National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for domain shows ring-shaped

  1. Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress Print Monday, 28 November 2011 14:52 Movement is fundamental to life. It...

  2. Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress Print Movement is fundamental to life. It takes place even at the cellular level where cargo is continually being transported...

  3. Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    normal density. A 75-liter fed-batch growth produced 14 kg of yeast and required a new freezer be purchased to store it all. With this massive increase in starting material, enough...

  4. Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    normal density. A 75-liter fed-batch growth produced 14 kg of yeast and required a new freezer be purchased to store it all. With this massive increase in starting material,...

  5. Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    But the yield of protein from yeast was low, prompting researchers to try fed-batch fermentation, an approach used to make commercial yeast. In this method, a sugar solution is fed...

  6. Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    feature called the buttress that may play an important role in dynein's mechanical cycle. Yeast Yields Enable Protein Study The transportation of materials around a cell is...

  7. Rotary Firing in Ring-Shaped Protein Explains Unidirectionality

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Rotary Firing in Ring-Shaped Protein Explains Unidirectionality Print Hexameric motor proteins represent a complex class of molecular machines that variously push and pull on...

  8. Cell culture arrays using micron-sized ferromagnetic ring-shaped thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Chen-Yu; Wei, Zung-Hang; Lai, Mei-Feng; Ger, Tzong-Rong

    2015-05-07

    Cell patterning has become an important technology for tissue engineering. In this research, domain walls are formed at the two ends of a ferromagnetic ring thin film after applying a strong external magnetic field, which can effectively attract magnetically labeled cells and control the position for biological cell. Magnetophoresis experiment was conducted to quantify the magnetic nanoparticle inside the cells. A ring-shaped magnetic thin films array was fabricated through photolithography. It is observed that magnetically labeled cells can be successfully attracted to the two ends of the ring-shaped magnetic thin film structure and more cells were attracted and further attached to the structures. The cells are co-cultured with the structure and kept proliferating; therefore, such ring thin film can be an important candidate for in-vitro biomedical chips or tissue engineering.

  9. Electromagnetic wave attenuation measurements in a ring-shaped inductively coupled air plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaolong, Wei; Haojun, Xu; Min, Lin; Chen, Su; Jianhai, Li

    2015-05-28

    An aerocraft with the surface, inlet and radome covered large-area inductive coupled plasma (ICP) can attenuate its radar echo effectively. The shape, thickness, and electron density (N{sub e}) distribution of ICP are critical to electromagnetic wave attenuation. In the paper, an air all-quartz ICP generator in size of 20 × 20 × 7 cm{sup 3} without magnetic confinement is designed. The discharge results show that the ICP is amorphous in E-mode and ring-shaped in H-mode. The structure of ICP stratifies into core region and edge halo in H-mode, and its width and thickness changes from power and pressure. Such phenomena are explained by the distribution of RF magnetic field, the diffusion of negative ions plasma and the variation of skin depth. In addition, the theoretical analysis shows that the N{sub e} achieves nearly uniform within the electronegative core and sharply steepens in the edge. The N{sub e} of core region is diagnosed by microwave interferometer under varied conditions (pressure in range of 10–50 Pa, power in 300–700 W). Furthermore, the electromagnetic wave attenuation measurements were carried out with the air ICP in the frequencies of 4–5 GHz. The results show that the interspaced ICP is still effective to wave attenuation, and the wave attenuation increases with the power and pressure. The measured attenuation is approximately in accordance with the calculation data of finite-different time-domain simulations.

  10. Ring-shaped polariton lasing in pillar microcavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalevich, V. K. Afanasiev, M. M.; Lukoshkin, V. A.; Kavokin, K. V.; Tsintzos, S. I.; Savvidis, P. G.; Kavokin, A. V.

    2014-03-07

    Optically generated exciton-polaritons in cylindric semiconductor pillar microcavity with embedded GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells demonstrate a clear polariton lasing regime. When exciting in the center of the pillar, we detect a ring-shaped emission, where the peak of intensity can be separated from the excitation spot by more than 10 μm. The spatial coherence of the ring emission is verified by interferometry measurements. These observations are interpreted by drift of the exciton polariton condensate away from the excitation spot due to its repulsion from the exciton reservoir and by its spatial confinement by the pillar boundary.

  11. Trapping two types of particles using a double-ring-shaped radially polarized beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Yaoju; Ding Biaofeng; Suyama, Taikei

    2010-02-15

    An optical-trap method based on the illumination of a double-ring-shaped radially polarized beam (R-TEM{sub 11}*) is proposed. The numerical results based on the vector diffraction theory show that a highly focused R-TEM{sub 11}* beam not only can produce a bright spot but also can form an optical cage in the focal region by changing the truncation parameter {beta}, defined as the ratio of the radius of the aperture to the waist of the beam. The radiation forces acting on Rayleigh particles are calculated by using the Rayleigh scattering theory. The bright spot generated by the R-TEM{sub 11}* beam with a {beta} value close to 2 can three-dimensionally trap a particle with a refractive index larger than that of the ambient. An optical cage or three-dimensional dark spot generated by the R-TEM{sub 11}* beam with a {beta} value close to 1.3 can three-dimensionally trap a particle with refractive index smaller than that of the ambient. Because the adjustment of the truncation parameter can be actualized by simply changing the radius of a circular aperture inserted in the front of the lens, only one optical-trap system in the present method can be used to three-dimensionally trap two types of particles with different refractive indices.

  12. Rotary Firing in Ring-Shaped Protein Explains Unidirectionality

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    structure of a hexameric helicase, the Rho transcription termination factor (from E. coli), bound to both ATP mimics and an RNA substrate. The results showed that Rho functions...

  13. Rotary Firing in Ring-Shaped Protein Explains Unidirectionality

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    the structure of a hexameric helicase, the Rho transcription termination factor (from E. coli), bound to both ATP mimics and an RNA substrate. The results showed that Rho...

  14. Electrodynamics of a ring-shaped spiral resonator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maleeva, N.; Karpov, A.; Averkin, A.; Fistul, M. V.; Zhuravel, A. P.; Jung, P.; Ustinov, A. V.

    2014-02-14

    We present analytical, numerical, and experimental investigations of electromagnetic resonant modes of a compact monofilar Archimedean spiral resonator shaped in a ring, with no central part. Planar spiral resonators are interesting as components of metamaterials for their compact deep-subwavelength size. Such resonators couple primarily to the magnetic field component of the incident electromagnetic wave, offering properties suitable for magnetic meta-atoms. Surprisingly, the relative frequencies of the resonant modes follow the sequence of the odd numbers as f{sub 1}:f{sub 2}:f{sub 3}:f{sub 4}… = 1:3:5:7…, despite the nearly identical boundary conditions for electromagnetic fields at the extremities of the resonator. In order to explain the observed spectrum of resonant modes, we show that the current distribution inside the spiral satisfies a particular Carleman type singular integral equation. By solving this equation, we obtain a set of resonant frequencies. The analytically calculated resonance frequencies and the current distributions are in good agreement with experimental data and the results of numerical simulations. By using low-temperature laser scanning microscopy of a superconducting spiral resonator, we compare the experimentally visualized ac current distributions over the spiral with the calculated ones. Theory and experiment agree well with each other. Our analytical model allows for calculation of a detailed three-dimensional magnetic field structure of the resonators.

  15. Cytoplasmic Domain Structures of Kir2.1 and Kir3.1 Shows Sites for

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Modulating Gating and Rectification Cytoplasmic Domain Structures of Kir2.1 and Kir3.1 Shows Sites for Modulating Gating and Rectification Scott Pegan1, Christine Arrabit2, Wei Zhou1, Witek Kwiatkowski1, Anthony Collins3, Paul Slesinger2 and Senyon Choe1 Structural Biology1 and Peptide Biology2 Laboratories, The Salk Institute, La Jolla, Ca 92037; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences3, College of Pharmacy, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 Figure 1. Kir2.1 cytoplasmic domain's

  16. Peculiarity of convergence of shock wave generated by underwater electrical explosion of ring-shaped wire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafer, D.; Toker, G. R.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Gleizer, S.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2013-05-15

    Nanosecond timescale underwater electrical wire explosions of ring-shaped Cu wires were investigated using a pulsed generator with a current amplitude up to 50 kA. It was shown that this type of wire explosion results in the generation of a toroidal shock wave (SW). Time- and space-resolved optical diagnostics were used to determine azimuthal uniformity of the shock wave front and its velocity. It was found that the shock wave preserves its circular front shape in the range of radii 50?m

  17. Criteria of radio-frequency ring-shaped hollow cathode discharge using H{sub 2} and Ar gases for plasma processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohtsu, Yasunori; Kawasaki, Yujiro

    2013-01-21

    In order to achieve high-density capacitively coupled plasma, a radio-frequency (RF) ring-shaped hollow cathode discharge has been developed as a candidate for processing plasma sources. The plasma density in the hollow cathode discharge reaches a high magnitude of 10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}. The RF ring-shaped hollow cathode discharge depends on the pressure and mass of the working gas. Criteria required for producing a RF ring-shaped hollow cathode discharge have been investigated for various gas pressures using H{sub 2} and Ar gases for high-density plasma production. The results reveal that the criteria for the occurrence of the hollow cathode effect are that the trench width should be approximately equal to the sum of the electron-neutral mean free paths and twice the sheath thickness of the RF powered electrode.

  18. Wedding ring shaped excitation coil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Tsai, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A high frequency inductively coupled electrodeless lamp includes an excitation coil with an effective electrical length which is less than one half wavelength of a driving frequency applied thereto, preferably much less. The driving frequency may be greater than 100 MHz and is preferably as high as 915 MHz. Preferably, the excitation coil is configured as a non-helical, semi-cylindrical conductive surface having less than one turn, in the general shape of a wedding ring. At high frequencies, the current in the coil forms two loops which are spaced apart and parallel to each other. Configured appropriately, the coil approximates a Helmholtz configuration. The lamp preferably utilizes an bulb encased in a reflective ceramic cup with a pre-formed aperture defined therethrough. The ceramic cup may include structural features to aid in alignment and/or a flanged face to aid in thermal management. The lamp head is preferably an integrated lamp head comprising a metal matrix composite surrounding an insulating ceramic with the excitation integrally formed on the ceramic. A novel solid-state oscillator preferably provides RF power to the lamp. The oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency.

  19. Employee Show

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Where Science Inspires Art Fermilab Employee Art Show 2015 Exhibition Dates -September 18, 2015 November 30, 2015 Reception - September 23, 2015 5 7pm Eligibility: Any current...

  20. Light Show

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Lightning - Nature's Light Show Lightning provides one of nature's most spectacular displays of energy. Though fascinating to observe, lightning can be dangerous and deadly. Protecting ARM instruments from lightning damage is vital. Putting equipment worth millions of dollars into open fields (Photo: NOAA) ARM Facilities Newsletter is published by Argonne National Laboratory, a multiprogram laboratory operated by The University of Chicago under contract W-31-109-Eng-38 with the U.S. Department

  1. Magnetic domain wall manipulation in (Ga,Mn)As nanostructures for spintronic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wosinski, Tadeusz; Andrearczyk, Tomasz; Figielski, Tadeusz; Olender, Karolina; Wrobel, Jerzy

    2014-02-21

    Ring-shaped nanostructures have been designed and fabricated by electron-beam lithography patterning and chemical etching from thin epitaxial layers of the ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As. The nanostructures, in a form of planar rings with a slit, were supplied with four electrical terminals and subjected to magneto-transport studies under planar weak magnetic field. Magnetoresistive effects caused by manipulation of magnetic domain walls and magnetization reversal in the nanostructures have been investigated and possible applications of the nanostructures as four-terminal spintronic devices are discussed.

  2. Critical role of domain crystallinity, domain purity and domain...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Critical role of domain crystallinity, domain purity and domain interface sharpness for reduced bimolecular recombination in polymer solar cells Citation Details In-Document Search ...

  3. Rotary Firing in Ring-Shaped Protein Explains Unidirectionality

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    perform large-scale manipulations of single-stranded nucleic acids in processes such as DNA replication, DNA repair, and gene expression. To understand how certain hexameric...

  4. Rotary Firing in Ring-Shaped Protein Explains Unidirectionality

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    manipulations of single-stranded nucleic acids in processes such as DNA replication, DNA repair, and gene expression. To understand how certain hexameric helicases walk with...

  5. Show Me PACE

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    In July 2010 Missouri enacted the Property Assessed Clean Energy Act. In June 2015, Show Me PACE was established under this law as a Clean Energy Development Board. PACE financing allows property...

  6. Post-Show Tips

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    These guidelines are designed to help you with the post-show process. This page includes tips for tearing down your exhibit, shipping the exhibit, and collecting your bills.

  7. Guidelines for Supplier, Vendor Shows

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Guidelines for Supplier, Vendor Shows Guidelines for SupplierVendor or Professional Local Trade FairsShows As a premier national research and development laboratory, LANL seeks...

  8. Pyramidal inversion domain boundaries revisited

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remmele, T.; Albrecht, M.; Irmscher, K.; Fornari, R.; Strassburg, M.

    2011-10-03

    The structure of pyramidal inversion domain boundaries in GaN:Mg was investigated by aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy. The analysis shows the upper (0001) boundary to consist of a single Mg layer inserted between polarity inverted GaN layers in an abcab stacking. The Mg bound in these defects is at least one order of magnitude lower than the chemical Mg concentration. Temperature dependent Hall effect measurements show that up to 27% of the Mg acceptors is electrically compensated.

  9. Backstage at the Daily Show

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Backstage footage from Secretary Chu's appearance on the Daily Show where he discuses the green room candy dish and possible lighting considerations.

  10. Slow Dynamics of Orbital Domains in Manganite

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    we can understand the movement of the electronic domain structure. A typical image from a digital camera for x rays (CCD) showing a soft x-ray speckle pattern. The close-up...

  11. ShowMe3D

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  12. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  13. Axion domain wall baryogenesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daido, Ryuji; Kitajima, Naoya; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2015-07-28

    We propose a new scenario of baryogenesis, in which annihilation of axion domain walls generates a sizable baryon asymmetry. Successful baryogenesis is possible for a wide range of the axion mass and decay constant, m≃10{sup 8}–10{sup 13} GeV and f≃10{sup 13}–10{sup 16} GeV. Baryonic isocurvature perturbations are significantly suppressed in our model, in contrast to various spontaneous baryogenesis scenarios in the slow-roll regime. In particular, the axion domain wall baryogenesis is consistent with high-scale inflation which generates a large tensor-to-scalar ratio within the reach of future CMB B-mode experiments. We also discuss the gravitational waves produced by the domain wall annihilation and its implications for the future gravitational wave experiments.

  14. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc; Doi, Roy

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  15. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.; Doi, R.

    1998-11-17

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  16. Assembling a ring-shaped crystal in a microfabricated surface ion trap

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Stick, Daniel Lynn; Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Tabakov, Boyan; Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Benito, Francisco; Blain, Matthew; Clark, Craig R.; Clark, Susan; Haltli, Raymond A.; Maunz, Peter; et al

    2015-09-01

    We report on experiments with a microfabricated surface trap designed for confining a chain of ions in a ring. Uniform ion separation over most of the ring is achieved with a rotationally symmetric design and by measuring and suppressing undesired electric fields. After reducing stray fields, the ions are confined primarily by a radio-frequency pseudopotential and their mutual Coulomb repulsion. As a result, approximately 400 40Ca+ ions with an average separation of 9 μm comprise the ion crystal.

  17. Electronic and thermoelectric properties of van der Waals materials with ring-shaped valence bands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wickramaratne, Darshana E-mail: rlake@ece.ucr.edu; Lake, Roger K. E-mail: rlake@ece.ucr.edu; Zahid, Ferdows

    2015-08-21

    The valence band of a variety of few-layer, two-dimensional materials consist of a ring of states in the Brillouin zone. The energy-momentum relation has the form of a “Mexican hat” or a Rashba dispersion. The two-dimensional density of states is singular at or near the band edge, and the band-edge density of modes turns on nearly abruptly as a step function. The large band-edge density of modes enhances the Seebeck coefficient, the power factor, and the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT. Electronic and thermoelectric properties are determined from ab initio calculations for few-layer III–VI materials GaS, GaSe, InS, InSe, for Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, for monolayer Bi, and for bilayer graphene as a function of vertical field. The effect of interlayer coupling on these properties in few-layer III–VI materials and Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} is described. Analytical models provide insight into the layer dependent trends that are relatively consistent for all of these few-layer materials. Vertically biased bilayer graphene could serve as an experimental test-bed for measuring these effects.

  18. Assembling a ring-shaped crystal in a microfabricated surface ion trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stick, Daniel Lynn; Tabakov, Boyan; Benito, Francisco; Blain, Matthew; Clark, Craig R.; Clark, Susan; Haltli, Raymond A.; Maunz, Peter; Sterk, Jonathan D.; Tigges, Chris

    2015-09-01

    We report on experiments with a microfabricated surface trap designed for confining a chain of ions in a ring. Uniform ion separation over most of the ring is achieved with a rotationally symmetric design and by measuring and suppressing undesired electric fields. After reducing stray fields, the ions are confined primarily by a radio-frequency pseudopotential and their mutual Coulomb repulsion. As a result, approximately 400 40Ca+ ions with an average separation of 9 μm comprise the ion crystal.

  19. Critical role of domain crystallinity, domain purity and domain interface sharpness for reduced bimolecular recombination in polymer solar cells

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Venkatesan, Swaminathan; Chen, Jihua; Ngo, Evan C.; Dubey, Ashish; Khatiwada, Devendra; Zhang, Cheng; Qiao, Qiquan

    2014-12-31

    In this study, inverted bulk heterojunction solar cells were fabricated using poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) blended with two different fullerene derivatives namely phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60BM) and indene-C60 bis-adduct (IC60BA). The effects of annealing temperatures on the morphology, optical and structural properties were studied and correlated to differences in photovoltaic device performance. It was observed that annealing temperature significantly improved the performance of P3HT:IC60BA solar cells while P3HT:PC60BM cells showed relatively less improvement. The performance improvement is attributed to the extent of fullerene mixing with polymer domains. Energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that ICBAmore » mixes with disordered P3HT much more readily than PC60BM which leads to lower short circuit current density and fill factor for P3HT:IC60BA cells annealed below 120°C. Annealing above 120°C improves the crystallinity of P3HT in case of P3HT:IC60BA whereas in P3HT:PC60BM films, annealing above 80°C leads to negligible change in crystallinity. Crystallization of P3HT also leads to higher domain purity as seen EFTEM. Further it is seen that cells processed with additive nitrobenzene (NB) showed enhanced short circuit current density and power conversion efficiency regardless of the fullerene derivative used. Addition of NB led to nanoscale phase separation between purer polymer and fullerene domains. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) images showed that enhanced domain purity in additive casted films led to a sharper interface between polymer and fullerene. Lastly, enhanced domain purity and interfacial sharpness led to lower bimolecular recombination and higher mobility and charge carrier lifetime in NB modified devices.« less

  20. Internal stress distribution for generating closure domains in laser-irradiated Fe3%Si(110) steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwata, Keiji; Imafuku, Muneyuki; Orihara, Hideto; Sakai, Yusuke; Ohya, Shin-Ichi; Suzuki, Tamaki; Shobu, Takahisa; Akita, Koichi; Ishiyama, Kazushi

    2015-05-07

    Internal stress distribution for generating closure domains occurring in laser-irradiated Fe3%Si(110) steels was investigated using high-energy X-ray analysis and domain theory based on the variational principle. The measured triaxial stresses inside the specimen were compressive and the stress in the rolling direction became more dominant than stresses in the other directions. The calculations based on the variational principle of magnetic energy for closure domains showed that the measured triaxial stresses made the closure domains more stable than the basic domain without closure domains. The experimental and calculation results reveal that the laser-introduced internal stresses result in the occurrence of the closure domains.

  1. Fractional diffusion on bounded domains

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Defterli, Ozlem; D'Elia, Marta; Du, Qiang; Gunzburger, Max Donald; Lehoucq, Richard B.; Meerschaert, Mark M.

    2015-03-13

    We found that the mathematically correct specification of a fractional differential equation on a bounded domain requires specification of appropriate boundary conditions, or their fractional analogue. In this paper we discuss the application of nonlocal diffusion theory to specify well-posed fractional diffusion equations on bounded domains.

  2. Show Me Ethanol LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Show Me Ethanol LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Show Me Ethanol, LLC Place: Carrollton, Missouri Zip: 64633 Product: Developing an ethanol project in Carrollton, Missouri....

  3. Detroit Auto Show 2012 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Detroit Auto Show 2012 Detroit Auto Show 2012 Addthis 1 of 10 Energy Secretary Steven Chu with Chrysler Chief Executive Sergio Marchionne. Image: Hantz Leger (Energy Department ...

  4. The Paris Motor Show | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    The Paris Motor Show The Paris Motor Show October 4, 2010 - 9:39am Addthis David Sandalow at the Paris Auto Show | DOE photo David Sandalow at the Paris Auto Show | DOE photo David Sandalow David Sandalow Former Under Secretary of Energy (Acting) and Assistant Secretary for Policy & International Affairs At the Paris Motor Show today, electric cars are everywhere. Chevrolet is showing off the Volt, its plug-in hybrid due in U.S. showrooms this December. (Motown music blared as a Chevy rep

  5. Critical role of domain crystallinity, domain purity and domain interface sharpness for reduced bimolecular recombination in polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatesan, Swaminathan; Chen, Jihua; Ngo, Evan C.; Dubey, Ashish; Khatiwada, Devendra; Zhang, Cheng; Qiao, Qiquan

    2014-12-31

    In this study, inverted bulk heterojunction solar cells were fabricated using poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) blended with two different fullerene derivatives namely phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC60BM) and indene-C60 bis-adduct (IC60BA). The effects of annealing temperatures on the morphology, optical and structural properties were studied and correlated to differences in photovoltaic device performance. It was observed that annealing temperature significantly improved the performance of P3HT:IC60BA solar cells while P3HT:PC60BM cells showed relatively less improvement. The performance improvement is attributed to the extent of fullerene mixing with polymer domains. Energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that ICBA mixes with disordered P3HT much more readily than PC60BM which leads to lower short circuit current density and fill factor for P3HT:IC60BA cells annealed below 120°C. Annealing above 120°C improves the crystallinity of P3HT in case of P3HT:IC60BA whereas in P3HT:PC60BM films, annealing above 80°C leads to negligible change in crystallinity. Crystallization of P3HT also leads to higher domain purity as seen EFTEM. Further it is seen that cells processed with additive nitrobenzene (NB) showed enhanced short circuit current density and power conversion efficiency regardless of the fullerene derivative used. Addition of NB led to nanoscale phase separation between purer polymer and fullerene domains. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) images showed that enhanced domain purity in additive casted films led to a sharper interface between polymer and fullerene. Lastly, enhanced domain purity and interfacial sharpness led to lower bimolecular recombination and higher mobility and charge carrier lifetime in NB modified devices.

  6. Thermal effects on transverse domain wall dynamics in magnetic nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leliaert, J.; Van de Wiele, B.; Vandermeulen, J.; Coene, A.; Dupré, L.; Vansteenkiste, A.; Waeyenberge, B. Van; Laurson, L.; Durin, G.

    2015-05-18

    Magnetic domain walls are proposed as data carriers in future spintronic devices, whose reliability depends on a complete understanding of the domain wall motion. Applications based on an accurate positioning of domain walls are inevitably influenced by thermal fluctuations. In this letter, we present a micromagnetic study of the thermal effects on this motion. As spin-polarized currents are the most used driving mechanism for domain walls, we have included this in our analysis. Our results show that at finite temperatures, the domain wall velocity has a drift and diffusion component, which are in excellent agreement with the theoretical values obtained from a generalized 1D model. The drift and diffusion component are independent of each other in perfect nanowires, and the mean square displacement scales linearly with time and temperature.

  7. Domain Dynamics in Piezoresponse Force Microscopy: Quantitative...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The fine structure of the hysteresis loop is shown to be related to the observed jumps in the domain geometry during domain wall propagation (nanoscale Barkhausen jumps), ...

  8. Domain Dynamics in Piezoresponse Force Spectroscopy: Quantitative...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The fine structure of the hysteresis loop is shown to be related to the observed jumps in the domain geometry during domain wall propagation (nanoscale Barkhausen jumps), ...

  9. Structural and Evolutionary Analyses Show Unique Stabilization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Structural and Evolutionary Analyses Show Unique Stabilization Strategies in the Type IV Pili of Clostridium difficile Authors: Piepenbrink, Kurt H. ; Maldarelli, Grace A. ; ...

  10. DOE Booth Presentations From Grainger Show 2015

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE hosted its solid-state lighting informational booth February 16–18 at the annual Grainger Show in Orlando, FL. With over 17,000 attendees and over 750 exhibitors, the show gathered a wide range of Grainger customers—from universities to large hotel chains as well as Grainger team members to learn the latest about LED lighting.

  11. 2013 Washington Auto Show | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    3 Washington Auto Show 2013 Washington Auto Show Addthis 1 of 10 While at the Washington Auto Show, Energy Secretary Steven Chu visited Nissan to see the 2013 Leaf. | Photo courtesy of Sarah Gerrity, Energy Department. Date taken: 2013-01-31 13:50 2 of 10 The new Nissan Leaf is being built at the company's Smyrna, Tennessee, Vehicle Assembly Plant -- helping to cut the price of its electric vehicle. | Photo courtesy of Sarah Gerrity, Energy Department. Date taken: 2013-01-31 13:49 3 of 10 Energy

  12. 2016 Washington Auto Show | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Washington Auto Show 2016 Washington Auto Show Addthis 1 of 20 Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz sits in the driver's seat of the all-electric Chevrolet Bolt at the Washington Auto Show. When it debuts on the road later this year, the Bolt will offer drivers about 200 miles of electric range. Image: Simon Edelman, Energy Department Date taken: 2016-01-21 09:45 2 of 20 The 2016 next-generation Chevrolet Volt builds on the success of its previous version, which was the first plug-in hybrid electric

  13. International Builders' Show | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Builders' Show International Builders' Show February 14, 2008 - 11:29am Addthis Remarks as Prepared for Delivery by Secretary Bodman Thank you, Andy, and thank you all for being here. The world has reached an energy crossroads. Rising global energy demand and the need for more environmentally-responsible energy production and consumption have presented us with a number of global challenges that require global solutions. Every American has a role to play in meeting these challenges. And that's

  14. Death Domain Assembly Mechanism Revealed by Crystal Structure of the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Oligomeric PIDDosome Core Complex (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Death Domain Assembly Mechanism Revealed by Crystal Structure of the Oligomeric PIDDosome Core Complex Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Death Domain Assembly Mechanism Revealed by Crystal Structure of the Oligomeric PIDDosome Core Complex Authors: Park, Hyun Ho ; Logette, Emmanuelle ; Rausnser, Stefan ; Cuenin, Solange ; Walz, Thomas ; Tschopp, Jurg ; Wu, Hao [1] ; Weill-Med) [2] ; Harvard-Med) [2] + Show Author

  15. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  16. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, O.; Yosef, K.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1998-02-17

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  17. Gasoline price shows small increase (Short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    shows small increase (Short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose to $3.32 a gallon on Monday. That's up 1.2 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  18. Gasoline price shows small increase (short version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Short version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline showed little movement from last week. Prices rose 4/10 of a cent to $3.30 a gallon on Monday, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

  19. Geothermal Energy Featured on NBC's Today Show

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    In Iceland, there are five major geothermal power plants which produce about 26% (2006) of the country's electricity. In addition, geothermal heating meets the heating and hot water requirements for around 87% of the nation's buildings. As part of its "Ends of the Earth" series, NBC's Today Show presented a feature on the use of geothermal energy in Iceland.

