014-12-20

    We present the largest sample of flares ever compiled for a single M dwarf, the active M4 star GJ 1243. Over 6100 individual flare events, with energies ranging from 10{sup 29} to 10{sup 33} erg, are found in 11 months of 1 minute cadence data from Kepler. This sample is unique for its completeness and dynamic range. We have developed automated tools for finding flares in short-cadence Kepler light curves, and performed extensive validation and classification of the sample by eye. From this pristine sample of flares we generate a median flare template. This template shows that two exponential cooling phases are present during the white-light flare decay, providing fundamental constraints for models of flare physics. The template is also used as a basis function to decompose complex multi-peaked flares, allowing us to study the energy distribution of these events. Only a small number of flare events are not well fit by our template. We find that complex, multi-peaked flares occur in over 80% of flares with a duration of 50 minutes or greater. The underlying distribution of flare durations for events 10 minutes and longer appears to follow a broken power law. Our results support the idea that sympathetic flaring may be responsible for some complex flare events.

  10. Helium (3) Rich Solar Flares

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Colgate, S. A.; Audouze, J.; Fowler, W. A.

    1977-05-03

    The extreme enrichment of {sup 3} He {sup 4} He greater than or equal to 1 in some solar flares as due to spallation and the subsequent confinement of the products in a high temperature, kT approx. = 200 keV, high density, n{sub e} approx. = 3 x 10{sup 15} cm {sup -3} plasma associated with the magnetic instability producing the flare is interpreted. The pinch or filament is a current of high energy protons that creates the spallation and maintains the temperature that produces the high energy x-ray spectrum and depletes other isotopes D, Li, Be, and B as observed. Finally the high temperature plasma is a uniquely efficient spallation target that is powered by the interaction of stellar convection and self generated magnetic field.

  11. SUCCESSIVE SOLAR FLARES AND CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS ON 2005 SEPTEMBER 13 FROM NOAA AR 10808

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Chang; Wang Haimin; Lee, Jeongwoo; Karlicky, Marian; Choudhary, Debi Prasad; Deng Na E-mail: haimin@flare.njit.ed E-mail: karlicky@asu.cas.c E-mail: na.deng@csun.ed

    2009-09-20

    We present a multiwavelength study of the 2005 September 13 eruption from NOAA AR 10808 that produced total four flares and two fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) within {approx}1.5 hr. Our primary attention is paid to the fact that these eruptions occurred in close succession in time, and that all of them were located along an S-shaped magnetic polarity inversion line (PIL) of the active region. In our analysis, (1) the disturbance created by the first flare propagated southward along the PIL to cause a major filament eruption that led to the first CME and the associated second flare underneath. (2) The first CME partially removed the overlying magnetic fields over the northern delta spot to allow the third flare and the second CME. (3) The ribbon separation during the fourth flare would indicate reclosing of the overlying field lines opened by the second CME. It is thus concluded that these series of flares and CMEs are interrelated to each other via magnetic reconnections between the expanding magnetic structure and the nearby magnetic fields. These results complement previous works made on this event with the suggested causal relationship among the successive eruptions.

  12. Staff Research Physicist (Experimental Research, FLARE) | Princeton...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Experimental Research, FLARE) Department: Research Staff: RM 02 Requisition Number: 1500503 The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory seeks to fill a staff research physicist...

  13. Arizona Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Date: 12312015 Next Release Date: 01292016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Vented and Flared Arizona Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production Natural Gas Vented and Flared...

  14. CIRCULAR RIBBON FLARES AND HOMOLOGOUS JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Haimin; Liu Chang

    2012-12-01

    Solar flare emissions in the chromosphere often appear as elongated ribbons on both sides of the magnetic polarity inversion line (PIL), which has been regarded as evidence of a typical configuration of magnetic reconnection. However, flares having a circular ribbon have rarely been reported, although it is expected in the fan-spine magnetic topology involving reconnection at a three-dimensional (3D) coronal null point. We present five circular ribbon flares with associated surges, using high-resolution and high-cadence H{alpha} blue wing observations obtained from the recently digitized films of Big Bear Solar Observatory. In all the events, a central parasitic magnetic field is encompassed by the opposite polarity, forming a circular PIL traced by filament material. Consequently, a flare kernel at the center is surrounded by a circular flare ribbon. The four homologous jet-related flares on 1991 March 17 and 18 are of particular interest, as (1) the circular ribbons brighten sequentially, with cospatial surges, rather than simultaneously, (2) the central flare kernels show an intriguing 'round-trip' motion and become elongated, and (3) remote brightenings occur at a region with the same magnetic polarity as the central parasitic field and are co-temporal with a separate phase of flare emissions. In another flare on 1991 February 25, the circular flare emission and surge activity occur successively, and the event could be associated with magnetic flux cancellation across the circular PIL. We discuss the implications of these observations combining circular flare ribbons, homologous jets, and remote brightenings for understanding the dynamics of 3D magnetic restructuring.

  15. THERMAL FRONTS IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karlický, Marian

    2015-12-01

    We studied the formation of a thermal front during the expansion of hot plasma into colder plasma. We used a three-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell model that includes inductive effects. In early phases, in the area of the expanding hot plasma, we found several thermal fronts, which are defined as a sudden decrease of the local electron kinetic energy. The fronts formed a cascade. Thermal fronts with higher temperature contrast were located near plasma density depressions, generated during the hot plasma expansion. The formation of the main thermal front was associated with the return-current process induced by hot electron expansion and electrons backscattered at the front. A part of the hot plasma was trapped by the thermal front while another part, mainly with the most energetic electrons, escaped and generated Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in front of the thermal front, as shown by the dispersion diagrams. Considering all of these processes and those described in the literature, we show that anomalous electric resistivity is produced at the location of the thermal front. Thus, the thermal front can contribute to energy dissipation in the current-carrying loops of solar flares. We estimated the values of such anomalous resistivity in the solar atmosphere together with collisional resistivity and electric fields. We propose that the slowly drifting reverse drift bursts, observed at the beginning of some solar flares, could be signatures of the thermal front.

  16. U. S. EPA's flare policy: update and review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, B.C.

    1985-04-01

    The effect of flaring operations on the environment continues to be of concern to regulatory agencies and industry. Recent regulatory initiatives by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have established regulatory performance and design standards for flare operations. It is recommended EPA change its flare policy to accept the more general concept of flame stability as an indicator of efficient flare operation.

  17. ON THE DURATION OF BLAZAR SYNCHROTRON FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eichmann, B.; Schlickeiser, R.; Rhode, W.

    2012-01-10

    A semi-analytical model is presented that describes the temporal development of a blazar synchrotron flare for the case of a broadband synchrotron power spectrum. We examine three different injection scenarios and present its influence on the synchrotron flare. An accurate approximation of the half-life of a synchrotron flare is analytically computed and we give some illustrative examples of the time evolution of the emergent synchrotron intensity by using a numerical integration method. The synchrotron flare starts at all photon energies right after the injection of ultrarelativistic electrons into the spherical emission volume of radius R and its duration exceeds the light travel time 2R/c in the low energy regime. Furthermore, the flare duration extends by the period of injection of relativistic electrons into the emission knot. However, the energetic and spatial distribution of these injected electrons has no significant influence on the flare duration. We obtain a temporal behavior that agrees most favorably with the observations of PKS 2155-304 on 2006 July 29-30 and it differs considerably from the results that were recently achieved by using a monochromatic approximation of the synchrotron power.

  18. Average Commercial Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  19. Average Residential Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  20. Base Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Summary)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  1. Injections of Natural Gas into Storage (Annual Supply & Disposition)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  2. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Wellhead Value & Marketed Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Marketed Production Gross withdrawals less gas used for repressuring, quantities vented and flared, and nonhydrocarbon gases removed in treating or processing operations. Includes all quantities of gas used in field and processing plant operations. Production The volume of natural gas withdrawn from reservoirs less (1) the volume returned to such reservoirs in cycling, repressuring of oil reservoirs, and conservation

  3. Arizona Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Arizona Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 ...

  4. Florida Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Florida Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 ...

  5. Virginia Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

  6. KEPLER FLARES. I. ACTIVE AND INACTIVE M DWARFS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawley, Suzanne L.; Davenport, James R. A.; Kowalski, Adam F.; Wisniewski, John P.; Deitrick, Russell; Hilton, Eric J.; Hebb, Leslie

    2014-12-20

    We analyzed Kepler short-cadence M dwarf observations. Spectra from the Astrophysical Research Consortium 3.5 m telescope identify magnetically active (Hα in emission) stars. The active stars are of mid-M spectral type, have numerous flares, and have well-defined rotational modulation due to starspots. The inactive stars are of early M type, exhibit less starspot signature, and have fewer flares. A Kepler to U-band energy scaling allows comparison of the Kepler flare frequency distributions with previous ground-based data. M dwarfs span a large range of flare frequency and energy, blurring the distinction between active and inactive stars designated solely by the presence of Hα. We analyzed classical and complex (multiple peak) flares on GJ 1243, finding strong correlations between flare energy, amplitude, duration, and decay time, with only a weak dependence on rise time. Complex flares last longer and have higher energy at the same amplitude, and higher energy flares are more likely to be complex. A power law fits the energy distribution for flares with log E{sub K{sub p}}> 31 erg, but the predicted number of low-energy flares far exceeds the number observed, at energies where flares are still easily detectable, indicating that the power-law distribution may flatten at low energy. There is no correlation of flare occurrence or energy with starspot phase, the flare waiting time distribution is consistent with flares occurring randomly in time, and the energies of consecutive flares are uncorrelated. These observations support a scenario where many independent active regions on the stellar surface are contributing to the observed flare rate.

  7. MEASUREMENTS OF ABSOLUTE ABUNDANCES IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    We present measurements of elemental abundances in solar flares with the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. EVE observes both high temperature Fe emission lines (Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and continuum emission from thermal bremsstrahlung that is proportional to the abundance of H. By comparing the relative intensities of line and continuum emission it is possible to determine the enrichment of the flare plasma relative to the composition of the photosphere. This is the first ionization potential or FIP bias (f). Since thermal bremsstrahlung at EUV wavelengths is relatively insensitive to the electron temperature, it is important to account for the distribution of electron temperatures in the emitting plasma. We accomplish this by using the observed spectra to infer the differential emission measure distribution and FIP bias simultaneously. In each of the 21 flares that we analyze we find that the observed composition is close to photospheric. The mean FIP bias in our sample is f = 1.17 0.22. This analysis suggests that the bulk of the plasma evaporated during a flare comes from deep in the chromosphere, below the region where elemental fractionation occurs.

  8. Compensation of flare-induced CD changes EUVL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bjorkholm, John E. (Pleasanton, CA); Stearns, Daniel G. (Los Altos, CA); Gullikson, Eric M. (Oakland, CA); Tichenor, Daniel A. (Castro Valley, CA); Hector, Scott D. (Oakland, CA)

    2004-11-09

    A method for compensating for flare-induced critical dimensions (CD) changes in photolithography. Changes in the flare level results in undesirable CD changes. The method when used in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography essentially eliminates the unwanted CD changes. The method is based on the recognition that the intrinsic level of flare for an EUV camera (the flare level for an isolated sub-resolution opaque dot in a bright field mask) is essentially constant over the image field. The method involves calculating the flare and its variation over the area of a patterned mask that will be imaged and then using mask biasing to largely eliminate the CD variations that the flare and its variations would otherwise cause. This method would be difficult to apply to optical or DUV lithography since the intrinsic flare for those lithographies is not constant over the image field.

  9. A TRIO OF CONFINED FLARES IN AR 11087

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshi, Anand D.; Park, Sung-Hong; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Forbes, Terry G. E-mail: freemler@kasi.re.kr E-mail: terry.forbes@unh.edu

    2015-01-10

    We investigate three flares that occurred in active region, AR 11087, observed by the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on 2010 July 13, in a span of three hours. The first two flares have soft X-ray class B3, whereas the third flare has class C3. The third flare not only was the largest in terms of area and brightness but also showed a very faint coronal mass ejection (CME) associated with it, while the earlier two flares had no associated CME. The active region, located at 27° N, 26° E, has a small U-shaped active region filament to the south of the sunspot, and a quiescent filament is located to its west. Hα observations from DOT, as well as extreme-ultraviolet images and magnetograms from the STEREO spacecraft and Solar Dynamics Observatory, are used to study the dynamics of the active region during the three flares. Our observations imply that the first two flares are confined and that some filament material drains to the surface during these flares. At the onset of the third flare downflows are again observed within the active region, but a strong upflow is also observed at the northern end of the adjacent quiescent filament to the west. It is at the latter location that the CME originates. The temporal evolution of the flare ribbons and the dynamics of the filaments are both consistent with the idea that reconnection in a pre-existing current sheet leads to a loss of equilibrium.

  10. Virginia Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Release Date: 03312016 Next Release Date: 04292016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Vented and Flared Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production Natural Gas Vented and ...

  11. material removal

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    %2A en Nuclear Material Removal http:www.nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsdnnm3remove

    Pag...

  12. material removal

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    %2A en Nuclear Material Removal http:nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsdnnm3remove

    Page...

  13. Flare heating and ionization of the low solar chromosphere. II. Observations of five solar flares

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metcalf, T.R.; Canfield, R.C.; Saba, J.L.R. Hawaii Univ., Honolulu Lockheed Research Laboratories, Palo Alto, CA )

    1990-12-01

    Two neutral Mg spectral lines formed in the temperature-minimum region and the low chromosphere, at 4571 and 5173 A, are used to quantify the changes in the atmospheric structure as a function of time during five solar flares. Eight proposed flare heating and ionization mechanisms and predictions of the effects of each on the temperature minimum region are discussed. Two Mg spectral observations made at the National Solar Observatory (Sacramento Peak), along with observations of hard and soft X-rays from the SMM and GOES satellites, are compared to the predictions of the eight proposed mechanisms. The initial effects in all five flares are consistent with backwarming by enhanced Balmer- and Paschen-continuum radiation originating in the upper chromosphere. Extended heating observed in two of the flares is most likely due to UV irradiation. In all cases heating by the dissipation of nonreversed electric currents, collisions with an electron or proton beam, irradiation by soft X-rays, and dissipation of Alfven waves are eliminated. 61 refs.

  14. COMPLEX FLARE DYNAMICS INITIATED BY A FILAMENT–FILAMENT INTERACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Chunming; McAteer, R. T. James; Liu, Rui; Alexander, David; Sun, Xudong

    2015-11-01

    We report on an eruption involving a relatively rare filament–filament interaction on 2013 June 21, observed by SDO and STEREO-B. The two filaments were separated in height with a “double-decker” configuration. The eruption of the lower filament began simultaneously with a descent of the upper filament, resulting in a convergence and direct interaction of the two filaments. The interaction was accompanied by the heating of surrounding plasma and an apparent crossing of a loop-like structure through the upper filament. The subsequent coalescence of the filaments drove a bright front ahead of the erupting structures. The whole process was associated with a C3.0 flare followed immediately by an M2.9 flare. Shrinking loops and descending dark voids were observed during the M2.9 flare at different locations above a C-shaped flare arcade as part of the energy release, giving us unique insight into the flare dynamics.

  15. An X-ray flare from 47 Cas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandey, Jeewan C.; Karmakar, Subhajeet

    2015-02-01

    Using XMM-Newton observations, we investigate properties of a flare from the very active but poorly known stellar system 47 Cas. The luminosity at the peak of the flare is found to be 3.54 10{sup 30} erg s{sup ?1}, which is ?2 times higher than that at a quiescent state. The quiescent state corona of 47 Cas can be represented by two temperature plasma: 3.7 and 11.0 MK. The time-resolved X-ray spectroscopy of the flare show the variable nature of the temperature, the emission measure, and the abundance. The maximum temperature during the flare is derived as 72.8 MK. We infer the length of a flaring loop to be 3.3 10{sup 10} cm using a hydrodynamic loop model. Using the RGS spectra, the density during the flare is estimated as 4.0 10{sup 10} cm{sup ?3}. The loop scaling laws are also applied when deriving physical parameters of the flaring plasma.

  16. OBSERVATIONS OF THERMAL FLARE PLASMA WITH THE EUV VARIABILITY EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Harry P.; Doschek, George A. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Mariska, John T. [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    One of the defining characteristics of a solar flare is the impulsive formation of very high temperature plasma. The properties of the thermal emission are not well understood, however, and the analysis of solar flare observations is often predicated on the assumption that the flare plasma is isothermal. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory provides spectrally resolved observations of emission lines that span a wide range of temperatures (e.g., Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and allow for thermal flare plasma to be studied in detail. In this paper we describe a method for computing the differential emission measure distribution in a flare using EVE observations and apply it to several representative events. We find that in all phases of the flare the differential emission measure distribution is broad. Comparisons of EVE spectra with calculations based on parameters derived from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites soft X-ray fluxes indicate that the isothermal approximation is generally a poor representation of the thermal structure of a flare.

  17. CONSTRAINING SOLAR FLARE DIFFERENTIAL EMISSION MEASURES WITH EVE AND RHESSI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caspi, Amir [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); McTiernan, James M. [Space Sciences Laboratory University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2014-06-20

    Deriving a well-constrained differential emission measure (DEM) distribution for solar flares has historically been difficult, primarily because no single instrument is sensitive to the full range of coronal temperatures observed in flares, from ?2 to ?50MK. We present a new technique, combining extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory with X-ray spectra from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), to derive, for the first time, a self-consistent, well-constrained DEM for jointly observed solar flares. EVE is sensitive to ?2-25MK thermal plasma emission, and RHESSI to ?10MK; together, the two instruments cover the full range of flare coronal plasma temperatures. We have validated the new technique on artificial test data, and apply it to two X-class flares from solar cycle 24 to determine the flare DEM and its temporal evolution; the constraints on the thermal emission derived from the EVE data also constrain the low energy cutoff of the non-thermal electrons, a crucial parameter for flare energetics. The DEM analysis can also be used to predict the soft X-ray flux in the poorly observed ?0.4-5nm range, with important applications for geospace science.

  18. Ultraheavy element enrichment in impulsive solar flares

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eichler, David

    2014-10-10

    Particle acceleration by cascading Alfvén wave turbulence was suggested as being responsible for energetic particle populations in {sup 3}He-rich solar flares. In particular, it was noted that the damping of the turbulence by the tail of the particle distribution in rigidity naturally leads to the dramatic enhancement of a pre-accelerated species—as {sup 3}He is posited to be—and superheavy elements. The subsequent detection of large enrichment of ultraheavies, relative to iron, has apparently confirmed this prediction, lending support to the original idea. It is shown here that this picture could be somewhat sharpened by progress in understanding the three-dimensional geometrical details of cascading Alfvén turbulence. The mechanism may be relevant in other astrophysical environments where the source of turbulence is nonmagnetic, such as clusters of galaxies.

  19. Solar Flare Activity Closely Monitored | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Solar Flare Activity Closely Monitored Solar Flare Activity Closely Monitored September 11, 2014 - 5:30pm Addthis Dr. Ken Friedman Senior Policy Advisor in the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Space Weather Prediction Center, which provides important resources to describe the space environment, including geomagnetic storms, solar radiation storms and radio blackouts, is forecasting the possibility of

  20. FINE STRUCTURE OF FLARE RIBBONS AND EVOLUTION OF ELECTRIC CURRENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharykin, I. N.; Kosovichev, A. G.

    2014-06-10

    Emission of solar flares across the electromagnetic spectrum is often observed in the form of two expanding ribbons. The standard flare model explains flare ribbons as footpoints of magnetic arcades, emitting due to interaction of energetic particles with the chromospheric plasma. However, the physics of this interaction and properties of the accelerated particles are still unknown. We present results of multiwavelength observations of the C2.1 flare of 2013 August 15, observed with the New Solar Telescope of the Big Bear Solar Observatory, and the Solar Dynamics Observatory, GOES, and Fermi spacecraft. The observations reveal previously unresolved sub-arcsecond structure of flare ribbons in regions of strong magnetic field consisting from numerous small-scale bright knots. We observe a red-blue asymmetry of H{sub α} flare ribbons with a width as small as ∼100 km. We discuss the relationship between the ribbons and vertical electric currents estimated from vector magnetograms, and show that Joule heating can be responsible for energization of H{sub α} knots in the ribbons.

  1. Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES Project)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rachel Henderson; Robert Fickes

    2007-12-31

    The Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES) project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under Preferred Upstream Management Projects (PUMP III). Project partners included the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) as lead agency working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the California Oil Producers Electric Cooperative (COPE). The project was designed to demonstrate that the entire range of oilfield 'stranded gases' (gas production that can not be delivered to a commercial market because it is poor quality, or the quantity is too small to be economically sold, or there are no pipeline facilities to transport it to market) can be cost-effectively harnessed to make electricity. The utilization of existing, proven distribution generation (DG) technologies to generate electricity was field-tested successfully at four marginal well sites, selected to cover a variety of potential scenarios: high Btu, medium Btu, ultra-low Btu gas, as well as a 'harsh', or high contaminant, gas. Two of the four sites for the OFFGASES project were idle wells that were shut in because of a lack of viable solutions for the stranded noncommercial gas that they produced. Converting stranded gas to useable electrical energy eliminates a waste stream that has potential negative environmental impacts to the oil production operation. The electricity produced will offset that which normally would be purchased from an electric utility, potentially lowering operating costs and extending the economic life of the oil wells. Of the piloted sites, the most promising technologies to handle the range were microturbines that have very low emissions. One recently developed product, the Flex-Microturbine, has the potential to handle the entire range of oilfield gases. It is deployed at an oilfield near Santa Barbara to run on waste gas that is only 4% the

  2. Product transfer service chosen over LPG flaring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horn, J.; Powers, M.

    1994-07-01

    Seadrift Pipeline Corp. recently decommissioned its Ella Pipeline, an 108-mile, 8-in. line between the King Ranch and a Union Carbide plant at Seadrift, Texas. The pipeline company opted for the product transfer services of pipeline Dehydrators Inc. to evacuate the ethane-rich LPG mixture from the pipeline instead of flaring the LPG or displacing it with nitrogen at operating pressures into another pipeline. The product transfer system of Pipeline Dehydrators incorporates the use of highly specialized portable compressors, heat exchangers and interconnected piping. The product transfer process of evacuating a pipeline is an economically viable method that safely recovers a very high percentage of the product while maintaining product purity. Using positive-displacement compressors, PLD transferred the LPG from the idled 8-in. Ella line into an adjacent 12-in. ethane pipeline that remained in service at approximately 800 psig. Approximately 4.3 million lb of LPG (97% ethane, 2.7% methane and 0.3% propane) were transferred into the ethane pipeline, lowering the pressure on the Ella Pipeline from 800 psig to 65 psig.

  3. An unorthodox X-Class Long-Duration Confined Flare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Rui; Gou, Tingyu; Wang, Yuming; Liu, Kai; Titov, Viacheslav S.; Wang, Haimin

    2014-07-20

    We report the observation of an X-class long-duration flare which is clearly confined. It appears as a compact-loop flare in the traditional EUV passbands (171 and 195 ), but in the passbands sensitive to flare plasmas (94 and 131 ), it exhibits a cusp-shaped structure above an arcade of loops like other long-duration events. Inspecting images in a running difference approach, we find that the seemingly diffuse, quasi-static cusp-shaped structure consists of multiple nested loops that repeatedly rise upward and disappear approaching the cusp edge. Over the gradual phase, we detect numerous episodes of loop rising, each lasting minutes. A differential emission measure analysis reveals that the temperature is highest at the top of the arcade and becomes cooler at higher altitudes within the cusp-shaped structure, contrary to typical long-duration flares. With a nonlinear force-free model, our analysis shows that the event mainly involves two adjacent sheared arcades separated by a T-type hyperbolic flux tube (HFT). One of the arcades harbors a magnetic flux rope, which is identified with a filament that survives the flare owing to the strong confining field. We conclude that a new emergence of magnetic flux in the other arcade triggers the flare, while the preexisting HFT and flux rope dictate the structure and dynamics of the flare loops and ribbons during the long-lasting decay phase, and that a quasi-separatrix layer high above the HFT could account for the cusp-shaped structure.

  4. OPTICAL DISCOVERY OF PROBABLE STELLAR TIDAL DISRUPTION FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Velzen, Sjoert; Farrar, Glennys R.; Gezari, Suvi; Morrell, Nidia; Zaritsky, Dennis; Oestman, Linda; Smith, Mathew; Gelfand, Joseph; Drake, Andrew J.

    2011-11-10

    Using archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) multi-epoch imaging data (Stripe 82), we have searched for the tidal disruption of stars by supermassive black holes in non-active galaxies. Two candidate tidal disruption events (TDEs) are identified. The TDE flares have optical blackbody temperatures of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} K and observed peak luminosities of M{sub g} = -18.3 and -20.4 ({nu}L{sub {nu}} = 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42}, 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}, in the rest frame); their cooling rates are very low, qualitatively consistent with expectations for tidal disruption flares. The properties of the TDE candidates are examined using (1) SDSS imaging to compare them to other flares observed in the search, (2) UV emission measured by GALEX, and (3) spectra of the hosts and of one of the flares. Our pipeline excludes optically identifiable AGN hosts, and our variability monitoring over nine years provides strong evidence that these are not flares in hidden AGNs. The spectra and color evolution of the flares are unlike any SN observed to date, their strong late-time UV emission is particularly distinctive, and they are nuclear at high resolution arguing against these being first cases of a previously unobserved class of SNe or more extreme examples of known SN types. Taken together, the observed properties are difficult to reconcile with an SN or an AGN-flare explanation, although an entirely new process specific to the inner few hundred parsecs of non-active galaxies cannot be excluded. Based on our observed rate, we infer that hundreds or thousands of TDEs will be present in current and next-generation optical synoptic surveys. Using the approach outlined here, a TDE candidate sample with O(1) purity can be selected using geometric resolution and host and flare color alone, demonstrating that a campaign to create a large sample of TDEs, with immediate and detailed multi-wavelength follow-up, is feasible. A by-product of this

  5. Statistical properties of super-hot solar flares

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caspi, Amir; Krucker, Sm; Lin, R. P.

    2014-01-20

    We use Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy observations from ?6 to 100 keV to determine the statistical relationships between measured parameters (temperature, emission measure, etc.) of hot, thermal plasma in 37 intense (GOES M- and X-class) solar flares. The RHESSI data, most sensitive to the hottest flare plasmas, reveal a strong correlation between the maximum achieved temperature and the flare GOES class, such that 'super-hot' temperatures >30 MK are achieved almost exclusively by X-class events; the observed correlation differs significantly from that of GOES-derived temperatures, and from previous studies. A nearly ubiquitous association with high emission measures, electron densities, and instantaneous thermal energies suggests that super-hot plasmas are physically distinct from cooler, ?10-20 MK GOES plasmas, and that they require substantially greater energy input during the flare. High thermal energy densities suggest that super-hot flares require strong coronal magnetic fields, exceeding ?100 G, and that both the plasma ? and volume filling factor f cannot be much less than unity in the super-hot region.

  6. Well-observed dynamics of flaring and peripheral coronal magnetic loops during an M-class limb flare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Jinhua; Zhou, Tuanhui; Ji, Haisheng; Feng, Li; Wiegelmann, Thomas; Inhester, Bernd

    2014-08-20

    In this paper, we present a variety of well-observed dynamic behaviors for the flaring and peripheral magnetic loops of the M6.6 class extreme limb flare that occurred on 2011 February 24 (SOL2011-02-24T07:20) from EUV observations by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory and X-ray observations by RHESSI. The flaring loop motion confirms the earlier contraction-expansion picture. We find that the U-shaped trajectory delineated by the X-ray corona source of the flare roughly follows the direction of a filament eruption associated with the flare. Different temperature structures of the coronal source during the contraction and expansion phases strongly suggest different kinds of magnetic reconnection processes. For some peripheral loops, we discover that their dynamics are closely correlated with the filament eruption. During the slow rising to abrupt, fast rising of the filament, overlying peripheral magnetic loops display different responses. Two magnetic loops on the elbow of the active region had a slow descending motion followed by an abrupt successive fast contraction, while magnetic loops on the top of the filament were pushed outward, slowly being inflated for a while and then erupting as a moving front. We show that the filament activation and eruption play a dominant role in determining the dynamics of the overlying peripheral coronal magnetic loops.

  7. Natural Gas Industrial Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ...

  8. Natural Gas Electric Power Price

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ...

  9. TIDAL DISRUPTION FLARES: THE ACCRETION DISK PHASE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montesinos Armijo, Matias; De Freitas Pacheco, Jose A. [Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, Laboratoire Cassiopee, Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis Bd de l'Observatoire, BP 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France)

    2011-08-01

    The evolution of an accretion disk, formed as a consequence of the disruption of a star by a black hole, is followed by solving numerically hydrodynamic equations. The present investigation aims to study the dependence of resulting light curves on dynamical and physical properties of such a transient disk during its existence. One of the main results derived from our simulations is that blackbody fits of X-ray data tend to overestimate the true mean disk temperature. In fact, the temperature derived from blackbody fits should be identified with the color X-ray temperature rather than the average value derived from the true temperature distribution along the disk. The time interval between the beginning of the circularization of the bound debris and the beginning of the accretion process by the black hole is determined by the viscous (or accretion) timescale, which also fixes the rising part of the resulting light curve. The luminosity peak coincides with the beginning of matter accretion by the black hole and the late evolution of the light curve depends on the evolution of the debris fallback rate. Peak bolometric luminosities are in the range 10{sup 45}-10{sup 46} erg s{sup -1}, whereas peak luminosities in soft X-rays (0.2-2.0 keV) are typically one order of magnitude lower. The typical timescale derived from our preferred models for the flare luminosity to decay by two orders of magnitude is about 3-4 yr. Predicted soft X-ray light curves reproduce quite well data on galaxies in which a variable X-ray emission possibly related to a tidal event was detected. In the cases of NGC 3599 and IC 3599, data are reproduced well by models defined by a black hole with mass {approx}10{sup 7} M{sub sun} and a disrupted star of about 1 solar mass. The X-ray variation observed in XMMSL1 is consistent with a model defined by a black hole with mass {approx}3 x 10{sup 6} M{sub sun} and a disrupted star of 1 solar mass, while that observed in the galaxy situated in the cluster A

  10. Solar flare impulsive phase emission observed with SDO/EVE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, Michael B.; Milligan, Ryan O.; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Keenan, Francis P., E-mail: mkennedy29@qub.ac.uk [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-10

    Differential emission measures (DEMs) during the impulsive phase of solar flares were constructed using observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) and the Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method. Emission lines from ions formed over the temperature range log T{sub e} = 5.8-7.2 allow the evolution of the DEM to be studied over a wide temperature range at 10 s cadence. The technique was applied to several M- and X-class flares, where impulsive phase EUV emission is observable in the disk-integrated EVE spectra from emission lines formed up to 3-4 MK and we use spatially unresolved EVE observations to infer the thermal structure of the emitting region. For the nine events studied, the DEMs exhibited a two-component distribution during the impulsive phase, a low-temperature component with peak temperature of 1-2 MK, and a broad high-temperature component from 7 to 30 MK. A bimodal high-temperature component is also found for several events, with peaks at 8 and 25 MK during the impulsive phase. The origin of the emission was verified using Atmospheric Imaging Assembly images to be the flare ribbons and footpoints, indicating that the constructed DEMs represent the spatially average thermal structure of the chromospheric flare emission during the impulsive phase.

  11. High-energy gamma-ray emission from solar flares: Summary of Fermi large area telescope detections and analysis of two M-class flares

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Bottacini, E.; Buehler, R.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonamente, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; and others

    2014-05-20

    We present the detections of 18 solar flares detected in high-energy γ-rays (above 100 MeV) with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) during its first 4 yr of operation. This work suggests that particle acceleration up to very high energies in solar flares is more common than previously thought, occurring even in modest flares, and for longer durations. Interestingly, all these flares are associated with fairly fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We then describe the detailed temporal, spatial, and spectral characteristics of the first two long-lasting events: the 2011 March 7 flare, a moderate (M3.7) impulsive flare followed by slowly varying γ-ray emission over 13 hr, and the 2011 June 7 M2.5 flare, which was followed by γ-ray emission lasting for 2 hr. We compare the Fermi LAT data with X-ray and proton data measurements from GOES and RHESSI. We argue that the γ-rays are more likely produced through pion decay than electron bremsstrahlung, and we find that the energy spectrum of the proton distribution softens during the extended emission of the 2011 March 7 flare. This would disfavor a trapping scenario for particles accelerated during the impulsive phase of the flare and point to a continuous acceleration process at play for the duration of the flares. CME shocks are known for accelerating the solar energetic particles (SEPs) observed in situ on similar timescales, but it might be challenging to explain the production of γ-rays at the surface of the Sun while the CME is halfway to the Earth. A stochastic turbulence acceleration process occurring in the solar corona is another likely scenario. Detailed comparison of characteristics of SEPs and γ-ray-emitting particles for several flares will be helpful to distinguish between these two possibilities.

  12. Tennessee Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Tennessee Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 408 180 165 376 585 339 156 117 126 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 10/31/2016 Next Release Date:

  13. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 98 96 99 75 0 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 10/31/2016 Next Release Date: 11/30/2016 Referring

  14. Ohio Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Ohio Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0 0 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 330 0 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 10/31/2016 Next Release Date: 11/30/2016 Referring Pages:

  15. Oklahoma Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 126,629 129,408 130,766 1970's 129,629 39,799 38,797 36,411 34,199 31,802 30,197 29,186 27,489 26,605 1980's 25,555 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 10/31/2016 Next

  16. High-Energy Aspects of Solar Flares: Observations and Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wei; Guo, Fan

    2015-07-21

    The paper begins by describing the structure of the Sun, with emphasis on the corona. The Sun is a unique plasma laboratory, which can be probed by Sun-grazing comets, and is the driver of space weather. Energization and particle acceleration mechanisms in solar flares is presented; magnetic reconnection is key is understanding stochastic acceleration mechanisms. Then coupling between kinetic and fluid aspects is taken up; the next step is feedback of atmospheric response to the acceleration process – rapid quenching of acceleration. Future challenges include applications of stochastic acceleration to solar energetic particles (SEPs), Fermi γ-rays observations, fast-mode magnetosonic wave trains in a funnel-shaped wave guide associated with flare pulsations, and the new SMEX mission IRIS (Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph),

  17. Kentucky Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Kentucky Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 6 15 0 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 NA 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 10/31/2016 Next Release Date: 11/30/2016

  18. Illinois Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Illinois Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 126 102 93 1970's 122 3,997 1,806 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 NA 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 10/31/2016 Next Release Date:

  19. Space radiation dose analysis for solar flare of August 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nealy, J.E.; Simonsen, L.C.; Sauer, H.H.; Wilson, J.W.; Townsend, L.W.

    1990-12-01

    Potential dose and dose rate levels to astronauts in deep space are predicted for the solar flare event which occurred during the week of August 13, 1989. The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-7) monitored the temporal development and energy characteristics of the protons emitted during this event. From these data, differential fluence as a function of energy was obtained in order to analyze the flare using the Langley baryon transport code, BRYNTRN, which describes the interactions of incident protons in matter. Dose equivalent estimates for the skin, ocular lens, and vital organs for 0.5 to 20 g/sq cm of aluminum shielding were predicted. For relatively light shielding (less than 2 g/sq cm), the skin and ocular lens 30-day exposure limits are exceeded within several hours of flare onset. The vital organ (5 cm depth) dose equivalent is exceeded only for the thinnest shield (0.5 g/sq cm). Dose rates (rem/hr) for the skin, ocular lens, and vital organs are also computed.

  20. DISCOVERY OF 6.035 GHz HYDROXYL MASER FLARES IN IRAS 18566+0408

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Marzouk, A. A.; Araya, E. D.; Hofner, P.; Kurtz, S.; Linz, H.; Olmi, L.

    2012-05-10

    We report the discovery of 6.035 GHz hydroxyl (OH) maser flares toward the massive star-forming region IRAS 18566+0408 (G37.55+0.20), which is the only region known to show periodic formaldehyde (4.8 GHz H{sub 2}CO) and methanol (6.7 GHz CH{sub 3}OH) maser flares. The observations were conducted between 2008 October and 2010 January with the 305 m Arecibo Telescope in Puerto Rico. We detected two flare events, one in 2009 March and one in 2009 September to November. The OH maser flares are not simultaneous with the H{sub 2}CO flares, but may be correlated with CH{sub 3}OH flares from a component at corresponding velocities. A possible correlated variability of OH and CH{sub 3}OH masers in IRAS 18566+0408 is consistent with a common excitation mechanism (IR pumping) as predicted by theory.

  1. Comparison of emission properties of two homologous flares in AR 11283

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Yan; Jing, Ju; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Haimin

    2014-05-20

    Large, complex, active regions may produce multiple flares within a certain period of one or two days. These flares could occur in the same location with similar morphologies, commonly referred to as 'homologous flares'. In 2011 September, active region NOAA 11283 produced a pair of homologous flares on the 6th and 7th, respectively. Both of them were white-light (WL) flares, as captured by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory in visible continuum at 6173 Å which is believed to originate from the deep solar atmosphere. We investigate the WL emission of these X-class flares with HMI's seeing-free imaging spectroscopy. The durations of impulsive peaks in the continuum are about 4 minutes. We compare the WL with hard X-ray (HXR) observations for the September 6 flare and find a good correlation between the continuum and HXR both spatially and temporally. In absence of RHESSI data during the second flare on September 7, the derivative of the GOES soft X-ray is used and also found to be well correlated temporally with the continuum. We measure the contrast enhancements, characteristic sizes, and HXR fluxes of the twin flares, which are similar for both flares, indicating analogous triggering and heating processes. However, the September 7 flare was associated with conspicuous sunquake signals whereas no seismic wave was detected during the flare on September 6. Therefore, this comparison suggests that the particle bombardment may not play a dominant role in producing the sunquake events studied in this paper.

