National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for domesticated animals nitrogen

  1. Animations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The animations shown on this page are designed and meant to help understand basic geothermal concepts, and are not meant as exhaustive and detailed depictions of technical principles. Rather, they...

  2. Plants & Animals

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Plants & Animals Plants & Animals Plant and animal monitoring is performed to determine whether Laboratory operations are impacting human health via the food chain. February 2, 2015 A rabbit on LANL land. A rabbit on Los Alamos National Laboratory land. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email We sample many plants and animals, including wild and domestic crops, game animals, fish, and food products from

  3. U.S. Domestic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Domestic and Foreign Coal Distribution by State of Origin ...Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution Report 2013 Domestic and ...

  4. Domestic and Foreign Distribution

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2008 Final May 2010 Domestic and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2008 (Thousand Short Tons) State Region Domestic Foreign...

  5. U.S. Domestic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    2 Domestic and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2012 (thousand short tons) Coal Exports Coal Origin State and Region Domestic Distribution By Coal Mines By...

  6. U.S. Domestic

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Domestic and foreign distribution of U.S. coal by State of origin, 2011 (thousand short tons) Coal Exports Coal Origin State and Region Domestic Distribution By Coal Mines By...

  7. Crude Oil Domestic Production

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Data Series: Crude Oil Domestic Production Refinery Crude Oil Inputs Refinery Gross Inputs Refinery Operable Capacity (Calendar Day) Refinery Percent Operable Utilization Net ...

  8. Nitrogen sorption

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, D.T.; Babcock, W.C.; Edlund, D.J.; Miller, W.K.

    1996-05-14

    Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas. 5 figs.

  9. Nitrogen sorption

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, Dwayne T.; Babcock, Walter C.; Edlund, David J.; Miller, Warren K.

    1993-01-01

    Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

  10. Nitrogen sorption

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, D.T.; Babcock, W.C.; Edlund, D.J.; Miller, W.K.

    1993-07-06

    Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

  11. Nitrogen sorption

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, Dwayne T.; Babcock, Walter C.; Edlund, David J.; Miller, Warren K.

    1996-01-01

    Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

  12. Animation Requirements

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Animations include dynamic elements such as interactive images and games. For developing animations, follow these design and coding requirements.

  13. Seeking New Approaches to Investigate Domestication Events | Stanford

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Seeking New Approaches to Investigate Domestication Events Monday, October 29, 2012 - 3:30am SSRL Bldg. 137, Rm. 322 Krish Seetah, Stanford University, Department of Anthropology and Zooarcheology Laboratory The domestication of wild animal species has underpinned some of the most fundamental developments in human history. The inclusion of a range of fauna into the human menagerie has altered the way we feed and transport ourselves, not to mention how we

  14. 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Domestic Uranium Production Report 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report Release Date: May 5, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 State(s) 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 ...

  15. 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Domestic Uranium Production Report 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report Release Date: May 5, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 Activity at U.S. Mills and In-Situ-Leach Plants ...

  16. 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Domestic Uranium Production Report 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report Release Date: May 5, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 Table 9. Summary production statistics of the U.S. ...

  17. Plants & Animals

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    products from animals (e.g., milk, honey, and eggs) Small and big game animals (e.g., rabbits, deer, and elk) on neighboring properties around LANL Deer and elk that are killed by...

  18. Why Hydrogen? Hydrogen from Diverse Domestic Resources

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    from Diverse Domestic Resources Hydrogen from Diverse Domestic Resources Distributed Generation Transportation HIGH EFFICIENCY HIGH EFFICIENCY & RELIABILITY & RELIABILITY ZERONEAR...

  19. Replacement Cost of Domestic Crude

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    1994-12-01

    The DEEPWATER model forecasts the replacement cost of domestic crude oil for 13 offshore regions in the lower 48 states. The replacement cost of domestic crude oil is the constant or levelized selling price that will recover the full expense of exploration, development, and productions with a reasonable return on capital.

  20. 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    7. Employment in the U.S. uranium production industry by state, 2003-15" "person-years" ... Administration: Form EIA-851A, ""Domestic Uranium Production Report"" (2003-15)." "10

  1. 2014 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Domestic Uranium Production Report 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report Release Date: May 5, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 AUC LLC Reno Creek Campbell, Wyoming 2,000,000 - - Developing Developing Partially Permitted and Licensed Azarga Uranium Corp Dewey Burdock Project Fall River and Custer, South Dakota 1,000,000 Undeveloped Developing Developing Partially Permitted And Licensed Partially Permitted And Licensed Cameco Crow Butte Operation Dawes, Nebraska

  2. Understanding Nitrogen Fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Paul J. Chirik

    2012-05-25

    The purpose of our program is to explore fundamental chemistry relevant to the discovery of energy efficient methods for the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen (N{sub 2}) into more value-added nitrogen-containing organic molecules. Such transformations are key for domestic energy security and the reduction of fossil fuel dependencies. With DOE support, we have synthesized families of zirconium and hafnium dinitrogen complexes with elongated and activated N-N bonds that exhibit rich N{sub 2} functionalization chemistry. Having elucidated new methods for N-H bond formation from dihydrogen, C-H bonds and Broensted acids, we have since turned our attention to N-C bond construction. These reactions are particularly important for the synthesis of amines, heterocycles and hydrazines with a range of applications in the fine and commodity chemicals industries and as fuels. One recent highlight was the discovery of a new N{sub 2} cleavage reaction upon addition of carbon monoxide which resulted in the synthesis of an important fertilizer, oxamide, from the diatomics with the two strongest bonds in chemistry. Nitrogen-carbon bonds form the backbone of many important organic molecules, especially those used in the fertilizer and pharamaceutical industries. During the past year, we have continued our work in the synthesis of hydrazines of various substitution patterns, many of which are important precursors for heterocycles. In most instances, the direct functionalization of N{sub 2} offers a more efficient synthetic route than traditional organic methods. In addition, we have also discovered a unique CO-induced N{sub 2} bond cleavage reaction that simultaneously cleaves the N-N bond of the metal dinitrogen compound and assembles new C-C bond and two new N-C bonds. Treatment of the CO-functionalized core with weak Broensted acids liberated oxamide, H{sub 2}NC(O)C(O)NH{sub 2}, an important slow release fertilizer that is of interest to replace urea in many applications. The

  3. State Support of Domestic Production

    SciTech Connect

    Amy Wright

    2007-12-30

    This project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under the State Support of Domestic Production DE-FC26-04NT15456. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) performed efforts in support of State programs related to the security, reliability and growth if our nation's domestic production of oil and natural gas. The project objectives were to improve the States ability to monitor the security of oil and gas operations; to maximize the production of domestic oil and natural gas thereby minimizing the threat to national security posed by interruptions in energy imports; to assist States in developing and maintaining high standards of environmental protection; to assist in addressing issues that limit the capacity of the industry; to promote the deployment of the appropriate application of technology for regulatory efficiency; and to inform the public about emerging energy issues.

  4. 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Domestic Uranium Production Report 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report Release Date: May 5, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 million pounds U 3 O 8 $0 to $30 per pound $0 to $50 per pound $0 to $100 per pound $0 to $30 per pound $0 to $50 per pound $0 to $100 per pound Properties with Exploration Completed, Exploration Continuing, and Only Assessment Work W W 154.6 24.3 W 151.6 Properties Under Development for Production and Development Drilling W 38.2 W W 38.2 W Mines in Production W 19.2 W

  5. Nitrogen dioxide detection

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, Dipen N.; Agnew, Stephen F.; Christensen, William H.

    1993-01-01

    Method and apparatus for detecting the presence of gaseous nitrogen dioxide and determining the amount of gas which is present. Though polystyrene is normally an insulator, it becomes electrically conductive in the presence of nitrogen dioxide. Conductance or resistance of a polystyrene sensing element is related to the concentration of nitrogen dioxide at the sensing element.

  6. Assessment of Unglazed Solar Domestic Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, J.; Salasovich, J.; Hillman, T.

    2005-12-01

    Conference paper investigating cost-performance tradeoffs in replacing glazed collectors with unglazed collectors in solar domestic water heating systems.

  7. 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Domestic Uranium Production Report 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report Release Date: May 5, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 Number of Holes Feet (thousand) Number of Holes Feet (thousand) Number of Holes Feet (thousand) 2003 NA NA NA NA W W 2004 W W W W 2,185 1,249 2005 W W W W 3,143 1,668 2006 1,473 821 3,430 1,892 4,903 2,713 2007 4,351 2,200 4,996 2,946 9,347 5,146 2008 5,198 2,543 4,157 2,551 9,355 5,093 2009 1,790 1,051 3,889 2,691 5,679 3,742 2010 2,439 1,460 4,770 3,444 7,209 4,904

  8. 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    7 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report Release Date: May 5, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 Capacity (short tons of ore per day) 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Anfield Resources Shootaring Canyon Uranium Mill Garfield, Utah 750 Standby Standby Standby Standby Standby EFR White Mesa LLC White Mesa Mill San Juan, Utah 2,000 Operating Operating Operating- Processing Alternate Feed Operating- Processing Alternate Feed Operating- Processing Alternate Feed Energy Fuels Wyoming Inc Sheep Mountain

  9. Nitrogen spark denoxer

    DOEpatents

    Ng, Henry K.; Novick, Vincent J.; Sekar, Ramanujam R.

    1997-01-01

    A NO.sub.X control system for an internal combustion engine includes an oxygen enrichment device that produces oxygen and nitrogen enriched air. The nitrogen enriched air contains molecular nitrogen that is provided to a spark plug that is mounted in an exhaust outlet of an internal combustion engine. As the nitrogen enriched air is expelled at the spark gap of the spark plug, the nitrogen enriched air is exposed to a pulsating spark that is generated across the spark gap of the spark plug. The spark gap is elongated so that a sufficient amount of atomic nitrogen is produced and is injected into the exhaust of the internal combustion engine. The injection of the atomic nitrogen into the exhaust of the internal combustion engine causes the oxides of nitrogen to be reduced into nitrogen and oxygen such that the emissions from the engine will have acceptable levels of NO.sub.X. The oxygen enrichment device that produces both the oxygen and nitrogen enriched air can include a selectively permeable membrane.

  10. ARM - Measurement - Nitrogen

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsNitrogen ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Nitrogen All gaseous compounds of nitrogen including N2, N2O, and NOx. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those

  11. ARM - Oxides of Nitrogen

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxides of Nitrogen Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Oxides of Nitrogen Oxides of nitrogen, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and ozone have a lesser effect on the atmosphere than carbon dioxide and methane, but as you will see they are important contributors to the greenhouse

  12. Smart Domestic Appliances Provide Flexibility for Sustainable...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentsmart-domestic-appliances-provide-fle Language: English Policies: "Deployment Programs,Regulations" is not in the list of possible...

  13. Seeking New Approaches to Investigate Domestication Events |...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Seeking New Approaches to Investigate Domestication Events Monday, October 29, 2012 - 3:30am SSRL Bldg. 137, Rm. 322 Krish Seetah, Stanford University, Department of Anthropology...

  14. 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    9 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report Release Date: May 5, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 Year Exploration Mining Milling Processing Reclamation Total 2003 W W W W 117 321 2004 18 108 W W 121 420 2005 79 149 142 154 124 648 2006 188 121 W W 155 755 2007 375 378 107 216 155 1,231 2008 457 558 W W 154 1,563 2009 175 441 W W 162 1,096 2010 211 400 W W 125 1,073 2011 208 462 W W 102 1,191 2012 161 462 W W 179 1,196 2013 149 392 W W 199 1,156 2014 86 246 W W 161 787 2015 58 251 W W 116 625

  15. 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    5 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report Release Date: May 5, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 Production / Mining Method 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 (estimated contained thousand pounds U 3 O 8 ) W W W W W W W W W W W W W (estimated contained thousand pounds U 3 O 8 ) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (thousand pounds U 3 O 8 ) W W 2,681 4,259 W W W W W W W W W (thousand pounds U 3 O 8 ) W W W W W W W W W W W W W (thousand pounds U 3 O 8 ) E2,200 2,452 3,045 4,692

  16. 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    11 2015 Domestic Uranium Production Report Release Date: May 5, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2017 Total Land and Other 2003 W W 31.3 NA NA NA W 2004 10.6 27.8 48.4 NA NA NA 86.9 2005 18.1 58.2 59.7 NA NA NA 136.0 2006 40.1 65.9 115.2 41.0 23.3 50.9 221.2 2007 67.5 90.4 178.2 77.7 50.3 50.2 336.2 2008 81.9 221.2 164.4 65.2 50.2 49.1 467.6 2009 35.4 141.0 104.0 17.3 24.2 62.4 280.5 2010 44.6 133.3 99.5 20.2 34.5 44.7 277.3 2011 53.6 168.8 96.8 19.6 43.5 33.7 319.2 2012 66.6 186.9 99.4 16.8 33.3

  17. Report to the President on Capturing Domestic Competitive Advantage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Report to the President on Capturing Domestic Competitive Advantage in Advanced Manufacturing Report to the President on Capturing Domestic Competitive Advantage in Advanced ...

  18. Table 22. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices for Selected...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Form EIA-182, "Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Report." 22. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices for Selected Crude Streams 44 Energy Information Administration ...

  19. Opportunities and Domestic Barriers to Clean Energy Investment...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    and Domestic Barriers to Clean Energy Investment in Chile Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Opportunities and Domestic Barriers to Clean Energy Investment...

  20. 2nd Quarter 2016 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Administration: Form EIA-851A and Form EIA-851Q, ""Domestic Uranium Production Report.""" " U.S. Energy Information Administration Domestic Uranium Production Report 2nd Quarter

  1. 2nd Quarter 2016 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    EIA-851Q, ""Domestic Uranium Production Report.""" "Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration: Form EIA-851A and Form EIA-851Q, ""Domestic Uranium Production Report.""" " ...

  2. Model Simulating Real Domestic Hot Water Use - Building America...

    Energy Saver

    Model Simulating Real Domestic Hot Water Use - Building America Top Innovation Model Simulating Real Domestic Hot Water Use - Building America Top Innovation Image of a pipe ...

  3. Domestic Uranium Production Report - Quarterly - Energy Information...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    All Nuclear Reports Domestic Uranium Production Report - Quarterly Data for 2nd Quarter ... was produced at seven U.S. uranium facilities, one more than in the first quarter ...

  4. Secure Fuels from Domestic Resources- Oil Shale and Tar Sands

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Profiles of Companies Engaged in Domestic Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource and Technology Development

  5. Aqueous phase removal of nitrogen from nitrogen compounds

    DOEpatents

    Fassbender, Alex G.

    1993-01-01

    A method is disclosed for denitrification of compounds containing nitrogen present in aqueous waste streams. The method comprises the steps of (1) identifying the types of nitrogen compounds present in a waste stream, (2) determining the concentrations of nitrogen compounds, (3) balancing oxidized and reduced form of nitrogen by adding a reactant, and (4) heating the mixture to a predetermined reaction temperature from about 300.degree. C. to about 600.degree. C., thereby resulting in less harmful nitrogen and oxygen gas, hydroxides, alcohols, and hydrocarbons.

  6. Nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond microneedle...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond microneedle arrays for ... Title: Nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond microneedle arrays for ...

  7. Methane/nitrogen separation process

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; Pinnau, Ingo; Segelke, Scott

    1997-01-01

    A membrane separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. We have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen.

  8. Methane/nitrogen separation process

    DOEpatents

    Baker, R.W.; Lokhandwala, K.A.; Pinnau, I.; Segelke, S.

    1997-09-23

    A membrane separation process is described for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. The authors have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen. 11 figs.

  9. Office of Domestic and International Health Studies

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Domestic and International Health Studies engages in the conduct of international scientific studies that may provide new knowledge and information about the human response to ionizing radiation in the workplace or people exposed in communities as a result of nuclear accidents, including providing health and environmental monitoring services to populations specified by law.

  10. Emission factors for domestic use of L.P. gas in the metropolitan area of Mexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Molina, M.M.; Schifter, I.; Ontiveros, L.E.; Salinas, A.; Moreno, S.; Melgarejo, L.A.; Molina, R.; Krueger, B.

    1998-12-31

    One of the main problems found in air pollution in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is the presence of high concentrations of ozone at ground level in the atmosphere. The official Mexican standard for ozone concentration in the air (0.11 ppm, one hour, once every 3 years) has been exceeded more than 300 days per year. Ozone is formed due to the emissions of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons originated from either combustion processes or vapors emanating from fuel handling operations. The results of an evaluation of several domestic devices like stoves and water heaters with L.P. gas as fuel are presented. A method for the evaluation of hydrocarbon emission was developed. A prototype of domestic installation was constructed. The prototype includes L.P. gas tank, domestic stove, water heater, piping and instrumentation. Several combinations of stoves and water heaters were evaluated. The sampling and analysis of hydrocarbons were performed using laboratory equipment originally designed for the evaluation of combustion and evaporative emissions in automobiles: a SHED camera (sealed room equipped with an hydrocarbon analyzer) was used to measure leaks in the prototype of domestic installation and a Constant Volume Sampler (CVS) for the measurement of incomplete combustion emissions. Emission factors were developed for each domestic installation.

  11. Domestic Coal Distribution 2009 Q1 by Destination State: Alabama

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4 Domestic Coal Distribution 2009 Q1 by Destination State: Alabama (1000 Short Tons) 1 64 Domestic Coal Distribution 2009 Q1 by Destination State: Alabama (1000 Short Tons)...

  12. Domestic Coal Distribution 2009 Q2 by Destination State: Alabama

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    61 Domestic Coal Distribution 2009 Q2 by Destination State: Alabama (1000 Short Tons) 1 61 Domestic Coal Distribution 2009 Q2 by Destination State: Alabama (1000 Short Tons)...

  13. ENERGY USE AND DOMESTIC HOT WATER CONSUMPTION Final Report

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    USE AND DOMESTIC HOT WATER CONSUMPTION Final Report Phase 1 Prepared for THE N E W YORK ... operating data on combined domestic hot water @HW) and heating systems to be used in ...

  14. Keynote Address: Ali Zaidi, the White House Domestic Policy Council...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Ali Zaidi, the White House Domestic Policy Council Keynote Address: Ali Zaidi, the White House Domestic Policy Council May 21, 2014 2:05PM to 2:30PM PDT Pacific Ballroom Keynote...

  15. Nitrogen fixation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Hao-Lin

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O.sub.2 /cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N.sub.2. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N.sub.2 at a much quicker rate than unexcited N.sub.2, greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed.

  16. Environmentally friendly animal litter

    DOEpatents

    Chett, Boxley; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-08-20

    A method of making an animal litter that includes geopolymerized ash, wherein, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control may be accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  17. Johnson Controls Inc. Domestic Advanced Battery Industry Creation Project |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Johnson Controls Inc. Domestic Advanced Battery Industry Creation Project Johnson Controls Inc. Domestic Advanced Battery Industry Creation Project 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting arravt019_es_ellerman_2012_p.pdf (1.19 MB) More Documents & Publications Johnson Controls Inc. Domestic Advanced Battery Industry Creation Project Johnson Controls Inc. Domestic Advanced Battery

  18. Montana Domestic Sewage Treatment Lagoons General Permit | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    GuidanceSupplemental Material Abstract Example authorization of Domestic Sewage Treatment Lagoons General Permit. Author Montana Department of Environmental Quality -...

  19. Montana Notice of Intent: Domestic Sewage Treatment Lagoons General...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Abstract Provides instructions for submitting an NOI for Domestic Sewage Treatment Lagoons General Permit. Author Montana Department of Environmental Quality -...

  20. Keynote Address: Ali Zaidi, the White House Domestic Policy Council |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Ali Zaidi, the White House Domestic Policy Council Keynote Address: Ali Zaidi, the White House Domestic Policy Council May 21, 2014 2:05PM to 2:30PM PDT Pacific Ballroom Keynote address by Ali Zaidi, Deputy Director for Energy Policy, the White House Domestic Policy Council

  1. Beware of migrating animals

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Beware of Migrating Animals Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue:November 2, 2016 all issues All Issues » submit Beware of migrating animals Keep an eye out for wildlife on roadways and in recreational areas, and take extra caution while driving or hiking. November 1, 2012 dummy image Read our archives Contacts Editor Linda Anderman Email Community Programs Office Kurt Steinhaus Email Those who encounter injured and or

  2. EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL WATERING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Finkel, M.P.

    1964-04-01

    A device for watering experimental animals confined in a battery of individual plastic enclosures is described. It consists of a rectangular plastic enclosure having a plurality of fluid-tight compartments, each with a drinking hole near the bottom and a filling hole on the top. The enclosure is immersed in water until filled, its drinking holes sealed with a strip of tape, and it is then placed in the battery. The tape sealing prevents the flow of water from the device, but permits animals to drink by licking the drinking holes. (AEC)

  3. Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

  4. High-nitrogen explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Naud, D.; Hiskey, M. A.; Kramer, J. F.; Bishop, R. L.; Harry, H. H.; Son, S. F.; Sullivan, G. K.

    2002-01-01

    The syntheses and characterization of various tetrazine and furazan compounds offer a different approach to explosives development. Traditional explosives - such as TNT or RDX - rely on the oxidation of the carbon and hydrogen atoms by the oxygen carrying nitro group to produce the explosive energy. High-nitrogen compounds rely instead on large positive heats of formation for that energy. Some of these high-nitrogen compounds have been shown to be less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine (BDT), several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. The compound, 3,3{prime}-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, detonates as a half inch rate stick despite having no oxygen in the molecule. Using perfluoroacetic acid, DAAT can be oxidized to give mixtures of N-oxide isomers (DAAT03.5) with an average oxygen content of about 3.5. This energetic mixture burns at extremely high rates and with low dependency on pressure. Another tetrazine compound of interest is 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine(DGT) and its dinitrate and diperchlorate salts. DGT is easily synthesized by reacting BDT with guanidine in methanol. Using Caro's acid, DGT can be further oxidized to give 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine-1,4-di-N-oxide (DGT-DO). Like DGT, the di-N-oxide can react with nitric acid or perchloric acid to give the dinitrate and the diperchlorate salts. The compounds, 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB - the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAzF is

  5. EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MAINTENANCE

    DOEpatents

    Finkel, M.P.

    1962-01-22

    A method of housing experimental animals such as mice in individual tube- like plastic enclosures is described. Contrary to experience, when this was tried with metal the mice did not become panicky. Group housing, with its attendant difficulties, may thus be dispensed with. (AEC)

  6. Cogasification of coal and other domestic fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Green, A.; Mullin, J.; Zanardi, M.; Peres, S.

    1996-12-31

    Almost all new additions to electrical generation in the USA are natural gas combined cycle systems (NGCC) systems. This trend reflects the development of high efficiency gas turbines (GT), low capital, operation and maintenance of NGCC systems and optimism as to natural gas resources. With utility deregulation these developments will seriously restrict long term use of coal and other solid fuels unless a los cost integrated gasifier (IG) fed by low cost feedstocks can be coupled with a CC system. This study mainly considers on-site cogasification of coal with other domestic fuels in an indirectly heated gasifier as a long term strategy for lowering the effective costs of IGGT systems. The authors also consider cocombustion of coal with other low cost domestic fuels as a near term strategy for minimizing fuel costs for competitiveness under utility deregulation. These fuel blending approaches both make use of common fast copyrolysis processes. They examine fast copyrolysis from a molecular point of view searching for advantageous feedstock blends. The authors conclude that blending coal with complementary coals, biomass, MSW or natural gas would be useful in near term cocombustion systems and long term integrated cogasification combined cycle or cogeneration systems.

  7. From South Carolina to Massachusetts, Recovery Act Boosts Domestic Wind |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy From South Carolina to Massachusetts, Recovery Act Boosts Domestic Wind From South Carolina to Massachusetts, Recovery Act Boosts Domestic Wind November 2, 2010 - 5:02pm Addthis Jacques Beaudry-Losique Director, Wind & Water Program Last week, Clemson University broke ground on a facility critical to the expansion of domestic wind power. At a converted Navy base in North Charleston, this one-of-a-kind center will test large drivetrains - the machinery that converts

  8. Model Simulating Real Domestic Hot Water Use - Building America Top

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Innovation | Department of Energy Model Simulating Real Domestic Hot Water Use - Building America Top Innovation Model Simulating Real Domestic Hot Water Use - Building America Top Innovation Image of a pipe insulation.jpg As progress continues with high-R, tightly sealed thermal enclosures, domestic hot water becomes an increasingly important energy use in high-performance homes. This Top Innovation describes Building America research by Alliance for Residential Building Innovation and the

  9. Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1996 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

  10. Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

  11. Table 22. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices for Selected...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    data. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-182, "Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Report." 44 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual...

  12. Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

  13. Table 22. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices for Selected...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    data. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-182, "Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Report." 44 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual...

  14. ORISE: Securing the Golden State from threats foreign and domestic

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ORISE helps California emergency planners with innovative training on state and local levels To protect the state of California from both foreign and domestic threats, ORISE ...

  15. NNSA Successfully Converts Third Domestic Research Reactor in...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Successfully Converts Third Domestic Research Reactor in the Last Year September 13, 2007 ... converted the 1-kilowatt materials test reactor (PUR-1) at Purdue University in Indiana ...

  16. American Chemical Society International-Domestic Student Summit

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Society International-Domestic Student Summit - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon ... ARPA-E Basic Energy Sciences Materials Sciences and Engineering Chemical Sciences ...

  17. Acquisition Letter on Contractor Domestic Extended Personnel Assignments

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The attached Acquisition Letter has been issued to provide guidance on the Department's policy governing reimbursement of costs associated with contractor domestic extended personnel assignments.

  18. 2nd Quarter 2016 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Next Release Date: November 2016 Table 1. Total production of uranium concentrate in the ... Administration: Form EIA-851A and Form EIA-851Q, "Domestic Uranium Production Report."

  19. 2nd Quarter 2016 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Figure 1. Uranium concentrate production in the United States, 1996 - 2nd quarter 2016 ... Administration: Form EIA-851A and Form EIA-851Q, "Domestic Uranium Production Report."

  20. Domestic Hot Water Event Schedule Generator - Energy Innovation...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Domestic Hot Water Event Schedule Generator National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This...

  1. Crude Oil Prices Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

  2. Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Policy Analysis of Water ...

  3. Montana Domestic Sewage Treatment Lagoons General Permit Information...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Lagoons General Permit Information Citation Montana Department of Environmental Quality - Water Protection Bureau. 72012. Montana Domestic Sewage Treatment Lagoons General Permit...

  4. Montana Domestic Sewage Treatment Lagoons General Permit Fact...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Lagoons General Permit Fact Sheet Citation Montana Department of Environmental Quality - Water Protection Bureau. 82012. Montana Domestic Sewage Treatment Lagoons General Permit...

  5. Montana Notice of Intent: Domestic Sewage Treatment Lagoons General...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Montana Notice of Intent: Domestic Sewage Treatment Lagoons General Permit (MDEQ Form NOI) Abstract Form to be completed by owner or...

  6. Domestic Material Content in Molten-Salt Concentrating Solar...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Domestic Material Content in Molten-Salt Concentrating Solar Power Plants Craig Turchi, ... Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy ...

  7. Maricopa Assn. of Governments - PV and Solar Domestic Water Heating...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    June 18, 2003, MAG passed permit submission requirements for residential solar domestic water heating systems. This is in addition to the existing standards for residential and...

  8. Stanford Nitrogen Group | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Stanford Nitrogen Group National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition Stanford Nitrogen Group Stanford University The Stanford Nitrogen Group developed a new wastewater treatment process for the removal and recovery of energy from waste nitrogen (i.e. ammonia). This process improves the efficiency and lowers the cost of nitrogen treatment. The process is termed the Coupled Aerobic-anoxic Nitrous Decomposition Operation (CANDO) and consists of 2 principal steps: biological conversion of ammonia

  9. METHOD OF FIXING NITROGEN FOR PRODUCING OXIDES OF NITROGEN

    DOEpatents

    Harteck, P.; Dondes, S.

    1959-08-01

    A method is described for fixing nitrogen from air by compressing the air, irradiating the compressed air in a nuclear reactor, cooling to remove NO/ sub 2/, compressing the cooled gas, further cooling to remove N/sub 2/O and recirculating the cooled compressed air to the reactor.

  10. The Lessons of Practice: Domestic Policy Reform as a Way to Address...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Lessons of Practice: Domestic Policy Reform as a Way to Address Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Lessons of Practice: Domestic Policy...

  11. Method of preparing nitrogen containing semiconductor material

    DOEpatents

    Barber, Greg D.; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2004-09-07

    A method of combining group III elements with group V elements that incorporates at least nitrogen from a nitrogen halide for use in semiconductors and in particular semiconductors in photovoltaic cells.

  12. Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Nitrogen Monitoring & Integrity...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Petroleum Reserve: Nitrogen Monitoring & Integrity Testing of SW Louisiana Caverns - ... Co-Evolution of Biofuels Lignocellulosic Biomass Microalgae Thermochemical Conversion ...

  13. Fact #564: March 30, 2009 Transportation and the Gross Domestic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Housing, health care, and food are the only categories with greater shares of the GDP. GDP ... Gross Domestic Product, 2007 Housing 24.3% Health Care 17.4% Food 11.6% ...

  14. Transport NAMA submissions to the UNFCCC: Domestic frameworks...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Global The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the broader domestic context in which a selection of these intentions to conduct NAMAs in the land transport...

  15. Effect of Increased Natural Gas Exports on Domestic Energy Markets

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Effect of Increased Natural Gas Exports on Domestic Energy Markets as requested by the Office of Fossil Energy January 2012 This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information ...

  16. 2nd Quarter 2016 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration: Form EIA-851A and Form EIA-851Q, "Domestic Uranium Production Report." Table 3. U.S. uranium mills and heap leach facilities by ...

  17. Domestic Coal Distribution 2009 Q1 by Origin State: Alabama

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Q1 by Origin State: Alabama (1000 Short Tons) 1 58 Domestic Coal Distribution 2009 Q1 by Origin State: Alabama (1000 Short Tons) Destination State Transportation Mode Electricity...

  18. Domestic Coal Distribution 2009 Q2 by Origin State: Alabama

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Q2 by Origin State: Alabama (1000 Short Tons) 1 58 Domestic Coal Distribution 2009 Q2 by Origin State: Alabama (1000 Short Tons) Destination State Transportation Mode Electricity...

  19. Secretary Bodman Tours Refinery and Calls for More Domestic Refining

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Capacity | Department of Energy Refinery and Calls for More Domestic Refining Capacity Secretary Bodman Tours Refinery and Calls for More Domestic Refining Capacity May 18, 2006 - 10:43am Addthis Highlights President Bush's Four-Point Plan to Combat High Energy Prices PORT ARTHUR, TX - Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today renewed the call for expanded oil refining capacity in the United States and discussed additional steps the Department of Energy (DOE) is taking to prepare for the

  20. Effect of Increased Natural Gas Exports on Domestic Energy Markets

    Reports and Publications

    2012-01-01

    This report responds to an August 2011 request from the Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (DOE\\/FE) for an analysis of "the impact of increased domestic natural gas demand, as exports." Appendix A provides a copy of the DOE\\/FE request letter. Specifically, DOE\\/FE asked the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) to assess how specified scenarios of increased natural gas exports could affect domestic energy markets, focusing on consumption, production, and prices.

  1. Domestic Wind Energy Workforce; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2015-07-30

    A robust workforce is essential to growing domestic wind manufacturing capabilities. NREL researchers conducted research to better understand today's domestic wind workforce, projected needs for the future, and how existing and new education and training programs can meet future needs. This presentation provides an overview of this research and the accompanying industry survey, as well as the Energy Department's Career Maps, Jobs & Economic Development Impacts models, and the Wind for Schools project.

  2. Department of Energy Awards $338 Million to Accelerate Domestic Geothermal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy | Department of Energy $338 Million to Accelerate Domestic Geothermal Energy Department of Energy Awards $338 Million to Accelerate Domestic Geothermal Energy October 29, 2009 - 12:32pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced up to $338 million in Recovery Act funding for the exploration and development of new geothermal fields and research into advanced geothermal technologies. These grants will support 123 projects in 39 states, with

  3. Department of Energy Awards $338 Million to Accelerate Domestic Geothermal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy | Department of Energy 338 Million to Accelerate Domestic Geothermal Energy Department of Energy Awards $338 Million to Accelerate Domestic Geothermal Energy October 29, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced up to $338 million in Recovery Act funding for the exploration and development of new geothermal fields and research into advanced geothermal technologies. These grants will support 123 projects in 39 states, with

  4. Domestic Health Studies and Activities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Domestic Health Studies and Activities Domestic Health Studies and Activities Purpose The Atomic Energy Act of 1957 - Section 8(a) requires research and development activities relating to the protection of health during research and production activities. The requirement is fulfilled by conducting and supporting health studies and other research activities to determine if DOE workers and people living in communities near DOE sites are adversely affected by exposures to hazardous materials from

  5. Use of New Strategically Sourced Blanket Purchase Agreement for Domestic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Delivery Services with United Parcel Service | Department of Energy Use of New Strategically Sourced Blanket Purchase Agreement for Domestic Delivery Services with United Parcel Service Use of New Strategically Sourced Blanket Purchase Agreement for Domestic Delivery Services with United Parcel Service The Department of Energy (DOE) is participating as an authorized user of the second generation General Services Administration (GSA) Blanket Purchase Agreement (BPA) GS-33F-BQV08 for Express

  6. NITROGEN REMOVAL FROM NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    K.A. Lokhandwala; M.B. Ringer; T.T. Su; Z. He; I. Pinnau; J.G. Wijmans; A. Morisato; K. Amo; A. DaCosta; R.W. Baker; R. Olsen; H. Hassani; T. Rathkamp

    1999-12-31

    The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process for the denitrogenation of natural gas. Large proven reserves in the Lower-48 states cannot be produced because of the presence of nitrogen. To exploit these reserves, cost-effective, simple technology able to reduce the nitrogen content of the gas to 4-5% is required. Technology applicable to treatment of small gas streams (below 10 MMscfd) is particularly needed. In this project membranes that selectively permeate methane and reject nitrogen in the gas were developed. Preliminary calculations show that a membrane with a methane/nitrogen selectivity of 3 to 5 is required to make the process economically viable. A number of polymer materials likely to have the required selectivities were evaluated as composite membranes. Polyacetylenes such as poly(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) [PTMSP] and poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) [PMP] had high selectivities and fluxes, but membranes prepared from these polymers were not stable, showing decreasing flux and selectivity during tests lasting only a few hours. Parel, a poly(propylene oxide allyl glycidyl ether) had a selectivity of 3 at ambient temperatures and 4 or more at temperatures of {minus}20 C. However, Parel is no longer commercially available, and we were unable to find an equivalent material in the time available. Therefore, most of our experimental work focused on silicone rubber membranes, which have a selectivity of 2.5 at ambient temperatures, increasing to 3-4 at low temperatures. Silicone rubber composite membranes were evaluated in bench-scale module tests and with commercial-scale, 4-inch-diameter modules in a small pilot plant. Over six days of continuous operation at a feed gas temperature of {minus}5 to {minus}10 C, the membrane maintained a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 3.3. Based on the pilot plant performance data, an analysis of the economic potential of the process was prepared. We conclude that a stand-alone membrane process is the lowest

  7. Biomass Production and Nitrogen Recovery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Project Peer Review WBS 4.2.2.10: Biomass Production and Nitrogen Recovery Date: March 23, 2015 Technology Area Review: Sustainability Principal Investigator: M. Cristina Negri Organization: Argonne National Laboratory This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Goal Statement In the context of developing tools for landscape design approach to satisfy different societal goals (energy security, environmental protection, low-cost

  8. Nitrogen as a friendly addition to steel

    SciTech Connect

    Rawers, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Interstitial alloying with nitrogen or carbon is a common means of enhancing properties of iron-based alloys. Interstitial nitrogen addition to fcc-phase Fe-Cr-Mn/Ni alloys results in improved mechanical properties, whereas addition of carbon can result in the formation of unwanted carbides. Carbon addition to low alloy, bcc-phase iron alloys significantly improves strength through the formation of carbides, whereas addition of nitrogen in bcc-phase iron alloys can result in porous casting and reduced mechanical properties. This study will show that alloying iron-based alloys with both nitrogen and carbon can produce positive results. Nitrogen addition to Fe-C and Fe-Cr-C alloys, and both nitrogen and nitrogen-carbon additions to Fe-Cr-Mn/Ni alloys altered the microstructure, improved mechanical properties, increased hardness, and reduced wear by stabilizing the fcc-phase and altering (possibly eliminating) precipitate formation.

  9. In vivo Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Facility for Total Body Nitrogen and Cd

    SciTech Connect

    Munive, Marco; Revilla, Angel; Solis, Jose L.

    2007-10-26

    A Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) system has been designed and constructed to measure the total body nitrogen and Cd for in vivo studies. An aqueous solution of KNO{sub 3} was used as phantom for system calibration. The facility has been used to monitor total body nitrogen (TBN) of mice and found that is related to their diet. Some mice swallowed diluted water with Cl{sub 2}Cd, and the presence of Cd was detected in the animals. The minimum Cd concentration that the system can detect was 20 ppm.