  20. Laser research shows promise for cancer treatment

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Cancer treatment Laser research shows promise for cancer treatment Scientists have observed for the first time how a laser penetrates dense, electron-rich plasma to generate ions. August 20, 2012 Sasi Palaniyappan, right, and Rahul Shah inside a target chamber where the TRIDENT short pulse laser is aimed at a very thin foil target. Sasi Palaniyappan, right, and Rahul Shah inside a target chamber where the TRIDENT short pulse laser is aimed at a very thin foil target. Contact Nancy Ambrosiano

  1. Gasoline price shows small increase (long version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline showed little movement from last week. Prices rose 4/10 of a cent to $3.30 a gallon on Monday, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the New England States, at 3.52 a gallon, down 1/10 of a penny from a week ago. Prices were lowest at 2.87 a gallon in the Rocky Mountain States, with the biggest regional price drop at close to 7 cents.

  2. Slow Dynamics of Orbital Domains in Manganite

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    in order to study their domain motion. By using these soft x rays generated at the ALS, one of the ... we can understand the movement of the electronic domain structure. ...

  3. Experimental observation of the interaction of propagating spin waves with Néel domain walls in a Landau domain structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pirro, P.; Sebastian, T.; Leven, B.; Hillebrands, B.; Koyama, T.; Brächer, T.

    2015-06-08

    The interaction of propagating dipolar spin waves with magnetic domain walls is investigated in square-shaped microstructures patterned from the Heusler compound Co{sub 2}Mn{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 0.4}Si. Using magnetic force microscopy, the reversible preparation of a Landau state with four magnetic domains separated by Néel domain walls is confirmed. A local spin-wave excitation using a microstructured antenna is realized in one of the domains. It is shown by Brillouin light scattering microscopy that the domain structure in the remanence state has a strong influence on the spin-wave excitation and propagation. The domain walls strongly reflect the spin waves and can be used as spin-wave reflectors. A comparison with micromagnetic simulations shows that the strong reflection is due to the long-range dipolar interaction which has important implications for the use of these spin waves for exerting an all-magnonic spin-transfer torque.

  4. Particle Communication and Domain Neighbor Coupling: Scalable Domain Decomposed Algorithms for Monte Carlo Particle Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Brien, M. J.; Brantley, P. S.

    2015-01-20

    In order to run Monte Carlo particle transport calculations on new supercomputers with hundreds of thousands or millions of processors, care must be taken to implement scalable algorithms. This means that the algorithms must continue to perform well as the processor count increases. In this paper, we examine the scalability of:(1) globally resolving the particle locations on the correct processor, (2) deciding that particle streaming communication has finished, and (3) efficiently coupling neighbor domains together with different replication levels. We have run domain decomposed Monte Carlo particle transport on up to 221 = 2,097,152 MPI processes on the IBM BG/Q Sequoia supercomputer and observed scalable results that agree with our theoretical predictions. These calculations were carefully constructed to have the same amount of work on every processor, i.e. the calculation is already load balanced. We also examine load imbalanced calculations where each domain’s replication level is proportional to its particle workload. In this case we show how to efficiently couple together adjacent domains to maintain within workgroup load balance and minimize memory usage.

  5. Domain wall conduction in multiaxial ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eliseev, E. A.; Morozovska, A. N.; Svechnikov, S. V.; Maksymovych, Petro; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2012-01-01

    The conductance of domain wall structures consisting of either stripes or cylindrical domains in multiaxial ferroelectric-semiconductors is analyzed. The effects of the flexoelectric coupling, domain size, wall tilt, and curvature on charge accumulation are analyzed using the Landau-Ginsburg Devonshire theory for polarization vector combined with the Poisson equation for charge distributions. The proximity and size effect of the electron and donor accumulation/depletion by thin stripe domains and cylindrical nanodomains are revealed. In contrast to thick domain stripes and wider cylindrical domains, in which the carrier accumulation (and so the static conductivity) sharply increases at the domain walls only, small nanodomains of radii less than 5-10 correlation lengths appeared conducting across the entire cross-section. Implications of such conductive nanosized channels may be promising for nanoelectronics.

  6. EERE Web Domains and URLs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Project Process & Approvals EERE Web Domains and URLs EERE Web Domains and URLs For domains and URLs, all Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) office and ...

  7. Time domain electromagnetic metal detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoekstra, P.

    1996-04-01

    This presentation focuses on illustrating by case histories the range of applications and limitations of time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) systems for buried metal detection. Advantages claimed for TDEM metal detectors are: independent of instrument response (Geonics EM61) to surrounding soil and rock type; simple anomaly shape; mitigation of interference by ambient electromagnetic noise; and responsive to both ferrous and non-ferrous metallic targets. The data in all case histories to be presented were acquired with the Geonics EM61 TDEM system. Case histories are a test bed site on Molokai, Hawaii; Fort Monroe, Virginia; and USDOE, Rocky Flats Plant. The present limitations of this technology are: discrimination capabilities in terms of type of ordnance, and depth of burial is limited, and ability of resolving targets with small metallic ambient needs to be improved.

  8. Haem Recognition By a Staphylococcus Aureus NEAT Domain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigg, J.C.; Vermeiren, C.; Heinrichs, D.E.; Murphy, M.E.P.

    2009-06-01

    Successful pathogenic organisms have developed mechanisms to thrive under extreme levels of iron restriction. Haem-iron represents the largest iron reservoir in the human body and is a significant source of iron for some bacterial pathogens. NEAT (NEAr Transporter) domains are found exclusively in a family of cell surface proteins in Gram-positive bacteria. Many NEAT domain-containing proteins, including IsdA in Staphylococcus aureus, are implicated in haem binding. Here, we show that overexpression of IsdA in S. aureus enhances growth and an inactivation mutant of IsdA has a growth defect, compared with wild type, when grown in media containing haem as the sole iron source. Furthermore, the haem-binding property of IsdA is contained within the NEAT domain. Crystal structures of the apo-IsdA NEAT domain and in complex with haem were solved and reveal a clathrin adapter-like beta-sandwich fold with a large hydrophobic haem-binding pocket. Haem is bound with the propionate groups directed at the molecular surface and the iron is co-ordinated solely by Tyr(166). The phenol groups of Tyr(166) and Tyr(170) form an H-bond that may function in regulating haem binding and release. An analysis of IsdA structure-sequence alignments indicate that conservation of Tyr(166) is a predictor of haem binding by NEAT domains.

  9. Hidden Rotational Symmetries in Magnetic Domain Patterns

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    A magnetic thin film with perpendicular anisotropy, such as that used in computer hard drives, for example, commonly exhibits labyrinthine domain patterns. These patterns are...

  10. A Geometric Rendezvous-Based Domain Model

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    University of Wisconsin - Madison 1500 Engineering Dr. Madison, WI 53716 sslattery@wisc.edu March 20, 2013 1 A Geometric Rendezvous-Based Domain Model for Data Transfer...

  11. Hidden Rotational Symmetries in Magnetic Domain Patterns

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    California, San Diego, have recently used coherent soft x-ray scattering with angular Fourier analysis to discover that the disordered domain patterns do, in fact, exhibit...

  12. Development of Nonlinear SSI Time Domain Methodology

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Development of Nonlinear SSI Time Domain Methodology Justin Coleman, P.E. Nuclear Science and Technology Idaho National Laboratory October 22, 2014

  13. Evolution of domain wall networks: The Press-Ryden-Spergel algorithm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sousa, L.; Avelino, P. P.

    2010-04-15

    The Press-Ryden-Spergel (PRS) algorithm is a modification to the field theory equations of motion, parametrized by two parameters ({alpha} and {beta}), implemented in numerical simulations of cosmological domain wall networks, in order to ensure a fixed comoving resolution. In this paper we explicitly demonstrate that the PRS algorithm provides the correct domain wall dynamics in (N+1)-dimensional Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes if {alpha}+{beta}/2=N, fully validating its use in numerical studies of cosmic domain evolution. We further show that this result is valid for generic thin featureless domain walls, independently of the Lagrangian of the model.

  14. Optical coherence domain reflectometry guidewire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colston, Billy W.; Everett, Matthew; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Matthews, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    A guidewire with optical sensing capabilities is based on a multiplexed optical coherence domain reflectometer (OCDR), which allows it to sense location, thickness, and structure of the arterial walls or other intra-cavity regions as it travels through the body during minimally invasive medical procedures. This information will be used both to direct the guidewire through the body by detecting vascular junctions and to evaluate the nearby tissue. The guidewire contains multiple optical fibers which couple light from the proximal to distal end. Light from the fibers at the distal end of the guidewire is directed onto interior cavity walls via small diameter optics such as gradient index lenses and mirrored corner cubes. Both forward viewing and side viewing fibers can be included. The light reflected or scattered from the cavity walls is then collected by the fibers, which are multiplexed at the proximal end to the sample arm of an optical low coherence reflectometer. The guidewire can also be used in nonmedical applications.

  15. The Replication Focus Targeting Sequence (RFTS) Domain Is a DNA-competitive Inhibitor of Dnmt1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syeda, Farisa; Fagan, Rebecca L.; Wean, Matthew; Avvakumov, George V.; Walker, John R.; Xue, Sheng; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano; Brenner, Charles

    2015-11-30

    Dnmt1 (DNA methyltransferase 1) is the principal enzyme responsible for maintenance of cytosine methylation at CpG dinucleotides in the mammalian genome. The N-terminal replication focus targeting sequence (RFTS) domain of Dnmt1 has been implicated in subcellular localization, protein association, and catalytic function. However, progress in understanding its function has been limited by the lack of assays for and a structure of this domain. Here, we show that the naked DNA- and polynucleosome-binding activities of Dnmt1 are inhibited by the RFTS domain, which functions by virtue of binding the catalytic domain to the exclusion of DNA. Kinetic analysis with a fluorogenic DNA substrate established the RFTS domain as a 600-fold inhibitor of Dnmt1 enzymatic activity. The crystal structure of the RFTS domain reveals a novel fold and supports a mechanism in which an RFTS-targeted Dnmt1-binding protein, such as Uhrf1, may activate Dnmt1 for DNA binding.

  16. Pinkbar is an epithelial-specific BAR domain protein that generates planar membrane structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pyklinen, Anette; Boczkowska, Malgorzata; Zhao, Hongxia; Saarikangas, Juha; Rebowski, Grzegorz; Jansen, Maurice; Hakanen, Janne; Koskela, Essi V.; Pernen, Johan; Vihinen, Helena; Jokitalo, Eija; Salminen, Marjo; Ikonen, Elina; Dominguez, Roberto; Lappalainen, Pekka

    2013-05-29

    Bin/amphipysin/Rvs (BAR)-domain proteins sculpt cellular membranes and have key roles in processes such as endocytosis, cell motility and morphogenesis. BAR domains are divided into three subfamilies: BAR- and F-BAR-domain proteins generate positive membrane curvature and stabilize cellular invaginations, whereas I-BAR-domain proteins induce negative curvature and stabilize protrusions. We show that a previously uncharacterized member of the I-BAR subfamily, Pinkbar, is specifically expressed in intestinal epithelial cells, where it localizes to Rab13-positive vesicles and to the plasma membrane at intercellular junctions. Notably, the BAR domain of Pinkbar does not induce membrane tubulation but promotes the formation of planar membrane sheets. Structural and mutagenesis analyses reveal that the BAR domain of Pinkbar has a relatively flat lipid-binding interface and that it assembles into sheet-like oligomers in crystals and in solution, which may explain its unique membrane-deforming activity.

  17. EERE Web Domains, URLs, and Redirects

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    All Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) office and partnership websites must use domains and URLs that have been approved by the Department of Energy (DOE)’s Chief Information Office, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), and EERE's domain policies.

  18. Automotion of domain walls for spintronic interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Young, Ian A.

    2014-06-07

    We simulate “automotion,” the transport of a magnetic domain wall under the influence of demagnetization and magnetic anisotropy, in nanoscale spintronic interconnects. In contrast to spin transfer driven magnetic domain wall motion, the proposed interconnects operate without longitudinal charge current transfer, with only a transient current pulse at domain wall creation and have favorable scaling down to the 20 nm dimension. Cases of both in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization are considered. Analytical dependence of the velocity of domain walls on the angle of magnetization are compared with full micromagnetic simulations. Deceleration, attenuation and disappearance, and reflection of domain walls are demonstrated through simulation. Dependences of the magnetization angle on the current pulse parameters are studied. The energy and delay analysis suggests that automotion is an attractive option for spintronic logic interconnects.

  19. Highly mobile ferroelastic domain walls in compositionally graded ferroelectric thin films

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Damodaran, Anoop; Okatan, M. B.; Kacher, J.; Gammer, C.; Vasudevan, Rama; Pandya, S.; Dedon, L. R.; Mangalam, R. V.; Jesse, Stephen; Balke, Nina; et al

    2016-02-15

    Domains and domain walls are critical in determining the response of ferroelectrics, and the ability to controllably create, annihilate, or move domains is essential to enable a range of next-generation devices. Whereas electric-field control has been demonstrated for ferroelectric 180° domain walls, similar control of ferroelastic domains has not been achieved. Here, using controlled composition and strain gradients, we demonstrate deterministic control of ferroelastic domains that are rendered highly mobile in a controlled and reversible manner. Through a combination of thin-film growth, transmission-electron-microscopy-based nanobeam diffraction and nanoscale band-excitation switching spectroscopy, we show that strain gradients in compositionally graded PbZr1-xTixO3 heterostructuresmore » stabilize needle-like ferroelastic domains that terminate inside the film. These needle-like domains are highly labile in the out-of-plane direction under applied electric fields, producing a locally enhanced piezoresponse. This work demonstrates the efficacy of novel modes of epitaxy in providing new modalities of domain engineering and potential for as-yet-unrealized nanoscale functional devices.« less

  20. Human HLTF mediates postreplication repair by its HIRAN domain-dependent replication fork remodelling

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Achar, Yathish Jagadheesh; Balogh, David; Neculai, Dante; Juhasz, Szilvia; Morocz, Monika; Gali, Himabindu; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano; Venclovas, Česlovas; Haracska, Lajos

    2015-09-08

    Defects in the ability to respond properly to an unrepaired DNA lesion blocking replication promote genomic instability and cancer. Human HLTF, implicated in error-free replication of damaged DNA and tumour suppression, exhibits a HIRAN domain, a RING domain, and a SWI/SNF domain facilitating DNA-binding, PCNA-polyubiquitin-ligase, and dsDNA-translocase activities, respectively. Here, we investigate the mechanism of HLTF action with emphasis on its HIRAN domain. We found that in cells HLTF promotes the filling-in of gaps left opposite damaged DNA during replication, and this postreplication repair function depends on its HIRAN domain. Our biochemical assays show that HIRAN domain mutant HLTF proteinsmore » retain their ubiquitin ligase, ATPase and dsDNA translocase activities but are impaired in binding to a model replication fork. These data and our structural study indicate that the HIRAN domain recruits HLTF to a stalled replication fork, and it also provides the direction for the movement of the dsDNA translocase motor domain for fork reversal. We suggest functional similarities between the HIRAN, the OB, the HARP2, and other domains found in certain motor proteins, which may explain why only a subset of DNA translocases can carry out fork reversal.« less

  1. Human HLTF mediates postreplication repair by its HIRAN domain-dependent replication fork remodelling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Achar, Yathish Jagadheesh; Balogh, David; Neculai, Dante; Juhasz, Szilvia; Morocz, Monika; Gali, Himabindu; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano; Venclovas, Česlovas; Haracska, Lajos

    2015-09-08

    Defects in the ability to respond properly to an unrepaired DNA lesion blocking replication promote genomic instability and cancer. Human HLTF, implicated in error-free replication of damaged DNA and tumour suppression, exhibits a HIRAN domain, a RING domain, and a SWI/SNF domain facilitating DNA-binding, PCNA-polyubiquitin-ligase, and dsDNA-translocase activities, respectively. Here, we investigate the mechanism of HLTF action with emphasis on its HIRAN domain. We found that in cells HLTF promotes the filling-in of gaps left opposite damaged DNA during replication, and this postreplication repair function depends on its HIRAN domain. Our biochemical assays show that HIRAN domain mutant HLTF proteins retain their ubiquitin ligase, ATPase and dsDNA translocase activities but are impaired in binding to a model replication fork. These data and our structural study indicate that the HIRAN domain recruits HLTF to a stalled replication fork, and it also provides the direction for the movement of the dsDNA translocase motor domain for fork reversal. We suggest functional similarities between the HIRAN, the OB, the HARP2, and other domains found in certain motor proteins, which may explain why only a subset of DNA translocases can carry out fork reversal.

  2. Mechanism-Based Tuning of a LOV Domain Photoreceptor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zoltowski, B.; Vaccaro, B; Crane, B

    2009-01-01

    Phototropin-like LOV domains form a cysteinyl-flavin adduct in response to blue light but show considerable variation in output signal and the lifetime of the photo-adduct signaling state. Mechanistic studies of the slow-cycling fungal LOV photoreceptor Vivid (VVD) reveal the importance of reactive cysteine conformation, flavin electronic environment and solvent accessibility for adduct scission and thermal reversion. Proton inventory, pH effects, base catalysis and structural studies implicate flavin N5 deprotonation as rate-determining for recovery. Substitutions of active site residues Ile74, Ile85, Met135 and Met165 alter photoadduct lifetimes by over four orders of magnitude in VVD, and similar changes in other LOV proteins show analogous effects. Adduct state decay rates also correlate with changes in conformational and oligomeric properties of the protein necessary for signaling. These findings link natural sequence variation of LOV domains to function and provide a means to design broadly reactive light-sensitive probes.

  3. Slow Dynamics of Orbital Domains in Manganite

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    technique with photons of light that have wavelengths a billion times smaller than radio waves in order to study their domain motion. By using these soft x rays generated at...

  4. Slow Dynamics of Orbital Domains in Manganite

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Slow Dynamics of Orbital Domains in Manganite Print At the ALS, an international team of researchers has used low-energy coherent x rays to extract new knowledge about the...

  5. Disparity of secondary electron emission in ferroelectric domains of YMnO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Shaobo; Deng, S. Q.; Yuan, Wenjuan; Yan, Yunjie; Zhu, Jing; Li, J.; Li, J. Q.

    2015-07-20

    The applications of multiferroic materials require our understanding about the behaviors of domains with different polarization directions. Taking advantage of the scanning electron microscope, we investigate the polar surface of single crystal YMnO{sub 3} sample in secondary electron (SE) mode. By slowing down the scanning speed of electron beam, the negative surface potential of YMnO{sub 3} can be realized, and the domain contrast can be correspondingly changed. Under this experimental condition, with the help of a homemade Faraday cup, the difference of intrinsic SE emission coefficients of antiparallel domains is measured to be 0.12 and the downward polarization domains show a larger SE emission ability. Our results indicate that the total SE emission of this material can be altered by changing the ratio of the antiparallel domains, which provide an avenue for device design with this kind of materials.

  6. Sapphire decomposition and inversion domains in N-polar aluminum nitride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussey, Lindsay White, Ryan M.; Kirste, Ronny; Bryan, Isaac; Guo, Wei; Osterman, Katherine; Haidet, Brian; Bryan, Zachary; Bobea, Milena; Collazo, Ramn; Sitar, Zlatko; Mita, Seiji

    2014-01-20

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques and potassium hydroxide (KOH) etching confirmed that inversion domains in the N-polar AlN grown on c-plane sapphire were due to the decomposition of sapphire in the presence of hydrogen. The inversion domains were found to correspond to voids at the AlN and sapphire interface, and transmission electron microscopy results showed a V-shaped, columnar inversion domain with staggered domain boundary sidewalls. Voids were also observed in the simultaneously grown Al-polar AlN, however no inversion domains were present. The polarity of AlN grown above the decomposed regions of the sapphire substrate was confirmed to be Al-polar by KOH etching and TEM.

  7. Human-computer interface incorporating personal and application domains

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Thomas G.

    2011-03-29

    The present invention provides a human-computer interface. The interface includes provision of an application domain, for example corresponding to a three-dimensional application. The user is allowed to navigate and interact with the application domain. The interface also includes a personal domain, offering the user controls and interaction distinct from the application domain. The separation into two domains allows the most suitable interface methods in each: for example, three-dimensional navigation in the application domain, and two- or three-dimensional controls in the personal domain. Transitions between the application domain and the personal domain are under control of the user, and the transition method is substantially independent of the navigation in the application domain. For example, the user can fly through a three-dimensional application domain, and always move to the personal domain by moving a cursor near one extreme of the display.

  8. Human-computer interface incorporating personal and application domains

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Thomas G.

    2004-04-20

    The present invention provides a human-computer interface. The interface includes provision of an application domain, for example corresponding to a three-dimensional application. The user is allowed to navigate and interact with the application domain. The interface also includes a personal domain, offering the user controls and interaction distinct from the application domain. The separation into two domains allows the most suitable interface methods in each: for example, three-dimensional navigation in the application domain, and two- or three-dimensional controls in the personal domain. Transitions between the application domain and the personal domain are under control of the user, and the transition method is substantially independent of the navigation in the application domain. For example, the user can fly through a three-dimensional application domain, and always move to the personal domain by moving a cursor near one extreme of the display.

  9. Structure of a Longitudinal Actin Dimer Assembled by Tandem W Domains: Implications for Actin Filament Nucleation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebowski, Grzegorz; Namgoong, Suk; Boczkowska, Malgorzata; Leavis, Paul C.; Navaza, Jorge; Dominguez, Roberto

    2013-11-20

    Actin filament nucleators initiate polymerization in cells in a regulated manner. A common architecture among these molecules consists of tandem WASP homology 2 domains (W domains) that recruit three to four actin subunits to form a polymerization nucleus. We describe a low-resolution crystal structure of an actin dimer assembled by tandem W domains, where the first W domain is cross-linked to Cys374 of the actin subunit bound to it, whereas the last W domain is followed by the C-terminal pointed end-capping helix of thymosin {beta}4. While the arrangement of actin subunits in the dimer resembles that of a long-pitch helix of the actin filament, important differences are observed. These differences result from steric hindrance of the W domain with intersubunit contacts in the actin filament. We also determined the structure of the first W domain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus VopL cross-linked to actin Cys374 and show it to be nearly identical with non-cross-linked W-Actin structures. This result validates the use of cross-linking as a tool for the study of actin nucleation complexes, whose natural tendency to polymerize interferes with most structural methods. Combined with a biochemical analysis of nucleation, the structures may explain why nucleators based on tandem W domains with short inter-W linkers have relatively weak activity, cannot stay bound to filaments after nucleation, and are unlikely to influence filament elongation. The findings may also explain why nucleation-promoting factors of the Arp2/3 complex, which are related to tandem-W-domain nucleators, are ejected from branch junctions after nucleation. We finally show that the simple addition of the C-terminal pointed end-capping helix of thymosin {beta}4 to tandem W domains can change their activity from actin filament nucleation to monomer sequestration.

  10. Current-driven vortex domain wall motion in wire-tube nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Espejo, A. P.; Vidal-Silva, N.; López-López, J. A.; Goerlitz, D.; Nielsch, K.; Escrig, J.

    2015-03-30

    We have investigated the current-driven domain wall motion in nanostructures comprised of a pair of nanotube and nanowire segments. Under certain values of external magnetic fields, it is possible to pin a vortex domain wall in the transition zone between the wire and tube segments. We explored the behavior of this domain wall under the action of an electron flow applied in the opposite direction to the magnetic field. Thus, for a fixed magnetic field, it is possible to release a domain wall pinned simply by increasing the intensity of the current density, or conversely, for a fixed current density, it is possible to release the domain wall simply decreasing the magnetic external field. When the domain wall remains pinned due to the competition between the current density and the magnetic external field, it exhibits a oscillation frequency close to 8 GHz. The amplitude of the oscillations increases with the current density and decreases over time. On the other hand, when the domain wall is released and propagated through the tube segment, this shows the standard separation between a steady and a precessional regime. The ability to pin and release a domain wall by varying the geometric parameters, the current density, or the magnetic field transforms these wire-tube nanostructures in an interesting alternative as an on/off switch nano-transistor.

  11. Dual-domain point diffraction interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Goldberg, Kenneth Alan

    2000-01-01

    A hybrid spatial/temporal-domain point diffraction interferometer (referred to as the dual-domain PS/PDI) that is capable of suppressing the scattered-reference-light noise that hinders the conventional PS/PDI is provided. The dual-domain PS/PDI combines the separate noise-suppression capabilities of the widely-used phase-shifting and Fourier-transform fringe pattern analysis methods. The dual-domain PS/PDI relies on both a more restrictive implementation of the image plane PS/PDI mask and a new analysis method to be applied to the interferograms generated and recorded by the modified PS/PDI. The more restrictive PS/PDI mask guarantees the elimination of spatial-frequency crosstalk between the signal and the scattered-light noise arising from scattered-reference-light interfering with the test beam. The new dual-domain analysis method is then used to eliminate scattered-light noise arising from both the scattered-reference-light interfering with the test beam and the scattered-reference-light interfering with the "true" pinhole-diffracted reference light. The dual-domain analysis method has also been demonstrated to provide performance enhancement when using the non-optimized standard PS/PDI design. The dual-domain PS/PDI is essentially a three-tiered filtering system composed of lowpass spatial-filtering the test-beam electric field using the more restrictive PS/PDI mask, bandpass spatial-filtering the individual interferogram irradiance frames making up the phase-shifting series, and bandpass temporal-filtering the phase-shifting series as a whole.

  12. On the predictability of the orientation of protein domains joined...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of protein domains joined by a spanning alpha-helical linker Citation Details In-Document Search Title: On the predictability of the orientation of protein domains ...