  2. Global energetics of solar flares. I. Magnetic energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Xu, Yan; Jing, Ju E-mail: yan.xu@njit.edu

    2014-12-10

    We present the first part of a project on the global energetics of solar flares and coronal mass ejections that includes about 400 M- and X-class flares observed with Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). We calculate the potential (E{sub p} ), the nonpotential (E {sub np}) or free energies (E {sub free} = E {sub np} – E{sub p} ), and the flare-dissipated magnetic energies (E {sub diss}). We calculate these magnetic parameters using two different NLFFF codes: the COR-NLFFF code uses the line-of-sight magnetic field component B{sub z} from HMI to define the potential field, and the two-dimensional (2D) coordinates of automatically detected coronal loops in six coronal wavelengths from AIA to measure the helical twist of coronal loops caused by vertical currents, while the PHOT-NLFFF code extrapolates the photospheric three-dimensional (3D) vector fields. We find agreement between the two codes in the measurement of free energies and dissipated energies within a factor of ≲ 3. The size distributions of magnetic parameters exhibit powerlaw slopes that are approximately consistent with the fractal-diffusive self-organized criticality model. The magnetic parameters exhibit scaling laws for the nonpotential energy, E{sub np}∝E{sub p}{sup 1.02}, for the free energy, E{sub free}∝E{sub p}{sup 1.7} and E{sub free}∝B{sub φ}{sup 1.0}L{sup 1.5}, for the dissipated energy, E{sub diss}∝E{sub p}{sup 1.6} and E{sub diss}∝E{sub free}{sup 0.9}, and the energy dissipation volume, V∝E{sub diss}{sup 1.2}. The potential energies vary in the range of E{sub p} = 1 × 10{sup 31}-4 × 10{sup 33} erg, while the free energy has a ratio of E {sub free}/E{sub p} ≈ 1%-25%. The Poynting flux amounts to F {sub flare} ≈ 5 × 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} during flares, which averages to F {sub AR} ≈ 6 × 10{sup 6} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} during the entire observation

  3. CONFINED FLARES IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGION 12192 FROM 2014 OCTOBER 18 TO 29

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Huadong; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Shuhong; Li, Leping; Huang, Xin; Xiao, Junmin; Ma, Suli

    2015-07-20

    Using the observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we investigate 6 X-class and 29 M-class flares occurring in solar active region (AR) 12192 from October 18 to 29. Among them, 30 (including 6 X- and 24 M-class) flares originated from the AR core, and the other 5 M-flares appeared at the AR periphery. Four of the X-flares exhibited similar flaring structures, indicating they were homologous flares with an analogous triggering mechanism. The possible scenario is that photospheric motions of emerged magnetic fluxes lead to shearing of the associated coronal magnetic field, which then yields a tether-cutting favorable configuration. Among the five periphery M-flares, four were associated with jet activities. The HMI vertical magnetic field data show that the photospheric fluxes of opposite magnetic polarities emerged, converged, and canceled with each other at the footpoints of the jets before the flares. Only one M-flare from the AR periphery was followed by a coronal mass ejection (CME). From October 20 to 26, the mean decay index of the horizontal background field within the height range of 40–105 Mm is below the typical threshold for torus instability onset. This suggests that a strong confinement from the overlying magnetic field might be responsible for the poor CME production of AR 12192.

  4. QUASI-PERIODIC PULSATIONS IN SOLAR AND STELLAR FLARES: RE-EVALUATING THEIR NATURE IN THE CONTEXT OF POWER-LAW FLARE FOURIER SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inglis, A. R.; Ireland, J.; Dominique, M.

    2015-01-10

    The nature of quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in solar and stellar flares remains debated. Recent work has shown that power-law-like Fourier power spectra are an intrinsic property of solar and stellar flare signals, a property that many previous studies of this phenomenon have not accounted for. Hence a re-evaluation of the existing interpretations and assumptions regarding QPPs is needed. We adopt a Bayesian method for investigating this phenomenon, fully considering the Fourier power-law properties of flare signals. Using data from the PROBA2/Large Yield Radiometer, Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, Nobeyama Radioheliograph, and Yohkoh/HXT instruments, we study a selection of flares from the literature identified as QPP events. Additionally, we examine optical data from a recent stellar flare that appears to exhibit oscillatory properties. We find that, for all but one event tested, an explicit oscillation is not required to explain the observations. Instead, the flare signals are adequately described as a manifestation of a power law in the Fourier power spectrum. However, for the flare of 1998 May 8, strong evidence for an explicit oscillation with P ≈ 14-16 s is found in the 17 GHz radio data and the 13-23 keV Yohkoh/HXT data. We conclude that, most likely, many previously analyzed events in the literature may be similarly described by power laws in the flare Fourier power spectrum, without invoking a narrowband, oscillatory component. Hence the prevalence of oscillatory signatures in solar and stellar flares may be less than previously believed. The physical mechanism behind the appearance of the observed power laws is discussed.

  5. Silica Scaling Removal Process

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Scaling Removal Process Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory have developed a novel technology to remove both dissolved and colloidal silica using small gel particles....

  6. RAPID TeV GAMMA-RAY FLARING OF BL LACERTAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Bouvier, A.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Benbow, W.; Cesarini, A.; Connolly, M. P.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Dumm, J.; Fortson, L.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Federici, S.; Finnegan, G. E-mail: cui@purdue.edu; Collaboration: VERITAS Collaboration; and others

    2013-01-10

    We report on the detection of a very rapid TeV gamma-ray flare from BL Lacertae on 2011 June 28 with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS). The flaring activity was observed during a 34.6 minute exposure, when the integral flux above 200 GeV reached (3.4 {+-} 0.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} photons m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, roughly 125% of the Crab Nebula flux measured by VERITAS. The light curve indicates that the observations missed the rising phase of the flare but covered a significant portion of the decaying phase. The exponential decay time was determined to be 13 {+-} 4 minutes, making it one of the most rapid gamma-ray flares seen from a TeV blazar. The gamma-ray spectrum of BL Lacertae during the flare was soft, with a photon index of 3.6 {+-} 0.4, which is in agreement with the measurement made previously by MAGIC in a lower flaring state. Contemporaneous radio observations of the source with the Very Long Baseline Array revealed the emergence of a new, superluminal component from the core around the time of the TeV gamma-ray flare, accompanied by changes in the optical polarization angle. Changes in flux also appear to have occurred at optical, UV, and GeV gamma-ray wavelengths at the time of the flare, although they are difficult to quantify precisely due to sparse coverage. A strong flare was seen at radio wavelengths roughly four months later, which might be related to the gamma-ray flaring activities. We discuss the implications of these multiwavelength results.

  7. Brightest Fermi-LAT flares of PKS 1222+216: implications on emission and acceleration processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kushwaha, Pankaj; Singh, K. P.; Sahayanathan, Sunder

    2014-11-20

    We present a high time resolution study of the two brightest ?-ray outbursts from a blazar PKS 1222+216 observed by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) in 2010. The ?-ray light curves obtained in four different energy bands, 0.1-3, 0.1-0.3, 0.3-1, and 1-3 GeV, with time bins of six hours, show asymmetric profiles with similar rise times in all the bands but a rapid decline during the April flare and a gradual one during the June flare. The light curves during the April flare show an ?2 day long plateau in 0.1-0.3 GeV emission, erratic variations in 0.3-1 GeV emission, and a daily recurring feature in 1-3 GeV emission until the rapid rise and decline within a day. The June flare shows a monotonic rise until the peak, followed by a gradual decline powered mainly by the multi-peak 0.1-0.3 GeV emission. The peak fluxes during both the flares are similar except in the 1-3 GeV band in April, which is twice the corresponding flux during the June flare. Hardness ratios during the April flare indicate spectral hardening in the rising phase followed by softening during the decay. We attribute this behavior to the development of a shock associated with an increase in acceleration efficiency followed by its decay leading to spectral softening. The June flare suggests hardening during the rise followed by a complicated energy dependent behavior during the decay. Observed features during the June flare favor multiple emission regions while the overall flaring episode can be related to jet dynamics.

  8. New waste-heat refrigeration unit cuts flaring, reduces pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brant, B.; Brueske, S.; Erickson, D.; Papar, R.

    1998-05-18

    Planetec Utility Services Co. Inc. and Energy Concepts Co. (ECC), with the help of the US Department of Energy (DOE), developed and commissioned a unique waste-heat powered LPG recovery plant in August 1997 at the 30,000 b/d Denver refinery, operated by Ultramar Diamond Shamrock (UDS). This new environmentally friendly technology reduces flare emissions and the loss of salable liquid-petroleum products to the fuel-gas system. The waste heat ammonia absorption refrigeration plant (Whaarp) is the first technology of its kind to use low-temperature waste heat (295 F) to achieve sub-zero refrigeration temperatures ({minus}40 F) with the capability of dual temperature loads in a refinery setting. The ammonia absorption refrigeration is applied to the refinery`s fuel-gas makeup streams to condense over 180 b/d of salable liquid hydrocarbon products. The recovered liquid, about 64,000 bbl/year of LPG and gasoline, increases annual refinery profits by nearly $1 million, while substantially reducing air pollution emissions from the refinery`s flare.

  9. Reconnection in substorms and solar flares: analogies and differences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birn, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection is the crucial process in the release of magnetic energy associated with magnetospheric substorms and with solar flares. On the basis of three-dimensional resistive MHD simulations we investigate similarities and differences between the two scenarios. We address in particular mechanisms that lead to the onset of reconnection and on energy release, transport, and conversion mechanisms. Analogous processes might exist in the motion of field line footpoints on the sun and in magnetic flux addition to the magnetotail. In both cases such processes might lead to a loss of neighboring equilibrium, characterized by the formation of very thin embedded current sheet, which acts as trigger for reconnection. We find that Joule (or ohmic) dissipation plays only a minor role in the overall energy transfer associated with reconnection. The dominant transfer of released magnetic energy occurs to electromagnetic energy (Poynting) flux and to thermal energy transport as enthalpy flux. The former dominates in low-beta, specifically initially force-free current sheets expected for the solar corona, while the latter dominates in high-beta current sheets, such as the magnetotail. In both cases the outflow from the reconnection site becomes bursty, i.e. spatially and temporally localized, yet carrying most of the outflow energy. Hence an analogy might exist between bursty bulk flows (BBFs) in the magnetotail and pulses of Poynting flux in solar flares.

  10. Biogas, once flared, fuels cogen plant serving two hosts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.K.; McRae, C.L.

    1995-04-01

    This article reports that digester gas from a wastewater treatment plant meets up to 40% of the fuel needs of this cogenerator. Steam is exported for heating the treatment plant`s digesters and for ice production by a second steam host. The Carson Ice-Gen Project promises to enhance the reliability of electric service to the Sacramento Regional Waste water Treatment Plant (SRWTP), to prevent effluent discharges to nearby water ways during power disruptions, and to reduce air emissions associated with flaring of digester gas. The project comprises a 95-MW combined-cycle cogeneration powerplant and a 300-ton/day ice-production plant. The powerplant features twin LM 6000 gas turbines (GTs). One, used as a 53-MW base-load unit, is paired with a heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG) feeding an extraction/condensing steam turbine/generator (STG). The other GT is used as a 42-MW, simple-cycle peaking unit. Primary fuel is natural gas, which is supplemented by digester gas that is currently being flared at the wastewater treatment plant. Export steam extracted from the STG is used to heat the digesters and to drive ammonia compressors at the ice plant. Steam is also used on-site to chill water in absorption chillers that cool the GT inlet air for power augmentation.

  11. UNIVERSAL BEHAVIOR OF X-RAY FLARES FROM BLACK HOLE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, F. Y.; Dai, Z. G.; Yi, S. X.; Xi, S. Q. E-mail: dzg@nju.edu.cn

    2015-01-01

    X-ray flares have been discovered in black hole systems such as gamma-ray bursts, the tidal disruption event Swift J1644+57, the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* at the center of our Galaxy, and some active galactic nuclei. Occurrences of X-ray flares are always accompanied by relativistic jets. However, it is still unknown whether or not there is a physical analogy among such X-ray flares produced in black hole systems spanning nine orders of magnitude in mass. Here, we report observed data of X-ray flares and show that they have three statistical properties similar to solar flares, including power-law distributions of their energies, durations, and waiting times, which can be explained by a fractal-diffusive, self-organized criticality model. These statistical similarities, together with the fact that solar flares are triggered by a magnetic reconnection process, suggest that all of the X-ray flares are consistent with magnetic reconnection events, implying that their concomitant relativistic jets may be magnetically dominated.

  12. TRIGGER OF A BLOWOUT JET IN A SOLAR CORONAL MASS EJECTION ASSOCIATED WITH A FLARE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xiaohong; Yang, Shuhong; Chen, Huadong; Li, Ting; Zhang, Jun

    2015-11-20

    Using the multi-wavelength images and the photospheric magnetograms from the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we study the flare that was associated with the only coronal mass ejection (CME) in active region (AR) 12192. The eruption of a filament caused a blowout jet, and then an M4.0 class flare occurred. This flare was located at the edge of the AR instead of in the core region. The flare was close to the apparently “open” fields, appearing as extreme-ultraviolet structures that fan out rapidly. Due to the interaction between flare materials and “open” fields, the flare became an eruptive flare, leading to the CME. Then, at the same site of the first eruption, another small filament erupted. With the high spatial and temporal resolution Hα data from the New Vacuum Solar Telescope at the Fuxian Solar Observatory, we investigate the interaction between the second filament and the nearby “open” lines. The filament reconnected with the “open” lines, forming a new system. To our knowledge, the detailed process of this kind of interaction is reported for the first time. Then the new system rotated due to the untwisting motion of the filament, implying that the twist was transferred from the closed filament system to the “open” system. In addition, the twist seemed to propagate from the lower atmosphere to the upper layers and was eventually spread by the CME to the interplanetary space.

  13. Measurements and modeling of total solar irradiance in X-class solar flares

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Christopher Samuel; Chamberlin, Phillip Clyde; Hock, Rachel

    2014-05-20

    The Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) from NASA's SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment can detect changes in the total solar irradiance (TSI) to a precision of 2 ppm, allowing observations of variations due to the largest X-class solar flares for the first time. Presented here is a robust algorithm for determining the radiative output in the TIM TSI measurements, in both the impulsive and gradual phases, for the four solar flares presented in Woods et al., as well as an additional flare measured on 2006 December 6. The radiative outputs for both phases of these five flares are then compared to the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiance output from the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) in order to derive an empirical relationship between the FISM VUV model and the TIM TSI data output to estimate the TSI radiative output for eight other X-class flares. This model provides the basis for the bolometric energy estimates for the solar flares analyzed in the Emslie et al. study.

  14. Phenol removal pretreatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hames, Bonnie R.

    2004-04-13

    A process for removing phenols from an aqueous solution is provided, which comprises the steps of contacting a mixture comprising the solution and a metal oxide, forming a phenol metal oxide complex, and removing the complex from the mixture.

  15. Turbomachinery debris remover

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krawiec, Donald F.; Kraf, Robert J.; Houser, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for removing debris from a turbomachine. The apparatus includes housing and remotely operable viewing and grappling mechanisms for the purpose of locating and removing debris lodged between adjacent blades in a turbomachine.

  16. STUDY OF TWO SUCCESSIVE THREE-RIBBON SOLAR FLARES ON 2012 JULY 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Haimin; Liu, Chang; Deng, Na; Xu, Yan; Jing, Ju; Zeng, Zhicheng; Cao, Wenda

    2014-01-20

    This Letter reports two rarely observed three-ribbon flares (M1.9 and C9.2) on 2012 July 6 in NOAA AR 11515, which we found using Hα observations of 0.''1 resolution from the New Solar Telescope and Ca II H images from Hinode. The flaring site is characterized by an intriguing ''fish-bone-like'' morphology evidenced by both Hα images and a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation, where two semi-parallel rows of low-lying, sheared loops connect an elongated, parasitic negative field with the sandwiching positive fields. The NLFFF model also shows that the two rows of loops are asymmetric in height and have opposite twists, and are enveloped by large-scale field lines including open fields. The two flares occurred in succession within half an hour and are located at the two ends of the flaring region. The three ribbons of each flare run parallel to the magnetic polarity inversion line, with the outer two lying in the positive field and the central one in the negative field. Both flares show surge-like flows in Hα apparently toward the remote region, while the C9.2 flare is also accompanied by EUV jets possibly along the open field lines. Interestingly, the 12-25 keV hard X-ray sources of the C9.2 flare first line up with the central ribbon then shift to concentrate on the top of the higher branch of loops. These results are discussed in favor of reconnection along the coronal null line, producing the three flare ribbons and the associated ejections.

  17. Urinary Symptom Flare in 712 {sup 125}I Prostate Brachytherapy Patients: Long-Term Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyes, Mira; Miller, Stacy; Moravan, Veronika; Pickles, Tom; Liu, Mitchell; Spadinger, Ingrid; Lapointe, Vincent; Morris, W. James

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: To describe the late transient worsening of urinary symptoms ('urinary symptom flare') in 712 consecutive prostate brachytherapy patients, associated predictive factors, association with rectal and urinary toxicity, and the development of erectile dysfunction. Methods and Materials: Patients underwent implantation between 1998 and 2003 (median follow-up, 57 months). International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) toxicity, and erectile function data were prospectively collected. Flare was defined as an increase in IPSS of >=5 and of >=8 points greater than the post-treatment nadir. The relationships between the occurrence of flare and the patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were examined. The Cox proportional hazards method was used to test individual variables and the multivariate models. Results: The incidence of flare was 52% and 30% using the flare definition of an IPSS of >=5 and >=8 points greater than the postimplant nadir, respectively. Of the patients with symptoms, 65% had resolution of their symptoms within 6 months and 91% within 1 year. Flares most commonly occurred 16-24 months after implantation. On multivariate analysis, a greater baseline IPSS and greater maximal postimplant IPSS were the predictors of flare, regardless of the flare definition used. Androgen suppression was a predictor for fewer flares (IPSS >=5). Diabetes and prostate edema predicted for more frequent flares (IPSS >=8). Patients with flare had a greater incidence of RTOG Grade 3 urinary toxicity and RTOG Grade 2 or greater rectal toxicity. No association was found between erectile dysfunction and the occurrence of flare. Conclusion: Urinary symptom flare is a common, transient phenomenon after prostate brachytherapy. A greater baseline IPSS and maximal postimplant IPSS were the strongest predictive factors. Flare was associated with a greater incidence of late RTOG Grade 3 urinary toxicity and greater rate of late RTOG Grade

  18. A NEW CORRELATION BETWEEN GRB X-RAY FLARES AND THE PROMPT EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonbas, E. [Department of Physics, University of Adiyaman, 02040 Adiyaman (Turkey); MacLachlan, G. A.; Shenoy, A.; Dhuga, K. S.; Parke, W. C., E-mail: edasonbas@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2013-04-20

    From a sample of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi and Swift missions, we have extracted the minimum variability timescales for temporal structures in the light curves associated with the prompt emission and X-ray flares. A comparison of this variability timescale with pulse parameters such as rise times, determined via pulse-fitting procedures, and spectral lags, extracted via the cross-correlation function, indicates a tight correlation between these temporal features for both the X-ray flares and the prompt emission. These correlations suggest a common origin for the production of X-ray flares and the prompt emission in GRBs.

  19. Graphitic packing removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyers, K.E.; Kolsun, G.J.

    1997-11-11

    Graphitic packing removal tools for removal of the seal rings in one piece are disclosed. The packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal. 5 figs.

  20. Graphitic packing removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyers, Kurt Edward; Kolsun, George J.

    1997-01-01

    Graphitic packing removal tools for removal of the seal rings in one piece. he packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal.

  1. Gamma-Ray Observations of a Giant Flare From the Magnetar Sgr...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Here we report that, on 2004 December 27, SGR 1806-20 emitted the brightest extra-solar ... 40 Mpc, suggesting that extragalactic SGR flares may indeed form a subclass of GRBs. ...

  2. Gamma-Ray Observations of a Giant Flare From the Magnetar Sgr...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Such an event would have resembled a short, hard Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) if it had occurred within 40 Mpc, suggesting that extragalactic SGR flares may indeed form a subclass of ...

  3. Expansion and stability of a magnetic arcade during a solar flare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinell, J.J. )

    1990-12-01

    A study is presented of the dynamics of a magnetic arcade that is typical of an active region in the solar atmosphere when it is affected by a solar flare occurring somewhere within the enclosure of the arcade. As it expands in the corona, propelled by the increased pressure of the flare, the energetic flare-accelerated particles that are trapped by the field are carried along and can only escape if an appropriate instability is excited. A pressure-driven instability of the ballooning-mode type is examined as a releasing mechanism. This is excited as the plasma beta within the magnetic enclosure exceeds a critical value a short time after the flare onset and grows in times of the order of 1 s. Finally, the effect of a shock wave moving in front of the expansion on the number of particles injected into interplanetary space is discussed. 24 refs.

  4. Statistical study of free magnetic energy and flare productivity of solar active regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, J. T.; Jing, J.; Wang, S.; Wang, H. M.; Wiegelmann, T.

    2014-06-20

    Photospheric vector magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory are utilized as the boundary conditions to extrapolate both nonlinear force-free and potential magnetic fields in solar corona. Based on the extrapolations, we are able to determine the free magnetic energy (FME) stored in active regions (ARs). Over 3000 vector magnetograms in 61 ARs were analyzed. We compare FME with the ARs' flare index (FI) and find that there is a weak correlation (<60%) between FME and FI. FME shows slightly improved flare predictability relative to the total unsigned magnetic flux of ARs in the following two aspects: (1) the flare productivity predicted by FME is higher than that predicted by magnetic flux and (2) the correlation between FI and FME is higher than that between FI and magnetic flux. However, this improvement is not significant enough to make a substantial difference in time-accumulated FI, rather than individual flare, predictions.

  5. Underground muons from the direction of Cygnus X-3 during the January 1991 radio flare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    The Soudan 2 Collaboration

    1991-08-01

    Muons recorded in the Soudan 2 underground nucleon decay detector from January 1989 to February 1991 have been examined for any correlation with the radio flares of Cyguns X-3 observed during this period. On two nearby days during the radio flare of January 1991 a total of 32 muons within 2.0{degrees} of the Cyguns X-3 direction were observed when 11.4 were expected.

  6. DOE/EA-1745 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE BLAST FURNACE GAS FLARE

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    5 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE BLAST FURNACE GAS FLARE CAPTURE PROJECT AT THE ARCELORMITTAL USA, INC. INDIANA HARBOR STEEL MILL, EAST CHICAGO, INDIANA U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory August 2010 DOE/EA-1745 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE BLAST FURNACE GAS FLARE CAPTURE PROJECT AT THE ARCELORMITTAL USA, INC. INDIANA HARBOR STEEL MILL, EAST CHICAGO, INDIANA U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory August 2010 DOE/EA-1745 iii

  7. VARIABLE GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE CRAB NEBULA: SHORT FLARES AND LONG 'WAVES'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Striani, E.; Tavani, M.; Vittorini, V.; Donnarumma, I.; Argan, A.; Cardillo, M.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Pacciani, L.; Piano, G.; Sabatini, S.; Bulgarelli, A.; Ferrari, A.; Pellizzoni, A.; Pittori, C.; and others

    2013-03-01

    Gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula has been recently shown to be unsteady. In this paper, we study the flux and spectral variability of the Crab above 100 MeV on different timescales ranging from days to weeks. In addition to the four main intense and day-long flares detected by AGILE and Fermi-LAT between 2007 September and 2012 September, we find evidence for week-long and less intense episodes of enhanced gamma-ray emission that we call 'waves'. Statistically significant 'waves' show timescales of 1-2 weeks, and can occur by themselves or in association with shorter flares. We present a refined flux and spectral analysis of the 2007 September-October gamma-ray enhancement episode detected by AGILE that shows both 'wave' and flaring behavior. We extend our analysis to the publicly available Fermi-LAT data set and show that several additional 'wave' episodes can be identified. We discuss the spectral properties of the 2007 September 'wave'/flare event and show that the physical properties of the 'waves' are intermediate between steady and flaring states. Plasma instabilities inducing 'waves' appear to involve spatial distances l {approx} 10{sup 16} cm and enhanced magnetic fields B {approx} (0.5-1) mG. Day-long flares are characterized by smaller distances and larger local magnetic fields. Typically, the deduced total energy associated with the 'wave' phenomenon (E{sub w} {approx} 10{sup 42} erg, where E{sub w} is the kinetic energy of the emitting particles) is comparable with that associated to the flares, and can reach a few percent of the total available pulsar spin-down energy. Most likely, flares and waves are the product of the same class of plasma instabilities that we show acting on different timescales and radiation intensities.

  8. TIME EVOLUTION OF FLARES IN GRB 130925A: JET PRECESSION IN A BLACK HOLE ACCRETION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Shu-Jin; Liu, Tong; Gu, Wei-Min; Sun, Mou-Yuan; Lu, Ju-Fu [Department of Astronomy and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Lin, Da-Bin [Department of Physics and GXU-NAOC Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004 (China); Wu, Xue-Feng, E-mail: tongliu@xmu.edu.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2014-01-20

    GRB 130925A, composed of three gamma-ray emission episodes and a series of orderly flares, has been detected by Swift, Fermi, Konus-Wind, and INTEGRAL. If the third weakest gamma-ray episode can be considered a giant flare, we find that after the second gamma-ray episode observed by INTEGRAL located at about 2000s, a positive relation exists between the time intervals of the adjacent flares and the time since the episode. We suggest that the second gamma-ray episode and its flares originate from the resumption of the accretion process due to the fragments from the collapsar falling back; such a relation may be related to a hyperaccretion disk around a precessed black hole (BH). We propose that the origin and time evolution of the flares, and the approximately symmetrical temporal structure and spectral evolution of the single flare can be explained well by a jet precession model. In addition, the mass and spin of the BH can be constrained, which indicates a stellar-mass, fast-rotating BH located in the center of GRB 130925A.

  9. A very small and super strong zebra pattern burst at the beginning of a solar flare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Baolin; Tan, Chengming; Zhang, Yin; Huang, Jing; Yan, Yihua; Mszrosov, Hana; Karlick, Marian

    2014-08-01

    Microwave emission with spectral zebra pattern structures (ZPs) is frequently observed in solar flares and the Crab pulsar. The previous observations show that ZP is a structure only overlapped on the underlying broadband continuum with slight increments and decrements. This work reports an unusually strong ZP burst occurring at the beginning of a solar flare observed simultaneously by two radio telescopes located in China and the Czech Republic and by the EUV telescope on board NASA's satellite Solar Dynamics Observatory on 2013 April 11. It is a very short and super strong explosion whose intensity exceeds several times that of the underlying flaring broadband continuum emission, lasting for just 18 s. EUV images show that the flare starts from several small flare bursting points (FBPs). There is a sudden EUV flash with extra enhancement in one of these FBPs during the ZP burst. Analysis indicates that the ZP burst accompanying an EUV flash is an unusual explosion revealing a strong coherent process with rapid particle acceleration, violent energy release, and fast plasma heating simultaneously in a small region with a short duration just at the beginning of the flare.

  10. Measurement of the rate of stellar tidal disruption flares

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Velzen, Sjoert

    2014-09-01

    We report an observational estimate of the rate of stellar tidal disruption flares (TDFs) in inactive galaxies based on a successful search for these events among transients in galaxies using archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) multi-epoch imaging data (Stripe 82). This search yielded 186 nuclear flares in galaxies, 2 of which are excellent TDF candidates. Because of the systematic nature of the search, the very large number of galaxies, the long time of observation, and the fact that non-TDFs were excluded without resorting to assumptions about TDF characteristics, this study provides an unparalleled opportunity to measure the TDF rate. To compute the rate of optical stellar tidal disruption events, we simulate our entire pipeline to obtain the efficiency of detection. The rate depends on the light curves of TDFs, which are presently still poorly constrained. Using only the observed part of the SDSS light curves gives a model-independent upper limit to the optical TDF rate, N-dot <210{sup ?4} yr{sup ?1} galaxy{sup ?1} (90% CL), under the assumption that the SDSS TDFs are representative examples. We develop three empirical models of the light curves based on the two SDSS light curves and two more recent and better-sampled Pan-STARRS TDF light curves, leading to our best estimate of the rate: N-dot {sub TDF}=(1.5--2.0){sub ?1.3}{sup +2.7}10{sup ?5} yr{sup ?1} galaxy{sup ?1}. We explore the modeling uncertainties by considering two theoretically motivated light curve models, as well as two different relationships between black hole mass and galaxy luminosity, and two different treatments of the cutoff in the visibility of TDFs at large M {sub BH}. From this we conclude that these sources of uncertainty are not significantly larger than the statistical ones. Our results are applicable for galaxies hosting black holes with mass in the range of a few 10{sup 6}-10{sup 8} M {sub ?}, and translates to a volumetric TDF rate of (4-8) 10{sup 80.4} yr{sup 1} Mpc

  11. Device for removing blackheads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berkovich, Tamara

    1995-03-07

    A device for removing blackheads from pores in the skin having a elongated handle with a spoon shaped portion mounted on one end thereof, the spoon having multiple small holes piercing therethrough. Also covered is method for using the device to remove blackheads.

  12. Tennessee Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  13. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  14. Ohio Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  15. Oklahoma Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  16. Onset of electron acceleration in a flare loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharykin, Ivan; Liu, Siming [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Fletcher, Lyndsay, E-mail: liusm@pmo.ac.cn [School of Physics and Astronomy, SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-20

    We carried out a detailed analysis of X-ray and radio observations of a simple flare loop that occurred on 2002 August 12, with the impulsive hard X-ray (HXR) light curves dominated by a single pulse. The emission spectra of the early impulsive phase are consistent with an isothermal model in the coronal loop with a temperature reaching several keV. A power-law high-energy spectral tail is evident near the HXR peak time, in accordance with the appearance of footpoints at high energies, and is well correlated with the radio emission. The energy content of the thermal component keeps increasing gradually after the disappearance of this nonthermal component. These results suggest that electron acceleration only covers the central period of a longer and more gradual energy dissipation process and that the electron transport within the loop plays a crucial role in the formation of the inferred power-law electron distribution. The spectral index of power-law photons shows a very gradual evolution, indicating that the electron accelerator is in a quasi-steady state, which is confirmed by radio observations. These results are consistent with the theory of stochastic electron acceleration from a thermal background. Advanced modeling with coupled electron acceleration and spatial transport processes is needed to explain these observations more quantitatively, which may reveal the dependence of the electron acceleration on the spatial structure of the acceleration region.

  17. Florida Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  18. Illinois Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  19. Kentucky Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  20. Ohio Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  1. Oklahoma Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  2. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  3. Tennessee Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  4. Virginia Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  5. Florida Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  6. Kentucky Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  7. CONTINUUM CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE SDO/AIA PASSBANDS DURING SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, Ryan O.; McElroy, Sarah A.

    2013-11-01

    Data from the Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph component of the Extreme-ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) were used to quantify the contribution of continuum emission to each of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) channels of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), also on SDO, during an X-class solar flare that occurred on 2011 February 15. Both the pre-flare-subtracted EVE spectra and fits to the associated free-free continuum were convolved with the AIA response functions of the seven EUV passbands at 10 s cadence throughout the course of the flare. It was found that 10%-25% of the total emission in the 94 Å, 131 Å, 193 Å, and 335 Å passbands throughout the main phase of the flare was due to free-free emission. Reliable measurements could not be made for the 171 Å channel, while the continuum contribution to the 304 Å channel was negligible due to the presence of the strong He II emission line. Up to 50% of the emission in the 211 Å channel was found to be due to free-free emission around the peak of the flare, while an additional 20% was due to the recombination continuum of He II. The analysis was extended to a number of M- and X-class flares and it was found that the level of free-free emission contributing to both the 171 Å and 211 Å passbands increased with increasing GOES class. These results suggest that the amount of continuum emission that contributes to AIA observations during flares is more significant than stated in previous studies which used synthetic, rather than observed, spectra. These findings highlight the importance of spectroscopic observations carried out in conjunction with those from imaging instruments so that the data are interpreted correctly.

  8. OPTICAL SPECTRAL OBSERVATIONS OF A FLICKERING WHITE-LIGHT KERNEL IN A C1 SOLAR FLARE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalski, Adam F.; Cauzzi, Gianna; Fletcher, Lyndsay

    2015-01-10

    We analyze optical spectra of a two-ribbon, long-duration C1.1 flare that occurred on 2011 August 18 within AR 11271 (SOL2011-08-18T15:15). The impulsive phase of the flare was observed with a comprehensive set of space-borne and ground-based instruments, which provide a range of unique diagnostics of the lower flaring atmosphere. Here we report the detection of enhanced continuum emission, observed in low-resolution spectra from 3600 Å to 4550 Å acquired with the Horizontal Spectrograph at the Dunn Solar Telescope. A small, ≤0.''5 (10{sup 15} cm{sup 2}) penumbral/umbral kernel brightens repeatedly in the optical continuum and chromospheric emission lines, similar to the temporal characteristics of the hard X-ray variation as detected by the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor on the Fermi spacecraft. Radiative-hydrodynamic flare models that employ a nonthermal electron beam energy flux high enough to produce the optical contrast in our flare spectra would predict a large Balmer jump in emission, indicative of hydrogen recombination radiation from the upper flare chromosphere. However, we find no evidence of such a Balmer jump in the bluemost spectral region of the continuum excess. Just redward of the expected Balmer jump, we find evidence of a ''blue continuum bump'' in the excess emission which may be indicative of the merging of the higher order Balmer lines. The large number of observational constraints provides a springboard for modeling the blue/optical emission for this particular flare with radiative-hydrodynamic codes, which are necessary to understand the opacity effects for the continuum and emission line radiation at these wavelengths.

  9. RADIOACTIVE POSITRON EMITTER PRODUCTION BY ENERGETIC ALPHA PARTICLES IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, R. J.; Kozlovsky, B.; Share, G. H. E-mail: benz@wise.tau.ac.il

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of the 0.511 MeV positron-annihilation line from solar flares are used to explore the flare process in general and ion acceleration in particular. In flares, positrons are produced primarily by the decay of radioactive positron-emitting isotopes resulting from nuclear interactions of flare-accelerated ions with ambient solar material. Kozlovsky et al. provided ion-energy-dependent production cross sections for 67 positron emitters evaluated from their threshold energies (some <1 MeV nucleon{sup –1}) to a GeV nucleon{sup –1}, incorporating them into a computer code for calculating positron-emitter production. Adequate cross-section measurements were available for proton reactions, but not for α-particle reactions where only crude estimates were possible. Here we re-evaluate the α-particle cross sections using new measurements and nuclear reaction codes. In typical large gamma-ray line flares, proton reactions dominate positron production, but α-particle reactions will dominate for steeper accelerated-ion spectra because of their relatively low threshold energies. With the accelerated-{sup 3}He reactions added previously, the code is now reliable for calculating positron production from any distribution of accelerated-ion energies, not just those of typical flares. We have made the code available in the online version of the Journal. We investigate which reactions, projectiles, and ion energies contribute to positron production. We calculate ratios of the annihilation-line fluence to fluences of other gamma-ray lines. Such ratios can be used in interpreting flare data and in determining which nuclear radiation is most sensitive for revealing acceleration of low-energy ions at the Sun.

  10. TEMPERATURE AND ELECTRON DENSITY DIAGNOSTICS OF A CANDLE-FLAME-SHAPED FLARE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidoni, S. E.; Plowman, J. E.

    2015-02-10

    Candle-flame-shaped flares are archetypical structures that provide indirect evidence of magnetic reconnection. A flare resembling Tsuneta's famous 1992 candle-flame flare occurred on 2011 January 28; we present its temperature and electron density diagnostics. This flare was observed with Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA), Hinode/X-Ray Telescope (XRT), and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Ahead (STEREO-A)/Extreme Ultraviolet Imager, resulting in high-resolution, broad temperature coverage, and stereoscopic views of this iconic structure. The high-temperature images reveal a brightening that grows in size to form a tower-like structure at the top of the posteruption flare arcade, a feature that has been observed in other long-duration events. Despite the extensive work on the standard reconnection scenario, there is no complete agreement among models regarding the nature of this high-intensity elongated structure. Electron density maps reveal that reconnected loops that are successively connected at their tops to the tower develop a density asymmetry of about a factor of two between the two legs, giving the appearance of ''half-loops''. We calculate average temperatures with a new fast differential emission measure (DEM) method that uses SDO/AIA data and analyze the heating and cooling of salient features of the flare. Using STEREO observations, we show that the tower and the half-loop brightenings are not a line-of-sight projection effect of the type studied by Forbes and Acton. This conclusion opens the door for physics-based explanations of these puzzling, recurrent solar flare features, previously attributed to projection effects. We corroborate the results of our DEM analysis by comparing them with temperature analyses from Hinode/XRT.

  11. Exploring the blazar zone in high-energy flares of FSRQs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pacciani, L.; Donnarumma, I.; Tavecchio, F.; Stamerra, A.; Carrasco, L.; Recillas, E.; Porras, A.; Uemura, M.