  10. Enclosure for small animals during awake animal imaging

    DOEpatents

    Goddard, Jr., James S

    2013-11-26

    An enclosure or burrow restrains an awake animal during an imaging procedure. A tubular body, made from a radiolucent material that does not attenuate x-rays or gamma rays, accepts an awake animal. A proximal end of the body includes an attachment surface that corresponds to an attachment surface of an optically transparent and optically uniform window. An anti-reflective coating may be applied to an inner surface, an outer surface, or both surfaces of the window. Since the window is a separate element of the enclosure and it is not integrally formed as part of the body, it can be made with optically uniform thickness properties for improved motion tracking of markers on the animal with a camera during the imaging procedure. The motion tracking information is then used to compensate for animal movement in the image.

  11. Environmentally-friendly animal litter

    DOEpatents

    Boxley, Chett; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-09-03

    An animal litter composition that includes geopolymerized ash particulates having a network of repeating aluminum-silicon units is described herein. Generally, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. This geopolymerization reaction may occur within a pelletizer. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it may be dried and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates may be used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter or other absorbing material. Aluminum sulfate, clinoptilolite, silica gel, sodium alginate and mineral oil may be added as additional ingredients.

  12. Environmentally-friendly animal litter

    DOEpatents

    Boxley, Chett; McKelvie, Jessica

    2012-08-28

    An animal litter composition including geopolymerized ash particulates having a network of repeating aluminum-silicon units is described herein. Generally, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control is accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  13. Nitrogen fixation method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Hao-Lin

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O.sub.2 /cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N.sub.2. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N.sub.2 at a much quicker rate than unexcited N.sub.2, greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed.

  14. Nitrogen fixation method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Chen, H.L.

    1983-08-16

    A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O[sub 2]/cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N[sub 2]. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N[sub 2] at a much quicker rate than unexcited N[sub 2], greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed. 1 fig.

  15. Estimate Radiological Dose for Animals

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    1997-12-18

    Estimate Radiological dose for animals in ecological environment using open literature values for parameters such as body weight, plant and soil ingestion rate, rad. halflife, absorbed energy, biological halflife, gamma energy per decay, soil-to-plant transfer factor, ...etc

  16. Oil recovery by nitrogen flooding. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ronde, H.; Hagoort, J.

    1992-03-01

    The general objective of the project is the Establishment of technical and economic design criteria and evaluation tools for oil and condensate recovery by Nitrogen Injection. The main objective has been divided into the following specific objectives: Determination of the effect of oil composition on the oil recovery; Investigation of the pros and cons of slim-tube experiments as a tool for the design and evaluation of nitrogen flooding; Measurement and calculation of the minimum miscibility pressures (MMP) for nitrogen flooding.

  17. Production of nitrogen from air

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, C.; Duckett, M.; Limb, D.I.

    1985-01-29

    In the single column process for the recovery of nitrogen from air wherein reflux for the distillation is provided by condensing a first portion of the overhead stream by indirect heat exchange in a reflux condenser with oxygen-rich liquid from the bottom of the column which has been subjected to a first expansion to an intermediate pressure, refrigeration for the process is provided by work expanding evaporated oxygen-rich liquid from the reflux condenser, and prior to said first expansion, the oxygen-rich liquid recovered from the bottom of the column is sub-cooled by indirect heat exchange in a sub-cooler with the work-expanded evaporated oxygen-rich liquid, nitrogen recovery is increased by work expanding the evaporated oxygen-rich liquid at a temperature not substantially greater than that at which it is recovered from the reflux condenser or by first passing it through said sub-cooler at a temperature not substantially greater than that at which it is recovered from the reflux condenser and thereafter work-expanding it at a temperature not substantially greater than that at which it is recovered from the sub-cooler, and feeding the work-expanded evaporated oxygen-rich liquid directly to the sub-cooler.

  18. New Report Shows Domestic Offshore Wind Industry Potential, 21 Projects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Planned in U.S. Waters | Department of Energy Domestic Offshore Wind Industry Potential, 21 Projects Planned in U.S. Waters New Report Shows Domestic Offshore Wind Industry Potential, 21 Projects Planned in U.S. Waters September 29, 2015 - 11:30am Addthis The Energy Department today released a new report showing strong progress for the U.S. offshore wind market-including the start of construction of the nation's first commercial-scale offshore wind farm, one of 21 projects totaling 15,650

  19. Impact of foreign LPG operations on domestic LPG markets

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.

    1981-01-01

    During 1978 the federal government passed legislation allowing a major increase in natural gas prices and offering hope that some portion of the supply will be allowed to reach free market levels. The mechanism for decontrol of crude oil was also put into effect. This favorable government action and higher world oil prices have led to a major resurgence in domestic exploration. In addition to the supply effects, there appears to have been a substantial demand response to the latest round of world oil price increases. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how these events have affected domestic LPG markets and pricing.

  20. Report to the President on Capturing Domestic Competitive Advantage in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Advanced Manufacturing | Department of Energy Report to the President on Capturing Domestic Competitive Advantage in Advanced Manufacturing Report to the President on Capturing Domestic Competitive Advantage in Advanced Manufacturing pcast_july2012.pdf (1.75 MB) pcast_annex1_july2012.pdf (820.24 KB) pcast_annex2_july2012.pdf (481.41 KB) pcast_annex3_july2012.pdf (345.12 KB) More Documents & Publications Report to the President on Ensuring American Leadership in Advanced Manufacturing The

  1. Lied Animal Shelter Animal campus Renewable Energy Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Randy Spitzmesser, AIA

    2005-11-22

    The Animal Shelter campus plan includes a new adoption center coupled with a dog adoption park, a wellness/veterinary technician education center, a show arena, and an addition to the existing shelter that will accommodate all animal control and sheltering for the Las Vegas Valley. The new facility will provide a sophisticated and innovative presentation of the animals to be adopted in an attempt to improve the public's perception of shelter animals. Additionally, the Regional Animal Campus will be a ''green building'', embodying a design intent on balancing environmental responsiveness, resource efficiency and cultural and community sensitivity. Designing an energy-efficient building helps reduce pollution from burning fossil fuels, reduce disturbance of natural habitats for the harvesting of resources and minimizes global warming. The project will be a leader in the use of renewable energy by relying on photovoltaic panels, wind turbines, and solar collectors to produce a portion of the project's energy needs The building will operate more efficiently in comparison to a typical shelter through the use of monitoring and specialized cooling/heating equipment. Windows bringing in natural daylight will reduce the center's demand for electricity.

  2. Domestic wastewater treatment using tidal-flow cinder bed with Cyperus alternifolius

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, S.Y.; Tsang, Y.F.; Chua, H.

    2008-07-01

    A lab-scale vertical flow cinder bed was set up to treat domestic wastewater. Cinder, which is a common coal waste from electricity generation, was used as the filter medium in the six vertical flow column beds in this study. Three of the six columns were planted with umbrella grass (Cyperus alternifolius) to mimic a wetland system and to investigate the effects of plant on the pollutant removal efficiencies of the column bed systems. The six column beds were divided into three groups, operating with different durations of wet and dry periods. Group 2 column beds, with 4 hours wet periods and 4 hours dry periods, showed the highest carbonaceous removal. Similar ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies were demonstrated in column beds of group 2 and in column beds of group 3 (6 hours wet periods and 2 hours dry periods). Phosphorus removal efficiencies were not significantly different in all groups of column bed. No significant differences in pollutant removal were observed between planted and unplanted column beds in this study (p > 0.05).

  3. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium conentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

  4. Role of CCTs in the evolving domestic electricity market

    SciTech Connect

    Grahame, T.J.

    1997-12-31

    The paper summarizes the key points and issues in the role of clean coal technologies in the domestic marketplace. Then suggested solutions to bringing precommercial CCTs to the market are presented. Finally, the outlook for possible actions by government and the private sector are briefly discussed.

  5. Analysis Model for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, J.; Krarti, M.; Fang, X.

    2011-11-01

    A thermal model was developed to estimate the energy losses from prototypical domestic hot water (DHW) distribution systems for homes. The developed model, using the TRNSYS simulation software, allows researchers and designers to better evaluate the performance of hot water distribution systems in homes. Modeling results were compared with past experimental study results and showed good agreement.

  6. The Nitrogen-Nitride Anode.

    SciTech Connect

    Delnick, Frank M.

    2014-10-01

    Nitrogen gas N 2 can be reduced to nitride N -3 in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt electrolyte. However, the direct oxidation of N -3 back to N 2 is kinetically slow and only occurs at high overvoltage. The overvoltage for N -3 oxidation can be eliminated by coordinating the N -3 with BN to form the dinitridoborate (BN 2 -3 ) anion which forms a 1-D conjugated linear inorganic polymer with -Li-N-B-N- repeating units. This polymer precipitates out of solution as Li 3 BN 2 which becomes a metallic conductor upon delithiation. Li 3 BN 2 is oxidized to Li + + N 2 + BN at about the N 2 /N -3 redox potential with very little overvoltage. In this report we evaluate the N 2 /N -3 redox couple as a battery anode for energy storage.

  7. INSENSITIVE HIGH-NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

    SciTech Connect

    D. CHAVEZ; ET AL

    2001-03-01

    The conventional approach to developing energetic molecules is to chemically place one or more nitro groups onto a carbon skeleton, which is why the term ''nitration'' is synonymous to explosives preparation. The nitro group carries the oxygen that reacts with the skeletal carbon and hydrogen fuels, which in turn produces the heat and gaseous reaction products necessary for driving an explosive shock. These nitro-containing energetic molecules typically have heats of formation near zero and therefore most of the released energy is derived from the combustion process. Our investigation of the tetrazine, furazan and tetrazole ring systems has offered a different approach to explosives development, where a significant amount of the chemical potential energy is derived from their large positive heats of formation. Because these compounds often contain a large percentage of nitrogen atoms, they are usually regarded as high-nitrogen fuels or explosives. A general artifact of these high-nitrogen compounds is that they are less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine, several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. Some of the first compounds are 3,6-diamino-s-tetrazine-1,4-dioxide (LAX-112) and 3,6-dihydrazino-s-tetrazine (DHT). LAX-112 was once extensively studied as an insensitive explosive by Los Alamos; DHT is an example of a high-nitrogen explosive that relies entirely on its heat of formation for sustaining a detonation. Recent synthesis efforts have yielded an azo-s-tetrazine, 3,3'-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, which has a very high positive heat of formation. The compounds, 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be

  8. Weldability of nitrogen-enhanced HSLA steels

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, F.C.; Liu, S.; Olson, D.L.

    1993-12-31

    Light microscopy, electron microscopy and Charpy-V-Notch (CVN) testing were used to characterize two Ti-V microalloyed steels which contained 130 and 30 ppm of nitrogen with respect to weldability. Particular emphasis has been placed on the understanding of the heat input-microstructure-toughness relationship in the high nitrogen HSLA steel. Within the 1 to 3 kJ/mm heat input range, the high nitrogen steel exhibited coarse grained heat affected zone (CGHAZ) toughness superior to that of the low nitrogen steel. The transition temperatures (measured at 50 ft-lb impact energy) were, in average, 15 to 60 C lower than those presented by the low nitrogen steel. Quantitative metallography results showed that high nitrogen steel CGHAZs have smaller austenite grain size and larger amount of grain boundary ferrite. Combining the microstructural information and toughness data, it was concluded that for the high nitrogen steel to exhibit superior properties than the low nitrogen steel, the final HAZ microstructure must contain at least 60% of lathy (bainitic) phases, balanced with ferritic products.

  9. Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation. Final program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

  10. Table 23. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices by API Gravity

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    18.62 19.26 Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-182, "Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Report." 23. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices by API Gravity Energy...

  11. Table 23. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices by API Gravity

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    20.23 20.91 Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-182, "Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Report." 23. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices by API Gravity Energy...

  12. Innovation at Los Alamos Unlocking a New Source of Domestic Oil...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Los Alamos Unlocking a New Source of Domestic Oil... From Algae Innovation at Los Alamos Unlocking a New Source of Domestic Oil... From Algae May 17, 2011 - 12:46pm Addthis ...

  13. Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines Injection Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines ...

  14. Worldwide organic soil carbon and nitrogen data (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Worldwide organic soil carbon and nitrogen data Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Worldwide organic soil carbon and nitrogen data You are accessing a document from the ...

  15. Process for separating nitrogen from methane using microchannel...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Process for separating nitrogen from methane using microchannel process technology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Process for separating nitrogen from methane using ...

  16. Table 23. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices by API Gravity

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    reported. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-182, "Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Report." Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual...

  17. Accelerated Depletion: Assessing Its Impacts on Domestic Oil and Natural Gas Prices and Production

    Reports and Publications

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of the potential impacts of accelerated depletion on domestic oil and natural gas prices and production.

  18. WA_00_022_CARGILL_DOW_POLYMERS_LLC_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Fo.pdf |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy 22_CARGILL_DOW_POLYMERS_LLC_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Fo.pdf WA_00_022_CARGILL_DOW_POLYMERS_LLC_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Fo.pdf (1.38 MB) More Documents & Publications WA_04_033_CARGILL_Waiver_of_Patent_Rights_to_CARGILL_DOWN_L.pdf WA_03_029_CARGILL_DOW_LLC_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Foreign_Pat.pdf WA_02_052_CARGILL_DOW_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Foreign_Patent_

  19. WA_1993_033_GOLDEN_PHOTON_INC_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Foreign.pdf |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy 3_033_GOLDEN_PHOTON_INC_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Foreign.pdf WA_1993_033_GOLDEN_PHOTON_INC_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Foreign.pdf (1.15 MB) More Documents & Publications WA_1995_030_GOLDEN_PHOTON_INC_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Foreign.pdf WA_1994_003_GOLDEN_PHOTOCON_INC_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Forei

  20. WA_1995_030_GOLDEN_PHOTON_INC_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Foreign.pdf |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy 5_030_GOLDEN_PHOTON_INC_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Foreign.pdf WA_1995_030_GOLDEN_PHOTON_INC_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Foreign.pdf (8.82 MB) More Documents & Publications WA_1994_003_GOLDEN_PHOTOCON_INC_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Forei.pdf WA_1993_033_GOLDEN_PHOTON_INC_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Foreign

  1. WA_97_019_INTEROTEX_LTD_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Foreign_Right.pdf |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy 19_INTEROTEX_LTD_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Foreign_Right.pdf WA_97_019_INTEROTEX_LTD_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Foreign_Right.pdf (3.96 MB) More Documents & Publications WA_97_020_LENNOX_INDUSTRIES_INC_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Forei.pdf WA_01_026_UNITED_TECHNOLOGIES_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Foreign.pdf Advance Patent Waiver W(A)2005-03

  2. United States Domestic Research Reactor Infrastrucutre TRIGA Reactor Fuel Support

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Morrell

    2011-03-01

    The United State Domestic Research Reactor Infrastructure Program at the Idaho National Laboratory manages and provides project management, technical, quality engineering, quality inspection and nuclear material support for the United States Department of Energy sponsored University Reactor Fuels Program. This program provides fresh, unirradiated nuclear fuel to Domestic University Research Reactor Facilities and is responsible for the return of the DOE-owned, irradiated nuclear fuel over the life of the program. This presentation will introduce the program management team, the universities supported by the program, the status of the program and focus on the return process of irradiated nuclear fuel for long term storage at DOE managed receipt facilities. It will include lessons learned from research reactor facilities that have successfully shipped spent fuel elements to DOE receipt facilities.

  3. Fuel Cell Animation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Animation Fuel Cell Animation This fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts. Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles emit approximately the same amount of water per mile as conventional vehicles powered by internal combustion engines. Learn more about water emissions from fuel cell vehicles. View text version of animation.

  4. COLLOQUIUM: Overview of Domestic Electric and Gas Markets | Princeton

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Physics Lab November 30, 2016, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium, PPPL (284 cap.) COLLOQUIUM: Overview of Domestic Electric and Gas Markets Dr. Ralph Izzo Public Service Enterprise Group (PSEG) During the presentation we will review the major factors affecting electric demand, natural gas prices, and electric generation choices. Topics will include environmental policy and its implications as well as other public policy objectives influencing energy markets.

  5. Foreign Research Reactor/Domestic Research Reactor Receipt Coordinator,

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Savannah River Nuclear Solutions | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Foreign Research Reactor/Domestic Research Reactor Receipt Coordinator, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions Mike Dunsmuir receiving award from Chuck Munns Mike Dunsmuir August 2009 Award of appreciation from NNSA Administrator Tom D'Agostino Mike Dunsmuir, FRR/DRR Receipt Coordinator with Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS) Nuclear Materials Storage was presented with an award of appreciation from NNSA

  6. Transgenic plants that exhibit enhanced nitrogen assimilation

    DOEpatents

    Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Brears, Timothy

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for producing plants with improved agronomic and nutritional traits. Such traits include enhanced nitrogen assimilatory and utilization capacities, faster and more vigorous growth, greater vegetative and reproductive yields, and enriched or altered nitrogen content in vegetative and reproductive parts. More particularly, the invention relates to the engineering of plants modified to have altered expression of key enzymes in the nitrogen assimilation and utilization pathways. In one embodiment of the present invention, the desired altered expression is accomplished by engineering the plant for ectopic overexpression of one of more the native or modified nitrogen assimilatory enzymes. The invention also has a number of other embodiments, all of which are disclosed herein.

  7. Transgenic plants that exhibit enhanced nitrogen assimilation

    DOEpatents

    Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Brears, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for producing plants with improved agronomic and nutritional traits. Such traits include enhanced nitrogen assimilatory and utilization capacities, faster and more vigorous growth, greater vegetative and reproductive yields, and enriched or altered nitrogen content in vegetative and reproductive parts. More particularly, the invention relates to the engineering of plants modified to have altered expression of key enzymes in the nitrogen assimilation and utilization pathways. In one embodiment of the present invention, the desired altered expression is accomplished by engineering the plant for ectopic overexpression of one of more the native or modified nitrogen assimilatory enzymes. The invention also has a number of other embodiments, all of which are disclosed herein.

  8. Transgenic plants that exhibit enhanced nitrogen assimilation

    DOEpatents

    Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Brears, Timothy

    2005-03-08

    The present invention relates to a method for producing plants with improved agronomic and nutritional traits. Such traits include enhanced nitrogen assimilatory and utilization capacities, faster and more vigorous growth, greater vegetative and reproductive yields, and enriched or altered nitrogen content in vegetative and reproductive parts. More particularly, the invention relates to the engineering of plants modified to have altered expression of key enzymes in the nitrogen assimilation and utilization pathways. In one embodiment of the present invention, the desired altered expression is accomplished by engineering the plant for ectopic overexpression of one of more the native or modified nitrogen assimilatory enzymes. The invention also has a number of other embodiments, all of which are disclosed herein.

  9. WA_02_036_DE_NORA_NORTH_AMERICA_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Foreg.pdf |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy 6_DE_NORA_NORTH_AMERICA_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Foreg.pdf WA_02_036_DE_NORA_NORTH_AMERICA_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Foreg.pdf (778.5 KB) More Documents & Publications WA_02_037_EI__DUPONT_deNEMOURS_and_CO_Waiver_of_Domestic_and.pdf WA_04_034_NUVERA_FUEL_CELLS_INC_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Forei.pdf WA_04_015_EI_DUPONT_DE_NEMOURS_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Foreig

  10. Plant nitrogen regulatory P-PII genes

    DOEpatents

    Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Lam, Hon-Ming; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiun

    2001-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to plant nitrogen regulatory PII gene (hereinafter P-PII gene), a gene involved in regulating plant nitrogen metabolism. The invention provides P-PII nucleotide sequences, expression constructs comprising said nucleotide sequences, and host cells and plants having said constructs and, optionally expressing the P-PII gene from said constructs. The invention also provides substantially pure P-PII proteins. The P-PII nucleotide sequences and constructs of the

  11. Preparation of nitrogen-doped carbon tubes

    DOEpatents

    Chung, Hoon Taek; Zelenay, Piotr

    2015-12-22

    A method for synthesizing nitrogen-doped carbon tubes involves preparing a solution of cyanamide and a suitable transition metal-containing salt in a solvent, evaporating the solvent to form a solid, and pyrolyzing the solid under an inert atmosphere under conditions suitable for the production of nitrogen-doped carbon tubes from the solid. Pyrolyzing for a shorter period of time followed by rapid cooling resulted in a tubes with a narrower average diameter.

  12. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-54 Animal Farm Pastures, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-015

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2008-04-17

    The 100-F-54 waste site, part of the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit, is the soil associated with the former pastures for holding domestic farm animals used in experimental toxicology studies. Evaluation of historical information resulted in identification of the experimental animal farm pastures as having potential residual soil contamination due to excrement from experimental animals. The 100-F-54 animal farm pastures confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  13. Table 5. Domestic Crude Oil Production, Projected vs. Actual

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Domestic Crude Oil Production, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (million barrels)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO 1994",2507.55,2372.5,2255.7,2160.8,2087.8,2022.1,1952.75,1890.7,1850.55,1825,1799.45,1781.2,1766.6,1759.3,1777.55,1788.5,1806.75,1861.5 "AEO

  14. Table 5. Domestic Crude Oil Production, Projected vs. Actual

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Domestic Crude Oil Production, Projected vs. Actual Projected (million barrels) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 2508 2373 2256 2161 2088 2022 1953 1891 1851 1825 1799 1781 1767 1759 1778 1789 1807 1862 AEO 1995 2402 2307 2205 2095 2037 1967 1953 1924 1916 1905 1894 1883 1887 1887 1920 1945 1967 AEO 1996 2387 2310 2248 2172 2113 2062 2011 1978 1953 1938 1916 1920 1927 1949 1971 1986 2000 2018 2055 AEO 1997 2362 2307

  15. Carbon Dioxide Enhanced Oil Recovery Untapped Domestic Energy Supply

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Oily surfaces can be cleaned if a solvent is used that is completely miscible with the oil. 5 Untapped Domestic Energy Supply and Long Term Carbon Storage Solution oil/CO 2 miscibility increases. For this reason, oil field operators must consider the pressure of a depleted oil reservoir when evaluating its suitability for CO 2 enhanced oil recovery. Low pressured reservoirs may need to be re-pressurized by injecting water (see page 6 sidebar on waterflooding). When the injected CO 2 and

  16. Carbon Dioxide Enhanced Oil Recovery Untapped Domestic Energy Supply

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil and water form separate Oily surfaces can be cleaned if a solvent is used that is completely miscible with the oil. Oily surfaces can be cleaned if a solvent is used 5 Untapped Domestic Energy Supply and Long Term Carbon Storage Solution oil/CO 2 miscibility increases. For this reason, oil field operators must consider the pressure of a depleted oil reservoir when evaluating its suitability for CO 2 enhanced oil recovery. Low pressured reservoirs may need to be re-pressurized by injecting

  17. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Plants and Animals

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Plants & Animals NNSANFO Language Options U.S. DOENNSA - Nevada Field Office Click to subscribe to NNSS News Plants and Animals Wild Horses at the NNSS Because of its physical ...

  18. Smart Grid Animation | Department of Energy

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Smart Grid Animation Smart Grid Animation Addthis An error occurred. Try watching this video on www.youtube.com, or enable JavaScript if it is disabled in your browser....

  19. 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Bioeconomy | Department of Energy Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy, Volume I Download the full interactive report to view visualizations of potential energy crop production, agricultural residues, forestry production and other scenarios on the BioenergyKDF. BillionTon_Report_2016_8.18.2016.pdf (37 MB)

  20. Fact# 904: December 21, 2015 Gross Domestic Product and Vehicle Travel:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Both Increased during 2015 | Department of Energy 4: December 21, 2015 Gross Domestic Product and Vehicle Travel: Both Increased during 2015 Fact# 904: December 21, 2015 Gross Domestic Product and Vehicle Travel: Both Increased during 2015 SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week The nation's highway vehicle miles of travel (VMT) and the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) reflect strikingly similar patterns, indicating the strong relationship between the nation's economy and its travel. Beginning in

  1. Fact #904: December 21, 2015 Gross Domestic Product and Vehicle Travel:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Both Increased during 2015 - Dataset | Department of Energy Fact #904: December 21, 2015 Gross Domestic Product and Vehicle Travel: Both Increased during 2015 - Dataset Fact #904: December 21, 2015 Gross Domestic Product and Vehicle Travel: Both Increased during 2015 - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Gross Domestic Product and Vehicle Travel: Both Increased during 2015 fotw#904_web_rev.xlsx (19.75 KB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Spring 2016 Quarterly

  2. WA_00_015_COMPAQ_FEDERAL_LLC_Waiver_Domestic_and_Foreign_Pat.pdf |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy 15_COMPAQ_FEDERAL_LLC_Waiver_Domestic_and_Foreign_Pat.pdf WA_00_015_COMPAQ_FEDERAL_LLC_Waiver_Domestic_and_Foreign_Pat.pdf (1.8 MB) More Documents & Publications WA_01_018_IBM_Waiver_of_Governement_US_and_Foreign_Patent_Ri.pdf Advance Patent Waiver W(A)2002-023 WC_1997_004_CLASS_ADVANCE_WAIVER_Under_Domestic_First_and_Se

  3. WA_02_034_BP_SOLAR_INTERNATIONAL_LLC_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_.pdf |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy 4_BP_SOLAR_INTERNATIONAL_LLC_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_.pdf WA_02_034_BP_SOLAR_INTERNATIONAL_LLC_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_.pdf (734.86 KB) More Documents & Publications WA_02_035_BP_SOLAR_INTERNATIONAL_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Fore.pdf WA_06_016_BP_SOLAR_INTERNATIONAL_Waiver_of_Patent_Rights_Und

  4. WA_02_035_BP_SOLAR_INTERNATIONAL_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Fore.pdf |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy 5_BP_SOLAR_INTERNATIONAL_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Fore.pdf WA_02_035_BP_SOLAR_INTERNATIONAL_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Fore.pdf (1.18 MB) More Documents & Publications WA_06_016_BP_SOLAR_INTERNATIONAL_Waiver_of_Patent_Rights_Und.pdf WA_02_034_BP_SOLAR_INTERNATIONAL_LLC_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_

  5. WA_03_010_SHELL_SOLAR_INDUSTRIES_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Fore.pdf |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy 10_SHELL_SOLAR_INDUSTRIES_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Fore.pdf WA_03_010_SHELL_SOLAR_INDUSTRIES_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Fore.pdf (1.41 MB) More Documents & Publications WA_02_039_SHELL_SOLAR_SYSTEMS_Waiver_of_Patent_Rights_Under_.pdf WA_05_059_SHELL_SOLAR_INDUSTRIES_LP_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_F.pdf Advance Patent Waiver W(A)2005-060

  6. WA_97_027_GENERAL_ATOMICS__CORPORATION_Waiver_of_Domestic_an.pdf |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy 27_GENERAL_ATOMICS__CORPORATION_Waiver_of_Domestic_an.pdf WA_97_027_GENERAL_ATOMICS__CORPORATION_Waiver_of_Domestic_an.pdf (8.04 MB) More Documents & Publications WA_99_014_UNITED_SOLAR_SYSTEMS_CORP_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_F.pdf Inspection Report: INS-O-00-02 Class Patent Waiver W(C)2004-00

  7. WA_98_001_REYNOLDS_METALS_COMPANY_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_For.pdf |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy 8_001_REYNOLDS_METALS_COMPANY_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_For.pdf WA_98_001_REYNOLDS_METALS_COMPANY_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_For.pdf (1.1 MB) More Documents & Publications Advance Patent Waiver W(A)1998-014 WA_00_023_ALCOA_INC_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Foreign_Patent_Ri.pdf U.S. Energy Requirements for Aluminum Production

  8. Over the past decade, the domestic oil and natural gas industry...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    past decade, the domestic oil and natural gas industry has been transformed by the successful development of unconventional shale resources. The commercial success of shale is in ...

  9. Table 23. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices by API Gravity

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    17.18 17.64 Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-182, "Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Report." Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999...

  10. Table 23. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices by API Gravity

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    12.17 12.80 Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-182, "Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Report." Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998...

  11. Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Consumer...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation Home > Coal > Annual Coal Distribution > Coal Origin Map > Domestic Distribution by Origin: Alaska Data For: 2002...

  12. Domestic and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    1 " "State Region ","Domestic ","Foreign ","Total "," " "Alabama ",14828,4508,19336," " "Alaska ",825,698,1524," " "Arizona ",13143,"-",13143," " "Arkansas ",13,"-",13," "...

  13. Domestic and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4 (Thousand Short Tons) " "State Region ","Domestic ","Foreign ","Total "," " "Alabama",18367,3744,22111," " "Alaska",957,546,1502," " "Arizona",13041,"-",13041," "...

  14. U.S. Domestic and Foreign Coal Distribution by State of Origin

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    (thousand short tons) Coal Exports Coal Origin State and Region Domestic Distribution By Coal Mines By Brokers & Traders* Total Exports Total Distribution Alabama 10,679.56...

  15. Drilling Sideways - A Review of Horizontal Well Technology and Its Domestic Application

    Reports and Publications

    1993-01-01

    Focuses primarily on domestic horizontal drilling applications, past and present, and on salient aspects of current and near-future horizontal drilling and completion technology.

  16. Liquid absorbent solutions for separating nitrogen from natural gas

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, Dwayne T.; Babcock, Walter C.; Edlund, David J.; Lyon, David K.; Miller, Warren K.

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen-absorbing and -desorbing compositions, novel ligands and transition metal complexes, and methods of using the same, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

  17. Engineering shallow spins in diamond with nitrogen delta-doping...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Engineering shallow spins in diamond with nitrogen delta-doping We demonstrate nanometer-precision depth control of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center creation near the surface of ...

  18. Probing Core-Hole Localization in Molecular Nitrogen

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing Core-Hole Localization in Molecular Nitrogen Probing Core-Hole Localization in Molecular Nitrogen Print Wednesday, 25 February 2009 00:00 The behavior of the core hole...

  19. Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air 2005 Diesel Engine ...

  20. Electrochemical process for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers

    DOEpatents

    Aulich, Ted R.; Olson, Edwin S.; Jiang, Junhua

    2013-03-19

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers including ammonium nitrate, urea, urea-ammonium nitrate, and/or ammonia utilizing a source of carbon, a source of nitrogen, and/or a source of hydrogen. Implementing an electrolyte serving as ionic charge carrier, (1) ammonium nitrate is produced via the reduction of a nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a nitrogen source at the anode; (2) urea or its isomers are produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source; (3) ammonia is produced via the reduction of nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a hydrogen source at the anode; and (4) urea-ammonium nitrate is produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source, and anodic oxidation of a nitrogen source. The electrolyte can be solid.

  1. ARM: AOS: Oxides of Nitrogen Analyzer (Dataset) | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hygroscopic growth; Inorganic chemical composition; Methane concentration; Nitrogen; Ozone; Ozone Concentration; Particle number concentration; Particle size distribution; Trace ...

  2. Video and Animation Requests | The Ames Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Video and Animation Requests Please fill in the form below. Videographer Brian Marczewski will contact you to discuss your project needs in more detail. Name * Phone Number * ...

  3. Fuel Cell Animation- Chemical Process (Text Version)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This text version of the fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts.

  4. Video, Audio, and Animation Text Versions for Web Accessibility...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Videos, Animations, & Audio Video, Audio, and Animation Text Versions for Web Accessibility Video, Audio, and Animation Text Versions for Web Accessibility For accessibility, ...

  5. Quality Assurance Checklists for Video, Animations, and Audio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Videos, Animations, & Audio Quality Assurance Checklists for Video, Animations, and Audio Web Requirements Quality Assurance Checklists for Video, Animations, and Audio Web ...

  6. Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicle Safety Systems Animation | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicle Safety Systems Animation Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicle Safety Systems Animation This animation demonstrates the multiple safety systems in hydrogen-fueled ...

  7. U.S. Domestic and Foreign Coal Distribution by State of Origin

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Domestic and Foreign Coal Distribution by State of Origin _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution Report 2015 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution Report 2015 Domestic and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2015 (thousand short tons)

  8. Toward a mechanistic modeling of nitrogen limitation on vegetation dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Chonggang [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Fisher, Rosie [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Wilson, Cathy [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Cai, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); McDowell, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen is a dominant regulator of vegetation dynamics, net primary production, and terrestrial carbon cycles; however, most ecosystem models use a rather simplistic relationship between leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic capacity. Such an approach does not consider how patterns of nitrogen allocation may change with differences in light intensity, growing-season temperature and CO{sub 2} concentration. To account for this known variability in nitrogen-photosynthesis relationships, we develop a mechanistic nitrogen allocation model based on a trade-off of nitrogen allocated between growth and storage, and an optimization of nitrogen allocated among light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, and respiration. The developed model is able to predict the acclimation of photosynthetic capacity to changes in CO{sub 2} concentration, temperature, and radiation when evaluated against published data of V{sub c,max} (maximum carboxylation rate) and J{sub max} (maximum electron transport rate). A sensitivity analysis of the model for herbaceous plants, deciduous and evergreen trees implies that elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations lead to lower allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation but higher allocation to storage. Higher growing-season temperatures cause lower allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation, due to higher nitrogen requirements for light capture pigments and for storage. Lower levels of radiation have a much stronger effect on allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation for herbaceous plants than for trees, resulting from higher nitrogen requirements for light capture for herbaceous plants. As far as we know, this is the first model of complete nitrogen allocation that simultaneously considers nitrogen allocation to light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, respiration and storage, and the responses of each to altered environmental conditions. We expect this model could potentially improve our confidence in simulations of carbon-nitrogen interactions

  9. Nitrogen doping study in ingot niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter; Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Makita, Junki

    2015-09-01

    Thermal diffusion of nitrogen in niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities at temperature ~800 °C has resulted in the increase in quality factor with a low-field Q-rise extending to Bp > 90 mT. However, the maximum accelerating gradient of these doped cavities often deteriorates below the values achieved by standard treatments prior to doping. Here, we present the results of the measurements on ingot niobium cavities doped with nitrogen at 800 °C. The rf measurements were carried out after the successive electropolishing to remove small amount of material from the inner surface layer. The result showed higher breakdown field with lower quality factor as material removal increases.

  10. Plant nitrogen regulatory P-PII polypeptides

    DOEpatents

    Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Lam, Hon-Ming; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiun

    2004-11-23

    The present invention generally relates to plant nitrogen regulatory PII gene (hereinafter P-PII gene), a gene involved in regulating plant nitrogen metabolism. The invention provides P-PII nucleotide sequences, expression constructs comprising said nucleotide sequences, and host cells and plants having said constructs and, optionally expressing the P-PII gene from said constructs. The invention also provides substantially pure P-PII proteins. The P-PII nucleotide sequences and constructs of the invention may be used to engineer organisms to overexpress wild-type or mutant P-PII regulatory protein. Engineered plants that overexpress or underexpress P-PII regulatory protein may have increased nitrogen assimilation capacity. Engineered organisms may be used to produce P-PII proteins which, in turn, can be used for a variety of purposes including in vitro screening of herbicides. P-PII nucleotide sequences have additional uses as probes for isolating additional genomic clones having the promoters of P-PII gene. P-PII promoters are light- and/or sucrose-inducible and may be advantageously used in genetic engineering of plants.

  11. Nitrogen control of chloroplast differentiation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, G.W.

    1998-05-01

    This project was directed toward understanding at the physiological, biochemical and molecular levels of how photosynthetic organisms adapt to long-term nitrogen-deficiency conditions is quite incomplete even though limitation of this nutrient is the most commonly restricts plant growth and development. For our work on this problem, the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, was grown in continuous cultures in which steady-state levels of nitrogen can be precisely controlled. N-limited cells exhibit the classical symptoms of deficiency of this nutrient, chlorosis and slow growth rates, and respond to nitrogen provision by rapid greening and chloroplast differentiation. We have addressed three aspects of this problem: (1) the regulation of pigment synthesis; (2) control of expression of nuclear genes encoding photosynthetic proteins; (3) changes in metabolic and electron transport pathways that enable sustained CO{sub 2} fixation even though they cannot be readily converted into amino and nucleic acids. For the last, principle components are: (a) enhanced mitochondrial respiratory activity intimately associated with photosynthates, and (b) the occurrence in thylakoids of a supplemental electron transport pathway that facilitates reduction of the plastoquinone pool. Together, these distinguishing features of N-limited cells are likely to enable cell survival, especially under conditions of high irradiance stress.

  12. Nitrogen Deposition: A Component of Global Change Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Norby, Richard J.

    1997-12-31

    The global cycles of carbon and nitrogen are being perturbed by human activities that increase the transfer from large pools of nonreactive forms of the elements to reactive forms that are essential to the functioning of the terrestrial biosphere. The cycles are closely linked at all scales, and global change analyses must consider carbon and nitrogen cycles together. The increasing amount of nitrogen originating from fossil fuel combustion and deposited to terrestrial ecosystems as nitrogen oxides could increase the capacity of ecosystems to sequester carbon thereby removing some of the excess carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and slowing the development of greenhouse warming. Several global and ecosystem models have calculated the amount of carbon sequestration that can be attributed to nitrogen deposition based on assumptions about the allocation of nitrogen among ecosystem components with different carbon-nitrogen ratios. They support the premise that nitrogen deposition is responsible for a an increasing terrestrial carbon sink since industrialization began, but there are large uncertainties related to the continued capacity of ecosystems to retain exogenous nitrogen. Whether terrestrial ecosystems continue to sequester additional carbon will depend in part on their response to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, which is widely thought to be constrained by limited nitrogen availability. Ecosystem models generally support the conclusion that the responses of ecosystems to increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide will be larger, and the range of possible responses will be wider, in ecosystems with increased nitrogen inputs originating as atmospheric deposition.