  13. Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Soda Lake Area (Combs 2006) ...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Soda Lake Area (Combs 2006) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Soda...

  14. Category:Time-Domain Electromagnetics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Time-Domain Electromagnetics Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Time-Domain Electromagnetics page? For detailed...

  15. Jamming Behavior of Domains in a Spiral Antiferromagnetic System

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Jamming Behavior of Domains in a Spiral Antiferromagnetic System Jamming Behavior of Domains in a Spiral Antiferromagnetic System Print Tuesday, 04 June 2013 13:34 This schematic...

  16. Ferroelasticity and domain physics in two-dimensional transition...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Accepted Manuscript: Ferroelasticity and domain physics in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers Prev Next Title: Ferroelasticity and domain physics in ...

  17. Molecular functions of the TLE tetramerization domain in Wnt...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    domain in Wnt target gene repression Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular functions of the TLE tetramerization domain in Wnt target gene repression ...

  18. Statistical and Domain Analytics Applied to PV Module Lifetime...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Statistical and Domain Analytics Applied to PV Module Lifetime and Degradation Science Statistical and Domain Analytics Applied to PV Module Lifetime and Degradation Science ...

  19. Category:Controlled Source Frequency-Domain Magnetics | Open...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Controlled Source Frequency-Domain Magnetics Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Controlled Source Frequency-Domain...

  20. Effects of twin boundary mobility on domain microstructure evolution in magnetic shape memory alloys: Phase field simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Yongmei M.

    2009-02-09

    Effects of twin boundary mobility on domain microstructure evolution during magnetic field-induced deformation in magnetic shape memory alloys are studied by phase field micromagnetic microelastic modeling. The simulations show that different twin boundary mobilities lead to drastically different domain microstructures and evolution pathways, yielding very different magnetization and strain responses, even with opposite signs. The study also reveals complex domain phenomena in magnetic shape memory alloys.

  1. Crystal structure studies of NADP{sup +} dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase from Thermus thermophilus exhibiting a novel terminal domain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, S.M.; Pampa, K.J.; Manjula, M.; Abdoh, M.M.M.; Kunishima, Naoki; Lokanath, N.K.

    2014-06-20

    Highlights: • We determined the structure of isocitrate dehydrogenase with citrate and cofactor. • The structure reveals a unique novel terminal domain involved in dimerization. • Clasp domain shows significant difference, and catalytic residues are conserved. • Oligomerization of the enzyme is quantized with subunit-subunit interactions. • Novel domain of this enzyme is classified as subfamily of the type IV. - Abstract: NADP{sup +} dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) is an enzyme catalyzing oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate into oxalosuccinate (intermediate) and finally the product α-ketoglutarate. The crystal structure of Thermus thermophilus isocitrate dehydrogenase (TtIDH) ternary complex with citrate and cofactor NADP{sup +} was determined using X-ray diffraction method to a resolution of 1.80 Å. The overall fold of this protein was resolved into large domain, small domain and a clasp domain. The monomeric structure reveals a novel terminal domain involved in dimerization, very unique and novel domain when compared to other IDH’s. And, small domain and clasp domain showing significant differences when compared to other IDH’s of the same sub-family. The structure of TtIDH reveals the absence of helix at the clasp domain, which is mainly involved in oligomerization in other IDH’s. Also, helices/beta sheets are absent in the small domain, when compared to other IDH’s of the same sub family. The overall TtIDH structure exhibits closed conformation with catalytic triad residues, Tyr144-Asp248-Lys191 are conserved. Oligomerization of the protein is quantized using interface area and subunit–subunit interactions between protomers. Overall, the TtIDH structure with novel terminal domain may be categorized as a first structure of subfamily of type IV.

  2. Standing gravitational waves from domain walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gogberashvili, Merab; Myrzakul, Shynaray; Singleton, Douglas

    2009-07-15

    We construct a plane symmetric, standing gravitational wave for a domain wall plus a massless scalar field. The scalar field can be associated with a fluid which has the properties of 'stiff' matter, i.e., matter in which the speed of sound equals the speed of light. Although domain walls are observationally ruled out in the present era, the solution has interesting features which might shed light on the character of exact nonlinear wave solutions to Einstein's equations. Additionally this solution may act as a template for higher dimensional 'brane-world' model standing waves.

  3. NREL: Wind Research - Wind Career Map Shows Wind Industry Career...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Career Map Shows Wind Industry Career Opportunities, Paths A screenshot of the wind career map showing the various points on a chart that show different careers in the wind...

  4. Statistics Show Bearing Problems Cause the Majority of Wind Turbine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Statistics Show Bearing Problems Cause the Majority of Wind Turbine Gearbox Failures Statistics Show Bearing Problems Cause the Majority of Wind Turbine Gearbox Failures September ...

  5. Water telescope's first sky map shows flickering black holes

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Water telescope's first sky map shows flickering black holes Water telescope's first sky map shows flickering black holes The High Altitude Water Cherenkov observatory has released ...

  6. Federal Energy Management Trade Show | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Federal Energy Management Trade Show Federal Energy Management Trade Show Addthis 1 of 4 Timothy Unruh, Program Manager for the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy...

  7. Plasma research shows promise for future compact accelerators

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma research shows promise for future compact accelerators Plasma research shows promise for future compact accelerators A transformative breakthrough in controlling ion beams ...

  8. Pumped-Storage Hydropower Shows Promise for Boosting Energy Storage...

    Energy Savers

    Pumped-Storage Hydropower Shows Promise for Boosting Energy Storage Pumped-Storage Hydropower Shows Promise for Boosting Energy Storage August 23, 2016 - 10:45am Addthis ...

  9. DOE Releases New Analysis Showing Significant Advances in Electric...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Analysis Showing Significant Advances in Electric Vehicle Deployment DOE Releases New Analysis Showing Significant Advances in Electric Vehicle Deployment February 8, 2011 - ...

  10. Shanghai Hi Show Photovoltaic Science Technology Co Ltd | Open...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Hi Show Photovoltaic Science Technology Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shanghai Hi-Show Photovoltaic Science & Technology Co., Ltd Place: Shanghai Municipality, China...

  11. NREL Refinery Process Shows Increased Effectiveness of Producing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Refinery Process Shows Increased Effectiveness of Producing Ethanol from Algae NREL Refinery Process Shows Increased Effectiveness of Producing Ethanol from Algae February 11, 2016 ...

  12. The RCK Domain of the KtrAB K+ Transporter: Multiple Conformations of an Octameric Ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albright,R.; Vazquez Ibar, J.; Kim, C.; Gruner, S.; Morais-Cabral, J.

    2006-01-01

    The KtrAB ion transporter is a complex of the KtrB membrane protein and KtrA, an RCK domain. RCK domains regulate eukaryotic and prokaryotic membrane proteins involved in K{sup +} transport. Conflicting functional models have proposed two different oligomeric arrangements for RCK domains, tetramer versus octamer. Our results for the KtrAB RCK domain clearly show an octamer in solution and in the crystal. We determined the structure of this protein in three different octameric ring conformations that resemble the RCK-domain octamer observed in the MthK potassium channel but show striking differences in size and symmetry. We present experimental evidence for the association between one RCK octameric ring and two KtrB membrane proteins. These results provide insights into the quaternary organization of the KtrAB transporter and its mechanism of activation and show that the RCK-domain octameric ring model is generally applicable to other ion-transport systems.

  13. Nucleic acids encoding a cellulose binding domain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1996-03-05

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 15 figs.

  14. Nucleic acids encoding a cellulose binding domain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1996-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  15. Simulations Show Swirling Rings, Whirlpool-Like Structure in Subatomic

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    'Soup' Simulations Show Swirling Rings, Whirlpool-Like Structure in Subatomic 'Soup'

  16. Structurally Similar but Functionally Diverse ZU5 Domains in Human Erythrocyte Ankyrin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yasunaga, Mai; Ipsaro, Jonathan J.; Mondragón, Alfonso

    2014-10-02

    The metazoan cell membrane is highly organized. Maintaining such organization and preserving membrane integrity under different conditions are accomplished through intracellular tethering to an extensive, flexible protein network. Spectrin, the principal component of this network, is attached to the membrane through the adaptor protein ankyrin, which directly bridges the interaction between {beta}-spectrin and membrane proteins. Ankyrins have a modular structure that includes two tandem ZU5 domains. The first domain, ZU5A, is directly responsible for binding {beta}-spectrin. Here, we present a structure of the tandem ZU5 repeats of human erythrocyte ankyrin. Structural and biophysical experiments show that the second ZU5 domain, ZU5B, does not participate in spectrin binding. ZU5B is structurally similar to the ZU5 domain found in the netrin receptor UNC5b supramodule, suggesting that it could interact with other domains in ankyrin. Comparison of several ZU5 domains demonstrates that the ZU5 domain represents a compact and versatile protein interaction module.

  17. Using Non-Government Domain Names | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Using Non-Government Domain Names Using Non-Government Domain Names There may be occasion where it is necessary to utilize a non-government domain. The OMB Policies for Federal Agency Public Websites states: Your agency must use only .gov, .mil, or Fed.us domains unless the agency head explicitly determines another domain is necessary for the proper performance of an agency function. This requirement recognizes the proper performance of agency functions includes an obligation for clear and

  18. A Look Inside the Detroit Auto Show | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers

    the Detroit Auto Show A Look Inside the Detroit Auto Show January 12, 2011 - 1:15pm Addthis Kerry Duggan Kerry Duggan Waking up at 4:30AM is not my idea of fun. But after I ...

  19. Interactive Map Shows Thousands of Sandia Labs Collaborations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Interactive Map Shows Thousands of Sandia Labs Collaborations Across U.S. Interactive Map Shows Thousands of Sandia Labs Collaborations Across U.S. March 8, 2016 - 2:46pm Addthis ...

  20. New Interactive Map Shows Big Potential for America's Wind Energy...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Interactive Map Shows Big Potential for America's Wind Energy Future New Interactive Map Shows Big Potential for America's Wind Energy Future March 31, 2015 - 11:50am Addthis Wind ...

  1. Show Me the Money!: How to Find Financing, Access Incentives...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Show Me the Money: How to Find Financing, Access Incentives, and Get Projects Done Show Me the Money: How to Find Financing, Access Incentives, and Get Projects Done December 6, ...

  2. New Report Shows Downward Trend in LCOE for Wind | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    New Report Shows Downward Trend in LCOE for Wind New Report Shows Downward Trend in LCOE for Wind May 18, 2015 - 2:48pm Addthis A new report recently published by the U.S. ...

  3. New Geothermal Prospects in the Western United States Show Promise...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Geothermal Prospects in the Western United States Show Promise New Geothermal Prospects in the Western United States Show Promise February 27, 2013 - 2:21pm Addthis New geothermal ...

  4. Native American Heritage Month (NAHM) - Cultural Film Showing |

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy Native American Heritage Month (NAHM) - Cultural Film Showing Native American Heritage Month (NAHM) - Cultural Film Showing November 14, 2016 10:00AM to 11:00AM EST Native American Heritage Month (NAHM) - Cultural Film Showing

  5. Local conductance: A means to extract polarization and depolarizing fields near domain walls in ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas, A. M.; Kumar, A.; Gregg, J. M.; Whatmore, R. W.

    2015-10-26

    Conducting atomic force microscopy images of bulk semiconducting BaTiO{sub 3} surfaces show clear stripe domain contrast. High local conductance correlates with strong out-of-plane polarization (mapped independently using piezoresponse force microscopy), and current-voltage characteristics are consistent with dipole-induced alterations in Schottky barriers at the metallic tip-ferroelectric interface. Indeed, analyzing current-voltage data in terms of established Schottky barrier models allows relative variations in the surface polarization, and hence the local domain structure, to be determined. Fitting also reveals the signature of surface-related depolarizing fields concentrated near domain walls. Domain information obtained from mapping local conductance appears to be more surface-sensitive than that from piezoresponse force microscopy. In the right materials systems, local current mapping could therefore represent a useful complementary technique for evaluating polarization and local electric fields with nanoscale resolution.

  6. Imaging and characterization of conducting ferroelectric domain walls by photoemission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaab, J.; Meier, D.; Krug, I. P.; Nickel, F.; Gottlob, D. M.; Doğanay, H.; Schneider, C. M.; Cano, A.; Hentschel, M.; Yan, Z.; Bourret, E.; Ramesh, R.

    2014-06-09

    High-resolution X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (X-PEEM) is a well-established method for imaging ferroelectric domain structures. Here, we expand the scope of application of X-PEEM and demonstrate its capability for imaging and investigating domain walls in ferroelectrics with high spatial resolution. Using ErMnO{sub 3} as test system, we show that ferroelectric domain walls can be visualized based on photo-induced charging effects and local variations in their electronic conductance can be mapped by analyzing the energy distribution of photoelectrons. Our results open the door for non-destructive, contact-free, and element-specific studies of the electronic and chemical structure at domain walls in ferroelectrics.

  7. High-frequency programmable acoustic wave device realized through ferroelectric domain engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivry, Yachin E-mail: cd229@eng.cam.ac.uk; Wang, Nan; Durkan, Colm E-mail: cd229@eng.cam.ac.uk

    2014-03-31

    Surface acoustic wave devices are extensively used in contemporary wireless communication devices. We used atomic force microscopy to form periodic macroscopic ferroelectric domains in sol-gel deposited lead zirconate titanate, where each ferroelectric domain is composed of many crystallites, each of which contains many microscopic ferroelastic domains. We examined the electro-acoustic characteristics of the apparatus and found a resonator behavior similar to that of an equivalent surface or bulk acoustic wave device. We show that the operational frequency of the device can be tailored by altering the periodicity of the engineered domains and demonstrate high-frequency filter behavior (>8 GHz), allowing low-cost programmable high-frequency resonators.

  8. Getting the Most Out of a Show | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Publications, Exhibits, & Logos » Getting the Most Out of a Show Getting the Most Out of a Show These guidelines are designed to assist you during the event, in order to get the most out of the showing of your exhibit. Look the Part Create a good impression for EERE by looking polished and professional. Wear business-like, comfortable attire. Don't forget your nametag! Get plenty of rest before the show, and pace yourself during the show (you will need breaks, so schedule them). Staffing

  9. LHC RF System Time-Domain Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mastorides, T.; Rivetta, C.

    2010-09-14

    Non-linear time-domain simulations have been developed for the Positron-Electron Project (PEP-II) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). These simulations capture the dynamic behavior of the RF station-beam interaction and are structured to reproduce the technical characteristics of the system (noise contributions, non-linear elements, and more). As such, they provide useful results and insight for the development and design of future LLRF feedback systems. They are also a valuable tool for the study of diverse longitudinal beam dynamics effects such as coupled-bunch impedance driven instabilities and single bunch longitudinal emittance growth. Results from these studies and related measurements from PEP-II and LHC have been presented in multiple places. This report presents an example of the time-domain simulation implementation for the LHC.

  10. Domain decomposition multigrid for unstructured grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapira, Yair

    1997-01-01

    A two-level preconditioning method for the solution of elliptic boundary value problems using finite element schemes on possibly unstructured meshes is introduced. It is based on a domain decomposition and a Galerkin scheme for the coarse level vertex unknowns. For both the implementation and the analysis, it is not required that the curves of discontinuity in the coefficients of the PDE match the interfaces between subdomains. Generalizations to nonmatching or overlapping grids are made.

  11. Los Alamos disease-fighting technology showing promise

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    disease-fighting technology showing promise Los Alamos disease-fighting technology showing promise A pathogen-carrying pest known as the glassy-winged sharpshooter has plagued grape vines in California for more than century, but a new technology from Los Alamos National Laboratory could change that. November 4, 2016 Los Alamos disease-fighting technology showing promise Citrus plants treated with immunity technology, left, and untreated plants. Innate Immunity LLC is developing genetically

  12. 3D Printed Car at the International Manufacturing Technology Show |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy 3D Printed Car at the International Manufacturing Technology Show 3D Printed Car at the International Manufacturing Technology Show Addthis WORLD'S FIRST 1 of 6 WORLD'S FIRST The world's first 3D-printed car on display at the International Manufacturing Technology Show in Chicago last week. Arizona-based Local Motors, and Cincinnati Incorporated teamed with Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Manufacturing Demonstration Facility-with funding support from the Energy

  13. Water telescope's first sky map shows flickering black holes

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Water telescope's first sky map shows flickering black holes Water telescope's first sky map shows flickering black holes The High Altitude Water Cherenkov observatory has released its first map of the sky, including the first measurements of how often black holes flicker on and off. It has also caught pulsars, supernova remnants, and other bizarre cosmic beasts. April 24, 2016 Water telescope's first sky map shows flickering black holes Three new sources of gamma rays spotted by HAWC. Credit:

  14. New Geothermal Prospects in the Western United States Show Promise |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Geothermal Prospects in the Western United States Show Promise New Geothermal Prospects in the Western United States Show Promise February 27, 2013 - 2:21pm Addthis New geothermal prospects in the western United States show promise, according to the new 2013 Annual U.S. Geothermal Power Production and Development Report, published by the Geothermal Energy Association this week. With an estimate of more than 500 Megawatts of new potential in Oregon alone, industry leader

  15. CHICAGO HOUSE PARTIES SHOW WAYS TO UPGRADE | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    CHICAGO HOUSE PARTIES SHOW WAYS TO UPGRADE CHICAGO HOUSE PARTIES SHOW WAYS TO UPGRADE CHICAGO HOUSE PARTIES SHOW WAYS TO UPGRADE The Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning (CMAP) and its partners created Energy Impact Illinois (EI2) to promote home energy upgrades in single-family homes, multifamily housing units, and commercial buildings to help the region meet its 2008 Chicago Climate Action Plan and longer term GO TO 2040 Strategic Plan. EI2 enlisted the help of the Elevate Energy, a

  16. Secretary Moniz Releases Report Showing the Cost Reductions and Rapid

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Deployment of Clean Energy Technologies | Department of Energy Secretary Moniz Releases Report Showing the Cost Reductions and Rapid Deployment of Clean Energy Technologies Secretary Moniz Releases Report Showing the Cost Reductions and Rapid Deployment of Clean Energy Technologies September 28, 2016 - 11:33am Addthis Secretary Moniz Releases Report Showing the Cost Reductions and Rapid Deployment of Clean Energy Technologies NEWS MEDIA CONTACT (202) 586-4940 DOENews@hq.doe.gov During Obama

  17. NREL: Wind Research - New Video Shows How NREL Is Redefining...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    New Video Shows How NREL Is Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy Through Grid Integration January 23, 2015 NREL is spearheading engineering innovations that will help...

  18. The Majorana Demonstrator: Progress towards showing the feasibility...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Finnerty, P. 1 ; Elliott, Steven R. 2 ; Boswell, Melissa 2 ; Kidd, Mary 2 ; Rielage, Keith R. 2 ; Ronquest, Michael 2 ; Steele, Steven 2 + Show Author ...

  19. NREL: Technology Transfer - New Video Shows How NREL Is Redefining...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    New Video Shows How NREL Is Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy Through Grid Integration January 23, 2015 NREL is spearheading engineering innovations that will help...

  20. Analysis shows greenhouse gas emissions similar for shale, crude...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Michael Wang, Argonne senior scientist and lead on the GREET model Analysis shows greenhouse gas emissions similar for shale, crude oil By Tona Kunz * October 15, 2015 Tweet ...

  1. ANL Study Shows Wind Power Decreases Power Sector Emissions ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    increases, pollutant emissions decrease overall due to the replacement of fossil fuels. "Our study clearly shows that using wind to generate electricity has a discernible ...

  2. SLIDESHOW: Secretary Moniz Tours 2014 Washington Auto Show

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    A slideshow featuring highlights from Secretary Moniz's tour of the 2014 Washington Auto Show is currently posted on the Energy Department's blog.

  3. Sandia Energy - Biofuels Blend Right In: Researchers Show Ionic...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Biofuels Blend Right In: Researchers Show Ionic Liquids Effective for Pretreating Mixed Blends of Biofuel Feedstocks Home Renewable Energy Energy Transportation Energy Biofuels...

  4. Latest Report Shows Cost of Going Solar has Dropped Significantly...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    The report shows that the installed price of distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) power systems in the United States continues to fall precipitously, especially in the last 5 years. ...

  5. ORISE: Report shows nuclear engineering graduation rates on the...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ORISE report shows nuclear engineering graduation rates on the rise in 2013 Number of ... OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-The number of college students graduating with majors in nuclear ...

  6. ORISE: Report shows nuclear engineering graduation rates rebounding...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    report shows nuclear engineering graduation rates rebounding in 2015 after brief decline ... number of college students graduating with majors in nuclear engineering has rebounded. ...

  7. ORISE: Report shows nuclear engineering graduation rates leveling...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ORISE report shows nuclear engineering graduation rates leveling off in 2014 after five ... OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-The number of college students graduating with majors in nuclear ...

  8. Widget:ShowRefFieldsButton | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    widget provides supporting functionality to forms that want to capture references for specific values. Specifically, this widget creates the Show Reference Fields button, which...

  9. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Evaluation Results Show...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Evaluation Results Show Continued Improvements in Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Durability, Fuel Economy, Driving Range Project Technology Validation: Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle ...

  10. Argonne Site Map Showing CNM Location | Argonne National Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Site Map Showing CNM Location Find your way to the Center for Nanoscale Materials on the Argonne National Laboratory campus. PDF icon CNM-Argonne_map

  11. User:Nlangle/show map test | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    show map test < User:Nlangle Jump to: navigation, search Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":"ROADMAP","SATELLITE","H...

  12. DOE Booth Presentations From Grainger Show 2015 Downloads

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE hosted its solid-state lighting informational booth February 16–18 at the annual Grainger Show in Orlando, FL. With over 17,000 attendees and over 750 exhibitors, the show gathered a wide range of Grainger customers—from universities to large hotel chains as well as Grainger team members to learn the latest about LED lighting.

  13. Wyo. Stat. 1-26 - Eminent Domain | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Wyo. Stat. 1-26 - Eminent Domain Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: Wyo. Stat. 1-26 - Eminent DomainLegal...

  14. Annual report shows potential INL radiation dose well below safe...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho Operations Office reported this month that radiation ... Data shows that the INL site potential radiation dose is less than 1% of the limit of 10 ...

  15. Study Shows Significant Economic Impact from Recovery Act

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    A study recently released shows the $1.6 billion the Savannah River Site (SRS) received from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act has had a positive economic impact on the adjacent five...

  16. The #LabsRoadShow: National Lab Contributions

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Join us for Stop Two of the Labs Road Show. All week we'll be highlighting the most notable contributions National Labs have made to science, energy and national security.

  17. New Report Shows Trend Toward Larger Offshore Wind Systems

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department released a new report showing progress for the U.S. offshore wind energy market in 2012, including 11 commercial-scale U.S. projects reaching an advanced stage of development.

  18. NREL Survey Shows Dramatic Improvement in B100 Biodiesel Quality...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Survey Shows Dramatic Improvement in B100 Biodiesel Quality April 15, 2013 The latest national survey of 100% biodiesel (B100) "blend stock" samples by the U.S. Department of ...

  19. Global Climate Change Assessment Report Shows Nations Not Doing...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Global Climate Change Assessment Report Shows Nations Not Doing Enough Home > Blogs > Dc's blog Dc's picture Submitted by Dc(266) Contributor 5 November, 2014 - 14:49 The latest...

  20. Considering removing "Show Preview" button on utility rate form...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Rates I'm considering removing the "Show Preview" button, since it does not work (javascript validation issue that could be fixed), and it doesn't make sense. The reason to...

  1. The Chemistry Magic Show Captivates Kids | GE Global Research

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry Magic Show Captivates Kids Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to ...

  2. 2014 Data Book Shows Increased Use of Renewable Electricity ...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Book shows that U.S. renewable electricity grew to 15.5 percent of total installed capacity and 13.5 percent of total electricity generation. Published annually by the National...

  3. Study Shows Carbon Emission Reductions from City Energy Actions...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    See Figure 2. Graphic with figure 2 images. The results show regional variation in the ... See Figure 3. Graphic of figure 3 images. Key Considerations from the Study Based on the ...

  4. JSON shows incomplete info | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    found several rates where the JSON file doesn't show all of the information shown in the web interface. This is not an approval issue since I see it on both rates that say "This...

  5. Energy Innovation Hub Report Shows Philadelphia-area Building...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Innovation Hub Report Shows Philadelphia-area Building Retrofits Could Support 23,500 Jobs November 10, 2011 - 10:36am Addthis This is the Greater Philadelphia Innovation ...

  6. Secretary Chu Speaks at the 2010 Washington Auto Show

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    at the 2010 Washington Auto Show, Secretary Chu lays out a roadmap for how the U.S. can lead the world in making the clean vehicles we need. He also announced that the Department of Energy had...

  7. Photo of the Week: the 2014 Washington Auto Show | Department...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    In this photo, a Boy Scout watches light shine on a solar panel that's powering a hydrogen fuel cell system, showing how photovoltaic panels work and energy systems can be ...