    2014-07-20

    The gamma-ray emission offers a powerful diagnostic tool to probe jets and their surroundings in flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). In particular, sources emitting at high energies (>10 GeV) give us the strongest constraints. This motivates us to start a systematic study of flares with bright emission above 10 GeV, examining archival data of the Fermi-LAT gamma-ray telescope. At the same time, we began to trigger Target of Opportunity observations to the Swift observatory at the occurrence of high-energy flares, obtaining a wide coverage of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for several FSRQs during flares. Among others, we investigate the SED of a peculiar flare of 3C 454.3, showing a remarkably hard gamma-ray spectrum, quite different from the brightest flares of this source, and a bright flare of CTA 102. We modeled the SED in the framework of the one-zone leptonic model, using also archival optical spectroscopic data to derive the luminosity of the broad lines and thus estimate the disk luminosity, from which the structural parameters of the FSRQ nucleus can be inferred. The model allowed us to evaluate the magnetic field intensity in the blazar zone and to locate the emitting region of gamma-rays in the particular case in which gamma-ray spectra show neither absorption from the broad-line region (BLR) nor the Klein-Nishina curvature expected in leptonic models assuming the BLR as the source of seed photons for the External Compton scenario. For FSRQs bright above 10 GeV, we were able to identify short periods lasting less than one day characterized by a high rate of high-energy gamma-rays and hard gamma-ray spectra. We discussed the observed spectra and variability timescales in terms of injection and cooling of energetic particles, arguing that these flares could be triggered by magnetic reconnection events or turbulence in the flow.

  12. OBSERVATION OF HEATING BY FLARE-ACCELERATED ELECTRONS IN A SOLAR CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glesener, Lindsay; Bain, Hazel M.; Krucker, Sm; Lin, Robert P.

    2013-12-20

    We report a Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) observation of flare-accelerated electrons in the core of a coronal mass ejection (CME) and examine their role in heating the CME. Previous CME observations have revealed remarkably high thermal energies that can far surpass the CME's kinetic energy. A joint observation by RHESSI and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of a partly occulted flare on 2010 November 3 allows us to test the hypothesis that this excess energy is collisionally deposited by flare-accelerated electrons. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images show an ejection forming the CME core and sheath, with isothermal multifilter analysis revealing temperatures of ?11MK in the core. RHESSI images reveal a large (?100 50 arcsec{sup 2}) hard X-ray (HXR) source matching the location, shape, and evolution of the EUV plasma, indicating that the emerging CME is filled with flare-accelerated electrons. The time derivative of the EUV emission matches the HXR light curve (similar to the Neupert effect observed in soft and HXR time profiles), directly linking the CME temperature increase with the nonthermal electron energy loss, while HXR spectroscopy demonstrates that the nonthermal electrons contain enough energy to heat the CME. This is the most direct observation to date of flare-accelerated electrons heating a CME, emphasizing the close relationship of the two in solar eruptive events.

  13. OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE OF ELECTRON-DRIVEN EVAPORATION IN TWO SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, D.; Ning, Z. J.; Zhang, Q. M.

    2015-11-01

    We have explored the relationship between hard X-ray (HXR) emissions and Doppler velocities caused by the chromospheric evaporation in two X1.6 class solar flares on 2014 September 10 and October 22, respectively. Both events display double ribbons and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph slit is fixed on one of their ribbons from the flare onset. The explosive evaporations are detected in these two flares. The coronal line of Fe xxi 1354.09 Å shows blueshifts, but the chromospheric line of C i 1354.29 Å shows redshifts during the impulsive phase. The chromospheric evaporation tends to appear at the front of the flare ribbon. Both Fe xxi and C i display their Doppler velocities with an “increase-peak-decrease” pattern that is well related to the “rising-maximum-decay” phase of HXR emissions. Such anti-correlation between HXR emissions and Fe xxi Doppler shifts and correlation with C i Doppler shifts indicate the electron-driven evaporation in these two flares.

  14. TEMPORAL EVOLUTION OF MULTIPLE EVAPORATING RIBBON SOURCES IN A SOLAR FLARE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, D. R.; Cauzzi, G.

    2015-07-10

    We present new results from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) showing the dynamic evolution of chromospheric evaporation and condensation in a flare ribbon, with the highest temporal and spatial resolution to date. IRIS observed the entire impulsive phase of the X-class flare SOL2014-09-10T17:45 using a 9.4 s cadence “sit-and-stare” mode. As the ribbon brightened successively at new positions along the slit, a unique impulsive phase evolution was observed for many tens of individual pixels in both coronal and chromospheric lines. Each activation of a new footpoint displays the same initial coronal upflows of up to ∼300 km s{sup −1} and chromospheric downflows up to 40 km s{sup −1}. Although the coronal flows can be delayed by over 1 minute with respect to those in the chromosphere, the temporal evolution of flows is strikingly similar between all pixels and consistent with predictions from hydrodynamic flare models. Given the large sample of independent footpoints, we conclude that each flaring pixel can be considered a prototypical, “elementary” flare kernel.

  15. MAGNETIC NONPOTENTIALITY IN PHOTOSPHERIC ACTIVE REGIONS AS A PREDICTOR OF SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Xiao; Lin Ganghua; Zhang Hongqi; Mao Xinjie

    2013-09-10

    Based on several magnetic nonpotentiality parameters obtained from the vector photospheric active region magnetograms obtained with the Solar Magnetic Field Telescope at the Huairou Solar Observing Station over two solar cycles, a machine learning model has been constructed to predict the occurrence of flares in the corresponding active region within a certain time window. The Support Vector Classifier, a widely used general classifier, is applied to build and test the prediction models. Several classical verification measures are adopted to assess the quality of the predictions. We investigate different flare levels within various time windows, and thus it is possible to estimate the rough classes and erupting times of flares for particular active regions. Several combinations of predictors have been tested in the experiments. The True Skill Statistics are higher than 0.36 in 97% of cases and the Heidke Skill Scores range from 0.23 to 0.48. The predictors derived from longitudinal magnetic fields do perform well, however, they are less sensitive in predicting large flares. Employing the nonpotentiality predictors from vector fields improves the performance of predicting large flares of magnitude {>=}M5.0 and {>=}X1.0.

  16. HARD X-RAY AND MICROWAVE EMISSIONS FROM SOLAR FLARES WITH HARD SPECTRAL INDICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawate, T.; Nishizuka, N.; Oi, A.; Ohyama, M.; Nakajima, H.

    2012-03-10

    We analyze 10 flare events that radiate intense hard X-ray (HXR) emission with significant photons over 300 keV to verify that the electrons that have a common origin of acceleration mechanism and energy power-law distribution with solar flares emit HXRs and microwaves. Most of these events have the following characteristics. HXRs emanate from the footpoints of flare loops, while microwaves emanate from the tops of flare loops. The time profiles of the microwave emission show delays of peak with respect to those of the corresponding HXR emission. The spectral indices of microwave emissions show gradual hardening in all events, while the spectral indices of the corresponding HXR emissions are roughly constant in most of the events, though rather rapid hardening is simultaneously observed in some for both indices during the onset time and the peak time. These characteristics suggest that the microwave emission emanates from the trapped electrons. Then, taking into account the role of the trapping of electrons for the microwave emission, we compare the observed microwave spectra with the model spectra calculated by a gyrosynchrotron code. As a result, we successfully reproduce the eight microwave spectra. From this result, we conclude that the electrons that have a common acceleration and a common energy distribution with solar flares emit both HXR and microwave emissions in the eight events, though microwave emission is contributed to by electrons with much higher energy than HXR emission.

  17. Reactor for removing ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luo, Weifang; Stewart, Kenneth D.

    2009-11-17

    Disclosed is a device for removing trace amounts of ammonia from a stream of gas, particularly hydrogen gas, prepared by a reformation apparatus. The apparatus is used to prevent PEM "poisoning" in a fuel cell receiving the incoming hydrogen stream.

  18. Continuous sulfur removal process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jalan, V.; Ryu, J.

    1994-04-26

    A continuous process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream using a membrane comprising a metal oxide deposited on a porous support is disclosed. 4 figures.

  19. CLUSTERS OF SMALL ERUPTIVE FLARES PRODUCED BY MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN THE SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archontis, V.; Hansteen, V.

    2014-06-10

    We report on the formation of small solar flares produced by patchy magnetic reconnection between interacting magnetic loops. A three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical experiment was performed, where a uniform magnetic flux sheet was injected into a fully developed convective layer. The gradual emergence of the field into the solar atmosphere results in a network of magnetic loops, which interact dynamically forming current layers at their interfaces. The formation and ejection of plasmoids out of the current layers leads to patchy reconnection and the spontaneous formation of several small (size ?1-2 Mm) flares. We find that these flares are short-lived (30 s3 minutes) bursts of energy in the range O(10{sup 25}-10{sup 27}) erg, which is basically the nanoflare-microflare range. Their persistent formation and co-operative action and evolution leads to recurrent emission of fast EUV/X-ray jets and considerable plasma heating in the active corona.

  20. Gamma-ray flares in the Crab Nebula: A case of relativistic reconnection?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cerutti, B.; Werner, G. R. Uzdensky, D. A.; Begelman, M. C.

    2014-05-15

    The Crab Nebula was formed after the collapse of a massive star about a thousand years ago, leaving behind a pulsar that inflates a bubble of ultra-relativistic electron-positron pairs permeated with magnetic field. The observation of brief but bright flares of energetic gamma rays suggests that pairs are accelerated to PeV energies within a few days; such rapid acceleration cannot be driven by shocks. Here, it is argued that the flares may be the smoking gun of magnetic dissipation in the Nebula. Using 2D and 3D particle-in-cell simulations, it is shown that the observations are consistent with relativistic magnetic reconnection, where pairs are subject to strong radiative cooling. The Crab flares may highlight the importance of relativistic magnetic reconnection in astrophysical sources.

  1. Relative astrometry of compact flaring structures in Sgr A* with polarimetric very long baseline interferometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Michael D.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Fish, Vincent L.; Broderick, Avery E.; Wardle, John F. C.; Marrone, Daniel P.

    2014-10-20

    We demonstrate that polarimetric interferometry can be used to extract precise spatial information about compact polarized flares of Sgr A*. We show that, for a faint dynamical component, a single interferometric baseline suffices to determine both its polarization and projected displacement from the quiescent intensity centroid. A second baseline enables two-dimensional reconstruction of the displacement, and additional baselines can self-calibrate using the flare, enhancing synthesis imaging of the quiescent emission. We apply this technique to simulated 1.3 mm wavelength observations of a 'hot spot' embedded in a radiatively inefficient accretion disk around Sgr A*. Our results indicate that, even with current sensitivities, polarimetric interferometry with the Event Horizon Telescope can achieve ∼5 μas relative astrometry of compact flaring structures near Sgr A* on timescales of minutes.

  2. Assessing out-of-band flare effects at the wafer level for EUV lithography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, Simi; Naulleau, Patrick; Kemp, Charles; Denham, Paul; Rekawa, Senajith

    2010-01-25

    To accurately estimate the flare contribution from the out-of-band (OOB), the integration of a DUV source into the SEMATECH Berkeley 0.3-NA Micro-field Exposure tool is proposed, enabling precisely controlled exposures along with the EUV patterning of resists in vacuum. First measurements evaluating the impact of bandwidth selected exposures with a table-top set-up and subsequent EUV patterning show significant impact on line-edge roughness and process performance. We outline a simulation-based method for computing the effective flare from resist sensitive wavelengths as a function of mask pattern types and sizes. This simulation method is benchmarked against measured OOB flare measurements and the results obtained are in agreement.

  3. THE TIDAL DISRUPTION OF GIANT STARS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO THE FLARING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE POPULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacLeod, Morgan; Guillochon, James; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico E-mail: jfg@ucolick.org

    2012-10-01

    Sun-like stars are thought to be regularly disrupted by supermassive black holes (SMBHs) within galactic nuclei. Yet, as stars evolve off the main sequence their vulnerability to tidal disruption increases drastically as they develop a bifurcated structure consisting of a dense core and a tenuous envelope. Here we present the first hydrodynamic simulations of the tidal disruption of giant stars and show that the core has a substantial influence on the star's ability to survive the encounter. Stars with more massive cores retain large fractions of their envelope mass, even in deep encounters. Accretion flares resulting from the disruption of giant stars should last for tens to hundreds of years. Their characteristic signature in transient searches would not be the t {sup -5/3} decay typically associated with tidal disruption events, but a correlated rise over many orders of magnitude in brightness on timescales of months to years. We calculate the relative disruption rates of stars of varying evolutionary stages in typical galactic centers, then use our results to produce Monte Carlo realizations of the expected flaring event populations. We find that the demographics of tidal disruption flares are strongly dependent on both stellar and black hole mass, especially near the limiting SMBH mass scale of {approx}10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }. At this black hole mass, we predict a sharp transition in the SMBH flaring diet beyond which all observable disruptions arise from evolved stars, accompanied by a dramatic cutoff in the overall tidal disruption flaring rate. Black holes less massive than this limiting mass scale will show observable flares from both main-sequence and evolved stars, with giants contributing up to 10% of the event rate. The relative fractions of stars disrupted at different evolutionary states can constrain the properties and distributions of stars in galactic nuclei other than our own.

  4. THE 2014 MARCH 29 X-FLARE: SUBARCSECOND RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF Fe XXI ?1354.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Peter R.; Tian, Hui; Jaeggli, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    The Interface Region Imaging Spectrometer (IRIS) is the first solar instrument to observe ?10 MK plasma at subarcsecond spatial resolution through imaging spectroscopy of the Fe XXI ?1354.1 forbidden line. IRIS observations of the X1 class flare that occurred on 2014 March 29 at 17:48 UT reveal Fe XXI emission from both the flare ribbons and the post-flare loop arcade. Fe XXI appears at all of the chromospheric ribbon sites, although typically with a delay of one raster (75s) and sometimes offset by up to 1''. 100-200 km s{sup 1} blue-shifts are found at the brightest ribbons, suggesting hot plasma upflow into the corona. The Fe XXI ribbon emission is compact with a spatial extent of <2'', and can extend beyond the chromospheric ribbon locations. Examples are found of both decreasing and increasing blue-shift in the direction away from the ribbon locations, and blue-shifts were present for at least sixminutes after the flare peak. The post-flare loop arcade, seen in Atmospheric Imaging Assembly 131 filtergram images that are dominated by Fe XXI, exhibited bright loop-tops with an asymmetric intensity distribution. The sizes of the loop-tops are resolved by IRIS at ?1'', and line widths in the loop-tops are not broader than in the loop-legs suggesting the loop-tops are not sites of enhanced turbulence. Line-of-sight speeds in the loop arcade are typically <10 km s{sup 1}, and mean non-thermal motions fall from 43 km s{sup 1} at the flare peak to 26 km s{sup 1} six minutes later. If the average velocity in the loop arcade is assumed to be at rest, then it implies a new reference wavelength for the Fe XXI line of 1354.106 0.023 .

  5. MAGNETIC ENERGY PARTITION BETWEEN THE CORONAL MASS EJECTION AND FLARE FROM AR 11283

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, L.; Li, Y. P.; Gan, W. Q.; Wiegelmann, T.; Inhester, B.; Su, Y.; Sun, X. D.

    2013-03-01

    On 2011 September 6, an X-class flare and a halo coronal mass ejection (CME) were observed from Earth erupting from the same active region AR 11283. The magnetic energy partition between them has been investigated. SDO/HMI vector magnetograms were used to obtain the coronal magnetic field using the nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation method. The free magnetic energies before and after the flare were calculated to estimate the released energy available to power the flare and the CME. For the flare energetics, thermal and nonthermal energies were derived using the RHESSI and GOES data. To obtain the radiative output, SDO/EVE data in the 0.1-37 nm waveband were utilized. We have reconstructed the three-dimensional (3D) periphery of the CME from the coronagraph images observed by STEREO-A, B, and SOHO. The mass calculations were then based on a more precise Thomson-scattering geometry. The subsequent estimate of the kinetic and potential energies of the CME took advantage of the more accurate mass, and the height and speed in a 3D frame. The released free magnetic energy resulting from the NLFFF model is about 6.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 31} erg, which has a possible upper limit of 1.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 32} erg. The thermal and nonthermal energies are lower than the radiative output of 2.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 31} erg from SDO/EVE for this event. The total radiation covering the whole solar spectrum is probably a few times larger. The sum of the kinetic and potential energy of the CME could go up to 6.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 31} erg. Therefore, the free energy is able to power the flare and the CME in AR 11283. Within the uncertainty, the flare and the CME may consume a similar amount of free energy.

  6. He I D3 OBSERVATIONS OF THE 1984 MAY 22 M6.3 SOLAR FLARE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Chang; Xu Yan; Deng Na; Lee, Jeongwoo; Zhang Jifeng; Wang Haimin; Prasad Choudhary, Debi

    2013-09-01

    The He I D3 line has a unique response to a flare impact on the low solar atmosphere and can be a powerful diagnostic tool for energy transport processes. Using images obtained from the recently digitized films of the Big Bear Solar Observatory, we report D3 observations of the M6.3 flare on 1984 May 22, which occurred in an active region with a circular magnetic polarity inversion line (PIL). The impulsive phase of the flare starts with a main elongated source that darkens in D3, inside of which bright emission kernels appear at the time of the initial small peak in hard X-rays (HXRs). These flare cores subsequently evolve into a sharp emission strand lying within the dark halo; this evolution occurs at the same time as the main peak in HXRs, reversing the overall source contrast from -5% to 5%. The radiated energy in D3 during the main peak is estimated to be about 10{sup 30} erg, which is comparable to that carried by nonthermal electrons above 20 keV. Afterward, the flare proceeds along the circular PIL in the counterclockwise direction to form a dark circular ribbon in D3, which apparently mirrors the bright ribbons in H{alpha} and He I 10830 A. All of these ribbons last for over one hour in the late gradual phase. We suggest that the present event resembles the so-called black-light flare that was proposed based on continuum images, and that D3 darkening and brightening features herein may be due to thermal conduction heating and the direct precipitation of high-energy electrons, respectively.

  7. RHESSI AND TRACE OBSERVATIONS OF MULTIPLE FLARE ACTIVITY IN AR 10656 AND ASSOCIATED FILAMENT ERUPTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshi, Bhuwan; Kushwaha, Upendra; Cho, K.-S.; Veronig, Astrid M.

    2013-07-01

    We present Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) observations of multiple flare activity that occurred in the NOAA active region 10656 over a period of 2 hr on 2004 August 18. Out of four successive flares, three were class C events, and the final event was a major X1.8 solar eruptive flare. The activities during the pre-eruption phase, i.e., before the X1.8 flare, are characterized by three localized episodes of energy release occurring in the vicinity of a filament that produces intense heating along with non-thermal emission. A few minutes before the eruption, the filament undergoes an activation phase during which it slowly rises with a speed of {approx}12 km s{sup -1}. The filament eruption is accompanied by an X1.8 flare, during which multiple hard X-ray (HXR) bursts are observed up to 100-300 keV energies. We observe a bright and elongated coronal structure simultaneously in E(UV) and 50-100 keV HXR images underneath the expanding filament during the period of HXR bursts, which provides strong evidence for ongoing magnetic reconnection. This phase is accompanied by very high plasma temperatures of {approx}31 MK, followed by the detachment of the prominence from the solar source region. From the location, timing, strength, and spectrum of HXR emission, we conclude that the prominence eruption is driven by the distinct events of magnetic reconnection occurring in the current sheet below the erupting prominence. These multi-wavelength observations also suggest that the localized magnetic reconnections associated with different evolutionary stages of the filament in the pre-eruption phase play an important role in destabilizing the active-region filament through the tether-cutting process, leading to large-scale eruption and X-class flare.

  8. Risk Removal | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Risk Removal Workers safely remove old mercury tanks from the Y-12 National Security Complex. Workers safely remove old mercury tanks from the Y-12 National Security Complex. Risk ...

  9. 1 Hz FLARING IN SAX J1808.4-3658: FLOW INSTABILITIES NEAR THE PROPELLER STAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patruno, Alessandro; Watts, Anna; Klein Wolt, Marc; Wijnands, Rudy; Van der Klis, Michiel

    2009-12-20

    We present a simultaneous periodic and aperiodic timing study of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1808.4-3658. We analyze five outbursts of the source and for the first time provide a full and systematic investigation of the enigmatic phenomenon of the 1 Hz flares observed during the final stages of some of the outbursts. We show that links between pulsations and 1 Hz flares might exist, and suggest that they are related with hydrodynamic disk instabilities that are triggered close to the disk-magnetosphere boundary layer when the system is entering the propeller regime.

  10. Arsenic removal from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert C.; Anderson, D. Richard

    2007-07-24

    Methods for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical methods for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A method for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a method for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  11. Drum lid removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pella, Bernard M.; Smith, Philip D.

    2010-08-24

    A tool for removing the lid of a metal drum wherein the lid is clamped over the drum rim without protruding edges, the tool having an elongated handle with a blade carried by an angularly positioned holder affixed to the midsection of the handle, the blade being of selected width to slice between lid lip and the drum rim and, when the blade is so positioned, upward motion of the blade handle will cause the blade to pry the lip from the rim and allow the lid to be removed.

  12. Removable feedwater sparger assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, Roy C. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A removable feedwater sparger assembly includes a sparger having an inlet pipe disposed in flow communication with the outlet end of a supply pipe. A tubular coupling includes an annular band fixedly joined to the sparger inlet pipe and a plurality of fingers extending from the band which are removably joined to a retention flange extending from the supply pipe for maintaining the sparger inlet pipe in flow communication with the supply pipe. The fingers are elastically deflectable for allowing engagement of the sparger inlet pipe with the supply pipe and for disengagement therewith.

  13. Removable feedwater sparger assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, R.C.

    1994-10-04

    A removable feedwater sparger assembly includes a sparger having an inlet pipe disposed in flow communication with the outlet end of a supply pipe. A tubular coupling includes an annular band fixedly joined to the sparger inlet pipe and a plurality of fingers extending from the band which are removably joined to a retention flange extending from the supply pipe for maintaining the sparger inlet pipe in flow communication with the supply pipe. The fingers are elastically deflectable for allowing engagement of the sparger inlet pipe with the supply pipe and for disengagement therewith. 8 figs.

  14. NEW ASPECTS OF A LID-REMOVAL MECHANISM IN THE ONSET OF AN ERUPTION SEQUENCE THAT PRODUCED A LARGE SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE (SEP) EVENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.; Knox, Javon M. E-mail: ron.moore@nasa.gov

    2014-06-20

    We examine a sequence of two ejective eruptions from a single active region on 2012 January 23, using magnetograms and EUV images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory's (SDO) Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and Atmospheric and Imaging Assembly (AIA), and EUV images from STEREO/EUVI. This sequence produced two coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and a strong solar energetic particle event (SEP); here we focus on the magnetic onset of this important space weather episode. Cheng et al. showed that the first eruption's ({sup E}ruption1{sup )} flux rope was apparent only in ''hotter'' AIA channels, and that it removed overlying field that allowed the second eruption ({sup E}ruption2{sup )} to begin via ideal MHD instability; here we say that Eruption2 began via a ''lid removal'' mechanism. We show that during Eruption1's onset, its flux rope underwent a ''tether weakening'' (TW) reconnection with field that arched from the eruption-source active region to an adjacent active region. Standard flare loops from Eruption1 developed over Eruption2's flux rope and enclosed filament, but these overarching new loops were unable to confine that flux rope/filament. Eruption1's flare loops, from both TW reconnection and standard-flare-model internal reconnection, were much cooler than Eruption2's flare loops (GOES thermal temperatures of ?7.5MK and 9MK, compared to ?14MK). The corresponding three sequential GOES flares were, respectively, due to TW reconnection plus earlier phase Eruption1 tether-cutting reconnection, Eruption1 later-phase tether-cutting reconnection, and Eruption2 tether-cutting reconnection.

  15. Condensate removal device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maddox, James W.; Berger, David D.

    1984-01-01

    A condensate removal device is disclosed which incorporates a strainer in unit with an orifice. The strainer is cylindrical with its longitudinal axis transverse to that of the vapor conduit in which it is mounted. The orifice is positioned inside the strainer proximate the end which is remoter from the vapor conduit.

  16. Tennessee Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    5,144 4,851 5,825 5,400 5,294 4,276 1967-2015 From Gas Wells 5,144 4,851 5,825 5,400 5,294 4,276 1967-2015 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2015 Repressuring 0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 Vented and Flared 0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997-2015 Marketed Production 5,144 4,851 5,825 5,400 5,294 4,276 1967-2015 Dry Production 4,638 4,335 5,324 4,912 4,912 3,937

  17. South Dakota Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    12,540 12,449 15,085 16,205 15,305 14,531 1967-2015 From Gas Wells 1,300 933 14,396 15,693 15,006 14,196 1967-2015 From Oil Wells 11,240 11,516 689 512 299 335 1967-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2015 Repressuring 0 0 0 0 NA 0 1967-2015 Vented and Flared 2,136 2,120 0 0 NA 0 1967-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 8,543 8,480 0 0 NA 0 1997-2015 Marketed Production 1,862 1,848 15,085 16,205 15,305 14,531 1970-2015 Dry Production 1,862 1,848

  18. Michigan Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    136,782 143,826 129,333 123,622 115,065 107,634 1967-2015 From Gas Wells 7,345 18,470 17,041 17,502 14,139 12,329 1967-2015 From Oil Wells 9,453 11,620 4,470 4,912 5,560 4,796 1967-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 119,984 113,736 107,822 101,208 95,366 90,509 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002-2015 Repressuring 2,340 2,340 0 0 NA 0 1967-2015 Vented and Flared 3,324 3,324 0 0 NA 0 1967-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996-2015 Marketed Production 131,118 138,162 129,333 123,622

  19. Montana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    93,266 79,506 66,954 63,242 59,160 57,421 1967-2015 From Gas Wells 51,117 37,937 27,518 19,831 17,015 13,571 1967-2015 From Oil Wells 19,292 21,777 20,085 23,152 22,757 23,065 1967-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 12,937 13,101 15,619 18,636 18,910 20,428 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 9,920 6,691 3,731 1,623 478 357 2002-2015 Repressuring 5 4 0 0 NA 0 1967-2015 Vented and Flared 5,722 4,878 0 0 NA 0 1967-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed NA NA 0 0 NA 0 1996-2015 Marketed Production 87,539 74,624 66,954

  20. Nebraska Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2,255 1,980 1,328 1,032 417 477 1967-2015 From Gas Wells 2,092 1,854 1,317 1,027 353 399 1967-2015 From Oil Wells 163 126 11 5 63 78 1967-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2015 Repressuring 0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 Vented and Flared 24 21 0 0 NA 0 1967-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 0 0 0 0 NA 0 2006-2015 Marketed Production 2,231 1,959 1,328 1,032 417 477 1967-2015 Dry Production 2,231 1,959 1,328 1,032 417 477

  1. New York Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    35,813 31,124 26,424 23,458 20,201 17,829 1967-2015 From Gas Wells 35,163 30,495 25,985 23,111 19,808 17,609 1967-2015 From Oil Wells 650 629 439 348 393 220 1967-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2015 Repressuring 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2015 Vented and Flared 0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2015 Marketed Production 35,813 31,124 26,424 23,458 20,201 17,829 1967-2015 Dry Production 35,813 31,124 26,424 23,458 20,201

  2. Ohio Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    78,122 78,858 84,482 166,017 512,371 1,014,848 1967-2015 From Gas Wells 73,459 30,655 65,025 55,583 51,541 46,237 1967-2015 From Oil Wells 4,651 45,663 6,684 10,317 13,022 32,674 1967-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 11 2,540 12,773 100,117 447,809 935,937 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2015 Repressuring 0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 Vented and Flared 0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2015 Marketed Production 78,122 78,858 84,482 166,017 512,371 1,014,848

  3. Louisiana Onshore Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2,148,447 2,969,297 2,882,193 2,289,193 1,907,296 1,731,680 1992-2015 From Gas Wells 848,745 819,264 707,705 710,608 666,337 571,633 1992-2015 From Oil Wells 57,024 61,727 43,936 44,213 43,479 39,240 1992-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 2,130,551 1,199,807 1,120,806 2012-2015 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2015 Repressuring 3,490 4,895 NA 2,829 3,199 4,248 1992-2015 Vented and Flared 4,432 6,153 NA 3,912 4,606 3,748 1992-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed NA NA NA NA NA NA 2003-2015 Marketed

  4. Louisiana State Offshore Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    8-2015 From Gas Wells 63,222 64,448 67,801 70,015 54,080 47,609 1978-2015 From Oil Wells 6,614 6,778 5,443 7,735 7,243 5,508 1978-2015 Repressuring 116 120 NA NA NA NA 1992-2015 Vented and Flared 146 149 NA NA NA NA 1999-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed NA NA NA NA NA NA 2003-2015 Marketed Production 69,574 70,957 73,244 77,750 61,322 53,117 1992-2015 Dry Production 68,145 58,077 48,945 2012

  5. Alabama Onshore Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    39,215 134,305 128,312 120,666 110,232 104,065 1992-2015 From Gas Wells 29,961 32,602 27,009 27,182 24,945 23,925 1992-2015 From Oil Wells 6,195 5,975 10,978 8,794 7,939 8,406 1992-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 2012-2015 From Coalbed Wells 103,060 95,727 90,325 84,690 77,347 71,735 2007-2015 Repressuring 736 531 NA NA NA NA 1992-2015 Vented and Flared 2,085 3,012 NA NA NA NA 1992-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 8,200 13,830 NA NA NA NA 1992-2015 Marketed Production 128,194 116,932 128,312

  6. California Onshore Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    273,136 237,388 214,509 219,386 218,668 217,517 1992-2015 From Gas Wells 71,189 62,083 76,704 73,493 53,520 53,473 1992-2015 From Oil Wells 106,442 80,957 49,951 51,625 57,572 56,081 1992-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 55,344 107,513 107,964 2012-2015 Repressuring 15,767 13,702 NA NA NA NA 1992-2015 Vented and Flared 2,790 2,424 NA NA NA NA 1992-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 3,019 2,624 NA NA NA NA 1992-2015 Marketed Production 251,559 218,638 214,509 219,386 218,668 217,517 1992-2015 Dry

  7. California State Offshore Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    5,554 5,163 5,051 5,470 5,805 5,146 1978-2015 From Gas Wells 71 259 640 413 410 454 1978-2015 From Oil Wells 5,483 4,904 4,411 5,057 5,395 4,692 1978-2015 Repressuring 435 403 NA NA NA NA 1992-2015 Vented and Flared 0 0 NA NA NA NA 2003-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 0 0 NA NA NA NA 2003-2015 Marketed Production 5,120 4,760 5,051 5,470 5,805 5,146 1992-2015 Dry Production 5,051 5,952 5,139

  8. Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    147,255 151,094 146,405 139,382 133,661 127,584 1967-2015 From Gas Wells 23,086 20,375 21,802 26,815 10,143 10,679 1967-2015 From Oil Wells 0 0 9 9 12 8 2006-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 16,433 18,501 17,212 13,016 12,309 11,059 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 107,736 112,219 107,383 99,542 111,197 105,838 2006-2015 Repressuring 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003-2015 Vented and Flared NA NA 0 0 NA 0 1967-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997-2015 Marketed Production 147,255 151,094 146,405 139,382 133,661

  9. Kentucky Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    135,330 124,243 106,122 94,665 93,091 85,775 1967-2015 From Gas Wells 133,521 122,578 106,122 94,665 93,091 85,775 1967-2015 From Oil Wells 1,809 1,665 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2015 Repressuring 0 0 0 0 NA 0 2006-2015 Vented and Flared 0 0 0 0 NA 0 1967-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 0 0 0 0 NA 0 2006-2015 Marketed Production 135,330 124,243 106,122 94,665 93,091 85,775 1967-2015 Dry Production 130,754 119,559 99,551

  10. Missouri Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    NA NA NA 9 3 1 1967-2015 From Gas Wells NA NA NA 8 3 1 1967-2015 From Oil Wells NA NA NA 1 * 0 2007-2015 From Shale Gas Wells NA NA NA 0 0 0 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells NA NA NA 0 0 0 2007-2015 Repressuring NA NA NA 0 0 0 2007-2015 Vented and Flared NA NA NA 0 0 0 2007-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed NA NA NA 0 0 0 2007-2015 Marketed Production NA NA NA 9 3 1 1967-2015 Dry Production NA NA NA 9 3 Feet)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  11. Montana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    93,266 79,506 66,954 63,242 59,160 57,421 1967-2015 From Gas Wells 51,117 37,937 27,518 19,831 17,015 13,571 1967-2015 From Oil Wells 19,292 21,777 20,085 23,152 22,757 23,065 1967-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 12,937 13,101 15,619 18,636 18,910 20,428 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 9,920 6,691 3,731 1,623 478 357 2002-2015 Repressuring 5 4 0 0 NA 0 1967-2015 Vented and Flared 5,722 4,878 0 0 NA 0 1967-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed NA NA 0 0 NA 0 1996-2015 Marketed Production 87,539 74,624 66,954

  12. Nebraska Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    2,255 1,980 1,328 1,032 417 477 1967-2015 From Gas Wells 2,092 1,854 1,317 1,027 353 399 1967-2015 From Oil Wells 163 126 11 5 63 78 1967-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2015 Repressuring 0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 Vented and Flared 24 21 0 0 NA 0 1967-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 0 0 0 0 NA 0 2006-2015 Marketed Production 2,231 1,959 1,328 1,032 417 477 1967-2015 Dry Production 2,231 1,959 1,328 1,032 417 477 Feet)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr

  13. Nevada Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    4 3 4 3 3 3 1991-2015 From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 * 1 2006-2015 From Oil Wells 4 3 4 3 3 3 1991-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2015 Repressuring 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2015 Vented and Flared 0 0 0 0 0 0 1991-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2015 Marketed Production 4 3 4 3 3 3 1991-2015 Dry Production 4 3 4 3 3 3 1991 Feet)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  14. New York Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    35,813 31,124 26,424 23,458 20,201 17,829 1967-2015 From Gas Wells 35,163 30,495 25,985 23,111 19,808 17,609 1967-2015 From Oil Wells 650 629 439 348 393 220 1967-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2015 Repressuring 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2015 Vented and Flared 0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2015 Marketed Production 35,813 31,124 26,424 23,458 20,201 17,829 1967-2015 Dry Production 35,813 31,124 26,424 23,458 20,201

  15. Ohio Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    78,122 78,858 84,482 166,017 512,371 1,014,848 1967-2015 From Gas Wells 73,459 30,655 65,025 55,583 51,541 46,237 1967-2015 From Oil Wells 4,651 45,663 6,684 10,317 13,022 32,674 1967-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 11 2,540 12,773 100,117 447,809 935,937 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2015 Repressuring 0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 Vented and Flared 0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2015 Marketed Production 78,122 78,858 84,482 166,017 512,371 1,014,848

  16. Oklahoma Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    827,328 1,888,870 2,023,461 1,993,754 2,331,086 2,499,599 1967-2015 From Gas Wells 1,140,111 1,281,794 1,394,859 1,210,315 1,402,378 1,573,880 1967-2015 From Oil Wells 210,492 104,703 53,720 71,515 136,270 130,482 1967-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 406,143 449,167 503,329 663,507 746,686 759,519 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 70,581 53,206 71,553 48,417 45,751 35,719 2002-2015 Repressuring 0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 Vented and Flared 0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996-2015

  17. Oregon Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    407 1,344 770 770 1,142 848 1979-2015 From Gas Wells 1,407 1,344 770 770 1,142 848 1979-2015 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002-2015 Repressuring 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994-2015 Vented and Flared 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 0 0 0 0 0 0 1994-2015 Marketed Production 1,407 1,344 770 770 1,142 848 1979-2015 Dry Production 1,407 1,344 770 770 1,142 848 Feet)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep

  18. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    572,902 1,310,592 2,256,696 3,259,042 4,257,693 4,812,983 1967-2015 From Gas Wells 173,450 242,305 210,609 207,872 217,702 293,325 1967-2015 From Oil Wells 0 0 3,456 2,987 3,527 2,629 1967-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 399,452 1,068,288 2,042,632 3,048,182 4,036,463 4,517,028 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2015 Repressuring 0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 Vented and Flared 0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997-2015 Marketed Production 572,902 1,310,592 2,256,696

  19. South Dakota Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    12,540 12,449 15,085 16,205 15,305 14,531 1967-2015 From Gas Wells 1,300 933 14,396 15,693 15,006 14,196 1967-2015 From Oil Wells 11,240 11,516 689 512 299 335 1967-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2015 Repressuring 0 0 0 0 NA 0 1967-2015 Vented and Flared 2,136 2,120 0 0 NA 0 1967-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 8,543 8,480 0 0 NA 0 1997-2015 Marketed Production 1,862 1,848 15,085 16,205 15,305 14,531 1970-2015 Dry Production 1,862 1,848

  20. Texas Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    8-2015 From Gas Wells 27,421 23,791 15,953 13,650 10,902 9,055 1978-2015 From Oil Wells 1,153 0 552 386 298 266 1978-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 2012-2015 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 2012-2015 Repressuring 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003-2015 Vented and Flared 0 0 0 0 NA NA 2003-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 0 0 0 0 NA NA 2003-2015 Marketed Production 28,574 23,791 16,506 14,036 11,200 9,321 1992-2015 Dry Production 16,506 11,222 8,887 2012

    Propane-Air 1981-2005 Refinery Gas 1981-2005 Other

  1. Utah Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    436,885 461,507 490,393 470,863 454,545 423,300 1967-2015 From Gas Wells 328,135 351,168 402,899 383,216 361,474 333,232 1967-2015 From Oil Wells 42,526 49,947 31,440 36,737 45,513 45,781 1967-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 1,333 992 877 676 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 66,223 60,392 54,722 49,918 46,680 43,612 2002-2015 Repressuring 1,187 1,449 0 0 NA 0 1967-2015 Vented and Flared 2,080 1,755 0 0 NA 0 1967-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 1,573 778 0 0 NA 0 1996-2015 Marketed Production 432,045

  2. Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    147,255 151,094 146,405 139,382 133,661 127,584 1967-2015 From Gas Wells 23,086 20,375 21,802 26,815 10,143 10,679 1967-2015 From Oil Wells 0 0 9 9 12 8 2006-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 16,433 18,501 17,212 13,016 12,309 11,059 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 107,736 112,219 107,383 99,542 111,197 105,838 2006-2015 Repressuring 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003-2015 Vented and Flared NA NA 0 0 NA 0 1967-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997-2015 Marketed Production 147,255 151,094 146,405 139,382 133,661