  13. Electrochemical process for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers

    DOEpatents

    Jiang, Junhua; Aulich, Ted R; Ignatchenko, Alexey V

    2015-04-14

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers including ammonium nitrate, urea, urea-ammonium nitrate, and/or ammonia are disclosed. Embodiments include (1) ammonium nitrate produced via the reduction of a nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a nitrogen source at the anode; (2) urea or its isomers produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source: (3) ammonia produced via the reduction of nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a hydrogen source or a hydrogen equivalent such as carbon monoxide or a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen at the anode; and (4) urea-ammonium nitrate produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source, and anodic oxidation of a nitrogen source.

  14. Fact #768: February 25, 2013 New Light Vehicle Sales and Gross Domestic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Product | Department of Energy 8: February 25, 2013 New Light Vehicle Sales and Gross Domestic Product Fact #768: February 25, 2013 New Light Vehicle Sales and Gross Domestic Product Over the last four decades, new light vehicle sales have gone from a low of 9.9 million vehicles in 1970 to a high of 17.1 million vehicles sold in 2001, but along the way, there have been significant ups and downs. Those ups and downs are also reflected in the change in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) over time

  15. Department of Energy to Invest $50 Million to Advance Domestic Solar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Manufacturing Market, Achieve SunShot Goal | Department of Energy 50 Million to Advance Domestic Solar Manufacturing Market, Achieve SunShot Goal Department of Energy to Invest $50 Million to Advance Domestic Solar Manufacturing Market, Achieve SunShot Goal August 2, 2011 - 3:53pm Addthis August 2, 2011 Department of Energy to Invest $50 Million to Advance Domestic Solar Manufacturing Market, Achieve SunShot GoalSUNPATH Program Will Boost American Competitiveness, Lower Cost of Solar Energy

  16. THE EFFECTS OF INITIAL ABUNDANCES ON NITROGEN IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, Kamber R.; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2014-12-20

    The dominant form of nitrogen provided to most solar system bodies is currently unknown, though available measurements show that the detected nitrogen in solar system rocks and ices is depleted with respect to solar abundances and the interstellar medium. We use a detailed chemical/physical model of the chemical evolution of a protoplanetary disk to explore the evolution and abundance of nitrogen-bearing molecules. Based on this model, we analyze how initial chemical abundances provided as either gas or ice during the early stages of disk formation influence which species become the dominant nitrogen bearers at later stages. We find that a disk with the majority of its initial nitrogen in either atomic or molecular nitrogen is later dominated by atomic and molecular nitrogen as well as NH{sub 3} and HCN ices, where the dominant species varies with disk radius. When nitrogen is initially in gaseous ammonia, it later becomes trapped in ammonia ice except in the outer disk where atomic nitrogen dominates. For a disk with the initial nitrogen in the form of ammonia ice, the nitrogen remains trapped in the ice as NH{sub 3} at later stages. The model in which most of the initial nitrogen is placed in atomic N best matches the ammonia abundances observed in comets. Furthermore, the initial state of nitrogen influences the abundance of N{sub 2}H{sup +}, which has been detected in protoplanetary disks. Strong N{sub 2}H{sup +} emission is found to be indicative of an N{sub 2} abundance greater than n{sub N{sub 2}}/n{sub H{sub 2}}>10{sup ?6} in addition to tracing the CO snow line. Our models also indicate that NO is potentially detectable, with lower N gas abundances leading to higher NO abundances.

  17. Worldwide organic soil carbon and nitrogen data

    SciTech Connect

    Zinke, P.J.; Stangenberger, A.G.; Post, W.M.; Emanual, W.R.; Olson, J.S.

    1986-09-01

    The objective of the research presented in this package was to identify data that could be used to estimate the size of the soil organic carbon pool under relatively undisturbed soil conditions. A subset of the data can be used to estimate amounts of soil carbon storage at equilibrium with natural soil-forming factors. The magnitude of soil properties so defined is a resulting nonequilibrium values for carbon storage. Variation in these values is due to differences in local and geographic soil-forming factors. Therefore, information is included on location, soil nitrogen content, climate, and vegetation along with carbon density and variation.

  18. Nitrogen oxides storage catalysts containing cobalt

    DOEpatents

    Lauterbach, Jochen; Snively, Christopher M.; Vijay, Rohit; Hendershot, Reed; Feist, Ben

    2010-10-12

    Nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) storage catalysts comprising cobalt and barium with a lean NO.sub.x storage ratio of 1.3 or greater. The NO.sub.x storage catalysts can be used to reduce NO.sub.x emissions from diesel or gas combustion engines by contacting the catalysts with the exhaust gas from the engines. The NO.sub.x storage catalysts can be one of the active components of a catalytic converter, which is used to treat exhaust gas from such engines.

  19. PROCESS FOR CONTROLLING ANIMAL GROWTH RATE

    DOEpatents

    Visek, W.J.

    1962-04-10

    A method of injecting growing animals with the enzyme urease subcutaneously in increasing dosages is described; this generates within the blood anti-urease which enters the intestinal tract and inhibits the enzymatic decomposition of urea by urease in that location. Ammonia, one of the decomposition products, is thereby kept from diffusing through the intestinal walls into the blood, and this greatly reduces the energy requirements of the liver for removing the ammonia, thereby increasing the feeding efficiency of the animals. (AEC)

  20. NREL: Transportation Research - E-Roadway Animation

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    E-Roadway Animation This animation depicts a potential future transportation scenario in which electric vehicles can be recharged via electrified roadways. E-roadways offer a variety of benefits. They can reduce petroleum consumption (electricity is used instead of gasoline), decrease vehicle operating costs (from about 12 cents per mile to 4 cents per mile), and extend the operational range of electric vehicles. Plus, e-roadway power can come from renewable sources. Text version. Printable

  1. PROTOSOLAR AMMONIA AS THE UNIQUE SOURCE OF TITAN's NITROGEN

    SciTech Connect

    Mandt, Kathleen E.; Mousis, Olivier; Gautier, Daniel

    2014-06-20

    The origin of Titan's nitrogen-rich atmosphere is thought to be ammonia ice, but this has not yet been confirmed. Furthermore, it is uncertain whether the building blocks of Titan formed within the Saturnian subnebula or in the colder protosolar nebula (PSN). Recent measurements of the nitrogen isotope ratio in cometary ammonia, combined with evolutionary constraints on the nitrogen isotopes in Titan's atmosphere provide firm evidence that the nitrogen in Titan's atmosphere must have originated as ammonia ice formed in the PSN under conditions similar to that of cometary formation. This result has important implications for the projected D/H ratio in cometary methane, nitrogen isotopic fractionation in the PSN and the source of nitrogen for Earth's atmosphere.

  2. Animation Requirements for the Web | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Animation Requirements for the Web Animation Requirements for the Web Animations include dynamic elements such as interactive images and games. For developing animations, follow the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's (EERE's) design and coding requirements. Use the multimedia quality assurance checklists to ensure your animation meets all of EERE's requirements. Designing Animations These are the guidelines for creating Section 508-compliant animations. Color Select colors that

  3. FORM EIA-23L ANNUAL SURVEY OF DOMESTIC OIL AND GAS RESERVES

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Date: 7312016 Version No.: 2016.01 FORM EIA-23L ANNUAL SURVEY OF DOMESTIC OIL AND GAS RESERVES SURVEY YEAR 2015 COVER PAGE This report is mandatory under the Federal ...

  4. Fact #564: March 30, 2009 Transportation and the Gross Domestic Product, 2007

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Transportation plays a major role in the U.S. economy. About 10% of the U.S. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2007 is related to transportation. Housing, health care, and food are the only...

  5. New Technologies that Enhance Environmental Protection, Increase Domestic Production, Result from DOE-Supported Consortium

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    New technologies that help small, independent oil and natural gas operators contribute to domestic energy production while improving environmental protection have resulted from U.S. Department of Energy support of the Stripper Well Consortium.

  6. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Model Simulating Real Domestic Hot Water Use

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America research that is improving domestic hot water modeling capabilities to more effectively address one of the largest energy uses in residential buildings.

  7. Fact #828: July 7, 2014 Japanese Auto Manufacturers Increase Domestic Production for U.S. Sales

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 1980, all Japanese-brand vehicles sold in the U.S. were imported. By 1990, just over one-third of Japanese-brand vehicles sold in the U.S. were produced domestically in North America which...

  8. International and Domestic Market Opportunities for Biomass Power: Volumes I and II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-09-01

    This report examines the domestic and international markets for biopower. Domestic and foreign markets present fundamentally different challenges to private power developers. Volume I focuses on the domestic market for biopower. The domestic challenge lies in finding economically viable opportunities for biopower. Vol. I outlines the current state of the U.S. biomass industry, discusses policies affecting biomass development, describes some demonstration projects currently underway, and discusses the future direction of the industry. Volume II focuses on the international market for biopower. Recent literature states that the electricity investment and policy climate in foreign markets are the key elements in successful private project development. Vol. II discusses the financing issues, policy climate, and business incentives and barriers to biopower development. As India and China are the largest future markets for biopower, they are the focus of this volume. Three other top markets- -Brazil, Indonesia, and the Philippines--are also discussed. Potential financial resources wrap up the discussion.

  9. Fixation of nitrogen in the presence of water vapor

    DOEpatents

    Harteck, Paul

    1984-01-01

    A process for the fixation of nitrogen is disclosed which comprises combining a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, metal oxide and water vapor, initially heating the combination to initiate a reaction which forms nitrate, but at a temperature and pressure range below the dissociation pressure of the nitrate. With or without the water component, the yield of fixed nitrogen is increased by the use of a Linde Molecular Sieve Catalyst.

  10. Nitrogen removal from natural gas using two types of membranes

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; Wijmans, Johannes G.; Da Costa, Andre R.

    2003-10-07

    A process for treating natural gas or other methane-rich gas to remove excess nitrogen. The invention relies on two-stage membrane separation, using methane-selective membranes for the first stage and nitrogen-selective membranes for the second stage. The process enables the nitrogen content of the gas to be substantially reduced, without requiring the membranes to be operated at very low temperatures.

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Robust Nitrogen

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle on-board Emissions Control | Department of Energy Robust Nitrogen oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle on-board Emissions Control Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Robust Nitrogen oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle on-board Emissions Control Presentation given by Los Alamos National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about robust nitrogen

  12. Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile … Model Simulating Real Domestic Hot Water Use

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    and the Davis Energy Group used the Domestic Hot Water Event Schedule Generator to accurately quantify effects of low and high water usage on distribution system measures such as pipe insulation, home run plumbing, and demand-controlled recirculation loops. As progress continues with high-R, tightly sealed thermal enclosures, domestic hot water becomes an increasingly important energy use in high-performance homes. Building America research has improved our ability to model hot water use so new

  13. Continuous improvement in nitrogen rejection unit design

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, J.V.; Maloney, J.J.

    1997-12-31

    The design and fabrication of Nitrogen Rejection Units (NRU) has advanced considerably over the past 15 years. Improvements have been made in all aspects of producing an NRU plant and cold box. This paper presents the primary areas involved that have seen these improvements. (1) Process design: the two-column process has been superseded by an approach which utilizes multiple flash drums and one column. This leads to a smaller and lower cost cold box. With low nitrogen content feeds, the prefractionater recovers half the methane as a high pressure residue gas and reduces the cold box size. (2) Mechanical Design: improved software enables the design process to be more accurate, eliminate piping and equipment interferences, reduce the size of the box and save design time. (3) Manufacturing: the interfacing of the 3D software design tools and the manufacturing process enables the shop floor personnel to reduce the manufacturing time by 10%. All of these individual improvements have reduced the real cost of an NRU substantially over the past 15 years.

  14. Method and apparatus for nitrogen oxide determination

    DOEpatents

    Hohorst, Frederick A.

    1990-01-01

    Method and apparatus for determining nitrogen oxide content in a high temperature process gas, which involves withdrawing a sample portion of a high temperature gas containing nitrogen oxide from a source to be analyzed. The sample portion is passed through a restrictive flow conduit, which may be a capillary or a restriction orifice. The restrictive flow conduit is heated to a temperature sufficient to maintain the flowing sample portion at an elevated temperature at least as great as the temperature of the high temperature gas source, to thereby provide that deposition of ammonium nitrate within the restrictive flow conduit cannot occur. The sample portion is then drawn into an aspirator device. A heated motive gas is passed to the aspirator device at a temperature at least as great as the temperature of the high temperature gas source. The motive gas is passed through the nozzle of the aspirator device under conditions sufficient to aspirate the heated sample portion through the restrictive flow conduit and produce a mixture of the sample portion in the motive gas at a dilution of the sample portion sufficient to provide that deposition of ammonium nitrate from the mixture cannot occur at reduced temperature. A portion of the cooled dilute mixture is then passed to analytical means capable of detecting nitric oxide.

  15. Mechanism of Enhanced Carbon Cathode Performance by Nitrogen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mechanism of Enhanced Carbon Cathode Performance by Nitrogen Doping in LithiumSulfur ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanism of Enhanced Carbon Cathode ...

  16. Modifying the response of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells to nitrogen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    70. annual meeting of the Federation of American Society for Experimental Biology, St. ... CELLS; GROWTH; NITROGEN MUSTARD; CALCIUM; CELL MEMBRANES; CHOLINE; LIPOSOMES; MICE; ...

  17. ITP Steel: Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ITP Steel: Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations castingops.pdf (875.11 KB) More Documents & Publications Steel Industry Technology Roadmap ITP Steel: ...

  18. Raman spectroscopy in hot compressed hydrogen and nitrogen -...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Raman spectroscopy in hot compressed hydrogen and nitrogen - implications for the intramolecular potential Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Raman spectroscopy in hot...

  19. Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect

    2002-01-01

    Development of Models will Help Predict and Control Hydrogen and Nitrogen Levels in Electric Arc Furnace and Basic Oxygen Furnace Steelmaking

  20. Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous Carbon Promoted Chemical Adsorption...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of High-Areal-Capacity Sulfur Cathode with Exceptional Cycling Stability for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nitrogen-Doped Mesoporous Carbon ...

  1. Evidence of an oncogenic gammaherpesvirus in domestic dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Shih-Hung; Kozak, Philip J.; Kim, Jessica; Habineza-Ndikuyeze, Georges; Meade, Charles; Gaurnier-Hausser, Anita; Patel, Reema; Robertson, Erle; and others

    2012-06-05

    In humans, chronic infection with the gammaherpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus is usually asymptomatic; however some infected individuals develop hematological and epithelial malignancies. The exact role of EBV in lymphomagenesis is poorly understood partly because of the lack of clinically relevant animal models. Here we report the detection of serological responses against EBV capsid antigens in healthy dogs and dogs with spontaneous lymphoma and that dogs with the highest antibody titers have B cell lymphoma. Moreover, we demonstrate the presence of EBV-like viral DNA and RNA sequences and Latent Membrane Protein-1 in malignant lymph nodes of dogs with lymphoma. Finally, electron microscopy of canine malignant B cells revealed the presence of classic herpesvirus particles. These findings suggest that dogs can be naturally infected with an EBV-like gammaherpesvirus that may contribute to lymphomagenesis and that dogs might represent a spontaneous model to investigate environmental and genetic factors that influence gammaherpesvirus-associated lymphomagenesis in humans.

  2. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

    1991-09-20

    Reburning is examined as a means of NO{sub x} destruction in a 17 kW down-fired pulverized coal combustor. In reburning, a secondary fuel is introduced downstream of the primary flame to produce a reducing zone, favorable to NO destruction, and air is introduced further downstream to complete the combustion. Emphasis is on natural gas reburning and a bituminous coal primary flame. A parametric examination of reburning employing a statistical experimental design, is conducted, complemented by detailed experiments. Mechanisms governing the inter-conversion of nitrogenous species in the fuel rich reburn zone is explored. The effect of reburning on N{sub 2}O emissions, the effect of primary flame mode (premixed and diffusion) and the effect of distributing the reburning fuel, are also investigated.

  3. Spectroscopic detection of nitrogen concentrations in sagebrush

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. MITCHELL; N. F. GLENN; T.T. SANKEY; D. R. DERRYBERRY; R. C. HRUSKA; M. O. Anderson

    2012-07-01

    The ability to estimate foliar nitrogen (N) in semi-arid landscapes can yield information on nutritional status and improve our limited understanding of controls on canopy photosynthesis. We examined two spectroscopic methods for estimating sagebrush dried leaf and live shrub N content: first derivative reflectance (FDR) and continuum removal. Both methods used partial least squares (PLS) regression to select wavebands most significantly correlated with N concentrations in the samples. Sagebrush dried leaf spectra produced PLS models (R2 = 0.76–0.86) that could predict N concentrations within the dataset more accurately than PLS models generated from live shrub spectra (R2 = 0.41–0.63). Inclusion of wavelengths associated with leaf water in the FDR transformations appeared to improve regression results. Findings are encouraging and warrant further exploration into sagebrush reflectance spectra to characterize N concentrations.

  4. Catalyst for reduction of nitrogen oxides

    DOEpatents

    Ott, Kevin C.

    2010-04-06

    A Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst was prepared by slurry coating ZSM-5 zeolite onto a cordierite monolith, then subliming an iron salt onto the zeolite, calcining the monolith, and then dipping the monolith either into an aqueous solution of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate and then calcining, or by similar treatment with separate solutions of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate. The supported catalyst containing iron, manganese, and cerium showed 80 percent conversion at 113 degrees Celsius of a feed gas containing nitrogen oxides having 4 parts NO to one part NO.sub.2, about one equivalent ammonia, and excess oxygen; conversion improved to 94 percent at 147 degrees Celsius. N.sub.2O was not detected (detection limit: 0.6 percent N.sub.2O).

  5. Electrochemical process for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers

    DOEpatents

    Aulich, Ted R.; Olson, Edwin S.; Jiang, Junhua

    2012-04-10

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers including ammonium nitrate, urea, urea-ammonium nitrate, and/or ammonia, at low temperature and pressure, preferably at ambient temperature and pressure, utilizing a source of carbon, a source of nitrogen, and/or a source of hydrogen or hydrogen equivalent. Implementing an electrolyte serving as ionic charge carrier, (1) ammonium nitrate is produced via the reduction of a nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a nitrogen source at the anode; (2) urea or its isomers are produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source; (3) ammonia is produced via the reduction of nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a hydrogen source or a hydrogen equivalent such as carbon monoxide or a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen at the anode; and (4) urea-ammonium nitrate is produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source, and anodic oxidation of a nitrogen source. The electrolyte can be aqueous, non-aqueous, or solid.

  6. Nitrogen doped zinc oxide thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Sonny X.

    2003-12-15

    To summarize, polycrystalline ZnO thin films were grown by reactive sputtering. Nitrogen was introduced into the films by reactive sputtering in an NO{sub 2} plasma or by N{sup +} implantation. All ZnO films grown show n-type conductivity. In unintentionally doped ZnO films, the n-type conductivities are attributed to Zn{sub i}, a native shallow donor. In NO{sub 2}-grown ZnO films, the n-type conductivity is attributed to (N{sub 2}){sub O}, a shallow double donor. In NO{sub 2}-grown ZnO films, 0.3 atomic % nitrogen was found to exist in the form of N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2}. Upon annealing, N{sub 2}O decomposes into N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. In furnace-annealed samples N{sub 2} redistributes diffusively and forms gaseous N{sub 2} bubbles in the films. Unintentionally doped ZnO films were grown at different oxygen partial pressures. Zni was found to form even at oxygen-rich condition and led to n-type conductivity. N{sup +} implantation into unintentionally doped ZnO film deteriorates the crystallinity and optical properties and leads to higher electron concentration. The free electrons in the implanted films are attributed to the defects introduced by implantation and formation of (N{sub 2}){sub O} and Zni. Although today there is still no reliable means to produce good quality, stable p-type ZnO material, ZnO remains an attractive material with potential for high performance short wavelength optoelectronic devices. One may argue that gallium nitride was in a similar situation a decade ago. Although we did not obtain any p-type conductivity, we hope our research will provide a valuable reference to the literature.

  7. Languages and interfaces for facial animation

    SciTech Connect

    Magnenat-Thalmann, N.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes high-level tools for specifying, controlling, and synchronizing temporal and spatial characteristics for 3D animation of facial expressions. The proposed approach consists of hierarchical levels of controls. Specification of expressions, phonemes, emotions, sentences, and head movements by means of a high-level language is shown. The various aspects of synchronization are also emphasized. Then, association of the control different interactive devices and media which allows the animator greater flexibility and freedom, is discussed. Experiments with input accessories such as the keyboard of a music synthesizer and gestures from the DataGlove are illustrated.

  8. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources 1983 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    ILAR serves as a coordinating agency and a national and international resource for compiling and disseminating information on laboratory animals, promoting education, planning and conducting conferences and symposia, surveying facilities and resources, upgrading laboratory animal resources, and promoting high quality, humane care of laboratory animals in the US. This report diseases activities conducted in 1983, including committees on animal models and genetic stocks, infectious diseases of mice and rats, environmental conditions in animal rooms, and care and use of laboratory animals. (ACR)

  9. Process for separating nitrogen from methane using microchannel process technology

    DOEpatents

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee; Qiu, Dongming; Dritz, Terence Andrew; Neagle, Paul; Litt, Robert Dwayne; Arora, Ravi; Lamont, Michael Jay; Pagnotto, Kristina M.

    2007-07-31

    The disclosed invention relates to a process for separating methane or nitrogen from a fluid mixture comprising methane and nitrogen, the process comprising: (A) flowing the fluid mixture into a microchannel separator, the microchannel separator comprising a plurality of process microchannels containing a sorption medium, the fluid mixture being maintained in the microchannel separator until at least part of the methane or nitrogen is sorbed by the sorption medium, and removing non-sorbed parts of the fluid mixture from the microchannel separator; and (B) desorbing the methane or nitrogen from the sorption medium and removing the desorbed methane or nitrogen from the microchannel separator. The process is suitable for upgrading methane from coal mines, landfills, and other sub-quality sources.

  10. Removal of basic nitrogen compounds from hydrocarbon liquids

    DOEpatents

    Givens, Edwin N.; Hoover, David S.

    1985-01-01

    A method is provided for reducing the concentration of basic nitrogen compounds in hydrocarbonaceous feedstock fluids used in the refining industry by providing a solid particulate carbonaceous adsorbent/fuel material such as coal having active basic nitrogen complexing sites on the surface thereof and the coal with a hydrocarbonaceous feedstock containing basic nitrogen compounds to facilitate attraction of the basic nitrogen compounds to the complexing sites and the formation of complexes thereof on the surface of the coal. The adsorbent coal material and the complexes formed thereon are from the feedstock fluid to provide a hydrocarbonaceous fluid of reduced basic nitrogen compound concentration. The coal can then be used as fuel for boilers and the like.

  11. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) nitrogen trailers propane tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, P.C.

    1998-01-28

    The purpose of the Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is the evaluation and authorization of the onsite transport of propane tanks that are mounted on the Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation Characterization Project`s nitrogen trailers. This SEP authorizes onsite transport of the nitrogen trailers, including the propane tanks, until May 31, 1998. The three nitrogen trailers (HO-64-4966, HO-64-4968, and HO-64-5170) are rated for 1,361 kg (30,000 lb) and are equipped with tandem axles and pintel hitches. Permanently mounted on each trailer is a 5,678 L (1,500 gal) cryogenic dewar that is filled with nitrogen, and a propane fired water bath vaporizer system, and a 454 L (1 20 gal) propane tank. The nitrogen trailer system is operated only when it is disconnected from the tow vehicle and is leveled and stabilized. When the trailers are transported, the propane tanks are isolated via closed supply valves.

  12. Recent advances in the risk assessment of melamine and cyanuric acid in animal feed

    SciTech Connect

    Dorne, Jean Lou; Vandenbroeck, Marc; Mennes, Wim; Knutsen, Helle K.; Vernazza, Francesco; Edler, Lutz; Benford, Diane

    2013-08-01

    Melamine can be present at low levels in food and feed mostly from its legal use as a food contact material in laminates and plastics, as a trace contaminant in nitrogen supplements used in animal feeds, and as a metabolite of the pesticide cyromazine. The mechanism of toxicity of melamine involves dose-dependent formation of crystals with either endogenous uric acid or a structural analogue of melamine, cyanuric acid, in renal tubules resulting in potential acute kidney failure. Co-exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid in livestock, fish, pets and laboratory animals shows higher toxicity compared with melamine or cyanuric acid alone. Evidence for crystal formation between melamine and other structural analogs i.e. ammelide and ammeline is limited. Illegal pet food adulterations with melamine and cyanuric acid and adulteration of milk with melamine resulted in melaminecyanuric acid crystals, kidney damage and deaths of cats and dogs and melamineuric acid stones, hospitalisation and deaths of children in China respectively. Following these incidents, the tolerable daily intake for melamine was re-evaluated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the World Health Organisation, and the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This review provides an overview of toxicology, the adulteration incidents and risk assessments for melamine and its structural analogues. Particular focus is given to the recent EFSA risk assessment addressing impacts on animal and human health of background levels of melamine and structural analogues in animal feed. Recent research and future directions are discussed. - Highlights: ? Melamine in food and feed. ? Forms crystals in kidney with uric acid or cyanuric acid. ? Toxicity higher with cyanuric acid. ? Recent EFSA risk assessment. ? Animal and human health.

  13. Traces of natural radionuclides in animal food

    SciTech Connect

    Merli, Isabella Desan; Guazzelli da Silveira, Marcilei A.; Medina, Nilberto H.

    2014-11-11

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are present everywhere, e.g., in soil, air, housing materials, food, etc. Therefore, human beings and animals receive internal exposure from radioactive elements inside their bodies through breathing and alimentation. Gamma radiation has enough energy to remove an electron from the atom and compromise the rearrangement of electrons in the search for a more stable configuration which can disturb molecule chemical bonding. Food ingestion is one of the most common forms of radioisotopes absorption. The goal of this work is the measurement of natural gamma radiation rates from natural radioisotopes present in animal food. To determine the concentration of natural radionuclides present in animal food gamma-ray spectrometry was applied. We have prepared animal food samples for poultry, fish, dogs, cats and cattle. The two highest total ingestion effective doses observed refers to a sample of mineral salt cattle, 95.3(15) ?Sv/year, rabbit chow, with a value of 48(5) ?Sv/year, and cattle mineral salt, with a value of 69(7) ?Sv/year, while the annual total dose value from terrestrial intake radionuclide is of the order of 290 ?Sv/year.

  14. Multi-model mean nitrogen and sulfur deposition from the Atmospheric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multi-model mean nitrogen and sulfur deposition from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate ... Title: Multi-model mean nitrogen and sulfur deposition from the Atmospheric Chemistry and ...

  15. Nitrogen Oxides as a Chemistry Trap in Detonating Oxygen-Rich...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Nitrogen Oxides as a Chemistry Trap in Detonating Oxygen-Rich Materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nitrogen Oxides as a Chemistry Trap in Detonating ...

  16. METHANE AND NITROGEN ABUNDANCES ON PLUTO AND ERIS

    SciTech Connect

    Tegler, S. C.; Cornelison, D. M.; Abernathy, M. R.; Bovyn, M. J.; Burt, J. A.; Evans, D. E.; Maleszewski, C. K.; Thompson, Z.; Grundy, W. M.; Romanishin, W.; Vilas, F. E-mail: David.Cornelison@nau.ed E-mail: wjr@nhn.ou.ed

    2010-12-10

    We present spectra of Eris from the MMT 6.5 m Telescope and Red Channel Spectrograph (5700-9800 A, 5 A pixel{sup -1}) on Mt. Hopkins, AZ, and of Pluto from the Steward Observatory 2.3 m Telescope and Boller and Chivens Spectrograph (7100-9400 A, 2 A pixel{sup -1}) on Kitt Peak, AZ. In addition, we present laboratory transmission spectra of methane-nitrogen and methane-argon ice mixtures. By anchoring our analysis in methane and nitrogen solubilities in one another as expressed in the phase diagram of Prokhvatilov and Yantsevich, and comparing methane bands in our Eris and Pluto spectra and methane bands in our laboratory spectra of methane and nitrogen ice mixtures, we find Eris' bulk methane and nitrogen abundances are {approx}10% and {approx}90% and Pluto's bulk methane and nitrogen abundances are {approx}3% and {approx}97%. Such abundances for Pluto are consistent with values reported in the literature. It appears that the bulk volatile composition of Eris is similar to the bulk volatile composition of Pluto. Both objects appear to be dominated by nitrogen ice. Our analysis also suggests, unlike previous work reported in the literature, that the methane and nitrogen stoichiometry is constant with depth into the surface of Eris. Finally, we point out that our Eris spectrum is also consistent with a laboratory ice mixture consisting of 40% methane and 60% argon. Although we cannot rule out an argon-rich surface, it seems more likely that nitrogen is the dominant species on Eris because the nitrogen ice 2.15 {mu}m band is seen in spectra of Pluto and Triton.

  17. Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases

    DOEpatents

    Joubert, James I.

    1986-01-01

    Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

  18. Nitrogen-doped Graphene and Its Electrochemical Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Sheng; Engelhard, Mark H.; Li, Guosheng; Shao, Guocheng; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-06-04

    Nitrogen-doped graphene (N-graphene) is obtained by exposing graphene to nitrogen plasma. N-graphene exhibits much higher electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen reduction and H2O2 reduction than graphene, and much higher durability and selectivity than the widely-used expensive Pt. The excellent electrochemical performance of N-graphene is attributed to nitrogen functional groups and the specific properties of graphene. This indicates that N-graphene is promising for applications in electrochemical energy devices (fuel cells, metal-air batteries) and biosensors.

  19. Nitrogen Trifluoride-Based Fluoride- Volatility Separations Process: Initial Studies

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2011-09-28

    This document describes the results of our investigations on the potential use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorinating and oxidizing agent in fluoride volatility-based used nuclear fuel reprocessing. The conceptual process uses differences in reaction temperatures between nitrogen trifluoride and fuel constituents that produce volatile fluorides to achieve separations and recover valuable constituents. We provide results from our thermodynamic evaluations, thermo-analytical experiments, kinetic models, and provide a preliminary process flowsheet. The evaluations found that nitrogen trifluoride can effectively produce volatile fluorides at different temperatures dependent on the fuel constituent.

  20. Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illnesses in infants

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, J.M.; Lambert, W.E.; Skipper, B.J.; Cushing, A.H.; Hunt, W.C.; Young, S.A.; McLaren, L.C.; Schwab, M.; Spengler, J.D. )

    1993-11-01

    Nitrogen dioxide is an oxidant gas that contaminates outdoor air and indoor air in homes with unvented gas appliances. A prospective cohort study was carried out to test the hypothesis that residential exposure to NO2 increases incidence and severity of respiratory illnesses during the first 18 months of life. A cohort of 1,205 healthy infants from homes without smokers was enrolled. The daily occurrence of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was reported by the mothers every 2 wk. Illnesses with wheezing or wet cough were classified as lower respiratory tract. Indoor NO2 concentrations were serially measured with passive samplers place in the subjects' bedrooms. In stratified analyses, illness incidence rates did not consistently increase with exposure to NO2 or stove type. In multivariate analyses that adjusted for potential confounding factors, odds ratios were not significantly elevated for current or lagged NO2 exposures, or stove type. Illness duration, a measure of illness severity, was not associated with NO2 exposure. The findings can be extended to homes with gas stoves in regions of the United States where the outdoor air is not heavily polluted by NO2.

  1. Measure Guideline. Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, Armin

    2012-08-01

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  2. Securing Clean, Domestic, Affordable Energy with Wind (Fact Sheet), Wind Program (WP)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Securing Clean, Domestic, Affordable Energy with Wind The U.S. Department of Energy Wind Program is committed to developing and deploying a portfolio of innovative technologies for clean, domestic power generation to support an ever-growing industry, targeted at producing 20% of our nation's electricity by 2030. A Growing Market Wind energy is one of the fastest growing energy markets in the nation, contributing 6,800 MW of new generating capacity in 2011, which comprised 32% of all new U.S.

  3. Measure Guideline: Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.

    2012-08-01

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  4. U.S. Domestic Oil Production Exceeds Imports for First Time in 18 Years |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Domestic Oil Production Exceeds Imports for First Time in 18 Years U.S. Domestic Oil Production Exceeds Imports for First Time in 18 Years November 15, 2013 - 3:47pm Addthis Source: Energy Information Administration Short Term Energy Outlook. Chart by Daniel Wood. Allison Lantero Allison Lantero Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs In February 1995, The Brady Bunch Movie and Billy Madison were in movie theaters, "Creep" by TLC was at the top of

  5. Carbon Pollution Being Captured, Stored and Used to Produce More Domestic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Oil | Department of Energy Pollution Being Captured, Stored and Used to Produce More Domestic Oil Carbon Pollution Being Captured, Stored and Used to Produce More Domestic Oil May 10, 2013 - 11:38am Addthis Learn more about how the Office of Fossil Energy's carbon capture, utilization and storage program is benefiting the economy and the environment. Christopher A. Smith Christopher A. Smith Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy What does this project do? More than 90% of the CO2 at the

  6. STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY INVENTOR FOR THE W AIYER OF DOMESTIC AND

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    INVENTOR FOR THE W AIYER OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN RIGHTS TO AN IDENTIFIED INVENTION ENTITLED "METHOD FOR ANALYZING MITOCHONDRIAL MYOPATHIES USING NANOLASER SPECTROSCOPY" DEVELOPED UNDER DOE CONTRACT NO. DE-AC04-94AL8500; DOE INVENTION DISCLOSURE NO. S-111 ,180; DOE WAIVER NO. W{I) 2008-005. The Petitioner, Paul L. Gourley (co-Inventor), has requested a waiver of the Government's domestic and foreign patent rights in a subject invention entitled "Method for Analyzing Mitochondrial

  7. Domestic production of medical isotope Mo-99 moves a step closer

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Domestic Uranium Production Report - Annual With Data for 2015 | Release Date: May 5, 2016 | Next Release Date: May 2017 | full report Previous domestic uranium production reports Year: 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 Go Drilling Total uranium drilling was 1,518 holes covering 0.9 million feet, 13% fewer holes than in 2015. Expenditures for uranium drilling in the United States were $29 million in 2015, an increase of 2% compared with 2014. Figure 1. U.S. Uranium drilling

  8. Energy Production from Zoo Animal Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, KT

    2003-04-07

    Elephant and rhinoceros dung was used to investigate the feasibility of generating methane from the dung. The Knoxville Zoo produces 30 cubic yards (23 m{sup 3}) of herbivore dung per week and cost of disposal of this dung is $105/week. The majority of this dung originates from the Zoo's elephant and rhinoceros population. The estimated weight of the dung is 20 metric tons per week and the methane production potential determined in experiments was 0.033 L biogas/g dung (0.020 L CH{sub 4}/g dung), and the digestion of elephant dung was enhanced by the addition of ammonium nitrogen. Digestion was better overall at 37 C when compared to digestion at 50 C. Based on the amount of dung generated at the Knoxville Zoo, it is estimated that two standard garden grills could be operated 24 h per day using the gas from a digester treating 20 metric ton herbivore dung per week.

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Vehicle Fueling Animation

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Natural Gas Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Vehicle Fueling Animation to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Vehicle Fueling Animation on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Vehicle Fueling Animation on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Vehicle Fueling Animation on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Vehicle Fueling Animation on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data

  10. Video, Audio, and Animation Text Versions for Web Accessibility |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Video, Audio, and Animation Text Versions for Web Accessibility Video, Audio, and Animation Text Versions for Web Accessibility For accessibility, Section 508 requires text versions of video, audio, and animations. Follow the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's (EERE's) requirements for developing a text version for a video, audio file, or animation. Requirements Follow these requirements for developing a text version for a video, audio file, or animation.

  11. Mapping the location and configuration of nitrogen in diamond nanoparticles.

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, A. S.; Sternberg, M.; Center for Nanoscale Materials; Univ. of Oxford

    2007-01-17

    Understanding how impurities such as nitrogen are included in diamond nanoparticles is expected to be important for use in future nanodevices, such as qubits for quantum computing. Most commercial diamond nanoparticles contain approximately 2-3% nitrogen, but it is difficult to determine experimentally whether it is located within the core or at the surface of the nanoparticles. Presented here are density functional tight-binding simulations examining the configuration and potential energy surface of substitutional nitrogen in diamond nanoparticles, directly comparing results of different sizes, shapes and surface chemistry. The results predict that nitrogen is metastable within the core of both hydrogenated and dehydrogenated particles, but that the binding energy, coordination and preferred location is dependent upon the structure of the nanoparticle as a whole.

  12. Nitrogen is a deep acceptor in ZnO

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Tarun, M. C.; Iqbal, M. Zafar; McCluskey, M. D.