  8. 3 Breakthroughs Show How Bioenergy Innovations are Energizing the Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Landscape | Department of Energy Breakthroughs Show How Bioenergy Innovations are Energizing the Energy Landscape 3 Breakthroughs Show How Bioenergy Innovations are Energizing the Energy Landscape October 5, 2016 - 4:30pm Addthis Innovations are moving the bioenergy industry forward. Photos courtesy of Virgin Atlantic (left), Sapphire Energy, Inc. (center), and DC Water’s Blue Plains Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant (right). Watch the video <a

  9. Plasma research shows promise for future compact accelerators

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma research shows promise for future compact accelerators Plasma research shows promise for future compact accelerators A transformative breakthrough in controlling ion beams allows small-scale laser-plasma accelerators to deliver unprecedented power densities. December 21, 2015 The team in front of the Trident Target Chamber. Back, from left: Tom Shimada, Sha-Marie Reid, Adam Sefkow, Miguel Santiago, and Chris Hamilton. Front, from left: Russ Mortensen, Chengkun Huang, Sasi Palaniyappan,

  10. SLIDESHOW: Secretary Moniz Tours 2014 Washington Auto Show | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Secretary Moniz Tours 2014 Washington Auto Show SLIDESHOW: Secretary Moniz Tours 2014 Washington Auto Show January 22, 2014 - 6:45pm Addthis Hyundai Fuel Cell 1 of 14 Hyundai Fuel Cell Pictured here is Secretary Moniz looking at the fuel cell and motor used to power Hyundai's Tucson fuel cell vehicle. Fuel cell vehicles use hydrogen to produce electricity, which powers an electric motor to make the vehicle and its accessories work. Image: Sarah Gerrity, Energy Department. Date taken:

  11. DOE Releases New Analysis Showing Significant Advances in Electric Vehicle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Deployment | Department of Energy Analysis Showing Significant Advances in Electric Vehicle Deployment DOE Releases New Analysis Showing Significant Advances in Electric Vehicle Deployment February 8, 2011 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON - The U.S. Department of Energy today released One Million Electric Vehicles by 2015 (pdf - 220 kb), an analysis of advances in electric vehicle deployment and progress to date in meeting President Obama's goal of putting one million electric vehicles on the

  12. New global HIV vaccine design shows promise in monkeys

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    New global HIV vaccine design shows promise in monkeys New global HIV vaccine design shows promise in monkeys These vaccines are specifically designed to present the most common forms of parts of the virus that can be recognized by the immune system. October 30, 2013 Bette Korber of Los Alamos National Laboratory, who developed a component of a new vaccine against HIV, now being tested in monkeys. Bette Korber of Los Alamos National Laboratory, who developed a component of a new vaccine against

  13. The Majorana Demonstrator: Progress towards showing the feasibility of a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: The Majorana Demonstrator: Progress towards showing the feasibility of a 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Majorana Demonstrator: Progress towards showing the feasibility of a 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment Authors: Finnerty, P. [1] ; Elliott, Steven R. [2] ; Boswell, Melissa [2] ; Kidd, Mary [2] ; Rielage, Keith R. [2] ;

  14. Award Fee Determination Shows Performance Improvement in WTP Contractor |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Award Fee Determination Shows Performance Improvement in WTP Contractor Award Fee Determination Shows Performance Improvement in WTP Contractor April 14, 2016 - 1:15pm Addthis RICHLAND, Wash. - EM Office of River Protection (ORP) Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor Bechtel National Inc. improved its performance slightly in calendar year 2015 compared to the last half of 2014, earning 66 percent of its possible award fee, or $8.31 million out of a

  15. Dental optical coherence domain reflectometry explorer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Everett, Matthew J.; Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Sathyam, Ujwal S.; Da Silva, Luiz B.

    2001-01-01

    A hand-held, fiber optic based dental device with optical coherence domain reflectometry (OCDR) sensing capabilities provides a profile of optical scattering as a function of depth in the tissue at the point where the tip of the dental explorer touches the tissue. This system provides information on the internal structure of the dental tissue, which is then used to detect caries and periodontal disease. A series of profiles of optical scattering or tissue microstructure are generated by moving the explorer across the tooth or other tissue. The profiles are combined to form a cross-sectional, or optical coherence tomography (OCT), image.

  16. Modelling DNA origami self-assembly at the domain level

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dannenberg, Frits; Kwiatkowska, Marta; Dunn, Katherine E.; Bath, Jonathan; Turberfield, Andrew J.; Ouldridge, Thomas E.

    2015-10-28

    We present a modelling framework, and basic model parameterization, for the study of DNA origami folding at the level of DNA domains. Our approach is explicitly kinetic and does not assume a specific folding pathway. The binding of each staple is associated with a free-energy change that depends on staple sequence, the possibility of coaxial stacking with neighbouring domains, and the entropic cost of constraining the scaffold by inserting staple crossovers. A rigorous thermodynamic model is difficult to implement as a result of the complex, multiply connected geometry of the scaffold: we present a solution to this problem for planar origami. Coaxial stacking of helices and entropic terms, particularly when loop closure exponents are taken to be larger than those for ideal chains, introduce interactions between staples. These cooperative interactions lead to the prediction of sharp assembly transitions with notable hysteresis that are consistent with experimental observations. We show that the model reproduces the experimentally observed consequences of reducing staple concentration, accelerated cooling, and absent staples. We also present a simpler methodology that gives consistent results and can be used to study a wider range of systems including non-planar origami.

  17. Super-Grid Modeling of the Elastic Wave Equation in Semi-Bounded Domains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersson, N. Anders; Sjögreen, Björn

    2014-10-01

    Abstract

    We develop a super-grid modeling technique for solving the elastic wave equation in semi-bounded two- and three-dimensional spatial domains. In this method, waves are slowed down and dissipated in sponge layers near the far-field boundaries. Mathematically, this is equivalent to a coordinate mapping that transforms a very large physical domain to a significantly smaller computational domain, where the elastic wave equation is solved numerically on a regular grid. To damp out waves that become poorly resolved because of the coordinate mapping, a high order artificial dissipation operator is added in layers near the boundaries of the computational domain. We prove by energy estimates that the super-grid modeling leads to a stable numerical method with decreasing energy, which is valid for heterogeneous material properties and a free surface boundary condition on one side of the domain. Our spatial discretization is based on a fourth order accurate finite difference method, which satisfies the principle of summation by parts. We show that the discrete energy estimate holds also when a centered finite difference stencil is combined with homogeneous Dirichlet conditions at several ghost points outside of the far-field boundaries. Therefore, the coefficients in the finite difference stencils need only be boundary modified near the free surface. This allows for improved computational efficiency and significant simplifications of the implementation of the proposed method in multi-dimensional domains. Numerical experiments in three space dimensions show that the modeling error from truncating the domain can be made very small by choosing a sufficiently wide super-grid damping layer. The numerical accuracy is first evaluated against analytical solutions of Lamb’s problem, where fourth order accuracy is observed with a sixth order artificial dissipation. We then use successive grid refinements to study the numerical accuracy in the more

  18. U.S. gasoline prices show little movement (long version)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    30, 2014 U.S. gasoline prices show little movement (long version) The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline showed no movement from last week. The average price remained flat at $3.70 a gallon on Monday, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast states at 4.04 a gallon, up 2 ½ cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast region at 3.48 a gallon, down 1.1 cents. This is Amerine Woodyard, with

  19. Secretary Moniz's Remarks at the Washington Auto Show -- As Delivered |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Washington Auto Show -- As Delivered Secretary Moniz's Remarks at the Washington Auto Show -- As Delivered January 22, 2015 - 1:12pm Addthis Dr. Ernest Moniz Dr. Ernest Moniz Secretary of Energy It's a pleasure to be back again this year, as last year was terrific. And as I'll say later on, last year I saw my very first fuel-cell vehicle here. And, as we'll talk about, it was a pretty big year for progress in the fuel-cell world. I was thinking of my own earliest

  20. Bats Offshore? Energy Department Research Study Shows Where and When |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Bats Offshore? Energy Department Research Study Shows Where and When Bats Offshore? Energy Department Research Study Shows Where and When October 24, 2016 - 4:11pm Addthis Photo of a bat detector machine overlooking the ocean. A long-term acoustic survey of bat activity at remote islands, offshore structures, and coastal sites in the Gulf of Maine, Great Lakes, and mid-Atlantic Coast has helped reveal where and when bats fly offshore. The multiyear study, funded by the

  1. New Report Shows Domestic Offshore Wind Industry Potential, 21 Projects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Planned in U.S. Waters | Department of Energy Domestic Offshore Wind Industry Potential, 21 Projects Planned in U.S. Waters New Report Shows Domestic Offshore Wind Industry Potential, 21 Projects Planned in U.S. Waters September 29, 2015 - 11:30am Addthis The Energy Department today released a new report showing strong progress for the U.S. offshore wind market-including the start of construction of the nation's first commercial-scale offshore wind farm, one of 21 projects totaling 15,650

  2. NREL 2016 Standard Scenarios Outlook Shows Continued Growth in Renewables

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    and Gas in the U.S. Power Sector - News Releases | NREL 2016 Standard Scenarios Outlook Shows Continued Growth in Renewables and Gas in the U.S. Power Sector Webinar on December 6 November 16, 2016 Graph of Renewable Energy Penetration by NREL. Renewable energy penetration in the U.S. power sector as projected by a subset of the Standard Scenarios, where the dashed line shows historical values. Penetration is defined as the fraction of load met by renewable energy. Source: NREL. The Energy

  3. High Performance House Showcased at Builders Show - News Releases | NREL

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    High Performance House Showcased at Builders Show January 20, 2004 Golden, Colo. - Homebuilders attending the 2004 International Builders' Show in Las Vegas can tour a new kind of home-a highly energy-efficient Zero Energy Home that will produce as much electricity as it uses over the course of a year. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) partnered with Pardee Homes and energy consultant ConSol to introduce the Zero Energy Home concept with this

  4. Inflationary power asymmetry from primordial domain walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jazayeri, Sadra; Akrami, Yashar; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Solomon, Adam R.; Wang, Yi E-mail: yashar.akrami@astro.uio.no E-mail: a.r.solomon@damtp.cam.ac.uk

    2014-11-01

    We study the asymmetric primordial fluctuations in a model of inflation in which translational invariance is broken by a domain wall. We calculate the corrections to the power spectrum of curvature perturbations; they are anisotropic and contain dipole, quadrupole, and higher multipoles with non-trivial scale-dependent amplitudes. Inspired by observations of these multipole asymmetries in terms of two-point correlations and variance in real space, we demonstrate that this model can explain the observed anomalous power asymmetry of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky, including its characteristic feature that the dipole dominates over higher multipoles. We test the viability of the model and place approximate constraints on its parameters by using observational values of dipole, quadrupole, and octopole amplitudes of the asymmetry measured by a local-variance estimator. We find that a configuration of the model in which the CMB sphere does not intersect the domain wall during inflation provides a good fit to the data. We further derive analytic expressions for the corrections to the CMB temperature covariance matrix, or angular power spectra, which can be used in future statistical analysis of the model in spherical harmonic space.

  5. EM Makes Strong Showing in Federal Food Drive

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, D.C. – EM made a strong showing in this year’s Feds Feed Families drive, contributing 46,493 pounds of food across the DOE complex and topping it off by winning top prize in a government-wide chili cook-off held at the Department’s headquarters.

  6. Regional Partnership Documentary Wins "Best of Show" Aurora Award

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    A documentary co-produced by Prairie Public Broadcasting and the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership with support from the U.S. Department of Energy has received a 2012 Platinum Best of Show Aurora Award—the highest honor awarded—in the nature/environment documentary category.

  7. Structure and switching of in-plane ferroelectric nano-domains in strained PbxSr1-xTiO3 thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matzen, Sylivia; Nesterov, Okeksiy; Rispens, Gregory; Heuver, J. A.; Bark, C; Biegalski, Michael D; Christen, Hans M; Noheda, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Nanoscale ferroelectrics, the active elements of a variety of nanoelectronic devices, develop denser and richer domain structures than the bulk counterparts. With shrinking device sizes understanding and controlling domain formation in nanoferroelectrics is being intensely studied. Here we show that a precise control of the epitaxy and the strain allows stabilizing a hierarchical domain architecture in PbxSr1-xTiO3 thin films, showing periodic, purely in-plane polarized, ferroelectric nano-domains that can be switched by a scanning probe.

  8. Conformational instability of the MARK3 UBA domain compromises ubiquitin recognition and promotes interaction with the adjacent kinase domain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, James M.; Korzhnev, Dmitry M.; Ceccarelli, Derek F.; Briant, Douglas J.; Zarrine-Afsar, Arash; Sicheri, Frank; Kay, Lewis E.; Pawson, Tony (Mount Sinai Hospital); (Toronto)

    2012-10-23

    The Par-1/MARK protein kinases play a pivotal role in establishing cellular polarity. This family of kinases contains a unique domain architecture, in which a ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain is located C-terminal to the kinase domain. We have used a combination of x-ray crystallography and NMR dynamics experiments to understand the interaction of the human (h) MARK3 UBA domain with the adjacent kinase domain as compared with ubiquitin. The x-ray crystal structure of the linked hMARK3 kinase and UBA domains establishes that the UBA domain forms a stable intramolecular interaction with the N-terminal lobe of the kinase domain. However, solution-state NMR studies of the isolated UBA domain indicate that it is highly dynamic, undergoing conformational transitions that can be explained by a folding-unfolding equilibrium. NMR titration experiments indicated that the hMARK3 UBA domain has a detectable but extremely weak affinity for mono ubiquitin, which suggests that conformational instability of the isolated hMARK3 UBA domain attenuates binding to ubiquitin despite the presence of residues typically involved in ubiquitin recognition. Our data identify a molecular mechanism through which the hMARK3 UBA domain has evolved to bind the kinase domain, in a fashion that stabilizes an open conformation of the N- and C-terminal lobes, at the expense of its capacity to engage ubiquitin. These results may be relevant more generally to the 30% of UBA domains that lack significant ubiquitin-binding activity, and they suggest a unique mechanism by which interaction domains may evolve new binding properties.

  9. Conference shows high school girls their scientific future | Argonne

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory J'Tia Taylor (left), a nonproliferation technical specialist in Argonne's Nuclear Engineering Division, speaks with event attendees. Click to enlarge. J'Tia Taylor (left), a nonproliferation technical specialist in Argonne's Nuclear Engineering Division, speaks with event attendees. Click to enlarge. Conference shows high school girls their scientific future By Justin H.S. Breaux * April 7, 2014 Tweet EmailPrint ARGONNE, Ill. - Nearly 400 high school girls from the

  10. Los Alamos plasma research shows promise for future compact accelerators |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) plasma research shows promise for future compact accelerators Tuesday, January 12, 2016 - 12:00am NNSA Blog The team in front of Los Alamos' Trident Laser Target Chamber. Back, from left: Tom Shimada, Sha-Marie Reid, Adam Sefkow, Miguel Santiago, and Chris Hamilton. Front, from left: Russ Mortensen, Chengkun Huang, Sasi Palaniyappan, Juan Fernandez, Cort Gautier and Randy Johnson. A transformative breakthrough in controlling ion beams allows

  11. Research Shows Ventilated Auto Seats Improve Fuel Economy, Comfort - News

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases | NREL Research Shows Ventilated Auto Seats Improve Fuel Economy, Comfort March 2, 2006 Golden, Colo. - The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has demonstrated that ventilated automotive seats not only can improve passenger comfort but also a vehicle's fuel economy. That's because ventilated seats keep drivers and passengers cooler, so they need less air conditioning to be comfortable. NREL's Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction team has been

  12. Secretary Chu Speaks at the 2010 Washington Auto Show

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Secretary Chu

    2016-07-12

    Secretary Chu lays out a roadmap for how the U.S. can lead the world in making the clean vehicles we need at the 2010 Washington Auto Show. He also announced that the Department of Energy had closed on a $1.4 billion loan to Nissan to build the all-electric LEAF in Tennessee and create up to 1,300 American jobs.

  13. Modified Yeast Show Improved Xylose Fermentation and Toxin Tolerance -

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Show Improved Xylose Fermentation and Toxin Tolerance Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Bleaching plant material with alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) is an old process used for papermaking. Several decades ago researchers suggested that this method also could be used in biofuel production. The method involves treating switchgrass or corn stover with hydrogen peroxide under basic conditions.

  14. ORISE: Report shows nuclear engineering graduation rates leveling off in

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    2014 after five years of increase ORISE report shows nuclear engineering graduation rates leveling off in 2014 after five years of increase Decline seen in undergraduate and master degrees, while number of doctoral degrees awarded increased FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE July 31, 2015 FY15-38 OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-The number of college students graduating with majors in nuclear engineering has flattened and even declined somewhat after five straight years of continual increases, according to a report by

  15. ORISE: Report shows number of health physics degrees for 2010

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    report shows number of health physics degrees increased for graduates, decreased for undergraduates in 2010 Decreased number of B.S. degrees remains higher than levels in the early 2000 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Dec. 20, 2011 FY12-09 OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-The number of health physics graduate degrees increased for both master's and doctoral candidates in 2010, but decreased for bachelor's degrees, says a report released this year by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education. The ORISE report,

  16. Secretary Chu Speaks at the 2010 Washington Auto Show

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Secretary Chu

    2010-02-03

    Secretary Chu lays out a roadmap for how the U.S. can lead the world in making the clean vehicles we need at the 2010 Washington Auto Show. He also announced that the Department of Energy had closed on a $1.4 billion loan to Nissan to build the all-electric LEAF in Tennessee and create up to 1,300 American jobs.

  17. ORISE: Report shows nuclear engineering graduation rates rebounding in 2015

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    after brief decline report shows nuclear engineering graduation rates rebounding in 2015 after brief decline Increases seen in undergraduate and master degrees, while number of doctorate degrees awarded declined FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE May 23, 2016 FY16-27 OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-After briefly declining in 2014 following five straight years of continual increases, the number of college students graduating with majors in nuclear engineering has rebounded. This is according to an annual study conducted

  18. NNSA administrator shows NM congressional delegation the Albuquerque

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Complex to make case for new facility | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) administrator shows NM congressional delegation the Albuquerque Complex to make case for new facility Friday, February 26, 2016 - 1:42pm WASHINGTON, DC - Lt. Gen. Frank Klotz (Ret.), Administrator of the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration, hosted two members of the New Mexico congressional delegation on Feb. 18 for a tour of the aging facilities occupied by 1,200 NNSA

  19. Representing ductile damage with the dual domain material point method

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Long, C. C.; Zhang, D. Z.; Bronkhorst, C. A.; Gray, III, G. T.

    2015-12-14

    In this study, we incorporate a ductile damage material model into a computational framework based on the Dual Domain Material Point (DDMP) method. As an example, simulations of a flyer plate experiment involving ductile void growth and material failure are performed. The results are compared with experiments performed on high purity tantalum. We also compare the numerical results obtained from the DDMP method with those obtained from the traditional Material Point Method (MPM). Effects of an overstress model, artificial viscosity, and physical viscosity are investigated. Our results show that a physical bulk viscosity and overstress model are important in thismore » impact and failure problem, while physical shear viscosity and artificial shock viscosity have negligible effects. A simple numerical procedure with guaranteed convergence is introduced to solve for the equilibrium plastic state from the ductile damage model.« less

  20. Representing ductile damage with the dual domain material point method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, C. C.; Zhang, D. Z.; Bronkhorst, C. A.; Gray, III, G. T.

    2015-12-14

    In this study, we incorporate a ductile damage material model into a computational framework based on the Dual Domain Material Point (DDMP) method. As an example, simulations of a flyer plate experiment involving ductile void growth and material failure are performed. The results are compared with experiments performed on high purity tantalum. We also compare the numerical results obtained from the DDMP method with those obtained from the traditional Material Point Method (MPM). Effects of an overstress model, artificial viscosity, and physical viscosity are investigated. Our results show that a physical bulk viscosity and overstress model are important in this impact and failure problem, while physical shear viscosity and artificial shock viscosity have negligible effects. A simple numerical procedure with guaranteed convergence is introduced to solve for the equilibrium plastic state from the ductile damage model.

  1. Birefringence insensitive optical coherence domain reflectometry system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Everett, Matthew J.; Davis, Joseph G.

    2002-01-01

    A birefringence insensitive fiber optic optical coherence domain reflectometry (OCDR) system is provided containing non-polarization maintaining (non-PM) fiber in the sample arm and the reference arm without suffering from signal degradation caused by birefringence. The use of non-PM fiber significantly reduces the cost of the OCDR system and provides a disposable or multiplexed section of the sample arm. The dispersion in the reference arm and sample arm of the OCDR system are matched to achieve high resolution imaging. This system is useful in medical applications or for non-medical in situ probes. The disposable section of non-PM fiber in the sample arm can be conveniently replaced when contaminated by a sample or a patient.

  2. Case Studies Show the Value of Program Evaluation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    
 1
 Case Studies Show the Value of Program Evaluation Value of Program Evaluation Case Study Series Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, November 2009 The U.S Department of Energy sponsored several small case studies that clearly demonstrate the benefits that evaluation can provide to energy and environmental programs. The result is a set of five "Value of Program Evaluation" Case Studies (each 2-pages in length) documenting the benefits of implementing recommendations from

  3. Perovskite solar technology shows quick energy returns | Argonne National

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Perovskite solar technology shows quick energy returns By Payal Marathe * July 17, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint Solar panels are an investment-not only in terms of money, but also energy. It takes energy to mine, process and purify raw materials, and then to manufacture and install the final product. Silicon-based panels, which dominate the market for solar power, usually need about two years to return this energy investment. But for technology made with perovskites-a class of materials

  4. Kuwaiti oil sector shows more signs of recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-06

    This paper reports that Kuwait's oil sector continues to show signs of recovery from the Persian Gulf war. On Mar. 23 Kuwait Petroleum Co. (KPC) loaded the country's first shipment of liquefied petroleum gas for export since the Iraqi invasion in August 1990. In addition, the first shipment of Kuwaiti crude recovered from giant oil lakes formed by hundreds of wild wells sabotaged in the war was to arrive by tanker in Naples, Italy, late last month. The tanker is carrying 210,000 bbl of crude. However, the project to clean up the lakes and recover more oil, undertaken by Bechtel Corp. with Kuwait Oil Co. (KOC), has reached a stand still.

  5. Magnetic domain structure in nanocrystalline Ni-Zn-Co spinel ferrite thin films using off-axis electron holography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, D.; Ray, N. M.; Petuskey, W. T.; Smith, D. J.; McCartney, M. R.

    2014-08-28

    We report a study of the magnetic domain structure of nanocrystalline thin films of nickel-zinc ferrite. The ferrite films were synthesized using aqueous spin-spray coating at low temperature (?90?C) and showed high complex permeability in the GHz range. Electron microscopy and microanalysis revealed that the films consisted of columnar grains with uniform chemical composition. Off-axis electron holography combined with magnetic force microscopy indicated a multi-grain domain structure with in-plane magnetization. The correlation between the magnetic domain morphology and crystal structure is briefly discussed.

  6. Sugarcane transgenics expressing MYB transcription factors show improved glucose release

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Poovaiah, Charleson R.; Bewg, William P.; Lan, Wu; Ralph, John; Coleman, Heather D.

    2016-07-15

    In this study, sugarcane, a tropical C4 perennial crop, is capable of producing 30-100 tons or more of biomass per hectare annually. The lignocellulosic residue remaining after sugar extraction is currently underutilized and can provide a significant source of biomass for the production of second-generation bioethanol. As a result, MYB31 and MYB42 were cloned from maize and expressed in sugarcane with and without the UTR sequences. The cloned sequences were 98 and 99 % identical to the published nucleotide sequences. The inclusion of the UTR sequences did not affect any of the parameters tested. There was little difference in plantmore » height and the number of internodes of the MYB-overexpressing sugarcane plants when compared with controls. MYB transgene expression determined by qPCR exhibited continued expression in young and maturing internodes. MYB31 downregulated more genes within the lignin biosynthetic pathway than MYB42. MYB31 and MYB42 expression resulted in decreased lignin content in some lines. All MYB42 plants further analyzed showed significant increases in glucose release by enzymatic hydrolysis in 72 h, whereas only two MYB31 plants released more glucose than control plants. This correlated directly with a significant decrease in acid-insoluble lignin. Soluble sucrose content of the MYB42 transgenic plants did not vary compared to control plants. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the use of MYB transcription factors to improve the production of bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse remaining after sugar extraction.« less

  7. Structure and Dynamics of Domains in Ferroelectric Nanostructures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of ferroelectric domains in ferroelectric thin films and nanostructures by advanced transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques in close collaboration with phase field...

  8. Structural Basis for the Interaction between Pyk2-FAT Domain...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structural Basis for the Interaction between Pyk2-FAT Domain and Leupaxin LD Repeats Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structural Basis for the Interaction between ...

  9. Death Domain Assembly Mechanism Revealed by Crystal Structure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Death Domain Assembly Mechanism Revealed by Crystal Structure of the Oligomeric PIDDosome Core Complex Citation Details In-Document ...

  10. Stochastic Domain-Wall Depinning in Magnetic Nanowires

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    concept called a racetrack memory, for example, the electron spin provides the driving force that moves a domain wall (boundary between regions of different magnetization) down...

  11. National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) Geothermal Data Domain...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Geothermal Data System (NGDS) Geothermal Data Domain: Assessment of Geothermal Community Data Needs Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference...

  12. Crystal structure of a ;#8203;BRAF kinase domain monomer explains...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystal structure of a ;8203;BRAF kinase domain monomer explains basis for allosteric regulation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Crystal structure of a ;8203;BRAF ...

  13. Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration...

  14. Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Skokan, 1974) Exploration...

  15. Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Kilauea Southwest Rift And South...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Kilauea Southwest Rift And South Flank Area (Thomas, 1986)...

  16. Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Hualalai Northwest Rift Area...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Hualalai Northwest Rift Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration...

  17. Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Area...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration...

  18. Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Glass Mountain Area (Cumming...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Glass Mountain Area (Cumming And Mackie, 2007) Exploration...

  19. Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity...

  20. Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Truckhaven Area (Warpinski, Et...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Truckhaven Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2004) Exploration...

  1. Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Dixie Hot Springs Area (Combs...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Dixie Hot Springs Area (Combs 2006) Exploration Activity...

  2. Initiation factor 2 crystal structure reveals a different domain...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Initiation factor 2 crystal structure reveals a different domain organization from eukaryotic initiation factor 5B and mechanism among translational GTPases Citation Details ...

  3. Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition and Nanoscale Size Distribution Explains Performance in Solar Cells Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of...

  4. Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (FURUMOTO, 1976) Exploration Activity Details Location Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Time-Domain...

  5. Frequency-Domain Electromagnetics Survey At Kilauea East Rift...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    1976) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Frequency-Domain Electromagnetics Survey At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (FURUMOTO,...

  6. Nonlinear Time Domain Modeling and Simulation of Surface and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Jose Abell, Kohei Watanabe, Chao Luo University of California, Davis Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley DOE NPH, October 2014 PDF icon Nonlinear Time Domain...

  7. Frequency domain quantum optimal control under multiple constraints...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Frequency domain quantum optimal control under multiple constraints Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become ...

  8. Controlled Source Frequency-Domain Magnetics (Montgomery, Et...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    (Montgomery, Et Al., 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Controlled Source Frequency-Domain Magnetics (Montgomery, Et Al.,...

  9. Controlled Source Frequency-Domain Magnetics At Salt Wells Area...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    At Salt Wells Area (Montgomery, Et Al., 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Controlled Source Frequency-Domain Magnetics At...

  10. Visualizing the Behavior of Polar Domains and Screening Charges...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Visualizing the Behavior of Polar Domains and Screening Charges Under Electric and Mechanical Fields Event Sponsor: Mathematics and Computing Science - LANS Seminar Start Date: Sep...

  11. Dual-domain lateral shearing interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Goldberg, Kenneth Alan

    2004-03-16

    The phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI) was developed to address the problem of at-wavelength metrology of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical systems. Although extremely accurate, the fact that the PS/PDI is limited to use with coherent EUV sources, such as undulator radiation, is a drawback for its widespread use. An alternative to the PS/PDI, with relaxed coherence requirements, is lateral shearing interferometry (LSI). The use of a cross-grating, carrier-frequency configuration to characterize a large-field 4.times.-reduction EUV lithography optic is demonstrated. The results obtained are directly compared with PS/PDI measurements. A defocused implementation of the lateral shearing interferometer in which an image-plane filter allows both phase-shifting and Fourier wavefront recovery. The two wavefront recovery methods can be combined in a dual-domain technique providing suppression of noise added by self-interference of high-frequency components in the test-optic wavefront.