  3. West Virginia Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    265,174 394,125 539,860 741,853 1,067,114 1,318,822 1967-2015 From Gas Wells 151,401 167,113 193,537 167,118 185,005 174,090 1967-2015 From Oil Wells 0 0 1,477 2,660 1,687 2,018 1967-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 113,773 227,012 344,847 572,076 880,422 1,142,714 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2015 Repressuring 0 0 0 0 NA 0 1967-2015 Vented and Flared 0 0 0 0 NA 0 2006-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 0 0 0 0 NA 0 2006-2015 Marketed Production 265,174 394,125 539,860 741,853 1,067,114

  4. Federal Offshore California Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    41,200 36,579 27,262 27,454 14,515 8,397 1977-2015 From Gas Wells 1,757 1,560 14,559 14,296 7,007 3,105 1977-2015 From Oil Wells 39,444 35,020 12,703 13,158 7,508 5,292 1977-2015 Repressuring 11,038 9,800 NA NA NA NA 1992-2015 Vented and Flared NA NA NA 2003-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed NA NA NA 2003-2015 Marketed Production 30,162 26,779 27,262 27,454 14,515 8,397 1992-2015

  5. Alabama Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Alabama

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    39,215 134,305 128,312 120,666 110,232 104,065 1992-2015 From Gas Wells 29,961 32,602 27,009 27,182 24,945 23,925 1992-2015 From Oil Wells 6,195 5,975 10,978 8,794 7,939 8,406 1992-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 2012-2015 From Coalbed Wells 103,060 95,727 90,325 84,690 77,347 71,735 2007-2015 Repressuring 736 531 NA NA NA NA 1992-2015 Vented and Flared 2,085 3,012 NA NA NA NA 1992-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 8,200 13,830 NA NA NA NA 1992-2015 Marketed Production 128,194 116,932 128,312

  6. California Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    319,891 279,130 246,822 252,310 238,988 231,060 1967-2015 From Gas Wells 73,017 63,902 91,904 88,203 60,936 57,031 1967-2015 From Oil Wells 151,369 120,880 67,065 69,839 70,475 66,065 1967-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 95,505 94,349 87,854 94,268 107,577 107,964 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002-2015 Repressuring 27,240 23,905 0 0 NA 0 1967-2015 Vented and Flared 2,790 2,424 0 0 NA 0 1967-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 3,019 2,624 0 0 NA 0 1980-2015 Marketed Production 286,841 250,177

  7. California Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    273,136 237,388 214,509 219,386 218,668 217,517 1992-2015 From Gas Wells 71,189 62,083 76,704 73,493 53,520 53,473 1992-2015 From Oil Wells 106,442 80,957 49,951 51,625 57,572 56,081 1992-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 55,344 107,513 107,964 2012-2015 Repressuring 15,767 13,702 NA NA NA NA 1992-2015 Vented and Flared 2,790 2,424 NA NA NA NA 1992-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 3,019 2,624 NA NA NA NA 1992-2015 Marketed Production 251,559 218,638 214,509 219,386 218,668 217,517 1992-2015 Dry

  8. California Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    5,554 5,163 5,051 5,470 5,805 5,146 1978-2015 From Gas Wells 71 259 640 413 410 454 1978-2015 From Oil Wells 5,483 4,904 4,411 5,057 5,395 4,692 1978-2015 Repressuring 435 403 NA NA NA NA 1992-2015 Vented and Flared 0 0 NA NA NA NA 2003-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 0 0 NA NA NA NA 2003-2015 Marketed Production 5,120 4,760 5,051 5,470 5,805 5,146 1992-2015 Dry Production 5,051 5,952 5,139

    22,503 2,171 0 23 0 0 2007-2015 Import Price 4.76 3.57 -- 3.59 -- -- 2007-2015 Export Volume 43,278

  9. Colorado Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    ,589,664 1,649,306 1,709,376 1,604,860 1,643,487 1,704,836 1967-2015 From Gas Wells 526,077 563,750 1,036,572 801,749 728,978 761,886 1967-2015 From Oil Wells 338,565 359,537 67,466 106,784 178,657 236,009 1967-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 195,131 211,488 228,796 247,046 315,469 308,642 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 529,891 514,531 376,543 449,281 420,383 398,298 2002-2015 Repressuring 10,043 10,439 0 0 NA 0 1967-2015 Vented and Flared 1,242 1,291 0 0 NA 0 1967-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 0 0

  10. Florida Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    3,938 17,129 18,681 18,011 3,178 5,790 1971-2015 From Gas Wells 0 0 17,182 16,459 43 69 1996-2015 From Oil Wells 13,938 17,129 1,500 1,551 3,135 5,720 1971-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002-2015 Repressuring 0 0 17,909 17,718 2,682 5,291 1976-2015 Vented and Flared 0 0 0 0 NA 0 1971-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 1,529 2,004 0 0 NA 0 1980-2015 Marketed Production 12,409 15,125 773 292 496 499 1967-2015 Dry Production 12,409 15,125 773 292 263

  11. Kansas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    325,591 309,952 296,299 292,467 286,480 285,236 1967-2015 From Gas Wells 247,651 236,834 264,610 264,223 261,093 261,877 1967-2015 From Oil Wells 39,071 37,194 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 38,869 35,924 31,689 28,244 25,387 23,359 2002-2015 Repressuring 548 521 0 0 NA 0 1967-2015 Vented and Flared 323 307 0 0 NA 0 1967-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002-2015 Marketed Production 324,720 309,124 296,299 292,467 286,480 285,236

  12. Kentucky Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    135,330 124,243 106,122 94,665 93,091 85,775 1967-2015 From Gas Wells 133,521 122,578 106,122 94,665 93,091 85,775 1967-2015 From Oil Wells 1,809 1,665 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2015 Repressuring 0 0 0 0 NA 0 2006-2015 Vented and Flared 0 0 0 0 NA 0 1967-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 0 0 0 0 NA 0 2006-2015 Marketed Production 135,330 124,243 106,122 94,665 93,091 85,775 1967-2015 Dry Production 130,754 119,559 99,551

  13. Louisiana Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    2,148,447 2,969,297 2,882,193 2,289,193 1,907,296 1,731,680 1992-2015 From Gas Wells 848,745 819,264 707,705 710,608 666,337 571,633 1992-2015 From Oil Wells 57,024 61,727 43,936 44,213 43,479 39,240 1992-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 2,130,551 1,199,807 1,120,806 2012-2015 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2015 Repressuring 3,490 4,895 NA 2,829 3,199 4,248 1992-2015 Vented and Flared 4,432 6,153 NA 3,912 4,606 3,748 1992-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed NA NA NA NA NA NA 2003-2015 Marketed

  14. Louisiana Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    8-2015 From Gas Wells 63,222 64,448 67,801 70,015 54,080 47,609 1978-2015 From Oil Wells 6,614 6,778 5,443 7,735 7,243 5,508 1978-2015 Repressuring 116 120 NA NA NA NA 1992-2015 Vented and Flared 146 149 NA NA NA NA 1999-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed NA NA NA NA NA NA 2003-2015 Marketed Production 69,574 70,957 73,244 77,750 61,322 53,117 1992-2015 Dry Production 68,145 58,077 48,945 2012

    249 435 553 560 517 478 2007-2015 Biomass 249 435 553 560 517 478 201

    90,867 60,554 20,132

  15. Maryland Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    43 34 44 32 20 27 1967-2015 From Gas Wells 43 34 44 32 20 27 1967-2015 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2015 Repressuring 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2015 Vented and Flared 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2015 Marketed Production 43 34 44 32 20 27 1967-2015 Dry Production 43 34 44 32 20 27 Feet)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0

  16. Michigan Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    136,782 143,826 129,333 123,622 115,065 107,634 1967-2015 From Gas Wells 7,345 18,470 17,041 17,502 14,139 12,329 1967-2015 From Oil Wells 9,453 11,620 4,470 4,912 5,560 4,796 1967-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 119,984 113,736 107,822 101,208 95,366 90,509 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002-2015 Repressuring 2,340 2,340 0 0 NA 0 1967-2015 Vented and Flared 3,324 3,324 0 0 NA 0 1967-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996-2015 Marketed Production 131,118 138,162 129,333 123,622

  17. U.S. Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2,823,398 2,682,021 2,778,526 2,634,991 2,705,744 2,739,059 1973-2016 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2016 From Shale Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2016 From Coalbed Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 2002-2016 Repressuring NA NA NA NA NA NA 1973-2016 Vented and Flared NA NA NA NA NA NA 1973-2016 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed NA NA NA NA NA NA 1973-2016 Marketed Production 2,430,818 2,339,556 2,410,513 2,304,300 2,368,566 2,390,961 1973-2016 Dry Production

  18. Word Pro - Untitled1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    1 Table 6.2 Natural Gas Production, Selected Years, 1949-2011 (Billion Cubic Feet) Year Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production Extraction Loss 1 Dry Gas Production Natural Gas Wells Crude Oil Wells Coalbed Wells Shale Gas Wells Total 1949 4,986 2,561 NA NA 7,547 1,273 NA 854 5,420 224 5,195 1950 5,603 2,876 NA NA 8,480 1,397 NA 801 6,282 260 6,022 1955 7,842 3,878 NA NA 11,720 1,541 NA 774 9,405 377 9,029 1960 10,853 4,234 NA

  19. CHARACTERISTIC SIZE OF FLARE KERNELS IN THE VISIBLE AND NEAR-INFRARED CONTINUA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Yan; Jing, Ju; Wang, Haimin; Cao, Wenda

    2012-05-01

    In this Letter, we present a new approach to estimate the formation height of visible and near-infrared emission of an X10 flare. The sizes of flare emission cores in three wavelengths are accurately measured during the peak of the flare. The source size is the largest in the G band at 4308 A and shrinks toward longer wavelengths, namely the green continuum at 5200 A and NIR at 15600 A, where the emission is believed to originate from the deeper atmosphere. This size-wavelength variation is likely explained by the direct heating model as electrons need to move along converging field lines from the corona to the photosphere. Therefore, one can observe the smallest source, which in our case is 0.''65 {+-} 0.''02 in the bottom layer (represented by NIR), and observe relatively larger kernels in upper layers of 1.''03 {+-} 0.''14 and 1.''96 {+-} 0.''27, using the green continuum and G band, respectively. We then compare the source sizes with a simple magnetic geometry to derive the formation height of the white-light sources and magnetic pressure in different layers inside the flare loop.

  20. NO FLARES FROM GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOW BLAST WAVES ENCOUNTERING SUDDEN CIRCUMBURST DENSITY CHANGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gat, Ilana; Van Eerten, Hendrik; MacFadyen, Andrew [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Physics Department, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2013-08-10

    Afterglows of gamma-ray bursts are observed to produce light curves with the flux following power-law evolution in time. However, recent observations reveal bright flares at times on the order of minutes to days. One proposed explanation for these flares is the interaction of a relativistic blast wave with a circumburst density transition. In this paper, we model this type of interaction computationally in one and two dimensions, using a relativistic hydrodynamics code with adaptive mesh refinement called RAM, and analytically in one dimension. We simulate a blast wave traveling in a stellar wind environment that encounters a sudden change in density, followed by a homogeneous medium, and compute the observed radiation using a synchrotron model. We show that flares are not observable for an encounter with a sudden density increase, such as a wind termination shock, nor for an encounter with a sudden density decrease. Furthermore, by extending our analysis to two dimensions, we are able to resolve the spreading, collimation, and edge effects of the blast wave as it encounters the change in circumburst medium. In all cases considered in this paper, we find that a flare will not be observed for any of the density changes studied.

  1. THE 5 GHz ARECIBO SEARCH FOR RADIO FLARES FROM ULTRACOOL DWARFS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Route, Matthew; Wolszczan, Alexander E-mail: alex@astro.psu.edu

    2013-08-10

    We present the results of a 4.75 GHz survey of 33 brown dwarfs and one young exoplanetary system for flaring radio emission, conducted with the 305 m Arecibo radio telescope. The goal of this program was to detect and characterize the magnetic fields of objects cooler than spectral type L3.5, the coolest brown dwarf detected prior to our survey. We have also attempted to detect flaring radio emission from the HR 8799 planetary system, guided by theoretical work indicating that hot, massive exoplanets may have strong magnetic fields capable of generating radio emission at GHz frequencies. We have detected and confirmed radio flares from the T6.5 dwarf 2MASS J10475385+2124234. This detection dramatically extends the temperature range over which brown dwarfs appear to be at least sporadic radio-emitters, from 1900 K (L3.5) down to 900 K (T6.5). It also demonstrates that the utility of radio detection as a unique tool to study the magnetic fields of substellar objects extends to the coolest dwarfs, and, plausibly to hot, massive exoplanets. We have also identified a single, 3.6{sigma} flare from the L1 dwarf, 2MASS J1439284+192915. This detection is tentative and requires confirmation by additional monitoring observations.

  2. SOLAR FLARE PREDICTION USING SDO/HMI VECTOR MAGNETIC FIELD DATA WITH A MACHINE-LEARNING ALGORITHM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bobra, M. G.; Couvidat, S.

    2015-01-10

    We attempt to forecast M- and X-class solar flares using a machine-learning algorithm, called support vector machine (SVM), and four years of data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager, the first instrument to continuously map the full-disk photospheric vector magnetic field from space. Most flare forecasting efforts described in the literature use either line-of-sight magnetograms or a relatively small number of ground-based vector magnetograms. This is the first time a large data set of vector magnetograms has been used to forecast solar flares. We build a catalog of flaring and non-flaring active regions sampled from a database of 2071 active regions, comprised of 1.5 million active region patches of vector magnetic field data, and characterize each active region by 25 parameters. We then train and test the machine-learning algorithm and we estimate its performances using forecast verification metrics with an emphasis on the true skill statistic (TSS). We obtain relatively high TSS scores and overall predictive abilities. We surmise that this is partly due to fine-tuning the SVM for this purpose and also to an advantageous set of features that can only be calculated from vector magnetic field data. We also apply a feature selection algorithm to determine which of our 25 features are useful for discriminating between flaring and non-flaring active regions and conclude that only a handful are needed for good predictive abilities.

  3. IMPULSIVE ACCELERATION OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS. II. RELATION TO SOFT X-RAY FLARES AND FILAMENT ERUPTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bein, B. M.; Berkebile-Stoiser, S.; Veronig, A. M.; Temmer, M.; Vrsnak, B.

    2012-08-10

    Using high time cadence images from the STEREO EUVI, COR1, and COR2 instruments, we derived detailed kinematics of the main acceleration stage for a sample of 95 coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in comparison with associated flares and filament eruptions. We found that CMEs associated with flares reveal on average significantly higher peak accelerations and lower acceleration phase durations, initiation heights, and heights, at which they reach their peak velocities and peak accelerations. This means that CMEs that are associated with flares are characterized by higher and more impulsive accelerations and originate from lower in the corona where the magnetic field is stronger. For CMEs that are associated with filament eruptions we found only for the CME peak acceleration significantly lower values than for events that were not associated with filament eruptions. The flare rise time was found to be positively correlated with the CME acceleration duration and negatively correlated with the CME peak acceleration. For the majority of the events the CME acceleration starts before the flare onset (for 75% of the events) and the CME acceleration ends after the soft X-ray (SXR) peak time (for 77% of the events). In {approx}60% of the events, the time difference between the peak time of the flare SXR flux derivative and the peak time of the CME acceleration is smaller than {+-}5 minutes, which hints at a feedback relationship between the CME acceleration and the energy release in the associated flare due to magnetic reconnection.

  4. On the origin of a sunquake during the 2014 March 29 X1 flare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judge, Philip G.; Kleint, Lucia; Donea, Alina; Dalda, Alberto Sainz; Fletcher, Lyndsay E-mail: lucia.kleint@fhnw.ch E-mail: asdalda@stanford.edu

    2014-12-01

    Helioseismic data from the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager instrument have revealed a sunquake associated with the X1 flare SOL2014-03-29T17:48 in active region NOAA 12017. We try to discover if acoustic-like impulses or actions of the Lorentz force caused the sunquake. We analyze spectropolarimetric data obtained with the Facility Infrared Spectrometer (FIRS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST). Fortunately, the FIRS slit crossed the flare kernel close to the acoustic source during the impulsive phase. The infrared FIRS data remain unsaturated throughout the flare. Stokes profiles of lines of Si I 1082.7 nm and He I 1083.0 nm are analyzed. At the flare footpoint, the Si I 1082.7 nm core intensity increases by a factor of several, and the IR continuum increases by 4% ± 1%. Remarkably, the Si I core resembles the classical Ca II K line's self-reversed profile. With nLTE radiative models of H, C, Si, and Fe, these properties set the penetration depth of flare heating to 100 ± 100 km (i.e., photospheric layers). Estimates of the non-magnetic energy flux are at least a factor of two less than the sunquake energy flux. Milne-Eddington inversions of the Si I line show that the local magnetic energy changes are also too small to drive the acoustic pulse. Our work raises several questions. Have we missed the signature of downward energy propagation? Is it intermittent in time and/or non-local? Does the 1-2 s photospheric radiative damping time discount compressive modes?.

  5. A CIRCULAR-RIBBON SOLAR FLARE FOLLOWING AN ASYMMETRIC FILAMENT ERUPTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Chang; Deng, Na; Lee, Jeongwoo; Wang, Haimin; Liu, Rui; Pariat, Étienne; Wiegelmann, Thomas; Liu, Yang; Kleint, Lucia

    2015-10-20

    The dynamic properties of flare ribbons and the often associated filament eruptions can provide crucial information on the flaring coronal magnetic field. This Letter analyzes the GOES-class X1.0 flare on 2014 March 29 (SOL2014-03-29T17:48), in which we found an asymmetric eruption of a sigmoidal filament and an ensuing circular flare ribbon. Initially both EUV images and a preflare nonlinear force-free field model show that the filament is embedded in magnetic fields with a fan-spine-like structure. In the first phase, which is defined by a weak but still increasing X-ray emission, the western portion of the sigmoidal filament arches upward and then remains quasi-static for about five minutes. The western fan-like and the outer spine-like fields display an ascending motion, and several associated ribbons begin to brighten. Also found is a bright EUV flow that streams down along the eastern fan-like field. In the second phase that includes the main peak of hard X-ray (HXR) emission, the filament erupts, leaving behind two major HXR sources formed around its central dip portion and a circular ribbon brightened sequentially. The expanding western fan-like field interacts intensively with the outer spine-like field, as clearly seen in running difference EUV images. We discuss these observations in favor of a scenario where the asymmetric eruption of the sigmoidal filament is initiated due to an MHD instability and further facilitated by reconnection at a quasi-null in corona; the latter is in turn enhanced by the filament eruption and subsequently produces the circular flare ribbon.

  6. HYDROGEN BALMER CONTINUUM IN SOLAR FLARES DETECTED BY THE INTERFACE REGION IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH (IRIS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinzel, P.; Kleint, L.

    2014-10-20

    We present a novel observation of the white light flare (WLF) continuum, which was significantly enhanced during the X1 flare on 2014 March 29 (SOL2014-03-29T17:48). Data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) in its near-UV channel show that at the peak of the continuum enhancement, the contrast at the quasi-continuum window above 2813 Å reached 100%-200% and can be even larger closer to Mg II lines. This is fully consistent with the hydrogen recombination Balmer-continuum emission, which follows an impulsive thermal and non-thermal ionization caused by the precipitation of electron beams through the chromosphere. However, a less probable photospheric continuum enhancement cannot be excluded. The light curves of the Balmer continuum have an impulsive character with a gradual fading, similar to those detected recently in the optical region on the Solar Optical Telescope on board Hinode. This observation represents a first Balmer-continuum detection from space far beyond the Balmer limit (3646 Å), eliminating seeing effects known to complicate the WLF detection. Moreover, we use a spectral window so far unexplored for flare studies, which provides the potential to study the Balmer continuum, as well as many metallic lines appearing in emission during flares. Combined with future ground-based observations of the continuum near the Balmer limit, we will be able to disentangle various scenarios of the WLF origin. IRIS observations also provide a critical quantitative measure of the energy radiated in the Balmer continuum, which constrains various models of the energy transport and deposit during flares.

  7. THE MECHANISMS FOR THE ONSET AND EXPLOSIVE ERUPTION OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AND ERUPTIVE FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karpen, J. T.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.

    2012-11-20

    We have investigated the onset and acceleration of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and eruptive flares. To isolate the eruption physics, our study uses the breakout model, which is insensitive to the energy buildup process leading to the eruption. We performed 2.5D simulations with adaptive mesh refinement that achieved the highest overall spatial resolution to date in a CME/eruptive flare simulation. The ultra-high resolution allows us to separate clearly the timing of the various phases of the eruption. Using new computational tools, we have determined the number and evolution of all X- and O-type nulls in the system, thereby tracking both the progress and the products of reconnection throughout the computational domain. Our results show definitively that CME onset is due to the start of fast reconnection at the breakout current sheet. Once this reconnection begins, eruption is inevitable; if this is the only reconnection in the system, however, the eruption will be slow. The explosive CME acceleration is triggered by fast reconnection at the flare current sheet. Our results indicate that the explosive eruption is caused by a resistive instability, not an ideal process. Moreover, both breakout and flare reconnections begin first as a form of weak tearing characterized by slowly evolving plasmoids, but eventually transition to a fast form with well-defined Alfvenic reconnection jets and rapid flux transfer. This transition to fast reconnection is required for both CME onset and explosive acceleration. We discuss the key implications of our results for CME/flare observations and for theories of magnetic reconnection.

  8. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neuhaus, J.E.

    1992-10-13

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw. 3 figs.

  9. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neuhaus, John E.

    1992-01-01

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw.

  10. KKG Group Paraffin Removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schulte, Ralph

    2001-12-01

    The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) has recently completed a test of a paraffin removal system developed by the KKG Group utilizing the technology of two Russian scientists, Gennady Katzyn and Boris Koggi. The system consisting of chemical ''sticks'' that generate heat in-situ to melt the paraffin deposits in oilfield tubing. The melted paraffin is then brought to the surface utilizing the naturally flowing energy of the well.

  11. Facilities removal working group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-03-01

    This working group`s first objective is to identify major economic, technical, and regulatory constraints on operator practices and decisions relevant to offshore facilities removal. Then, the group will try to make recommendations as to regulatory and policy adjustments, additional research, or process improvements and/or technological advances, that may be needed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the removal process. The working group will focus primarily on issues dealing with Gulf of Mexico platform abandonments. In order to make the working group sessions as productive as possible, the Facilities Removal Working Group will focus on three topics that address a majority of the concerns and/or constraints relevant to facilities removal. The three areas are: (1) Explosive Severing and its Impact on Marine Life, (2) Pile and Conductor Severing, and (3) Deep Water Abandonments This paper will outline the current state of practice in the offshore industry, identifying current regulations and specific issues encountered when addressing each of the three main topics above. The intent of the paper is to highlight potential issues for panel discussion, not to provide a detailed review of all data relevant to the topic. Before each panel discussion, key speakers will review data and information to facilitate development and discussion of the main issues of each topic. Please refer to the attached agenda for the workshop format, key speakers, presentation topics, and panel participants. The goal of the panel discussions is to identify key issues for each of the three topics above. The working group will also make recommendations on how to proceed on these key issues.

  12. TIME-RESOLVED PROPERTIES AND GLOBAL TRENDS IN dMe FLARES FROM SIMULTANEOUS PHOTOMETRY AND SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalski, Adam F.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Davenport, James R. A.; Wisniewski, John P.; Osten, Rachel A.; Hilton, Eric J.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Schmidt, Sarah J.

    2013-07-15

    We present a homogeneous analysis of line and continuum emission from simultaneous high-cadence spectra and photometry covering near-ultraviolet and optical wavelengths for 20 M dwarf flares. These data were obtained to study the white-light continuum components at bluer and redder wavelengths than the Balmer jump. Our goals were to break the degeneracy between emission mechanisms that have been fit to broadband colors of flares and to provide constraints for radiative-hydrodynamic (RHD) flare models that seek to reproduce the white-light flare emission. The main results from the analysis are the following: (1) the detection of Balmer continuum (in emission) that is present during all flares and with a wide range of relative contributions to the continuum flux at bluer wavelengths than the Balmer jump; (2) a blue continuum at flare maximum that is linearly decreasing with wavelength from {lambda} = 4000-4800 A, indicative of hot, blackbody emission with typical temperatures of T{sub BB} {approx} 9000-14, 000 K; (3) a redder continuum apparent at wavelengths longer than H{beta} ({lambda} {approx}> 4900 A) which becomes relatively more important to the energy budget during the late gradual phase. The hot blackbody component and redder continuum component have been detected in previous studies of flares. However, we have found that although the hot blackbody emission component is relatively well-represented by a featureless, single-temperature Planck function, this component includes absorption features and has a continuum shape strikingly similar to the spectrum of an A-type star as directly observed in our flare spectra. New model constraints are presented for the time evolution among the hydrogen Balmer lines and between Ca II K and the blackbody continuum emission. We calculate Balmer jump flux ratios and compare to the solar-type flare heating predictions from RHD models. The model ratios are too large and the blue-optical ({lambda} = 4000-4800 A) slopes are too

  13. Electrochemically assisted paint removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, R.; Hydock, D.M.; Burleigh, T.D.

    1995-12-31

    A method to remove paint coatings from metal and other electronically conductive substrates is being studied. In particular, the remediation of objects coated with lead based paints is the focus of research. The approach also works very well with automotive coatings and may be competitive with sandblasting. To achieve debonding of the coating, the deteriorated or artifically damaged surface of the object is cathodically polarized. The object can be immersed in a benign aqueous electrolyte for treatment, or the electrolyte can be retained in an absorbent pad covering the surface to be treated.

  14. Mercury removal sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2016-03-29

    Sorbents and methods of using them for removing mercury from flue gases over a wide range of temperatures are disclosed. Sorbent materials of this invention comprise oxy- or hydroxyl-halogen (chlorides and bromides) of manganese, copper and calcium as the active phase for Hg.sup.0 oxidation, and are dispersed on a high surface porous supports. In addition to the powder activated carbons (PACs), this support material can be comprised of commercial ceramic supports such as silica (SiO.sub.2), alumina (Al.sub.2O.sub.3), zeolites and clays. The support material may also comprise of oxides of various metals such as iron, manganese, and calcium. The non-carbon sorbents of the invention can be easily injected into the flue gas and recovered in the Particulate Control Device (PCD) along with the fly ash without altering the properties of the by-product fly ash enabling its use as a cement additive. Sorbent materials of this invention effectively remove both elemental and oxidized forms of mercury from flue gases and can be used at elevated temperatures. The sorbent combines an oxidation catalyst and a sorbent in the same particle to both oxidize the mercury and then immobilize it.

  15. SUDDEN PHOTOSPHERIC MOTION AND SUNSPOT ROTATION ASSOCIATED WITH THE X2.2 FLARE ON 2011 FEBRUARY 15

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Shuo; Liu, Chang; Deng, Na; Wang, Haimin

    2014-02-20

    The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager provides 45 s cadence intensity images and 720 s cadence vector magnetograms. These unprecedented high-cadence and high-resolution data give us a unique opportunity to study the change of photospheric flows and sunspot rotations associated with flares. By using the differential affine velocity estimator method and the Fourier local correlation tracking method separately, we calculate velocity and vorticity of photospheric flows in the flaring NOAA AR 11158, and investigate their temporal evolution around the X2.2 flare on 2011 February 15. It is found that the shear flow around the flaring magnetic polarity inversion line exhibits a sudden decrease, and both of the two main sunspots undergo a sudden change in rotational motion during the impulsive phase of the flare. These results are discussed in the context of the Lorentz-force change that was proposed by Hudson et al. and Fisher et al. This mechanism can explain the connections between the rapid and irreversible photospheric vector magnetic field change and the observed short-term motions associated with the flare. In particular, the torque provided by the horizontal Lorentz force change agrees with what is required for the measured angular acceleration.

  16. Measurements of solar flare enhancements to the single event upset environment in the upper atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dyer, C.S.; Sims, A.J. ); Farren, J.; Stephen, J. )

    1990-12-01

    The Cosmic Radiation Environment Monitor has flown regularly on a supersonic airliner over a period of eighteen months in order to explore the extent of single-event phenomena in the upper atomsphere. Quiet-time data now have good statistical precision and are compared with predictions of environment models. A number of increases and decreases were observed during the solar flare events of September and October 1989.

  17. Energetic electron propagation in the decay phase of non-thermal flare emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jing; Yan, Yihua; Tsap, Yuri T.

    2014-06-01

    On the basis of the trap-plus-precipitation model, the peculiarities of non-thermal emission in the decay phase of solar flares have been considered. The calculation formulas for the escape rate of trapped electrons into the loss cone in terms of time profiles of hard X-ray (HXR) and microwave (MW) emission have been obtained. It has been found that the evolution of the spectral indices of non-thermal emission depend on the regimes of the pitch angle diffusion of trapped particles into the loss cone. The properties of non-thermal electrons related to the HXR and MW emission of the solar flare on 2004 November 3 are studied with Nobeyama Radioheliograph, Nobeyama Radio Polarimeters, RHESSI, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite observations. The spectral indices of non-thermal electrons related to MW and HXR emission remained constant or decreased, while the MW escape rate as distinguished from that of the HXRs increased. This may be associated with different diffusion regimes of trapped electrons into the loss cone. New arguments in favor of an important role of the superstrong diffusion for high-energy electrons in flare coronal loops have been obtained.

  18. IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF MAGNETIC RECONNECTION AND CHROMOSPHERIC EVAPORATION IN A SOLAR FLARE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Hui; Reeves, Katharine K.; Raymond, John C.; Chen, Bin; Murphy, Nicholas A.; Li, Gang; Guo, Fan; Liu, Wei

    2014-12-20

    Magnetic reconnection is believed to be the dominant energy release mechanism in solar flares. The standard flare model predicts both downward and upward outflow plasmas with speeds close to the coronal Alfvén speed. Yet, spectroscopic observations of such outflows, especially the downflows, are extremely rare. With observations of the newly launched Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), we report the detection of a greatly redshifted (∼125 km s{sup –1} along the line of sight) Fe XXI 1354.08 Å emission line with a ∼100 km s{sup –1} nonthermal width at the reconnection site of a flare. The redshifted Fe XXI feature coincides spatially with the loop-top X-ray source observed by RHESSI. We interpret this large redshift as the signature of downward-moving reconnection outflow/hot retracting loops. Imaging observations from both IRIS and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory also reveal the eruption and reconnection processes. Fast downward-propagating blobs along these loops are also found from cool emission lines (e.g., Si IV, O IV, C II, Mg II) and images of AIA and IRIS. Furthermore, the entire Fe XXI line is blueshifted by ∼260 km s{sup –1} at the loop footpoints, where the cool lines mentioned above all exhibit obvious redshift, a result that is consistent with the scenario of chromospheric evaporation induced by downward-propagating nonthermal electrons from the reconnection site.

  19. An Experiment to Locate the Site of TeV Flaring in M87

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, D.E.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Massaro, F.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Cheung, C.C.; /Natl. Acad. Sci. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Horns, D.; Raue, M.; /Hamburg U.; Stawarz, L.; /JAXA, Sagamihara /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Wagner, S.; /Heidelberg Observ.; Colin, P.; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Mazin, D.; /Barcelona, IFAE; Wagner, R.; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Beilicke, M.; /McDonnell Ctr. Space Sci.; LeBohec, S.; Hui, M.; /Utah U.; Mukherjee, R.; /Barnard Coll.

    2012-05-18

    We describe a Chandra X-ray target-of-opportunity project designed to isolate the site of TeV flaring in the radio galaxy M87. To date, we have triggered the Chandra observations only once (2010 April) and by the time of the first of our nine observations, the TeV flare had ended. However, we found that the X-ray intensity of the unresolved nucleus was at an elevated level for our first observation. Of the more than 60 Chandra observations we have made of the M87 jet covering nine years, the nucleus was measured at a comparably high level only three times. Two of these occasions can be associated with TeV flaring, and at the time of the third event, there were no TeV monitoring activities. From the rapidity of the intensity drop of the nucleus, we infer that the size of the emitting region is of order a few light days x the unknown beaming factor; comparable to the same sort of estimate for the TeV emitting region. We also find evidence of spectral evolution in the X-ray band which seems consistent with radiative losses affecting the non-thermal population of the emitting electrons within the unresolved nucleus.

  20. MODELING OF GYROSYNCHROTRON RADIO EMISSION PULSATIONS PRODUCED BY MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC LOOP OSCILLATIONS IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mossessian, George; Fleishman, Gregory D.

    2012-04-01

    A quantitative study of the observable radio signatures of the sausage, kink, and torsional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) oscillation modes in flaring coronal loops is performed. Considering first non-zero order effect of these various MHD oscillation modes on the radio source parameters such as magnetic field, line of sight, plasma density and temperature, electron distribution function, and the source dimensions, we compute time-dependent radio emission (spectra and light curves). The radio light curves (of both flux density and degree of polarization) at all considered radio frequencies are then quantified in both time domain (via computation of the full modulation amplitude as a function of frequency) and in Fourier domain (oscillation spectra, phases, and partial modulation amplitude) to form the signatures specific to a particular oscillation mode and/or source parameter regime. We found that the parameter regime and the involved MHD mode can indeed be distinguished using the quantitative measures derived in the modeling. We apply the developed approach to analyze radio burst recorded by Owens Valley Solar Array and report possible detection of the sausage mode oscillation in one (partly occulted) flare and kink or torsional oscillations in another flare.

  1. A simple model of chromospheric evaporation and condensation driven conductively in a solar flare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longcope, D. W.

    2014-11-01

    Magnetic energy released in the corona by solar flares reaches the chromosphere where it drives characteristic upflows and downflows known as evaporation and condensation. These flows are studied here for the case where energy is transported to the chromosphere by thermal conduction. An analytic model is used to develop relations by which the density and velocity of each flow can be predicted from coronal parameters including the flare's energy flux F. These relations are explored and refined using a series of numerical investigations in which the transition region (TR) is represented by a simplified density jump. The maximum evaporation velocity, for example, is well approximated by v{sub e} ? 0.38(F/?{sub co,} {sub 0}){sup 1/3}, where ?{sub co,} {sub 0} is the mass density of the pre-flare corona. This and the other relations are found to fit simulations using more realistic models of the TR both performed in this work, and taken from a variety of previously published investigations. These relations offer a novel and efficient means of simulating coronal reconnection without neglecting entirely the effects of evaporation.

  2. MAGNETAR GIANT FLARES AND THEIR PRECURSORS-FLUX ROPE ERUPTIONS WITH CURRENT SHEETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu Cong

    2013-07-10

    We propose a catastrophic magnetospheric model for magnetar precursors and their successive giant flares. Axisymmetric models of the magnetosphere, which contain both a helically twisted flux rope and a current sheet, are established based on force-free field configurations. In this model, the helically twisted flux rope would lose its equilibrium and erupt abruptly in response to the slow and quasi-static variations at the ultra-strongly magnetized neutron star's surface. In a previous model without current sheets, only one critical point exists in the flux rope equilibrium curve. New features show up in the equilibrium curves for the flux rope when current sheets appear in the magnetosphere. The causal connection between the precursor and the giant flare, as well as the temporary re-entry of the quiescent state between the precursor and the giant flare, can be naturally explained. Magnetic energy would be released during the catastrophic state transitions. The detailed energetics of the model are also discussed. The current sheet created by the catastrophic loss of equilibrium of the flux rope provides an ideal place for magnetic reconnection. We point out the importance of magnetic reconnection for further enhancement of the energy release during eruptions.

  3. Rubber stopper remover

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stitt, Robert R.

    1994-01-01

    A device for removing a rubber stopper from a test tube is mountable to an upright wall, has a generally horizontal splash guard, and a lower plate spaced parallel to and below the splash guard. A slot in the lower plate has spaced-apart opposing edges that converge towards each other from the plate outer edge to a narrowed portion, the opposing edges shaped to make engagement between the bottom of the stopper flange and the top edge of the test tube to wedge therebetween and to grasp the stopper in the slot narrowed portion to hold the stopper as the test tube is manipulated downwardly and pulled from the stopper. The opposing edges extend inwardly to adjoin an opening having a diameter significantly larger than that of the stopper flange.