    2011-04-14

    Zinc oxide is a promising material for blue and UV solid-state lighting devices, among other applications. Nitrogen has been regarded as a potential p-type dopant for ZnO. However, recent calculations indicate that nitrogen is a deep acceptor. This paper presents experimental evidence that nitrogen is, in fact, a deep acceptor and therefore cannot produce p-type ZnO. A broad photoluminescence (PL) emission band near 1.7 eV, with an excitation onset of ~2.2 eV, was observed, in agreement with the deep-acceptor model of the nitrogen defect. Thus the deep-acceptor behavior can be explained by the low energy of the ZnO valence bandmore » relative to the vacuum level.« less

  13. Structural and electronic properties of dense liquid and amorphous nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Boates, B; Bonev, S A

    2011-02-11

    We present first-principles calculations of the structural and electronic properties of liquid nitrogen in the pressure-temperature range of 0-200 GPa and 2000-6000 K. The molecular-polymerization and molecular-atomic liquid phase boundaries have been mapped over this region. We find the polymeric liquid to be metallic, similar to what has been reported for the higher-temperature atomic fluid. An explanation of the electronic properties is given based on the structure and bonding character of the transformed liquids. We discuss the structural and bonding differences between the polymeric liquid and insulating solid cubic-gauche nitrogen to explain the differences in their electronic properties. Furthermore, we discuss the mechanism responsible for charge transport in polymeric nitrogen systems to explain the conductivity of the polymeric fluid and the semi-conducting nature of low-temperature amorphous nitrogen.

  14. Observational studies of interstellar and solar-nebula nitrogen chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Womack, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the high cosmic abundance of nitrogen, chemical models of nitrogen-bearing species in the interstellar medium and the primordial solar nebula have not been constrained significantly by observations. Essentially nothing is known about the abundance of the simplest and most stable nitrogen compound N{sub 2} in astronomical sources. Ion-molecule chemistry models of interstellar clouds predict molecular ions to be formed primarily in cold, quiescent gas. The only well-studied molecular ion in dense clouds, HCO{sup +}, is very abundant in regions of energetic outflow from young stars, contrary to model predictions. Therefore, observations of another molecular ion are needed to better understand ion-molecule models. Here the author presents millimeter-wave observations of N{sub 2}H{sup +} toward galactic molecular clouds. These data can provide constraints on both the nitrogen and ion-molecular chemistry in the interstellar medium.

  15. Nanodiamond-based nanostructures for coupling nitrogen-vacancy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... the PVP molecules can act as a natural surface ligand for as-grown nanoparticles ... ethanol and is degassed with dry nitrogen gas at 60 0C for 15 min, followed by the ...

  16. Nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Gwak, Kyung Hyun; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2014-01-29

    Thermodynamic study is performed on nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas. In order to substantially increase the capacity, a Brayton refrigeration cycle with nitrogen expander was recently added to the cold end of the reputable propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) process. Similar modifications with a nitrogen expander cycle are extensively investigated on a variety of cycle configurations. The existing and modified cycles are simulated with commercial process software (Aspen HYSYS) based on selected specifications. The results are compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, liquefaction capacity, and estimated size of heat exchangers. The combination of C3-MR with partial regeneration and pre-cooling of nitrogen expander cycle is recommended to have a great potential for high efficiency and large capacity.

  17. Substitutional Nitrogen in Nanodiamond and Bucky-Diamond Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, Amanda S.; Sternberg, Michael G.

    2005-09-15

    The inclusion of dopants (such as nitrogen) in diamond nanoparticles is expected to be important for use in future nanodevices, such as qubits for quantum computing. Although most commercial diamond nanoparticles contain a small fraction of nitrogen, it is still unclear whether it is located within the core or at the surface of the nanoparticle. Presented here are density functional tight binding simulations examining the configuration, potential energy surface, and electronic charge of substitutional nitrogen in nanodiamond and bucky-diamond particles. The results predict that nitrogen is likely to be positioned at the surface of both hydrogenated nanodiamond and (dehydrogenated) bucky-diamond, and that the coordination of the dopants within the particles is dependent upon the surface structure.

  18. Hydrogen and nitrogen control in ladle and casting operations

    SciTech Connect

    Fruehan, R. J.; Misra, Siddhartha

    2005-01-15

    In recent years there has been an increasing demand to reduce and control the amount of dissolved gases in steel. Hydrogen and nitrogen are two of the most important gases which when dissolved in liquid steel affect its properties significantly.

  19. Onsite-generated nitrogen for oil and gas well drilling

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    New equipment that can generate gaseous nitrogen at the well site has been used successfully in a variety of oil and gas well drilling applications in the US and Canada, affording the many benefits of drilling with gas or air, while also eliminating the danger of downhole fires, and/or providing significant savings over delivered liquid nitrogen. The technology involves the use of a hollow fiber membrane polymer incorporated into a skid-mounted nitrogen production unit (NPU) designed for use in oilfield conditions. Generon Systems, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of The Dow Chemical Co., fabricates the membrane fiber and other equipment for the NPUs. The equipment is exclusively marketed for Generon, for oil and gas applications, by Energy Technology Services Corp., of Englewood, Colorado. This paper reviews this equipment and its application to horizontal drilling. It also reviews the safety advantage of nitrogen in lost circulation zones.

  20. Amplification of subnanosecond nitrogen laser pulses in UV dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Au, M.; Rayner, D.M.; Malatesta, V.; Hackett, P.A.

    1982-12-01

    The performance of a short pulse netrogen laser system have been improved by replacing the subatmospheric TE nitrogen laser amplifier with a XV xenon chloride excimer pumped dye amplifier. (AIP)

  1. Recovery of nitrogen and light hydrocarbons from polyalkene purge gas

    DOEpatents

    Zwilling, Daniel Patrick; Golden, Timothy Christoph; Weist, Jr., Edward Landis; Ludwig, Keith Alan

    2003-06-10

    A method for the separation of a gas mixture comprises (a) obtaining a feed gas mixture comprising nitrogen and at least one hydrocarbon having two to six carbon atoms; (b) introducing the feed gas mixture at a temperature of about 60.degree. F. to about 105.degree. F. into an adsorbent bed containing adsorbent material which selectively adsorbs the hydrocarbon, and withdrawing from the adsorbent bed an effluent gas enriched in nitrogen; (c) discontinuing the flow of the feed gas mixture into the adsorbent bed and depressurizing the adsorbent bed by withdrawing depressurization gas therefrom; (d) purging the adsorbent bed by introducing a purge gas into the bed and withdrawing therefrom an effluent gas comprising the hydrocarbon, wherein the purge gas contains nitrogen at a concentration higher than that of the nitrogen in the feed gas mixture; (e) pressurizing the adsorbent bed by introducing pressurization gas into the bed; and (f) repeating (b) through (e) in a cyclic manner.

  2. Membrane-augmented cryogenic methane/nitrogen separation

    DOEpatents

    Lokhandwala, K.

    1997-07-15

    A membrane separation process is described which is combined with a cryogenic separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane, nitrogen and at least one other component. The membrane separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and the other component and rejecting nitrogen. The process is particularly useful in removing components such as water, carbon dioxide or C{sub +2} hydrocarbons that might otherwise freeze and plug the cryogenic equipment. 10 figs.

  3. Membrane-augmented cryogenic methane/nitrogen separation

    DOEpatents

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid

    1997-01-01

    A membrane separation process combined with a cryogenic separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane, nitrogen and at least one other component. The membrane separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and the other component and rejecting nitrogen. The process is particularly useful in removing components such as water, carbon dioxide or C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons that might otherwise freeze and plug the cryogenic equipment.

  4. Entanglement generation of nitrogen-vacancy centers via coupling to

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    nanometer-sized resonators and a superconducting interference device (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Entanglement generation of nitrogen-vacancy centers via coupling to nanometer-sized resonators and a superconducting interference device Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Entanglement generation of nitrogen-vacancy centers via coupling to nanometer-sized resonators and a superconducting interference device We present a potential scheme to entangle negatively charged

  5. Fungi contribute critical but spatially varying roles in nitrogen and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    carbon cycling in acid mine drainage (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Fungi contribute critical but spatially varying roles in nitrogen and carbon cycling in acid mine drainage Title: Fungi contribute critical but spatially varying roles in nitrogen and carbon cycling in acid mine drainage The ecosystem roles of fungi have been extensively studied by targeting one organism and/or biological process at a time, but the full metabolic potential of fungi has rarely been captured in an environmental

  6. Economic incentives for US refiners to process incremental domestic heavy crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Guillermo, G.U.

    1995-12-31

    Faced with declining domestic crude supplies and increasing refined product demands, U.S. refiners devote a great deal of attention to securing alternate sources of crude oil. In addition to the traditional and cost-effective choice of imports, a potentially viable source is domestic heavy crude oil. Working with the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractor, the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bonner & Moore undertook a project to ascertain the necessary adjustments U.S. refiners would need to make in order to process incremental amounts of heavy crude oil added to domestic refining slates between now and 2010. Results of this study indicated that significant economic investments would be required in order to process these crudes; processing of lighter imports, however, would remain substantially less costly. It would seem, then, that U.S. refiners would elect to process imports over incremental domestic heavy crudes unless they were offered some type of economic incentive to process the heavy oil. This paper addresses the issue of what those economic incentives could be.

  7. "Table 2. Real Gross Domestic Product Growth Trends, Projected vs. Actual"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Real Gross Domestic Product Growth Trends, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Real GDP Growth Trend" " (cumulative average percent growth in projected real GDP from first year shown for each AEO)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO

  8. The domestic natural gas and oil initiatve. First annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This document is the first of a series of annual progress reports designed to inform the industry and the public of the accomplishments of the Domestic Natural Gas and Oil Initiative (the Initiative) and the benefits realized. Undertaking of the Initiative was first announced by Hazel O`Leary, Secretary of the Department of Energy (Department or DOE), in April 1993.

  9. Development of Standardized Domestic Hot Water Event Schedules for Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, R.; Burch, J.

    2008-08-01

    The Building America Research Benchmark is a standard house definition created as a point of reference for tracking progress toward multi-year energy savings targets. As part of its development, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has established a set of domestic hot water events to be used in conjunction with sub-hourly analysis of advanced hot water systems.

  10. Analysis of Selected Provisions of the Domestic Manufacturing and Energy Jobs Act of 2010

    Reports and Publications

    2010-01-01

    This report responds to a letter dated August 16, 2010, from Janice Mays, Staff Director of the U.S. House of Representatives' Committee on Ways and Means, requesting that the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze several provisions included in the July 26, 2010, discussion draft of the Domestic Manufacturing and Energy Jobs Act of 2010.

  11. Measurement of nitrogen content in a gas mixture by transforming the nitrogen into a substance detectable with nondispersive infrared detection

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Thomas E.; Miller, Michael A.

    2010-08-24

    A method of determining the amount of nitrogen in a gas mixture. The constituent gases of the mixture are dissociated and transformed to create a substance that may measured using nondispersive infrared adsorption techniques.

  12. Measurement of nitrogen content in a gas mixture by transforming the nitrogen into a substance detectable with nondispersive infrared detection

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Thomas E.; Miller, Michael A.

    2007-03-13

    A method of determining the amount of nitrogen in a gas mixture. The constituent gases of the mixture are dissociated and transformed to create a substance that may measured using nondispersive infrared adsorption techniques.

  13. Safeguards and security by design (SSBD) for the domestic threat - theft and sabotage

    SciTech Connect

    Demuth, Scott F; Mullen, Mark

    2011-10-05

    Safeguards by Design (SBD) is receiving significant interest with respect to international safeguards objectives. However, less attention has been focused on the equally important topic of domestic Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD), which addresses requirements such as those of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the United States. While international safeguards are concerned with detecting State diversion of nuclear material from peaceful to nuclear explosives purposes, domestic Material Protection, Control and Accounting measures (MPC&A) are focused on non-State theft and sabotage. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has described the Safeguards by Design (SBD) concept as an approach in which 'international safeguards are fully integrated into the design process of a new nuclear facility from the initial planning through design, construction, operation, and decommissioning.' This same concept is equally applicable to SSBD for domestic requirements. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a project through its Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) and more specifically its Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program, to develop a domestic SSBD discipline and methodology in parallel with similar efforts sponsored by the DOE Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) and the IAEA for international safeguards. This activity includes the participation of industry (through DOE-sponsored contracts) and DOE National Laboratories. This paper will identify the key domestic safeguards and security requirements (i.e. MC&A and physical protection) and explain how and why Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD) is important and beneficial for the design of future US nuclear energy systems.

  14. Lighted display devices for producing static or animated visual displays, including animated facial features

    DOEpatents

    Heilbron, Valerie J; Clem, Paul G; Cook, Adam Wade

    2014-02-11

    An illuminated display device with a base member with a plurality of cavities therein. Illumination devices illuminate the cavities and emit light through an opening of the cavities in a pattern, and a speaker can emit sounds in synchronization with the pattern. A panel with translucent portions can overly the base member and the cavities. An animated talking character can have an animated mouth cavity complex with multiple predetermined mouth lighting configurations simulative of human utterances. The cavities can be open, or optical waveguide material or positive members can be disposed therein. Reflective material can enhance internal reflectance and light emission.

  15. Prehistoric Animal Bones Found at Pantex | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Home NNSA Blog Prehistoric Animal Bones Found at Pantex Prehistoric Animal Bones Found at Pantex Keck A sharp eye and a lot of luck led to an interesting discovery at Pantex ...

  16. Method and apparatus for animal positioning in imaging systems

    DOEpatents

    Hadjioannou, Arion-Xenofon; Stout, David B.; Silverman, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    An apparatus for imaging an animal includes a first mounting surface, a bed sized to support the animal and releasably secured to or integral with the first mounting surface. The apparatus also includes a plurality of straps, each having a first end in a fixed position relative to the bed and a second end for tightening around a limb of the animal. A method for in-vivo imaging of an animal includes providing an animal that has limbs, providing a first mounting surface, and providing a bed removably secured to or integral with the mounting surface and sized to support the animal as well as being coupled to a plurality of straps. The method also includes placing the animal on the bed between the plurality of straps and tightening at least two of the plurality of straps around at least two of the limbs such that the animal is substantially secured in place relative to the bed.

  17. Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Richard J. Fruehan; Siddhartha Misra

    2005-01-15

    In recent years there has been an increasing demand to reduce and control the amount of dissolved gases in steel. Hydrogen and nitrogen are two of the most important gases which when dissolved in liquid steel affect its properties significantly. Several steelmaking additions have been investigated in this research for their effect on the hydrogen and nitrogen content of steels. It has been established that calcium hydroxide (hydrated lime) acts as a source of hydrogen. Carburizers, such as metallurgical coke, were found to result in no hydrogen pickup when added to liquid steel. Addition of petroleum coke, on the other hand, increased the hydrogen content of liquid steel. Ferroalloy such as medium carbon ferromanganese when added to the liquid iron was found to increase its nitrogen content, the increase being proportional to the amount of ferroalloy added. Similarly, addition of pitch coke, which had a significant nitrogen impurity, increased the nitrogen content of liquid iron. A mathematical model was developed to quantify the absorption of nitrogen and hydrogen from the air bubbles entrained during tapping of liquid steel. During the bottom stirring of liquid metal in a ladle, the inert gas escaping from the top displaces the slag layer and often forms an open eye. The absorption of atmospheric nitrogen through the spout eye was estimated for different slag thickness and gas flow rate. The ultimate goal of this research was to develop a comprehensive set of equations which could predict the nitrogen and hydrogen pickup from their various sources. Estimates of hydrogen and nitrogen pickup during the steel transfer operations such as tapping and ladle stirring and the predicted pickup from steelmaking additions were integrated into empirical equations. The comprehensive model is designed to predict the gas pickup under varying operating conditions such as the metal oxygen and sulfur content, the total tapping or stirring time, the stirring gas flow rate and the

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Vehicle Fueling Animation Text Version

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Natural Gas Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Vehicle Fueling Animation Text Version to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Vehicle Fueling Animation Text Version on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Vehicle Fueling Animation Text Version on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Vehicle Fueling Animation Text Version on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Vehicle

  19. Nitrogen Monitoring of West Hackberry 117 Cavern Wells.

    SciTech Connect

    Bettin, Giorgia; Lord, David

    2015-02-01

    U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) oil storage cavern West Hackberry 117 was tested under extended nitrogen monitoring following a successful mechanical integrity test in order to validate a newly developed hydrostatic column model to be used to differentiate between normal "tight" well behavior and small-leak behavior under nitrogen. High resolution wireline pressure and temperature data were collected during the test period and used in conjunction with the hydrostatic column model to predict the nitrogen/oil interface and the pressure along the entire fluid column from the bradenhead flange nominally at ground surface to bottom of brine pool. Results here and for other SPR caverns have shown that wells under long term nitrogen monitoring do not necessarily pressurize with a relative rate (P N2 /P brine) of 1. The theoretical relative pressure rate depends on the well configuration, pressure and the location of the nitrogen-oil interface and varies from well to well. For the case of WH117 the predicted rates were 0.73 for well A and 0.92 for well B. The measured relative pressurization rate for well B was consistent with the model prediction, while well A rate was found to be between 0.58-0.68. A number of possible reasons for the discrepancy between the model and measured rates of well A are possible. These include modeling inaccuracy, measurement inaccuracy or the possibility of the presence of a very small leak (below the latest calculated minimum detectable leak rate).

  20. METHOD FOR THE PREPARATION OF BINARY NITROGEN-FLUORINE COMPOUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Frazer, J.W.

    1962-05-01

    A process is given for preparing binary nitrogenfluorine compounds, in particular, tetrafluorohydrazine (N/sub 2/F/sub 4/) and difluorodiazine (N/sub 2/ F/sub 2/), The process comprises subjecting gaseous nitrogen trifluoride to the action of an alternating current electrical glow discharge in the presence of mercury vapors. By the action of the electrical discharge, the nitrogen trifluoride is converted into a gaseous product comprising a mixture of tetrafluorohydrazine, the isomers of difluorodiazine, and other impurities including nitrogen, nitrogen oxides, silicon tetrafiuoride, and unreacted nitrogen trifluoride. The gaseous products and impurities are passed into a trap maintained at about - 196 deg C to freeze out the desired products and impurities with the exception of nitregen gas which passes off from the trap and is discarded. Subsequently, the desired products and remaining impurities are warmed to the gaseous state and passed through a silica gel trap maintained at about - 55DEC, wherein the desired tetrafluorohydrazine and difluorodiazine products are retained while the remaining gaseous impurities pass therethrough. The desired products are volatilized from the silica gel trap by heating and then separated by gas chrounatography means into the respective tetrafluorohydrazine and difluorodiazine products. (A.e.C)

  1. 2016 Animal Responses to Light Meeting Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Animal Responses to Light Meeting Report 2016 Animal Responses to Light Meeting Report DOE SSL Report on Animal Responses to Light Meeting, April 19, 2016, Chicago, Illinois. Meeting Report (272.8 KB) More Documents & Publications September 2016 Postings 2016 Human Physiological Responses to Light Meeting Report Solid-State Lighting 2016 R&D Plan

  2. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources 1982 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    ILAR serves as a coordinating agency and a national and international resource for compiling and disseminating information on laboratory animals, promoting education, planning and conducting conferences and symposia, surveying existing and required facilities and resources, upgrading laboratory animal resources, and promoting high-quality, humane care of laboratory animals in the United States. This report discusses activities conducted in 1982. (ACR)

  3. Compact conscious animal positron emission tomography scanner

    DOEpatents

    Schyler, David J.; O'Connor, Paul; Woody, Craig; Junnarkar, Sachin Shrirang; Radeka, Veljko; Vaska, Paul; Pratte, Jean-Francois; Volkow, Nora

    2006-10-24

    A method of serially transferring annihilation information in a compact positron emission tomography (PET) scanner includes generating a time signal for an event, generating an address signal representing a detecting channel, generating a detector channel signal including the time and address signals, and generating a composite signal including the channel signal and similarly generated signals. The composite signal includes events from detectors in a block and is serially output. An apparatus that serially transfers annihilation information from a block includes time signal generators for detectors in a block and an address and channel signal generator. The PET scanner includes a ring tomograph that mounts onto a portion of an animal, which includes opposing block pairs. Each of the blocks in a block pair includes a scintillator layer, detection array, front-end array, and a serial encoder. The serial encoder includes time signal generators and an address signal and channel signal generator.

  4. Direct visualization of atomically precise nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Yanfang; Li, Geng; Lu, Jianchen; Du, Shixuan, E-mail: sxdu@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: feng@mpip-mainz.mpg.de; Gao, Hong-Jun [Institute of Physics and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Lin, Xiao [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Berger, Reinhard; Feng, Xinliang, E-mail: sxdu@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: feng@mpip-mainz.mpg.de; Mllen, Klaus [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2014-07-14

    We have fabricated atomically precise nitrogen-doped chevron-type graphene nanoribbons by using the on-surface synthesis technique combined with the nitrogen substitution of the precursors. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy indicate that the well-defined nanoribbons tend to align with the neighbors side-by-side with a band gap of 1.02?eV, which is in good agreement with the density functional theory calculation result. The influence of the high precursor coverage on the quality of the nanoribbons is also studied. We find that graphene nanoribbons with sufficient aspect ratios can only be fabricated at sub-monolayer precursor coverage. This work provides a way to construct atomically precise nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbons.

  5. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-01

    The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  6. MARS-KS code validation activity through the atlas domestic standard problem

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, K. Y.; Kim, Y. S.; Kang, K. H.; Park, H. S.; Cho, S.

    2012-07-01

    The 2 nd Domestic Standard Problem (DSP-02) exercise using the ATLAS integral effect test data was executed to transfer the integral effect test data to domestic nuclear industries and to contribute to improving the safety analysis methodology for PWRs. A small break loss of coolant accident of a 6-inch break at the cold leg was determined as a target scenario by considering its technical importance and by incorporating interests from participants. Ten calculation results using MARS-KS code were collected, major prediction results were described qualitatively and code prediction accuracy was assessed quantitatively using the FFTBM. In addition, special code assessment activities were carried out to find out the area where the model improvement is required in the MARS-KS code. The lessons from this DSP-02 and recommendations to code developers are described in this paper. (authors)

  7. Report to the President Capturing a Domestic Competitive Advantage in Advanced Manufacturing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT CAPTURING A DOMESTIC COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN ADVANCED MANUFACTURING Report of the Advanced Manufacturing Partnership Steering Committee Annex 1: Technology Development Workstream Report Executive Office of the President President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology JULY 2012 PREFACE In June 2011, the President established the Advanced Manufacturing Partnership (AMP), which is led by a Steering Committee that operates within the framework of the President's

  8. Report to the President: Capturing a Domestic Competitive Advantage in Advanced Manufacturing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT CAPTURING A DOMESTIC COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE IN ADVANCED MANUFACTURING Report of the Advanced Manufacturing Partnership Steering Committee Annex 2: Shared Infrastructure and Facilities Workstream Report Executive Office of the President President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology JULY 2012 PREFACE In June 2011, the President established the Advanced Manufacturing Partnership (AMP), which is led by a Steering Committee that operates within the framework of the

  9. FAR 9.108, Prohibition on Contracting with Inverted Domestic Corporations

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this Flash is to inform Contracting Officers that the prohibition on contracting with inverted domestic corporations at FAR 9.108-3 was extended to all Fiscal Year 2010 appropriated funds by the Civilian Agency Acquisition Council and will be included in a forthcoming Federal Register notice and Federal Acquisition Circular. The extension implements section 740 of the FY 20 10 Consolidated Appropriations Act (Public Law 1 1 1 - 1 1 7).

  10. Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

    2012-07-01

    The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

  11. STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS CLASS WAIVER OF THE GOVERNMENT'S DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    THE GOVERNMENT'S DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN PATENT RIGHTS IN CERTAIN IDENTIFIED INVENTIONS TO LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL SECURITY, LLC (LLNS), MADE AND TO BE MADE UNDER CONTRACT DE-AC52-07NA27344 WITH THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY'S NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION (NNSA) FOR THE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATION OF THE LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY, INCLUDING A CLASS ADVANCE WAIVER OF TITLE TO INVENTIONS MADE IN THE PERFORMANCE OF COOPERATIVE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT AGREEMENTS (CRADAS) ENTERED

  12. Engineering shallow spins in diamond with nitrogen delta-doping

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Kenichi; Joseph Heremans, F.; Bassett, Lee C.; Myers, Bryan A.; Toyli, David M.; Bleszynski Jayich, Ania C.; Palmstrom, Christopher J.; Awschalom, David D.

    2012-08-20

    We demonstrate nanometer-precision depth control of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center creation near the surface of synthetic diamond using an in situ nitrogen delta-doping technique during plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Despite their proximity to the surface, doped NV centers with depths (d) ranging from 5 to 100 nm display long spin coherence times, T{sub 2} > 100 {mu}s at d = 5 nm and T{sub 2} > 600 {mu}s at d {>=} 50 nm. The consistently long spin coherence observed in such shallow NV centers enables applications such as atomic-scale external spin sensing and hybrid quantum architectures.

  13. Assessing the Impact of Animal Waste Lagoon Seepage on the Geochemistry of an Underlying Shallow Aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    McNab, W W; Singleton, M J; Moran, J E; Esser, B K

    2006-03-07

    Dairy facilities and similar confined animal operation settings pose a significant nitrate contamination threat via oxidation of animal wastes and subsequent transport to shallow groundwater. While nitrate contamination resulting from application of animal manure as fertilizer to fields is well recognized, the impact of manure lagoon leakage on groundwater quality is less well characterized. In this study, a dairy facility located in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California has been instrumented with monitoring wells as part of a two-year multidisciplinary study to evaluate nitrate loading and denitrification associated with facility operations. Among multiple types of data collected from the site, groundwater and surface water samples have been analyzed for major cations, anions, pH, oxidation-reduction potential, dissolved organic carbon, and selected dissolved gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}, Ar, Ne). Modeling of putative geochemical processes occurring within the dairy site manure lagoons shows substantial off-gassing of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} in response to mineralization of organic matter. The gas ebullition appears to strip dissolved gases, including Ar and Ne, from the lagoon water leaving concentrations that are undersaturated with respect to the atmosphere. The resulting fractionated dissolved gas signature serves as an effective tracer for the lagoon water in the underlying shallow groundwater and can be used to constrain inverse geochemical models that assess mixing fractions of lagoon water and local groundwater water. Together with ion exchange and mineral equilibria reactions, identification of lagoon seepage helps explain key attributes of the local groundwater chemistry, including input and cycling of nitrogen, across the site.

  14. Method of manufacturing semiconductor having group II-group VI compounds doped with nitrogen

    DOEpatents

    Compaan, Alvin D.; Price, Kent J.; Ma, Xianda; Makhratchev, Konstantin

    2005-02-08

    A method of making a semiconductor comprises depositing a group II-group VI compound onto a substrate in the presence of nitrogen using sputtering to produce a nitrogen-doped semiconductor. This method can be used for making a photovoltaic cell using sputtering to apply a back contact layer of group II-group VI compound to a substrate in the presence of nitrogen, the back coating layer being doped with nitrogen. A semiconductor comprising a group II-group VI compound doped with nitrogen, and a photovoltaic cell comprising a substrate on which is deposited a layer of a group II-group VI compound doped with nitrogen, are also included.

  15. Audit Report on "The Department's Management of Nuclear Materials Provided to Domestic Licensees"

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-01

    The objective if to determine whether the Department of Energy (Department) was adequately managing its nuclear materials provided to domestic licensees. The audit was performed from February 2007 to September 2008 at Department Headquarters in Washington, DC, and Germantown, MD; the Oak Ridge Office and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, TN. In addition, we visited or obtained data from 40 different non-Departmental facilities in various states. To accomplish the audit objective, we: (1) Reviewed Departmental and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements for the control and accountability of nuclear materials; (2) Analyzed a Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS) report with ending inventory balances for Department-owned nuclear materials dated September 30, 2007, to determine the amount and types of nuclear materials located at non-Department domestic facilities; (3) Held discussions with Department and NRC personnel that used NMMSS information to determine their roles and responsibilities related to the control and accountability over nuclear materials; (4) Selected a judgmental sample of 40 non-Department domestic facilities; (5) Met with licensee officials and sent confirmations to determine whether their actual inventories of Department-owned nuclear materials were consistent with inventories reported in the NMMSS; and, (6) Analyzed historical information related to the 2004 NMMSS inventory rebaselining initiative to determine the quantity of Department-owned nuclear materials that were written off from the domestic licensees inventory balances. This performance audit was conducted in accordance with generally accepted Government auditing standards. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain sufficient, appropriate evidence to provide a reasonable basis for our findings and conclusions based on our audit objective. We believe that the evidence obtained provides a reasonable basis for our

  16. Method of detoxifying animal suffering from overdose

    DOEpatents

    Mehlhorn, Rolf J.

    1997-01-01

    A method for accumulating drugs or other chemicals within synthetic, lipid-like vesicles by means of a pH gradient imposed on the vesicles just prior to use is described. The method is suited for accumulating molecules with basic or acid moieties which are permeable to the vesicles membranes in their uncharged form and for molecules that contain charge moieties that are hydrophobic ions and can therefore cross the vesicle membranes in their charged form. The method is advantageous over prior art methods for encapsulating biologically active materials within vesicles in that it achieves very high degrees of loading with simple procedures that are economical and require little technical expertise, furthermore kits which can be stored for prolonged periods prior to use without impairment of the capacity to achieve drug accumulation are described. A related application of the method consists of using this technology to detoxify animals that have been exposed to poisons with basic, weak acid or hydrophobic charge groups within their molecular structure.

  17. Analysis of 33 MeV Nitrogen irradiated UHMWPE

    SciTech Connect

    Grosso, Mariela del; Chappa, Veronica; Garcia Bermudez, Gerardo

    2007-10-26

    In this work, we irradiated UHMWPE with 33 MeV Nitrogen ions, at several fluences, to generate surface modifications without affecting the bulk properties. These modifications were quantified by means of wear resistance tests and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. Experimental results show an optimum ion fluence value that maximizes UHMWPE wear resistance.

  18. Preparation of high nitrogen compound and materials therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Huynh, My Hang V.; Hiskey, Michael A.

    2006-10-10

    The high-nitrogen compound of the formula ##STR00001## was prepared. Pyrolysis of the compound yields carbon nitrides C.sub.2N.sub.3 and C.sub.3N.sub.5. The carbon nitrides vary in their density, texture, and morphology.

  19. Low NOx combustion using cogenerated oxygen and nitrogen streams

    DOEpatents

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool, Lawrence E.; Snyder, William J.

    2009-02-03

    Combustion of hydrocarbon fuel is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding the fuel into a slightly oxygen-enriched atmosphere, and separating air into oxygen-rich and nitrogen-rich streams which are fed separately into the combustion device.

  20. NOx reduction by electron beam-produced nitrogen atom injection

    DOEpatents

    Penetrante, Bernardino M.

    2002-01-01

    Deactivated atomic nitrogen generated by an electron beam from a gas stream containing more than 99% N.sub.2 is injected at low temperatures into an engine exhaust to reduce NOx emissions. High NOx reduction efficiency is achieved with compact electron beam devices without use of a catalyst.

  1. Reducing Nitrogen Oxide Emissions: 1996 Compliance with Title IV Limits

    Reports and Publications

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to summarize the existing federal nitrogen oxide (Nox) regulations and the 1996 performance of the 239 Title IV generating units. It also reviews the basics of low-Nox burner technology and presents cost and performance data for retrofits at Title IV units.

  2. Removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale

    SciTech Connect

    Olmstead, W.N.

    1986-01-28

    This patent describes a process for enhancing the removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale. The process consists of: (a) contacting the oil-shale with a sufficient amount of an aqueous base solution comprised of at least a stoichiometric amount of one or more alkali metal or alkaline-earth metal hydroxides based on the total amount of nitrogen and sulfur present in the oil-shale. Also necessary is an amount sufficient to form a two-phase liquid, solid system, a temperature from about 50/sup 0/C to about 350/sup 0/C., and pressures sufficient to maintain the solution in liquid form; (b) separating the effluents from the treated oil-shale, wherein the resulting liquid effluent contains nitrogen moieties and sulfur moieties from the oil-shale and any resulting gaseous effluent contains nitrogen moieties from the oil-shale, and (c) converting organic material of the treated oil-shale to shale-oil at a temperature from about 450/sup 0/C to about 550/sup 0/C.

  3. Study of fuel-nitrogen reactions in rich, premixed flames

    SciTech Connect

    Roby, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The formation and removal of nitrogen-containing species involved in fuel-nitrogen reactions have been studied in atmospheric-pressure fuel-rich hydrogen/oxygen/argon flames. The fuel-nitrogen reaction mechanism was investigated by addition of ammonia, nitric oxide, or hydrogen cyanide alone or with various hydrocarbons to a base flame. Profiles of stable nitrogen species and hydroxyl radical were measured in the post-flame gases. Results show that an initial rapid decay of nitric oxide added to a hydrogen/oxygen/argon flame to approximately 60% of its initial value occurs within 1.0 mm of the burner surface (0.5 msec). The primary reaction for removal of nitric oxide was found to be H + NO + M = HNO + M. The reaction of nitric oxide with various hydrocarbons to form hydrogen cyanide was found to be first order in both the initial hydrocarbon concentration and the initial nitric oxide concentration. A kinetic model was developed that only partially predicts the results obtained. Analysis showed that, by varying the heat of formation of imidogen within the limits of its uncertainty, agreement between the calculations and the data could be improved for nitric oxide and nitrogen. However, the amine, nitrous oxide and hydrogen cyanide profiles were found not to be significantly affected. The significant discrepancy between the measured and calculated ammonia profiles is discussed in terms of the model predictions of both the ammonia formation and decay rates. The reaction: NM + H = N + H/sub 2/ is identified as a key rate-controlling step for removal of amine species in these flames. Evidence from the data and theoretical calculations suggests that the rate of this reaction at the current flame conditions may be as much as a factor of ten slower than the previously reported value.

  4. Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Robust Nitrogen OxideAmmonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions Control Robust Nitrogen OxideAmmonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions Control 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel ...

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Animation of a Hydrogen Fueling Station

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Example Layout (Text Version) Hydrogen Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Animation of a Hydrogen Fueling Station Example Layout (Text Version) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Animation of a Hydrogen Fueling Station Example Layout (Text Version) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Animation of a Hydrogen Fueling Station Example Layout (Text Version) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  6. Annealing Behavior of Ion-implanted Nitrogen in D9 Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Arunkumar, J.; David, C.; Nair, K. G. M.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Magudapathy, P.; Kennedy, John

    2011-07-15

    Nitrogen isotope N{sup 15} was implanted at the sub-surface of D9 steel. The resonance nuclear reaction analysis was used to probe the implanted nitrogen as a function of depth. The as-implanted D9 sample was isochronally annealed and by observing the broadening of nitrogen depth profile at various annealing junctures, activation energy for nitrogen diffusion in steel was deduced.

  7. Zirconium Catalyst Follows a Low Energy Pathway for Carbon-Nitrogen Bond

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Formation | The Ames Laboratory Zirconium Catalyst Follows a Low Energy Pathway for Carbon-Nitrogen Bond Formation Chemists have synthesized a highly selective and highly efficient zirconium catalyst that makes new carbon-nitrogen bonds by adding a nitrogen-hydrogen bond to a carbon-carbon double bond. Nitrogen-containing chemicals are important as agrichemicals, pharmaceuticals, and specialty chemicals. These zirconium catalysts are expected to show greater tolerance to other functionality

  8. Zirconium Catalyst Follows a Low Energy Pathway for Carbon-Nitrogen Bond

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Formation | The Ames Laboratory Zirconium Catalyst Follows a Low Energy Pathway for Carbon-Nitrogen Bond Formation Chemists have synthesized a highly selective and highly efficient zirconium catalyst that makes new carbon-nitrogen bonds by adding a nitrogen-hydrogen bond to a carbon-carbon double bond. Nitrogen-containing chemicals are important as agrichemicals, pharmaceuticals, and specialty chemicals. These zirconium catalysts are expected to show greater tolerance to other functionality

  9. Terra Nitrogen Company, L.P.: Ammonia Plant Greatly Reduces Natural Gas

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Consumption After Energy Assessment | Department of Energy Terra Nitrogen Company, L.P.: Ammonia Plant Greatly Reduces Natural Gas Consumption After Energy Assessment Terra Nitrogen Company, L.P.: Ammonia Plant Greatly Reduces Natural Gas Consumption After Energy Assessment This case study describes how Terra Nitrogen Company saved 497,000 MMBtu and $3.5 million yearly after upgrading the steam system in its ammonia plant in Verdigris, Oklahoma. Terra Nitrogen Company, L.P.: Ammonia Plant

  10. Fuel Cell Animation- Fuel Cell Stack (Text Version)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This text version of the fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts.

  11. Fuel Cell Animation- Fuel Cell Components (Text Version)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This text version of the fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts.

  12. Quality Assurance Checklists for Video, Animations, and Audio Web Requirements

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Use these quality assurance (QA) checklists to ensure your audio files, flash animations, podcasts, and videos meet all Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) standards.

  13. Radio controlled release apparatus for animal data acquisition devices

    DOEpatents

    Stamps, James Frederick

    2000-01-01

    A novel apparatus for reliably and selectively releasing a data acquisition package from an animal for recovery. The data package comprises two parts: 1) an animal data acquisition device and 2) a co-located release apparatus. One embodiment, which is useful for land animals, the release apparatus includes two major components: 1) an electronics package, comprising a receiver; a decoder comparator, having at plurality of individually selectable codes; and an actuator circuit and 2) a release device, which can be a mechanical device, which acts to release the data package from the animal. To release a data package from a particular animal, a radio transmitter sends a coded signal which is decoded to determine if the code is valid for that animal data package. Having received a valid code, the release device is activated to release the data package from the animal for subsequent recovery. A second embodiment includes floatation means and is useful for releasing animal data acquisition devices attached to sea animals. This embodiment further provides for releasing a data package underwater by employing an acoustic signal.