  12. Catheter guided by optical coherence domain reflectometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Everett, Matthew; Colston, Billy W.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Matthews, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    A guidance and viewing system based on multiplexed optical coherence domain reflectometry is incorporated into a catheter, endoscope, or other medical device to measure the location, thickness, and structure of the arterial walls or other intra-cavity regions at discrete points on the medical device during minimally invasive medical procedures. The information will be used both to guide the device through the body and to evaluate the tissue through which the device is being passed. Multiple optical fibers are situated along the circumference of the device. Light from the distal end of each fiber is directed onto the interior cavity walls via small diameter optics (such as gradient index lenses and mirrored corner cubes). Both forward viewing and side viewing fibers can be included. The light reflected or scattered from the cavity walls is then collected by the fibers and multiplexed at the proximal end to the sample arm of an optical low coherence reflectometer. The system may also be implemented in a nonmedical inspection device.

  13. Fluctuating hydrodynamics in periodic domains and heterogeneous adjacent

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    multidomains: Thermal equilibrium (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Fluctuating hydrodynamics in periodic domains and heterogeneous adjacent multidomains: Thermal equilibrium Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fluctuating hydrodynamics in periodic domains and heterogeneous adjacent multidomains: Thermal equilibrium Authors: Bian, Xin ; Li, Zhen ; Deng, Mingge ; Karniadakis, George Em Publication Date: 2015-11-10 OSTI Identifier: 1225680 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal

  14. Control of domain wall pinning by localised focused Ga {sup +} ion irradiation on Au capped NiFe nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burn, D. M. Atkinson, D.

    2014-10-28

    Understanding domain wall pinning and propagation in nanowires are important for future spintronics and nanoparticle manipulation technologies. Here, the effects of microscopic local modification of the magnetic properties, induced by focused-ion-beam intermixing, in NiFe/Au bilayer nanowires on the pinning behavior of domain walls was investigated. The effects of irradiation dose and the length of the irradiated features were investigated experimentally. The results are considered in the context of detailed quasi-static micromagnetic simulations, where the ion-induced modification was represented as a local reduction of the saturation magnetization. Simulations show that domain wall pinning behavior depends on the magnitude of the magnetization change, the length of the modified region, and the domain wall structure. Comparative analysis indicates that reduced saturation magnetisation is not solely responsible for the experimentally observed pinning behavior.

  15. Crystal structures of the reverse transcriptase-associated ribonuclease H domain of xenotropic murine leukemia-virus related virus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Dongwen; Chung, Suhman; Miller, Maria; Le Grice, Stuart F.J.; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2012-06-19

    The ribonuclease H (RNase H) domain of retroviral reverse transcriptase (RT) plays a critical role in the life cycle by degrading the RNA strands of DNA/RNA hybrids. In addition, RNase H activity is required to precisely remove the RNA primers from nascent (-) and (+) strand DNA. We report here three crystal structures of the RNase H domain of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) RT, namely (i) the previously identified construct from which helix C was deleted, (ii) the intact domain, and (iii) the intact domain complexed with an active site {alpha}-hydroxytropolone inhibitor. Enzymatic assays showed that the intact RNase H domain retained catalytic activity, whereas the variant lacking helix C was only marginally active, corroborating the importance of this helix for enzymatic activity. Modeling of the enzyme-substrate complex elucidated the essential role of helix C in binding a DNA/RNA hybrid and its likely mode of recognition. The crystal structure of the RNase H domain complexed with {beta}-thujaplicinol clearly showed that coordination by two divalent cations mediates recognition of the inhibitor.

  16. Domain evolution and polarization of continuously graded ferroelectric films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roytburd, A.; Roytburd, V.

    2008-01-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of graded ferroelectric films demonstrates that in the equilibrium state the films are subdivided into a single-domain band and a polydomain band which consists of wedge-shape domains. Polarization under an external electrostatic field proceeds through an inter-band boundary movement due to growth or shrinkage of the wedge domains. It is shown how the domain structure and evolution are determined by the principal characteristics of the film: the distribution of the spontaneous polarization and dielectric constant. Graded films exhibit a sharp increase of polarization with the field for weak fields, with a drop of the dielectric constant when the field is increasing. A general approach to finding the dependence of the displacement and the wedge-domain shape on the field as well as analytical solutions for the p{sup 4} Landau-Devonshire and parabolic potentials are presented.

  17. Direct observation of closure domain wall mediated spin waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mozooni, Babak McCord, Jeffrey

    2015-07-27

    The generation and guiding of spin waves from and by magnetic domain walls are demonstrated. The spin waves radiate from pinned and oscillating magnetic closure domain walls and propagate linearly along a narrow path formed by the surrounding 180° asymmetric Bloch domain walls. The propagating spin wave modes are directly visualized by time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr microscopy with picosecond temporal resolution. A linear relationship between excitation frequency, wavelength, and number of spin waves per domain exists. Independent of the field excitation frequency, a constant phase velocity of spin waves propagation is obtained. Spin waves characteristics can be tuned by varying the magnetic domain dynamics, allowing for variable spin wave characteristics with magnetic field characteristics and histories.

  18. Impact of the [delta]F508 Mutation in First Nucleotide-binding Domain of Human Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator on Domain Folding and Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Hal A.; Zhao, Xun; Wang, Chi; Sauder, J. Michael; Rooney, Isabelle; Noland, Brian W.; Lorimer, Don; Kearins, Margaret C.; Conners, Kris; Condon, Brad; Maloney, Peter C.; Guggino, William B.; Hunt, John F.; Emtage, Spencer (SG); (Columbia); (JHU)

    2010-07-19

    Cystic fibrosis is caused by defects in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), commonly the deletion of residue Phe-508 (DeltaF508) in the first nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1), which results in a severe reduction in the population of functional channels at the epithelial cell surface. Previous studies employing incomplete NBD1 domains have attributed this to aberrant folding of DeltaF508 NBD1. We report structural and biophysical studies on complete human NBD1 domains, which fail to demonstrate significant changes of in vitro stability or folding kinetics in the presence or absence of the DeltaF508 mutation. Crystal structures show minimal changes in protein conformation but substantial changes in local surface topography at the site of the mutation, which is located in the region of NBD1 believed to interact with the first membrane spanning domain of CFTR. These results raise the possibility that the primary effect of DeltaF508 is a disruption of proper interdomain interactions at this site in CFTR rather than interference with the folding of NBD1. Interestingly, increases in the stability of NBD1 constructs are observed upon introduction of second-site mutations that suppress the trafficking defect caused by the DeltaF508 mutation, suggesting that these suppressors might function indirectly by improving the folding efficiency of NBD1 in the context of the full-length protein. The human NBD1 structures also solidify the understanding of CFTR regulation by showing that its two protein segments that can be phosphorylated both adopt multiple conformations that modulate access to the ATPase active site and functional interdomain interfaces.

  19. Show Tips

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    These guidelines are designed to help you prepare for exhibiting. Be sure that you are fully prepared before the event begins.

  20. Comparative Study of Time-Domain versus Frequency-Domain Seismic Soil-Structure Interaction Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor Containment Building

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Comparative Study of Time-Domain versus Frequency-Domain Seismic Soil-Structure Interaction Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor Containment Building

  1. Hidden Rotational Symmetries in Magnetic Domain Patterns

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    low-temperature control, and high coherent x-ray flux. The sample used was a CoPd multilayer film that shows perpendicular anisotropy, meaning the magnetization points...

  2. Increased magnetic damping of a single domain wall and adjacent magnetic domains detected by spin torque diode in a nanostripe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lequeux, Steven; Sampaio, Joao; Bortolotti, Paolo; Cros, Vincent; Grollier, Julie; Matsumoto, Rie; Yakushiji, Kay; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji; Nishimura, Kazumasa; Nagamine, Yoshinori; Tsunekawa, Koji

    2015-11-02

    Spin torque resonance has been used to simultaneously probe the dynamics of a magnetic domain wall and of magnetic domains in a nanostripe magnetic tunnel junction. Due to the large associated resistance variations, we are able to analyze quantitatively the resonant properties of these single nanoscale magnetic objects. In particular, we find that the magnetic damping of both the domains and the domain wall is doubled compared to the damping value of the host magnetic layer. We estimate the contributions to the damping arising from the dipolar couplings between the different layers in the junction and from the intralayer spin pumping effect, and find that they cannot explain the large damping enhancement that we observe. We conclude that the measured increased damping is intrinsic to large amplitudes excitations of spatially localized modes or solitons such as vibrating or propagating domain walls.

  3. Identifying ferroelectric phase and domain structure using angle-resolved piezoresponse force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, K. L.; Huber, J. E.

    2014-03-24

    We used angle-resolved piezoresponse force microscopy (AR-PFM), vertical PFM (VPFM), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) to provide a systematic interpretation of domain patterns in polycrystalline, near-morphotropic lead zirconate titanate. This material was used to illustrate the power of AR-PFM methods in resolving complex domain patterns where multiple phases may be present. AR-PFM was carried out with a 30° rotation interval, and the resulting data were analysed to identify the orientation of the underlying axis of piezoelectricity. The additional information provided by AR-PFM was studied, comparing its capabilities to those of 3-dimensional PFM, consisting of one VPFM image and two orthogonal lateral PFM (LPFM) images. We show that, in certain conditions, using AR-PFM can identify the phases present at the sub-grain scale. This was confirmed using VPFM and EBSD data. Furthermore, the method can discriminate laminated domain patterns that appear similar in VPFM and can reliably expose domain patterns that may not be seen in LPFM data from a single orientation, or even in 3D PFM data.

  4. Vacancy-Induced Formation and Growth of Inversion Domains in Transition-Metal Dichalcogenide Monolayer

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Lin, Junhao; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Zhou, Wu

    2015-04-23

    Sixty degree grain boundaries in semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) monolayers have been shown to act as conductive channels that have profound influence on both the transport properties and exciton behavior of the monolayers. We show that annealing TMDC monolayers at high temperature induces the formation of large-scale inversion domains surrounded by such 60° grain boundaries. To study the formation mechanism of such inversion domains, we use the electron beam in a scanning transmission electron microscope to activate the dynamic process within pristine TMDC monolayers. Moreover, the electron beam acts to generate chalcogen vacancies in TMDC monolayers and provide energy formore » them to undergo structural evolution. We directly visualize the nucleation and growth of such inversion domains and their 60° grain boundaries atom-by-atom within a MoSe2 monolayer and explore their formation mechanism. Combined with density functional theory, we conclude that the nucleation of the inversion domains and migration of their 60° grain boundaries are driven by the collective evolution of Se vacancies and subsequent displacement of Mo atoms, where such a dynamical process reduces the vacancy-induced lattice shrinkage and stabilizes the system. Our results can help to understand the performance of such materials under severe conditions (e.g., high temperature).« less

  5. The pilus usher controls protein interactions via domain masking and is functional as an oligomer

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Werneburg, Glenn T.; Li, Huilin; Henderson, Nadine S.; Portnoy, Erica B.; Sarowar, Samema; Hultgren, Scott J.; Thanassi, David G.

    2015-06-08

    The chaperone/usher (CU) pathway is responsible for biogenesis of organelles termed pili or fimbriae in Gram-negative bacteria. Type 1 pili expressed by uropathogenic Escherichia coli are prototypical structures assembled by the CU pathway. Assembly and secretion of pili by the CU pathway requires a dedicated periplasmic chaperone and a multidomain outer membrane protein termed the usher (FimD). We show that the FimD C-terminal domains provide the high-affinity substrate binding site, but that these domains are masked in the resting usher. Domain masking requires the FimD plug domain, which served as a central switch controlling usher activation. In addition, we demonstratemore » that usher molecules can act in trans for pilus biogenesis, providing conclusive evidence for a functional usher oligomer. These results reveal mechanisms by which molecular machines such as the usher regulate and harness protein-protein interactions, and suggest that ushers may interact in a cooperative manner during pilus assembly in bacteria.« less

  6. The pilus usher controls protein interactions via domain masking and is functional as an oligomer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werneburg, Glenn T.; Li, Huilin; Henderson, Nadine S.; Portnoy, Erica B.; Sarowar, Samema; Hultgren, Scott J.; Thanassi, David G.

    2015-06-08

    The chaperone/usher (CU) pathway is responsible for biogenesis of organelles termed pili or fimbriae in Gram-negative bacteria. Type 1 pili expressed by uropathogenic Escherichia coli are prototypical structures assembled by the CU pathway. Assembly and secretion of pili by the CU pathway requires a dedicated periplasmic chaperone and a multidomain outer membrane protein termed the usher (FimD). We show that the FimD C-terminal domains provide the high-affinity substrate binding site, but that these domains are masked in the resting usher. Domain masking requires the FimD plug domain, which served as a central switch controlling usher activation. In addition, we demonstrate that usher molecules can act in trans for pilus biogenesis, providing conclusive evidence for a functional usher oligomer. These results reveal mechanisms by which molecular machines such as the usher regulate and harness protein-protein interactions, and suggest that ushers may interact in a cooperative manner during pilus assembly in bacteria.

  7. Time domain analysis of a gyrotron traveling wave amplifier with misaligned electron beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qiushi Peng, Shuyuan; Luo, Jirun

    2014-08-15

    This article develops a time-domain theory to study the beam-wave interaction in gyrotron traveling wave amplifier (gyro-TWA) with a misaligned electron beam. The effects of beam misalignment on the TE{sub 01} mode gyro-TWA operating at the fundamental are discussed. Numerical results show that the effect of misalignment is less obvious when the input power is larger, and the influences of misalignment on the stable gain and the stable time are basically opposite.

  8. Magnetic anisotropy and domain structure of the layered manganite...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    1.64Mnsub 2Osub 7 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Magnetic anisotropy and domain structure of the layered manganite Lasub 1.36Srsub 1.64Mnsub 2Osub ...

  9. Smart Grid Conceptual Actors/Data Flow Diagram- Cross Domain...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    PDF icon Smart Grid Conceptual ActorsData Flow Diagram- Cross Domain Network Focued- Open SGSG-Network TF More Documents & Publications Report to NIST on the Smart Grid ...

  10. The application of domain decomposition to time-domain computations of nonlinear water waves with a panel method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Haas, P.C.A.; Zandbergen, P.J.

    1996-12-01

    In this paper an iterative domain decomposition method for the solution of Laplace`s equation is described and its effectiveness in time-domain computations of nonlinear water waves with a panel method is investigated. An important aspect of these computations is the varying shape of the free surface. The convergence of the iterative method is fast and leads to a speedup of the computations in the aforementioned application. The domain decomposition method gives a considerable reduction of memory requirements. Furthermore, it lends itself naturally for parallel computing. 18 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Antiferromagnetism and domain effects in UPdSn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakotte, H. [Manual Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Manual Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); [Department of Physics, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003 (United States); Robinson, R.A.; Purwanto, A. [Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Tun, Z. [Chalk River Laboratories, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (CANADA)] [Chalk River Laboratories, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (CANADA); Prokes, K.; Brueck, E.; de Boer, F.R. [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, University of Amsterdam, 1018 XE Amsterdam (The Netherlands)] [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, University of Amsterdam, 1018 XE Amsterdam (The Netherlands)

    1998-10-01

    Neutron-diffraction experiments have been performed on a single crystal of the hexagonal noncollinear antiferromagnetic compound UPdSn as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The use of a special horizontal-field magnet (with very wide horizontal access to the neutron beams) has allowed the study of the principal magnetic Bragg reflections in all three antiferromagnetic domain pairs throughout the magnetic phase diagram for B{lt}3thinspT and T{gt}6thinspK. The data confirm a picture in which one domain pair (1) grows at the expense of the other two domain pairs (2 and 3), for fields along the [100] axis for domain 1. On the other hand, if the field is applied along the perpendicular axis, [010] for domain 1, the other two domains are preferred. These results are consistent with the picture given in a previous vertical-field study of only one magnetic reflection from one domain, in which the 3-T field-induced transition is viewed as a spin-flop transition. There is, however, a small amount of irreversible moment rotation (from {theta}=43{degree} to 48{degree}, where {theta} is the moment canting angle within the hexagonal basal plane), on passing through the spin-flop transition. This seems to be connected with whether the sample is single or multidomain. In addition, the field independence of the N{acute e}el temperature (T{sub N}=37thinspK) has been measured up to 3 T, and data on the domain kinetics are presented. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. Micro- and nano-domain engineering in lithium niobate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shur, V. Ya.; Akhmatkhanov, A. R.; Baturin, I. S.

    2015-12-15

    The physical basis of the domain engineering in ferroelectrics and its application to lithium niobate crystals were reviewed. The unified kinetic approach to the domain structure evolution in electric field was formulated and its validity for understanding the variety of observed domain evolution scenarios was demonstrated. The kinetics and statics of the domain structure in the crystals of lithium niobate family including congruent, stoichiometric, and MgO doped ones have been discussed. The main stages of the periodical poling process and related problems have been pointed out. The basic poling techniques applied for creation of the periodical domain structures in bulk crystals and waveguides were compared. The recent applications of the periodically poled lithium niobate for light frequency conversion using second harmonic generation and optical parametric oscillation, excitation of the surface acoustic waves, and generation of terahertz radiation have been discussed. The special attention has been paid for achievements in fabrication of high-power optical parametric oscillation and integrated optical devices with periodically poled lithium niobate. The future trends in periodical poling and development of the nanodomain engineering which will allow to create the nanoscale domain patterns necessary for utilization of the new nonlinear interactions were reviewed.

  13. Circular single domains in hemispherical Permalloy nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Araujo, Clodoaldo I. L de Fonseca, Jakson M.; Sinnecker, Joo P.; Delatorre, Rafael G.; Garcia, Nicolas; Pasa, Andr A.

    2014-11-14

    We have studied ferromagnetic Permalloy clusters obtained by electrodeposition on n-type silicon. Magnetization measurements reveal hysteresis loops almost independent on temperature and very similar in shape to those obtained in nanodisks with diameter bigger than 150?nm. The spin configuration for the ground state, obtained by micromagnetic simulation, shows topological vortices with random chirality and polarization. This behavior in the small diameter clusters (?80?nm) is attributed to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction that arises in its hemispherical geometries. This magnetization behavior can be utilized to explain the magnetoresistance measured with magnetic field in plane and out of sample plane.

  14. Evaluating the coherence and time-domain profile of quantum cascade laser frequency combs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burghoff, David; Yang, Yang; Hayton, Darren J.; Gao, Jian -Rong; Reno, John L.; Hu, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Recently, much attention has been focused on the generation of optical frequency combs from quantum cascade lasers. We discuss how fast detectors can be used to demonstrate the mutual coherence of such combs, and present an inequality that can be used to quantitatively evaluate their performance. We discuss several technical issues related to shifted wave interference Fourier Transform spectroscopy (SWIFTS), and show how such measurements can be used to elucidate the time-domain properties of such combs, showing that they can possess signatures of both frequency-modulation and amplitude-modulation.

  15. Assessment of current cybersecurity practices in the public domain : cyber indications and warnings domain.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Keliiaa, Curtis M.

    2010-09-01

    This report assesses current public domain cyber security practices with respect to cyber indications and warnings. It describes cybersecurity industry and government activities, including cybersecurity tools, methods, practices, and international and government-wide initiatives known to be impacting current practice. Of particular note are the U.S. Government's Trusted Internet Connection (TIC) and 'Einstein' programs, which are serving to consolidate the Government's internet access points and to provide some capability to monitor and mitigate cyber attacks. Next, this report catalogs activities undertaken by various industry and government entities. In addition, it assesses the benchmarks of HPC capability and other HPC attributes that may lend themselves to assist in the solution of this problem. This report draws few conclusions, as it is intended to assess current practice in preparation for future work, however, no explicit references to HPC usage for the purpose of analyzing cyber infrastructure in near-real-time were found in the current practice. This report and a related SAND2010-4766 National Cyber Defense High Performance Computing and Analysis: Concepts, Planning and Roadmap report are intended to provoke discussion throughout a broad audience about developing a cohesive HPC centric solution to wide-area cybersecurity problems.

  16. The domains of instability for the pulsating PG1159 stars.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quirion, P.-O.; Fontaine, Gilles.; Brassard, Pierre; Herwig, F. H.

    2004-01-01

    The fact that we find pulsating and nonpulsating stars mixed together in the PG 1159 region of the log g - T{sub eff} diagram has been a long standing puzzle. The poor understanding of the driving mechanism in those stars has been the reason why it has taken so long to address properly this problem. Following the work of Saio (1996) and Gautschy (1997) based on the OPAL opacities, Quirion, Fontaine, & Brassard (2004) recently showed that we are now able to understand and reproduce the ranges of observed periods in the pulsating PG 1159 stars in terms of the original {kappa}-mechanism associated with the partial ionization of the K-shell electrons of C and O which, along with He, make up the composition of the envelope of those stars. Contrary to others, those three studies agree in that no composition gradients are needed between the atmospheric layers and the driving region. Furthermore, the cohabitation of pulsating and nonpulsating PG 1159 stars is naturally explained in terms of a dispersion in atmospheric parameters and in terms of a variation in surface composition from star to star. In particular, the most He-rich stars tend to be stable. We go beyond the findings discussed by Quirion et al. (2004) in this paper, and present the results of additional calculations aimed at describing better the role of the chemical composition (in particular the role of metallicity) as well as that of the stellar mass on the boundaries of the instability domain in the log g - T{sub eff} plane.

  17. Magnetoelectric domain wall dynamics and its implications for magnetoelectric memory

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Belashchenko, K. D.; Tchernyshyov, O.; Kovalev, Alexey A.; Tretiakov, O. A.

    2016-03-30

    Domain wall dynamics in a magnetoelectric antiferromagnet is analyzed, and its implications for magnetoelectric memory applications are discussed. Cr2O3 is used in the estimates of the materials parameters. It is found that the domain wall mobility has a maximum as a function of the electric field due to the gyrotropic coupling induced by it. In Cr2O3, the maximal mobility of 0.1 m/(s Oe) is reached at E≈0.06 V/nm. Fields of this order may be too weak to overcome the intrinsic depinning field, which is estimated for B-doped Cr2O3. These major drawbacks for device implementation can be overcome by applying amore » small in-plane shear strain, which blocks the domain wall precession. Domain wall mobility of about 0.7 m/(s Oe) can then be achieved at E = 0.2 V/nm. Furthermore, a split-gate scheme is proposed for the domain-wall controlled bit element; its extension to multiple-gate linear arrays can offer advantages in memory density, programmability, and logic functionality.« less

  18. Real-time observation of epitaxial graphene domain reorientation

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Thuermer, Konrad; Foster, Michael E.; Bartelt, Norman Charles; Rogge, Paul C.; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab.; McCarty, Kevin F.; Dubon, Oscar D.; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab.; Bartelt, Norman C.

    2015-04-20

    Graphene films grown by vapour deposition tend to be polycrystalline due to the nucleation and growth of islands with different in-plane orientations. Here, using low-energy electron microscopy, we find that micron-sized graphene islands on Ir(111) rotate to a preferred orientation during thermal annealing. We observe three alignment mechanisms: the simultaneous growth of aligned domains and dissolution of rotated domains, that is, ‘ripening’; domain boundary motion within islands; and continuous lattice rotation of entire domains. By measuring the relative growth velocity of domains during ripening, we estimate that the driving force for alignment is on the order of 0.1 meV permore » C atom and increases with rotation angle. A simple model of the orientation-dependent energy associated with the moiré corrugation of the graphene sheet due to local variations in the graphene–substrate interaction reproduces the results. This study suggests new strategies for improving the van der Waals epitaxy of 2D materials.« less

  19. Real-time observation of epitaxial graphene domain reorientation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thuermer, Konrad; Foster, Michael E.; Bartelt, Norman Charles; Rogge, Paul C.; McCarty, Kevin F.; Dubon, Oscar D.; Bartelt, Norman C.

    2015-04-20

    Graphene films grown by vapour deposition tend to be polycrystalline due to the nucleation and growth of islands with different in-plane orientations. Here, using low-energy electron microscopy, we find that micron-sized graphene islands on Ir(111) rotate to a preferred orientation during thermal annealing. We observe three alignment mechanisms: the simultaneous growth of aligned domains and dissolution of rotated domains, that is, ‘ripening’; domain boundary motion within islands; and continuous lattice rotation of entire domains. By measuring the relative growth velocity of domains during ripening, we estimate that the driving force for alignment is on the order of 0.1 meV per C atom and increases with rotation angle. A simple model of the orientation-dependent energy associated with the moiré corrugation of the graphene sheet due to local variations in the graphene–substrate interaction reproduces the results. This study suggests new strategies for improving the van der Waals epitaxy of 2D materials.

  20. Sampling Approaches for Multi-Domain Internet Performance Measurement Infrastructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calyam, Prasad

    2014-09-15

    The next-generation of high-performance networks being developed in DOE communities are critical for supporting current and emerging data-intensive science applications. The goal of this project is to investigate multi-domain network status sampling techniques and tools to measure/analyze performance, and thereby provide “network awareness” to end-users and network operators in DOE communities. We leverage the infrastructure and datasets available through perfSONAR, which is a multi-domain measurement framework that has been widely deployed in high-performance computing and networking communities; the DOE community is a core developer and the largest adopter of perfSONAR. Our investigations include development of semantic scheduling algorithms, measurement federation policies, and tools to sample multi-domain and multi-layer network status within perfSONAR deployments. We validate our algorithms and policies with end-to-end measurement analysis tools for various monitoring objectives such as network weather forecasting, anomaly detection, and fault-diagnosis. In addition, we develop a multi-domain architecture for an enterprise-specific perfSONAR deployment that can implement monitoring-objective based sampling and that adheres to any domain-specific measurement policies.

  1. Frequency-domain multiscale quantum mechanics/electromagnetics simulation method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meng, Lingyi; Yin, Zhenyu; Yam, ChiYung E-mail: ghc@everest.hku.hk; Koo, SiuKong; Chen, GuanHua E-mail: ghc@everest.hku.hk; Chen, Quan; Wong, Ngai

    2013-12-28

    A frequency-domain quantum mechanics and electromagnetics (QM/EM) method is developed. Compared with the time-domain QM/EM method [Meng et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 8, 11901199 (2012)], the newly developed frequency-domain QM/EM method could effectively capture the dynamic properties of electronic devices over a broader range of operating frequencies. The system is divided into QM and EM regions and solved in a self-consistent manner via updating the boundary conditions at the QM and EM interface. The calculated potential distributions and current densities at the interface are taken as the boundary conditions for the QM and EM calculations, respectively, which facilitate the information exchange between the QM and EM calculations and ensure that the potential, charge, and current distributions are continuous across the QM/EM interface. Via Fourier transformation, the dynamic admittance calculated from the time-domain and frequency-domain QM/EM methods is compared for a carbon nanotube based molecular device.