  4. ON THE FLARE-INDUCED SEISMICITY IN THE ACTIVE REGION NOAA 10930 AND RELATED ENHANCEMENT OF GLOBAL WAVES IN THE SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Brajesh; Venkatakrishnan, P.; Mathur, Savita; Tiwari, Sanjiv Kumar; Garcia, R. A. E-mail: pvk@prl.res.in E-mail: tiwari@mps.mpg.de

    2011-12-10

    A major flare (of class X3.4) occurred on 2006 December 13 in the active region NOAA 10930. This flare event has remained interesting to solar researchers for studies related to particle acceleration during the flare process and the reconfiguration of magnetic fields as well as fine-scale features in the active region. The energy released during flares is also known to induce acoustic oscillations in the Sun. Here, we analyze the line-of-sight velocity patterns in this active region during the X3.4 flare using the Dopplergrams obtained by the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) instrument. We have also analyzed the disk-integrated velocity observations of the Sun obtained by the Global Oscillation at Low Frequency (GOLF) instrument on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft as well as full-disk collapsed velocity signals from GONG observations during this flare to study any possible connection between the flare-related changes seen in the local and global velocity oscillations in the Sun. We apply wavelet transform to the time series of the localized velocity oscillations as well as the global velocity oscillations in the Sun spanning the flare event. The line-of-sight velocity shows significant enhancement in some localized regions of the penumbra of this active region during the flare. The affected region is seen to be away from the locations of the flare ribbons and the hard X-ray footpoints. The sudden enhancement of this velocity seems to be caused by the Lorentz force driven by the 'magnetic jerk' in the localized penumbral region. Application of wavelet analysis to these flare-induced localized seismic signals shows significant enhancement in the high-frequency domain (5 <{nu} < 8 mHz) and a feeble enhancement in the p-mode oscillations (2 <{nu} < 5 mHz) during the flare. On the other hand, the wavelet analysis of GOLF velocity data and the full-disk collapsed GONG velocity data spanning the flare event indicates significant post-flare

  5. Photosphere emission in the X-ray flares of swift gamma-ray bursts and implications for the fireball properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Fang-Kun; Liang, En-Wei; Xi, Shao-Qiang; Lu, Rui-Jing; Zhang, Bing [Guangxi Key Laboratory for Relativistic Astrophysics, the Department of Physics, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Wang, Xiang-Yu [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Hou, Shu-Jin [Institute of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Normal College, Nanyang 473061 (China); Zhang, Jin, E-mail: lew@gxu.edu.cn, E-mail: xywang@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2014-11-10

    X-ray flares of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are usually observed in the soft X-ray range and the spectral coverage is limited. In this paper, we present an analysis of 32 GRB X-ray flares that are simultaneously observed by both Burst Alert Telescope and X-Ray Telescope on board the Swift mission, so that a joint spectral analysis with a wider spectral coverage is possible. Our results show that the joint spectra of 19 flares are fitted with the absorbed single power law or the Band function models. More interestingly, the joint spectra of the other 13 X-ray flares are fitted with the absorbed single power-law model plus a blackbody component. Phenomenally, the observed spectra of these 13 flares are analogous to several GRBs with a thermal component, but only with a much lower temperature of kT = 1 ? 3 keV. Assuming that the thermal emission is the photosphere emission of the GRB fireball, we derive the fireball properties of the 13 flares that have redshift measurements, such as the bulk Lorentz factor ?{sub ph} of the outflow. The derived ?{sub ph} range from 50 to 150 and a relation of ?{sub ph} to the thermal emission luminosity is found. It is consistent with the ?{sub 0} L {sub iso} relations that are derived for the prompt gamma-ray emission. We discuss the physical implications of these results within the content of jet composition and the radiation mechanism of GRBs and X-ray flares.

  6. Removing Arsenic from Drinking Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-01

    See how INL scientists are using nanotechnology to remove arsenic from drinking water. For more INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  7. Protection #1: Remove the Source

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Remove the Source Protection #1: Remove the Source The 3 Protections = Defense in Depth August 1, 2013 Waste being removed from MDA-B inside a metal building Excavation of waste from MDA-B thumbnail of Removing the source means excavating contaminants, sorting these by waste type, and transporting to a disposal area in which contaminants are contained. RELATED IMAGES http://farm8.staticflickr.com/7388/9571274521_679fe1e34a_t.jpg Enlarge http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3726/9571272211_6873a5717

  8. Removing Arsenic from Drinking Water

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2016-07-12

    See how INL scientists are using nanotechnology to remove arsenic from drinking water. For more INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  9. Removal to Maximum Extent Practical

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Summary Notes from 1 November 2007 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Removal of Highly Radioactive Radionuclides/Key Radionuclides to the Maximum Extent Practical

  10. PRODUCTION OF {sup 9}Be THROUGH THE {alpha}-FUSION REACTION OF METAL-POOR COSMIC RAYS AND STELLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusakabe, Motohiko; Kawasaki, Masahiro E-mail: kawasaki@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2013-04-10

    Spectroscopic observations of metal-poor stars have indicated possible {sup 6}Li abundances that are much larger than the primordial abundance predicted in the standard big bang nucleosynthesis model. Possible mechanisms of {sup 6}Li production in metal-poor stars include pregalactic and cosmological cosmic-ray (CR) nucleosynthesis and nucleosynthesis by flare-accelerated nuclides. We study {sup 9}Be production via two-step {alpha}-fusion reactions of CR or flare-accelerated {sup 3,4}He through {sup 6}He and {sup 6,7}Li, in pregalactic structure, intergalactic medium, and stellar surfaces. We solve transfer equations of CR or flare particles and calculate nuclear yields of {sup 6}He, {sup 6,7}Li, and {sup 9}Be taking account of probabilities of processing {sup 6}He and {sup 6,7}Li into {sup 9}Be via fusions with {alpha} particles. Yield ratios, i.e., {sup 9}Be/{sup 6}Li, are then calculated for the CR and flare nucleosynthesis models. We suggest that the future observations of {sup 9}Be in metal-poor stars may find enhanced abundances originating from metal-poor CR or flare activities.

  11. removal | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    removal US, Kazakhstan Cooperate to Eliminate Highly Enriched Uranium WASHINGTON D.C - The Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) announced today the removal of 36 kilograms (approximately 80 pounds) of highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent fuel from the Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) in Almaty, Kazakhstan. The HEU was

  12. A flare observed in coronal, transition region, and helium I 10830 Å emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Zhicheng; Cao, Wenda; Qiu, Jiong; Judge, Philip G.

    2014-10-01

    On 2012 June 17, we observed the evolution of a C-class flare associated with the eruption of a filament near a large sunspot in the active region NOAA 11504. We obtained high spatial resolution filtergrams using the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory in broadband TiO at 706 nm (bandpass: 10 Å) and He I 10830 Å narrow band (bandpass: 0.5 Å, centered 0.25 Å to the blue). We analyze the spatio-temporal behavior of the He I 10830 Å data, which were obtained over a 90''×90'' field of view with a cadence of 10 s. We also analyze simultaneous data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory spacecraft, and data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager and GOES spacecrafts. Non-thermal effects are ignored in this analysis. Several quantitative aspects of the data, as well as models derived using the '0D' enthalpy-based thermal evolution of loops model code, indicate that the triplet states of the 10830 Å multiplet are populated by photoionization of chromospheric plasma followed by radiative recombination. Surprisingly, the He II 304 Å line is reasonably well matched by standard emission measure calculations, along with the C IV emission which dominates the Atmosphere Imaging Assembly 1600 Å channel during flares. This work lends support to some of our previous work combining X-ray, EUV, and UV data of flares to build models of energy transport from corona to chromosphere.

  13. On the nature of the extreme-ultraviolet late phase of solar flares

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Y.; Ding, M. D.; Guo, Y.; Dai, Y.

    2014-10-01

    The extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) late phase of solar flares is a second peak of warm coronal emissions (e.g., Fe XVI) for many minutes to a few hours after the GOES soft X-ray peak. It was first observed by the EUV Variability Experiment on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The late-phase emission originates from a second set of longer loops (late-phase loops) that are higher than the main flaring loops. It is suggested to be caused by either additional heating or long-lasting cooling. In this paper, we study the role of long-lasting cooling and additional heating in producing the EUV late phase using the enthalpy based thermal evolution of loops model. We find that a long cooling process in late-phase loops can well explain the presence of the EUV late-phase emission, but we cannot exclude the possibility of additional heating in the decay phase. Moreover, we provide two preliminary methods based on the UV and EUV emissions from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board SDO to determine whether or not additional heating plays a role in the late-phase emission. Using nonlinear force-free field modeling, we study the magnetic configuration of the EUV late phase. It is found that the late phase can be generated either in hot spine field lines associated with a magnetic null point or in large-scale magnetic loops of multipolar magnetic fields. In this paper, we also discuss why the EUV late phase is usually observed in warm coronal emissions and why the majority of flares do not exhibit an EUV late phase.

  14. THREE-DIMENSIONAL RADIO AND X-RAY MODELING AND DATA ANALYSIS SOFTWARE: REVEALING FLARE COMPLEXITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nita, Gelu M.; Fleishman, Gregory D.; Gary, Dale E.; Kuznetsov, Alexey A.; Kontar, Eduard P.

    2015-02-01

    Many problems in solar physics require analysis of imaging data obtained in multiple wavelength domains with differing spatial resolution in a framework supplied by advanced three-dimensional (3D) physical models. To facilitate this goal, we have undertaken a major enhancement of our IDL-based simulation tools developed earlier for modeling microwave and X-ray emission. The enhanced software architecture allows the user to (1) import photospheric magnetic field maps and perform magnetic field extrapolations to generate 3D magnetic field models; (2) investigate the magnetic topology by interactively creating field lines and associated flux tubes; (3) populate the flux tubes with user-defined nonuniform thermal plasma and anisotropic, nonuniform, nonthermal electron distributions; (4) investigate the spatial and spectral properties of radio and X-ray emission calculated from the model; and (5) compare the model-derived images and spectra with observational data. The package integrates shared-object libraries containing fast gyrosynchrotron emission codes, IDL-based soft and hard X-ray codes, and potential and linear force-free field extrapolation routines. The package accepts user-defined radiation and magnetic field extrapolation plug-ins. We use this tool to analyze a relatively simple single-loop flare and use the model to constrain the magnetic 3D structure and spatial distribution of the fast electrons inside this loop. We iteratively compute multi-frequency microwave and multi-energy X-ray images from realistic magnetic flux tubes obtained from pre-flare extrapolations, and compare them with imaging data obtained by SDO, NoRH, and RHESSI. We use this event to illustrate the tool's use for the general interpretation of solar flares to address disparate problems in solar physics.

  15. OFF-SITE RADIOLOGICAL SAFETY PROGRAM FOR PROJECT RULISON FLARING, PHASE I11

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    RADIOLOGICAL SAFETY PROGRAM FOR PROJECT RULISON FLARING, PHASE I11 F i.EMSL-LV-539-8 c by Monitoring Operations D i v i s i o n Environmental M o n i t o r i n g and Support Laboratory U. S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Las Vegas, Nevada Published November 1976 T h i s s u r v e i 1 lance performed under a Memorandum o f Understanding No. AT( 26-1 )-539 f o r t h e U. S. ENERGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION , I 1 DISCLAIMER T h i s report was prepared a s a n account of work

  16. Plasma dynamics above solar flare soft x-ray loop tops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doschek, G. A.; Warren, H. P.; McKenzie, D. E.

    2014-06-10

    We measure non-thermal motions in flare loop tops and above the loop tops using profiles of highly ionized spectral lines of Fe XXIV and Fe XXIII formed at multimillion-degree temperatures. Non-thermal motions that may be due to turbulence or multiple flow regions along the line of sight are extracted from the line profiles. The non-thermal motions are measured for four flares seen at or close to the solar limb. The profile data are obtained using the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on the Hinode spacecraft. The multimillion-degree non-thermal motions are between 20 and 60 km s{sup 1} and appear to increase with height above the loop tops. Motions determined from coronal lines (i.e., lines formed at about 1.5 MK) tend to be smaller. The multimillion-degree temperatures in the loop tops and above range from about 11 MK to 15 MK and also tend to increase with height above the bright X-ray-emitting loop tops. The non-thermal motions measured along the line of sight, as well as their apparent increase with height, are supported by Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly measurements of turbulent velocities in the plane of the sky.

  17. THE EFFECTS OF WAVE ESCAPE ON FAST MAGNETOSONIC WAVE TURBULENCE IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pongkitiwanichakul, Peera; Chandran, Benjamin D. G.; Karpen, Judith T.; DeVore, C. Richard E-mail: benjamin.chandran@unh.edu E-mail: devore@nrl.navy.mil

    2012-09-20

    One of the leading models for electron acceleration in solar flares is stochastic acceleration by weakly turbulent fast magnetosonic waves ({sup f}ast waves{sup )}. In this model, large-scale flows triggered by magnetic reconnection excite large-wavelength fast waves, and fast-wave energy then cascades from large wavelengths to small wavelengths. Electron acceleration by large-wavelength fast waves is weak, and so the model relies on the small-wavelength waves produced by the turbulent cascade. In order for the model to work, the energy cascade time for large-wavelength fast waves must be shorter than the time required for the waves to propagate out of the solar-flare acceleration region. To investigate the effects of wave escape, we solve the wave kinetic equation for fast waves in weak turbulence theory, supplemented with a homogeneous wave-loss term. We find that the amplitude of large-wavelength fast waves must exceed a minimum threshold in order for a significant fraction of the wave energy to cascade to small wavelengths before the waves leave the acceleration region. We evaluate this threshold as a function of the dominant wavelength of the fast waves that are initially excited by reconnection outflows.

  18. PROPAGATION OF ALFVENIC WAVES FROM CORONA TO CHROMOSPHERE AND CONSEQUENCES FOR SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, A. J. B.; Fletcher, L.

    2013-03-10

    How do magnetohydrodynamic waves travel from the fully ionized corona, into and through the underlying partially ionized chromosphere, and what are the consequences for solar flares? To address these questions, we have developed a two-fluid model (of plasma and neutrals) and used it to perform one-dimensional simulations of Alfven waves in a solar atmosphere with realistic density and temperature structure. Studies of a range of solar features (faculae, plage, penumbra, and umbra) show that energy transmission from corona to chromosphere can exceed 20% of incident energy for wave periods of 1 s or less. Damping of waves in the chromosphere depends strongly on wave frequency: waves with periods 10 s or longer pass through the chromosphere with relatively little damping, however, for periods of 1 s or less, a substantial fraction (37%-100%) of wave energy entering the chromosphere is damped by ion-neutral friction in the mid- and upper chromosphere, with electron resistivity playing some role in the lower chromosphere and in umbras. We therefore conclude that Alfvenic waves with periods of a few seconds or less are capable of heating the chromosphere during solar flares, and speculate that they could also contribute to electron acceleration or exciting sunquakes.

  19. Magnetic structure and nonthermal electrons in the X6.9 flare on 2011 August 9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwangbo, Jung-Eun; Lee, Dae-Young; Lee, Jeongwoo; Park, Sung-Hong; Kim, Sujin; Bong, Su-Chan; Kim, Yeon-Han; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Park, Young-Deuk

    2014-12-01

    The 2011 August 9 flare is one of the largest X-ray flares of sunspot cycle 24, but spatial information is rather limited due to its position close to the western limb. This paper presents information about the location of high-energy electrons derived from hard X-ray and microwave spectra obtained with the Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and the Korean Solar Radio Burst Locator (KSRBL), respectively. The KSRBL microwave spectrum shows significant fluxes at low frequencies, implying that the high-energy electrons reside in a coronal volume highly concentrated at strong magnetic fields, and rapidly expanding with decreasing magnetic fields. After a simple modeling of the microwave spectrum, we found that the microwave source should be located above the inner pair of magnetic poles in a large quadrupolar configuration. The time-dependent evolution of the magnetic field distribution and total nonthermal energy derived from the microwave spectra is also consistent with the standard picture of multiple magnetic reconnections recurring at a magnetic null point that forms above the magnetic quadrupoles and moves up with time.

  20. SPECTRAL EVOLUTION OF THE 2010 SEPTEMBER GAMMA-RAY FLARE FROM THE CRAB NEBULA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vittorini, V.; Tavani, M.; Donnarumma, I.; Trois, A.; Del Monte, E.; Evangelista, Y.; Lazzarotto, F.; Pacciani, L.; Striani, E.; Caraveo, P.; Giuliani, A.; Mereghetti, S.; Ferrari, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Bulgarelli, A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Pilia, M.

    2011-05-10

    Strong gamma-ray flares from the Crab Nebula have been recently discovered by AGILE and confirmed by Fermi-LAT. We study here the spectral evolution in the gamma-ray energy range above 50 MeV of the 2010 September flare that was simultaneously detected by AGILE and Fermi-LAT. We revisit the AGILE spectral data and present an emission model based on rapid (within 1 day) acceleration followed by synchrotron cooling. We show that this model successfully explains both the published AGILE and Fermi-LAT spectral data showing a rapid rise and a decay within 2 and 3 days. Our analysis constrains the acceleration timescale and mechanism, the properties of the particle distribution function, and the local magnetic field. The combination of very rapid acceleration, emission well above 100 MeV, and the spectral evolution consistent with synchrotron cooling contradicts the idealized scenario predicting an exponential cutoff at photon energies above 100 MeV. We also consider a variation of our model based on even shorter acceleration and decay timescales, which can be consistent with the published averaged properties.

  1. Recovery Act: ArcelorMittal USA Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seaman, John

    2013-01-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) to ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. (ArcelorMittal) for a project to construct and operate a blast furnace gas recovery boiler and supporting infrastructure at ArcelorMittal’s Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. Blast furnace gas (BFG) is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when iron ore is reduced with coke to create metallic iron. BFG has a very low heating value, about 1/10th the heating value of natural gas. BFG is commonly used as a boiler fuel; however, before installation of the gas recovery boiler, ArcelorMittal flared 22 percent of the blast furnace gas produced at the No. 7 Blast Furnace at Indiana Harbor. The project uses the previously flared BFG to power a new high efficiency boiler which produces 350,000 pounds of steam per hour. The steam produced is used to drive existing turbines to generate electricity and for other requirements at the facility. The goals of the project included job creation and preservation, reduced energy consumption, reduced energy costs, environmental improvement, and sustainability.

  2. Section 46: Removal of Waste

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    CRA Compliance Recertification Application DOE U.S. Department of Energy EPA U.S. ... 40 CFR 194.46, "Removal of Waste" (U.S. EPA 1996a), is one of the six assurance ...

  3. Gas Cleaning and Siloxane Removal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    - H2O, H2S, Siloxanes, VOCs, CO2, N2 and O2 - Production of gas for Pipeline, CNG and LNG - Siloxasorb Siloxane removal systems * Experience - 60 projects total - 19 for Digester ...

  4. Article removal device for glovebox

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guyer, R.H.; Leebl, R.G.

    1973-12-01

    An article removal device for a glovebox is described comprising a conduit extending through a glovebox wall which may be closed by a plug within the glovebox, and a fire-resistant container closing the outer end of the conduit and housing a removable container for receiving pyrophoric or otherwise hazardous material without disturbing the interior environment of the glovebox or adversely affecting the environment outside of the glovebox. (Official Gazette)

  5. Ion Removal - Energy Innovation Portal

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Ion Removal Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary INL's ion removal technology leverages the ability of phosphazene polymers discriminate between water and metal ions, which allows water to pass through the membrane while retaining the ions. Description The inherent chemical and thermal stability of the phosphazene polymers are an added strengths for separating and

  6. MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF A SLOW-RISE, MULTISTEP X1.6 FLARE AND THE ASSOCIATED ERUPTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yurchyshyn, V.; Kumar, P.; Cho, K.-S.; Lim, E.-K.; Abramenko, V. I.

    2015-10-20

    Using multiwavelength observations, we studied a slow-rise, multistep X1.6 flare that began on 2014 November 7 as a localized eruption of core fields inside a δ-sunspot and later engulfed the entire active region (AR). This flare event was associated with formation of two systems of post-eruption arcades (PEAs) and several J-shaped flare ribbons showing extremely fine details, irreversible changes in the photospheric magnetic fields, and it was accompanied by a fast and wide coronal mass ejection. Data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory and IRIS spacecraft, along with the ground-based data from the New Solar Telescope, present evidence that (i) the flare and the eruption were directly triggered by a flux emergence that occurred inside a δ-sunspot at the boundary between two umbrae; (ii) this event represented an example of the formation of an unstable flux rope observed only in hot AIA channels (131 and 94 Å) and LASCO C2 coronagraph images; (iii) the global PEA spanned the entire AR and was due to global-scale reconnection occurring at heights of about one solar radius, indicating the global spatial and temporal scale of the eruption.

  7. Multi-wavelength study of flaring activity in BL Lac object S5 0716+714 during the 2015 outburst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandra, Sunil; Zhang, Haocheng; Kushwaha, Pankaj; Singh, K. P.; Bottcher, M.; Kaur, Navpreet; Baliyan, K. S.

    2015-08-17

    We present a detailed investigation of the flaring activity observed from a BL Lac object, S5 0716+714 , during its brightest ever optical state in the second half of 2015 January. Observed almost simultaneously in the optical, X-rays, and γ-rays, a significant change in the degree of optical polarization (PD) and a swing in the position angle (PA) of polarization were recorded. A TeV (VHE) detection was also reported by the MAGIC consortium during this flaring episode. Two prominent sub-flares, peaking about five days apart, were seen in almost all of the energy bands. The multi-wavelength light curves, spectral energy distribution, and polarization are modeled using the time-dependent code developed by Zhang et al. This model assumes a straight jet threaded by large-scale helical magnetic fields taking into account the light travel time effects, incorporating synchrotron flux and polarization in 3D geometry. Furthermore, the rapid variation in PD and rotation in PA are most likely due to reconnections happening in the emission region in the jet, as suggested by the change in the ratio of toroidal to poloidal components of the magnetic field during the quiescent and flaring states.

  8. Multi-wavelength study of flaring activity in BL Lac object S5 0716+714 during the 2015 outburst

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Chandra, Sunil; Zhang, Haocheng; Kushwaha, Pankaj; Singh, K. P.; Bottcher, M.; Kaur, Navpreet; Baliyan, K. S.

    2015-08-17

    We present a detailed investigation of the flaring activity observed from a BL Lac object, S5 0716+714 , during its brightest ever optical state in the second half of 2015 January. Observed almost simultaneously in the optical, X-rays, and γ-rays, a significant change in the degree of optical polarization (PD) and a swing in the position angle (PA) of polarization were recorded. A TeV (VHE) detection was also reported by the MAGIC consortium during this flaring episode. Two prominent sub-flares, peaking about five days apart, were seen in almost all of the energy bands. The multi-wavelength light curves, spectral energymore » distribution, and polarization are modeled using the time-dependent code developed by Zhang et al. This model assumes a straight jet threaded by large-scale helical magnetic fields taking into account the light travel time effects, incorporating synchrotron flux and polarization in 3D geometry. Furthermore, the rapid variation in PD and rotation in PA are most likely due to reconnections happening in the emission region in the jet, as suggested by the change in the ratio of toroidal to poloidal components of the magnetic field during the quiescent and flaring states.« less

  9. High removal rate laser-based coating removal system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matthews, Dennis L.; Celliers, Peter M.; Hackel, Lloyd; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Dane, C. Brent; Mrowka, Stanley

    1999-11-16

    A compact laser system that removes surface coatings (such as paint, dirt, etc.) at a removal rate as high as 1000 ft.sup.2 /hr or more without damaging the surface. A high repetition rate laser with multiple amplification passes propagating through at least one optical amplifier is used, along with a delivery system consisting of a telescoping and articulating tube which also contains an evacuation system for simultaneously sweeping up the debris produced in the process. The amplified beam can be converted to an output beam by passively switching the polarization of at least one amplified beam. The system also has a personal safety system which protects against accidental exposures.

  10. Removal - An alternative to clearance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feinhals, J.; Kelch, A.; Kunze, V.

    2007-07-01

    This presentation shows the differences between the application of clearance and removal, both being procedures for materials leaving radiation protection areas permanently. The differentiation will be done on the basis of the German legislation but may be also applicable for other national legislation. For clearance in Germany two basic requirements must be given, i.e. that the materials are activated or contaminated and that they result from the licensed use or can be assigned to the scope of the license. Clearance needs not to be applied to objects in Germany which are to be removed only temporarily from controlled areas with the purpose of repair or reuse in other controlled areas. In these cases only the requirements of contamination control apply. In the case of removal it must either be proved by measurements that the relevant materials are neither activated nor contaminated or that the materials result from areas where activation or contamination is impossible due to the operational history considering operational procedures and events. If the material is considered neither activated nor contaminated there is no need for a clearance procedure. Therefore, these materials can be removed from radiation protection areas and the removal is in the responsibility of the licensee. Nevertheless, the removal procedure and the measuring techniques to be applied for the different types of materials need an agreement from the competent authority. In Germany a maximum value of 10% of the clearance values has been established in different licenses as a criterion for the application of removal. As approximately 2/3 of the total mass of a nuclear power plant is not expected to be contaminated or activated there is a need for such a procedure of removal for this non contaminated material without any regulatory control especially in the case of decommissioning. A remarkable example is NPP Stade where in the last three years more than 8600 Mg were disposed of by removal and

  11. Large Component Removal/Disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheeler, D. M.

    2002-02-27

    This paper describes the removal and disposal of the large components from Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant. The large components discussed include the three steam generators, pressurizer, and reactor pressure vessel. Two separate Exemption Requests, which included radiological characterizations, shielding evaluations, structural evaluations and transportation plans, were prepared and issued to the DOT for approval to ship these components; the first was for the three steam generators and one pressurizer, the second was for the reactor pressure vessel. Both Exemption Requests were submitted to the DOT in November 1999. The DOT approved the Exemption Requests in May and July of 2000, respectively. The steam generators and pressurizer have been removed from Maine Yankee and shipped to the processing facility. They were removed from Maine Yankee's Containment Building, loaded onto specially designed skid assemblies, transported onto two separate barges, tied down to the barges, th en shipped 2750 miles to Memphis, Tennessee for processing. The Reactor Pressure Vessel Removal Project is currently under way and scheduled to be completed by Fall of 2002. The planning, preparation and removal of these large components has required extensive efforts in planning and implementation on the part of all parties involved.

  12. Incidence and Predictive Factors of Pain Flare After Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: Secondary Analysis of Phase 1/2 Trials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Hubert Y.; Allen, Pamela K.; Wang, Xin S.; Chang, Eric L.; Rhines, Laurence D.; Tatsui, Claudio E.; Amini, Behrang; Wang, Xin A.; Tannir, Nizar M.; Brown, Paul D.; Ghia, Amol J.

    2014-11-15

    Purpose/Objective(s): To perform a secondary analysis of institutional prospective spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) trials to investigate posttreatment acute pain flare. Methods and Materials: Medical records for enrolled patients were reviewed. Study protocol included baseline and follow-up surveys with pain assessment by Brief Pain Inventory and documentation of pain medications. Patients were considered evaluable for pain flare if clinical note or follow-up survey was completed within 2 weeks of SBRT. Pain flare was defined as a clinical note indicating increased pain at the treated site or survey showing a 2-point increase in worst pain score, a 25% increase in analgesic intake, or the initiation of steroids. Binary logistic regression was used to determine predictive factors for pain flare occurrence. Results: Of the 210 enrolled patients, 195 (93%) were evaluable for pain flare, including 172 (88%) clinically, 135 (69%) by survey, and 112 (57%) by both methods. Of evaluable patients, 61 (31%) had undergone prior surgery, 57 (29%) had received prior radiation, and 34 (17%) took steroids during treatment, mostly for prior conditions. Pain flare was observed in 44 patients (23%). Median time to pain flare was 5 days (range, 0-20 days) after the start of treatment. On multivariate analysis, the only independent factor associated with pain flare was the number of treatment fractions (odds ratio = 0.66, P=.004). Age, sex, performance status, spine location, number of treated vertebrae, prior radiation, prior surgery, primary tumor histology, baseline pain score, and steroid use were not significant. Conclusions: Acute pain flare after spine SBRT is a relatively common event, for which patients should be counseled. Additional study is needed to determine whether prophylactic or symptomatic intervention is preferred.

  13. FIRST DETECTION OF >100 MeV GAMMA-RAYS ASSOCIATED WITH A BEHIND-THE-LIMB SOLAR FLARE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesce-Rollins, M.; Omodei, N.; Petrosian, V.; Liu, Wei; Costa, Fatima Rubio da; Allafort, A.; Chen, Qingrong E-mail: nicola.omodei@stanford.edu

    2015-06-01

    We report the first detection of >100 MeV gamma-rays associated with a behind-the-limb solar flare, which presents a unique opportunity to probe the underlying physics of high-energy flare emission and particle acceleration. On 2013 October 11 a GOES M1.5 class solar flare occurred ∼9.°9 behind the solar limb as observed by STEREO-B. RHESSI observed hard X-ray (HXR) emission above the limb, most likely from the flare loop-top, as the footpoints were occulted. Surprisingly, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) detected >100 MeV gamma-rays for ∼30 minutes with energies up to 3 GeV. The LAT emission centroid is consistent with the RHESSI HXR source, but its uncertainty does not constrain the source to be located there. The gamma-ray spectra can be adequately described by bremsstrahlung radiation from relativistic electrons having a relatively hard power-law (PL) spectrum with a high-energy exponential cutoff, or by the decay of pions produced by accelerated protons and ions with an isotropic pitch-angle distribution and a PL spectrum with a number index of ∼3.8. We show that high optical depths rule out the gamma-rays originating from the flare site and a high-corona trap model requires very unusual conditions, so a scenario in which some of the particles accelerated by the CME shock travel to the visible side of the Sun to produce the observed gamma-rays may be at work.

  14. Magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the x2.2 solar flare on 2011 February 15. I. Comparison with the observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inoue, S.; Magara, T.; Choe, G. S.; Hayashi, K.; Park, Y. D.

    2014-06-20

    We performed a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation using a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) in solar active region 11158 to clarify the dynamics of an X2.2-class solar flare. We found that the NLFFF never shows the dramatic dynamics seen in observations, i.e., it is in a stable state against the perturbations. On the other hand, the MHD simulation shows that when the strongly twisted lines are formed at close to the neutral line, which are produced via tether-cutting reconnection in the twisted lines of the NLFFF, they consequently erupt away from the solar surface via the complicated reconnection. This result supports the argument that the strongly twisted lines formed in NLFFF via tether-cutting reconnection are responsible for breaking the force balance condition of the magnetic fields in the lower solar corona. In addition to this, the dynamical evolution of these field lines reveals that at the initial stage the spatial pattern of the footpoints caused by the reconnection of the twisted lines appropriately maps the distribution of the observed two-ribbon flares. Interestingly, after the flare, the reconnected field lines convert into a structure like the post-flare loops, which is analogous to the extreme ultraviolet image taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Eventually, we found that the twisted lines exceed a critical height at which the flux tube becomes unstable to the torus instability. These results illustrate the reliability of our simulation and also provide an important relationship between flare and coronal mass ejection dynamics.

  15. Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector (Patent) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector Title: Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module, a deflector, ...

  16. Protection #2: Trap and Remove Sediment

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Trap and Remove Sediment Protection 2: Trap and Remove Sediment The 3 Protections Defense in Depth August 1, 2013 Sediment behind LA Canyon weir is sampled and excavated...

  17. Heavy Water Test Reactor Dome Removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-01

    A high speed look at the removal of the Heavy Water Test Reactor Dome Removal. A project sponsored by the Recovery Act on the Savannah River Site.

  18. Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector (Patent) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector A photovoltaic (PV) module ...

  19. Actinide removal from spent salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Peter C.; von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A method for removing actinide contaminants (uranium and thorium) from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents are added to precipitate the thorium as thorium oxide and/or the uranium as either uranium oxide or as a diuranate salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as radioactive waste. About 90% of the thorium and/or uranium present is removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 0.1 ppm of thorium or uranium.

  20. Metals removal from spent salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Peter C.; Von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Brummond, William A.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing metal contaminants from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents may be added to precipitate the metal oxide and/or the metal as either metal oxide, metal hydroxide, or as a salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as waste or can be immobilized as ceramic pellets. More than about 90% of the metals and mineral residues (ashes) present are removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be spray-dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 1.0 ppm of contaminants.

  1. Laser-based coatings removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.A.

    1995-10-01

    Over the years as building and equipment surfaces became contaminated with low levels of uranium or plutonium dust, coats of paint were applied to stabilize the contaminants in place. Most of the earlier paint used was lead-based paint. More recently, various non-lead-based paints, such as two-part epoxy, are used. For D&D (decontamination and decommissioning), it is desirable to remove the paints or other coatings rather than having to tear down and dispose of the entire building. This report describes the use of pulse-repetetion laser systems for the removal of paints and coatings.

  2. LPG recovery from refinery flare by waste heat powered absorption refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erickson, D.C.; Kelly, F.

    1998-07-01

    A waste heat powered ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Unit (ARU) has commenced operation at the Colorado Refining Company in Commerce City, Colorado. The ARU provides 85 tons of refrigeration at 30 F to refrigerate the net gas/treat gas stream, thereby recovering 65,000 barrels per year of LPG which formerly was flared or burned as fuel. The ARU is powered by the 290 F waste heat content of the reform reactor effluent. An additional 180 tons of refrigeration is available at the ARU to debottleneck the FCC plant wet gas compressors by cooling their inlet vapor. The ARU is directly integrated into the refinery processes, and uses enhanced, highly compact heat and mass exchange components. The refinery's investment will pay back in less than two years from increased recovery of salable product, and CO{sub 2} emissions are decreased by 10,000 tons per year in the Denver area.

  3. SIMULATION OF DESCENDING MULTIPLE SUPRA-ARCADE RECONNECTION OUTFLOWS IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cecere, M.; Schneiter, M.; Costa, A.; Elaskar, S.; Maglione, S.

    2012-11-10

    After recent Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations by Savage, McKenzie, and Reeves, we revisit the scenario proposed by us in previous papers. We have shown that sunward, generally dark plasma features that originated above posteruption flare arcades are consistent with a scenario where plasma voids (which we identify as supra-arcade reconnection outflows, SAROs) generate the bouncing and interfering of shocks and expansion waves upstream of an initial localized deposition of energy that is collimated in the magnetic field direction. In this paper, we analyze the multiple production and interaction of SAROs and their individual structures that make them relatively stable features while moving. We compare our results with observations and with the scenarios proposed by other authors.

  4. ON THE CAUSE OF SUPRA-ARCADE DOWNFLOWS IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassak, P. A.; Shepherd, L. S.; Drake, J. F.; Gosling, J. T.; Phan, T.-D.; Shay, M. A. E-mail: lshephe1@mix.wvu.edu E-mail: Jack.Gosling@lasp.colorado.edu E-mail: shay@udel.edu

    2013-09-20

    A model of supra-arcade downflows (SADs), dark low density regions also known as tadpoles that propagate sunward during solar flares, is presented. It is argued that the regions of low density are flow channels carved by sunward-directed outflow jets from reconnection. The solar corona is stratified, so the flare site is populated by a lower density plasma than that in the underlying arcade. As the jets penetrate the arcade, they carve out regions of depleted plasma density which appear as SADs. The present interpretation differs from previous models in that reconnection is localized in space but not in time. Reconnection is continuous in time to explain why SADs are not filled in from behind as they would if they were caused by isolated descending flux tubes or the wakes behind them due to temporally bursty reconnection. Reconnection is localized in space because outflow jets in standard two-dimensional reconnection models expand in the normal (inflow) direction with distance from the reconnection site, which would not produce thin SADs as seen in observations. On the contrary, outflow jets in spatially localized three-dimensional reconnection with an out-of-plane (guide) magnetic field expand primarily in the out-of-plane direction and remain collimated in the normal direction, which is consistent with observed SADs being thin. Two-dimensional proof-of-principle simulations of reconnection with an out-of-plane (guide) magnetic field confirm the creation of SAD-like depletion regions and the necessity of density stratification. Three-dimensional simulations confirm that localized reconnection remains collimated.

  5. removal

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    80 pounds) of highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent fuel from the Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) in Almaty, Kazakhstan. The HEU was transported via two air shipments to a...

  6. Massive Hanford Test Reactor Removed - Plutonium Recycle Test...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Massive Hanford Test Reactor Removed - Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor removed from Hanford's 300 Area Massive Hanford Test Reactor Removed - Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor removed ...

  7. Part 3: Removal Action | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    3: Removal Action Part 3: Removal Action Question: When may removal actions be initiated? Answer: Removal actions may be initiated when DOE determines that the action will prevent, minimize, stabilize, or eliminate a risk to health or the environment. The NCP specifies that the determination that a risk to health or the environment is appropriate for removal action should be based on: actual or potential exposure of humans, animals, or the food chain the presence of contained hazardous

  8. Industrial lead paint removal specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, R.C.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to inform the reader as to some of the pertinent rules and regulations promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) that may effect an industrial lead paint removal project. The paper discusses a recommended schedule of procedures and preparations to be followed by the lead paint removal specification writer when analyzing the possible impact of the project on the environment, the public and workers. Implications of the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) along with hazardous waste handling, manifesting, transporting and disposal procedures are discussed with special emphasis placed as to their impact on the writer and the facility owner. As the rules and regulations are highly complex, the writer has attempted to explain the methodology currently being used in state-of-the-art industrial lead abatement specifications.

  9. PROCESS FOR REMOVING ALUMINUM COATINGS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flox, J.

    1959-07-01

    A process is presented for removing aluminum jackets or cans from uranium slugs. This is accomplished by immersing the aluminum coated uranium slugs in an aqueous solution of 9 to 20% sodium hydroxide and 35 to 12% sodium nitrate to selectively dissolve the aluminum coating, the amount of solution being such as to obtain a molar ratio of sodium hydroxide to aluminum of at least

  10. A SEARCH FOR ENHANCED VERY HIGH ENERGY GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE 2013 MARCH CRAB NEBULA FLARE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M.; Archambault, S.; Aune, T.; Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M.; Berger, K.; Bird, R.; Bouvier, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Feng, Q.; Dumm, J.; Falcone, A.; Federici, S. E-mail: gtrichards@gatech.edu; and others

    2014-01-20

    In 2013 March, a flaring episode from the Crab Nebula lasting ?2 weeks was detected by Fermi-LAT (Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope). The Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) provides simultaneous observations throughout this period. During the flare, Fermi-LAT detected a 20 fold increase in flux above the average synchrotron flux >100MeV seen from the Crab Nebula. Simultaneous measurements with VERITAS are consistent with the non-variable long-term average Crab Nebula flux at TeV energies. Assuming a linear correlation between the very high energy flux change >1TeV and the flux change seen in the Fermi-LAT band >100MeV during the period of simultaneous observations, the linear correlation factor can be constrained to be at most 8.6 10{sup 3} with 95% confidence.