  14. Jefferson Lab's Detector Group builds small-animal imaging device...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Detector Group builds small-animal imaging device for the German Cancer Research Center ... camera that Jefferson Lab's Detector Group built for the German Cancer Research Center. ...

  15. ATHENA desktop human "body" reduces need for animal drug tests

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ATHENA desktop human "body" ATHENA desktop human "body" reduces need for animal drug tests ATHENA project team is developing four human organ constructs that are based on a ...

  16. Methods of detection and identificationoc carbon- and nitrogen-containing materials

    DOEpatents

    Karev, Alexander Ivanovich; Raevsky, Valery Georgievich; Dzhalivyan, Leonid Zavenovich; Brothers, Louis Joseph; Wilhide, Larry K

    2013-11-12

    Methods for detecting and identifying carbon- and/or nitrogen-containing materials are disclosed. The methods may comprise detection of photo-nuclear reaction products of nitrogen and carbon to detect and identify the carbon- and/or nitrogen-containing materials.

  17. Complex history of admixture during citrus domestication revealed by genome analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, G. Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Auré lio,; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Fabbro, Cristian Del; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco; Estornell, Leandro H.; Mu?oz-Sanz, Juan V.; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; Pé rez, Juliá n Pé rez,; Ramon, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, Francois; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G.; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astua, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-06-30

    Although Citrus is the most globally significant tree fruit, its domestication history is poorly understood. Cultivated citrus types are believed to comprise selections from and/or hybrids of several wild progenitor species, but the identities of these progenitors, and their contribution to modern cultivars, remain controversial. Here we report the genomes of a collection of mandarins, pummelos, and oranges, including a high quality reference sequence from a haploid Clementine mandarin. By comparative genome analysis we show that these cultivated types can be derived from two progenitor species. Cultivated pummelos represent selections from a single progenitor species C. maxima. Unexpectedly, however, we find that cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into a distinct second population that we identify with the ancestral wild mandarin species C. reticulata. Sweet and sour oranges are found to be interspecific hybrids. Sweet orange, the most widely cultivated citrus, arose as the offspring of previously admixed individuals. In contrast, sour (or Seville) orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. Surprisingly, we also find that a wild Chinese mandarin from Mangshan, China shows substantial sequence divergence from C. reticulata and appears to represent a distinct taxon. Understanding the relationships and phylogeny of cultivated citrus through genome analysis will clarify taxonomic relationships and enable previously inconceivable opportunities for sequence-directed genetic improvement. Citrus are widely consumed worldwide as juice or fresh fruit, providing important sources of vitamin C and other health-promoting compounds. Global production in 2012 exceeded 86 million metric tons, with an estimated value of US$9 billion (http://www.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/circulars/citrus.pdf). The very narrow genetic diversity of cultivated citrus makes it highly

  18. International Council for Laboratory Animal Science: International activities. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources annual report, 1993--1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    In late 1987, the Interagency Research Animal Committee (IRAC) requested that the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR), National Research Council (NRC), National Academy of Sciences, reestablish US national membership in the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS). The ICLAS is the only worldwide organization whose goal is to foster the humane use of animals in medical research and testing. ILAR`s Mission Statement reflects its commitment to producing highly respected documents covering a wide range of scientific issues, including databases in genetic stocks, species specific management guides, guidelines for humane care of animals, and position papers on issues affecting the future of the biological sciences. As such, ILAR is recognized nationally and internationally as an independent, scientific authority in the development of animal sciences in biomedical research.

  19. Japanese suppliers in transition from domestic nuclear reactor vendors to international suppliers

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Reich, W.J.; Rowan, W.J.

    1994-06-27

    Japan is emerging as a major leader and exporter of nuclear power technology. In the 1990s, Japan has the largest and strongest nuclear power supply industry worldwide as a result of the largest domestic nuclear power plant construction program. The Japanese nuclear power supply industry has moved from dependence on foreign technology to developing, design, building, and operating its own power plants. This report describes the Japanese nuclear power supply industry and examines one supplier--the Mitsubishi group--to develop an understanding of the supply industry and its relationship to the utilities, government, and other organizations.

  20. ,"Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices by API Gravity"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    API Gravity" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices by API Gravity",6,"Monthly","8/2016","10/15/1993" ,"Release Date:","11/1/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","12/1/2016" ,"Excel File

  1. ,"Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices for Selected Crude Streams"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    for Selected Crude Streams" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices for Selected Crude Streams",9,"Monthly","8/2016","7/15/1977" ,"Release Date:","11/1/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","12/1/2016" ,"Excel

  2. Economics of large-scale thorium oxide production: assessment of domestic resources

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.K.; Bloomster, C.H.; Enderlin, W.I.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Drost, M.K.; Weakley, S.A.

    1980-02-01

    The supply curve illustrates that sufficient amounts of thorium exist supply a domestic thorium-reactor economy. Most likely costs of production range from $3 to $60/lb ThO/sub 2/. Near-term thorium oxide resources include the stockpiles in Ohio, Maryland, and Tennessee and the thorite deposits at Hall Mountain, Idaho. Costs are under $10/lb thorium oxide. Longer term economic deposits include Wet Mountain, Colorado; Lemhi Pass, Idaho; and Palmer, Michigan. Most likely costs are under $20/lb thorium oxide. Long-term deposits include Bald Mountain, Wyoming; Bear Lodge, Wyoming; and Conway, New Hampshire. Costs approximately equal or exceed $50/lb thorium oxide.

  3. STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY SOLAR TURBINES, INC. FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF DOMESTIC

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    SOLAR TURBINES, INC. FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN INVENTION RIGHTS UNDER DOE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NO. DE-FC26-09NT05873; W(A)-09-058, CH-1524 The Petitioner, Solar Turbines, Incorporated (Solar) was awarded a cooperative agreement for the performance of work entitled, "Development of a low NOx Medium Sized Industrial Gas Turbine Operating on Hydrogen-Rich Renewable and Opportunity Fuels. II According to its response to question 2, Solar states that it will develop

  4. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    DOEpatents

    Liu, D. Kwok-Keung; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1987-08-25

    The present invention relates to a method of removing of nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas which method comprises contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate complex. The NO absorption efficiency of ferrous urea-dithiocarbamate and ferrous diethanolamine-xanthate as a function of time, oxygen content and solution ph is presented. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Method for reducing nitrogen oxides in combustion effluents

    DOEpatents

    Zauderer, Bert

    2000-01-01

    Method for reducing nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) in the gas stream from the combustion of fossil fuels is disclosed. In a narrow gas temperature zone, NO.sub.x is converted to nitrogen by reaction with urea or ammonia with negligible remaining ammonia and other reaction pollutants. Specially designed injectors are used to introduce air atomized water droplets containing dissolved urea or ammonia into the gaseous combustion products in a manner that widely disperses the droplets exclusively in the optimum reaction temperature zone. The injector operates in a manner that forms droplet of a size that results in their vaporization exclusively in this optimum NO.sub.x -urea/ammonia reaction temperature zone. Also disclosed is a design of a system to effectively accomplish this injection.

  6. Method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides

    DOEpatents

    Mowery-Evans, Deborah L.; Gardner, Timothy J.; McLaughlin, Linda I.

    2005-02-15

    A method for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxide compounds (NO.sub.x, defined as nitric oxide, NO, +nitrogen dioxide, NO.sub.2) in a gas by a material comprising a base metal consisting essentially of CuO and Mn, and oxides of Mn, on an activated metal hydrous metal oxide support, such as HMO:Si. A promoter, such as tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide, can be added and has been shown to increase conversion efficiency. This method provides good conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2, good selectivity, good durability, resistance to SO.sub.2 aging and low toxicity compared with methods utilizing vanadia-based catalysts.

  7. Method For Selective Catalytic Reduction Of Nitrogen Oxides

    DOEpatents

    Mowery-Evans, Deborah L.; Gardner, Timothy J.; McLaughlin, Linda I.

    2005-02-15

    A method for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxide compounds (NO.sub.x, defined as nitric oxide, NO, +nitrogen dioxide, NO.sub.2) in a gas by a material comprising a base metal consisting essentially of CuO and Mn, and oxides of Mn, on an activated metal hydrous metal oxide support, such as HMO:Si. A promoter, such as tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide, can be added and has been shown to increase conversion efficiency. This method provides good conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2, good selectivity, good durability, resistance to SO.sub.2 aging and low toxicity compared with methods utilizing vanadia-based catalysts.

  8. Temperature Mapping of Nitrogen-doped Niobium Superconducting Radiofrequency Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Makita, Junki; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Dhakal, Pashupati

    2015-09-01

    It was recently shown that diffusing nitrogen on the inner surface of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities at high temperature can improve the quality factor of the niobium cavity. However, a reduction of the quench field is also typically found. To better understand the location of rf losses and quench, we used a thermometry system to map the temperature of the outer surface of ingot Nb cavities after nitrogen doping and electropolishing. Surface temperature of the cavities was recorded while increasing the rf power and also during the quenching. The results of thermal mapping showed no precursor heating on the cavities and quenching to be ignited near the equator where the surface magnetic field is maximum. Hot-spots at the equator area during multipacting were also detected by thermal mapping.

  9. Efficient boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotube formation via combined laser-gas flow levitation

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, R Roy; Jordan, Kevin; Smith, Michael W

    2015-03-24

    A process for producing boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B.sub.xC.sub.yN.sub.z. The process utilizes a combination of laser light and nitrogen gas flow to support a boron ball target during heating of the boron ball target and production of a boron vapor plume which reacts with nitrogen or nitrogen and carbon to produce boron nitride nanotubes and/or boron-carbon-nitrogen nanotubes of the general formula B.sub.xC.sub.yN.sub.z.

  10. Biofilter for removal of nitrogen oxides from contaminated gases under aerobic conditions

    DOEpatents

    Apel, W.A.

    1998-08-18

    A biofilter is described for reducing concentrations of gaseous nitrogen oxides in a polluted gas comprises a porous organic filter bed medium disposed in a housing, the filter bed medium including a mixed culture of naturally occurring denitrifying bacteria for converting the nitrogen oxides to nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and water. A method is described of reducing concentrations of nitrogen oxides in polluted gas comprises conducting the polluted gas through the biofilter so that the denitrifying bacteria can degrade the nitrogen oxides. A preferred filter medium is wood compost, however composts of other organic materials are functional. Regulation of pH, moisture content, exogenous carbon sources, and temperature are described. 6 figs.

  11. Biofilter for removal of nitrogen oxides from contaminated gases under aerobic conditions

    DOEpatents

    Apel, William A.

    1998-01-01

    A biofilter for reducing concentrations of gaseous nitrogen oxides in a polluted gas comprises a porous organic filter bed medium disposed in a housing, the filter bed medium including a mixed culture of naturally occurring denitrifying bacteria for converting the nitrogen oxides to nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and water. A method of reducing concentrations of nitrogen oxides in polluted gas comprises conducting the polluted gas through the biofilter so that the denitrifying bacteria can degrade the nitrogen oxides. A preferred filter medium is wood compost, however composts of other organic materials are functional. Regulation of pH, moisture content, exogenous carbon sources, and temperature are described.

  12. Nitrogen molecule activation by excited states of copper

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Zamora, M.; Novaro, O.; Ruiz, M.E. )

    1990-04-05

    Ab initio molecular orbital studies that include variational (with a multiconfiguration reference state of 200 states) and perturbational (including over 3 million configurations) configuration interaction calculations were addressed to the interaction of nitrogen molecules with copper. The Cu ground state {sup 2}S and first two excited states {sup 2}P and {sup 2}D were studied as they interact in different geometrical approaches (including side-on and end-on geometries) with ground-state N{sub 2} molecules.

  13. Sulfide stress cracking resistance of nitrogen-strengthened stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Gaugh, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    The paper describes sulfide stress cracking tests performed on a number of these alloys. Most were found to be somewhat susceptible to cracking, depending on the stress level. It was determined that this was due to their high manganese content. The mechanism responsible for cracking was not firmly established. One commercial nitrogen-strengthened stainless steel, XM19, was highly resistant to sulfide stress cracking despite a manganese content of 5%. This difference is attributed to the superior corrosion resistance of the alloy.

  14. Model Captures How Nitrogen Limitation Affects Hydrological Processes |

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Model Captures How Nitrogen Limitation Affects Hydrological Processes Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) Community Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23/Germantown Building 1000

  15. The significant human-animal bond: Pets with cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Veterinarians have responsibilities to both the animal and its owner. In the past several years there has been an increased awareness and concern about human-animal bonds. As a result, we have begun to appreciate the nature, strength, and significance of bonds that develop between humans and companion animals. It is typical for a pet to be perceived as and treated as a member of the family and as a result, animals provide special and beneficial relationships for many years. It is partly because of this role of the pet in promoting human health and happiness that we as veterinarians have an obligation to assist both owner and animal. The mark of the good practitioner concerns not only the ability to diagnose and treat accurately, but also the ability to show understanding and compassionate judgement.

  16. Multi-stage combustion using nitrogen-enriched air

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Larry E.; Anderson, Brian L.

    2004-09-14

    Multi-stage combustion technology combined with nitrogen-enriched air technology for controlling the combustion temperature and products to extend the maintenance and lifetime cycles of materials in contact with combustion products and to reduce pollutants while maintaining relatively high combustion and thermal cycle efficiencies. The first stage of combustion operates fuel rich where most of the heat of combustion is released by burning it with nitrogen-enriched air. Part of the energy in the combustion gases is used to perform work or to provide heat. The cooled combustion gases are reheated by additional stages of combustion until the last stage is at or near stoichiometric conditions. Additional energy is extracted from each stage to result in relatively high thermal cycle efficiency. The air is enriched with nitrogen using air separation technologies such as diffusion, permeable membrane, absorption, and cryogenics. The combustion method is applicable to many types of combustion equipment, including: boilers, burners, turbines, internal combustion engines, and many types of fuel including hydrogen and carbon-based fuels including methane and coal.

  17. Controlled release of alendronate from nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Saha, Dipendu; Spurri, Amanda; Chen, Jihua; Hensley, Dale K.

    2016-04-13

    With this study, we have synthesized a nitrogen doped mesoporous carbon with the BET surface area of 1066 m2/g, total pore volume 0.6 cm3/g and nitrogen content of 0.5%. Total alendronate adsorption in this carbon was ~5%. The release experiments were designed in four different media with sequential pH values of 1.2, 4.5, 6.8 and 7.4 for 3, 1, 3 and 5 h, respectively and at 37 °C to imitate the physiological conditions of stomach, duodenum, small intestine and colon, respectively. Release of the drug demonstrated a controlled fashion; only 20% of the drug was released in the media withmore » pH = 1.2, whereas 64% of the drug was released in pH = 7.4. This is in contrary to pure alendronate that was completely dissolved within 30 min in the first release media (pH = 1.2) only. The relatively larger uptake of alendronate in this carbon and its sustained fashion of release can be attributed to the hydrogen bonding between the drug and the nitrogen functionalities on carbon surface. Based on this result, it can be inferred that this formulation may lower the side effects of oral delivery of alendronate.« less

  18. Nitrogen-doped zirconia: A comparison with cation stabilized zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jong-Sook . E-mail: jong-sook.lee@fkf.mpg.de; Lerch, Martin; Maier, Joachim

    2006-01-15

    The conductivity behavior of nitrogen-doped zirconia is compared with that of zirconia doped with lower-valent cations and discussed in the framework of defect-defect interactions. While nominally introducing the same number of vacancies as yttrium, nitrogen dopants introduced in the anion sublattice of zirconia lead to substantially different defect kinetics and energetics. Compared to the equivalent yttrium doping nitrogen doping in the Y-Zr-O-N system substantially increases the activation energy and correspondingly decreases the conductivity at temperatures below 500{sup -}bar C in the vacancy range below 4mol%. The comparison of N-doped zirconia and zirconia systems doped with size-matched cation stabilizers, such as Sc, Yb and Y, shows that elastically driven vacancy-vacancy ordering interactions can phenomenologically account for the temperature- and composition-dependence. It is striking that materials with superior high-temperature conductivities due to weak dopant-vacancy interactions undergo severe deterioration at low temperature due to the strong vacancy-ordering. The analysis also explains qualitatively similar effects of Y co-doping in Yb-, Sc-, and N-doped zirconia. Small amount of Y in N-doped zirconia as well as in Sc-doped zirconia appears to hinder the formation of the long-range ordered phase and thus enhance the conductivity substantially.

  19. FeN foils by nitrogen ion-implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yanfeng; Wang, Jian-Ping; Al Mehedi, Md; Fu, Engang; Wang, Yongqiang

    2014-05-07

    Iron nitride samples in foil shape (free standing, 500 nm in thickness) were prepared by a nitrogen ion-implantation method. To facilitate phase transformation, the samples were bonded on the substrate followed by a post-annealing step. By using two different substrates, single crystal Si and GaAs, structural and magnetic properties of iron nitride foil samples prepared with different nitrogen ion fluences were characterized. α″-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} phase in iron nitride foil samples was obtained and confirmed by the proposed approach. A hard magnetic property with coercivity up to 780 Oe was achieved for the FeN foil samples bonded on Si substrate. The feasibility of using nitrogen ion implantation techniques to prepare FeN foil samples up to 500 nm thickness with a stable martensitic phase under high ion fluences has been demonstrated. A possible mechanism was proposed to explain this result. This proposed method could potentially be an alternative route to prepare rare-earth-free FeN bulk magnets by stacking and pressing multiple free-standing thick α″-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} foils together.

  20. Research needs to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource

    SciTech Connect

    Tham, M.K.; Burchfield, T.; Chung, Ting-Horng; Lorenz, P.; Bryant, R.; Sarathi, P.; Chang, Ming Ming; Jackson, S.; Tomutsa, L. ); Dauben, D.L. )

    1991-10-01

    NIPER was contracted by the US Department of Energy Bartlesville (Okla.) Project Office (DOE/BPO) to identify research needs to increase production of the domestic oil resource, and K A Energy Consultants, Inc. was subcontracted to review EOR field projects. This report summarizes the findings of that investigation. Professional society and trade journals, DOE reports, dissertations, and patent literature were reviewed to determine the state-of-the-art of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and drilling technologies and the constraints to wider application of these technologies. The impacts of EOR on the environment and the constraints to the application of EOR due to environmental regulations were also reviewed. A review of well documented EOR field projects showed that in addition to the technical constraints, management factors also contributed to the lower-than-predicted oil recovery in some of the projects reviewed. DOE-sponsored projects were reviewed, and the achievements by these projects and the constraints which these projects were designed to overcome were also identified. Methods of technology transfer utilized by the DOE were reviewed, and several recommendations for future technology transfer were made. Finally, several research areas were identified and recommended to maximize economic producibility of the domestic oil resource. 14 figs., 41 tabs.

  1. Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C. 2031 et seq.)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Animal Welfare Act of 1966 regulates the treatment of animals in research, exhibition, transport, and by dealers.

  2. Control of work function of graphene by plasma assisted nitrogen doping

    SciTech Connect

    Akada, Keishi; Terasawa, Tomo-o; Imamura, Gaku; Obata, Seiji; Saiki, Koichiro, E-mail: saiki@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Complexity Science and Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)

    2014-03-31

    Nitrogen doping is expected to provide several intriguing properties to graphene. Nitrogen plasma treatment to defect-free and defective highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) samples causes doping of nitrogen atom into the graphene layer. Nitrogen atoms are initially doped at a graphitic site (inside the graphene) for the defect-free HOPG, while doping to a pyridinic or a pyrrolic site (edge of the graphene) is dominant for the defective HOPG. The work function of graphene correlates strongly with the site and amount of doped nitrogen. Nitrogen atoms doped at a graphitic site lower the work function, while nitrogen atoms at a pyridinic or a pyrrolic site increase the work function. Control of plasma treatment time and the amount of initial defect could change the work function of graphite from 4.3?eV to 5.4?eV, which would open a way to tailor the nature of graphene for various industrial applications.

  3. A nitrogen-hyperdoped silicon material formed by femtosecond laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Xiao; Zhu, Zhen; Shao, Hezhu; Rong, Ximing; Zhuang, Jun; Li, Ning; Liang, Cong; Sun, Haibin; Zhao, Li; Feng, Guojin

    2014-03-03

    A supersaturation of nitrogen atoms is found in the surface layer of microstructured silicon after femtosecond (fs) laser irradiation in NF{sub 3}. The average nitrogen concentration in the uppermost 50 nm is about 0.5 ± 0.2 at. %, several orders of magnitude higher than the solid solubility of nitrogen atoms in silicon. The nitrogen-hyperdoped silicon shows high crystallinity in the doped layer, which is due to the repairing effect of nitrogen on defects in silicon lattices. Nitrogen atoms and vacancies can be combined into thermal stable complexes after fs laser irradiation, which makes the nitrogen-hyperdoped silicon exhibit good thermal stability of optical properties.

  4. Characterization of Nitrogen use efficiency in sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Dweikat, Ismail; Clemente, Thomas

    2014-09-09

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has the potential to augment the increasing demand for alternative fuels and for the production of input efficient, environmentally friendly bioenergy crops. Nitrogen (N) and water availability are considered two of the major limiting factors in crop growth. Nitrogen fertilization accounts for about 40% of the total production cost in sorghum. In cereals, including sorghum, the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) from fertilizer is approximately 33% of the amount applied. There is therefore extensive concern in relation to the N that is not used by the plant, which is lost by leaching of nitrate, denitrification from the soil, and loss of ammonia to the atmosphere, all of which can have deleterious environmental effects. To improve the potential of sweet sorghum as a leading and cost effective bioenergy crop, the enhancement of NUE must be addressed. To this end, we have identified a sorghum line (SanChi San) that displays about 25% increase in NUE over other sorghum lines. As such, the overarching goal of this project is to employ three complementary strategies to enhance the ability of sweet sorghum to become an efficient nitrogen user. To achieve the project goal, we will pursue the following specific objectives: Objective 1: Phenotypic characterization of SanChi San/Ck60 RILs under low and moderate N-availability including biochemical profiles, vegetative growth and seed yield Objective 2: Conduct quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis and marker identification for nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in a grain sorghum RIL population. Objective 3: Identify novel candidate genes for NUE using proteomic and gene expression profiling comparisons of high- and low-NUE RILs. Candidate genes will be brought into the pipeline for transgenic manipulation of NUE This project will apply the latest genomics resources to discover genes controlling NUE, one of the most complex and economically important traits in cereal crops. As a result of the

  5. A Summary of the Results of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy, Vol. 1

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    A Summary of the Results of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy, Vol. 1

  6. Animation: How a Wind Turbine Works | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Animation: How a Wind Turbine Works Animation: How a Wind Turbine Works Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe Flash player A wind turbine works on a simple principle. This animation shows how energy in the wind turns two or three propeller-like blades around a rotor. The rotor is connected to the main shaft, which spins a generator to create electricity. Wind turbines are mounted on a tower to capture the most energy. At 100 feet (30 meters) or more above

  7. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    DOEpatents

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  8. Clean and Secure Energy from Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Spinti, Jennifer; Birgenheier, Lauren; Deo, Milind; Facelli, Julio; Hradisky, Michal; Kelly, Kerry; Miller, Jan; McLennan, John; Ring, Terry; Ruple, John; Uchitel, Kirsten

    2015-09-30

    This report summarizes the significant findings from the Clean and Secure Energy from Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Resources program sponsored by the Department of Energy through the National Energy Technology Laboratory. There were four principle areas of research; Environmental, legal, and policy issues related to development of oil shale and oil sands resources; Economic and environmental assessment of domestic unconventional fuels industry; Basin-scale assessment of conventional and unconventional fuel development impacts; and Liquid fuel production by in situ thermal processing of oil shale Multiple research projects were conducted in each area and the results have been communicated via sponsored conferences, conference presentations, invited talks, interviews with the media, numerous topical reports, journal publications, and a book that summarizes much of the oil shale research relating to Utah’s Uinta Basin. In addition, a repository of materials related to oil shale and oil sands has been created within the University of Utah’s Institutional Repository, including the materials generated during this research program. Below is a listing of all topical and progress reports generated by this project and submitted to the Office of Science and Technical Information (OSTI). A listing of all peer-reviewed publications generated as a result of this project is included at the end of this report; Geomechanical and Fluid Transport Properties 1 (December, 2015); Validation Results for Core-Scale Oil Shale Pyrolysis (February, 2015); and Rates and Mechanisms of Oil Shale Pyrolysis: A Chemical Structure Approach (November, 2014); Policy Issues Associated With Using Simulation to Assess Environmental Impacts (November, 2014); Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience (September, 2013); V-UQ of Generation 1 Simulator with AMSO Experimental Data (August, 2013); Lands with Wilderness Characteristics, Resource Management Plan Constraints, and Land Exchanges

  9. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    DOEpatents

    Liu, David K.; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1989-01-01

    A method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas, which method comprises: (a) contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate of the formula: ##STR1## wherein the water-soluble organic compound is selected from compounds of the formula: ##STR2## wherein: R is selected from hydrogen or an organic moiety having at least one polar functional group; Z is selected from oxygen, sulfur, or --N--A wherein N is nitrogen and A is hydrogen or lower alkyl having from one to four carbon atoms; and M is selected from hydrogen, sodium or potassium; and n is 1 or 2, in a contacting zone for a time and at a temperature effective to reduce the nitrogen monoxide. These mixtures are useful to provide an unexpensive method of removing NO from gases, thus reducing atmospheric pollution from flue gases.

  10. Direct determination of nitrogen functional groups in kerogen under kinetically well defined conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kelemen, S.R.; Freund, H.; Kwiatek, P.J.

    1995-12-01

    Recent developments in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy methods have made it possible to directly quantify nitrogen functionalities in complex solid and nonvolatile carbonaceous systems such as coal and kerogen. The kinds of nitrogen forms present in different organic matter type kerogens and the influences of sample maturity have not yet been established via these new direct methods. It is generally recognized that much of the nitrogen in coal and kerogen originated from the remains of organisms rich in amino groups yet it is believed that heterocyclic nitrogen compounds are the dominate forms present in petroleum, kerogen and coal. For coal, XPS results show that pyrrolic nitrogen is the most abundant form, followed by pyridinic and quaternary types. The relative amount of different nitrogen decreases with increasing coal ranks XPS has been used in the present work to quantify the amounts of different nitrogen functionalities initially present in Green River kerogen (Type 1) and Bakken kerogen (Type II) and to follow the changes that happen as a result of low-temperature pyrolysis under kinetically well defined conditions. Small amounts of amine and quaternary type nitrogen species were found in fresh Green River kerogen samples in addition to the more abundant pyrrolic and pyridinic nitrogen forms. Following pyrolysis to simulate the early conversion chemistry kerogen to light gases, pyrrolic and pyridinic nitrogen are the dominant forms. These results are compared to the results for Bakken kerogen and coal.

  11. Variable oxygen/nitrogen enriched intake air system for internal combustion engine applications

    DOEpatents

    Poola, Ramesh B.; Sekar, Ramanujam R.; Cole, Roger L.

    1997-01-01

    An air supply control system for selectively supplying ambient air, oxygen enriched air and nitrogen enriched air to an intake of an internal combustion engine includes an air mixing chamber that is in fluid communication with the air intake. At least a portion of the ambient air flowing to the mixing chamber is selectively diverted through a secondary path that includes a selectively permeable air separating membrane device due a differential pressure established across the air separating membrane. The permeable membrane device separates a portion of the nitrogen in the ambient air so that oxygen enriched air (permeate) and nitrogen enriched air (retentate) are produced. The oxygen enriched air and the nitrogen enriched air can be selectively supplied to the mixing chamber or expelled to atmosphere. Alternatively, a portion of the nitrogen enriched air can be supplied through another control valve to a monatomic-nitrogen plasma generator device so that atomic nitrogen produced from the nitrogen enriched air can be then injected into the exhaust of the engine. The oxygen enriched air or the nitrogen enriched air becomes mixed with the ambient air in the mixing chamber and then the mixed air is supplied to the intake of the engine. As a result, the air being supplied to the intake of the engine can be regulated with respect to the concentration of oxygen and/or nitrogen.

  12. Fuel Cell Animation (Text Version) | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    This text version of the fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts. Fuel cell shown with its ...

  13. Animation: How a Wind Turbine Works | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    This animation shows how energy in the wind turns two or three propeller-like blades around a rotor. The rotor is connected to the main shaft, which spins a generator to create ...

  14. The Amphimedon queenslandica genome and the evolution of animal complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Mansi; Simakov, Oleg; Chapman, Jarrod; Fahey, Bryony; Gauthier, Marie E.A.; Mitros, Therese; Richards, Gemma S.; Conaco, Cecilia; Dacre, Michael; Hellsten, Uffe; Larroux, Claire; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Stanke, Mario; Adamska, Maja; Darling, Aaron; Degnan, Sandie M.; Oakley, Todd H.; Plachetzki, David C.; Zhai, Yufeng; Adamski, Marcin; Calcino, Andrew; Cummins, Scott F.; Goodstein, David M.; Harris, Christina; Jackson, Daniel J.; Leys, Sally P.; Shu, Shengqiang; Woodcroft, Ben J.; Vervoort, Michel; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Manning, Gerard; Degnan, Bernard M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2010-07-01

    Sponges are an ancient group of animals that diverged from other metazoans over 600 million years ago. Here we present the draft genome sequence of Amphimedon queenslandica, a demosponge from the Great Barrier Reef, and show that it is remarkably similar to other animal genomes in content, structure and organization. Comparative analysis enabled by the sponge sequence reveals genomic events linked to the origin and early evolution of animals, including the appearance, expansion, and diversification of pan-metazoan transcription factor, signaling pathway, and structural genes. This diverse 'toolkit' of genes correlates with critical aspects of all metazoan body plans, and comprises cell cycle control and growth, development, somatic and germ cell specification, cell adhesion, innate immunity, and allorecognition. Notably, many of the genes associated with the emergence of animals are also implicated in cancer, which arises from defects in basic processes associated with metazoan multicellularity.

  15. Analysis of space heating and domestic hot water systems for energy-efficient residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Dennehy, G

    1983-04-01

    An analysis of the best ways of meeting the space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) needs of new energy-efficient houses with very low requirements for space heat is provided. The DHW load is about equal to the space heating load in such houses in northern climates. The equipment options which should be considered are discussed, including new equipment recently introduced in the market. It is concluded that the first consideration in selecting systems for energy-efficient houses should be identification of the air moving needs of the house for heat distribution, heat storage, ventilation, and ventilative cooling. This is followed, in order, by selection of the most appropriate distribution system, the heating appliances and controls, and the preferred energy source, gas, oil, or electricity.

  16. Table 5.18 Crude Oil Domestic First Purchase Prices, 1949-2011 (Dollars per Barrel)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    8 Crude Oil Domestic First Purchase Prices, 1949-2011 (Dollars per Barrel) Year Alaska North Slope California Texas U.S. Average Nominal 1 Real 2 Nominal 1 Real 2 Nominal 1 Real 2 Nominal 1 Real 2 1949 – – – – NA NA NA NA 2.54 17.52 [R] 1950 – – – – NA NA NA NA 2.51 17.13 [R] 1951 – – – – NA NA NA NA 2.53 16.10 [R] 1952 – – – – NA NA NA NA 2.53 15.83 [R] 1953 – – – – NA NA NA NA 2.68 16.57 [R] 1954 – – – – NA NA NA NA 2.78 17.03 [R] 1955 – – – – NA NA NA NA 2.77 16.69

  17. A rating procedure for solar domestic hot water systems based on ASHRAE-95 test results

    SciTech Connect

    Minnerly, B.V.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A. )

    1991-01-01

    A rating method for solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems is presented that provides site-specific annual performance estimates based on ASHRAE-95 test results. An overall loss and overall gain coefficient are estimated by lumping the entire thermal behavior of the actual system exhibited during the ASHRAE-95 test into the collector parameters of a simplified system model. The performance of the simplified model can then be predicted using either the F-chart or TRNSYS and presented as an estimate of the annual performance of the actual system. Experimental performance measurements taken from relevant literature as well as extensive simulations, indicate that this method is capable of predicting the annual performance of a wide range of SDHW system types to within 5%, independent of location.

  18. Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options with Validated Analysis Models

    SciTech Connect

    Weitzel, E.; Hoeschele, E.

    2014-09-01

    A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. Transient System Simulation Tool (TRNSYS) is a full distribution system developed that has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. In this study, the Building America team built upon previous analysis modeling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall, 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

  19. NREL: Transportation Research - E-Roadway Animation (Text Version)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    E-Roadway Animation (Text Version) This text version of the e-roadway animation describes how electrified roadways can reduce petroleum consumption and vehicle operating costs while extending the range of electric vehicles. Part One: E-Roadway Introduction and Benefits Reducing emissions and oil consumption are crucial worldwide goals. Many technologies can contribute to achieving these goals-efficient homes, biofuels, hybrid electric vehicles, hydrogen fuel cells, electric vehicles, and solar

  20. Anatomic and Functional Imaging of Tagged Molecules in Animals - Energy

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Anatomic and Functional Imaging of Tagged Molecules in Animals Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility Contact TJNAF About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryA novel functional imaging system for use in the imaging of unrestrained and non-anesthetized small animals or other subjects and a method for acquiring such images and further registering them with anatomical X-ray images previously or subsequently acquired.DescriptionThe apparatus comprises a

  1. Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicle Safety Systems Animation (Text Version) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicle Safety Systems Animation (Text Version) Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicle Safety Systems Animation (Text Version) Hydrogen fueled vehicles have multiple safety systems that detect and prevent the accidental release of hydrogen. There are sensors that detect leaks, a computer that monitors fuel flow, and an excess flow shut-off valve. Hydrogen tanks also have a pressure release device, much like those on natural gas water heaters in our homes. If a leak is

  2. Development of photocatalyst by combined nitrogen and yttrium doping

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Matiullah; Cao, Wenbin

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The simulated compensated YN{sub SUB} co-doped TiO{sub 2} model can reasonably explain the experimental observations. Calculation results show that substitutional Y at Ti sites and substitutional N at O sites with an oxygen vacancy give stable configuration, reduced band gap, better visible light absorption and enhance separations of photoexcited charge carriers. The experimental observations confirmed the theoretical findings. - Highlights: (Y, N) codoped TiO{sub 2} was synthesized by mild one pot hydrothermal method. The Y doping concentration was varied from 0.01 to 1.38 at%. 0.05% (Y, N) codoped TiO{sub 2} shows enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity. Compensated and noncompensated ab-initio calculations were performed. Calculation results reasonably explained the experimental findings. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide co-doped with yttrium and nitrogen with different yttrium doping concentration has been synthesized by mild one pot hydrothermal method without any post calcination for crystallization. Irrespective of the yttrium doping concentration, all the synthesized samples were composed of pure anatase phase with good crystallinity. And the synthesized co-doped samples have spherical morphology with uniform particle size distribution. The absorption edge of the co-doped TiO{sub 2} was shifted toward visible light region depicting that the intrinsic band gap of TiO{sub 2} was affected by the co-doping. Among the different samples, the co-doped sample with 0.05% yttrium doping concentration exhibits enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity by degradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution. Compensated and non-compensated yttriumnitrogen co-doped TiO{sub 2} models were simulated using density functional theory to explain the experimental findings. The calculation results show that the compensated yttriumnitrogen co-doped TiO{sub 2} model may reasonably explain the experimental observations due to its stable

  3. Pyrolysis of waste animal fats in a fixed-bed reactor: Production and characterization of bio-oil and bio-char

    SciTech Connect

    Ben Hassen-Trabelsi, A.; Kraiem, T.; Naoui, S.; Belayouni, H.

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Produced bio-fuels (bio-oil and bio-char) from some animal fatty wastes. • Investigated the effects of main parameters on pyrolysis products distribution. • Determined the suitable conditions for the production of the maximum of bio-oil. • Characterized bio-oils and bio-chars obtained from several animal fatty wastes. - Abstract: Several animal (lamb, poultry and swine) fatty wastes were pyrolyzed under nitrogen, in a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor and the main products (liquid bio-oil, solid bio-char and syngas) were obtained. The purpose of this study is to produce and characterize bio-oil and bio-char obtained from pyrolysis of animal fatty wastes. The maximum production of bio-oil was achieved at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C and a heating rate of 5 °C/min. The chemical (GC–MS analyses) and spectroscopic analyses (FTIR analyses) of bio-oil showed that it is a complex mixture consisting of different classes of organic compounds, i.e., hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclic compounds…etc.), carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters,…etc. According to fuel properties, produced bio-oils showed good properties, suitable for its use as an engine fuel or as a potential source for synthetic fuels and chemical feedstock. Obtained bio-chars had low carbon content and high ash content which make them unattractive for as renewable source energy.

  4. Technological modifications in the nitrogen oxides tradable permit program

    SciTech Connect

    Linn, J.