  2. Structural And Functional Analysis of the Ligand Specificity of the HtrA2/OmI PDZ Domain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Y.; Appleton, B.A.; Wu, P.; Wiesmann, C.; Sidhu, S.S.

    2009-06-04

    The mitochondrial serine protease HtrA2/Omi helps to maintain mitochondrial function by handling misfolded proteins in the intermembrane space. In addition, HtrA2/Omi has been implicated as a proapoptotic factor upon release into the cytoplasm during the cell death cascade. The protein contains a C-terminal PDZ domain that packs against the protease active site and inhibits proteolytic activity. Engagement of the PDZ domain by peptide ligands has been shown to activate the protease and also has been proposed to mediate substrate recognition. We report a detailed structural and functional analysis of the human HtrA2/Omi PDZ domain using peptide libraries and affinity assays to define specificity, X-ray crystallography to view molecular details of PDZ-ligand interactions, and alanine-scanning mutagenesis to probe the peptide-binding groove. We show that the HtrA2/Omi PDZ domain recognizes both C-terminal and internal stretches of extended, hydrophobic polypeptides. High-affinity ligand recognition requires contacts with up to five hydrophobic side chains by distinct sites on the PDZ domain. However, no particular residue type is absolutely required at any position, and thus, the HtrA2/Omi PDZ domain appears to be a promiscuous module adapted to recognize unstructured, hydrophobic polypeptides. This type of specificity is consistent with the biological role of HtrA2/Omi in mitochondria, which requires the recognition of diverse, exposed stretches of hydrophobic sequences in misfolded proteins. The findings are less consistent with, but do not exclude, a role for the PDZ domain in targeting the protease to specific substrates during apoptosis.

  3. Domain wall and isocurvature perturbation problems in axion models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Yoshino, Kazuyoshi; Yanagida, Tsutomu T. E-mail: tsutomu.tyanagida@ipmu.jp

    2013-11-01

    Axion models have two serious cosmological problems, domain wall and isocurvature perturbation problems. In order to solve these problems we investigate the Linde's model in which the field value of the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) scalar is large during inflation. In this model the fluctuations of the PQ field grow after inflation through the parametric resonance and stable axionic strings may be produced, which results in the domain wall problem. We study formation of axionic strings using lattice simulations. It is found that in chaotic inflation the axion model is free from both the domain wall and the isocurvature perturbation problems if the initial misalignment angle ?{sub a} is smaller than O(10{sup ?2}). Furthermore, axions can also account for the dark matter for the breaking scale v ? 10{sup 12?16}GeV and the Hubble parameter during inflation H{sub inf}?<10{sup 11?12}GeV in general inflation models.

  4. Iterative image-domain decomposition for dual-energy CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niu, Tianye; Dong, Xue; Petrongolo, Michael; Zhu, Lei

    2014-04-15

    proposed method but with an edge-preserving regularization term. Results: On the Catphan phantom, the method maintains the same spatial resolution on the decomposed images as that of the CT images before decomposition (8 pairs/cm) while significantly reducing their noise standard deviation. Compared to that obtained by the direct matrix inversion, the noise standard deviation in the images decomposed by the proposed algorithm is reduced by over 98%. Without considering the noise correlation properties in the formulation, the denoising scheme degrades the spatial resolution to 6 pairs/cm for the same level of noise suppression. Compared to the edge-preserving algorithm, the method achieves better low-contrast detectability. A quantitative study is performed on the contrast-rod slice of Catphan phantom. The proposed method achieves lower electron density measurement error as compared to that by the direct matrix inversion, and significantly reduces the error variation by over 97%. On the head phantom, the method reduces the noise standard deviation of decomposed images by over 97% without blurring the sinus structures. Conclusions: The authors propose an iterative image-domain decomposition method for DECT. The method combines noise suppression and material decomposition into an iterative process and achieves both goals simultaneously. By exploring the full variance-covariance properties of the decomposed images and utilizing the edge predetection, the proposed algorithm shows superior performance on noise suppression with high image spatial resolution and low-contrast detectability.

  5. Current Domain Challenges in the Emergency Response Community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barr, Jonathan L.; Peddicord, Annie M Boe; Burtner, Edwin R.; Mahy, Heidi A.

    2011-05-08

    This paper describes the development of a framework targeted to technology providers in order to better understand the grand domain challenges of the emergency response and management community (EM). In developing this framework, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers interviewed subject matter experts (SMEs) across the EM domain and corroborated these findings with current literature. We are currently examining relationships and dependencies within the framework. A thorough understanding of these gaps and dependencies will allow for a more informed approach prioritizing research, developing tools, and applying technology to enhance performance in the EM community.

  6. A spectral analysis of the domain decomposed Monte Carlo method for linear systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slattery, Stuart R.; Evans, Thomas M.; Wilson, Paul P. H.

    2015-09-08

    The domain decomposed behavior of the adjoint Neumann-Ulam Monte Carlo method for solving linear systems is analyzed using the spectral properties of the linear oper- ator. Relationships for the average length of the adjoint random walks, a measure of convergence speed and serial performance, are made with respect to the eigenvalues of the linear operator. In addition, relationships for the effective optical thickness of a domain in the decomposition are presented based on the spectral analysis and diffusion theory. Using the effective optical thickness, the Wigner rational approxi- mation and the mean chord approximation are applied to estimate the leakage frac- tion of random walks from a domain in the decomposition as a measure of parallel performance and potential communication costs. The one-speed, two-dimensional neutron diffusion equation is used as a model problem in numerical experiments to test the models for symmetric operators with spectral qualities similar to light water reactor problems. We find, in general, the derived approximations show good agreement with random walk lengths and leakage fractions computed by the numerical experiments.

  7. A spectral analysis of the domain decomposed Monte Carlo method for linear systems

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Slattery, Stuart R.; Evans, Thomas M.; Wilson, Paul P. H.

    2015-09-08

    The domain decomposed behavior of the adjoint Neumann-Ulam Monte Carlo method for solving linear systems is analyzed using the spectral properties of the linear oper- ator. Relationships for the average length of the adjoint random walks, a measure of convergence speed and serial performance, are made with respect to the eigenvalues of the linear operator. In addition, relationships for the effective optical thickness of a domain in the decomposition are presented based on the spectral analysis and diffusion theory. Using the effective optical thickness, the Wigner rational approxi- mation and the mean chord approximation are applied to estimate the leakagemore » frac- tion of random walks from a domain in the decomposition as a measure of parallel performance and potential communication costs. The one-speed, two-dimensional neutron diffusion equation is used as a model problem in numerical experiments to test the models for symmetric operators with spectral qualities similar to light water reactor problems. We find, in general, the derived approximations show good agreement with random walk lengths and leakage fractions computed by the numerical experiments.« less

  8. The HPr Proteins from the Thermophile Bacillus stearothermophilus Can Form Domain-swapped Dimers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sridharan, Sudharsan; Razvi, Abbas; Scholtz, J. Martin; Sacchettini, James C. (TAM)

    2010-07-20

    The study of proteins from extremophilic organisms continues to generate interest in the field of protein folding because paradigms explaining the enhanced stability of these proteins still elude us and such studies have the potential to further our knowledge of the forces stabilizing proteins. We have undertaken such a study with our model protein HPr from a mesophile, Bacillus subtilis, and a thermophile, Bacillus stearothermophilus. We report here the high-resolution structures of the wild-type HPr protein from the thermophile and a variant, F29W. The variant proved to crystallize in two forms: a monomeric form with a structure very similar to the wild-type protein as well as a domain-swapped dimer. Interestingly, the structure of the domain-swapped dimer for HPr is very different from that observed for a homologous protein, Crh, from B. subtilis. The existence of a domain-swapped dimer has implications for amyloid formation and is consistent with recent results showing that the HPr proteins can form amyloid fibrils. We also characterized the conformational stability of the thermophilic HPr proteins using thermal and solvent denaturation methods and have used the high-resolution structures in an attempt to explain the differences in stability between the different HPr proteins. Finally, we present a detailed analysis of the solution properties of the HPr proteins using a variety of biochemical and biophysical methods.

  9. Structural basis of the heterodimerization of the MST and RASSF SARAH domains in the Hippo signalling pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, Eunha; Cheong, Hae-Kap; Mushtaq, Ameeq Ul; Kim, Hye-Yeon; Yeo, Kwon Joo; Kim, Eunhee; Lee, Woo Cheol; Hwang, Kwang Yeon; Cheong, Chaejoon; Jeon, Young Ho

    2014-07-01

    The heterodimeric structure of the MST1 and RASSF5 SARAH domains is presented. A comparison of homodimeric and heterodimeric interactions provides a structural basis for the preferential association of the SARAH heterodimer. Despite recent progress in research on the Hippo signalling pathway, the structural information available in this area is extremely limited. Intriguingly, the homodimeric and heterodimeric interactions of mammalian sterile 20-like (MST) kinases through the so-called ‘SARAH’ (SAV/RASSF/HPO) domains play a critical role in cellular homeostasis, dictating the fate of the cell regarding cell proliferation or apoptosis. To understand the mechanism of the heterodimerization of SARAH domains, the three-dimensional structures of an MST1–RASSF5 SARAH heterodimer and an MST2 SARAH homodimer were determined by X-ray crystallography and were analysed together with that previously determined for the MST1 SARAH homodimer. While the structure of the MST2 homodimer resembled that of the MST1 homodimer, the MST1–RASSF5 heterodimer showed distinct structural features. Firstly, the six N-terminal residues (Asp432–Lys437), which correspond to the short N-terminal 3{sub 10}-helix h1 kinked from the h2 helix in the MST1 homodimer, were disordered. Furthermore, the MST1 SARAH domain in the MST1–RASSF5 complex showed a longer helical structure (Ser438–Lys480) than that in the MST1 homodimer (Val441–Lys480). Moreover, extensive polar and nonpolar contacts in the MST1–RASSF5 SARAH domain were identified which strengthen the interactions in the heterodimer in comparison to the interactions in the homodimer. Denaturation experiments performed using urea also indicated that the MST–RASSF heterodimers are substantially more stable than the MST homodimers. These findings provide structural insights into the role of the MST1–RASSF5 SARAH domain in apoptosis signalling.

  10. Seventh international conference on Domain decomposition methods in scientific and engineering computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-12-31

    This report contains abstracts presented at the Seventh International Conference on Domain Decomposition Methods.

  11. Insights into Substrate Specificity of NlpC/P60 Cell Wall Hydrolases Containing Bacterial SH3 Domains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Qingping; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Liu, Xueqian W.; Patin, Delphine; Farr, Carol L.; Grant, Joanna C.; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Knuth, Mark W.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2015-09-15

    ABSTRACT

    Bacterial SH3 (SH3b) domains are commonly fused with papain-like Nlp/P60 cell wall hydrolase domains. To understand how the modular architecture of SH3b and NlpC/P60 affects the activity of the catalytic domain, three putative NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases were biochemically and structurally characterized. These enzymes all have γ-d-Glu-A2pm (A2pm is diaminopimelic acid) cysteine amidase (ordl-endopeptidase) activities but with different substrate specificities. One enzyme is a cell wall lysin that cleaves peptidoglycan (PG), while the other two are cell wall recycling enzymes that only cleave stem peptides with an N-terminall-Ala. Their crystal structures revealed a highly conserved structure consisting of two SH3b domains and a C-terminal NlpC/P60 catalytic domain, despite very low sequence identity. Interestingly, loops from the first SH3b domain dock into the ends of the active site groove of the catalytic domain, remodel the substrate binding site, and modulate substrate specificity. Two amino acid differences at the domain interface alter the substrate binding specificity in favor of stem peptides in recycling enzymes, whereas the SH3b domain may extend the peptidoglycan binding surface in the cell wall lysins. Remarkably, the cell wall lysin can be converted into a recycling enzyme with a single mutation.

    IMPORTANCEPeptidoglycan is a meshlike polymer that envelops the bacterial plasma membrane and bestows structural integrity. Cell wall lysins and recycling enzymes are part of a set of lytic enzymes that target covalent bonds connecting the amino acid and amino sugar building blocks of the PG network. These hydrolases are involved in processes such as cell growth and division, autolysis, invasion, and PG turnover and recycling. To avoid cleavage of unintended substrates, these enzymes have very selective substrate specificities. Our biochemical and structural

  12. Insights into substrate specificity of NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases containing bacterial SH3 domains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Qingping; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Liu, Xueqian W.; Patin, Delphine; Farr, Carol L.; Grant, Joanna C.; Chiu, Hsiu -Ju; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Knuth, Mark W.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Elsliger, Marc -André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2015-09-15

    Bacterial SH3 (SH3b) domains are commonly fused with papain-like Nlp/P60 cell wall hydrolase domains. To understand how the modular architecture of SH3b and NlpC/P60 affects the activity of the catalytic domain, three putative NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases were biochemically and structurally characterized. In addition, these enzymes all have γ-d-Glu-A2pm (A2pm is diaminopimelic acid) cysteine amidase (ordl-endopeptidase) activities but with different substrate specificities. One enzyme is a cell wall lysin that cleaves peptidoglycan (PG), while the other two are cell wall recycling enzymes that only cleave stem peptides with an N-terminall-Ala. Their crystal structures revealed a highly conserved structure consisting of two SH3b domains and a C-terminal NlpC/P60 catalytic domain, despite very low sequence identity. Interestingly, loops from the first SH3b domain dock into the ends of the active site groove of the catalytic domain, remodel the substrate binding site, and modulate substrate specificity. Two amino acid differences at the domain interface alter the substrate binding specificity in favor of stem peptides in recycling enzymes, whereas the SH3b domain may extend the peptidoglycan binding surface in the cell wall lysins. Remarkably, the cell wall lysin can be converted into a recycling enzyme with a single mutation.

    Peptidoglycan is a meshlike polymer that envelops the bacterial plasma membrane and bestows structural integrity. Cell wall lysins and recycling enzymes are part of a set of lytic enzymes that target covalent bonds connecting the amino acid and amino sugar building blocks of the PG network. These hydrolases are involved in processes such as cell growth and division, autolysis, invasion, and PG turnover and recycling. To avoid cleavage of unintended substrates, these enzymes have very selective substrate specificities. Our biochemical and structural analysis of three modular NlpC/P60

  13. Insights into substrate specificity of NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases containing bacterial SH3 domains

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Xu, Qingping; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Liu, Xueqian W.; Patin, Delphine; Farr, Carol L.; Grant, Joanna C.; Chiu, Hsiu -Ju; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Knuth, Mark W.; Godzik, Adam; et al

    2015-09-15

    Bacterial SH3 (SH3b) domains are commonly fused with papain-like Nlp/P60 cell wall hydrolase domains. To understand how the modular architecture of SH3b and NlpC/P60 affects the activity of the catalytic domain, three putative NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases were biochemically and structurally characterized. In addition, these enzymes all have γ-d-Glu-A2pm (A2pm is diaminopimelic acid) cysteine amidase (ordl-endopeptidase) activities but with different substrate specificities. One enzyme is a cell wall lysin that cleaves peptidoglycan (PG), while the other two are cell wall recycling enzymes that only cleave stem peptides with an N-terminall-Ala. Their crystal structures revealed a highly conserved structure consisting ofmore » two SH3b domains and a C-terminal NlpC/P60 catalytic domain, despite very low sequence identity. Interestingly, loops from the first SH3b domain dock into the ends of the active site groove of the catalytic domain, remodel the substrate binding site, and modulate substrate specificity. Two amino acid differences at the domain interface alter the substrate binding specificity in favor of stem peptides in recycling enzymes, whereas the SH3b domain may extend the peptidoglycan binding surface in the cell wall lysins. Remarkably, the cell wall lysin can be converted into a recycling enzyme with a single mutation.Peptidoglycan is a meshlike polymer that envelops the bacterial plasma membrane and bestows structural integrity. Cell wall lysins and recycling enzymes are part of a set of lytic enzymes that target covalent bonds connecting the amino acid and amino sugar building blocks of the PG network. These hydrolases are involved in processes such as cell growth and division, autolysis, invasion, and PG turnover and recycling. To avoid cleavage of unintended substrates, these enzymes have very selective substrate specificities. Our biochemical and structural analysis of three modular NlpC/P60 hydrolases, one lysin, and two recycling enzymes, show

  14. Methods of detection using a cellulose binding domain fusion product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1999-01-05

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 34 figs.

  15. Methods of detection using a cellulose binding domain fusion product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1999-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  16. Methods of use of cellulose binding domain proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1997-09-23

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  17. A nodal domain theorem for integrable billiards in two dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samajdar, Rhine; Jain, Sudhir R.

    2014-12-15

    Eigenfunctions of integrable planar billiards are studied — in particular, the number of nodal domains, ν of the eigenfunctions with Dirichlet boundary conditions are considered. The billiards for which the time-independent Schrödinger equation (Helmholtz equation) is separable admit trivial expressions for the number of domains. Here, we discover that for all separable and non-separable integrable billiards, ν satisfies certain difference equations. This has been possible because the eigenfunctions can be classified in families labelled by the same value of mmodkn, given a particular k, for a set of quantum numbers, m,n. Further, we observe that the patterns in a family are similar and the algebraic representation of the geometrical nodal patterns is found. Instances of this representation are explained in detail to understand the beauty of the patterns. This paper therefore presents a mathematical connection between integrable systems and difference equations. - Highlights: • We find that the number of nodal domains of eigenfunctions of integrable, planar billiards satisfy a class of difference equations. • The eigenfunctions labelled by quantum numbers (m,n) can be classified in terms of mmodkn. • A theorem is presented, realising algebraic representations of geometrical patterns exhibited by the domains. • This work presents a connection between integrable systems and difference equations.

  18. Methods of use of cellulose binding domain proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1997-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  19. A single domain antibody fragment that recognizes the adaptor ASC defines

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the role of ASC domains in inflammasome assembly (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A single domain antibody fragment that recognizes the adaptor ASC defines the role of ASC domains in inflammasome assembly Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A single domain antibody fragment that recognizes the adaptor ASC defines the role of ASC domains in inflammasome assembly Authors: Schmidt, Florian I. ; Lu, Alvin ; Chen, Jeff W. ; Ruan, Jianbin ; Tang, Catherine ; Wu, Hao ; Ploegh, Hidde L.

  20. Domain decomposition based iterative methods for nonlinear elliptic finite element problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, X.C.

    1994-12-31

    The class of overlapping Schwarz algorithms has been extensively studied for linear elliptic finite element problems. In this presentation, the author considers the solution of systems of nonlinear algebraic equations arising from the finite element discretization of some nonlinear elliptic equations. Several overlapping Schwarz algorithms, including the additive and multiplicative versions, with inexact Newton acceleration will be discussed. The author shows that the convergence rate of the Newton`s method is independent of the mesh size used in the finite element discretization, and also independent of the number of subdomains into which the original domain in decomposed. Numerical examples will be presented.

  1. Dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurements with high resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weng, Jidong; Liu, Shenggang; Ma, Heli; Tao, Tianjiong; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Cangli; Tan, Hua

    2014-11-15

    A unique dynamic frequency-domain interferometer for absolute distance measurement has been developed recently. This paper presents the working principle of the new interferometric system, which uses a photonic crystal fiber to transmit the wide-spectrum light beams and a high-speed streak camera or frame camera to record the interference stripes. Preliminary measurements of harmonic vibrations of a speaker, driven by a radio, and the changes in the tip clearance of a rotating gear wheel show that this new type of interferometer has the ability to perform absolute distance measurements both with high time- and distance-resolution.

  2. Decay-ratio calculation in the frequency domain with the LAPUR code using 1D-kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munoz-Cobo, J. L.; Escriva, A.; Garcia, C.; Berna, C.

    2012-07-01

    This paper deals with the problem of computing the Decay Ratio in the frequency domain codes as the LAPUR code. First, it is explained how to calculate the feedback reactivity in the frequency domain using slab-geometry i.e. 1D kinetics, also we show how to perform the coupling of the 1D kinetics with the thermal-hydraulic part of the LAPUR code in order to obtain the reactivity feedback coefficients for the different channels. In addition, we show how to obtain the reactivity variation in the complex domain by solving the eigenvalue equation in the frequency domain and we compare this result with the reactivity variation obtained in first order perturbation theory using the 1D neutron fluxes of the base case. Because LAPUR works in the linear regime, it is assumed that in general the perturbations are small. There is also a section devoted to the reactivity weighting factors used to couple the reactivity contribution from the different channels to the reactivity of the entire reactor core in point kinetics and 1D kinetics. Finally we analyze the effects of the different approaches on the DR value. (authors)

  3. Calculation of HVDC-converter harmonics in frequency domain with regard to asymmetries and comparison with time domain simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rittiger, J.; Kulicke, B.

    1995-10-01

    In order to study the effects of large HVDC converters to the feeding ac networks, it is of importance to explain and to calculate harmonic phenomena which are a result of converter operation. During commissioning of real HVDC converters it could be seen, that harmonics resulting from unsymmetries in the system voltages or from unsymmetries in converter operation led to significant difficulties concerning the system design. For this reason, not only the effects of characteristic but also the effects of noncharacteristic converter harmonics must be taken into account. The aim is to describe the steady state harmonic behavior of the converter. The harmonic spectra are not determined by time domain analysis but instead the solution is found by frequency domain calculations. This can result in reduced calculation time in comparison to conventional fourier analysis of the time functions. The converter is interpreted as an amplitude modulator with voltage and current converter functions which describe the coupling of the dc circuit and the ac network through the converter. To verify the theory, comparison of frequency domain with time domain calculations were carried out.

  4. Structure of the SH3 domain of human osteoclast-stimulating factor at atomic resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Liqing Wang, Yujun; Wells, David; Toh, Diana; Harold, Hunt; Zhou, Jing; DiGiammarino, Enrico; Meehan, Edward J.

    2006-09-01

    The crystal structure of the SH3 domain of human osteoclast-stimulating factor has been determined and refined to the ultrahigh resolution of 1.07 . The structure at atomic resolution provides an accurate framework for structure-based design of its inhibitors. Osteoclast-stimulating factor (OSF) is an intracellular signaling protein, produced by osteoclasts themselves, that enhances osteoclast formation and bone resorption. It is thought to act via an Src-related signaling pathway and contains SH3 and ankyrin-repeat domains which are involved in proteinprotein interactions. As part of a structure-based anti-bone-loss drug-design program, the atomic resolution X-ray structure of the recombinant human OSF SH3 domain (hOSF-SH3) has been determined. The domain, residues 1272, yielded crystals that diffracted to the ultrahigh resolution of 1.07 . The overall structure shows a characteristic SH3 fold consisting of two perpendicular ?-sheets that form a ?-barrel. Structure-based sequence alignment reveals that the putative proline-rich peptide-binding site of hOSF-SH3 consists of (i) residues that are highly conserved in the SH3-domain family, including residues Tyr21, Phe23, Trp49, Pro62, Asn64 and Tyr65, and (ii) residues that are less conserved and/or even specific to hOSF, including Thr22, Arg26, Thr27, Glu30, Asp46, Thr47, Asn48 and Leu60, which might be key to designing specific inhibitors for hOSF to fight osteoporosis and related bone-loss diseases. There are a total of 13 well defined water molecules forming hydrogen bonds with the above residues in and around the peptide-binding pocket. Some of those water molecules might be important for drug-design approaches. The hOSF-SH3 structure at atomic resolution provides an accurate framework for structure-based design of its inhibitors.

  5. Domain decomposition methods for solving an image problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsui, W.K.; Tong, C.S.

    1994-12-31

    The domain decomposition method is a technique to break up a problem so that ensuing sub-problems can be solved on a parallel computer. In order to improve the convergence rate of the capacitance systems, pre-conditioned conjugate gradient methods are commonly used. In the last decade, most of the efficient preconditioners are based on elliptic partial differential equations which are particularly useful for solving elliptic partial differential equations. In this paper, the authors apply the so called covering preconditioner, which is based on the information of the operator under investigation. Therefore, it is good for various kinds of applications, specifically, they shall apply the preconditioned domain decomposition method for solving an image restoration problem. The image restoration problem is to extract an original image which has been degraded by a known convolution process and additive Gaussian noise.

  6. Domain-independent information extraction in unstructured text

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irwin, N.H.

    1996-09-01

    Extracting information from unstructured text has become an important research area in recent years due to the large amount of text now electronically available. This status report describes the findings and work done during the second year of a two-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project. Building on the first-year`s work of identifying important entities, this report details techniques used to group words into semantic categories and to output templates containing selective document content. Using word profiles and category clustering derived during a training run, the time-consuming knowledge-building task can be avoided. Though the output still lacks in completeness when compared to systems with domain-specific knowledge bases, the results do look promising. The two approaches are compatible and could complement each other within the same system. Domain-independent approaches retain appeal as a system that adapts and learns will soon outpace a system with any amount of a priori knowledge.

  7. Time Domain Partitioning of Electricity Production Cost Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrows, C.; Hummon, M.; Jones, W.; Hale, E.

    2014-01-01

    Production cost models are often used for planning by simulating power system operations over long time horizons. The simulation of a day-ahead energy market can take several weeks to compute. Tractability improvements are often made through model simplifications, such as: reductions in transmission modeling detail, relaxation of commitment variable integrality, reductions in cost modeling detail, etc. One common simplification is to partition the simulation horizon so that weekly or monthly horizons can be simulated in parallel. However, horizon partitions are often executed with overlap periods of arbitrary and sometimes zero length. We calculate the time domain persistence of historical unit commitment decisions to inform time domain partitioning of production cost models. The results are implemented using PLEXOS production cost modeling software in an HPC environment to improve the computation time of simulations while maintaining solution integrity.

  8. Oxyanion Induced Variations in Domain Structure for Amorphous Cobalt Oxide Oxygen Evolving Catalysts, Resolved by X-ray Pair Distribution Function Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, Gihan; Kokhan, Oleksandr; Han, Ali; Chapman, Karena W.; Chupas, Peter J.; Du, Pingwu; Tiede, David M.