  11. NEUTRINO-COOLED ACCRETION MODEL WITH MAGNETIC COUPLING FOR X-RAY FLARES IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo Yang; Gu Weimin; Liu Tong; Lu Jufu, E-mail: guwm@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2013-08-20

    The neutrino-cooled accretion disk, which was proposed to work as the central engine of gamma-ray bursts, encounters difficulty in interpreting the X-ray flares after the prompt gamma-ray emission. In this paper, the magnetic coupling (MC) between the inner disk and the central black hole (BH) is taken into consideration. For mass accretion rates around 0.001 {approx} 0.1 M{sub Sun} s{sup -1}, our results show that the luminosity of neutrino annihilation can be significantly enhanced due to the coupling effects. As a consequence, after the gamma-ray emission, a remnant disk with mass M{sub disk} {approx}< 0.5 M{sub Sun} may power most of the observed X-ray flares with the rest frame duration less than 100 s. In addition, a comparison between the MC process and the Blandford-Znajek mechanism is shown on the extraction of BH rotational energy.

  12. UNDERSTANDING THE IMPACT OF RETURN-CURRENT LOSSES ON THE X-RAY EMISSION FROM SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holman, Gordon D., E-mail: Gordon.D.Holman@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-01-20

    I obtain and examine the implications of one-dimensional analytic solutions for return-current losses on an initially power-law distribution of energetic electrons with a sharp low-energy cutoff in flare plasma with classical (collisional) resistivity. These solutions show, for example, that return-current losses are not sensitive to plasma density, but are sensitive to plasma temperature and the low-energy cutoff of the injected nonthermal electron distribution. A characteristic distance from the electron injection site, x{sub rc}, is derived. At distances less than x{sub rc} the electron flux density is not reduced by return-current losses, but plasma heating can be substantial in this region, in the upper, coronal part of the flare loop. Before the electrons reach the collisional thick-target region of the flare loop, an injected power-law electron distribution with a low-energy cutoff maintains that structure, but with a flat energy distribution below the cutoff energy, which is now determined by the total potential drop experienced by the electrons. Modifications due to the presence of collisional losses are discussed. I compare these results with earlier analytical results and with more recent numerical simulations. Emslie's conjecture that there is a maximum integrated X-ray source brightness on the order of 10{sup -15} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} is examined. I find that this is not actually the maximum brightness and its value is parameter dependent, but it is nevertheless a valuable benchmark for identifying return-current losses in hard X-ray spectra. I discuss an observational approach to identifying return-current losses in flare data, including identification of a return-current 'bump' in X-ray light curves at low photon energies.

  13. THE IMPACT OF BOUND STELLAR ORBITS AND GENERAL RELATIVITY ON THE TEMPORAL BEHAVIOR OF TIDAL DISRUPTION FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Lixin; Escala, Andres; Coppi, Paolo

    2013-09-20

    We have carried out general relativistic particle simulations of stars tidally disrupted by massive black holes. When a star is disrupted in a bound orbit with moderate eccentricity instead of a parabolic orbit, the temporal behavior of the resulting stellar debris changes qualitatively. The debris is initially all bound, returning to pericenter in a short time about the original stellar orbital timescale. The resulting fallback rate can thus be much higher than the Eddington rate. Furthermore, if the star is disrupted close to the hole, in a regime where general relativity is important, the stellar and debris orbits display general relativistic precession. Apsidal precession can make the debris stream cross itself after several orbits, likely leading to fast debris energy dissipation. If the star is disrupted in an inclined orbit around a spinning hole, nodal precession reduces the probability of self-intersection, and circularization may take many dynamical timescales, delaying the onset of flare activity. An examination of the particle dynamics suggests that quasi-periodic flares with short durations, produced when the center of the tidal stream passes pericenter, may occur in the early-time light curve. The late-time light curve may still show power-law behavior which is generic to disk accretion processes. The detection triggers for future surveys should be extended to capture such 'non-standard' short-term flaring activity before the event enters the asymptotic decay phase, as this activity is likely to be more sensitive to physical parameters such as the black hole spin.

  14. Multifrequency studies of the peculiar quasar 4C +21.35 during the 2010 flaring activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Antolini, E.; Bonamente, E.; Cecchi, C.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Bissaldi, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Cavazzuti, E.; Chaves, R. C. G. E-mail: justin.finke@nrl.navy.mil E-mail: tterzic@uniri.hr [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU Collaboration: Fermi Large Area Telescope Collaboration; MAGIC Collaboration; and others

    2014-05-10

    The discovery of rapidly variable Very High Energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) γ-ray emission from 4C +21.35 (PKS 1222+216) by MAGIC on 2010 June 17, triggered by the high activity detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) in high energy (HE; E > 100 MeV) γ-rays, poses intriguing questions on the location of the γ-ray emitting region in this flat spectrum radio quasar. We present multifrequency data of 4C +21.35 collected from centimeter to VHE during 2010 to investigate the properties of this source and discuss a possible emission model. The first hint of detection at VHE was observed by MAGIC on 2010 May 3, soon after a γ-ray flare detected by Fermi-LAT that peaked on April 29. The same emission mechanism may therefore be responsible for both the HE and VHE emission during the 2010 flaring episodes. Two optical peaks were detected on 2010 April 20 and June 30, close in time but not simultaneous with the two γ-ray peaks, while no clear connection was observed between the X-ray and γ-ray emission. An increasing flux density was observed in radio and mm bands from the beginning of 2009, in accordance with the increasing γ-ray activity observed by Fermi-LAT, and peaking on 2011 January 27 in the mm regime (230 GHz). We model the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 4C +21.35 for the two periods of the VHE detection and a quiescent state, using a one-zone model with the emission coming from a very compact region outside the broad line region. The three SEDs can be fit with a combination of synchrotron self-Compton and external Compton emission of seed photons from a dust torus, changing only the electron distribution parameters between the epochs. The fit of the optical/UV part of the spectrum for 2010 April 29 seems to favor an inner disk radius of

  15. EM's Paducah Site Completes Building Removals | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    EM's Paducah Site Completes Building Removals EM's Paducah Site Completes Building Removals Addthis

  16. Water Distribution and Removal Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. Deng; N. Chipman; E.L. Hardin

    2005-08-26

    The design of the Yucca Mountain high level radioactive waste repository depends on the performance of the engineered barrier system (EBS). To support the total system performance assessment (TSPA), the Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report (EBS PMR) is developed to describe the thermal, mechanical, chemical, hydrological, biological, and radionuclide transport processes within the emplacement drifts, which includes the following major analysis/model reports (AMRs): (1) EBS Water Distribution and Removal (WD&R) Model; (2) EBS Physical and Chemical Environment (P&CE) Model; (3) EBS Radionuclide Transport (EBS RNT) Model; and (4) EBS Multiscale Thermohydrologic (TH) Model. Technical information, including data, analyses, models, software, and supporting documents will be provided to defend the applicability of these models for their intended purpose of evaluating the postclosure performance of the Yucca Mountain repository system. The WD&R model ARM is important to the site recommendation. Water distribution and removal represents one component of the overall EBS. Under some conditions, liquid water will seep into emplacement drifts through fractures in the host rock and move generally downward, potentially contacting waste packages. After waste packages are breached by corrosion, some of this seepage water will contact the waste, dissolve or suspend radionuclides, and ultimately carry radionuclides through the EBS to the near-field host rock. Lateral diversion of liquid water within the drift will occur at the inner drift surface, and more significantly from the operation of engineered structures such as drip shields and the outer surface of waste packages. If most of the seepage flux can be diverted laterally and removed from the drifts before contacting the wastes, the release of radionuclides from the EBS can be controlled, resulting in a proportional reduction in dose release at the accessible environment. The purposes

  17. Mexico HEU Removal | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home content Four-Year Plan Mexico HEU Removal Mexico HEU Removal Location Mexico United States 24 24' 35.298" N, 102...

  18. The formation of kappa-distribution accelerated electron populations in solar flares

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bian, Nicolas H.; Stackhouse, Duncan J.; Kontar, Eduard P.; Emslie, A. Gordon E-mail: d.stackhouse.1@research.gla.ac.uk E-mail: emslieg@wku.edu

    2014-12-01

    Driven by recent RHESSI observations of confined loop-top hard X-ray sources in solar flares, we consider stochastic acceleration of electrons in the presence of Coulomb collisions. If electron escape from the acceleration region can be neglected, the electron distribution function is determined by a balance between diffusive acceleration and collisions. Such a scenario admits a stationary solution for the electron distribution function that takes the form of a kappa distribution. We show that the evolution toward this kappa distribution involves a 'wave front' propagating forward in velocity space, so that electrons of higher energy are accelerated later; the acceleration timescales with energy according to τ{sub acc} ∼ E {sup 3/2}. At sufficiently high energies escape from the finite-length acceleration region will eventually dominate. For such energies, the electron velocity distribution function is obtained by solving a time-dependent Fokker-Planck equation in the 'leaky-box' approximation. Solutions are obtained in the limit of a small escape rate from an acceleration region that can effectively be considered a thick target.

  19. On the solution of the continuity equation for precipitating electrons in solar flares

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emslie, A. Gordon; Holman, Gordon D.; Litvinenko, Yuri E. E-mail: gordon.d.holman@nasa.gov

    2014-09-01

    Electrons accelerated in solar flares are injected into the surrounding plasma, where they are subjected to the influence of collisional (Coulomb) energy losses. Their evolution is modeled by a partial differential equation describing continuity of electron number. In a recent paper, Dobranskis and Zharkova claim to have found an 'updated exact analytical solution' to this continuity equation. Their solution contains an additional term that drives an exponential decrease in electron density with depth, leading them to assert that the well-known solution derived by Brown, Syrovatskii and Shmeleva, and many others is invalid. We show that the solution of Dobranskis and Zharkova results from a fundamental error in the application of the method of characteristics and is hence incorrect. Further, their comparison of the 'new' analytical solution with numerical solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation fails to lend support to their result. We conclude that Dobranskis and Zharkova's solution of the universally accepted and well-established continuity equation is incorrect, and that their criticism of the correct solution is unfounded. We also demonstrate the formal equivalence of the approaches of Syrovatskii and Shmeleva and Brown, with particular reference to the evolution of the electron flux and number density (both differential in energy) in a collisional thick target. We strongly urge use of these long-established, correct solutions in future works.

  20. HARD X-RAY IMAGING OF INDIVIDUAL SPECTRAL COMPONENTS IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caspi, Amir; Shih, Albert Y.; McTiernan, James M.; Krucker, Säm

    2015-09-20

    We present a new analytical technique, combining Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) high-resolution imaging and spectroscopic observations, to visualize solar flare emission as a function of spectral component (e.g., isothermal temperature) rather than energy. This computationally inexpensive technique is applicable to all spatially invariant spectral forms and is useful for visualizing spectroscopically determined individual sources and placing them in context, e.g., comparing multiple isothermal sources with nonthermal emission locations. For example, while extreme ultraviolet images can usually be closely identified with narrow temperature ranges, due to the emission being primarily from spectral lines of specific ion species, X-ray images are dominated by continuum emission and therefore have a broad temperature response, making it difficult to identify sources of specific temperatures regardless of the energy band of the image. We combine RHESSI calibrated X-ray visibilities with spatially integrated spectral models including multiple isothermal components to effectively isolate the individual thermal sources from the combined emission and image them separately. We apply this technique to the 2002 July 23 X4.8 event studied in prior works, and image for the first time the super-hot and cooler thermal sources independently. The super-hot source is farther from the footpoints and more elongated throughout the impulsive phase, consistent with an in situ heating mechanism for the super-hot plasma.

  1. On the variation of solar flare coronal X-ray source sizes with energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey, Natasha L. S.; Kontar, Eduard P.; Bian, Nicolas H. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ Glasgow (United Kingdom); Emslie, A. Gordon, E-mail: n.jeffrey@physics.gla.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    Observations with RHESSI have enabled the detailed study of the structure of dense hard X-ray coronal sources in solar flares. The variation of source extent with electron energy has been discussed in the context of streaming of non-thermal particles in a one-dimensional cold target model and the results used to constrain both the physical extent of, and density within, the electron acceleration region. Here, we extend this investigation to a more physically realistic model of electron transport that takes into account the finite temperature of the ambient plasma, the initial pitch angle distribution of the accelerated electrons, and the effects of collisional pitch angle scattering. The finite temperature results in the thermal diffusion of electrons, which leads to the observationally inferred value of the acceleration region volume being an overestimate of its true value. The different directions of the electron trajectories, a consequence of both the non-zero injection pitch angle and scattering within the target, cause the projected propagation distance parallel to the guiding magnetic field to be reduced, so that a one-dimensional interpretation can overestimate the actual density by a factor of up to ?6. The implications of these results for the determination of acceleration region properties (specific acceleration rate, filling factor, etc.) are discussed.

  2. KAPPA DISTRIBUTION MODEL FOR HARD X-RAY CORONAL SOURCES OF SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oka, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Krucker, S.; Lin, R. P. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California Berkeley (United States)] [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California Berkeley (United States)

    2013-02-10

    Solar flares produce hard X-ray emission, the photon spectrum of which is often represented by a combination of thermal and power-law distributions. However, the estimates of the number and total energy of non-thermal electrons are sensitive to the determination of the power-law cutoff energy. Here, we revisit an 'above-the-loop' coronal source observed by RHESSI on 2007 December 31 and show that a kappa distribution model can also be used to fit its spectrum. Because the kappa distribution has a Maxwellian-like core in addition to a high-energy power-law tail, the emission measure and temperature of the instantaneous electrons can be derived without assuming the cutoff energy. Moreover, the non-thermal fractions of electron number/energy densities can be uniquely estimated because they are functions of only the power-law index. With the kappa distribution model, we estimated that the total electron density of the coronal source region was {approx}2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}. We also estimated without assuming the source volume that a moderate fraction ({approx}20%) of electrons in the source region was non-thermal and carried {approx}52% of the total electron energy. The temperature was 28 MK, and the power-law index {delta} of the electron density distribution was -4.3. These results are compared to the conventional power-law models with and without a thermal core component.

  3. Dynamics of double layers, ion acceleration, and heat flux suppression during solar flares

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, T. C.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.

    2014-09-20

    Observations of flare-heated electrons in the corona typically suggest confinement of electrons. The confinement mechanism, however, remains unclear. The transport of coronal hot electrons into ambient plasma was recently investigated by particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Electron transport was significantly suppressed by the formation of a highly localized, nonlinear electrostatic potential in the form of a double layer (DL). In this work large-scale PIC simulations are performed to explore the dynamics of DLs in larger systems where, instead of a single DL, multiple DLs are generated. The primary DL accelerates return current electrons, resulting in high velocity electron beams that interact with ambient ions. This forms a Buneman unstable system that spawns more DLs. Trapping of heated return current electrons between multiple DLs strongly suppresses electron transport. DLs also accelerate ambient ions and produce strong ion flows over an extended region. This clarifies the mechanism by which hot electrons in the corona couple to and accelerate ions to form the solar wind. These new dynamics in larger systems reveal a more likely picture of DL development and their impact on the ambient plasma in the solar corona. They are applicable to the preparation for in situ coronal space missions like the Solar Probe Plus.

  4. Composition and energetics of solar flare particle events measured by satellites, 1989--1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gisler, G.R.; Belian, R.D.; Cayton, T.E.; Reeves, G.D.

    1991-01-01

    The Synchronous Orbit Particle Analyzer (SOPA), on board the satellite 1989-046 and others, has detected ions from carbon through nickel at energies from 2 to 50 MeV in the great solar energetic particle events of the current solar cycle. Energetic protons from the same events have been detected by the Charged Particle Analyzer (CPA) on board the satellite 1984-129 and others. We present here a collection of data from these various instruments that includes events of 1989, 1990, and 1991. We demonstrate the association of the events detected by the satellites with solar flares, and examine local solar wind features that in some instances alter the flux. We determine the ionic composition of the events, and compare these compositions among the various events and with those events, and compare these compositions among the various events and with those found in events of previous solar cycles. We obtain time-histories of the energetic particle fluxes, resolved both by ion species and by energy range. These detailed histories are of use, in conjunction with other data, in determining the parameters of the acceleration region.

  5. Nuclear & Radiological Material Removal | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    & Radiological Material Removal | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation...

  6. RAPID ENHANCEMENT OF SHEARED EVERSHED FLOW ALONG THE NEUTRAL LINE ASSOCIATED WITH AN X6.5 FLARE OBSERVED BY HINODE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng Na; Choudhary, Debi Prasad; Liu Chang; Wang Haimin E-mail: debiprasad.choudhary@csun.edu E-mail: haimin@flare.njit.edu

    2011-05-20

    We present G-band and Ca II H observations of NOAA AR 10930 obtained by Hinode/SOT on 2006 December 6 covering an X6.5 flare. The Local Correlation Tracking technique was applied to the foreshortening-corrected G-band image series to acquire horizontal proper motions in this complex {beta}{gamma}{delta} active region. With the continuous high-quality, spatial and temporal resolution G-band data, we not only confirm the rapid decay of outer penumbrae and darkening of the central structure near the flaring neutral line, but also unambiguously detect for the first time the enhancement of the sheared Evershed flow (average horizontal flow speed increased from 330 {+-} 3.1 to 403 {+-} 4.6 m s{sup -1}) along the neutral line right after the eruptive white-light flare. Post-flare Ca II H images indicate that the originally fanning out field lines at the two sides of the neutral line get connected. Since penumbral structure and Evershed flow are closely related to photospheric magnetic inclination or horizontal field strength, we interpret the rapid changes of sunspot structure and surface flow as the result of flare-induced magnetic restructuring down to the photosphere. The magnetic fields turn from fanning out to inward connection causing outer penumbrae decay, meanwhile those near the flaring neutral line become more horizontal leading to stronger Evershed flow there. The inferred enhancement of horizontal magnetic field near the neutral line is consistent with recent magnetic observations and theoretical predictions of flare-invoked photospheric magnetic field change.

  7. Portsmouth Removal Actions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Removal Actions Portsmouth Removal Actions Links to the Portsmouth Removal Action Reports in PDF. Final Action Memorandum for the Plant Support Buildings and Structures at Portsmouth - March 2012 (6.98 MB) Removal Action Completion Report for Phases I and II of X-334 Transformer Cleaning/Storage Building at Portsmouth - Nov 2011 (4.75 MB) Removal Action Completion Report for X-103 Auxiliary Office Building at Portsmouth - Nov 2011 (4.1 MB) Construction Completion Report for Phases I and II of

  8. Nuclear Material Removal | National Nuclear Security Administration |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    (NNSA) Nuclear Material Removal Once weapons-usable nuclear material is no longer required, the Office of Nuclear Material Removal works with global partners and facilities to consolidate, remove and dispose of the excess HEU and plutonium via 1) the U.S.-origin Removal Program that repatriates U.S.-origin HEU and LEU fuel (MTR and TRIGA), 2) the Russian-origin Removal Program that repatriates Russian-origin HEU and separated plutonium, and 3) the Gap Material Program that addresses material

  9. Method of making thermally removable epoxies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loy, Douglas A.; Wheeler, David R.; Russick, Edward M.; McElhanon, James R.; Saunders, Randall S.

    2002-01-01

    A method of making a thermally-removable epoxy by mixing a bis(maleimide) compound to a monomeric furan compound containing an oxirane group to form a di-epoxy mixture and then adding a curing agent at temperatures from approximately room temperature to less than approximately 90.degree. C. to form a thermally-removable epoxy. The thermally-removable epoxy can be easily removed within approximately an hour by heating to temperatures greater than approximately 90.degree. C. in a polar solvent. The epoxy material can be used in protecting electronic components that may require subsequent removal of the solid material for component repair, modification or quality control.

  10. The blob crashes into the mirror: modeling the exceptional γ-ray flaring activity of 3C 454.3 in 2010 November

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vittorini, V.; Tavani, M.; Vercellone, S.

    2014-10-01

    3C 454.3 is a prominent flat-spectrum radio quasar that in recent years attracted considerable attention because of its variable high-energy emissions. In this paper, we focus on the exceptional flaring activity of 3C 454.3 that was detected by AGILE and by Fermi-LAT in 2010 November. In the light of the time-varying data ranging from the radio, optical, and X-ray up to GeV γ-ray bands, we discuss a theoretical framework addressing all data in their overall evolution. For two weeks, the source has shown a plateau of enhanced GeV emission preceding a sudden major flare lasting about three days before decaying. The γ-ray flare onset is abrupt (about six hours), and is characterized by a prominent 'Compton dominance' with the GeV flux exceeding the pre-flare values by a factor of four to five. During this episode, the optical and X-ray fluxes increased by a factor of around two. Within the standard framework of a jet launched with a Lorentz bulk factor Γ ∼ 10 from a central black hole, we explore the yields of two alternatives. Case 1, with high-energy emission originating within the broad line region (BLR); and Case 2, with most of it produced outside at larger distances of a few parsecs. We show that Case 1 has considerable problems in explaining the whole set of multifrequency data. Case 2, instead, leads to a consistent and interesting interpretation based on the enhanced inverse Compton radiation that is produced as the jet crashes onto a mirror cloud positioned at parsec scales. This model explains the γ-ray versus optical/X-ray behavior of 3C 454.3, including the otherwise puzzling phenomena such as the prominent 'rphan' optical flare, and the enhanced line emission with no appreciable γ-ray counterpart that preceded the GeV γ-ray flare. It also accounts for the delayed onset of the latter on top of the long plateau. Our modeling of the exceptional 3C 454.3 γ-ray flare shows that while emission inside the canonical BLR is problematic, major and rapid

  11. THERMALLY SHIELDED MOISTURE REMOVAL DEVICE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, O.E.

    1958-08-26

    An apparatus is presented for removing moisture from the air within tanks by condensation upon a cartridge containing liquid air. An insulating shell made in two halves covers the cartridge within the evacuated system. The shell halves are hinged together and are operated by a system of levers from outside the tank with the motion translated through a sylphon bellows to cover and uncover the cartridge. When the condensation of moisture is in process, the insulative shell is moved away from the liquid air cartridge, and during that part of the process when there is no freezing out of moisture, the shell halves are closed on the cell so thnt the accumulated frost is not evaporated. This insulating shell greatly reduces the consumption of liquid air in this condensation process.

  12. Fuel removal, transport, and storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reno, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    The March 1979 accident at Unit 2 of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station (TMI-2) which damaged the core of the reactor resulted in numerous scientific and technical challenges. Some of those challenges involve removing the core debris from the reactor, packaging it into canisters, loading canisters into a rail cask, and transporting the debris to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for storage, examination, and preparation for final disposal. This paper highlights how some challenges were resolved, including lessons learned and benefits derived therefrom. Key to some success at TMI was designing, testing, fabricating, and licensing two rail casks, which each provide double containment of the damaged fuel. 10 refs., 12 figs.

  13. Melter Glass Removal and Dismantlement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, BS

    2000-10-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been using vitrification processes to convert high-level radioactive waste forms into a stable glass for disposal in waste repositories. Vitrification facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) are converting liquid high-level waste (HLW) by combining it with a glass-forming media to form a borosilicate glass, which will ensure safe long-term storage. Large, slurry fed melters, which are used for this process, were anticipated to have a finite life (on the order of two to three years) at which time they would have to be replaced using remote methods because of the high radiation fields. In actuality the melters useable life spans have, to date, exceeded original life-span estimates. Initial plans called for the removal of failed melters by placing the melter assembly into a container and storing the assembly in a concrete vault on the vitrification plant site pending size-reduction, segregation, containerization, and shipment to appropriate storage facilities. Separate facilities for the processing of the failed melters currently do not exist. Options for handling these melters include (1) locating a facility to conduct the size-reduction, characterization, and containerization as originally planned; (2) long-term storing or disposing of the complete melter assembly; and (3) attempting to refurbish the melter and to reuse the melter assembly. The focus of this report is to look at methods and issues pertinent to size-reduction and/or melter refurbishment in particular, removing the glass as a part of a refurbishment or to reduce contamination levels (thus allowing for disposal of a greater proportion of the melter as low level waste).

  14. PLASMA MOTIONS AND HEATING BY MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN A 2007 MAY 19 FLARE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hara, Hirohisa; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Harra, Louise K.; Leonard Culhane, J.; Young, Peter R.

    2011-11-10

    Based on scanning spectroscopic observations with the Hinode EUV imaging spectrometer, we have found a loop-top hot source, a fast jet nearby, and an inflow structure flowing to the hot source that appeared in the impulsive phase of a long-duration flare at the disk center on 2007 May 19. The hot source observed in Fe XXIII and Fe XXIV emission lines has the electron temperature of 12 MK and density of 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3}. It shows excess line broadening, which exceeds the thermal Doppler width by {approx}100 km s{sup -1}, with a weak redshift of {approx}30 km s{sup -1}. We have also observed a blueshifted faint jet whose Doppler velocity exceeds 200 km s{sup -1} with an electron temperature of 9 MK. Coronal plasmas with electron temperature of 1.2 MK and density of 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} cm{sup -3} that flow into the loop-top region with a Doppler velocity of 20 km s{sup -1} have been identified in the Fe XII observation. They disappeared near the hot source, possibly by being heated to the hotter faint jet temperature. From the geometrical relationships of these phenomena, we conclude that they provide evidence for magnetic reconnection that occurs near the loop-top region. The estimated reconnection rate is 0.05-0.1, which supports the Petschek-type magnetic reconnection. Further supporting evidence for the presence of the slow-mode and fast-mode MHD shocks in the reconnection geometry is given based on the observed quantities.

  15. An hourglass model for the flare of HST-1 in M87

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wen-Po; Zhao, Guang-Yao; Chen, Yong Jun; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Chun-Cheng

    2013-12-01

    To explain the multi-wavelength light curves (from radio to X-ray) of HST-1 in the M87 jet, we propose an hourglass model that is a modified two-zone system of Tavecchio and Ghisellini (hereafter TG08): a slow hourglass-shaped or Laval-nozzle-shaped layer connected by two revolving exponential surfaces surrounding a fast spine through which plasma blobs flow. Based on the conservation of magnetic flux, the magnetic field changes along the axis of the hourglass. We adopt the result of TG08the high-energy emission from GeV to TeV can be produced through inverse Compton by the two-zone system, and the photons from radio to X-ray are mainly radiated by the fast inner zone system. Here, we only discuss the light curves of the fast inner blob from radio to X-ray. When a compressible blob travels down the axis of the first bulb in the hourglass, because of magnetic flux conservation, its cross section experiences an adiabatic compression process, which results in particle acceleration and the brightening of HST-1. When the blob moves into the second bulb of the hourglass, because of magnetic flux conservation, the dimming of the knot occurs along with an adiabatic expansion of its cross section. A similar broken exponential function could fit the TeV peaks in M87, which may imply a correlation between the TeV flares of M87 and the light curves from radio to X-ray in HST-1. The Very Large Array (VLA) 22 GHz radio light curve of HST-1 verifies our prediction based on the model fit to the main peak of the VLA 15 GHz radio one.

  16. SUNSPOT ROTATION, SIGMOIDAL FILAMENT, FLARE, AND CORONAL MASS EJECTION: THE EVENT ON 2000 FEBRUARY 10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, X. L.; Qu, Z. Q.; Kong, D. F.

    2012-07-20

    We find that a sunspot with positive polarity had an obvious counterclockwise rotation and resulted in the formation and eruption of an inverse S-shaped filament in NOAA Active Region 08858 from 2000 February 9 to 10. The sunspot had two umbrae which rotated around each other by 195 Degree-Sign within about 24 hr. The average rotation rate was nearly 8 Degree-Sign hr{sup -1}. The fastest rotation in the photosphere took place during 14:00 UT to 22:01 UT on February 9, with a rotation rate of nearly 16 Degree-Sign hr{sup -1}. The fastest rotation in the chromosphere and the corona took place during 15:28 UT to 19:00 UT on February 9, with a rotation rate of nearly 20 Degree-Sign hr{sup -1}. Interestingly, the rapid increase of the positive magnetic flux occurred only during the fastest rotation of the rotating sunspot, the bright loop-shaped structure, and the filament. During the sunspot rotation, the inverse S-shaped filament gradually formed in the EUV filament channel. The filament experienced two eruptions. In the first eruption, the filament rose quickly and then the filament loops carrying the cool and the hot material were seen to spiral counterclockwise into the sunspot. About 10 minutes later, the filament became active and finally erupted. The filament eruption was accompanied with a C-class flare and a halo coronal mass ejection. These results provide evidence that sunspot rotation plays an important role in the formation and eruption of the sigmoidal active-region filament.

  17. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Illinois Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","8/2016" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel

  18. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","8/2016" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel

  19. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Oklahoma Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","8/2016" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","11/30/2016" ,"Excel

  20. Example Cleanup: Removal of Polychlorinated Biphenyls from Hillside...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Example Cleanup Removal of Polychlorinated Biphenyls from Hillside 140 Removing the source is one of three defenses in depth, as illustrated at the PCB removal from Hillside 140. ...

  1. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System`s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section.

  2. Turbulent pitch-angle scattering and diffusive transport of hard X-ray-producing electrons in flaring coronal loops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kontar, Eduard P.; Bian, Nicolas H.; Emslie, A. Gordon; Vilmer, Nicole E-mail: emslieg@wku.edu

    2014-01-10

    Recent observations from RHESSI have revealed that the number of non-thermal electrons in the coronal part of a flaring loop can exceed the number of electrons required to explain the hard X-ray-emitting footpoints of the same flaring loop. Such sources cannot, therefore, be interpreted on the basis of the standard collisional transport model, in which electrons stream along the loop while losing their energy through collisions with the ambient plasma; additional physical processes, to either trap or scatter the energetic electrons, are required. Motivated by this and other observations that suggest that high-energy electrons are confined to the coronal region of the source, we consider turbulent pitch-angle scattering of fast electrons off low-frequency magnetic fluctuations as a confinement mechanism, modeled as a spatial diffusion parallel to the mean magnetic field. In general, turbulent scattering leads to a reduction of the collisional stopping distance of non-thermal electrons along the loop, and hence to an enhancement of the coronal hard X-ray source relative to the footpoints. The variation of source size L with electron energy E becomes weaker than the quadratic behavior pertinent to collisional transport, with the slope of L(E) depending directly on the mean free path ? associated with the non-collisional scattering mechanism. Comparing the predictions of the model with observations, we find that ? ? (10{sup 8}-10{sup 9}) cm for ?30 keV, less than the length of a typical flaring loop and smaller than, or comparable to, the size of the electron acceleration region.

  3. TIME DELAYS IN QUASI-PERIODIC PULSATIONS OBSERVED DURING THE X2.2 SOLAR FLARE ON 2011 FEBRUARY 15

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolla, L.; Marque, C.; Seaton, D. B.; Dominique, M.; Berghmans, D.; Cabanas, C.; De Groof, A.; Verdini, A.; West, M. J.; Zhukov, A. N.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Schmutz, W.; Zender, J.

    2012-04-10

    We report observations of quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) during the X2.2 flare of 2011 February 15, observed simultaneously in several wavebands. We focus on fluctuations on timescale 1-30 s and find different time lags between different wavebands. During the impulsive phase, the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager channels in the range 25-100 keV lead all the other channels. They are followed by the Nobeyama RadioPolarimeters at 9 and 17 GHz and the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) channels of the Euv SpectroPhotometer (ESP) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory. The zirconium and aluminum filter channels of the Large Yield Radiometer on board the Project for On-Board Autonomy satellite and the soft X-ray (SXR) channel of ESP follow. The largest lags occur in observations from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, where the channel at 1-8 A leads the 0.5-4 A channel by several seconds. The time lags between the first and last channels is up to Almost-Equal-To 9 s. We identified at least two distinct time intervals during the flare impulsive phase, during which the QPPs were associated with two different sources in the Nobeyama RadioHeliograph at 17 GHz. The radio as well as the hard X-ray channels showed different lags during these two intervals. To our knowledge, this is the first time that time lags are reported between EUV and SXR fluctuations on these timescales. We discuss possible emission mechanisms and interpretations, including flare electron trapping.

  4. Three-dimensional magnetic restructuring in two homologous solar flares in the seismically active NOAA AR 11283

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Chang; Deng, Na; Lee, Jeongwoo; Wang, Haimin; Wiegelmann, Thomas; Jiang, Chaowei; Dennis, Brian R.; Su, Yang; Donea, Alina

    2014-11-10

    We carry out a comprehensive investigation comparing the three-dimensional magnetic field restructuring, flare energy release, and the helioseismic response of two homologous flares, the 2011 September 6 X2.1 (FL1) and September 7 X1.8 (FL2) flares in NOAA AR 11283. In our analysis, (1) a twisted flux rope (FR) collapses onto the surface at a speed of 1.5 km s{sup –1} after a partial eruption in FL1. The FR then gradually grows to reach a higher altitude and collapses again at 3 km s{sup –1} after a fuller eruption in FL2. Also, FL2 shows a larger decrease of the flux-weighted centroid separation of opposite magnetic polarities and a greater change of the horizontal field on the surface. These imply a more violent coronal implosion with corresponding more intense surface signatures in FL2. (2) The FR is inclined northward and together with the ambient fields, it undergoes a southward turning after both events. This agrees with the asymmetric decay of the penumbra observed in the peripheral regions. (3) The amounts of free magnetic energy and nonthermal electron energy released during FL1 are comparable to those of FL2 within the uncertainties of the measurements. (4) No sunquake was detected in FL1; in contrast, FL2 produced two seismic emission sources S1 and S2 both lying in the penumbral regions. Interestingly, S1 and S2 are connected by magnetic loops, and the stronger source S2 has a weaker vertical magnetic field. We discuss these results in relation to the implosion process in the low corona and the sunquake generation.

  5. The radiated energy budget of chromospheric plasma in a major solar flare deduced from multi-wavelength observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, Ryan O.; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Keenan, Francis P.; Kerr, Graham S.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Dennis, Brian R.; Allred, Joel C.; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Ireland, Jack

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents measurements of the energy radiated by the lower solar atmosphere, at optical, UV, and EUV wavelengths, during an X-class solar flare (SOL2011-02-15T01:56) in response to an injection of energy assumed to be in the form of nonthermal electrons. Hard X-ray observations from RHESSI were used to track the evolution of the parameters of the nonthermal electron distribution to reveal the total power contained in flare accelerated electrons. By integrating over the duration of the impulsive phase, the total energy contained in the nonthermal electrons was found to be >2 × 10{sup 31} erg. The response of the lower solar atmosphere was measured in the free-bound EUV continua of H I (Lyman), He I, and He II, plus the emission lines of He II at 304 Å and H I (Lyα) at 1216 Å by SDO/EVE, the UV continua at 1600 Å and 1700 Å by SDO/AIA, and the white light continuum at 4504 Å, 5550 Å, and 6684 Å, along with the Ca II H line at 3968 Å using Hinode/SOT. The summed energy detected by these instruments amounted to ∼3 × 10{sup 30} erg; about 15% of the total nonthermal energy. The Lyα line was found to dominate the measured radiative losses. Parameters of both the driving electron distribution and the resulting chromospheric response are presented in detail to encourage the numerical modeling of flare heating for this event, to determine the depth of the solar atmosphere at which these line and continuum processes originate, and the mechanism(s) responsible for their generation.

  6. Stochastic acceleration of electrons by fast magnetosonic waves in solar flares: the effects of anisotropy in velocity and wavenumber space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pongkitiwanichakul, Peera; Chandran, Benjamin D. G.

    2014-11-20

    We develop a model for stochastic acceleration of electrons in solar flares. As in several previous models, the electrons are accelerated by turbulent fast magnetosonic waves ({sup f}ast waves{sup )} via transit-time-damping (TTD) interactions. (In TTD interactions, fast waves act like moving magnetic mirrors that push the electrons parallel or anti-parallel to the magnetic field). We also include the effects of Coulomb collisions and the waves' parallel electric fields. Unlike previous models, our model is two-dimensional in both momentum space and wavenumber space and takes into account the anisotropy of the wave power spectrum F{sub k} and electron distribution function f {sub e}. We use weak turbulence theory and quasilinear theory to obtain a set of equations that describes the coupled evolution of F{sub k} and f {sub e}. We solve these equations numerically and find that the electron distribution function develops a power-law-like non-thermal tail within a restricted range of energies E in (E {sub nt}, E {sub max}). We obtain approximate analytic expressions for E {sub nt} and E {sub max}, which describe how these minimum and maximum energies depend upon parameters such as the electron number density and the rate at which fast-wave energy is injected into the acceleration region at large scales. We contrast our results with previous studies that assume that F{sub k} and f {sub e} are isotropic, and we compare one of our numerical calculations with the time-dependent hard-X-ray spectrum observed during the 1980 June 27 flare. In our numerical calculations, the electron energy spectra are softer (steeper) than in models with isotropic F{sub k} and f {sub e} and closer to the values inferred from observations of solar flares.

  7. VLBI OBSERVATIONS OF THE JET IN M 87 DURING THE VERY HIGH ENERGY {gamma}-RAY FLARE IN 2010 APRIL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hada, Kazuhiro; Giroletti, Marcello; Giovannini, Gabriele; Kino, Motoki; Nagai, Hiroshi; Doi, Akihiro; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Honma, Mareki; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki

    2012-11-20

    We report on the detailed radio status of the M 87 jet during the very high energy (VHE) {gamma}-ray flaring event in 2010 April, obtained from high-resolution, multi-frequency, phase-referencing Very Long Baseline Array observations. We especially focus on the properties of the jet base (the radio core) and the peculiar knot HST-1, which are currently favored as the {gamma}-ray emitting sites. During the VHE flaring event, the HST-1 region remains stable in terms of its structure and flux density in the optically thin regime above 2 GHz, being consistent with no signs of enhanced activities reported at X-ray for this feature. The radio core shows an inverted spectrum at least up to 43 GHz during this event. Astrometry of the core position, which is specified as {approx}20 R {sub s} from the central engine in our previous study, shows that the core position is stable on a level of 4 R {sub s}. The core at 43 and 22 GHz tends to show slightly ({approx}10%) higher flux level near the date of the VHE flux peak compared with the epochs before/after the event. The size of the 43 GHz core is estimated to be {approx}17 R {sub s}, which is close to the size of the emitting region suggested from the observed timescale of rapid variability at VHE. These results tend to favor the scenario that the VHE {gamma}-ray flare in 2010 April is associated with the radio core.