    2008-07-01

    Tradable permit programs allow firms greater flexibility in reducing emissions than command-and-control regulations and encourage firms to use low cost abatement options, including small-scale modifications to capital equipment. This paper shows that firms have extensively modified capital equipment in the Nitrogen Oxides Budget Trading Program, which covers power plants in the eastern United States. The empirical strategy uses geographic and temporal features of the program to estimate counterfactual emissions, finding that modifications have reduced emission rates by approximately 10-15 percent. The modifications would not have occurred under command-and-control regulation and have reduced regulatory costs.

  5. Method for the purification of noble gases, nitrogen and hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Baker, John D.; Meikrantz, David H.; Tuggle, Dale G.

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the purification and collection of hydrogen isotopes in a flowing inert gaseous mixture containing impurities, wherein metal alloy getters having the capability of sorbing non-hydrogen impurities such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, ammonia, nitrogen and water vapor are utilized to purify the gaseous mixture of impurities. After purification hydrogen isotopes may be more efficiently collected. A plurality of parallel process lines utilizing metal getter alloys can be used to provide for the continuous purification and collection of the hydrogen isotopes.

  6. Alignment of the diamond nitrogen vacancy center by strain engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Karin, Todd [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Dunham, Scott [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Fu, Kai-Mei [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2014-08-04

    The nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond is a sensitive probe of magnetic field and a promising qubit candidate for quantum information processing. The performance of many NV-based devices improves by aligning the NV(s) parallel to a single crystallographic direction. Using ab initio theoretical techniques, we show that NV orientation can be controlled by high-temperature annealing in the presence of strain under currently accessible experimental conditions. We find that (89??7)% of NVs align along the [111] crystallographic direction under 2% compressive biaxial strain (perpendicular to [111]) and an annealing temperature of 970?C.

  7. Method for the purification of noble gases, nitrogen and hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Baker, J.D.; Meikrantz, D.H.; Tuggle, D.G.

    1997-09-23

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the purification and collection of hydrogen isotopes in a flowing inert gaseous mixture containing impurities, wherein metal alloy getters having the capability of sorbing non-hydrogen impurities such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, ammonia, nitrogen and water vapor are utilized to purify the gaseous mixture of impurities. After purification hydrogen isotopes may be more efficiently collected. A plurality of parallel process lines utilizing metal getter alloys can be used to provide for the continuous purification and collection of the hydrogen isotopes. 15 figs.

  8. Optical excitation of paramagnetic nitrogen in chemical vapor deposited diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Graeff, C.F.; Rohrer, E.; Nebel, C.E.; Stutzmann, M.; Guettler, H.; Zachai, R.

    1996-11-01

    Investigations of polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited diamond films by electron-spin-resonance (ESR), light-induced (L)ESR, and the constant photoconductivity method have identified dispersed substitutional nitrogen (P1 center) as the main paramagnetic form of N incorporated in the CVD diamond. The density of N-related paramagnetic states is strongly affected by illumination and heat treatment. It is found that the P1 center in CVD diamond gives rise to a deep donor state about 1.5 eV below the conduction band. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. The importance of cytosolic glutamine synthetase in nitrogen assimilation and recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, S.M.; Habash, D.Z.

    2009-07-02

    Glutamine synthetase assimilates ammonium into amino acids, thus it is a key enzyme for nitrogen metabolism. The cytosolic isoenzymes of glutamine synthetase assimilate ammonium derived from primary nitrogen uptake and from various internal nitrogen recycling pathways. In this way, cytosolic glutamine synthetase is crucial for the remobilization of protein-derived nitrogen. Cytosolic glutamine synthetase is encoded by a small family of genes that are well conserved across plant species. Members of the cytosolic glutamine synthetase gene family are regulated in response to plant nitrogen status, as well as to environmental cues, such as nitrogen availability and biotic/abiotic stresses. The complex regulation of cytosolic glutamine synthetase at the transcriptional to post-translational levels is key to the establishment of a specific physiological role for each isoenzyme. The diverse physiological roles of cytosolic glutamine synthetase isoenzymes are important in relation to current agricultural and ecological issues.

  10. Sub-ambient carbon dioxide adsorption properties of nitrogen doped graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Tamilarasan, P.; Ramaprabhu, Sundara

    2015-04-14

    Carbon dioxide adsorption on carbon surface can be enhanced by doping the surface with heterogeneous atoms, which can increase local surface affinity. This study presents the carbon dioxide adsorption properties of nitrogen doped graphene at low pressures (<100 kPa). Graphene was exposed to nitrogen plasma, which dopes nitrogen atoms into carbon hexagonal lattice, mainly in pyridinic and pyrrolic forms. It is found that nitrogen doping significantly improves the CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity at all temperatures, due to the enrichment of local Lewis basic sites. In general, isotherm and thermodynamic parameters suggest that doped nitrogen sites have nearly same adsorption energy of surface defects and residual functional groups. The isosteric heat of adsorption remains in physisorption range, which falls with surface coverage, suggesting the distribution of magnitude of adsorption energy. The absolute values of isosteric heat and entropy of adsorption are slightly increased upon nitrogen doping.

  11. Thermodynamic processes associated with frostbite in the handling of liquid nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W. L.; Cook, C. R.

    2014-01-29

    It is often taught that exposure to liquid nitrogen will cause frostbite or more severe damage to exposed skin tissue. However, it is also demonstrated that a full hand can be briefly immersed in liquid nitrogen without damage. To better understand and possibly visualize the effects of human tissue exposure to liquid nitrogen, a series of tests were conducted using simulated hands and arms composed of molded gelatin forms. The simulated hands and arms were immersed, sprayed, or splashed with liquid nitrogen both with and without state of the art personal protective equipment. Thermocouples were located within the test articles to allow for thermal mapping during the freezing process. The study is aimed to help understand frostbite hazards and the time constants involved with the handling of liquid nitrogen to improve future safety protocols for the safe handling of cryogenic fluids. Results of the testing also show the limits to handling liquid nitrogen while using various means of protection.

  12. Kinetics of the nitrogen first negative system excitation by ionising radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Khasenov, M U

    2005-12-31

    The rate constants of N{sub 2}{sup +}(B) quenching by nitrogen and helium and of two- and three-body charge exchange of He{sub 2}{sup +} on H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, and Kr are measured from luminescence at the 0-0 transition of the first negative system of nitrogen in mixtures of helium and nitrogen with hydrogen, krypton or deuterium excited by alpha particles emitted by {sup 210}Po . (active media)

  13. Phytoremediation of the Nitrogen-Contaminated Subpile Soil at the Former

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Monument Valley, Arizona, 2004 Status Report | Department of Energy Phytoremediation of the Nitrogen-Contaminated Subpile Soil at the Former Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Monument Valley, Arizona, 2004 Status Report Phytoremediation of the Nitrogen-Contaminated Subpile Soil at the Former Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Monument Valley, Arizona, 2004 Status Report Phytoremediation of the Nitrogen-Contaminated Subpile Soil at the Former Uranium Mill Tailings Site in

  14. Reduction of nitrogen oxides with catalytic acid resistant aluminosilicate molecular sieves and ammonia

    DOEpatents

    Pence, Dallas T.; Thomas, Thomas R.

    1980-01-01

    Noxious nitrogen oxides in a waste gas stream such as the stack gas from a fossil-fuel-fired power generation plant or other industrial plant off-gas stream is catalytically reduced to elemental nitrogen and/or innocuous nitrogen oxides employing ammonia as reductant in the presence of a zeolite catalyst in the hydrogen or sodium form having pore openings of about 3 to 10 A.

  15. Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Fines Injection | Department of Energy Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines Injection Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines Injection This fact sheet describes a new technology with the potential to reduce operating costs and increase productivity in bar and flat-rolled products for the steel industry. Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines Injection (January

  16. Entangling separate nitrogen-vacancy centers in a scalable fashion via

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    coupling to microtoroidal resonators (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Entangling separate nitrogen-vacancy centers in a scalable fashion via coupling to microtoroidal resonators Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Entangling separate nitrogen-vacancy centers in a scalable fashion via coupling to microtoroidal resonators We propose a potentially practical scheme to entangle negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (N-V) centers in distant diamonds. Each diamond is supposed to be fixed on

  17. Multi-omics analysis reveals regulators of the response to nitrogen

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    limitation in Yarrowia lipolytica (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Multi-omics analysis reveals regulators of the response to nitrogen limitation in Yarrowia lipolytica Title: Multi-omics analysis reveals regulators of the response to nitrogen limitation in Yarrowia lipolytica Yarrowia lipolytica is an oleaginous ascomycete yeast that stores lipids in response to limitation of nitrogen. Furthermore, while the enzymatic pathways responsible for neutral lipid accumulation in Y. lipolytica are

  18. Nanodiamond-based nanostructures for coupling nitrogen-vacancy centres to

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    metal nanoparticles and semiconductor quantum dots (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Nanodiamond-based nanostructures for coupling nitrogen-vacancy centres to metal nanoparticles and semiconductor quantum dots Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanodiamond-based nanostructures for coupling nitrogen-vacancy centres to metal nanoparticles and semiconductor quantum dots The ability to control the interaction between nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond and photonic and/or broadband

  19. Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Control | Department of Energy Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions Control Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions Control 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting ace079_mukundan_2012_o.pdf (2.83 MB) More Documents & Publications Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions Control Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review

  20. EA-1929: NorthStar Medical Technologies LLC, Commercial Domestic Production of the Medical Isotope Molybdenum-99

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to use federal funds to support and accelerate Northstar Medical Radioisotopes' project to develop domestic, commercial production capability for the medical isotope Molybdenum-99 without the use of highly enriched uranium.

  1. Absorption process for producing oxygen and nitrogen and solution therefor

    DOEpatents

    Roman, I.C.; Baker, R.W.

    1990-09-25

    Process for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen is disclosed which utilizes solutions of oxygen carriers to selectively absorb oxygen from a gaseous stream, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the process, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a solvent solution, which absorbs oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and desorbs oxygen to a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. In an alternate mode of operation, the carrier solution is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, and at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. Under such conditions, exceptionally high oxygen concentrations on the order of 95% to 99% are obtained, as well as a long carrier lifetime in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible. 1 figure

  2. Theory of nitrogen doping of carbon nanoribbons: Edge effects

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Jiang, Jie; Turnbull, Joseph; Lu, Wenchang; Oak Ridge National Lab.; Boguslawski, Piotr; Univ. of Warsaw; Bernholc, J.; Oak Ridge National Lab.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen doping of a carbon nanoribbon is profoundly affected by its one-dimensional character, symmetry, and interaction with edge states. Using state-of-the-art ab initio calculations, including hybrid exact-exchange density functional theory, we find that, for N-doped zigzag ribbons, the electronic properties are strongly dependent upon sublattice effects due to the non-equivalence of the two sublattices. For armchair ribbons, N-doping effects are different depending upon the ribbon family: for families 2 and 0, the N-induced levels are in the conduction band, while for family 1 the N levels are in the gap. In zigzag nanoribbons, nitrogen close to the edge is amore » deep center, while in armchair nanoribbons its behavior is close to an effective-mass-like donor with the ionization energy dependent on the value of the band gap. In chiral nanoribbons, we find strong dependence of the impurity level and formation energy upon the edge position of the dopant, while such site-specificity is not manifested in the magnitude of the magnetization.« less

  3. Absorption process for producing oxygen and nitrogen and solution therefor

    DOEpatents

    Roman, Ian C. [Wilmington, DE; Baker, Richard W. [Palo Alto, CA

    1990-09-25

    Process for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen is disclosed which utilizes solutions of oxygen carriers to selectively absorb oxygen from a gaseous stream, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the process, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a solvent solution, which absorbs oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and desorbs oxygen to a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. In an alternate mode of operation, the carrier solution is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, and at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. Under such conditions, exceptionally high oxygen concentrations on the order of 95% to 99% are obtained, as well as a long carrier lifetime in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible.

  4. Absorption process for producing oxygen and nitrogen and solution therefor

    DOEpatents

    Roman, Ian C.

    1984-01-01

    Process for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen is disclosed which utilizes solutions of oxygen carriers to selectively absorb oxygen from a gaseous stream, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the process, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a solvent solution, which absorbs oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and desorbs oxygen to a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. In an alternate mode of operation, the carrier solution is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form during absorption, and at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form during desorption. Under such conditions, exceptionally high oxygen concentrations on the order of 95% to 99% are obtained, as well as a long carrier lifetime in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible.

  5. Nitrogen doping of chemical vapor deposition grown graphene on 4H-SiC (0001)

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, J. M.; Binder, J.; Wysmo?ek, A.; D?browski, P.; Strupi?ski, W.; Kopciuszy?ski, M.; Ja?ochowski, M.; Klusek, Z.

    2014-06-21

    We present optical, electrical, and structural properties of nitrogen-doped graphene grown on the Si face of 4H-SiC (0001) by chemical vapor deposition method using propane as the carbon precursor and N{sub 2} as the nitrogen source. The incorporation of nitrogen in the carbon lattice was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy shows carrier behavior characteristic for massless Dirac fermions and confirms the presence of a graphene monolayer in the investigated nitrogen-doped samples. The structural and electronic properties of the material were investigated by Raman spectroscopy. A systematical analysis of the graphene Raman spectra, including D, G, and 2D bands, was performed. In the case of nitrogen-doped samples, an electron concentration on the order of 510 10{sup 12}?cm{sup ?2} was estimated based upon Raman and Hall effect measurements and no clear dependence of the carrier concentration on nitrogen concentration used during growth was observed. This high electron concentration can be interpreted as both due to the presence of nitrogen in graphitic-like positions of the graphene lattice as well as to the interaction with the substrate. A greater intensity of the Raman D band and increased inhomogeneity, as well as decreased electron mobility, observed for nitrogen-doped samples, indicate the formation of defects and a modification of the growth process induced by nitrogen doping.

  6. Zirconium Catalyst Follows a Low Energy Pathway for Carbon-Nitrogen...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    mechanism, carbon-nitrogen and carbon-hydrogen bond formation occurs in a concerted fashion. Article Title: A Highly Enantioselective Zirconium Catalyst for Intramolecular...

  7. Patterns of Nitrogen Utilization in Deep-Sea Syntrophic Consortia (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Wiegel, Detlef

    2011-04-26

    Victoria Orphan from Caltech discusses "Patterns of nitrogen utilization in deep-sea syntrophic consortia" on March 25, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  8. Separation of carbon and nitrogen isotopes by selective photodissociation azo or diazo compounds

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Hao-Lin [Walnut Creek, CA

    1977-12-20

    Separation of isotopes, particularly of carbon or nitrogen, is achieved by the selective photodissociation of an azo compound or a diazoalkane, particularly azomethane or diazomethane.

  9. To study of different level of nitrogen manure and density on yield and yield component of variety of K.S.C 704 in dry region of sistan

    SciTech Connect

    Dahmardeh, M.; Forghani, F.; Khammari, E.

    2008-01-30

    Out of three grain of the world, Corn is one of the best, About 7 to 10 thousand years ago in south of Mexico corn become domesticated. In the year 1995 culfivation of corn in the world was 130 mil/ha, and to Total production of the world of corn is 507 M/Tons. Average yield of corn in the year 1995 Among Producer countries was 7.78 To 7.60 t/ha in fance and united state was state was 2.36 To 2.20 t/ha, but in Brazil and Mexico Production of corn was different. With this regards, special manner has been arranged for the suitable cultivation or suitable density plants in one heactar on cultivation variety of K.S.C 704 corn. Also suitable level of Nitrogen manure, this Protect in climatic condition of Sistan region done, sith complete block design with 3 replication. Experiment has been selected as split plot, the main plot with 4 different concentration level such as (200-250-3500 and 350 Kg/ha) and sub plot density with 3 different level such as 111000,83000 and 66000 plan/ha respectively. From stage growth up to harvesting of corn in this reache having Data for each treat. ment, After harvesting Analysis of variance and companion of Average of each treatment has been done by DunKan method. Results has been shown, Measurment of characteristics (yield component) seed yield effected different density level of manure, with increasing of manure weight of one thousand seed yield and also in high density showed high significant differente amoung each other. These are with suitable climatic condition of sistan region if enough water will be available ed using Amount of 350 ks/ha Nitrogen manure and with density 111000 plants/ha we can product suitable seed yield Biological yield.

  10. Analysis of existing and potential environmental regulatory initiatives and their impact on the domestic natural gas industry. Topical report, July 1992-February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Godec, M.L.; Smith, G.E.; Kosowski, B.; Lang, M.C.

    1994-02-01

    The report identifies and evaluates the costs of compliance associated with current and potential environmental requirements facing the domestic natural gas industry. It also investigates the market for environmental technologies and current technology transfer. The primary findings of this report include: Future environmental compliance requirements on the domestic natural gas industry must be assessed within the overall context of the domestic gas market; The outcome of future regulatory initiatives is highly uncertain; The future costs of environmental compliance incurred by the domestic gas industry could be significant; Air pollution control requirements are likely to impose the greatest incremental cost burden on the domestic gas industry; The methodology developed can be easily adapted to estimate the benefits of the Gas Research Institute (GRI) environmental R D; GRI can be proactive to improve the development and transfer of environmental compliance technologies; GRI can make regulators a target of technology transfer efforts on technical capabilities an environmental risks.

  11. Comparison of nitrogen depletion and repletion on lipid production in yeast and fungal species

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Yang, Shihui; Wang, Wei; Wei, Hui; Van Wychen, Stefanie; Pienkos, Philip T.; Zhang, Min; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-08-29

    Although it is well known that low nitrogen stimulates lipid accumulation, especially for algae and some oleaginous yeast, few studies have been conducted in fungal species, especially on the impact of different nitrogen deficiency strategies. In this study, we use two promising consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) candidates to examine the impact of two nitrogen deficiency strategies on lipid production, which are the extensively investigated oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, and the commercial cellulase producer Trichoderma reesei. We first utilized bioinformatics approaches to reconstruct the fatty acid metabolic pathway and demonstrated the presence of a triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis pathway in Trichoderma reesei. Wemore » then examined the lipid production of Trichoderma reesei and Y. lipomyces in different media using two nitrogen deficiency strategies of nitrogen natural repletion and nitrogen depletion through centrifugation. Our results demonstrated that nitrogen depletion was better than nitrogen repletion with about 30% lipid increase for Trichoderma reesei and Y. lipomyces, and could be an option to improve lipid production in both oleaginous yeast and filamentous fungal species. The resulting distinctive lipid composition profiles indicated that the impacts of nitrogen depletion on yeast were different from those for fungal species. Under three types of C/N ratio conditions, C16 and C18 fatty acids were the predominant forms of lipids for both Trichoderma reesei and Y. lipolytica. In addition, while the overall fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles of Trichoderma reesei were similar, the overall FAME profiles of Y. lipolytica observed a shift. The fatty acid metabolic pathway reconstructed in this work supports previous reports of lipid production in T. reesei, and provides a pathway for future omics studies and metabolic engineering efforts. Further investigation to identify the genetic targets responsible for the effect of nitrogen depletion

  12. Scientific documentary animation: How much accuracy is enough

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.L.

    1992-02-06

    Scientific documentary animation presents final results, and thus has a somewhat different purpose than the scientific visualization used in their discovery. For an audience of non-specialists, production quality in the graphics, pacing, narration, music, and story-telling are important. However, the animation need only be qualitatively correct in order to communicate the desired information. When physical simulations are used to produce animated movement, the laws of motion can be adjusted to give a nicer appearance, to allow for easier programming, to compensate for incompatible time or size scales, or to artifically push things in a desired direction. Graphic tricks may even be used to disguise inadequacies in the simulation. Biological structures which are not yet completely understood may be given an arbitrary or approximate form in order to show their function. But in illustrating mathematics, it is often easy to be completely accurate.

  13. Scientific documentary animation: How much accuracy is enough?

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.L.

    1992-02-06

    Scientific documentary animation presents final results, and thus has a somewhat different purpose than the scientific visualization used in their discovery. For an audience of non-specialists, production quality in the graphics, pacing, narration, music, and story-telling are important. However, the animation need only be qualitatively correct in order to communicate the desired information. When physical simulations are used to produce animated movement, the laws of motion can be adjusted to give a nicer appearance, to allow for easier programming, to compensate for incompatible time or size scales, or to artifically push things in a desired direction. Graphic tricks may even be used to disguise inadequacies in the simulation. Biological structures which are not yet completely understood may be given an arbitrary or approximate form in order to show their function. But in illustrating mathematics, it is often easy to be completely accurate.

  14. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

    1991-09-20

    Reburning is examined as a means of NO{sub x} destruction in a 17 kW down-fired pulverized coal combustor. In reburning, a secondary fuel is introduced downstream of the primary flame to produce a reducing zone, favorable to NO destruction, and air is introduced further downstream to complete the combustion. Emphasis is on natural gas reburning and a bituminous coal primary flame. A parametric examination of reburning employing a statistical experimental design, is conducted, complemented by detailed experiments. Mechanisms governing the inter-conversion of nitrogenous species in the fuel rich reburn zone is explored. The effect of reburning on N{sub 2}O emissions, the effect of primary flame mode (premixed and diffusion) and the effect of distributing the reburning fuel, are also investigated.

  15. Nitrogen-Doped Graphene and its Application in Electrochemical Biosensing

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ying; Shao, Yuyan; Matson, Dean W.; Li, Jinghong; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-05-05

    Chemical doping with foreign atoms is an effective method to intrinsically modify the properties of host materials. Among them, nitrogen (N) doping plays a critical role in regulating the electronic properties of carbon materials. Recently, graphene as a true 2-dimensional carbon material has shown fascinating applications in bioelectronics and biosensors. In this paper, we report a facile strategy to prepare N-doped graphene by using plasma treatment of pristine graphene synthesized via chemical method. Meanwhile, a possible schematic diagram has been proposed to detail the structure of N-doped graphene. By controlling the exposure time, N percentage in host grapheme can be regulated ranging from 0.11% to 1.35%. Moreover, the as prepared N-doped graphene has displayed high electrocatalytic activity to hydrogen peroxide and further been used for glucose biosensing with concentration as low as 0.01 mM in the presence of interferences.

  16. Catalyst and method for reduction of nitrogen oxides

    DOEpatents

    Ott, Kevin C.

    2008-08-19

    A Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst was prepared by slurry coating ZSM-5 zeolite onto a cordierite monolith, then subliming an iron salt onto the zeolite, calcining the monolith, and then dipping the monolith either into an aqueous solution of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate and then calcining, or by similar treatment with separate solutions of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate. The supported catalyst containing iron, manganese, and cerium showed 80 percent conversion at 113 degrees Celsius of a feed gas containing nitrogen oxides having 4 parts NO to one part NO.sub.2, about one equivalent ammonia, and excess oxygen; conversion improved to 94 percent at 147 degrees Celsius. N.sub.2O was not detected (detection limit: 0.6 percent N.sub.2O).

  17. Catalyst and method for reduction of nitrogen oxides

    DOEpatents

    Ott, Kevin C.

    2008-05-27

    A Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst was prepared by slurry coating ZSM-5 zeolite onto a cordierite monolith, then subliming an iron salt onto the zeolite, calcining the monolith, and then dipping the monolith either into an aqueous solution of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate and then calcining, or by similar treatment with separate solutions of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate. The supported catalyst containing iron, manganese, and cerium showed 80 percent conversion at 113 degrees Celsius of a feed gas containing nitrogen oxides having 4 parts NO to one part NO.sub.2, about one equivalent ammonia, and excess oxygen; conversion improved to 94 percent at 147 degrees Celsius. N.sub.2O was not detected (detection limit: 0.6 percent N.sub.2O).

  18. Adsorption configurations of two nitrogen atoms on graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Rani, Babita, E-mail: babitabaghla15@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Punjabi University, Patiala- 147 002 and Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh- 160 014 (India); Jindal, V. K.; Dharamvir, Keya [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh- 160 014 (India)

    2014-04-24

    We present calculations for different possible configurations of two nitrogen adatoms on graphene using the code VASP, based on Density Functional Theory (DFT). Two N atoms adsorbed on the graphene sheet can share a bond in two ways. They take positions either just above two adjacent carbon atoms or they form a bridge across opposite bonds of a hexagon in the graphene sheet. Both these configurations result into structural distortion of the sheet. Another stable configuration involving two N atoms consists of an N{sub 2} molecule which is physisorbed at a distance 3.69 on the graphene sheet. Two N atoms can also be adsorbed on alternate bridge sites of neighbouring hexagons of graphene. This configuration again leads to distortion of the sheet in perpendicular direction.

  19. Properties of nitrogen implanted and electron beam annealed bulk ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, J.; Carder, D. A.; Markwitz, A.; Reeves, R. J.

    2010-05-15

    The optical properties of bulk ZnO ion implanted with nitrogen ions, at an energy of 23 keV have been studied as a function of implantation fluence and electron beam (EB) annealing conditions. Nuclear reaction analysis and Raman results have revealed the implanted N concentration and its structural changes with respect to various nitrogen ion fluences. The optical properties of nitrogen implanted bulk ZnO were investigated by low temperature photoluminescence measurements. An enhanced peak at 3.235 eV has been attributed to donor-accepter pair (DAP) emission involving the implanted N acceptor in ZnO. The emission near 3.3085 eV is attributed to a free electron to acceptor transition. We also report a broad band emission feature at {approx}3.09 eV in the nitrogen implanted with 1-2x10{sup 15} ions cm{sup -2} and EB annealed at 800-900 deg. C. This is assigned to a thermally activated nitrogen acceptor transition as it is unique only to nitrogen implanted samples. An ionization energy of 377 meV indicates that this line may correspond to a significantly less shallow acceptor level. In addition an increase in the intensity and dominance of this DAP line in nitrogen implanted samples over the other acceptor transitions was observed with increasing annealing time and temperatures. It is shown that EB annealing offers a method of enhanced nitrogen activation when compared to a more conventional furnace approach.

  20. Device for detection and identification of carbon- and nitrogen-containing materials

    DOEpatents

    Karev, Alexander Ivanovich; Raevsky, Valery Georgievich; Dzhilavyan, Leonid Zavenovich; Laptev, Valery Dmitrievich; Pakhomov, Nikolay Ivanovich; Shvedunov, Vasily Ivanovich; Rykalin, Vladimir Ivanovich; Brothers, Louis Joseph; Wilhide, Larry K

    2014-03-25

    A device for detection and identification of carbon- and nitrogen-containing materials is described. In particular, the device performs the detection and identification of carbon- and nitrogen-containing materials by photo-nuclear detection. The device may comprise a race-track microtron, a breaking target, and a water-filled Cherenkov radiation counter.

  1. Preparation of carbon nanoparticles and carbon nitride from high nitrogen compound

    DOEpatents

    Huynh, My Hang V.; Hiskey, Michael A.

    2009-09-01

    The high-nitrogen compound 3,6-di(azido)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine (DiAT) was synthesized by a relatively simple method and used as a precursor for the preparation of carbon nanospheres and nanopolygons, and nitrogen-rich carbon nitrides.

  2. Nitrogen concentration and isotope dataset for environmental samples from 2012 and 2013, Barrow, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Heikoop; Heather Throckmorton

    2015-05-15

    Dataset includes nitrate concentrations for polygonal active layer samples, snowmelt; ammonium concentrations for active layer samples; nitrate isotopes for active layer samples, snowmelt, permafrost; ammonium isotopes for active layer samples; and nitrogen isotopes for soils and dissolved organic nitrogen extracted from soil pore waters.

  3. Method for combined removal of mercury and nitrogen oxides from off-gas streams

    DOEpatents

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H.; Livengood, C. David

    2006-10-10

    A method for removing elemental Hg and nitric oxide simultaneously from a gas stream is provided whereby the gas stream is reacted with gaseous chlorinated compound to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds and the nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide. The method works to remove either mercury or nitrogen oxide in the absence or presence of each other.

  4. Commercial nuclear power and the national interest. [Necessity of developing domestic energy sources for electric generation

    SciTech Connect

    Ebinger, C.K.; Brown, R.J.; Cooper, R.C.; Mills, M.

    1987-08-01

    The US is becoming increasingly dependent on imported oil. By the mid-1990s imports are likely to reach 11 million barrels per day, almost twice the current level of 6 million barrels per day. A major share of these imports is likely to be coming from insecure Middle East sources. When this situation materializes, the US will find itself more vulnerable to economic disruption than in any prior period in its history. The consequences are ominous. Ironically, a significant component (nearly half) of this increase in oil import dependency will be attributable to the electric utility sector. This is ironic because there are clear alternatives to oil use in the electricity sector. These alternatives, coal and nuclear power, have serious institutional, financial, and regulatory problems which are preventing their use for future electric generation requirements. For reasons of national security, the resolution of these problems should be made a matter of national priority. The policy choices before the United States are stark. Either we take the actions necessary to fully utilize all of our domestic energy resources, including nuclear power, while we continue to take measures necessary to secure access to our vital foreign oil supplies; or we remain at the mercy of parochial interests and risk losing control of our economic, political and strategic destiny.

  5. Impacts of different data averaging times on statistical analysis of distributed domestic photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Widen, Joakim; Waeckelgaard, Ewa; Paatero, Jukka; Lund, Peter

    2010-03-15

    The trend of increasing application of distributed generation with solar photovoltaics (PV-DG) suggests that a widespread integration in existing low-voltage (LV) grids is possible in the future. With massive integration in LV grids, a major concern is the possible negative impacts of excess power injection from on-site generation. For power-flow simulations of such grid impacts, an important consideration is the time resolution of demand and generation data. This paper investigates the impact of time averaging on high-resolution data series of domestic electricity demand and PV-DG output and on voltages in a simulated LV grid. Effects of 10-minutely and hourly averaging on descriptive statistics and duration curves were determined. Although time averaging has a considerable impact on statistical properties of the demand in individual households, the impact is smaller on aggregate demand, already smoothed from random coincidence, and on PV-DG output. Consequently, the statistical distribution of simulated grid voltages was also robust against time averaging. The overall judgement is that statistical investigation of voltage variations in the presence of PV-DG does not require higher resolution than hourly. (author)

  6. The domestic natural gas and oil initiative. Energy leadership in the world economy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Two key overarching goals of this Initiative are enhancing the efficiency and competitiveness of U.S. industry and reducing the trends toward higher imports. These goals take into account new Federal policies that reflect economic needs, including economic growth, deficit reduction, job creation and security, and global competitiveness, as well as the need to preserve the environment, improve energy efficiency, and provide for national security. The success of this Initiative clearly requires coordinated strategies that range far beyond policies primarily directed at natural gas and oil supplies. Therefore, this Initiative proposes three major strategic activities: Strategic Activity 1 -- increase domestic natural gas and oil production and environmental protection by advancing and disseminating new exploration, production, and refining technologies; Strategic Activity 2 -- stimulate markets for natural gas and natural-gas-derived products, including their use as substitutes for imported oil where feasible; and Strategic Activity 3 -- ensure cost-effective environmental protection by streamlining and improving government communication, decision making, and regulation. Finally, the Initiative will reexamine the costs and benefits of increase oil imports through a broad new Department of Energy study. This study will form the basis for additional actions found to be warranted under the study.

  7. Experimental and cost analyses of a one kilowatt-hour/day domestic refrigerator-freezer

    SciTech Connect

    Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.

    1997-05-01

    Over the past ten years, government regulations for energy standards, coupled with the utility industry`s promotion of energy-efficient appliances, have prompted appliance manufacturers to reduce energy consumption in refrigerator-freezers by approximately 40%. Global concerns over ozone depletion have also required the appliance industry to eliminate CFC-12 and CFC-11 while concurrently improving energy efficiency to reduce greenhouse emissions. In response to expected future regulations that will be more stringent, several design options were investigated for improving the energy efficiency of a conventionally designed, domestic refrigerator-freezer. The options, such as cabinet and door insulation improvements and a high-efficiency compressor were incorporated into a prototype refrigerator-freezer cabinet and refrigeration system. Baseline energy consumption of the original 1996 production refrigerator-freezer, along with cabinet heat load and compressor calorimeter test results, were extensively documented to provide a firm basis for experimentally measured energy savings. The goal for the project was to achieve an energy consumption that is 50% below in 1993 National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) standard for 20 ft{sup 3} (570 l) units. Based on discussions with manufacturers to determine the most promising energy-saving options, a laboratory prototype was fabricated and tested to experimentally verify the energy consumption of a unit with vacuum insulation around the freezer, increased door thicknesses, a high-efficiency compressor, a low wattage condenser fan, a larger counterflow evaporator, and adaptive defrost control.

  8. Fridge of the future: Designing a one-kilowatt-hour/day domestic refrigerator-freezer

    SciTech Connect

    Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.

    1998-03-01

    An industry/government Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was established to evaluate and test design concepts for a domestic refrigerator-freezer unit that represents approximately 60% of the US market. The goal of the CRADA was to demonstrate advanced technologies which reduce, by 50 percent, the 1993 NAECA standard energy consumption for a 20 ft{sup 3} (570 I) top-mount, automatic-defrost, refrigerator-freezer. For a unit this size, the goal translated to an energy consumption of 1.003 kWh/d. The general objective of the research was to facilitate the introduction of cost-efficient technologies by demonstrating design changes that can be effectively incorporated into new products. A 1996 model refrigerator-freezer was selected as the baseline unit for testing. Since the unit was required to meet the 1993 NAECA standards, the energy consumption was quite low (1.676 kWh/d), thus making further reductions in energy consumption very challenging. Among the energy saving features incorporated into the original design of the baseline unit were a low-wattage evaporator fan, increased insulation thicknesses, and liquid line flange heaters.

  9. Summary history of domestic uranium procurement under US Atomic Energy Commission contracts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Albrethsen, H. Jr.; McGinley, F.E.

    1982-09-01

    During the period 1947 through 1970, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) fostered the rapid development and expansion of the domestic uranium mining and milling industry by providing a market for uranium. Some thirty-two mills were constructed during that period to produce U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ concentrates for sale to the AEC. In addition, there were various pilot plants, concentrators, upgraders, heap leach, and solution mining facilities that operated during the period. The purpose of this report is to compile a short narrative history of the AEC's uranium concentrate procurement program and to describe briefly each of the operations that produced uranium for sale to the AEC. Contractual arrangements are described and data are given on quantities of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ purchased and prices paid. Similar data are included for V/sub 2/O/sub 5/, where applicable. Mill and other plant operating data were also compiled from old AEC records. These latter data were provided by the companies, as a contractual requirement, during the period of operation under AEC contracts. Additionally, an effort was made to determine the present status of each facility by reference to other recently published reports. No sites were visited nor were the individual reports reviewed by the companies, many of which no longer exist. The authors relied almost entirely on published information for descriptions of facilities and milling processes utilized.

  10. Table 2. Real Gross Domestic Product Growth Trends, Projected vs. Actual

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Real Gross Domestic Product Growth Trends, Projected vs. Actual Projected Real GDP Growth Trend (cumulative average percent growth in projected real GDP from first year shown for each AEO) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 3.09 3.15 2.86 2.78 2.73 2.65 2.62 2.60 2.56 2.53 2.52 2.49 2.45 2.41 2.40 2.36 2.32 2.29 AEO 1995 3.66 2.77 2.53 2.71 2.67 2.61 2.55 2.48 2.46 2.45 2.45 2.43 2.39 2.35 2.31 2.27 2.24 AEO 1996 2.61

  11. Life cycle costs for the domestic reactor-based plutonium disposition option

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.A.

    1999-10-01

    Projected constant dollar life cycle cost (LCC) estimates are presented for the domestic reactor-based plutonium disposition program being managed by the US Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD). The scope of the LCC estimate includes: design, construction, licensing, operation, and deactivation of a mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility (FFF) that will be used to purify and convert weapons-derived plutonium oxides to MOX fuel pellets and fabricate MOX fuel bundles for use in commercial pressurized-water reactors (PWRs); fuel qualification activities and modification of facilities required for manufacture of lead assemblies that will be used to qualify and license this MOX fuel; and modification, licensing, and operation of commercial PWRs to allow irradiation of a partial core of MOX fuel in combination with low-enriched uranium fuel. The baseline cost elements used for this document are the same as those used for examination of the preferred sites described in the site-specific final environmental impact statement and in the DOE Record of Decision that will follow in late 1999. Cost data are separated by facilities, government accounting categories, contract phases, and expenditures anticipated by the various organizations who will participate in the program over a 20-year period. Total LCCs to DOE/MD are projected at approximately $1.4 billion for a 33-MT plutonium disposition mission.

  12. Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options With Validated Analysis Models

    SciTech Connect

    Weitzel, E.; Hoeschele, M.

    2014-09-01

    A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. A full distribution system developed in TRNSYS has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. This study builds upon previous analysis modelling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. Of the configurations evaluated, distribution losses account for 13-29% of the total water heating energy use and water use efficiency ranges from 11-22%. The base case, an uninsulated trunk and branch system sees the most improvement in energy consumption by insulating and locating the water heater central to all fixtures. Demand recirculation systems are not projected to provide significant energy savings and in some cases increase energy consumption. Water use is most efficient with demand recirculation systems, followed by the insulated trunk and branch system with a central water heater. Compact plumbing practices and insulation have the most impact on energy consumption (2-6% for insulation and 3-4% per 10 gallons of enclosed volume reduced). The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

  13. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lebersorger, S.; Beigl, P.

    2011-09-15

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

  14. Transgenic approaches to altering carbon and nitrogen partitioning in whole plants: assessing the potential to improve crop yields and nutritional quality

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Yadav, Umesh P.; Ayre, Brian G.; Bush, Daniel R.