    2015-12-01

    Amorphous thin film oxygen evolving catalysts, OECs, of first-row transition metals show promise to serve as self-assembling photoanode materials in solar-driven, photoelectrochemical `artificial leaf' devices. This report demonstrates the ability to use high-energy X-ray scattering and atomic pair distribution function analysis, PDF, to resolve structure in amorphous metal oxide catalyst films. The analysis is applied here to resolve domain structure differences induced by oxyanion substitution during the electrochemical assembly of amorphous cobalt oxide catalyst films, Co-OEC. PDF patterns for Co-OEC films formed using phosphate, Pi, methylphosphate, MPi, and borate, Bi, electrolyte buffers show that the resulting domains vary in size following the sequence Pi < MPi < Bi. The increases in domain size for CoMPi and CoBi were found to be correlated with increases in the contributions from bilayer and trilayer stacked domains having structures intermediate between those of the LiCoOO and CoO(OH) mineral forms. The lattice structures and offset stacking of adjacent layers in the partially stacked CoMPi and CoBi domains were best matched to those in the LiCoOO layered structure. The results demonstrate the ability of PDF analysis to elucidate features of domain size, structure, defect content and mesoscale organization for amorphous metal oxide catalysts that are not readily accessed by other X-ray techniques. Finally, PDF structure analysis is shown to provide a way to characterize domain structures in different forms of amorphous oxide catalysts, and hence provide an opportunity to investigate correlations between domain structure and catalytic activity.

  9. Oxyanion Induced Variations in Domain Structure for Amorphous Cobalt Oxide Oxygen Evolving Catalysts, Resolved by X-ray Pair Distribution Function Analysis

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Kwon, Gihan; Kokhan, Oleksandr; Han, Ali; Chapman, Karena W.; Chupas, Peter J.; Du, Pingwu; Tiede, David M.

    2015-12-01

    Amorphous thin film oxygen evolving catalysts, OECs, of first-row transition metals show promise to serve as self-assembling photoanode materials in solar-driven, photoelectrochemical `artificial leaf' devices. This report demonstrates the ability to use high-energy X-ray scattering and atomic pair distribution function analysis, PDF, to resolve structure in amorphous metal oxide catalyst films. The analysis is applied here to resolve domain structure differences induced by oxyanion substitution during the electrochemical assembly of amorphous cobalt oxide catalyst films, Co-OEC. PDF patterns for Co-OEC films formed using phosphate, Pi, methylphosphate, MPi, and borate, Bi, electrolyte buffers show that the resulting domains vary in sizemore » following the sequence Pi < MPi < Bi. The increases in domain size for CoMPi and CoBi were found to be correlated with increases in the contributions from bilayer and trilayer stacked domains having structures intermediate between those of the LiCoOO and CoO(OH) mineral forms. The lattice structures and offset stacking of adjacent layers in the partially stacked CoMPi and CoBi domains were best matched to those in the LiCoOO layered structure. The results demonstrate the ability of PDF analysis to elucidate features of domain size, structure, defect content and mesoscale organization for amorphous metal oxide catalysts that are not readily accessed by other X-ray techniques. Finally, PDF structure analysis is shown to provide a way to characterize domain structures in different forms of amorphous oxide catalysts, and hence provide an opportunity to investigate correlations between domain structure and catalytic activity.« less

  10. Domain decomposed preconditioners with Krylov subspace methods as subdomain solvers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pernice, M.

    1994-12-31

    Domain decomposed preconditioners for nonsymmetric partial differential equations typically require the solution of problems on the subdomains. Most implementations employ exact solvers to obtain these solutions. Consequently work and storage requirements for the subdomain problems grow rapidly with the size of the subdomain problems. Subdomain solves constitute the single largest computational cost of a domain decomposed preconditioner, and improving the efficiency of this phase of the computation will have a significant impact on the performance of the overall method. The small local memory available on the nodes of most message-passing multicomputers motivates consideration of the use of an iterative method for solving subdomain problems. For large-scale systems of equations that are derived from three-dimensional problems, memory considerations alone may dictate the need for using iterative methods for the subdomain problems. In addition to reduced storage requirements, use of an iterative solver on the subdomains allows flexibility in specifying the accuracy of the subdomain solutions. Substantial savings in solution time is possible if the quality of the domain decomposed preconditioner is not degraded too much by relaxing the accuracy of the subdomain solutions. While some work in this direction has been conducted for symmetric problems, similar studies for nonsymmetric problems appear not to have been pursued. This work represents a first step in this direction, and explores the effectiveness of performing subdomain solves using several transpose-free Krylov subspace methods, GMRES, transpose-free QMR, CGS, and a smoothed version of CGS. Depending on the difficulty of the subdomain problem and the convergence tolerance used, a reduction in solution time is possible in addition to the reduced memory requirements. The domain decomposed preconditioner is a Schur complement method in which the interface operators are approximated using interface probing.

  11. Adaptive domain decomposition methods for advection-diffusion problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlenzoli, C.; Quarteroni, A.

    1995-12-31

    Domain decomposition methods can perform poorly on advection-diffusion equations if diffusion is dominated by advection. Indeed, the hyperpolic part of the equations could affect the behavior of iterative schemes among subdomains slowing down dramatically their rate of convergence. Taking into account the direction of the characteristic lines we introduce suitable adaptive algorithms which are stable with respect to the magnitude of the convective field in the equations and very effective on bear boundary value problems.

  12. Investigation of Unusual Albedos in the SGP Domain

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Investigation of Unusual Albedos in the SGP Domain Groff, David ARM SGP Duchon, Claude University Of Oklahoma Category: Atmospheric State and Surface We investigate the cause of unusually high albedos at an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) extended facility near Morris, OK. In a previous study, daily albedos were calculated at several SGP extended facilities for 1998 and 1999 using broadband (.28 to 3 microns) pyranometers. The average daily albedo during this

  13. Cable Damage Detection System and Algorithms Using Time Domain Reflectometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, G A; Robbins, C L; Wade, K A; Souza, P R

    2009-03-24

    This report describes the hardware system and the set of algorithms we have developed for detecting damage in cables for the Advanced Development and Process Technologies (ADAPT) Program. This program is part of the W80 Life Extension Program (LEP). The system could be generalized for application to other systems in the future. Critical cables can undergo various types of damage (e.g. short circuits, open circuits, punctures, compression) that manifest as changes in the dielectric/impedance properties of the cables. For our specific problem, only one end of the cable is accessible, and no exemplars of actual damage are available. This work addresses the detection of dielectric/impedance anomalies in transient time domain reflectometry (TDR) measurements on the cables. The approach is to interrogate the cable using time domain reflectometry (TDR) techniques, in which a known pulse is inserted into the cable, and reflections from the cable are measured. The key operating principle is that any important cable damage will manifest itself as an electrical impedance discontinuity that can be measured in the TDR response signal. Machine learning classification algorithms are effectively eliminated from consideration, because only a small number of cables is available for testing; so a sufficient sample size is not attainable. Nonetheless, a key requirement is to achieve very high probability of detection and very low probability of false alarm. The approach is to compare TDR signals from possibly damaged cables to signals or an empirical model derived from reference cables that are known to be undamaged. This requires that the TDR signals are reasonably repeatable from test to test on the same cable, and from cable to cable. Empirical studies show that the repeatability issue is the 'long pole in the tent' for damage detection, because it is has been difficult to achieve reasonable repeatability. This one factor dominated the project. The two-step model-based approach is

  14. Appearance of large crystalline domains in VO{sub 2} films grown on sapphire (001) and their phase transition characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azhan, Nurul Hanis; Su, Kui; Okimura, Kunio; Zaghrioui, Mustapha; Sakai, Joe

    2015-06-28

    We report the first observation of large crystalline domains of several μm-size in VO{sub 2} films deposited on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (001) substrates by rf-biased reactive sputtering technique. The large crystalline domains, dominated with random in-plane oriented growth of (011){sub M1}-orientation, appear only under adequate substrate biasing, such as 10 W, while most biasing conditions result in conventional nanosized grains of highly oriented (010){sub M1}-orientation. Two temperature-controlled analyses, x-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy, have revealed that some parts of large crystalline domains undergo intermediate monoclinic (M2) phase during the thermally-induced structural phase transition from monoclinic (M1) to rutile-tetragonal (R) phase. As an effect of the appearance of large crystalline domains, the film showed in-plane tensile stress, resulting in high T{sub IMT} of 69 °C due to the elongation of the V-V distance in its low-temperature monoclinic phase.

  15. A Characteristic-Galerkin method for the Navier-Stokes equations in thin domains with free boundaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cornetti, G.M.

    1995-12-31

    The 3D Navier-Stokes equations are solved via the Characteristic-Galerkin method extended to free boundary problems. A temporal discretization procedure is proposed for the case where a preferential direction to move mesh point exists, as in thin domains. Using a single layer of finite elements, the numerical results cover the so-called shallow water 2D approximation, showing the same wave propagation speed.

  16. BuD, a helix–loop–helix DNA-binding domain for genome modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stella, Stefano; Molina, Rafael; López-Méndez, Blanca; Juillerat, Alexandre; Bertonati, Claudia; Daboussi, Fayza; Campos-Olivas, Ramon; Duchateau, Phillippe; Montoya, Guillermo

    2014-07-01

    Crystal structures of BurrH and the BurrH–DNA complex are reported. DNA editing offers new possibilities in synthetic biology and biomedicine for modulation or modification of cellular functions to organisms. However, inaccuracy in this process may lead to genome damage. To address this important problem, a strategy allowing specific gene modification has been achieved through the addition, removal or exchange of DNA sequences using customized proteins and the endogenous DNA-repair machinery. Therefore, the engineering of specific protein–DNA interactions in protein scaffolds is key to providing ‘toolkits’ for precise genome modification or regulation of gene expression. In a search for putative DNA-binding domains, BurrH, a protein that recognizes a 19 bp DNA target, was identified. Here, its apo and DNA-bound crystal structures are reported, revealing a central region containing 19 repeats of a helix–loop–helix modular domain (BurrH domain; BuD), which identifies the DNA target by a single residue-to-nucleotide code, thus facilitating its redesign for gene targeting. New DNA-binding specificities have been engineered in this template, showing that BuD-derived nucleases (BuDNs) induce high levels of gene targeting in a locus of the human haemoglobin β (HBB) gene close to mutations responsible for sickle-cell anaemia. Hence, the unique combination of high efficiency and specificity of the BuD arrays can push forward diverse genome-modification approaches for cell or organism redesign, opening new avenues for gene editing.

  17. Determination of the protease cleavage site repertoire—The RNase H but not the RT domain is essential for foamy viral protease activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spannaus, Ralf; Bodem, Jochen

    2014-04-15

    In contrast to orthoretroviruses, the foamy virus protease is only active as a protease-reverse transcriptase fusion protein and requires viral RNA for activation. Maturation of foamy viral proteins seems to be restricted to a single cleavage site in Gag and Pol. We provide evidence that unprocessed Gag is required for optimal infectivity, which is unique among retroviruses. Analyses of the cleavage site sequences of the Gag and Pol cleavage sites revealed a high similarity compared to those of Lentiviruses. We show that positions P2' and P2 are invariant and that Gag and Pol cleavage sites are processed with similar efficiencies. The RNase H domain is essential for protease activity, but can functionally be substituted by RNase H domains of other retroviruses. Thus, the RNase H domain might be involved in the stabilization of the protease dimer, while the RT domain is essential for RNA dependent protease activation. - Highlights: • Unprocessed Gag is required for optimal infectivity of foamy viruses. • Positions P2 and P2' are invariant in the foamy viral cleavage sites. • The RNaseH domain is essential for protease activity. • The RNaseH domains of other retroviruses support foamy viral protease activity.

  18. Structure and Interactions of the CS Domain of Human H/ACA RNP...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structure and Interactions of the CS Domain of Human HACA RNP Assembly Protein Shq1 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structure and Interactions of the CS Domain of Human...

  19. All-electron self-consistent G W in the Matsubara-time domain...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    All-electron self-consistent G W in the Matsubara-time domain: Implementation and ... Title: All-electron self-consistent G W in the Matsubara-time domain: Implementation ...

  20. Impact of the N-Terminal Domain of STAT3 in STAT3-Dependent Transcript...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Impact of the N-Terminal Domain of STAT3 in STAT3-Dependent Transcriptional Activity Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Impact of the N-Terminal Domain of STAT3 in ...

  1. Structure of the SPRY domain of human Ash2L and its interactions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structure of the SPRY domain of human Ash2L and its interactions with RbBP5 and DPY30 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structure of the SPRY domain of human Ash2L and its ...

  2. Structural Basis of Ubiquitin Recognition by the Ubiquitin-associated (UBA) Domain of the Ubiquitin Ligase EDD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozlov, G.; Nguyen, L; Lin, T; De Crescenzo, G; Park, M; Gehring, K

    2007-01-01

    EDD (or HYD) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase in the family of HECT (homologous to E6-AP C terminus) ligases. EDD contains an N-terminal ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain, which is present in a variety of proteins involved in ubiquitin-mediated processes. Here, we use isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), NMR titrations, and pull-down assays to show that the EDD UBA domain binds ubiquitin. The 1.85{angstrom} crystal structure of the complex with ubiquitin reveals the structural basis of ubiquitin recognition by UBA helices {alpha}1 and {alpha}3. The structure shows a larger number of intermolecular hydrogen bonds than observed in previous UBA/ubiquitin complexes. Two of these involve ordered water molecules. The functional importance of residues at the UBA/ubiquitin interface was confirmed using site-directed mutagenesis. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements show that the EDD UBA domain does not have a strong preference for polyubiquitin chains over monoubiquitin. This suggests that EDD binds to monoubiquitinated proteins, which is consistent with its involvement in DNA damage repair pathways.

  3. New Analysis Shows National Potential for Solar Power in Low-Income

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Communities | Department of Energy Analysis Shows National Potential for Solar Power in Low-Income Communities New Analysis Shows National Potential for Solar Power in Low-Income Communities November 18, 2016 - 11:45am Addthis New Analysis Shows National Potential for Solar Power in Low-Income Communities New Analysis Shows National Potential for Solar Power in Low-Income Communities New Analysis Shows National Potential for Solar Power in Low-Income Communities New Analysis Shows National

  4. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To perform task-based image quality assessment in CT, it is desirable to have a large number of realistic patient images with known diagnostic truth. One effective way of achieving this objective is to create hybrid images that combine patient images with inserted lesions. Because conventional hybrid images generated in the image domain fails to reflect the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance, this study explored a projection-domain approach. Methods: Lesions were segmented from patient images and forward projected to acquire lesion projections. The forward-projection geometry was designed according to a commercial CT scanner and accommodated both axial and helical modes with various focal spot movement patterns. The energy employed by the commercial CT scanner for beam hardening correction was measured and used for the forward projection. The lesion projections were inserted into patient projections decoded from commercial CT projection data. The combined projections were formatted to match those of commercial CT raw data, loaded onto a commercial CT scanner, and reconstructed to create the hybrid images. Two validations were performed. First, to validate the accuracy of the forward-projection geometry, images were reconstructed from the forward projections of a virtual ACR phantom and compared to physically acquired ACR phantom images in terms of CT number accuracy and high-contrast resolution. Second, to validate the realism of the lesion in hybrid images, liver lesions were segmented from patient images and inserted back into the same patients, each at a new location specified by a radiologist. The inserted lesions were compared to the original lesions and visually assessed for realism by two experienced radiologists in a blinded fashion. Results: For the validation of the forward-projection geometry, the images reconstructed from the forward projections of the virtual ACR phantom were consistent with the images physically

  5. Time Domain Phonon Spectroscopy at LCLS | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Lightsource Time Domain Phonon Spectroscopy at LCLS Wednesday, August 31, 2016 - 3:00pm SLAC, Redtail Hawk Conference Room 108A Speaker: Tom Henighan, PULSE Program Description Fourier-transform inelastic x-ray scattering is a novel technique enabled by the high flux of the LCLS for measuring phonon dispersions and more in crystalline solids. Following a short optical pump, we observe phonon coherences throughout the Brillion zone via scattering of a non-resonant femtosecond x-ray probe. I

  6. Propagating and reflecting of spin wave in permalloy nanostrip with 360 domain wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Senfu; Mu, Congpu; Zhu, Qiyuan; Zheng, Qi; Liu, Xianyin; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang

    2014-01-07

    By micromagnetic simulation, we investigated the interaction between propagating spin wave (or magnonic) and a 360 domain wall in a nanostrip. It is found that propagating spin wave can drive a 360 domain wall motion, and the velocity and direction are closely related to the transmission coefficient of the spin wave of the domain wall. When the spin wave passes through the domain wall completely, the 360 domain wall moves toward the spin wave source. When the spin wave is reflected by the domain wall, the 360 domain wall moves along the spin wave propagation direction. Moreover, when the frequency of the spin wave is coincident with that of the 360 domain wall normal mode, the 360 domain wall velocity will be resonantly enhanced no matter which direction the 360 DW moves along. On the other hand, when the spin wave is reflected from the moving 360 domain wall, we observed the Doppler effect clearly. After passing through a 360 domain wall, the phase of the spin wave is changed, and the phase shift is related to the frequency. Nevertheless, phase shift could be manipulated by the number of 360 domain walls that spin wave passing through.

  7. Interplay between intrinsic and stacking-fault magnetic domains in bi-layered manganites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hossain, M.A; Burkhardt, Mark H.; Sarkar, S.; Ohldag, H.; Chuang, Y.-D.; Scholl, A.; Young, A.T.; Doran, A.; Dessau, D.S.; Zheng, H.; Mitchell, J.F.; Durr, H.A.; Stohr, J.

    2012-09-11

    We present a low temperature X-ray photoemission electron microscopy study of the bi-layered manganite compound La{sub 1.2}Sr{sub 1.8}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7} (BL-LSMO) to investigate the influence of stacking faults, which are structurally and magnetically different from the bi-layered host. In BL-LSMO small magnetic moment persists to T* = 300K, well above the Curie temperature of 120K (T{sub C}). Our magnetic images show that 3D stacking faults are responsible for the T* transition. Furthermore, close to the T{sub C}, stacking faults are well coupled to the bi-layered host with latter magnetic domains controlling the spin direction of the stacking faults. Contrary to recent reports, we find that stacking faults do not seed magnetic domains in the host via an exchange spring mechanism and the intrinsic T{sub C} of the BL-LSMO is not lower than 120K.

  8. Fabrication of single crystalline, uniaxial single domain Co nanowire arrays with high coercivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramazani, A. Almasi Kashi, M.; Montazer, A. H.

    2014-03-21

    Whilst Co nanorods with high coercivity were synthesized during recent years, they did not achieve the same results as for Co nanowires embedded in solid templates. In the present work, Co nanowire arrays (NWAs) with high coercivity were successfully fabricated in porous aluminum oxide template under optimum conditions by using pulsed ac electrodeposition technique. Magnetic properties and crystalline characteristics of the nanowires were investigated by hysteresis loop measurements, first-order reversal curve (FORC) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns. Hysteresis loop measurements showed high coercivity of about 4.8 kOe at room temperature together with optimum squareness of 1, resulting in an increase of the previous maximum coercivity for Co NWAs up to 45%. XRD and SAED patterns revealed a single crystalline texture along the [0002] direction, indicating the large magnetocrystalline anisotropy. On the other hand, FORC analysis confirmed a single domain structure for the Co NWAs. In addition, the reversal mechanism of the single crystalline, single domain Co NWAs was studied which resulted in the fixed easy axis with a coherent rotation. Accordingly, these nanowires might offer promising applications in high density bit patterned media and low power logic devices.

  9. Structure of a two-CAP-domain protein from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.

    2011-05-01

    The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite N. americanus refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å is presented. Major proteins secreted by the infective larval stage hookworms upon host entry include Ancylostoma secreted proteins (ASPs), which are characterized by one or two CAP (cysteine-rich secretory protein/antigen 5/pathogenesis related-1) domains. The CAP domain has been reported in diverse phylogenetically unrelated proteins, but has no confirmed function. The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite Necator americanus was refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å. The structure was solved by molecular replacement (MR) using Na-ASP-2, a one-CAP-domain ASP, as the search model. The correct MR solution could only be obtained by truncating the polyalanine model of Na-ASP-2 and removing several loops. The structure reveals two CAP domains linked by an extended loop. Overall, the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain is more similar to Na-ASP-2 than to the amino-terminal CAP domain. A large central cavity extends from the amino-terminal CAP domain to the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain, encompassing the putative CAP-binding cavity. The putative CAP-binding cavity is a characteristic cavity in the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain that contains a His and Glu pair. These residues are conserved in all single-CAP-domain proteins, but are absent in the amino-terminal CAP domain. The conserved His residues are oriented such that they appear to be capable of directly coordinating a zinc ion as observed for CAP proteins from reptile venoms. This first structure of a two-CAP-domain ASP can serve as a template for homology modeling of other two-CAP-domain proteins.

  10. Phylogenomic and functional domain analysis of polyketide synthases in Fusarium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Daren W.; Butchko, Robert A.; Baker, Scott E.; Proctor, Robert H.

    2012-02-01

    Fusarium species are ubiquitous in nature, cause a range of plant diseases, and produce a variety of chemicals often referred to as secondary metabolites. Although some fungal secondary metabolites affect plant growth or protect plants from other fungi and bacteria, their presence in grain based food and feed is more often associated with a variety of diseases in plants and in animals. Many of these structurally diverse metabolites are derived from a family of related enzymes called polyketide synthases (PKSs). A search of genomic sequence of Fusarium verticillioides, F. graminearum, F. oxysporum and Nectria haematococca (anamorph F. solani) identified a total of 58 PKS genes. To gain insight into how this gene family evolved and to guide future studies, we conducted a phylogenomic and functional domain analysis. The resulting genealogy suggested that Fusarium PKSs represent 34 different groups responsible for synthesis of different core metabolites. The analyses indicate that variation in the Fusarium PKS gene family is due to gene duplication and loss events as well as enzyme gain-of-function due to the acquisition of new domains or of loss-of-function due to nucleotide mutations. Transcriptional analysis indicate that the 16 F. verticillioides PKS genes are expressed under a range of conditions, further evidence that they are functional genes that confer the ability to produce secondary metabolites.

  11. Parametric Study of the Frequency-Domain Thermoreflectance Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Xing; C. Jensen; Z. Hua; H. Ban; D. H. Hurley; M. Khafizov; J. Rory Kennedy

    2012-11-01

    Without requiring regression for parameter determination, one-dimensional (1D) analytical models are used by many research groups to extract the thermal properties in frequency-domain thermoreflectance measurements. Experimentally, this approach involves heating the sample with a pump laser and probing the temperature response with spatially coincident probe laser. Micron order lateral resolution can be obtained by tightly focusing the pump and probe lasers. However, small laser beam spot sizes necessarily bring into question the assumptions associated with 1D analytical models. In this study, we analyzed the applicability of 1D analytical models by comparing to 2D analytical and fully numerical models. Specifically, we considered a generic nlayer two-dimensional (2D), axisymmetric analytical model including effects of volumetric heat absorption, contact resistance, and anisotropic properties. In addition, a finite element numerical model was employed to consider nonlinear effects caused by temperature dependent thermal conductivity. Nonlinearity is of germane importance to frequency domain approaches because the experimental geometry is such that the probe is always sensing the maximum temperature fluctuation. To quantify the applicability of the 1D model, parametric studies were performed considering the effects of: film thickness, heating laser size, probe laser size, substrate-to-film effusivity ratio, interfacial thermal resistance between layers, volumetric heating, substrate thermal conductivity, nonlinear boundary conditions, and anisotropic and temperature dependent thermal conductivity.

  12. Stopbands in the existence domains of acoustic solitons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nsengiyumva, F. Hellberg, M. A. Mace, R. L.; Verheest, F.

    2014-10-15

    A fully nonlinear Sagdeev pseudopotential approach is used to study the existence domain of fast mode ion-acoustic solitons in a three-species plasma composed of cold and warm adiabatic positive ion species and Boltzmann electrons. It is shown that for appropriate values of the cold-to-warm ion charge-to-mass ratio, μ, and the effective warm ion-to-electron temperature ratio, τ, there is a range in cold to warm ion charge density ratio, f, over which a stopband in soliton speed exists. Solitons do not propagate in the stopband, although they can occur for both higher and lower speeds. The stopbands are associated with a limiting curve of the existence domain that is double-valued in speed for a range of values of f. Analytical estimates of the upper and lower limits of τ and μ that support stopbands are found. It is suggested that, inter alia, the analysis should be applicable to the solar wind plasma.

  13. Example Work Domain Analysis for a Reference Sodium Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hugo, Jacques; Oxstrand, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear industry is currently designing and building a new generation of reactors that will include different structural, functional, and environmental aspects, all of which are likely to have a significant impact on the way these plants are operated. In order to meet economic and safety objectives, these new reactors will all use advanced technologies to some extent, including new materials and advanced digital instrumentation and control systems. New technologies will affect not only operational strategies, but will also require a new approach to how functions are allocated to humans or machines to ensure optimal performance. Uncertainty about the effect of large scale changes in plant design will remain until sound technical bases are developed for new operational concepts and strategies. Up-to-date models and guidance are required for the development of operational concepts for complex socio-technical systems. This report describes how the classical Work Domain Analysis method was adapted to develop operational concept frameworks for new plants. This adaptation of the method is better able to deal with the uncertainty and incomplete information typical of first-of-a-kind designs. Practical examples are provided of the systematic application of the method in the operational analysis of sodium-cooled reactors. Insights from this application and its utility are reviewed and arguments for the formal adoption of Work Domain Analysis as a value-added part of the Systems Engineering process are presented.

  14. Domain-Specific Languages for Composing Signature Discovery Workflows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacob, Ferosh; Gray, Jeff; Wynne, Adam S.; Liu, Yan; Baker, Nathan A.

    2012-10-23

    Domain-agnostic signature discovery entails investigation across multiple scientific disciplines. The breadth and cross-disciplinary nature of this work requires that existing executables be integrated with new capabilities into workflows, representing a wide range of user tasks. An algorithm may be written in multiple programming languages for various hardware platforms, and so workflow composition requires integrating executables from any number of remote hosts. This raises an engineering issue on how to generate web service wrappers for these heterogeneous executables and to compose them into a scientific workflow environment (e.g., Taverna). In this paper, we introduce two simple Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) to automate these processes. Our Service Description Language (SDL) describes key elements of a signature discovery service and automatically generates its implementation code. The Workflow Description Language (WDL) describes the pipeline of services and generates deployable artifacts for the Taverna workflow management system. We demonstrate our approach with a real-world workflow composed of services wrapping remote executables.

  15. Solar and the City: Online Map to Show NYC's Solar Potential...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    and the City: Online Map to Show NYC's Solar Potential Solar and the City: Online Map to Show NYC's Solar Potential October 13, 2010 - 11:32am Addthis Stephen Graff Former Writer & ...

  16. Zip is not in file but shows on EUR | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Zip is not in file but shows on EUR Home > Groups > Utility Rate Hello, I was looking up electricity providers for the zipcode 90050. While it shows a result using the tool at...