  8. Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Paul J.; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Robinson, Nigel J.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Furlong, Clement

    1990-01-01

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat units for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heavy metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  9. Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Paul J.; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Robinson, Nigel J.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Furlong, Clement

    1990-11-13

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat unit for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heayv metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  10. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Removal Campaign Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-08-07

    The overall operation of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project will include fuel removal, sludge removal, debris removal, and deactivation transition activities. Figure 1-1 provides an overview of the current baseline operating schedule for project sub-systems, indicating that a majority of fuel removal activities are performed over an approximately three-and-one-half year time period. The purpose of this document is to describe the strategy for operating the fuel removal process systems. The campaign plan scope includes: (1) identifying a fuel selection sequence during fuel removal activities, (2) identifying MCOs that are subjected to extra testing (process validation) and monitoring, and (3) discussion of initial MCO loading and monitoring in the Canister Storage Building (CSB). The campaign plan is intended to integrate fuel selection requirements for handling special groups of fuel within the basin (e.g., single pass reactor fuel), process validation activities identified for process systems, and monitoring activities during storage.

  11. The magnetic field of active region 11158 during the 2011 February 12-17 flares: Differences between photospheric extrapolation and coronal forward-fitting methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Sun, Xudong; Liu, Yang E-mail: xudongs@stanford.edu

    2014-04-10

    We developed a coronal nonlinear force-free field (COR-NLFFF) forward-fitting code that fits an approximate nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) solution to the observed geometry of automatically traced coronal loops. In contrast to photospheric NLFFF codes, which calculate a magnetic field solution from the constraints of the transverse photospheric field, this new code uses coronal constraints instead, and this way provides important information on systematic errors of each magnetic field calculation method, as well as on the non-force-freeness in the lower chromosphere. In this study we applied the COR-NLFFF code to NOAA Active Region 11158, during the time interval of 2011 February 12-17, which includes an X2.2 GOES-class flare plus 35 M- and C-class flares. We calculated the free magnetic energy with a 6 minute cadence over 5 days. We find good agreement between the two types of codes for the total nonpotential E{sub N} and potential energy E{sub P} but find up to a factor of 4 discrepancy in the free energy E {sub free} = E{sub N} – E{sub P} and up to a factor of 10 discrepancy in the decrease of the free energy ΔE {sub free} during flares. The coronal NLFFF code exhibits a larger time variability and yields a decrease of free energy during the flare that is sufficient to satisfy the flare energy budget, while the photospheric NLFFF code shows much less time variability and an order of magnitude less free-energy decrease during flares. The discrepancy may partly be due to the preprocessing of photospheric vector data but more likely is due to the non-force-freeness in the lower chromosphere. We conclude that the coronal field cannot be correctly calculated on the basis of photospheric data alone and requires additional information on coronal loop geometries.

  12. Protection #2: Trap and Remove Sediment

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Trap and Remove Sediment Protection #2: Trap and Remove Sediment The 3 Protections = Defense in Depth August 1, 2013 Sediment behind LA Canyon weir is sampled and excavated regularly. As of 2012, no sediment required disposal as hazardous or radioactive waste. Sediment behind LA Canyon weir is sampled and excavated regularly. As of 2012, no sediment required disposal as hazardous or radioactive waste. The 3 Protections Protection #1: Remove the source of contamination Protection #2: Stabilize,

  13. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-12-09

    A resin recycling method that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The method includes receiving the resin in container form. The containers are then ground into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. After separating the particles and the resin, a solvent removing agent is used to remove any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  14. A charged particle transport analysis of the dose to a silicon-germanium thermoelectric element due to a solar flare event

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dandini, V.J.

    1991-01-01

    A version of the BRYNTRN baryon transport code written at the NASA Langley Research Center has been used to analyze the dose to a typical space reactor thermoelectric (TE) element due to a solar flare event. The code has been used in the past to calculate the dose/dose equivalent distributions to astronauts due to solar flares. It has been modified to accommodate multiple layers of spacecraft and component material. Differential and integrated doses to the TE element are presented and discussed. 5 refs.

  15. Removal of radioisotopes from waste solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirby, H.W.

    1973-10-01

    The invention comprises removing radioisotopes from waste liquids or solutions by passing these through filters and through a column containing a suitable salt of phosphoric acid. (Official Gazette)

  16. Slag capture and removal during laser cutting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Clyde O.

    1984-05-08

    Molten metal removed from a workpiece in a laser cutting operation is blown away from the cutting point by a gas jet and collected on an electromagnet.

  17. Turkey HEU Removal | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Turkey HEU Removal | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the...

  18. System for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2010-11-23

    A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  19. General Counsel Legal Interpretation Regarding Medical Removal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Benefits Pursuant to 10 CFR Part 850, Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program General Counsel Legal Interpretation Regarding Medical Removal Protection Benefits ...

  20. POSSIBLE DETECTION OF APPARENT SUPERLUMINAL INWARD MOTION IN MARKARIAN 421 AFTER THE GIANT X-RAY FLARE IN 2010 FEBRUARY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niinuma, K.; Kino, M.; Oyama, T.; Nagai, H.; Isobe, N.; Gabanyi, K. E.; Hada, K.; Koyama, S.; Asada, K.; Fujisawa, K.

    2012-11-10

    We report on the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) follow-up observations using the Japanese VLBI Network array at 22 GHz for the largest X-ray flare of TeV blazar Mrk 421 that occurred in 2010 mid-February. The total of five epochs of observations were performed at intervals of about 20 days between 2010 March 7 and May 31. No newborn component associated with the flare was seen directly in the total intensity images obtained by our multi-epoch VLBI observations. However, one jet component located at {approx}1 mas northwest from the core was able to be identified, and its proper motion can be measured as -1.66 {+-} 0.46 mas yr{sup -1}, which corresponds to an apparent velocity of -3.48 {+-} 0.97c. Here, this negative velocity indicates that the jet component was apparently moving toward the core. As the most plausible explanation, we discuss that the apparent negative velocity was possibly caused by the ejection of a new component, which could not be resolved with our observations. In this case, the obtained Doppler factor of the new component is around 10-20, which is consistent with the ones typically estimated by model fittings of spectral energy distribution for this source.

  1. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-12-30

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  2. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert,George W.; Hand,Thomas E.; Delaurentiis,Gary M.

    2007-08-07

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  3. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-11-18

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  4. Method And Apparatus For Arbitrarily Large Capacity Removable Media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milligan, Charles A.; Hughes, James P.; Debiez; Jacques

    2003-04-08

    A method and apparatus to handle multiple sets of removable media within a storage system. A first set of removable media are mounted on a set of drives. Data is accepted until the first set of removable media is filled. A second set of removable media is mounted on the drives, while the first set of removable media is removed. When the change in removable media is complete, writing of data proceeds on the second set of removable media. Data may be buffered while the change in removable media occurs. Alternatively, two sets of removable media may be mounted at the same time. When the first set of removable media is filled to a selected amount, the second set of removable media may then be used to write the data. A third set of removable media is set up or mounted for use, while the first set of removable media is removed.

  5. Catalyst regeneration process including metal contaminants removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganguli, Partha S.

    1984-01-01

    Spent catalysts removed from a catalytic hydrogenation process for hydrocarbon feedstocks, and containing undesired metals contaminants deposits, are regenerated. Following solvent washing to remove process oils, the catalyst is treated either with chemicals which form sulfate or oxysulfate compounds with the metals contaminants, or with acids which remove the metal contaminants, such as 5-50 W % sulfuric acid in aqueous solution and 0-10 W % ammonium ion solutions to substantially remove the metals deposits. The acid treating occurs within the temperature range of 60.degree.-250.degree. F. for 5-120 minutes at substantially atmospheric pressure. Carbon deposits are removed from the treated catalyst by carbon burnoff at 800.degree.-900.degree. F. temperature, using 1-6 V % oxygen in an inert gas mixture, after which the regenerated catalyst can be effectively reused in the catalytic process.

  6. Effectiveness of decanter modifications on organic removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, D.P.

    1992-08-20

    A series of runs were planned in the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF) at the Savannah River Plant to determine the effectiveness of equipment and process modifications on the PHEF decanter organic removal efficiency. Runs 54-59 were planned to test the effectiveness of spray recirculation, a new decanter, heated organic recirculation and aqueous drawoff on organic removal efficiency in the revised HAN flowsheet. Runs 60-63 were planned to provide a comparison of the original and new decanter designs on organic removal efficiency in the late wash flowsheet without organic recirculation. Operational problems were experienced in both the PHEF and IDMS pilot facilities because of the production of high boiling organics and the low organic removal efficiency of the PHEF decanters. To prevent these problems in the DWPF Salt and Chemical Cells, modifications were proposed to the decanter and flowsheet to maximize the organic removal efficiency and minimize production of high boiling organics.

  7. Test Plan for the overburden removal demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, P.; Thompson, D.; Winberg, M.; Skaggs, J.

    1993-06-01

    The removal of soil overburdens from contaminated pits and trenches involves using equipment that will remove a small layer of soil from 3 to 6 in. at any time. As a layer of soil is removed, overburden characterization techniques perform surveys to a depth that exceeds each overburden removal layer to ensure that the removed soil will be free of contamination. It is generally expected that no contamination will be found in the soil overburden, which was brought in after the waste was put in place. It is anticipated that some containers in the waste zone have lost their integrity, and the waste leakage from those containers has migrated by gravity downward into the waste zone. To maintain a safe work environment, this method of overburden removal should allow safe preparation of a pit or trench for final remediation. To demonstrate the soil overburden techniques, the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program has contracted vendor services to provide equipment and techniques demonstrating soil overburden removal technology. The demonstration will include tests that will evaluate equipment performance and techniques for removal of overburden soil, control of contamination spread, and dust control. To evaluate the performance of these techniques, air particulate samples, physical measurements of the excavation soil cuts, maneuverability measurements, and time versus volume (rate) of soil removal data will be collected during removal operations. To provide a medium for sample evaluation, the overburden will be spiked at specific locations and depths with rare earth tracers. This test plan will be describe the objectives of the demonstration, data quality objectives, methods to be used to operate the equipment and use the techniques in the test area, and methods to be used in collecting data during the demonstration.

  8. Metals removal and recovery from municipal sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, R.L.; Scheybeler, B.J.; Smith, M.L.; Baird, R.; Lo, M.P.; Haug, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of metals removal from municipal sludges that may be disposed of on agricultural land was studied. Heavy metal accumulation in such vegetables as lettuce and heavy metal toxicity to such crops as oats, beans, corn, and radishes is of concern. The purpose of the study was to assess metal removal systems for sludges obtained from the Joint Water Pollution Control Plant, Carson, Calif. Primary sludge, waste activated sludge, and their anaerobically digested counterparts were dosed with sulfuric acid and the chelating agent, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), to effect metal solubilization. Seven metals were examined for removal from sludge: Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn. Recovery of metals from the sludges was also examined. Using an acid dosage to effect pH decrease to pH 2 and a-stirring time of 24 hours, the removal efficiencies for Fe, Zn, Ni, and Cr were found to be upwards of 75%. Removal efficiencies for Pb and Cd were less, at about 30 to 70%. At less than 10%, Cu was hardly removed. Metal extraction using EDTA gave slightly higher removal efficiencies for Cd, Pb, and Cu. The recovery of solubilized metals from solution with lime was very successful at greater than 90% efficiencies. Examination of the dewaterability of the acid-treated sludge found no significant difference between treated and untreated. Preliminary estimates indicated that about 0.5 metric ton of acid would be required for each dry metric ton of sludge solids to effect significant metal removal of better than 50% of the cadmium and 33% of the lead. To precipitate the metals from the acid filtrate, 1 metric ton of lime per dry metric ton of sludge would be needed. Considering the chemical costs and metal removal efficiency by sludge acidification, it would seem that industrial source control would be a more practical approach, although its full economic impact on the industries has not been estimated.

  9. Method for changing removable bearing for a wind turbine generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Jansen, Patrick Lee; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya

    2008-04-22

    A wind generator having removable change-out bearings includes a rotor and a stator, locking bolts configured to lock the rotor and stator, a removable bearing sub-assembly having at least one shrunk-on bearing installed, and removable mounting bolts configured to engage the bearing sub-assembly and to allow the removable bearing sub-assembly to be removed when the removable mounting bolts are removed.

  10. Removable bearing arrangement for a wind turbine generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Jansen, Patrick Lee; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya

    2010-06-15

    A wind generator having removable change-out bearings includes a rotor and a stator, locking bolts configured to lock the rotor and stator, a removable bearing sub-assembly having at least one shrunk-on bearing installed, and removable mounting bolts configured to engage the bearing sub-assembly and to allow the removable bearing sub-assembly to be removed when the removable mounting bolts are removed.

  11. In situ removal of contamination from soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindgren, E.R.; Brady, P.V.

    1997-10-14

    A process of remediation of cationic heavy metal contamination from soil utilizes gas phase manipulation to inhibit biodegradation of a chelating agent that is used in an electrokinesis process to remove the contamination. The process also uses further gas phase manipulation to stimulate biodegradation of the chelating agent after the contamination has been removed. The process ensures that the chelating agent is not attacked by bioorganisms in the soil prior to removal of the contamination, and that the chelating agent does not remain as a new contaminant after the process is completed. 5 figs.

  12. In situ removal of contamination from soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindgren, Eric R.; Brady, Patrick V.

    1997-01-01

    A process of remediation of cationic heavy metal contamination from soil utilizes gas phase manipulation to inhibit biodegradation of a chelating agent that is used in an electrokinesis process to remove the contamination, and further gas phase manipulation to stimulate biodegradation of the chelating agent after the contamination has been removed. The process ensures that the chelating agent is not attacked by bioorganisms in the soil prior to removal of the contamination, and that the chelating agent does not remain as a new contaminant after the process is completed.

  13. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, Gus T.; Holshouser, Stephen K.; Coleman, Richard M.; Harless, Charles E.; Whinnery, III, Walter N.

    1983-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  14. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, G.T.; Holshouser, S.K.; Coleman, R.M.; Harless, C.E.; Whinnery, W.N. III

    1982-03-17

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  15. A Change in the Optical Polarization Associated with a Gamma-Ray Flare in the Blazar 3C 279

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdo, A.A.

    2011-08-19

    It is widely accepted that strong and variable radiation detected over all accessible energy bands in a number of active galaxies arises from a relativistic, Doppler-boosted jet pointing close to our line of sight. The size of the emitting zone and the location of this region relative to the central supermassive black hole are, however, poorly known, with estimates ranging from light-hours to a light-year or more. Here we report the coincidence of a gamma ({gamma})-ray flare with a dramatic change of optical polarization angle. This provides evidence for co-spatiality of optical and {gamma}-ray emission regions and indicates a highly ordered jet magnetic field. The results also require a non-axisymmetric structure of the emission zone, implying a curved trajectory for the emitting material within the jet, with the dissipation region located at a considerable distance from the black hole, at about 10{sup 5} gravitational radii.

  16. Laser removal of sludge from steam generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1990-01-01

    A method of removing unwanted chemical deposits known as sludge from the metal surfaces of steam generators with laser energy is provided. Laser energy of a certain power density, of a critical wavelength and frequency, is intermittently focused on the sludge deposits to vaporize them so that the surfaces are cleaned without affecting the metal surface (sludge substrate). Fiberoptic tubes are utilized for laser beam transmission and beam direction. Fiberoptics are also utilized to monitor laser operation and sludge removal.

  17. Method for removing RFI from SAR images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2003-08-19

    A method of removing RFI from a SAR by comparing two SAR images on a pixel by pixel basis and selecting the pixel with the lower magnitude to form a composite image. One SAR image is the conventional image produced by the SAR. The other image is created from phase-history data which has been filtered to have the frequency bands containing the RFI removed.

  18. material removal | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    removal Secretary Moniz Announces Removal of All Highly Enriched Uranium from Poland NNSA Helps Poland Become 31st Country Plus Taiwan to Be HEU-free VIENNA - At the 60th IAEA General Conference, U.S. Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz today announced that the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), in cooperation with Poland, the... Material Management and Minimization The Office of Material Management and Minimization (M3) presents an integrated approach to

  19. Statistical analysis of the dynamics of secondary electrons in the flare of a high-voltage beam-type discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demkin, V. P.; Mel'nichuk, S. V.

    2014-09-15

    In the present work, results of investigations into the dynamics of secondary electrons with helium atoms in the presence of the reverse electric field arising in the flare of a high-voltage pulsed beam-type discharge and leading to degradation of the primary electron beam are presented. The electric field in the discharge of this type at moderate pressures can reach several hundred V/cm and leads to considerable changes in the kinetics of secondary electrons created in the process of propagation of the electron beam generated in the accelerating gap with a grid anode. Moving in the accelerating electric field toward the anode, secondary electrons create the so-called compensating current to the anode. The character of electron motion and the compensating current itself are determined by the ratio of the field strength to the concentration of atoms (E/n). The energy and angular spectra of secondary electrons are calculated by the Monte Carlo method for different ratios E/n of the electric field strength to the helium atom concentration. The motion of secondary electrons with threshold energy is studied for inelastic collisions of helium atoms and differential analysis is carried out of the collisional processes causing energy losses of electrons in helium for different E/n values. The mechanism of creation and accumulation of slow electrons as a result of inelastic collisions of secondary electrons with helium atoms and selective population of metastable states of helium atoms is considered. It is demonstrated that in a wide range of E/n values the motion of secondary electrons in the beam-type discharge flare has the character of drift. At E/n values characteristic for the discharge of the given type, the drift velocity of these electrons is calculated and compared with the available experimental data.

  20. A MULTI-WAVELENGTH POLARIMETRIC STUDY OF THE BLAZAR CTA 102 DURING A GAMMA-RAY FLARE IN 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casadio, Carolina; Gómez, José L.; Agudo, Iván; Molina, Sol N.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Marscher, Alan P.; Bala, Vishal; Joshi, Manasvita; Taylor, Brian; Williamson, Karen E.; Larionov, Valeri M.; Blinov, Dmitry A.; Grishina, Tatiana S.; Hagen-Thorn, Vladimir A.; Smith, Paul S.; Gurwell, Mark A.; Lähteenmäki, Anne; Arkharov, Arkady A.; Borman, George A.; Paola, Andrea Di; and others

    2015-11-01

    We perform a multi-wavelength polarimetric study of the quasar CTA 102 during an extraordinarily bright γ-ray outburst detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope in 2012 September–October when the source reached a flux of F{sub >100} {sub MeV} = 5.2 ± 0.4 × 10{sup −6} photons cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. At the same time, the source displayed an unprecedented optical and near-infrared (near-IR) outburst. We study the evolution of the parsec-scale jet with ultra-high angular resolution through a sequence of 80 total and polarized intensity Very Long Baseline Array images at 43 GHz, covering the observing period from 2007 June to 2014 June. We find that the γ-ray outburst is coincident with flares at all the other frequencies and is related to the passage of a new superluminal knot through the radio core. The powerful γ-ray emission is associated with a change in direction of the jet, which became oriented more closely to our line of sight (θ ∼ 1.°2) during the ejection of the knot and the γ-ray outburst. During the flare, the optical polarized emission displays intra-day variability and a clear clockwise rotation of electric vector position angles (EVPAs), which we associate with the path followed by the knot as it moves along helical magnetic field lines, although a random walk of the EVPA caused by a turbulent magnetic field cannot be ruled out. We locate the γ-ray outburst a short distance downstream of the radio core, parsecs from the black hole. This suggests that synchrotron self-Compton scattering of NIR to ultraviolet photons is the probable mechanism for the γ-ray production.

  1. EVIDENCE OF THERMAL CONDUCTION SUPPRESSION IN A SOLAR FLARING LOOP BY CORONAL SEISMOLOGY OF SLOW-MODE WAVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Tongjiang; Ofman, Leon; Provornikova, Elena; Sun, Xudong; Davila, Joseph M.

    2015-09-20

    Analysis of a longitudinal wave event observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory is presented. A time sequence of 131 Å images reveals that a C-class flare occurred at one footpoint of a large loop and triggered an intensity disturbance (enhancement) propagating along it. The spatial features and temporal evolution suggest that a fundamental standing slow-mode wave could be set up quickly after meeting of two initial disturbances from the opposite footpoints. The oscillations have a period of ∼12 minutes and a decay time of ∼9 minutes. The measured phase speed of 500 ± 50 km s{sup −1} matches the sound speed in the heated loop of ∼10 MK, confirming that the observed waves are of slow mode. We derive the time-dependent temperature and electron density wave signals from six AIA extreme-ultraviolet channels, and find that they are nearly in phase. The measured polytropic index from the temperature and density perturbations is 1.64 ± 0.08 close to the adiabatic index of 5/3 for an ideal monatomic gas. The interpretation based on a 1D linear MHD model suggests that the thermal conductivity is suppressed by at least a factor of 3 in the hot flare loop at 9 MK and above. The viscosity coefficient is determined by coronal seismology from the observed wave when only considering the compressive viscosity dissipation. We find that to interpret the rapid wave damping, the classical compressive viscosity coefficient needs to be enhanced by a factor of 15 as the upper limit.

  2. Louisiana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2,218,283 3,040,523 2,955,437 2,366,943 1,968,618 1,784,797 1967-2015 From Gas Wells 911,967 883,712 775,506 780,623 720,416 619,242 1967-2015 From Oil Wells 63,638 68,505 49,380 51,948 50,722 44,748 1967-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 1,242,678 2,088,306 2,130,551 1,534,372 1,197,480 1,120,806 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002-2015 Repressuring 3,606 5,015 0 2,829 3,199 4,248 1967-2015 Vented and Flared 4,578 6,302 0 3,912 4,606 3,748 1967-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 0 0 0 0 0 0

  3. Mississippi Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals and Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    401,660 443,351 452,915 59,272 54,446 58,207 1967-2015 From Gas Wells 387,026 429,829 404,457 47,385 43,020 44,868 1967-2015 From Oil Wells 8,714 8,159 43,421 7,256 7,136 9,220 1967-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 5,921 5,363 5,036 4,630 4,289 4,119 2002-2015 Repressuring 3,480 3,788 0 0 NA 0 1967-2015 Vented and Flared 8,685 9,593 0 0 NA 0 1967-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 315,775 348,482 389,072 0 NA 0 1980-2015 Marketed Production 73,721 81,487 63,843

  4. Mississippi Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    401,660 443,351 452,915 59,272 54,446 58,207 1967-2015 From Gas Wells 387,026 429,829 404,457 47,385 43,020 44,868 1967-2015 From Oil Wells 8,714 8,159 43,421 7,256 7,136 9,220 1967-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 5,921 5,363 5,036 4,630 4,289 4,119 2002-2015 Repressuring 3,480 3,788 0 0 NA 0 1967-2015 Vented and Flared 8,685 9,593 0 0 NA 0 1967-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 315,775 348,482 389,072 0 NA 0 1980-2015 Marketed Production 73,721 81,487 63,843

  5. North Dakota Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    113,867 157,025 258,568 345,787 463,216 584,743 1967-2015 From Gas Wells 10,501 14,287 22,261 24,313 21,956 25,969 1967-2015 From Oil Wells 38,306 27,739 17,434 12,854 13,973 11,515 1967-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 65,060 114,998 218,873 308,620 427,287 547,258 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002-2015 Repressuring 0 0 0 0 NA 0 1981-2015 Vented and Flared 24,582 49,652 79,564 102,855 129,717 106,590 1967-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 7,448 10,271 6,762 7,221 7,008 6,650 1984-2015

  6. Tennessee Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    5,144 4,851 5,825 5,400 5,294 4,276 1967-2015 From Gas Wells 5,144 4,851 5,825 5,400 5,294 4,276 1967-2015 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2015 Repressuring 0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 Vented and Flared 0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997-2015 Marketed Production 5,144 4,851 5,825 5,400 5,294 4,276 1967-2015 Dry Production 4,638 4,335 5,324 4,912 4,912 3,937 Feet)

    Year Jan Feb Mar

  7. Texas Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Kansas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    7,565,123 7,910,898 8,127,004 8,285,436 8,647,988 8,791,961 1992-2015 From Gas Wells 4,413,767 3,771,162 3,603,948 3,101,759 2,661,424 2,307,184 1992-2015 From Oil Wells 848,406 1,073,301 860,123 1,166,425 1,557,704 1,800,946 1992-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 3,662,933 4,408,980 4,683,831 2012-2015 Repressuring 558,854 502,020 437,367 423,413 440,153 533,047 1992-2015 Vented and Flared 39,569 35,248 47,530 76,113 90,125 113,786 1992-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 279,981 284,557 183,118 166,328

  8. Illinois Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    ,702 2,121 2,125 2,887 1,929 2,080 1967-2015 From Gas Wells 1,697 2,114 2,125 2,887 1,929 2,080 1967-2015 From Oil Wells 5 7 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2015 Repressuring 0 0 0 0 NA 0 2006-2015 Vented and Flared 0 0 0 0 NA 0 1967-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 0 0 0 0 NA 0 2006-2015 Marketed Production 1,702 2,121 2,125 2,887 1,929 2,080 1967-2015 Dry Production 1,357 1,078 2,125 2,887 1,882 2,038 Feet)

    Coalbed Wells

  9. Indiana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    6,802 9,075 8,814 7,938 6,616 7,250 1967-2015 From Gas Wells 6,802 9,075 8,814 7,938 6,616 7,250 1967-2015 From Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 1967-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2015 Repressuring 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003-2015 Vented and Flared 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997-2015 Marketed Production 6,802 9,075 8,814 7,938 6,616 7,250 1967-2015 Dry Production 6,802 9,075 8,814 7,938 6,616 7,25 Feet)

    Year Jan Feb Mar

  10. Louisiana Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Coalbed Wells (Million Cubic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    2,218,283 3,040,523 2,955,437 2,366,943 1,968,618 1,784,797 1967-2015 From Gas Wells 911,967 883,712 775,506 780,623 720,416 619,242 1967-2015 From Oil Wells 63,638 68,505 49,380 51,948 50,722 44,748 1967-2015 From Shale Gas Wells 1,242,678 2,088,306 2,130,551 1,534,372 1,197,480 1,120,806 2007-2015 From Coalbed Wells 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002-2015 Repressuring 3,606 5,015 0 2,829 3,199 4,248 1967-2015 Vented and Flared 4,578 6,302 0 3,912 4,606 3,748 1967-2015 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed 0 0 0 0 0 0

  11. New Research Facility to Remove Hurdles to Offshore Wind and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Research Facility to Remove Hurdles to Offshore Wind and Water Power Development New Research Facility to Remove Hurdles to Offshore Wind and Water Power Development January 10, ...

  12. Guide wire extension for shape memory polymer occlusion removal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Guide wire extension for shape memory polymer occlusion removal devices Title: Guide wire extension for shape memory polymer occlusion removal devices A flexible extension for a ...

  13. Moab Mill Tailings Removal Project Plans to Resume Train Shipments...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Tons of Mill Tailings Removed From DOE Moab Project Site Laborers place a disposable liner in a tailings container. Moab Project Continues Progress on Tailings Removal with...

  14. Coagulation chemistries for silica removal from cooling tower...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Coagulation chemistries for silica removal from cooling tower water. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Coagulation chemistries for silica removal from cooling tower water. ...

  15. Nitrate removal from drinking water -- Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapoor, A.; Viraraghavan, T.

    1997-04-01

    Nitrate concentrations in surface water and especially in ground water have increased in Canada, the US, Europe, and other areas of the world. This trend has raised concern because nitrates cause methemoglobiinemia in infants. Several treatment processes including ion exchange, biological denitrification, chemical denitrification, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, and catalytic denitrification can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that ion exchange and biological denitrification are more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis. Ion exchange is more viable for ground water while biological denitrification is the preferred alternative for surface water. This paper reviews the developments in the field of nitrate removal processes.

  16. Method of making thermally removable polyurethanes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loy, Douglas A.; Wheeler, David R.; McElhanon, James R.; Saunders, Randall S.; Durbin-Voss, Marvie Lou

    2002-01-01

    A method of making a thermally-removable polyurethane material by heating a mixture of a maleimide compound and a furan compound, and introducing alcohol and isocyanate functional groups, where the alcohol group and the isocyanate group reacts to form the urethane linkages and the furan compound and the maleimide compound react to form the thermally weak Diels-Alder adducts that are incorporated into the backbone of the urethane linkages during the formation of the polyurethane material at temperatures from above room temperature to less than approximately 90.degree. C. The polyurethane material can be easily removed within approximately an hour by heating to temperatures greater than approximately 90.degree. C. in a polar solvent. The polyurethane material can be used in protecting electronic components that may require subsequent removal of the solid material for component repair, modification or quality control.

  17. Properly engineer lead paint removal projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaelin, A.B.

    1996-01-01

    Deciding how to mitigate the hazards during lead paint removal is complex and requires consideration of many variables. Assessment of public health risk, environmental impact, and emissions potential of the operations must be considered. Additionally, the removal technique, containment system, and monitoring criteria must be developed. This article presents an integrated approach to identifying lead hazards, assessing risks to workers, the environment, and the public, developing the appropriate maintenance strategy, and selecting paint removal and containment systems. Also considered are guidelines for selecting a third party to design the overall project. This approach is based on a decision path that provides criteria for project assessment in an orderly fashion. The design of lead paint management projects in industrial applications requires consideration of the variables shown in the decision path.

  18. System for removal of arsenic from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert C.; Anderson, D. Richard

    2004-11-23

    Systems for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical systems for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A system for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a system for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  19. SO2 REMOVAL WITH COAL SCRUBBING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eung Ha Cho; Hari Prashanth Sundaram; Aubrey L. Miller

    2001-07-01

    This project is based on an effective removal of sulfur dioxide from flue gas with coal as the scrubbing medium instead of lime, which is used in the conventional FGD processes. A laboratory study proves that coal scrubbing is an innovative technology that can be implemented into a commercial process in place of the conventional lime scrubbing flue gas desulfurization process. SO{sub 2} was removed from a gas stream using an apparatus, which consisted of a 1-liter stirred reactor immersed in a thermostated oil bath. The reactor contained 60 g of 35-65 mesh coal in 600 ml of water. The apparatus also had 2 bubblers connected to the outlet of the reactor, each containing 1500 ml of 1 molar NaOH solution. The flow rate of the gas was 30 ml/sec, temperature was varied from 21 C to 73 C. Oxygen concentration ranged from 3 to 20% while SO{sub 2} concentration, from 500 to 2000 ppm. SO{sub 2} recovery was determined by analyzing SO{sub 2} concentration in the liquid samples taken from the bubblers. The samples taken from the reactor were analyzed for iron concentrations, which were then used to calculate fractions of coal pyrite leached. It was found that SO{sub 2} removal was highly temperature sensitive, giving 13.1% recovery at 21 C and 99.2% recovery at 73 C after 4 hours. The removal of SO{sub 2} was accomplished by the catalysis of iron that was produced by leaching of coal pyrite with combination of SO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. This leaching reaction was found to be controlled by chemical reaction with apparent activation energy of 11.6 kcal/mole. SO{sub 2} removal increased with increasing O{sub 2} concentration up to 10% and leveled off upon further increase. The effect of SO{sub 2} concentration on its removal was minimal.

  20. Proton depth-dose distribution: 3-D calculation of dose distributions from solar-flare irradiation. Interim report, May-Nov 88

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leavitt, D.D.

    1990-11-01

    Relative depth-dose distribution to the head from 3 typical solar flare proton events were calculated for 3 different exposure geometries: (1) single directional radiation incident upon a fixed head; (2) single directional radiation incident upon head rotating axially (2-D rotation); and (3) omnidirectional radiation incident upon head (3-D rotation). Isodose distributions in the transverse plane intersecting isocenter are presented for each of the 3 solar flare events in all 3 exposure geometries. In all 3 calculation configurations the maximum predicted dose occurred on the surface of the head. The dose at the isocenter of the head relative to the surface dose for the 2-D and 3-D rotation geometries ranged from 2% to 19%, increasing with increasing energy of the event. The calculations suggest the superficially located organs (lens of the eye and skin) are at greatest risk for the proton events studied here.

  1. Estimates of global, regional, and national annual CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring: 1950--1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boden, T.A.; Marland, G.; Andres, R.J.

    1995-12-01

    This document describes the compilation, content, and format of the most comprehensive C0{sub 2}-emissions database currently available. The database includes global, regional, and national annual estimates of C0{sub 2} emissions resulting from fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing, and gas flaring in oil fields for 1950--92 as well as the energy production, consumption, and trade data used for these estimates. The methods of Marland and Rotty (1983) are used to calculate these emission estimates. For the first time, the methods and data used to calculate CO, emissions from gas flaring are presented. This C0{sub 2}-emissions database is useful for carbon-cycle research, provides estimates of the rate at which fossil-fuel combustion has released C0{sub 2} to the atmosphere, and offers baseline estimates for those countries compiling 1990 C0{sub 2}-emissions inventories.

  2. Arsenic removal in conjunction with lime softening

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khandaker, Nadim R.; Brady, Patrick V.; Teter, David M.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2004-10-12

    A method for removing dissolved arsenic from an aqueous medium comprising adding lime to the aqueous medium, and adding one or more sources of divalent metal ions other than calcium and magnesium to the aqueous medium, whereby dissolved arsenic in the aqueous medium is reduced to a lower level than possible if only the step of adding lime were performed. Also a composition of matter for removing dissolved arsenic from an aqueous medium comprising lime and one or more sources of divalent copper and/or zinc metal ions.

  3. Removal of uranium from aqueous HF solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pulley, Howard; Seltzer, Steven F.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a simple and effective method for removing uranium from aqueous HF solutions containing trace quantities of the same. The method comprises contacting the solution with particulate calcium fluoride to form uranium-bearing particulates, permitting the particulates to settle, and separting the solution from the settled particulates. The CaF.sub.2 is selected to have a nitrogen surface area in a selected range and is employed in an amount providing a calcium fluoride/uranium weight ratio in a selected range. As applied to dilute HF solutions containing 120 ppm uranium, the method removes at least 92% of the uranium, without introducing contaminants to the product solution.

  4. Process for removing metals from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Napier, John M.; Hancher, Charles M.; Hackett, Gail D.

    1989-01-01

    A process for removing metals from water including the steps of prefiltering solids from the water, adjusting the pH to between about 2 and 3, reducing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water, increasing the pH to between about 6 and 8, adding water-soluble sulfide to precipitate insoluble sulfide- and hydroxide-forming metals, adding a flocculating agent, separating precipitate-containing floc, and postfiltering the resultant solution. The postfiltered solution may optionally be eluted through an ion exchange resin to remove residual metal ions.

  5. Process for removing metals from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Napier, J.M.; Hancher, C.M.; Hackett, G.D.

    1987-06-29

    A process for removing metals from water including the steps of prefiltering solids from the water, adjusting the pH to between about 2 and 3, reducing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water, increasing the pH to between about 6 and 8, adding water-soluble sulfide to precipitate insoluble sulfide- and hydroxide-forming metals, adding a containing floc, and postfiltering the resultant solution. The postfiltered solution may optionally be eluted through an ion exchange resin to remove residual metal ions. 2 tabs.

  6. Method of making thermally removable adhesives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aubert, James H.

    2004-11-30

    A method of making a thermally-removable adhesive is provided where a bismaleimide compound, a monomeric furan compound, containing an oxirane group an amine curative are mixed together at an elevated temperature of greater than approximately 90.degree. C. to form a homogeneous solution, which, when cooled to less than approximately 70.degree. C., simultaneously initiates a Diels-Alder reaction between the furan and the bismaleimide and a epoxy curing reaction between the amine curative and the oxirane group to form a thermally-removable adhesive. Subsequent heating to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. causes the adhesive to melt and allows separation of adhered pieces.

  7. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, Evan J.; Hargis, Richard A.; Pennline, Henry W.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the various promoters and sorbents examined for the removal of mercury from flue gas is presented. Commercial sorbent processes are described along with the chemistry of the various sorbent-mercury interactions. Novel sorbents for removing mercury from flue gas are suggested. Since activated carbons are expensive, alternate sorbents and/or improved activated carbons are needed. Because of their lower cost, sorbent development work can focus on base metal oxides and halides. Additionally, the long-term sequestration of the mercury on the sorbent needs to be addressed. Contacting methods between the flue gas and the sorbent also merit investigation.

  8. OBSERVATION OF A MORETON WAVE AND WAVE-FILAMENT INTERACTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH THE RENOWNED X9 FLARE ON 1990 MAY 24

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Rui; Liu Chang; Xu Yan; Wang Haimin; Liu Wei; Kliem, Bernhard

    2013-08-20

    Using Big Bear Solar Observatory film data recently digitized at NJIT, we investigate a Moreton wave associated with an X9 flare on 1990 May 24, as well as its interactions with four filaments F1-F4 located close to the flaring region. The interaction yields interesting insight into physical properties of both the wave and the filaments. The first clear Moreton wavefront appears at the flaring-region periphery at approximately the same time as the peak of a microwave burst and the first of two {gamma}-ray peaks. The wavefront propagates at different speeds ranging from 1500-2600 km s{sup -1} in different directions, reaching as far as 600 Mm away from the flaring site. Sequential chromospheric brightenings are observed ahead of the Moreton wavefront. A slower diffuse front at 300-600 km s{sup -1} is observed to trail the fast Moreton wavefront about one minute after the onset. The Moreton wave decelerates to {approx}550 km s{sup -1} as it sweeps through F1. The wave passage results in F1's oscillation which is featured by {approx}1 mHz signals with coherent Fourier phases over the filament, the activation of F3 and F4 followed by gradual recovery, but no disturbance in F2. Different height and magnetic environment together may account for the distinct responses of the filaments to the wave passage. The wavefront bulges at F4, whose spine is oriented perpendicular to the upcoming wavefront. The deformation of the wavefront is suggested to be due to both the forward inclination of the wavefront and the enhancement of the local Alfven speed within the filament channel.