    2015-04-22

    The principal components of plant productivity and nutritional value, from the standpoint of modern agriculture, are the acquisition and partitioning of organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) compounds among the various organs of the plant. The flow of essential organic nutrients among the plant organ systems is mediated by its complex vascular system, and is driven by a series of transport steps including export from sites of primary assimilation, transport into and out of the phloem and xylem, and transport into the various import-dependent organs. Manipulating C and N partitioning to enhance yield of harvested organs is evident in themore » earliest crop domestication events and continues to be a goal for modern plant biology. Research on the biochemistry, molecular and cellular biology, and physiology of C and N partitioning has now matured to an extent that strategic manipulation of these transport systems through biotechnology are being attempted to improve movement from source to sink tissues in general, but also to target partitioning to specific organs. These nascent efforts are demonstrating the potential of applied biomass targeting but are also identifying interactions between essential nutrients that require further basic research. In this review, we summarize the key transport steps involved in C and N partitioning, and discuss various transgenic approaches for directly manipulating key C and N transporters involved. In addition, we propose several experiments that could enhance biomass accumulation in targeted organs while simultaneously testing current partitioning models.« less

  15. Transgenic approaches to altering carbon and nitrogen partitioning in whole plants: assessing the potential to improve crop yields and nutritional quality

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Umesh P.; Ayre, Brian G.; Bush, Daniel R.

    2015-04-22

    The principal components of plant productivity and nutritional value, from the standpoint of modern agriculture, are the acquisition and partitioning of organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) compounds among the various organs of the plant. The flow of essential organic nutrients among the plant organ systems is mediated by its complex vascular system, and is driven by a series of transport steps including export from sites of primary assimilation, transport into and out of the phloem and xylem, and transport into the various import-dependent organs. Manipulating C and N partitioning to enhance yield of harvested organs is evident in the earliest crop domestication events and continues to be a goal for modern plant biology. Research on the biochemistry, molecular and cellular biology, and physiology of C and N partitioning has now matured to an extent that strategic manipulation of these transport systems through biotechnology are being attempted to improve movement from source to sink tissues in general, but also to target partitioning to specific organs. These nascent efforts are demonstrating the potential of applied biomass targeting but are also identifying interactions between essential nutrients that require further basic research. In this review, we summarize the key transport steps involved in C and N partitioning, and discuss various transgenic approaches for directly manipulating key C and N transporters involved. In addition, we propose several experiments that could enhance biomass accumulation in targeted organs while simultaneously testing current partitioning models.

  16. International radiobiology archives of long-term animal studies. I. Descriptions of participating institutions and studies

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, G.B.; Watson, C.R.; Sugahara, T.; Okada, S.

    1996-07-01

    This document describes archived radiobiology animal studies. Information is presented on experimental details, pathology, radioactivity, results, dosimetry, status, and animal type employed.

  17. Photoluminescence studies of growth-sector dependence of nitrogen distribution in synthetic Ib diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Kaiyue; Steeds, John W.; Li, Zhihong; Tian, Yuming

    2014-08-15

    The photoluminescence technology previously employed to investigate the boron distribution of type IIb diamond has now been applied to study the nitrogen distribution of type Ib diamond. All growth sectors were clearly distinguished by the characteristic colors and the brightness of the synthetic Ib diamond's cathodoluminescence topography. As a measure of the concentration of nitrogen impurity, the nitrogen-vacancy luminescence gave relative concentrations in different growth sectors as: the (111) sector was the highest, followed by the (311), (100) and (511) sectors. The results were reconfirmed by the evidence of the broadened and strengthened zero phonon lines of nitrogen-vacancy center with the increase of nitrogen concentration of type Ib diamond. - Highlights: • The growth sectors were clearly distinguished by CL technology. • The N distribution was investigated by the examination of PL spectroscopy. • Results showed that (111) has the highest N, followed by (311), (100) and (511). • The conclusion was reconfirmed by the PL results of NV center.

  18. Self-protecting transistor oscillator for treating animal tissues

    DOEpatents

    Doss, James D.

    1980-01-01

    A transistor oscillator circuit wherein the load current applied to animal tissue treatment electrodes is fed back to the transistor. Removal of load is sensed to automatically remove feedback and stop oscillations. A thermistor on one treatment electrode senses temperature, and by means of a control circuit controls oscillator transistor current.

  19. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    SciTech Connect

    Cockburn, Andrew; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Fernndez, Maria-Luisa; Arcella, Davide; Peteghem, Carlos van; Dorne, Jean-Lou

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  20. Synergistic Effect of Nitrogen in Cobalt Nitride and Nitrogen-Doped Hollow Carbon Spheres for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Xing; Liu, Lin; Jiang, Yu; Wang, Xinde; Wang, Lei; Zhuang, Guilin; Li, Xiaonian; Mei, Donghai; Wang, Jian-guo; Su, Dang S.

    2015-06-15

    The need for inexpensive and high-activity oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalysts has attracted considerable research interest over the past years. Here we report a novel hybrid that contains cobalt nitride/nitrogen-rich hollow carbon spheres (CoxN/NHCS) as a high-performance catalyst for ORR. The CoxN nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed and confined in the hollow NHCS shell. The performance of the resulting CoxN/NHCS hybrid was comparable with that of a commercial Pt/C at the same catalyst loading toward ORR, but the mass activity of the former was 5.7 times better than that of the latter. The nitrogen in both CoxN and NHCS, especially CoxN, could weaken the adsorption of reaction intermediates (O and OOH), which follows the favourable reaction pathway on CoxN/NHCS according to the DFT-calculated Gibbs free energy diagrams. Our results demonstrated a new strategy for designing and developing inexpensive, non-precious metal electrocatalysts for next-generation fuels. The authors acknowledge the financial support from the National Basic Research Program (973 program, No. 2013CB733501) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21306169, 21101137, 21136001, 21176221 and 91334013). Dr. D. Mei is supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. Computing time was granted by the grand challenge of computational catalysis of the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL). EMSL is a national scientific user facility located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and sponsored by DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research.

  1. Biological restoration of major transportation facilities domestic demonstration and application project (DDAP): technology development at Sandia National Laboratories.

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, James L., Jr.; Melton, Brad; Finley, Patrick; Brockman, John; Peyton, Chad E.; Tucker, Mark David; Einfeld, Wayne; Griffith, Richard O.; Brown, Gary Stephen; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Knowlton, Robert G.; Ho, Pauline

    2006-06-01

    The Bio-Restoration of Major Transportation Facilities Domestic Demonstration and Application Program (DDAP) is a designed to accelerate the restoration of transportation nodes following an attack with a biological warfare agent. This report documents the technology development work done at SNL for this DDAP, which include development of the BROOM tool, an investigation of surface sample collection efficiency, and a flow cytometry study of chlorine dioxide effects on Bacillus anthracis spore viability.

  2. Building America Expert Meeting: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

  3. Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews

    2007-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of this study is to compare greenhouse gas (GHG), SOx, and NOx life-cycle emissions of electricity generated with NG/LNG/SNG and coal. This life-cycle comparison of air emissions from different fuels can help us better understand the advantages and disadvantages of using coal versus globally sourced NG for electricity generation. Our estimates suggest that with the current fleet of power plants, a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have lower GHG emissions than coal. If advanced technologies with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) are used, however, coal and a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have very similar life-cycle GHG emissions. For SOx and NOx we find there are significant emissions in the upstream stages of the NG/LNG life-cycles, which contribute to a larger range in SOx and NOx emissions for NG/LNG than for coal and SNG. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Evaluation of technology transferring: The experiences of the first Navy Domestic Technology Transfair. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-31

    In August 1989 the Office of the Chief of Naval Research and the American Defense Preparedness Association conducted the first Navy Domestic Technology Transfair. The objective of the Transfair was to expose the US Navy`s years of solid experience across a broad span of technology to organizations outside of the Navy. It was an opportunity for private industry to capitalize on the Navy developed technology and this opening for industry was the primary focus of the Transfair. The event provided a unique forum to meet leading Navy scientific and engineering innovators face-to-face. Information was available concerning licensing of naval technology that was for sale to the private sector. Further, discussions covered opportunities for new cooperative research and development agreements with Navy laboratories and R&D activities. These agreements were authorized under the Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986. The Transfair program was conducted in such a manner as to allow each Navy inventor, either scientist or engineer, to present a system, piece of hardware, or licensable concept in a formal paper presentation. Then, the Navy inventors were available in two, two-hour periods in which individual discussions were conducted, with attendees pursuing specific venues of cooperative agreements as desired. This report provides specifics concerning the technologies that were made available for transfer to the private sector during the Transfair. The Transfair concept sought to add special emphasis to the opening that the 1988 Technology Transfer Act brought to the marketplace. The experience was a step in the education of the possibilities for cooperation between the government and the private sector to share technology. Of additional significance is the economic enhancement for business expansion with the application of the technology to markets beyond defense.

  5. OPEC and lower oil prices: Impacts on production capacity, export refining, domestic demand and trade balances

    SciTech Connect

    Fesharaki, F.; Fridley, D.; Isaak, D.; Totto, L.; Wilson, T.

    1988-12-01

    The East-West Center has received a research grant from the US Department of Energy's Office of Policy, Planning, and Analysis to study the impact of lower oil prices on OPEC production capacity, on export refineries, and petroleum trade. The project was later extended to include balance-of-payments scenarios and impacts on OPEC domestic demand. As the study progressed, a number of preliminary presentations were made at the US Department of Energy in order to receive feedback from DOE officials and to refine the focus of our analysis. During one of the presentations on June 4, 1987, the then Director of Division of Oil and Gas, John Stanley-Miller, advised us to focus our work on the Persian Gulf countries, since these countries were of special interest to the United States Government. Since then, our team has visited Iran, the United Arab Emirates, and Saudi Arabia and obtained detailed information from other countries. The political turmoil in the Gulf, the Iran/Iraq war, and the active US military presence have all worked to delay the final submission of our report. Even in countries where the United States has close ties, access to information has been difficult. In most countries, even mundane information on petroleum issues are treated as national secrets. As a result of these difficulties, we requested a one-year no cost extension to the grant and submitted an Interim Report in May 1988. As part of our grant extension request, we proposed to undertake additional tasks which appear in this report. 20 figs., 21 tabs.

  6. Association of indoor nitrogen dioxide with respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in children

    SciTech Connect

    Neas, L.M.; Dockery, D.W.; Ware, J.H.; Spengler, J.D.; Speizer, F.E.; Ferris, B.G. Jr. )

    1991-07-15

    The effect of indoor nitrogen dioxide on the cumulative incidence of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function level was studied in a cohort of 1,567 white children aged 7-11 years examined in six US cities from 1983 through 1988. Week-long measurements of nitrogen dioxide were obtained at three indoor locations over 2 consecutive weeks in both the winter and the summer months. The household annual average nitrogen dioxide concentration was modeled as a continuous variable and as four ordered categories. Multiple logistic regression analysis of symptom reports from a questionnaire administered after indoor monitoring showed that a 15-ppb increase in the household annual nitrogen dioxide mean was associated with an increased cumulative incidence of lower respiratory symptoms (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (95% Cl) 1.1-1.7). The response variable indicated the report of one or more of the following symptoms: attacks of shortness of breath with wheeze, chronic wheeze, chronic cough, chronic phlegm, or bronchitis. Girls showed a stronger association (OR = 1.7, 95% Cl 1.3-2.2) than did boys (OR = 1.2, 95% Cl 0.9-1.5). An analysis of pulmonary function measurements showed no consistent effect of nitrogen dioxide. These results are consistent with earlier reports based on categorical indicators of household nitrogen dioxide sources and provide a more specific association with nitrogen dioxide as measured in children's homes.

  7. Graphical User Interface Color Display Animation Interaction Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    1999-10-05

    The Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA) is a highly flexible graphical user interface for displaying the results of a calculation, typically generated by RELAP5 or other code. This display consists of one or more picture, called masks, that mimic the host code input. This mask can be animated to display user-specified code output information mapped as colors, dials, moving arrows, etc., on the mask. The user can also interact with the control systems of the hostmore » input file as the execution progresses, thereby controlling aspects of the calculation. The Computer Visual System (CVS) creates, edits, and animates the the masks for use in the NPA.« less

  8. final ERI-2142 18-1501 Analysis of Potential Effects on Domestic Industries of DOE Excess Uranium Inventory 2015-2024.docx

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ERI-2142.18-1501 Analysis of the Potential Effects on the Domestic Uranium Mining, Conversion and Enrichment Industries of the Introduction of DOE Excess Uranium Inventory During CY 2015 Through 2024 ENERGY RESOURCES INTERNATIONAL, INC. 1015 18 th Street, NW, Suite 650 Washington, DC 20036 USA Telephone: (202) 785-8833 Facsimile: (202) 785-8834 ERI-2142.18-1501 Analysis of the Potential Effects on the Domestic Uranium Mining, Conversion and Enrichment Industries of the Introduction of DOE

  9. Investigation of formation of nitrogen compounds in coal combustion. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, D.W.; Crane, I.D.; Wendt, J.O.L.

    1983-10-01

    This is the final report on DOE contract number DE-AC21-80MC14061. It concerns the formation of nitrogen oxide from fuel-bound nitrogen during coal combustion. The work reported was divided into three tasks. They addressed problems of time-resolving pyrolysis rates of coal under simulated combustion conditions, the combustion of the tar that results from such pyrolysis, and theoretical modeling of the pyrolysis process. In all of these tasks, special attention was devoted to the fate of coal nitrogen. The first two tasks were performed by Exxon Research and Engineering Company. 49 references.

  10. The nature of fluctuations in a double arc argon-nitrogen plasma jet

    SciTech Connect

    Tu Xin; Yan Jianhua; Yu Liang; Cen, Kefa; Cheron, Bruno

    2007-09-24

    The dynamic behavior of the double arc argon-nitrogen plasma jet is investigated by combined means of the fast Fourier transform, correlation function, and Wigner distribution. The restrike mode is identified as the fluctuation behavior in an argon-nitrogen plasma jet. The Fourier spectra exhibit two characteristic frequencies of 150 Hz and 4.1 kHz, which indicates that the nature of fluctuations in the double arc argon-nitrogen plasma can be ascribed to the power supply undulation and both arc roots motion on the anode channels. It is further found that the double anode torch could inhibit and reduce the restrike phenomenon.

  11. Indriect Measurement Of Nitrogen In A Mult-Component Natural Gas By Heating The Gas

    DOEpatents

    Morrow, Thomas B.; Behring, II, Kendricks A.

    2004-06-22

    Methods of indirectly measuring the nitrogen concentration in a natural gas by heating the gas. In two embodiments, the heating energy is correlated to the speed of sound in the gas, the diluent concentrations in the gas, and constant values, resulting in a model equation. Regression analysis is used to calculate the constant values, which can then be substituted into the model equation. If the diluent concentrations other than nitrogen (typically carbon dioxide) are known, the model equation can be solved for the nitrogen concentration.

  12. Nitrogen fertilization challenges the climate benefit of cellulosic biofuels

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Ruan, Leilei; Bhardwaj, Ajay K.; Hamilton, Stephen K.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2016-06-01

    Cellulosic biofuels are intended to improve future energy and climate security. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer is commonly recommended to stimulate yields but can increase losses of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) and other forms of reactive N, including nitrate. We measured soil N2O emissions and nitrate leaching along a switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) high resolution N-fertilizer gradient for three years post-establishment. Results revealed an exponential increase in annual N2O emissions that each year became stronger (R2 > 0.9, P < 0.001) and deviated further from the fixed percentage assumed for IPCC Tier 1 emission factors. Concomitantly, switchgrass yields became less responsivemore » each year to N fertilizer. Nitrate leaching (and calculated indirect N2O emissions) also increased exponentially in response to N inputs, but neither methane (CH4) uptake nor soil organic carbon changed detectably. Overall, N fertilizer inputs at rates greater than crop need curtailed the climate benefit of ethanol production almost two-fold, from a maximum mitigation capacity of–5.71 ± 0.22 Mg CO2e ha–1 yr–1 in switchgrass fertilized at 56 kgNha–1 to only –2.97 ± 0.18 MgCO2e ha–1 yr–1 in switchgrass fertilized at 196 kgNha–1. In conclusion, minimizing N fertilizer use will be an important strategy for fully realizing the climate benefits of cellulosic biofuel production.« less

  13. Nitrogen Deposition to and Cycling in a Deciduous Forest

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Pryor, Sara C.; Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Carreiro, Margaret; Davis, Melissa L.; Hartley, Anne; Jensen, Bjame; Oliphant, Andrew; Randolph, Melissa J. C.; Schoof, Justin T.

    2001-01-01

    The project described here seeks to answer questions regarding the role increased nitrogen (N) deposition is playing in enhanced carbon (C) sequestration in temperate mid-latitude forests, using detailed measurements from an AmeriFlux tower in southern Indiana (Morgan-Monroe State Forest, or MMSF). The measurements indicate an average atmosphere-surface N flux of approximately 6 mg-N m -2 day -1 during the 2000 growing season, with approximately 40% coming from dry deposition of ammonia (NH 3 ), nitric acid (HNO 3 ), and particle-bound N. Wet deposition and throughfall measurements indicate significant canopy uptake of N (particularly NH 4 +) at themore » site, leading to a net canopy exchange (NCE) of –6 kg-N ha -1 for the growing season. These data are used in combination with data on the aboveground C:N ratio, litterfall flux, and soil net N mineralization rates to indicate the level of potential perturbation of C sequestration at this site.« less

  14. Indoor nitrogen dioxide in five Chattangooga, Tennessee public housing developments

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhurst, W.J.; Harper, J.P. ); Spengler, J.D.; Fraumeni, L.P.; Majahad, A.M. ); Cropp, J.W. )

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes an indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) sampling study conducted during January through March of 1987 in five Chattanooga public housing developments. The origins of this study date to the summer of 1983 when the Piney Woods Community Organization (a citizens action group) expressed concern about toxic industrial air pollution and the effects it might have on their community. In response to these concerns, the Chattanooga-Hamilton County Air Pollution Control Bureau (Bureau) requested assistance from the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) in conducting a community health survey and assistance from the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in conducting a community air quality measurement program. The TDHE community health study did not find any significant differences between the mortality statistics for the Piney Woods community and a demographically similar control group. However, a health survey revealed that Piney Woods residents did not have a statistically significant higher self-reported prevalence of cough, wheezing, phlegm, breathlessness, colds, and respiratory illness.

  15. Sources and transport of nitrogen in arid urban watersheds

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, Rebecca L.; Turnbull, Laura; Earl, Stevan; Grimm, Nancy B.; Riha, Krystin M.; Michalski, Greg; Lohse, Kathleen; Childers, Daniel L.

    2014-06-03

    Urban watersheds are often sources of nitrogen (N) to downstream systems, contributing to poor water quality. However, it is unknown which components (e.g., land cover and stormwater infrastructure type) of urban watersheds contribute to N export and which may be sites of retention. In this study we investigated which watershed characteristics control N sourcing, biogeochemical processing of nitrate (NO3–) during storms, and the amount of rainfall N that is retained within urban watersheds. We used triple isotopes of NO3– (δ15N, δ18O, and Δ17O) to identify sources and transformations of NO3– during storms from 10 nested arid urban watersheds that varied in stormwater infrastructure type and drainage area. Stormwater infrastructure and land cover—retention basins, pipes, and grass cover—dictated the sourcing of NO3– in runoff. Urban watersheds can be strong sinks or sources of N to stormwater depending on the proportion of rainfall that leaves the watershed as runoff, but we found no evidence that denitrification occurred during storms. Our results suggest that watershed characteristics control the sources and transport of inorganic N in urban stormwater but that retention of inorganic N at the timescale of individual runoff events is controlled by hydrologic, rather than biogeochemical, mechanisms.

  16. Reduction of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions for lean Burn Engine Technology

    SciTech Connect

    McGill, R.N.

    1998-08-04

    Lean-burn engines offer the potential for significant fuel economy improvements in cars and trucks, perhaps the next great breakthrough in automotive technology that will enable greater savings in imported petroleum. The development of lean-burn engines, however, has been an elusive goal among automakers because of the emissions challenges associated with lead-burn engine technology. Presently, cars operate with sophisticated emissions control systems that require the engine's air-fuel ratio to be carefully controlled around the stoichiometric point (chemically correct mixture). Catalysts in these systems are called "three-way" catalysts because they can reduce hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions simultaneously, but only because of the tight control of the air-fuel ratio. The purpose of this cooperative effort is to develop advanced catalyst systems, materials, and necessary engine control algorithms for reducing NOX emissions in oxygen-rich automotive exhaust (as with lean-burn engine technology) to meet current and near-future mandated Clean Air Act standards. These developments will represent a breakthrough in both emission control technology and automobile efficiency. The total project is a joint effort among five national laboratories, together with US CAR. The role of Lockheed-Martin Energy Systems in the total project is two fold: characterization of catalyst performance through laboratory evaluations from bench-scale flow reactor tests to engine laboratory tests of full-scale prototype catalysts, and microstructural characterization of catalyst material before and after test stand and/or engine testing.

  17. Nitrogen Fertilization Effects on Productivity and Nitrogen Loss in Three Grass-Based Perennial Bioenergy Cropping Systems

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Duran, Brianna E. L.; Duncan, David S.; Oates, Lawrence G.; Kucharik, Christopher J.; Jackson, Randall D.

    2016-03-18

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization can greatly improve plant productivity but needs to be carefully managed to avoid harmful environmental impacts. Nutrient management guidelines aimed at reducing harmful forms of N loss such as nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and nitrate (NO3 -) leaching have been tailored for many cropping systems. The developing bioenergy industry is likely to make use of novel cropping systems, such as polycultures of perennial species, for which we have limited nutrient management experience. We studied how a switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) monoculture, a 5-species native grass mixture and an 18- species restored prairie responded to annual fertilizer applications ofmore » 56 kg N ha-1 in a fieldscale agronomic trial in south-central Wisconsin over a 2-year period.We observed greater fertilizer-induced N2O emissions and sub-rooting zone NO3 - concentrations in the switchgrass monoculture than in either polyculture. Fertilization increased aboveground net primary productivity in the polycultures, but not in the switchgrass monoculture. Switchgrass was generally more productive, while the two polycultures did not differ from each other in productivity or N loss. In conclusion, our results highlight differences between polycultures and a switchgrass monoculture in responding to N fertilization.« less

  18. Evidence for foliar endophytic nitrogen fixation in a widely distributed subalpine conifer

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Moyes, Andrew B.; Kueppers, Lara M.; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Carper, Dana L.; Vandehey, Nick; O'Neil, James; Frank, A. Carolin

    2016-02-01

    Coniferous forest nitrogen (N) budgets indicate unknown sources of N. A consistent association between limber pine (Pinus flexilis) and potential N2-fixing acetic acid bacteria (AAB) indicates that native foliar endophytes may supply subalpine forests with N.

  19. Incidence of High Nitrogen in Sintered Uranium Dioxide: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Balakrishna, Palanki; Murty, B. Narasimha; Anuradha, M.; Yadav, R.B.; Jayaraj, R.N

    2005-05-15

    Nitrogen content, above the specified limit of 75 {mu}g(gU){sup -1}, was encountered in sintered uranium dioxide in the course of its manufacture. The cause was traced to the sintering process, wherein carbon, a degradation product of the die wall or admixed lubricant, was retained in the compact as a result of inadvertent reversal of gas flow in the sintering furnace. In the presence of carbon, the uranium dioxide reacted with nitrogen from the furnace atmosphere to form nitride. The compacts with high nitrogen were also those with low sintered density, arising from low green density. The low green density was due to filling problems of an inhomogeneous powder. The experiments carried out establish the causes of high nitrogen to be the carbon residue from lubricant when the UO{sub 2} is sintered in a cracked ammonia atmosphere.

  20. Modifications of Superconducting Properties of Niobium Caused by Nitrogen Doping Recipes for High Q Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Vostrikov, Alexander; Checchin, Mattia; Grassellino, Anna; Kim, Young-Kee; Romanenko, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    A study is presented on the superconducting properties of niobium used for the fabrication of the SRF cavities after treating by recently discovered nitrogen doping methods. Cylindrical niobium samples have been subjected to the standard surface treatments applied to the cavities (electro-polishing, l 20°C bake) and compared with samples treated by additional nitrogen doping recipes routinely used to reach ultra-high quality factor values (>3· 1010 at 2 K, 16 MV/m). The DC magnetization curves and the complex magnetic AC susceptibility have been measured. Evidence for the lowered field of first flux penetration after nitrogen doping is found suggesting a correlation with the lowered quench fields. Superconducting critical temperatures Tc = 9.25 K are found to be in agreement with previous measurements, and no strong effect on the critical surface field (Bd) from nitrogen doping was found.

  1. Terra Nitrogen Company, L.P.: Ammonia Plant Greatly Reduces Natural...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Terra Nitrogen Company, L.P.: Ammonia Plant Greatly Reduces Natural Gas Consumption After Energy Assessment (October 2007) (497.87 KB) More Documents & Publications J.R. Simplot: ...

  2. Fast nanoscale addressability of nitrogen-vacancy spins via coupling to a dynamic ferromagnetic vortex

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Wolf, M. S.; Badea, R.; Berezovsky, J.

    2016-06-14

    The core of a ferromagnetic vortex domain creates a strong, localized magnetic field, which can be manipulated on nanosecond timescales, providing a platform for addressing and controlling individual nitrogen-vacancy centre spins in diamond at room temperature, with nanometre-scale resolution. Here, we show that the ferromagnetic vortex can be driven into proximity with a nitrogen-vacancy defect using small applied magnetic fields, inducing significant nitrogen-vacancy spin splitting. We also find that the magnetic field gradient produced by the vortex is sufficient to address spins separated by nanometre-length scales. By applying a microwave-frequency magnetic field, we drive both the vortex and the nitrogen-vacancymore » spins, resulting in enhanced coherent rotation of the spin state. Lastly, we demonstrate that by driving the vortex on fast timescales, sequential addressing and coherent manipulation of spins is possible on ~ 100 ns timescales.« less

  3. Nitrogen attenuation of terrestrial carbon cycle response to global environmental factors

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Atul; Yang, Xiaojuan; Kheshgi, Haroon; Mcguire, David; Post, Wilfred M

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen cycle dynamics have the capacity to attenuate the magnitude of global terrestrial carbon sinks and sources driven by CO2 fertilization and changes in climate. In this study, two versions of the terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycle components of the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM) are used to evaluate how variation in nitrogen availability influences terrestrial carbon sinks and sources in response to changes over the 20th century in global environmental factors including atmospheric CO2 concentration, nitrogen inputs, temperature, precipitation and land use. The two versions of ISAM vary in their treatment of nitrogen availability: ISAM-NC has a terrestrial carbon cycle model coupled to a fully dynamic nitrogen cycle while ISAM-C has an identical carbon cycle model but nitrogen availability is always in sufficient supply. Overall, the two versions of the model estimate approximately the same amount of global mean carbon uptake over the 20th century. However, comparisons of results of ISAM-NC relative to ISAM-C reveal that nitrogen dynamics: (1) reduced the 1990s carbon sink associated with increasing atmospheric CO2 by 0.53 PgC yr1 (1 Pg = 1015g), (2) reduced the 1990s carbon source associated with changes in temperature and precipitation of 0.34 PgC yr1 in the 1990s, (3) an enhanced sink associated with nitrogen inputs by 0.26 PgC yr1, and (4) enhanced the 1990s carbon source associated with changes in land use by 0.08 PgC yr1 in the 1990s. These effects of nitrogen limitation influenced the spatial distribution of the estimated exchange of CO2 with greater sink activity in high latitudes associated with climate effects and a smaller sink of CO2 in the southeastern United States caused by N limitation associated with both CO2 fertilization and forest regrowth. These results indicate that the dynamics of nitrogen availability are important to consider in assessing the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of terrestrial carbon sources and

  4. Preparation of nanoporous metal foam from high nitrogen transition metal complexes

    DOEpatents

    Tappan, Bryce C.; Huynh, My Hang V.; Hiskey, Michael A.; Son, Steven F.; Oschwald, David M.; Chavez, David E.; Naud, Darren L.

    2006-11-28

    Nanoporous metal foams are prepared by ignition of high nitrogen transition metal complexes. The ammonium salts of iron(III) tris[bi(tetrazolato)-amine], cobalt(III) tris(bi(tetrazolato)amine), and high nitrogen compounds of copper and silver were prepared as loose powders, pressed into pellets and wafers, and ignited under an inert atmosphere to form nanoporous metal foam monoliths having very high surface area and very low density.

  5. Investigations into the chemical structure based selectivity of the microfabricated nitrogen-phosphorus detector

    SciTech Connect

    Brocato, Terisse A.; Hess, Ryan F.; Moorman, Matthew; Simonson, Robert J.

    2015-10-28

    The nitrogen and phosphorus atoms are constituents of some of the most toxic chemical vapors. Nitrogen-phosphorus gas chromatograph detectors (NPDs) rely on selective ionization of such compounds using ionization temperatures typically greater than 600 °C. NPDs have previously been reported to be 7*104× and 105× more sensitive for nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively, than for carbon. Presented here is an investigation of the structure-based selectivity of a microfabricated nitrogen-phosphorus detector (μNPD). The μNPD presented here is smaller than a dime and can be placed in a system that is 1/100th the size of a commercial NPD. Comparison of responses of such devices to homologous anilines (p-methoxyaniline, p-fluoroaniline, and aniline) revealed that detection selectivity, determined by the ratio of μNPD to nonselective flame ionization detector (FID) peak areas, is correlated with acid disassociation pKa values for the respective analine. Selectivity was determined to be greatest for p-methoxyaniline, followed by p-fluoroaniline, with aniline having the smallest response. The limit of detection for a nitrogen containing chemical, p-methoxyaniline, using the μNPD was determined to be 0.29 ng compared to 59 ng for a carbon chemical containing no nitrogen or phosphorus, 1,3,5-trimethybenzene. The μNPD presented here has increased detection for nitrogen and phosphorus compared to the FID and with a slight increase in detection of carbon compounds compared to commercial NPD's sensitivity to nitrogen and carbon.

  6. Investigations into the chemical structure based selectivity of the microfabricated nitrogen-phosphorus detector

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Brocato, Terisse A.; Hess, Ryan F.; Moorman, Matthew; Simonson, Robert J.

    2015-10-28

    The nitrogen and phosphorus atoms are constituents of some of the most toxic chemical vapors. Nitrogen-phosphorus gas chromatograph detectors (NPDs) rely on selective ionization of such compounds using ionization temperatures typically greater than 600 °C. NPDs have previously been reported to be 7*104× and 105× more sensitive for nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively, than for carbon. Presented here is an investigation of the structure-based selectivity of a microfabricated nitrogen-phosphorus detector (μNPD). The μNPD presented here is smaller than a dime and can be placed in a system that is 1/100th the size of a commercial NPD. Comparison of responses of suchmore » devices to homologous anilines (p-methoxyaniline, p-fluoroaniline, and aniline) revealed that detection selectivity, determined by the ratio of μNPD to nonselective flame ionization detector (FID) peak areas, is correlated with acid disassociation pKa values for the respective analine. Selectivity was determined to be greatest for p-methoxyaniline, followed by p-fluoroaniline, with aniline having the smallest response. The limit of detection for a nitrogen containing chemical, p-methoxyaniline, using the μNPD was determined to be 0.29 ng compared to 59 ng for a carbon chemical containing no nitrogen or phosphorus, 1,3,5-trimethybenzene. The μNPD presented here has increased detection for nitrogen and phosphorus compared to the FID and with a slight increase in detection of carbon compounds compared to commercial NPD's sensitivity to nitrogen and carbon.« less

  7. Reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from fossil fuels. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of nitrogen compounds from fossil fuels and their post-combustion emissions. Removal methods include biological denitrification, fluidized bed combustion, and flue gas denitrification. Applications to utilities, petroleum refineries, and other industries are presented. The design of nitrogen control systems and process optimization are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  8. Reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from fossil fuels. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of nitrogen compounds from fossil fuels and their post-combustion emissions. Removal methods include biological denitrification, fluidized bed combustion, and flue gas denitrification. Applications to utilities, petroleum refineries, and other industries are presented. The design of nitrogen control systems and process optimization are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  9. Reaction chemistry of nitrogen species in hydrothermal systems: Simple reactions, waste simulants, and actual wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Dell`Orco, P.; Luan, L.; Proesmans, P.; Wilmanns, E.

    1995-02-01

    Results are presented from hydrothermal reaction systems containing organic components, nitrogen components, and an oxidant. Reaction chemistry observed in simple systems and in simple waste simulants is used to develop a model which presents global nitrogen chemistry in these reactive systems. The global reaction path suggested is then compared with results obtained for the treatment of an actual waste stream containing only C-N-0-H species.

  10. ITP Steel: Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations ITP Steel: Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations casting_ops.pdf (875.11 KB) More Documents & Publications Steel Industry Technology Roadmap ITP Steel: Energy and Environmental Profile fo the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry ITP Metal Casting: Advanced Melting Technologies: Energy Saving Concepts and Opportunities for the Metal Casting Industry

  11. Mechanisms controlling soil carbon sequestration under atmospheric nitrogen deposition

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Sinsabaugh; D.R. Zak; D.L. Moorhead

    2008-02-19

    Increased atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition can alter the processing and storage of organic carbon in soils. In 2000, we began studying the effects of simulated atmospheric N deposition on soil carbon dynamics in three types of northern temperate forest that occur across a wide geographic range in the Upper Great Lakes region. These ecosystems range from 100% oak in the overstory (black oak-white oak ecosystem; BOWO) to 0% overstory oak (sugar maple-basswood; SMBW) and include the sugar maple-red oak ecosystem (SMRO) that has intermediate oak abundance. The leaf litter biochemistry of these ecosystems range from highly lignified litter (BOWO) to litter of low lignin content (SMBW). We selected three replicate stands of each ecosystem type and established three plots in each stand. Each plot was randomly assigned one of three levels of N deposition (0, 30 & 80 kg N ha-1 y-1) imposed by adding NaNO3 in six equal increments applied over the growing season. Through experiments ranging from the molecular to the ecosystem scales, we produced a conceptual framework that describes the biogeochemistry of soil carbon storage in N-saturated ecosystems as the product of interactions between the composition of plant litter, the composition of the soil microbial community and the expression of extracellular enzyme activities. A key finding is that atmospheric N deposition can increase or decrease the soil C storage by modifying the expression of extracellular enzymes by soil microbial communities. The critical interactions within this conceptual framework have been incorporated into a new class of simulations called guild decomposition models.

  12. Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by DRI (TRP 0009)

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Gordon A. Irons

    2004-03-31

    Nitrogen is difficult to remove in electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking, requiring the use of more energy in the oxygen steelmaking route to produce low-nitrogen steel. The objective of this work was to determine if the injection of directly reduced iron (DRI) fines into EAFs could reduce the nitrogen content by creating fine carbon monoxide bubbles that rinse nitrogen from the steel. The proposed work included physical and chemical characterization of DRI fines, pilot-scale injection into steel, and mathematical modeling to aid in scale-up of the process. Unfortunately, the pilot-scale injections were unsuccessful, but some full-scale data was obtained. Therefore, the original objectives were met, and presented in the form of recommendations to EAF steelmakers regarding: (1) The best composition and size of DRI fines to use; (2) The amount of DRI fines required to achieve a specific reduction in nitrogen content in the steel; and (3) The injection conditions. This information may be used by steelmakers in techno-economic assessments of the cost of reducing nitrogen with this technology.

  13. Organic and nitrogen removal from landfill leachate in aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Yanjie; Ji Min; Li Ruying; Qin Feifei

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aerobic granular sludge SBR was used to treat real landfill leachate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer COD removal was analyzed kinetically using a modified model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characteristics of nitrogen removal at different ammonium inputs were explored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DO variations were consistent with the GSBR performances at low ammonium inputs. - Abstract: Granule sequencing batch reactors (GSBR) were established for landfill leachate treatment, and the COD removal was analyzed kinetically using a modified model. Results showed that COD removal rate decreased as influent ammonium concentration increasing. Characteristics of nitrogen removal at different influent ammonium levels were also studied. When the ammonium concentration in the landfill leachate was 366 mg L{sup -1}, the dominant nitrogen removal process in the GSBR was simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND). Under the ammonium concentration of 788 mg L{sup -1}, nitrite accumulation occurred and the accumulated nitrite was reduced to nitrogen gas by the shortcut denitrification process. When the influent ammonium increased to a higher level of 1105 mg L{sup -1}, accumulation of nitrite and nitrate lasted in the whole cycle, and the removal efficiencies of total nitrogen and ammonium decreased to only 35.0% and 39.3%, respectively. Results also showed that DO was a useful process controlling parameter for the organics and nitrogen removal at low ammonium input.

  14. Animal and industrial waste anaerobic digestion: USA status report

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Pollutants from unmanaged animal and bio-based industrial wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing wastes may contribute to global climate change. One waste management system prevents pollution and converts a disposal problem into a new profit center. Case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of animal and industrial wastes is a commercially available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel. Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities to properly dispose of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Beyond the farm, extension of the anaerobic digestion process to recover methane has considerable potential for certain classified industries - with a waste stream characterization similar to livestock manures. More than 35 example industries have been identified, and include processors of chemicals, fiber, food, meat, milk, and pharmaceuticals. Some of these industries already recover methane for energy. This status report examines some current opportunities for recovering methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal and industrial wastes in the US. Case studies of operating digesters, including project and maintenance histories, and the operator`s {open_quotes}lessons learned,{close_quotes} are included as a reality check. Factors necessary for successful projects, as well as a list of reasons explaining why some anaerobic digestion projects fail, are provided. The role of management is key; not only must digesters be well engineered and built with high-quality components, they must also be sited at facilities willing to incorporate the uncertainties of a new technology. Anaerobic digestion can provide monetary benefits and mitigate possible pollution problems, thereby sustaining development while maintaining environmental quality.

  15. Development of a gas backup heater for solar domestic hot-water systems. Final report, April 1978-April 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, D.J.; Grunes, H.E.; de Winter, F.; Armstrong, P.R.

    1980-06-01

    A comprehensive program was undertaken to develop a unique gas fired backup for solar domestic hot water systems. Detailed computer design tools were written. A series of heat transfer experiments were performed to characterize the performance of individual components. A full scale engineering prototype, including the solar preheat tank and solar heat exchanger, was designed, fabricated and subjected to limited testing. Firing efficiency for the backup system was found to be 81.4% at a firing rate of 50,000 Btu/h. Long term standby losses should be negligible.

  16. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory - Touch An Animal Day 2016

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Return to Photo Album Savannah River Ecology Laboratory's 8th Annual "Touch An Animal Day!" August 20, 2016 Once again a fun day was had by all! Click on an image for a larger view. Special thanks to the following individuals for their help with this event: Matt Baker Dr. I. Lehr Brisbin Dr. Kurt Buhlmann Joseph Colbert Zoë Cooper Fanny Coutelot Mackenzie Dix Carol Eldridge Larry Eldridge Dean Fletcher Wes Flynn Dr. Whit Gibbons Judy Greene-McLeod Matt Hamilton David Keiter Linda Lee

  17. Methane recovery from animal manures: A current opportunities casebook

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures US livestock operations currently employ four types of anaerobic digester technology: Slurry, plug flow, complete mix, and covered lagoon. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, and possible end-use applications for the methane gas generated by the digestion process are discussed. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations.

  18. Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel Miller

    2009-03-25

    The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report

  19. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    John M. Sweeten, Kalyan Annamalai Brent Auvermann Saqib Mukhtar Sergio C. Capareda Cady Engler Wyatte Harman J.N. Reddy, Robert DeOtte David B. Parker Dr. B.A. Stewart

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the 'Cattle Feeding Capital of the World', producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco - the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category 1

  20. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeten, John M; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C.; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B.; Stewart, B. A.

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the "Cattle Feeding Capital of the World", producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco -- the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category 1

  1. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeten, John; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B; Stewart, B A

    2012-05-02

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the "Cattle Feeding Capital of the World", producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure /year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco—the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category 1

  2. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyan Annamalai, John M. Sweeten, Brent W. Auvermann, Saqib Mukhtar, Sergio Caperada Cady R. Engler, Wyatte Harman Reddy JN Robert Deotte

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the 'Cattle Feeding Capital of the World', producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco - the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category 1

  3. The biology of novel animal genes: Mouse APEX gene knockout

    SciTech Connect

    MacInnes, M.; Altherr, M.R.; Ludwig, D.; Pedersen, R.; Mold, C.

    1997-07-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The controlled breeding of novel genes into mice, including the gene knockout (KO), or conversely by adding back transgenes provide powerful genetic technologies that together suffice to determine in large part the biological role(s) of novel genes. Inbred mouse remains the best understood and most useful mammalian experimental system available for tackling the biology of novel genes. The major mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease (APE), is involved in a key step in the repair of spontaneous and induced AP sites in DNA. Efficient repair of these lesions is imperative to prevent the stable incorporation of mutations into the cellular genome which may lead to cell death or transformation. Loss or modulation of base excison repair activity in vivo may elevate the spontaneous mutation rate in cells, and may lead to a substantial increase in the incidence of cancer. Despite extensive biochemical analysis, however, the significance of these individual APE functions in vivo has not been elucidated. Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells heterozygous for a deletion mutation in APE have been generated and whole animals containing the APE mutation have been derived from these ES cells. Animals homozygous for the APE null mutation die early in gestation, underscoring the biological significance of this DNA repair gene.

  4. Small animal electric and magnetic field exposure systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, R.C.; Dietrich, F.M.

    1993-10-01

    Laboratory evaluation of electric and magnetic fields (EMF) and cancer in animals requires exposure of relatively large numbers of animals, usually rats or mice, to 60-Hz fields under very well controlled conditions for periods of up to two years. This report describes two exposure systems, the first of which is based on modifications of an existing electric field exposure system to include magnetic field exposure capability. In this system, each module houses 576--768 mice, which can be exposed to electric field levels of up to 100 kV/m and magnetic field levels of up to 10 Gauss. When a module was operated at 10 Gauss, measured levels of noise and vibration fell substantially below the detection threshold for humans. Moreover, temperature rise in the coils did not exceed 12{degrees}C at the 10 Gauss level. Specifications and test results for the second system, which provides magnetic field exposure capability only, are similar, except that each module houses 624--780 mice. After installation of the second system at the West Los Angeles Veterans Medical Center in Los Angeles, California, additional results were obtained. This report provides a complete description of the engineering design, specifications, and test results for the completed systems.

  5. A program to develop the domestic natural gas industry in Indonesia: Case history of two World Bank projects

    SciTech Connect

    Klass, D.L. ); Khwaja, S. )

    1991-01-01

    Indonesia depends heavily on revenues from the export of LNG and oil, the availability of which appears to be decreasing. It is therefore making a strong effort to accelerate development of a domestic natural gas industry. A high priority has been given to the conversion of power plants and city gas systems, including local industries and commercial facilities, from liquid fuels to natural gas. This will release more oil for export, help to meet the objectives of Repelita V, and provide substantial environmental benefits. The World Bank recently provided loans to the Indonesian Government for two projects that are aimed at substituting natural gas for oil and manufactured gas in domestic markets. One project involves expansion of the gas distribution systems of Indonesia's natural gas utility (PGN) in three cities: Jakarta and Bogor in Java, and Medan in Sumatra. The project also includes training programs for PGN staff and an energy pricing policy study to be carried out by Indonesia's Ministry of Mines and Energy. The second project involves expansion of the supply of natural gas for Surabaya and twelve other towns in its vicinity in East Java, and further expansion of Medan's supply system. Technical assistance will be provided to enhance the skills ofPGN and the Ministry of Mines and Energy, and a Gas Technology Unit similar to the Institute of Gas Technology will be established at Indonesia's Research and Development Center for Oil and Gas (LEMIGAS) in Jakarta. 14 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN INDUSTRY-DRIVEN CONSORTIUM FOCUSED ON IMPROVING THE PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE OF DOMESTIC STRIPPER WELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison

    2004-05-17

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory will establish, promote, and manage a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that will be focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the U.S. petroleum and natural gas industries and trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the thirteenth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period included: (1) hosting three fall technology transfer meetings in Wyoming, Texas, and Pennsylvania, (2) releasing the 2004 SWC request-for-proposal (RFP), and (3) initial planning of the SWC spring meeting in Golden Colorado for selecting the 2004 SWC projects. The Fall technology transfer meetings attracted 100+ attendees between the three workshops. The SWC membership which attended the Casper, Wyoming workshop was able to see several SWC-funded projects operating in the field at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center. The SWC is nearing the end of its initial funding cycle. The Consortium has a solid membership foundation and a demonstrated ability to review and select projects that have relevancy to meet the needs of domestic stripper well operators.

  7. Video, Animation, and Audio Requirements for the Web | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Websites & Digital Media » Video, Animation, and Audio Requirements for the Web Video, Animation, and Audio Requirements for the Web When producing videos, animations, and audio for the Web, consider the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE's) visual and technical requirements. Learn about EERE's requirements for: Videos Animations Audio files Quality assurance checklists To comply with Section 508 requirements, these media require text versions. Communication Standards

  8. Methane Recovery from Animal Manures The Current Opportunities Casebook

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.

    1998-09-22

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities for the proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Pollutants from unmanaged livestock wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing manure may contribute to global climate change. One management system not only helps prevent pollution but can also convert a manure problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially viable conversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This casebook examines some of the current opportunities for recovering methane from anaerobic digestion animal manures.

  9. Methane recovery from animal manures: A current opportunities casebook

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.

    1994-12-01

    One manure management system provides not only pollution prevention but also converts a manure management problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially-available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable co-products including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations. Finally, anaerobic digestion has considerable potential beyond agribusiness. Examples of digesters currently employed by other industries are provided.

  10. Bioconversion of animal manure into electricity and a liquid fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J.R.; Iannotti, E.L.; Stahl, T.; Garcia, A. III; Harris, F.D.

    1983-01-01

    The integrated farm energy system operating at Columbia, Missouri converted animal manure into thermal and electrical energy and a liquid fuel. An anaerobic digester converted 510 kg of volatile solids into 285 m/sup 3/ of biogas consisting of 55% methane. An internal combustion engine coupled to an electrical generator produced 408 kWh/day of electricity and 3 GJ/day of thermal energy. An ethanol production plant converted thermal and electrical energy into 85 liters of ethanol. Subtracting the thermal and electrical demands of the digester and ethanol plant, the system produced a net energy of 277 kWh of electricity, 750 MJ of thermal energy and 85 liters of ethanol. 9 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  11. Effect of nitrogen-containing groups on enhanced capacitive behaviors of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ji-Il; Park, Soo-Jin

    2011-08-15

    In this work, electrochemical properties of surface treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are studied in supercapacitors. Nitrogen and oxygen functional groups containing MWNTs are prepared by urea and acidic treatments, respectively. The surface properties of the MWNTs are confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and zeta-potential measurements. The textural properties are characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherm at 77 K using the BET eqaution, BJH method, and HK method. The electrochemical properties of the MWNTs are accumulated by cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectra, and charge-discharge cycling performance in 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at room temperature. As a result, the functionalized MWNTs lead to an increase in capacitance as compared with pristine MWNTs. It suggests that the pyridinic and pyridinic-N-oxides nitrogen species have effects on the specific capacitance due to the positive charge, and thus an improved electron transfer at high current loads results, the most important functional groups affecting capacitive behaviors. - Graphical Abstract: The N{sub 1s} spectra of nitrogen functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes are measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Highlights: > Facile method of increasing elemental composition of nitrogen functional groups on carbon materials. > Increased specific capacitance multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) for electrode materials as high as general chemical activation process. > Enhanced capacitive behaviors via introducing pyridinic and pyridinic-N-oxides nitrogen species onto the MWNTs. > Improvement of electron transfer at high current loads.

  12. Production and characterization of a nitrogen-implanted Fe standard to calibrate PIGE measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, C. L.; Silva, T. F.; Added, N.; Santos, H. C.; Tabacniks, M. H.

    2014-11-11

    Three calibration standard was produced by ion implantation of nitrogen in samples of Armco iron (99.7% iron). The samples was irradiated with nitrogen ion beams at several different energies (between 4 keV and 40 keV), and the ion doses were adjusted to obtain an uniform depth profile, using simulations with SRIM code. Two standards, one thick and other a foil (1.62mg/cm{sup 2}), was irradiated at same time with total nominal dose of 6.6×10{sup −16} atoms/cm{sup 2} distributed in a region of 100 nm in depth, with an average concentration of 9.0% nitrogen in iron. The third sample uses the same profile, but with a small dose, 1.1×10{sup −16} atoms/cm{sup 2} and average concentration of 1.5% nitrogen. The characterization of the implanted samples was done using RBS and NRA techniques to quantification of nitrogen.

  13. Low temperature combustion using nitrogen enrichment to mitigate NOx from large bore natural gas fueled engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Biruduganti, M.; Gupta, S.; Sekar, R.; Energy Systems

    2010-01-01

    Low temperature combustion is identified as one of the pathways to meet the mandatory ultra low NO{sub x} emissions levels set by the regulatory agencies. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a well known technique to realize low NO{sub x} emissions. However, EGR has many built-in adverse ramifications that negate its advantages in the long term. This paper discusses nitrogen enrichment of intake air using air separation membranes as a better alternative to the mature EGR technique. This investigation was undertaken to determine the maximum acceptable level of nitrogen enrichment of air for a single-cylinder spark-ignited natural gas engine. NO{sub x} reduction as high as 70% was realized with a modest 2% nitrogen enrichment while maintaining power density and simultaneously improving fuel conversion efficiency (FCE). Any enrichment beyond this level degraded engine performance in terms of power density, FCE, and unburned hydrocarbon emissions. The effect of ignition timing was also studied with and without N{sub 2} enrichment. Finally, lean burn versus stoichiometric operation utilizing nitrogen enrichment was compared. Analysis showed that lean burn operation along with nitrogen enrichment is one of the effective pathways for realizing better FCE and lower NO{sub x} emissions.

  14. Electride support boosts nitrogen dissociation over ruthenium catalyst and shifts the bottleneck in ammonia synthesis

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Kitano, Masaaki; Kanbara, Shinji; Inoue, Yasunori; Kuganathan, Navaratnarajah; Sushko, Peter V.; Yokoyama, Toshiharu; Hara, Michikazu; Hosono, Hideo

    2015-03-30

    We actively sough novel approaches to efficient ammonia synthesis at an ambient pressure so as to reduce the cost of ammonia production and to allow for compact production facilities. It is accepted that the key is the development of a high-performance catalyst that significantly enhances dissociation of the nitrogen-nitrogen triple bond, which is generally considered a rate-determining step. Here we examine the kinetics of nitrogen and hydrogen isotope exchange and hydrogen adsorption/desorption reactions for a recently discovered efficient catalyst for ammonia synthesis --ruthenium-loaded 12CaO∙7AI2O3 electride (Ru/C12A7:more » $$\\bar{e}$$ )--and find that the rate controlling step of ammonia synthesis over Ru/C12A7:$$\\bar{e}$$ is not dissociation of the nitrogen-nitrogen triple bond but the subsequent formation of N-Hn species. A mechanism of ammonia synthesis involving reversible storage and release of hydrogen atoms on the Ru/C12A7:$$\\bar{e}$$ surface is proposed on the basis of observed hydrogen adsorption/desorption kinetics.« less

  15. Evaluation of CALPUFF nitrogen deposition modeling in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Area using NADP data

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, M.; Mayes, P.; Sherwell, J.

    1998-12-31

    The CALMET/CALPUFF modeling system has been used to estimate nitrogen deposition in an area surrounding Baltimore and the northern portion of the Chesapeake Bay. Comprehensive NO{sub x} emissions inventories and meteorological data bases have been developed to conduct the modeling. This paper discusses the results of an evaluation of predicted nitrogen wet deposition rates compared to measured rates at two NADP/NTN sites in Maryland, Wye and White Rock. Underprediction of wet deposition rates is investigated through the use of sensitivity and diagnostic evaluations of model performance. A suggested change to the calculation of NO{sub x} transformation rates involving an alternative specification of minimum NO{sub x} concentrations was made to CALPUFF and the performance evaluation was re-done. Results of the new evaluation show significantly improved model performance, and therefore the modification is tentatively proposed for use in further applications of CALPUFF to the assessment of nitrogen deposition in the Chesapeake Bay watershed.

  16. Short-range ordering of ion-implanted nitrogen atoms in SiC-graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Willke, P.; Druga, T.; Wenderoth, M.; Amani, J. A.; Weikert, S.; Hofsss, H.; Thakur, S.; Maiti, K.

    2014-09-15

    We perform a structural analysis of nitrogen-doped graphene on SiC(0001) prepared by ultra low-energy ion bombardment. Using scanning tunneling microscopy, we show that nitrogen atoms are incorporated almost exclusively as graphitic substitution in the graphene honeycomb lattice. With an irradiation energy of 25?eV and a fluence of approximately 5??10{sup 14?}cm{sup ?2}, we achieve a nitrogen content of around 1%. By quantitatively comparing the position of the N-atoms in the topography measurements with simulated random distributions, we find statistically significant short-range correlations. Consequently, we are able to show that the dopants arrange preferably at lattice sites given by the 6??6-reconstruction of the underlying substrate. This selective incorporation is most likely triggered by adsorbate layers present during the ion bombardment. This study identifies low-energy ion irradiation as a promising method for controlled doping in epitaxial graphene.

  17. Simultaneous removal of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides from combustion gases

    DOEpatents

    Clay, David T.; Lynn, Scott

    1976-10-19

    A process for the simultaneous removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides from power plant stack gases comprising contacting the stack gases with a supported iron oxide catalyst/absorbent in the presence of sufficient reducing agent selected from the group consisting of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and mixtures thereof, to provide a net reducing atmosphere in the SO.sub.x /NO.sub.x removal zone. The sulfur oxides are removed by absorption substantially as iron sulfide, and nitrogen oxides are removed by catalytic reduction to nitrogen and ammonia. The spent iron oxide catalyst/absorbent is regenerated by oxidation and is recycled to the contacting zone. Sulfur dioxide is also produced during regeneration and can be utilized in the production of sulfuric acid and/or sulfur.

  18. Method of removing oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    A continuous method is presented for removing both oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from combustion or exhaust gases with the regeneration of the absorbent. Exhaust gas is cleaned of particulates and HCl by a water scrub prior to contact with a liquid absorbent that includes an aqueous solution of bisulfite and sulfite ions along with a metal chelate, such as, an iron or zinc aminopolycarboxylic acid. Following contact with the combustion gases the spent absorbent is subjected to electrodialysis to transfer bisulfite ions into a sulfuric acid solution while splitting water with hydroxide and hydrogen ion migration to equalize electrical charge. The electrodialysis stack includes alternate layers of anion selective and bipolar membranes. Oxides of nitrogen are removed from the liquid absorbent by air stripping at an elevated temperature and the regenerated liquid absorbent is returned to contact with exhaust gases for removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides.

  19. Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illness in children. Part I: Health outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, J.M.; Lambert, W.E.; Skipper, B.J.; Cushing, A.H.; Hunt, W.C.; Young, S.A.; McLaren, L.C.; Schwab, M.; Spengler, J.D. )

    1993-06-01

    We have carried out a prospective cohort study to test the hypothesis that exposure to nitrogen dioxide increases the incidence and severity of respiratory infections during the first 18 months of life. Between January 1988 and June 1990, 1,315 infants were enrolled into the study at birth and followed with prospective surveillance for the occurrence of respiratory infections and monitoring of nitrogen dioxide concentrations in their homes. The subjects were healthy infants from homes without smokers; they were selected with stratification by type of cooking stove at a ratio of four to one for gas and electric stoves. Illness experience was monitored by a daily diary of symptoms completed by the mother and a telephone interview conducted every two weeks. Illnesses with wheezing or wet cough were classified as involving the lower respiratory tract; all other respiratory illnesses were designated as involving the upper respiratory tract. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide was estimated by two-week average concentrations measured in the subjects' bedrooms with passive samplers. This analysis is limited to the 1,205 subjects completing at least one month of observation; of these, 823 completed the full protocol, contributing 82.8% of the total number of days during which the subjects were under observation. Incidence rates for all respiratory illnesses, all upper respiratory illness, all lower respiratory illnesses, and lower respiratory illness further divided into those with any wheezing, or wet cough without wheezing, were examined within strata of nitrogen dioxide exposure at the time of the illness, nitrogen dioxide exposure during the prior month, and type of cooking stove. Consistent trends of increasing illness incidence rates with increasing exposure to nitrogen dioxide were not evident for either the lagged or unlagged exposure variables.

  20. Establishment of an Industry-Driven Consortium Focused on Improving the Production Performance of Domestic Stripper Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-05-01

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the U.S. petroleum and natural gas industries and trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the eighth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period include: (1) Organize and host the 2006 Spring Meeting in State College, PA to review and select projects for SWC co-funding; (2) Participation in the 2006 PA CleanEnergy Expo Energy Theater to air the DVD on ''Independent Oil: Rediscovering American's Forgotten Wells''; (3) New member additions; (4) Improving communications; and (5) Planning of the fall technology meetings.

  1. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN INDUSTRY-DRIVEN CONSORTIUM FOCUSED ON IMPROVING THE PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE OF DOMESTIC STRIPPER WELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison

    2004-12-28

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory will establish, promote, and manage a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that will be focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the U.S. petroleum and natural gas industries and trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the first quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period include: (1) hosting the SWC spring proposal meeting in Golden Colorado, (2) planning of the upcoming SWC fall technology transfer meetings, and (3) recruiting the SWC base membership.

  2. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN INDUSTRY-DRIVEN CONSORTIUM FOCUSED ON IMPROVING THE PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE OF DOMESTIC STRIPPER WELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison

    2004-12-23

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory will establish, promote, and manage a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that will be focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the U.S. petroleum and natural gas industries and trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the fifteenth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period include: (1) hosting the SWC spring proposal meeting in Golden Colorado, (2) planning of the upcoming SWC fall technology transfer meetings, and (3) recruiting the SWC base membership.

  3. Establishment of an Industry-Driven Consortium Focused on Improving the Production Performance of Domestic Stripper Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-04-21

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the U.S. petroleum and natural gas industries and trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the seventh quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period include: (1) Nomination and election of the Executive Council members for the 2006-07 term, (2) Finalize and release the 2006 Request for Proposals (RFP), (3) Invoice and recruit members, (4) Plan for the spring meeting, (5) Improving communication efforts, and (6) Continue distribution of the DVD entitled: ''Independent Oil: Rediscovering American's Forgotten Wells''.

  4. Study of domestic social and economic impacts of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) commercial development. Volume I. Economic impacts

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-22

    This analysis identifies the economic impacts associated with OTEC development and quantifies them at the national, regional, and industry levels. It focuses on the effects on the United States' economy of the domestic development and utilization of twenty-five and fifty 400 MWe OTEC power plants by the year 2000. The methodology employed was characteristic of economic impact analysis. After conducting a literature review, a likely future OTEC scenario was developed on the basis of technological, siting, and materials requirements parameters. These parameters were used to identify the industries affected by OTEC development; an economic profile was constructed for each of these industries. These profiles established an industrial baseline from which the direct, indirect, and induced economic impacts of OTEC implementation could be estimated. Each stage of this analysis is summarized; and the economic impacts are addressed. The methodology employed in estimating the impacts is described.

  5. Establishment of an Industry-Driven Consortium Focused on Improving the Production Performance of Domestic Stripper Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Morrison; Sharon Elder

    2006-01-24

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory will establish, promote, and manage a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that will be focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the U.S. petroleum and natural gas industries and trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the sixth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period included: (1) Organized and hosted two technology transfer meetings; (2) Collaborated with the Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Association (POGAM) to host a Natural Gas Outlook conference in Pittsburgh, PA; (3) Provided a SWC presentation at the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) meeting in Jackson Hole, WY; and (4) Completed and released a stripper well industry documentary entitled: ''Independent Oil: Rediscovering America's Forgotten Wells''.

  6. The self limiting effect of hydrogen cluster in gas jet under liquid nitrogen temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Han Jifeng; Yang Chaowen; Miao Jingwei; Fu Pengtao; Luo Xiaobing; Shi Miangong

    2010-09-15

    The generation of hydrogen clusters in gas jet is tested using the Rayleigh scattering method under liquid nitrogen temperature of 79 K. The self limiting effect of hydrogen cluster is studied and it is found that the cluster formation is greatly affected by the number of expanded molecules. The well designed liquid nitrogen cold trap ensured that the hydrogen cluster would keep maximum size for maximum 15 ms during one gas jet. The scattered light intensity exhibits a power scaling on the backing pressure ranging from 5 to 48 bar with the power value of 4.1.

  7. Fact #825: June 16, 2014 Tier 3 Non-Methane Organic Gases Plus Nitrogen

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Oxide Emission Standards, Model Years 2017-2025 | Department of Energy 5: June 16, 2014 Tier 3 Non-Methane Organic Gases Plus Nitrogen Oxide Emission Standards, Model Years 2017-2025 Fact #825: June 16, 2014 Tier 3 Non-Methane Organic Gases Plus Nitrogen Oxide Emission Standards, Model Years 2017-2025 The Environmental Protection Agency finalized Tier 3 emission standards in a rule issued in March 2014. One effect of the rule is a decrease in the combined amount of non-methane organic gases

  8. Multi-omics analysis reveals regulators of the response to nitrogen limitation in Yarrowia lipolytica

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Pomraning, Kyle R.; Kim, Young -Mo; Nicora, Carrie D.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Hu, Dehong; Metz, Thomas O.; Baker, Scott E.

    2016-02-25

    Yarrowia lipolytica is an oleaginous ascomycete yeast that stores lipids in response to limitation of nitrogen. Furthermore, while the enzymatic pathways responsible for neutral lipid accumulation in Y. lipolytica are well characterized, regulation of these pathways has received little attention. We therefore sought to characterize the response to nitrogen limitation at system-wide levels, including the proteome, phosphoproteome and metabolome, to better understand how this organism regulates and controls lipid metabolism and to identify targets that may be manipulated to improve lipid yield.

  9. Defect Chemistry Study of Nitrogen Doped ZnO Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Miami University: Dr. Lei L. Kerr Wright State University: Dr. David C. Look and Dr. Zhaoqiang Fang

    2009-11-29

    Our team has investigated the defect chemistry of ZnO:N and developed a thermal evaporation (vapor-phase) method to synthesis p-type ZnO:N. Enhanced p-type conductivity of nitrogen doped ZnO via nano/micro structured rods and Zn-rich Co-doping process were studied. Also, an extended X-Ray absorption fine structure study of p-type nitrogen doped ZnO was conducted. Also reported are Hall-effect, photoluminescence, and DLTS studies.

  10. Anatomic and functional imaging of tagged molecules in animals

    DOEpatents

    Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Majewski, Stanislaw; Paulus, Michael J.; Gleason, Shaun S.

    2007-04-24

    A novel functional imaging system for use in the imaging of unrestrained and non-anesthetized small animals or other subjects and a method for acquiring such images and further registering them with anatomical X-ray images previously or subsequently acquired. The apparatus comprises a combination of an IR laser profilometry system and gamma, PET and/or SPECT, imaging system, all mounted on a rotating gantry, that permits simultaneous acquisition of positional and orientational information and functional images of an unrestrained subject that are registered, i.e. integrated, using image processing software to produce a functional image of the subject without the use of restraints or anesthesia. The functional image thus obtained can be registered with a previously or subsequently obtained X-ray CT image of the subject. The use of the system described herein permits functional imaging of a subject in an unrestrained/non-anesthetized condition thereby reducing the stress on the subject and eliminating any potential interference with the functional testing that such stress might induce.

  11. Modeling fatty acid relationships in animal waste anaerobic digesters

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D.T.; Bolte, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Volatile fatty acid (VFA) relationships are important in the anaerobic digestion of animal wastes as they (acetic, propionic and butyric) are direct precursors of methane, either through direct conversion of acetate or through the intermediate formation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Thus, they are essential compounds in the biological conversion of heterogenous wastes to useable products. VFA's are also known inhibitors in the biological conversion process if their concentrations are sufficiently high. Thus, VFA's are simultaneously essential for the process and can be toxic agents should they be present in excess quantities. This relationship makes quantifying VFA's in the modeling studies essential to accurately predicting digester failure or success. A highly correlated relationship between the level of acetic acid and/or the propionic to acetic acid ratio in digesters that were successful and in digesters that failed has been shown. These data have been used to calibrate an original comprehensive methanogenesis model and along with the addition of dual-use substrate kinetics for the simultaneous catalysis of propionate and butyrate, have produced a much improved prediction of the VFA relationships observed in operating anaerobic digesters. This manuscript describes the addition of the dual-use substrate kinetics and the modification of the kinetic parameters of the original methanogenic model and compared the simulated output of the original and modified models to demonstrate the improved predictive ability. (Refs. 12).

  12. Permafrost carbon—climate feedback is sensitive to deep soil carbon decomposability but not deep soil nitrogen dynamics

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Koven, Charles D.; Lawrence, David M.; Riley, William J.

    2015-03-09

    Permafrost soils contain enormous amounts of organic carbon whose stability is contingent on remaining frozen. With future warming, these soils may release carbon to the atmosphere and act as a positive feedback to climate change. Significant uncertainty remains on the postthaw carbon dynamics of permafrost-affected ecosystems, in particular since most of the carbon resides at depth where decomposition dynamics may differ from surface soils, and since nitrogen mineralized by decomposition may enhance plant growth. Here we show, using a carbon–nitrogen model that includes permafrost processes forced in an unmitigated warming scenario, that the future carbon balance of the permafrost regionmore » is highly sensitive to the decomposability of deeper carbon, with the net balance ranging from 21 Pg C to 164 Pg C losses by 2300. Increased soil nitrogen mineralization reduces nutrient limitations, but the impact of deep nitrogen on the carbon budget is small due to enhanced nitrogen availability from warming surface soils and seasonal asynchrony between deeper nitrogen availability and plant nitrogen demands. The future carbon balance of this region is projected to hinge more on the rate and extent of permafrost thaw and soil decomposition than on enhanced nitrogen availability for vegetation growth resulting from permafrost thaw.« less

  13. Permafrost carbon—climate feedback is sensitive to deep soil carbon decomposability but not deep soil nitrogen dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Koven, Charles D.; Lawrence, David M.; Riley, William J.

    2015-03-09

    Permafrost soils contain enormous amounts of organic carbon whose stability is contingent on remaining frozen. With future warming, these soils may release carbon to the atmosphere and act as a positive feedback to climate change. Significant uncertainty remains on the postthaw carbon dynamics of permafrost-affected ecosystems, in particular since most of the carbon resides at depth where decomposition dynamics may differ from surface soils, and since nitrogen mineralized by decomposition may enhance plant growth. Here we show, using a carbon–nitrogen model that includes permafrost processes forced in an unmitigated warming scenario, that the future carbon balance of the permafrost region is highly sensitive to the decomposability of deeper carbon, with the net balance ranging from 21 Pg C to 164 Pg C losses by 2300. Increased soil nitrogen mineralization reduces nutrient limitations, but the impact of deep nitrogen on the carbon budget is small due to enhanced nitrogen availability from warming surface soils and seasonal asynchrony between deeper nitrogen availability and plant nitrogen demands. The future carbon balance of this region is projected to hinge more on the rate and extent of permafrost thaw and soil decomposition than on enhanced nitrogen availability for vegetation growth resulting from permafrost thaw.

  14. First-principles study on the interaction of nitrogen atom with ?uranium: From surface adsorption to bulk diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Qiulei; Deng, Huiqiu E-mail: hqdeng@gmail.com; Xiao, Shifang; Li, Xiaofan; Hu, Wangyu; Ao, Bingyun; Chen, Piheng

    2014-04-28

    Experimental studies of nitriding on uranium surfaces show that the modified layers provide considerable protection against air corrosion. The bimodal distribution of nitrogen is affected by both its implantation and diffusion, and the diffusion of nitrogen during implantation is also governed by vacancy trapping. In the present paper, nitrogen adsorption, absorption, diffusion, and vacancy trapping on the surface of and in the bulk of ?uranium are studied with a first-principles density functional theory approach and the climbing image nudged elastic band method. The calculated results indicate that, regardless of the nitrogen coverage, a nitrogen atom prefers to reside at the hollow1 site and octahedral (Oct) site on and below the surface, respectively. The lowest energy barriers for on-surface and penetration diffusion occur at a coverage of 1/2 monolayer. A nitrogen atom prefers to occupy the Oct site in bulk ?uranium. High energy barriers are observed during the diffusion between neighboring Oct sites. A vacancy can capture its nearby interstitial nitrogen atom with a low energy barrier, providing a significant attractive nitrogen-vacancy interaction at the trapping center site. This study provides a reference for understanding the nitriding process on uranium surfaces.

  15. Projections of the impact of expansion of domestic heavy oil production on the U.S. refining industry from 1990 to 2010. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Strycker, A.R.; Guariguata, G.; Salmen, F.G.

    1994-12-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production. This report provides a compendium of the United States refining industry and analyzes the industry by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) and by ten smaller refining areas. The refining capacity, oil source and oil quality are analyzed, and projections are made for the U.S. refining industry for the years 1990 to 2010. The study used publicly available data as background. A linear program model of the U.S. refining industry was constructed and validated using 1990 U.S. refinery performance. Projections of domestic oil production (decline) and import of crude oil (increases) were balanced to meet anticipated demand to establish a base case for years 1990 through 2010. The impact of additional domestic heavy oil production, (300 MB/D to 900 MB/D, originating in select areas of the U.S.) on the U.S. refining complex was evaluated. This heavy oil could reduce the import rate and the balance of payments by displacing some imported, principally Mid-east, medium crude. The construction cost for refining units to accommodate this additional domestic heavy oil production in both the low and high volume scenarios is about 7 billion dollars for bottoms conversion capacity (delayed coking) with about 50% of the cost attributed to compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990.

  16. Nitrogen accumulation profiles of selected grain and vegetable crops: A bibliography (1940-1992)

    SciTech Connect

    Meischen, S.J.; Byrd, K.R.

    1994-10-01

    A bibliography of nitrogen accumulation profile data for 25 vegetable and grain crops reported between 1940 and 1992 is presented. The selected crops are asparagus, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, celery, corn, cotton, cucumber, field bean, field pea, garlic, lettuce, onions, and peppers.

  17. Nickel supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes as hydrogen oxidation reaction catalyst in alkaline electrolyte

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Zhongbin; Giles, Stephen A.; Zheng, Jie; Jenness, Glen R.; Caratzoulas, Stavros; Vlachos, Dionisios G.; Yan, Yushan

    2016-01-14

    The development of a low-cost, high-performance platinum-group-metal-free hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cell is hindered by the lack of a hydrogen oxidation reaction catalyst at the anode. Here we report that a composite catalyst, nickel nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes, has hydrogen oxidation activity similar to platinum-group metals in alkaline electrolyte. Although nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes are a very poor hydrogen oxidation catalyst, as a support, it increases the catalytic performance of nickel nanoparticles by a factor of 33 (mass activity) or 21 (exchange current density) relative to unsupported nickel nanoparticles. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the nitrogen-doped support stabilizesmore » the nanoparticle against reconstruction, while nitrogen located at the edge of the nanoparticle tunes local adsorption sites by affecting the d-orbitals of nickel. Here, owing to its high activity and low cost, our catalyst shows significant potential for use in low-cost, high-performance fuel cells.« less

  18. Enhancing Graphene Capacitance by Nitrogen: Effects of Doping Configuration and Concentration

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Zhan, Cheng; Cummings, Peter; Jiang, De-en

    2016-01-08

    Recent experiments have shown that nitrogen doping enhances capacitance in carbon electrode supercapacitors. However, a detailed study of the effect of N-doping on capacitance is still lacking. In this paper, we study the doping concentration and the configuration effect on the electric double-layer (EDL) capacitance, quantum capacitance, and total capacitance. It is found that pyridinic and graphitic nitrogens can increase the total capacitance by increasing quantum capacitance, but pyrrolic configuration limits the total capacitance due to its much lower quantum capacitance than the other two configurations. We also find that, unlike the graphitic and pyridinic nitrogens, the pyrrolic configuration's quantummore » capacitance does not depend on the nitrogen concentration, which may explain why some capacitance versus voltage measurements of N-doped graphene exhibit a V-shaped curve similar to that of undoped graphene. Our investigation provides a deeper understanding of the capacitance enhancement of the N-doping effect in carbon electrodes and suggests a potentially effective way to optimize the capacitance by controlling the type of N-doping.« less

  19. N-type droping of nanocrystalline diamond films with nitrogen and electrodes made therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Krauss, Alan R.; Auciello, Orlando H.; Carlisle, John A.

    2004-09-21

    An electrically conducting n-type ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) having no less than 10.sup.19 atoms/cm.sup.3 of nitrogen is disclosed. A method of making the n-doped UNCD. A method for predictably controlling the conductivity is also disclosed.

  20. Characterization of an atmospheric double arc argon-nitrogen plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, X.; Cheron, B. G.; Yan, J. H.; Yu, L.; Cen, K. F.

    2008-05-15

    In the framework of studies devoted to hazardous waste destruction, an original dc double anode plasma torch has been designed and tested, which produces an elongated, weak fluctuation and reproducible plasma jet at atmospheric pressure. The arc instabilities and dynamic behavior of the double arc argon-nitrogen plasma jet are investigated through the oscillations of electrical signals by combined means of fast Fourier transform and Wigner distribution. In our experiment, the restrike mode is identified as the typical fluctuation behavior in an argon-nitrogen plasma jet. The Fourier spectra and Wigner distributions exhibit two characteristic frequencies of 150 Hz and 4.1 kHz, which reveals that the nature of fluctuations in the double arc argon-nitrogen plasma can be ascribed to the undulation of the power supply and both arc roots motion on the anode channels. In addition, the microscopic properties of the plasma jet inside and outside the arc chamber are investigated by means of optical emission spectroscopy, which yields excitation, electronic, rotational, and vibrational temperatures, as well as the electron number density. The results allow us to examine the validity criteria of a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) state in the plasma arc. The measured electron densities are in good agreement with those calculated from the LTE model, which indicates that the atmospheric double arc argon-nitrogen plasma in the core region is close to the LTE state under our experimental conditions.