  9. Quasi-static three-dimensional magnetic field evolution in solar active region NOAA 11166 associated with an X1.5 flare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vemareddy, P.; Wiegelmann, T. E-mail: wiegelmann@mps.mpg.de

    2014-09-01

    We study the quasi-static evolution of coronal magnetic fields constructed from the non-linear force-free field (NLFFF) approximation aiming to understand the relation between the magnetic field topology and ribbon emission during an X1.5 flare in active region (AR) NOAA 11166. The flare with a quasi-elliptical and two remote ribbons occurred on 2011 March 9 at 23:13 UT over a positive flux region surrounded by negative flux at the center of the bipolar AR. Our analysis of the coronal magnetic structure with potential and NLFFF solutions unveiled the existence of a single magnetic null point associated with a fan-spine topology and is co-spatial with the hard X-ray source. The footpoints of the fan separatrix surface agree with the inner edge of the quasi-elliptical ribbon and the outer spine is linked to one of the remote ribbons. During the evolution, the slow footpoint motions stressed the field lines along the polarity inversion line and caused electric current layers in the corona around the fan separatrix surface. These current layers trigger magnetic reconnection as a consequence of dissipating currents, which are visible as cusp-shaped structures at lower heights. The reconnection process reorganized the magnetic field topology whose signatures are observed at the separatrices/quasi-separatrix layer structure in both the photosphere and the corona during the pre-to-post flare evolution. In agreement with previous numerical studies, our results suggest that the line-tied footpoint motions perturb the fan-spine system and cause null point reconnection, which eventually causes the flare emission at the footpoints of the field lines.

  10. CONSTRAINING THE PHYSICAL CONDITIONS IN THE JETS OF γ-RAY FLARING BLAZARS USING CENTIMETER-BAND POLARIMETRY AND RADIATIVE TRANSFER SIMULATIONS. II. EXPLORING PARAMETER SPACE AND IMPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, Philip A.; Aller, Margo F.; Aller, Hugh D. E-mail: mfa@umich.edu

    2015-02-01

    We analyze the shock-in-jet models for the γ-ray flaring blazars 0420-014, OJ 287, and 1156+295 presented in Paper I, quantifying how well the modeling constrains internal properties of the flow (low-energy spectral cutoff, partition between random and ordered magnetic field), the flow dynamics (quiescent flow speed and orientation), and the number and strength of the shocks responsible for radio-band flaring. We conclude that well-sampled, multifrequency polarized flux light curves are crucial for defining source properties. We argue for few, if any, low-energy particles in these flows, suggesting no entrainment and efficient energization of jet material, and for approximate energy equipartition between the random and ordered magnetic field components, suggesting that the ordered field is built by nontrivial dynamo action from the random component, or that the latter arises from a jet instability that preserves the larger-scale, ordered flow. We present evidence that the difference between orphan radio-band (no γ-ray counterpart) and non-orphan flares is due to more complex shock interactions in the latter case.

  11. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schulz, W.W.

    1959-08-01

    The removal of chlorides from aqueons solutions is described. The process involves contacting the aqueous chloride containing solution with a benzene solution about 0.005 M in phenyl mercuric acetate whereby the chloride anions are taken up by the organic phase and separating the organic phase from the aqueous solutions.

  12. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign}, and VAC-PAC{reg_sign}. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign} uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC{reg_sign} vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  13. ASBESTOS PIPE-INSULATION REMOVAL ROBOT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2000-09-15

    This final topical report details the development, experimentation and field-testing activities for a robotic asbestos pipe-insulation removal robot system developed for use within the DOE's weapon complex as part of their ER and WM program, as well as in industrial abatement. The engineering development, regulatory compliance, cost-benefit and field-trial experiences gathered through this program are summarized.

  14. Tank waste remediation system compensatory measure removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MILLIKEN, N.J.

    1999-05-18

    In support of Fiscal Year 1998 Performance Agreement TWR1.4.3, ''Replace Compensatory Measures,'' the Tank Waste Remediation System is documenting the completion of field modifications supporting the removal of the temporary exemptions from the approved Tank Waste Remediation System Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), HNF-SD-WM-TSR-006. These temporary exemptions or compensatory measures expire September 30, 1998.

  15. Process for removing carbon from uranium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, George L.; Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.

    1976-01-01

    Carbon contamination is removed from uranium and uranium alloys by heating in inert atmosphere to 700.degree.-1900.degree.C in effective contact with yttrium to cause carbon in the uranium to react with the yttrium. The yttrium is either in direct contact with the contaminated uranium or in indirect contact by means of an intermediate transport medium.

  16. METHOD OF REMOVING RADIOACTIVE IODINE FROM GASES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silverman, L.

    1962-01-23

    A method of removing radioactive iodine from a gaseous medium is given in which the gaseous medium is adjusted to a temperature not exceeding 400 deg C and then passed over a copper fibrous pad having a coating of cupric sulfide deposited thereon. An ionic exchange on the pad results in the formation of cupric iodide and the release of sulfur. (AEC)

  17. Method of removing cesium from steam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carson, Jr., Neill J.; Noland, Robert A.; Ruther, Westly E.

    1991-01-01

    Method for removal of radioactive cesium from a hot vapor, such as high temperature steam, including the steps of passing input hot vapor containing radioactive cesium into a bed of silicate glass particles and chemically incorporating radioactive cesium in the silicate glass particles at a temperature of at least about 700.degree. F.

  18. Radiological/biological/aerosol removal system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haslam, Jeffery J

    2015-03-17

    An air filter replacement system for existing buildings, vehicles, arenas, and other enclosed airspaces includes a replacement air filter for replacing a standard air filter. The replacement air filter has dimensions and air flow specifications that allow it to replace the standard air filter. The replacement air filter includes a filter material that removes radiological or biological or aerosol particles.

  19. Method of preparation of removable syntactic foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Derzon, D.K.; Nelson, J.S.; Rand, P.B.

    1995-07-11

    Easily removable, environmentally safe, low-density, syntactic foams are disclosed which are prepared by mixing insoluble microballoons with a solution of water and/or alcohol-soluble polymer to produce a pourable slurry, optionally vacuum filtering the slurry in varying degrees to remove unwanted solvent and solute polymer, and drying to remove residual solvent. The properties of the foams can be controlled by the concentration and physical properties of the polymer, and by the size and properties of the microballoons. The suggested solute polymers are non-toxic and soluble in environmentally safe solvents such as water or low-molecular weight alcohols. The syntactic foams produced by this process are particularly useful in those applications where ease of removability is beneficial, and could find use in packaging recoverable electronic components, in drilling and mining applications, in building trades, in art works, in the entertainment industry for special effects, in manufacturing as temporary fixtures, in agriculture as temporary supports and containers and for delivery of fertilizer, in medicine as casts and splints, as temporary thermal barriers, as temporary protective covers for fragile objects, as filters for particulate matter, which matter may be easily recovered upon exposure to a solvent, as in-situ valves (for one-time use) which go from maximum to minimum impedance when solvent flows through, and for the automatic opening or closing of spring-loaded, mechanical switches upon exposure to a solvent, among other applications. 1 fig.

  20. Method of preparation of removable syntactic foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jr., Charles; Derzon, Dora K.; Nelson, Jill S.; Rand, Peter B.

    1995-01-01

    Easily removable, environmentally safe, low-density, syntactic foams are disclosed which are prepared by mixing insoluble microballoons with a solution of water and/or alcohol-soluble polymer to produce a pourable slurry, optionally vacuum filtering the slurry in varying degrees to remove unwanted solvent and solute polymer, and drying to remove residual solvent. The properties of the foams can be controlled by the concentration and physical properties of the polymer, and by the size and properties of the microballoons. The suggested solute polymers are non-toxic and soluble in environmentally safe solvents such as water or low-molecular weight alcohols. The syntactic foams produced by this process are particularly useful in those applications where ease of removability is beneficial, and could find use in packaging recoverable electronic components, in drilling and mining applications, in building trades, in art works, in the entertainment industry for special effects, in manufacturing as temporary fixtures, in agriculture as temporary supports and containers and for delivery of fertilizer, in medicine as casts and splints, as temporary thermal barriers, as temporary protective covers for fragile objects, as filters for particulate matter, which matter may be easily recovered upon exposure to a solvent, as in-situ valves (for one-time use) which go from maximum to minimum impedance when solvent flows through, and for the automatic opening or closing of spring-loaded, mechanical switches upon exposure to a solvent, among other applications.

  1. Recommendation 183: Preferred Alternative for the Removal of Hexavalent Chromium

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The ORSSAB Recommendation to DOE on the Preferred Alternative for the Removal of Hexavalent Chromium.

  2. MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF THE SPATIO-TEMPORAL EVOLUTION OF SOLAR FLARES WITH AIA/SDO. II. HYDRODYNAMIC SCALING LAWS AND THERMAL ENERGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Shimizu, Toshifumi E-mail: shimizu.toshifumi@isas.jaxa.jp

    2013-10-20

    In this study we measure physical parameters of the same set of 155 M- and X-class solar flares observed with AIA/SDO as analyzed in Paper I, by performing a differential emission measure analysis to determine the flare peak emission measure EM{sub p} , peak temperature T{sub p} , electron density n{sub p} , and thermal energy E{sub th}, in addition to the spatial scales L, areas A, and volumes V measured in Paper I. The parameter ranges for M- and X-class flares are log (EM{sub p}) = 47.0-50.5, T{sub p} = 5.0-17.8 MK, n{sub p} = 4 × 10{sup 9}-9 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup –3}, and thermal energies of E{sub th} = 1.6 × 10{sup 28}-1.1 × 10{sup 32} erg. We find that these parameters obey the Rosner-Tucker-Vaiana (RTV) scaling law T{sub p}{sup 2}∝n{sub p} L and H∝T {sup 7/2} L {sup –2} during the peak time t{sub p} of the flare density n{sub p} , when energy balance between the heating rate H and the conductive and radiative loss rates is achieved for a short instant and thus enables the applicability of the RTV scaling law. The application of the RTV scaling law predicts power-law distributions for all physical parameters, which we demonstrate with numerical Monte Carlo simulations as well as with analytical calculations. A consequence of the RTV law is also that we can retrieve the size distribution of heating rates, for which we find N(H)∝H {sup –1.8}, which is consistent with the magnetic flux distribution N(Φ)∝Φ{sup –1.85} observed by Parnell et al. and the heating flux scaling law F{sub H} ∝HL∝B/L of Schrijver et al.. The fractal-diffusive self-organized criticality model in conjunction with the RTV scaling law reproduces the observed power-law distributions and their slopes for all geometrical and physical parameters and can be used to predict the size distributions for other flare data sets, instruments, and detection algorithms.

  3. STELLAR CORONAE, SOLAR FLARES: A DETAILED COMPARISON OF {sigma} GEM, HR 1099, AND THE SUN IN HIGH-RESOLUTION X-RAYS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huenemoerder, David P.; Phillips, Kenneth J. H.; Sylwester, Janusz; Sylwester, Barbara E-mail: kennethjhphillips@yahoo.com E-mail: bs@cbk.pan.wroc.pl

    2013-05-10

    The Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETG) spectra of the coronally active binary stars {sigma} Gem and HR 1099 are among the highest fluence observations for such systems taken at high spectral resolution in X-rays with this instrument. This allows us to compare their properties in detail to solar flare spectra obtained with the Russian CORONAS-F spacecraft's RESIK instrument at similar resolution in an overlapping bandpass. Here we emphasize the detailed comparisons of the 3.3-6.1 A region (including emission from highly ionized S, Si, Ar, and K) from solar flare spectra to the corresponding {sigma} Gem and HR 1099 spectra. We also model the larger wavelength range of the HETG, from 1.7 to 25 A - having emission lines from Fe, Ca, Ar, Si, Al, Mg, Ne, O, and N-to determine coronal temperatures and abundances. {sigma} Gem is a single-lined coronally active long-period binary which has a very hot corona. HR 1099 is a similar, but shorter period, double-lined system. With very deep HETG exposures we can even study emission from some of the weaker species, such as K, Na, and Al, which are important since they have the lowest first ionization potentials, a parameter well known to be correlated with elemental fractionation in the solar corona. The solar flare temperatures reach Almost-Equal-To 20 MK, comparable to the {sigma} Gem and HR 1099 coronae. During the Chandra exposures, {sigma} Gem was slowly decaying from a flare and its spectrum is well characterized by a collisional ionization equilibrium plasma with a broad temperature distribution ranging from 2 to 60 MK, peaking near 25 MK, but with substantial emission from 50 MK plasma. We have detected K XVIII and Na XI emission which allow us to set limits on their abundances. HR 1099 was also quite variable in X-rays, also in a flare state, but had no detectable K XVIII. These measurements provide new comparisons of solar and stellar coronal abundances, especially at the lowest first ionization

  4. THE SPITZER SURVEY OF INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS IN THE GOULD BELT. II. THE CEPHEUS FLARE OBSERVED WITH IRAC AND MIPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirk, Jason M.; Ward-Thompson, Derek; Di Francesco, James E-mail: derek.ward-thompson@astro.cf.ac.uk

    2009-11-01

    We present Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC; {approx}2 deg{sup 2}) and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS; {approx}8 deg{sup 2}) observations of the Cepheus Flare, which is associated with the Gould Belt, at an approximate distance of {approx}300 pc. Around 6500 sources are detected in all four IRAC bands, of which {approx}900 have MIPS 24 {mu}m detections. We identify 133 young stellar object (YSO) candidates using color-magnitude diagram techniques, and a large number of the YSO candidates are associated with the NGC 7023 reflection nebula. Cross-identifications were made with the Guide Star Catalog II and the IRAS Faint Source Catalog, and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) were constructed. SED modeling was conducted to estimate the degree of infrared excess. It was found that a large majority of disks were optically thick accreting disks, suggesting that there has been little disk evolution in these sources. Nearest-neighbor clustering analysis identified four small protostellar groups (L1228, L1228N, L1251A, and L1251B) with 5-15 members each and the larger NGC 7023 association with 32 YSO members. The star-formation efficiency for cores with clusters of protostars and for those without clusters was found to be {approx}8% and {approx}1%, respectively. The cores L1155, L1241, and L1247 are confirmed to be starless down to our luminosity limit of L {sub bol} = 0.06 L {sub sun}.

  5. Influence of a combustion-driven oscillation on global mixing in the flame from a refinery flare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langman, A.S.; Nathan, G.J.

    2011-01-15

    An assessment of the influence of strong combustion-driven oscillations on mixing rates and visible radiation in the flame from a full-scale refinery flare is reported. Importantly, the oscillations were generated naturally, with no external forcing, and at a high Reynolds number of 4 x 10{sup 6}. These conditions differentiate this study from those of previous investigations, which all involved some external forcing and were at a Re too low to ensure fully turbulent flow within the flame. A frame-by-frame analysis of video footage, providing good resolution of the instantaneous edge of each flame, was used to assess flame dimensions, and so to determine a global residence time. Since the flames are in the fast-chemistry regime, the visual imagers can be used to determine a global mixing rate. The analysis reveals a consistent picture that the combustion-driven oscillations do not result in a significant change to the global mixing rate, but do increase the visible radiation. This is in contrast to previous investigations, using externally forced jets, where forcing at the preferred mode has been found to increase mixing rates and reduce radiation. (author)

  6. STUDY OF THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELD OF ACTIVE REGION 11117 AROUND THE TIME OF A CONFINED FLARE USING A DATA-DRIVEN CESE-MHD MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang Chaowei; Feng Xueshang; Wu, S. T.; Hu Qiang E-mail: fengx@spaceweather.ac.cn E-mail: qh0001@uah.edu

    2012-11-10

    We apply a data-driven magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field of NOAA active region (AR) 11117 around the time of a C-class confined flare that occurred on 2010 October 25. The MHD model, based on the spacetime conservation-element and solution-element scheme, is designed to focus on the magnetic field evolution and to consider a simplified solar atomsphere with finite plasma {beta}. Magnetic vector-field data derived from the observations at the photosphere is inputted directly to constrain the model. Assuming that the dynamic evolution of the coronal magnetic field can be approximated by successive equilibria, we solve a time sequence of MHD equilibria based on a set of vector magnetograms for AR 11117 taken by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory around the time of the flare. The model qualitatively reproduces the basic structures of the 3D magnetic field, as supported by the visual similarity between the field lines and the coronal loops observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, which shows that the coronal field can indeed be well characterized by the MHD equilibrium in most cases. The magnetic configuration changes very little during the studied time interval of 2 hr. A topological analysis reveals that the small flare is correlated with a bald patch (BP, where the magnetic field is tangent to the photosphere), suggesting that the energy release of the flare can be understood by magnetic reconnection associated with the BP separatrices. The total magnetic flux and energy keep increasing slightly in spite of the flare, while the computed magnetic free energy drops during the flare by {approx}10{sup 30} erg, which seems to be adequate in providing the energy budget of a minor C-class confined flare.

  7. Removal of Retired Alkali Metal Test Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BREHM, W.F.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the successful effort to remove alkali metals, alkali metal residues, and piping and structures from retired non-radioactive test systems on the Hanford Site. These test systems were used between 1965 and 1982 to support the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. A considerable volume of sodium and sodium-potassium alloy (NaK) was successfully recycled to the commercial sector; structural material and electrical material such as wiring was also recycled. Innovative techniques were used to safely remove NaK and its residues from a test system that could not be gravity-drained. The work was done safely, with no environmental issues or significant schedule delays.

  8. Removal of mercury from waste gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muster, U.; Marr, R.; Pichler, G.; Kremshofer, S.; Wilferl, R.; Draxler, J.

    1996-12-31

    Waste and process gases from thermal power, incineration and metallurgical plants or those from cement and alkali chloride industries contain metallic, inorganic and organic mercury. Widespread processes to remove the major amount of mercury are absorption and adsorption. Caused by the lowering of the emission limit from 200 to 50 {mu}g/m{sup 3} [STP] by national and European legislators, considerable efforts were made to enhance the efficiency of the main separation units of flue gas cleaning plants. Specially impregnated ceramic carriers can be used for the selective separation of metallic, inorganic and organic mercury. Using the ceramic reactor removal rates lower than 5 {mu}g/m{sup 3} [STP] of gaseous mercury and its compounds can be achieved. The ceramic reactor is active, regenerable and stable for a long term operation. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Method of arsenic removal from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2010-10-26

    A method for low-cost arsenic removal from drinking water using chemically prepared bottom ash pre-treated with ferrous sulfate and then sodium hydroxide. Deposits on the surface of particles of bottom ash form of activated iron adsorbent with a high affinity for arsenic. In laboratory tests, a miniscule 5 grams of pre-treated bottom ash was sufficient to remove the arsenic from 2 liters of 2400 ppb (parts per billion) arsenic-laden water to a level below 50 ppb (the present United States Environmental Protection Agency limit). By increasing the amount of pre-treated bottom ash, even lower levels of post-treatment arsenic are expected. It is further expected that this invention supplies a very low-cost solution to arsenic poisoning for large population segments.

  10. IMPROVED PROCESSES TO REMOVE NAPHTHENIC ACIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; Kangshi Wang, William A. Goddard, Yongchun Tang

    2005-05-05

    In the second year of this project, we continued our effort to develop low temperature decarboxylation catalysts and investigate the behavior of these catalysts at different reaction conditions. We conducted a large number of dynamic measurements with crude oil and model compounds to obtain the information at different reaction stages, which was scheduled as the Task2 in our work plan. We developed a novel adsorption method to remove naphthenic acid from crude oil using naturally occurring materials such as clays. Our results show promise as an industrial application. The theoretical modeling proposed several possible reaction pathways and predicted the reactivity depending on the catalysts employed. From all of these studies, we obtained more comprehensive understanding about catalytic decarboxylation and oil upgrading based on the naphthenic acid removal concept.

  11. Photoacoustic removal of occlusions from blood vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visuri, Steven R.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Celliers, Peter M.; London, Richard A.; Maitland, IV, Duncan J.; Esch, Victor C.

    2002-01-01

    Partial or total occlusions of fluid passages within the human body are removed by positioning an array of optical fibers in the passage and directing treatment radiation pulses along the fibers, one at a time, to generate a shock wave and hydrodynamics flows that strike and emulsify the occlusions. A preferred application is the removal of blood clots (thrombin and embolic) from small cerebral vessels to reverse the effects of an ischemic stroke. The operating parameters and techniques are chosen to minimize the amount of heating of the fragile cerebral vessel walls occurring during this photo acoustic treatment. One such technique is the optical monitoring of the existence of hydrodynamics flow generating vapor bubbles when they are expected to occur and stopping the heat generating pulses propagated along an optical fiber that is not generating such bubbles.

  12. Removal of arsenic compounds from petroliferous liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fish, Richard H.

    1985-01-01

    Described is a process for removing arsenic from petroliferous derived liquids by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: a. treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20.degree. to 100.degree. C. with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10 and, b. separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment is in two steps wherein step (a) is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, steps (a) and (b) are repeated using a bicarbonate.

  13. Process for removing sulfur from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aida, Tetsuo; Squires, Thomas G.; Venier, Clifford G.

    1985-02-05

    A process for the removal of divalent organic and inorganic sulfur compounds from coal and other carbonaceous material. A slurry of pulverized carbonaceous material is contacted with an electrophilic oxidant which selectively oxidizes the divalent organic and inorganic compounds to trivalent and tetravalent compounds. The carbonaceous material is then contacted with a molten caustic which dissolves the oxidized sulfur compounds away from the hydrocarbon matrix.

  14. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

    1990-05-15

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  15. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

    1987-07-30

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  16. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, Milton; Sinha, Shome N.

    1990-01-01

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  17. REMOVAL OF LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS FROM SWEDEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, Kerry A.; Bellamy, J. Steve; Chandler, Greg T.; Iyer, Natraj C.; Koenig, Rich E.; Leduc, D.; Hackney, B.; Leduc, Dan R.; McClard, J. W.

    2013-08-18

    U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Global Threat Reduction (GTRI) recently removed legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in collaboration with AB SVAFO, Sweden. This paper details the activities undertaken through the U.S. receiving site (Savannah River Site (SRS)) to support the characterization, stabilization, packaging and removal of legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in 2012. This effort was undertaken as part of GTRI’s Gap Materials Program and culminated with the successful removal of plutonium from Sweden as announced at the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit. The removal and shipment of plutonium materials to the United States was the first of its kind under NNSA’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative. The Environmental Assessment for the U.S. receipt of gap plutonium material was approved in May 2010. Since then, the multi-year process yielded many first time accomplishments associated with plutonium packaging and transport activities including the application of the of DOE-STD-3013 stabilization requirements to treat plutonium materials outside the U.S., the development of an acceptance criteria for receipt of plutonium from a foreign country, the development and application of a versatile process flow sheet for the packaging of legacy plutonium materials, the identification of a plutonium container configuration, the first international certificate validation of the 9975 shipping package and the first intercontinental shipment using the 9975 shipping package. This paper will detail the technical considerations in developing the packaging process flow sheet, defining the key elements of the flow sheet and its implementation, determining the criteria used in the selection of the transport package, developing the technical basis for the package certificate amendment and the reviews with multiple licensing authorities and most importantly integrating the technical activities with the Swedish partners.

  18. Advanced Water Removal via Membrane Solvent Extraction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Water Removal via Membrane Solvent Extraction Reduction in energy and water use for the ethanol industry Ethanol is the leading biofuel in the U.S. with 13 Billion gallons produced in 2010. 1 Distillation is the industry standard for separating water from ethanol and is an energy intensive process, accounting for a signifcant portion of the total energy usage in an ethanol plant. Existing distillation systems also require high volumes of cooling water, resulting in about four gallons of water

  19. Process for removing sulfur from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aida, T.; Squires, T.G.; Venier, C.G.

    1983-08-11

    A process is disclosed for the removal of divalent organic and inorganic sulfur compounds from coal and other carbonaceous material. A slurry of pulverized carbonaceous material is contacted with an electrophilic oxidant which selectively oxidizes the divalent organic and inorganic compounds to trivalent and tetravalent compounds. The carbonaceous material is then contacted with a molten caustic which dissolves the oxidized sulfur compounds away from the hydrocarbon matrix.

  20. Process for removing mercury from aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Makarewicz, M.A.; Meredith, P.F.

    1985-03-04

    A process for removing mercury from water to a level not greater than two parts per billion wherein an anion exchange material that is insoluble in water is contacted first with a sulfide containing compound and second with a compound containing a bivalent metal ion forming an insoluble metal sulfide. To this treated exchange material is contacted water containing mercury. The water containing not more than two parts per billion of mercury is separated from the exchange material.

  1. Process for removing mercury from aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Googin, John M.; Napier, John M.; Makarewicz, Mark A.; Meredith, Paul F.

    1986-01-01

    A process for removing mercury from water to a level not greater than two parts per billion wherein an anion exchange material that is insoluble in water is contacted first with a sulfide containing compound and second with a compound containing a bivalent metal ion forming an insoluble metal sulfide. To this treated exchange material is contacted water containing mercury. The water containing not more than two parts per billion of mercury is separated from the exchange material.

  2. Vanadium removal from petroleum refinery wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nurdogan, Y.; Meyer, C.L.

    1996-11-01

    Although a numerical effluent limit has not been proposed for vanadium, San Francisco Bay Area refineries have been investigating reasonable source control and treatment measures to limit the discharge of vanadium as part of their National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit requirements because vanadium may contribute to aquatic toxicity. The NPDES permit issued for the Shell Martinez Manufacturing Complex (MMC) by the Regional Water Quality Control Board (CRWQCB) required that in the investigation of control strategies for vanadium, consideration must be given to source control measures that would reduce the discharge to the extent practicable. This paper summarizes the results of bench- and pilot-scale studies to remove vanadium from process effluent of the Shell MMC. This study has resulted in the following conclusions: vanadium in the Shell MMC refinery wastewater is generated by two major sources--the Flexicoker and Stretford processes; ferric and ferrous salts are both effective in removing vanadium from wastewaters; there are tradeoffs between the initial vanadium concentration, the final pH, and the final dissolved vanadium concentration, for both ferrous and ferric reagents; recycle of iron hydroxide sludge can reduce the amount of reagent needed to attain a given vanadium concentration; other things being equal, less ferric than ferrous reagent is required to produce the same removal of vanadium; the dewatered sludge from the pilot plant was tested for its hazardous waste characteristics; a high pH sludge regeneration and reuse process appears to be a promising method of cleaning up the hazardous iron sludge.

  3. Technetium Removal Using Tc-Goethite Coprecipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Um, Wooyong; Wang, Guohui; Jung, Hun Bok; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-11-18

    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-31 Support Program (EMSP) subtask, “Low temperature waste forms coupled with technetium removal using an alternative immobilization process such as Fe(II) treated-goethite precipitation” to increase our understanding of 99Tc long-term stability in goethite mineral form and the process that controls the 99Tc(VII) reduction and removal by the final Fe (oxy)hydroxide forms. The overall objectives of this task were to 1) evaluate the transformation process of Fe (oxy)hydroxide solids to the more crystalline goethite (α-FeOOH) mineral for 99Tc removal and 2) determine the mechanism that limits 99Tc(IV) reoxidation in Fe(II)-treated 99Tc-goethite mineral and 3) evaluate whether there is a long-term 99Tcoxidation state change for Tc sequestered in the iron solids.

  4. Copper removal from solid ferrous scrap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fruehan, R.J.; Cramb, A.W.

    1991-04-01

    As discussed in detail in the Appendix, copper is detrimental to the properties of steel. Copper is present in most forms of recycled scrap, such as bundles and shredded scrap. Typical levels of copper in these forms of scrap are 0.2 to 0.4%, whereas critical grades of steel require less than 0.1 and often 0.06% Cu. Therefore, these forms of scrap cannot be used alone to produce quality steels. Steelmakers must dilute the copper from lower quality scrap with expensive high quality scrap or direct reduced iron pellets. Currently there is no effective method for removing copper from scrap. The only proven method is improved physical separation which is labor intensive, expensive, and only marginally reduces the copper content. Chemical treatments, such as sulfide treatment of liquid metal and vacuum, are not effective as discussed in the Appendix in detail. Carnegie Mellon University developed a concept for removing copper from solid ferrous scrap at 900--1000{degrees}C using a FeS-Na{sub 2}S reagent. Small laboratory tests showed 90% of the Cu from simulated solid scrap could be removed. The major results of this study are summarized in this report. Details are given in the reports in the Appendix.

  5. Land subsidence caused by fluid removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    Subsidence caused by the removal of both fluids and solids is a world-wide environmental problem. The extraction of coal, natural gas, oil, fresh water, brine, etc, have all caused subsidence at various times and locations. Although subsidence related to oil and geothermal field operations is relatively rare, it has caused severe problems in the past and currently. In porous media, the surface is held stable by underground support from the matrix rocks and the pore fluids. Upon the production of reservoir fluids, pore fluid pressure drops and the portion of geostatic loading borne by the pore fluids is transferred to rock matrix. This increase in load causes both elastic and inelastic deformation of the skeletal structure of the reservoir being produced. Pore volume is lost, the reservoir decreases in the vertical dimension, and subsidence might occur at the surface. As soon as subsidence is detected, most observers try to estimate the maximum that might occur. This prediction has proved to be a very difficult proposition owing to geologic complexities and unknown petrophysical data. Seven examples of subsidence in oil and geothermal operations show many similarities, such as high porosity, large fluid removal, limited arching in the structure, large width to depth ratios, usually poor cementation, grabens and normal faulting, and coincidence of time and place of fluid removal and subsidence. None of these are critical, but the result in a field that has most of these properties often is surface subsidence. Reservoir compaction in situ has been measured by two methods: (1) casing joint length changes and (2) the location of radioactive bullets shot into the formation. Casing joint measurements, although having accuracy limitations, usually furnish data as to the degree of compaction without previous planning.

  6. Electrostatic Dust Detection and Removal for ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.H. Skinner; A. Campos; H. Kugel; J. Leisure; A.L. Roquemore; S. Wagner

    2008-09-01

    We present some recent results on two innovative applications of microelectronics technology to dust inventory measurement and dust removal in ITER. A novel device to detect the settling of dust particles on a remote surface has been developed in the laboratory. A circuit board with a grid of two interlocking conductive traces with 25 μm spacing is biased to 30 – 50 V. Carbon particles landing on the energized grid create a transient short circuit. The current flowing through the short circuit creates a voltage pulse that is recorded by standard nuclear counting electronics and the total number of counts is related to the mass of dust impinging on the grid. The particles typically vaporize in a few seconds restoring the previous voltage standoff. Experience on NSTX however, showed that in a tokamak environment it was still possible for large particles or fibers to remain on the grid causing a long term short circuit. We report on the development of a gas puff system that uses helium to clear such particles. Experiments with varying nozzle designs, backing pressures, puff durations, and exit flow orientations have given an optimal configuration that effectively removes particles from an area up to 25 cm² with a single nozzle. In a separate experiment we are developing an advanced circuit grid of three interlocking traces that can generate a miniature electrostatic traveling wave for transporting dust to a suitable exit port. We have fabricated such a 3-pole circuit board with 25 micron insulated traces that operates with voltages up to 200 V. Recent results showed motion of dust particles with the application of only 50 V bias voltage. Such a device could potentially remove dust continuously without dedicated interventions and without loss of machine availability for plasma operations.

  7. Process for removing technetium from iron and other metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leitnaker, James M.; Trowbridge, Lee D.

    1999-01-01

    A process for removing technetium from iron and other metals comprises the steps of converting the molten, alloyed technetium to a sulfide dissolved in manganese sulfide, and removing the sulfide from the molten metal as a slag.

  8. Process for removing technetium from iron and other metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leitnaker, J.M.; Trowbridge, L.D.

    1999-03-23

    A process for removing technetium from iron and other metals comprises the steps of converting the molten, alloyed technetium to a sulfide dissolved in manganese sulfide, and removing the sulfide from the molten metal as a slag. 4 figs.

  9. NNSA Highly Enriched Uranium Removal Featured on The Rachel Maddow...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    NNSA Highly Enriched Uranium Removal Featured on The Rachel Maddow Show NNSA Highly Enriched Uranium Removal Featured on The Rachel Maddow Show March 22, 2012 - 11:37am Addthis ...

  10. Secretary Moniz Announces Removal of All Highly Enriched Uranium...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Announces Removal of All Highly Enriched Uranium from Poland Secretary Moniz Announces Removal of All Highly Enriched Uranium from Poland September 26, 2016 - 9:45am Addthis News ...

  11. Process for selected gas oxide removal by radiofrequency catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y.

    1993-01-01

    This process to remove gas oxides from flue gas utilizes adsorption on a char bed subsequently followed by radiofrequency catalysis enhancing such removal through selected reactions. Common gas oxides include SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x.

  12. Removing nuclear waste, one shipment at a time

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Removing nuclear waste, one shipment at a time Removing nuclear waste, one shipment at a time The Lab's 1,000th shipment of transuranic waste recently left Los Alamos, on its way...

  13. Mechanism of paint removing by organic solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Nero, V.; Siat, C.; Marti, M.J.; Aubry, J.M.; Lallier, J.P.; Dupuy, N.; Huvenne, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism of paint removing has been studied by comparing the stripping efficiency of a given solvent with its ability to swell the film. The most effective solvents have a Hildebrand{close_quote}s parameter, {delta}{sub H}, ranging from 10.5 to 12 and a Dimroth parameter, ET{sub (30)}, ranging from 0.25 to 0.4. The synergy observed with the mixtures DMSO/non polar solvent is explained by a dissociation of the DMSO clusters into individual molecules which diffuse more easily. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Ultracapacitor having residual water removed under vacuum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wei, Chang (Niskayuna, NY); Jerabek, Elihu Calvin (Glenmont, NY); Day, James (Scotia, NY)

    2002-10-15

    A multilayer cell is provided that comprises two solid, nonporous current collectors, two porous electrodes separating the current collectors, a porous separator between the electrodes and an electrolyte occupying pores in the electrodes and separator. The mutilayer cell is electrolyzed to disassociate water within the cell to oxygen gas and hydrogen gas. A vacuum is applied to the cell substantially at the same time as the electrolyzing step, to remove the oxygen gas and hydrogen gas. The cell is then sealed to form a ultracapacitor substantially free from water.

  15. Method for removal of methane from coalbeds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pasini, III, Joseph; Overbey, Jr., William K.

    1976-01-01

    A method for removing methane gas from underground coalbeds prior to mining the coal which comprises drilling at least one borehole from the surface into the coalbed. The borehole is started at a slant rather than directly vertically, and as it descends, a gradual curve is followed until a horizontal position is reached where the desired portion of the coalbed is intersected. Approaching the coalbed in this manner and fracturing the coalbed in the major natural fraction direction cause release of large amounts of the trapped methane gas.

  16. Apparatus for passive removal of subsurface contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pemberton, B.E.; May, C.P.; Rossabi, J.

    1997-06-24

    An apparatus is provided which passively removes contaminated gases from a subsurface. The apparatus includes a riser pipe extending into a subsurface which has an exterior end in fluid communication with a valve. When well pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure, the valve opens to release contaminants into the atmosphere, and when well pressure is less than atmospheric pressure, the valve closes to prevent flow of air into the well. The valve assembly of the invention comprises a lightweight ball which is lifted from its valve seat with a slight pressure drop between the well and the atmosphere. 7 figs.

  17. Apparatus for passive removal of subsurface contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pemberton, Bradley E. (Aiken, SC); May, Christopher P. (Fairfax, VA); Rossabi, Joseph (Aiken, SC)

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus is provided which passively removes contaminated gases from a subsurface. The apparatus includes a riser pipe extending into a subsurface which has an exterior end in fluid communication with a valve. When well pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure, the valve opens to release contaminants into the atmosphere, and when well pressure is less than atmospheric pressure, the valve closes to prevent flow of air into the well. The valve assembly of the invention comprises a lightweight ball which is lifted from its valve seat with a slight pressure drop between the well and the atmosphere.

  18. Install Removable Insulation on Valves and Fittings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Removable Insulation on Valves and Fittings Install Removable Insulation on Valves and Fittings This tip sheet on installing removable insulation on valves and fittings provides how-to advice for improving steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies. STEAM TIP SHEET #17 Install Removable Insulation on Valves and Fittings (January 2012) (400.95 KB) More Documents & Publications Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines Improving Steam System Performance: A

  19. Remove Condensate with Minimal Air Loss | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Remove Condensate with Minimal Air Loss Remove Condensate with Minimal Air Loss This tip sheet outlines several condensate removal methods as part of maintaining compressed air system air quality. COMPRESSED AIR TIP SHEET #13 Remove Condensate with Minimal Air Loss (August 2004) (243.51 KB) More Documents & Publications Maintaining System Air Quality Preventive Maintenance Strategies for Compressed Air Systems Effect of Intake on Compressor Performance

  20. Method for removing fluoride contamination from nitric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pruett, David J.; Howerton, William B.

    1982-01-01

    Fluoride ions are removed from nitric acid solution by contacting the vaporized solution with alumina or zirconium.