  17. New York Event to Show Bi-Partisan, International Support for...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    New York Event to Show Bi-Partisan, International Support for Geothermal Energy in America New York Event to Show Bi-Partisan, International Support for Geothermal Energy in ...

  18. NETL's 2015 Carbon Storage Atlas Shows Increase in U.S. CO2 Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    NETL's 2015 Carbon Storage Atlas Shows Increase in U.S. CO2 Storage Potential NETL's 2015 Carbon Storage Atlas Shows Increase in U.S. CO2 Storage Potential September 28, 2015 - ...

  19. Map showing surficial geology of the Lathrop Wells Quadrangle, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swadley, W.C.

    1983-12-31

    This map shows the geology of the Lathrop Wells quadrangle located just south of the Nevada Test Site. 6 refs.

  20. Current-driven domain wall motion enhanced by the microwave field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xi-guang; Guo, Guang-hua Nie, Yao-zhuang; Wang, Dao-wei; Li, Zhi-xiong; Tang, Wei; Zeng, Zhong-ming

    2014-07-14

    The magnetic domain wall (DW) motion driven by a spin-polarized current opens a new concept for memory and logic devices. However, the critical current density required to overcome the intrinsic and/or extrinsic pinning of DW remains too large for practical applications. Here, we show, by using micromagnetic simulations and analytical approaches, that the application of a microwave field offers an effective solution to this problem. When a transverse microwave field is applied, the adiabatic spin-transfer torque (STT) alone can sustain a steady-state DW motion without the sign of Walker breakdown, meaning that the intrinsic pinning disappears. The extrinsic pinning can also be effectively reduced. Moreover, the DW velocity is increased greatly for the microwave-assisted DW motion. This provides a new way to manipulate the DW motion at low current densities.

  1. Spectral evolution of two-dimensional kinetic plasma turbulence in the wavenumber-frequency domain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comişel, H.; Verscharen, D.; Narita, Y.; Motschmann, U.

    2013-09-15

    We present a method for studying the evolution of plasma turbulence by tracking dispersion relations in the energy spectrum in the wavenumber-frequency domain. We apply hybrid plasma simulations in a simplified two-dimensional geometry to demonstrate our method and its applicability to plasma turbulence in the ion kinetic regime. We identify four dispersion relations: ion-Bernstein waves, oblique whistler waves, oblique Alfvén/ion-cyclotron waves, and a zero-frequency mode. The energy partition and frequency broadening are evaluated for these modes. The method allows us to determine the evolution of decaying plasma turbulence in our restricted geometry and shows that it cascades along the dispersion relations during the early phase with an increasing broadening around the dispersion relations.

  2. Uncertainty in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Fischer, Bernd M.; Lin Hungyen; Abbott, Derek

    2008-06-15

    Measurements of optical constants at terahertz--or T-ray--frequencies have been performed extensively using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). Spectrometers, together with physical models explaining the interaction between a sample and T-ray radiation, are progressively being developed. Nevertheless, measurement errors in the optical constants, so far, have not been systematically analyzed. This situation calls for a comprehensive analysis of measurement uncertainty in THz-TDS systems. The sources of error existing in a terahertz spectrometer and throughout the parameter estimation process are identified. The analysis herein quantifies the impact of each source on the output optical constants. The resulting analytical model is evaluated against experimental THz-TDS data.

  3. Time-domain reflectometry (TDR) in geotechnics: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, C.H.; Bosscher, P.J.

    1999-07-01

    Time-domain reflectometry (TDR) is an electromagnetic geophysical technique used in the geosciences to measure water content of unfrozen and frozen soils and concentrations of inorganic solutes. In geotechnical and geological engineering, TDR is used for the same purposes, and also to measure frost depths, water levels, and displacements in soil and rock. Nevertheless, geo-engineers use TDR far less frequently than geo-scientists, primarily because they are unfamiliar with the technology. One purpose of this paper is to explain in practical terms how TDR is used in geo-engineering in each of the aforementioned applications. These descriptions reference the important publications in the literature. Another purpose is to share some of the authors' practical experience using TDR in the field.

  4. Depinning transition of a domain wall in ferromagnetic films

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Xi, Bin; Luo, Meng -Bo; Vinokur, Valerii M.; Hu, Xiao

    2015-09-14

    We report first principle numerical study of domain wall (DW) depinning in two-dimensional magnetic film, which is modeled by 2D random-field Ising system with the dipole-dipole interaction. We observe non-conventional activation-type motion of DW and reveal the fractal structure of DW near the depinning transition. We determine scaling functions describing critical dynamics near the transition and obtain universal exponents establishing connection between thermal softening of pinning potential and critical dynamics. In addition, we observe that tuning the strength of the dipole-dipole interaction switches DW dynamics between two different universality classes, corresponding to two distinct dynamic regimes characterized by non-Arrhenius andmore » conventional Arrhenius-type DW motions.« less

  5. Depinning transition of a domain wall in ferromagnetic films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xi, Bin; Luo, Meng -Bo; Vinokur, Valerii M.; Hu, Xiao

    2015-09-14

    We report first principle numerical study of domain wall (DW) depinning in two-dimensional magnetic film, which is modeled by 2D random-field Ising system with the dipole-dipole interaction. We observe non-conventional activation-type motion of DW and reveal the fractal structure of DW near the depinning transition. We determine scaling functions describing critical dynamics near the transition and obtain universal exponents establishing connection between thermal softening of pinning potential and critical dynamics. In addition, we observe that tuning the strength of the dipole-dipole interaction switches DW dynamics between two different universality classes, corresponding to two distinct dynamic regimes characterized by non-Arrhenius and conventional Arrhenius-type DW motions.

  6. Detecting Rare Events in the Time-Domain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rest, A; Garg, A

    2008-10-31

    One of the biggest challenges in current and future time-domain surveys is to extract the objects of interest from the immense data stream. There are two aspects to achieving this goal: detecting variable sources and classifying them. Difference imaging provides an elegant technique for identifying new transients or changes in source brightness. Much progress has been made in recent years toward refining the process. We discuss a selection of pitfalls that can afflict an automated difference imagine pipeline and describe some solutions. After identifying true astrophysical variables, we are faced with the challenge of classifying them. For rare events, such as supernovae and microlensing, this challenge is magnified because we must balance having selection criteria that select for the largest number of objects of interest against a high contamination rate. We discuss considerations and techniques for developing classification schemes.

  7. Ion mobility spectrometer using frequency-domain separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Stephen J.; Butler, Michael A.; Frye, Gregory C.; Schubert, W. Kent

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method is provided for separating and analyzing chemical species in an ion mobility spectrometer using a frequency-domain technique wherein the ions generated from the chemical species are selectively transported through an ion flow channel having a moving electrical potential therein. The moving electrical potential allows the ions to be selected according to ion mobility, with certain of the ions being transported to an ion detector and other of the ions being effectively discriminated against. The apparatus and method have applications for sensitive chemical detection and analysis for monitoring of exhaust gases, hazardous waste sites, industrial processes, aerospace systems, non-proliferation, and treaty verification. The apparatus can be formed as a microelectromechanical device (i.e. a micromachine).

  8. Aspen: A Domain Specific Language for Performance Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spafford, Kyle L; Vetter, Jeffrey S

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach to analytical performance modeling using Aspen, a domain specific language. Aspen (Abstract Scalable Performance Engineering Notation) fills an important gap in existing performance modeling techniques and is designed to enable rapid exploration of new algorithms and architectures. It includes a formal specification of an application's performance behavior and an abstract machine model. We provide an overview of Aspen's features and demonstrate how it can be used to express a performance model for a three dimensional Fast Fourier Transform. We then demonstrate the composability and modularity of Aspen by importing and reusing the FFT model in a molecular dynamics model. We have also created a number of tools that allow scientists to balance application and system factors quickly and accurately.

  9. Ion mobility spectrometer using frequency-domain separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, S.J.; Butler, M.A.; Frye, G.C.; Schubert, W.K.

    1998-08-04

    An apparatus and method are provided for separating and analyzing chemical species in an ion mobility spectrometer using a frequency-domain technique wherein the ions generated from the chemical species are selectively transported through an ion flow channel having a moving electrical potential therein. The moving electrical potential allows the ions to be selected according to ion mobility, with certain of the ions being transported to an ion detector and other of the ions being effectively discriminated against. The apparatus and method have applications for sensitive chemical detection and analysis for monitoring of exhaust gases, hazardous waste sites, industrial processes, aerospace systems, non-proliferation, and treaty verification. The apparatus can be formed as a microelectromechanical device (i.e. a micromachine). 6 figs.

  10. Investigation of dominant spin wave modes by domain walls collision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramu, M.; Purnama, I.; Goolaup, S.; Chandra Sekhar, M.; Lew, W. S.

    2014-06-28

    Spin wave emission due to field-driven domain wall (DW) collision has been investigated numerically and analytically in permalloy nanowires. The spin wave modes generated are diagonally symmetric with respect to the collision point. The non-propagating mode has the highest amplitude along the middle of the width. The frequency of this mode is strongly correlated to the nanowire geometrical dimensions and is independent of the strength of applied field within the range of 0.1?mT to 1?mT. For nanowire with film thickness below 5?nm, a second spin wave harmonic mode is observed. The decay coefficient of the spin wave power suggests that the DWs in a memory device should be at least 300?nm apart for them to be free of interference from the spin waves.

  11. Saint-Gobain Shows the Way on Effectively Preparing for Energy Savings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Assessments | Department of Energy Saint-Gobain Shows the Way on Effectively Preparing for Energy Savings Assessments Saint-Gobain Shows the Way on Effectively Preparing for Energy Savings Assessments This case study examines how Saint-Gobain used its history in energy efficiency and experiences with DOE initiatives to develop a generic approach for any plant to effectively prepare for an energy assessment. Saint-Gobain Shows the Way on Effectively Preparing for Energy Savings Assessments

  12. Canada, Mexico and the United States Show Progress on North American Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Collaboration | Department of Energy Canada, Mexico and the United States Show Progress on North American Energy Collaboration Canada, Mexico and the United States Show Progress on North American Energy Collaboration June 3, 2016 - 3:48pm Addthis Canada, Mexico and the United States Show Progress on North American Energy Collaboration News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 DOENews@hq.doe.gov SAN FRANCISCO, Calif. - In support of the objectives of the 7th Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM) and

  13. Fact #910: February 1, 2016 Study Shows Average Cost of Electric Vehicle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Charger Installations - Dataset | Department of Energy 0: February 1, 2016 Study Shows Average Cost of Electric Vehicle Charger Installations - Dataset Fact #910: February 1, 2016 Study Shows Average Cost of Electric Vehicle Charger Installations - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Study Shows Average Cost of Electric Vehicle Charger Installations fotw#910_web.xlsx (16.26 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact #909: January 25, 2016 Workplace Charging Accounts for About a Third of All

  14. A crystallographer keen on showing off the revealing properties of neutrons

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Revealing properties of neutrons A crystallographer keen on showing off the revealing properties of neutrons Olivier Gourdon shows visiting researchers some of the latest tricks that can be performed using this 100-year old multidisciplinary science. February 27, 2014 Olivier Gourdon Olivier Gourdon "With neutron diffraction, we can learn much more than where are the atoms." At Los Alamos's Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, crystallographer Olivier Gourdon shows visiting researchers

  15. Top students show off brain power at Kansas City Science Bowl...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    During the many rounds of competition, students showed a remarkable understanding of chemistry, geology, physics, biology, electronics, and more as they used brainpower to compete ...

  16. Fact #910: February 1, 2016 Study Shows Average Cost of Electric...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    site and other factors such as permit and inspection fees. Installation Costs of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations by Type, 2011-2013 (INL Study) Graph showing installation costs ...

  17. Three-dimensional local ALE-FEM method for fluid flow in domains containing moving boundaries/objects interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrington, David Bradley; Monayem, A. K. M.; Mazumder, H.; Heinrich, Juan C.

    2015-03-05

    A three-dimensional finite element method for the numerical simulations of fluid flow in domains containing moving rigid objects or boundaries is developed. The method falls into the general category of Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian methods; it is based on a fixed mesh that is locally adapted in the immediate vicinity of the moving interfaces and reverts to its original shape once the moving interfaces go past the elements. The moving interfaces are defined by separate sets of marker points so that the global mesh is independent of interface movement and the possibility of mesh entanglement is eliminated. The results is a fully robust formulation capable of calculating on domains of complex geometry with moving boundaries or devises that can also have a complex geometry without danger of the mesh becoming unsuitable due to its continuous deformation thus eliminating the need for repeated re-meshing and interpolation. Moreover, the boundary conditions on the interfaces are imposed exactly. This work is intended to support the internal combustion engines simulator KIVA developed at Los Alamos National Laboratories. The model's capabilities are illustrated through application to incompressible flows in different geometrical settings that show the robustness and flexibility of the technique to perform simulations involving moving boundaries in a three-dimensional domain.

  18. Unstable domains of tearing and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in a rotating cylindrical plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, D. M.; Wei, L.; Wang, Z. X. Zheng, S.; Duan, P.

    2014-09-15

    Effects of poloidal rotation profile on tearing and Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instabilities in a cylindrical plasma are investigated by using a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model. Since the poloidal rotation has different effects on the tearing and KH modes in different rotation regimes, four unstable domains are numerically identified, i.e., the destabilized tearing mode domain, stabilized tearing mode domain, stable-window domain, and unstable KH mode domain. It is also found that when the rotation layer is in the outer region of the rational surface, the stabilizing role of the rotation can be enhanced so significantly that the stable window domain is enlarged. Moreover, Alfvén resonances can be induced by the tearing and KH modes in such rotating plasmas. Radially wide profiles of current and vorticity perturbations can be formed when multiple current sheets on different resonance positions are coupled together.

  19. Structure of Concatenated HAMP Domains Provides a Mechanism for Signal Transduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Airola, Michael V.; Watts, Kylie J.; Bilwes, Alexandrine M.; Crane, Brian R.

    2010-08-23

    HAMP domains are widespread prokaryotic signaling modules found as single domains or poly-HAMP chains in both transmembrane and soluble proteins. The crystal structure of a three-unit poly-HAMP chain from the Pseudomonas aeruginosa soluble receptor Aer2 defines a universal parallel four-helix bundle architecture for diverse HAMP domains. Two contiguous domains integrate to form a concatenated di-HAMP structure. The three HAMP domains display two distinct conformations that differ by changes in helical register, crossing angle, and rotation. These conformations are stabilized by different subsets of conserved residues. Known signals delivered to HAMP would be expected to switch the relative stability of the two conformations and the position of a coiled-coil phase stutter at the junction with downstream helices. We propose that the two conformations represent opposing HAMP signaling states and suggest a signaling mechanism whereby HAMP domains interconvert between the two states, which alternate down a poly-HAMP chain.

  20. System and method for manipulating domain pinning and reversal in ferromagnetic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silevitch, Daniel M.; Rosenbaum, Thomas F.; Aeppli, Gabriel

    2013-10-15

    A method for manipulating domain pinning and reversal in a ferromagnetic material comprises applying an external magnetic field to a uniaxial ferromagnetic material comprising a plurality of magnetic domains, where each domain has an easy axis oriented along a predetermined direction. The external magnetic field is applied transverse to the predetermined direction and at a predetermined temperature. The strength of the magnetic field is varied at the predetermined temperature, thereby isothermally regulating pinning of the domains. A magnetic storage device for controlling domain dynamics includes a magnetic hard disk comprising a uniaxial ferromagnetic material, a magnetic recording head including a first magnet, and a second magnet. The ferromagnetic material includes a plurality of magnetic domains each having an easy axis oriented along a predetermined direction. The second magnet is positioned adjacent to the magnetic hard disk and is configured to apply a magnetic field transverse to the predetermined direction.

  1. Holographic imaging based on time-domain data of natural-fiber-containing materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bunch, Kyle J.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2012-09-04

    Methods and apparatuses for imaging material properties in natural-fiber-containing materials can utilize time-domain data. In particular, images can be constructed that provide quantified measures of localized moisture content. For example, one or more antennas and at least one transceiver can be configured to collect time-domain data from radiation interacting with the natural-fiber-containing materials. The antennas and the transceivers are configured to transmit and receive electromagnetic radiation at one or more frequencies, which are between 50 MHz and 1 THz, according to a time-domain impulse function. A computing device is configured to transform the time-domain data to frequency-domain data, to apply a synthetic imaging algorithm for constructing a three-dimensional image of the natural-fiber-containing materials, and to provide a quantified measure of localized moisture content based on a pre-determined correlation of moisture content to frequency-domain data.

  2. Energy Secretary Moniz at the 2016 Washington Auto Show | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Secretary Moniz at the 2016 Washington Auto Show Energy Secretary Moniz at the 2016 Washington Auto Show Addthis Topic Loans Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Learn about some of the amazing Energy Department-supported vehicle technologies that are lowering carbon pollution and driving America's clean energy economy forward.

  3. Modeling of leachate generation from MSW landfills by a 2-dimensional 2-domain approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fellner, Johann

    2010-11-15

    The flow of water through Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills is highly non-uniform and dominated by preferential pathways. Thus, concepts to simulate landfill behavior require that a heterogeneous flow regime is considered. Recent models are based on a 2-domain approach, differentiating between channel domain with high hydraulic conductivity, and matrix domain of slow water movement with high water retention capacity. These models focus on the mathematical description of rapid water flow in channel domain. The present paper highlights the importance of water exchange between the two domains, and expands the 1-dimensional, 2-domain flow model by taking into account water flows in two dimensions. A flow field consisting of a vertical path (channel domain) surrounded by the waste mass (matrix domain) is defined using the software HYDRUS-2D. When the new model is calibrated using data sets from a MSW-landfill site the predicted leachate generation corresponds well with the observed leachate discharge. An overall model efficiency in terms of r{sup 2} of 0.76 was determined for a simulation period of almost 4 years. The results confirm that water in landfills follows a preferential path way characterized by high permeability (K{sub s} = 300 m/d) and zero retention capacity, while the bulk of the landfill (matrix domain) is characterized by low permeability (K{sub s} = 0.1 m/d) and high retention capacity. The most sensitive parameters of the model are the hydraulic conductivities of the channel domain and the matrix domain, and the anisotropy of the matrix domain.

  4. Periplasmic Domains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PilN and PilO Form a Stable Heterodimeric Complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sampaleanu, L.M.; Bonanno, J.B.; Ayers, M.; Koo, J.; Tammam, S.; Burley, S.K.; Almo, S.C.; Burrows, L.L.; Howell, P.L.

    2010-01-12

    Type IV pili (T4P) are bacterial virulence factors responsible for attachment to surfaces and for twitching motility, a motion that involves a succession of pilus extension and retraction cycles. In the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the PilM/N/O/P proteins are essential for T4P biogenesis, and genetic and biochemical analyses strongly suggest that they form an inner-membrane complex. Here, we show through co-expression and biochemical analysis that the periplasmic domains of PilN and PilO interact to form a heterodimer. The structure of residues 69-201 of the periplasmic domain of PilO was determined to 2.2 {angstrom} resolution and reveals the presence of a homodimer in the asymmetric unit. Each monomer consists of two N-terminal coiled coils and a C-terminal ferredoxin-like domain. This structure was used to generate homology models of PilN and the PilN/O heterodimer. Our structural analysis suggests that in vivo PilN/O heterodimerization would require changes in the orientation of the first N-terminal coiled coil, which leads to two alternative models for the role of the transmembrane domains in the PilN/O interaction. Analysis of PilN/O orthologues in the type II secretion system EpsL/M revealed significant similarities in their secondary structures and the tertiary structures of PilO and EpsM, although the way these proteins interact to form inner-membrane complexes appears to be different in T4P and type II secretion. Our analysis suggests that PilN interacts directly, via its N-terminal tail, with the cytoplasmic protein PilM. This work shows a direct interaction between the periplasmic domains of PilN and PilO, with PilO playing a key role in the proper folding of PilN. Our results suggest that PilN/O heterodimers form the foundation of the inner-membrane PilM/N/O/P complex, which is critical for the assembly of a functional T4P complex.

  5. TU-F-18A-02: Iterative Image-Domain Decomposition for Dual-Energy CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niu, T; Dong, X; Petrongolo, M; Zhu, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Dual energy CT (DECT) imaging plays an important role in advanced imaging applications due to its material decomposition capability. Direct decomposition via matrix inversion suffers from significant degradation of image signal-to-noise ratios, which reduces clinical value. Existing de-noising algorithms achieve suboptimal performance since they suppress image noise either before or after the decomposition and do not fully explore the noise statistical properties of the decomposition process. We propose an iterative image-domain decomposition method for noise suppression in DECT, using the full variance-covariance matrix of the decomposed images. Methods: The proposed algorithm is formulated in the form of least-square estimation with smoothness regularization. It includes the inverse of the estimated variance-covariance matrix of the decomposed images as the penalty weight in the least-square term. Performance is evaluated using an evaluation phantom (Catphan 600) and an anthropomorphic head phantom. Results are compared to those generated using direct matrix inversion with no noise suppression, a de-noising method applied on the decomposed images, and an existing algorithm with similar formulation but with an edge-preserving regularization term. Results: On the Catphan phantom, our method retains the same spatial resolution as the CT images before decomposition while reducing the noise standard deviation of decomposed images by over 98%. The other methods either degrade spatial resolution or achieve less low-contrast detectability. Also, our method yields lower electron density measurement error than direct matrix inversion and reduces error variation by over 97%. On the head phantom, it reduces the noise standard deviation of decomposed images by over 97% without blurring the sinus structures. Conclusion: We propose an iterative image-domain decomposition method for DECT. The method combines noise suppression and material decomposition into an iterative

  6. TU-C-17A-05: Dose Domain Optimization of MLC Leaf Patterns for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    domain required multiplying the fluence with a sparse matrix. Exploiting this property made it feasible to solve the problem using CVX, a MATLAB-based convex modeling framework. ...

  7. Existence and uniqueness of domain wall solitons in a Maxwell–Chern–Simons model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Ruifeng; College of Mathematics and Information Science, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001 ; Li, Fangfang

    2014-02-15

    We present some sharp existence and uniqueness theorems for the domain wall solutions of the basic governing equations of a self-dual Maxwell–Chern–Simons model.

  8. The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    The Importance of Domain Size and Purity in High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells Print The efficiency of polymerorganic photovoltaic cells hinges on excitons-electronhole pairs ...

  9. Polarization reversal and domain kinetics in magnesium doped stoichiometric lithium tantalate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shur, V. Ya., E-mail: vladimir.shur@urfu.ru; Akhmatkhanov, A. R.; Baturin, I. S. [Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Labfer Ltd., 620014 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Chuvakova, M. A. [Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-13

    The polarization reversal process has been studied in 1?mol.?% MgO doped stoichiometric lithium tantalate (LT) single crystal. The revealed stages of domain structure evolution represent (1) continuous nucleation and growth of isolated hexagonal domains with walls oriented along Y directions and (2) continuous motion of the plane domain walls stimulated by merging with isolated domains. The activation field dependence of the switching time has been revealed. The coercive field for quasi-static switching is about 150?V/mm. The bulk screening process has been analyzed. The main parameters of the switching process have been compared with other representatives of LT family.

  10. Spontaneous formation of circular and vortex ferroelectric domain structure in hexagonal YMnO{sub 3} and YMn{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 0.1}O{sub 3} prepared by low temperature solution synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harunsani, M. H.; Walton, R. I. E-mail: hxyang@iphy.ac.cn; Li, J.; Qin, Y. B.; Tian, H. T.; Li, J. Q.; Yang, H. X. E-mail: hxyang@iphy.ac.cn

    2015-08-10

    We report an experimental study of the domain structure of ferroelectric YMnO{sub 3} and YMn{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 0.1}O{sub 3} using polycrystalline samples prepared by direct hydrothermal crystallisation at 240 °C, well below their structural phase transition temperatures. Powder X-ray diffraction shows the expected P6{sub 3}cm space group for both samples with an increase in a and a small decrease in c with Fe incorporation, consistent with an adjustment of MnO{sub 5} tilting, while XANES spectra at the Mn and Fe K edges show the oxidation state of both metals are maintained at +3 in the doped sample. High resolution TEM shows that curved stripe, annular and vortex domains can all be observed in the YMnO{sub 3} crystals, proving that the structural phase transition is not the only driving force for the occurrence of the annular and vortex domains. Furthermore, the absence of the annular and vortex domains in YMn{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 0.1}O{sub 3} indicates that the tilting state of MnO{sub 5} bipyramids plays an important role in the domain formation. Atomic resolution STEM images confirm that the ferroelectric domain walls correspond to structural antiphase boundaries similar to the crystals made via high temperature solid-state reactions.

  11. Secretary Chu Tours the 2013 Washington Auto Show | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Tours the 2013 Washington Auto Show Secretary Chu Tours the 2013 Washington Auto Show January 31, 2013 - 5:04pm Addthis 1 of 10 While at the Washington Auto Show, Energy Secretary Steven Chu visited Nissan to see the 2013 Leaf. | Photo courtesy of Sarah Gerrity, Energy Department. Date taken: 2013-01-31 13:50 2 of 10 The new Nissan Leaf is being built at the company's Smyrna, Tennessee, Vehicle Assembly Plant -- helping to cut the price of its electric vehicle. | Photo courtesy of Sarah Gerrity,

  12. NREL Report Shows Big Potential for the Future of Shared Solar | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Energy NREL Report Shows Big Potential for the Future of Shared Solar NREL Report Shows Big Potential for the Future of Shared Solar April 28, 2015 - 1:54pm Addthis NREL Report Shows Big Potential for the Future of Shared Solar David Feldman David Feldman Energy Analyst, Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory In 2014, the United States brought online as much solar energy every three weeks as it did in all of 2008. Demand for solar electricity is driving this growth in

  13. X-ray Imaging Shows Feather Patterns of First Birds | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    X-ray Imaging Shows Feather Patterns of First Birds X-ray Imaging Shows Feather Patterns of First Birds June 30, 2011 - 2:56pm Addthis A collage of images. Top, optical images of: blue jay feather, squid, and fossil fish with feather. Bottom: x-ray images showing the distribution of copper (red) in the same organisms. | Photo Courtesy of Gregory Stewart, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory A collage of images. Top, optical images of: blue jay feather, squid, and fossil fish with feather.

  14. Energy Department Reports Show Strong Growth of U.S. Wind Power |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Reports Show Strong Growth of U.S. Wind Power Energy Department Reports Show Strong Growth of U.S. Wind Power August 17, 2016 - 11:44am Addthis Photo by Patsy McEnroe Photography. Photo by Patsy McEnroe Photography. Continued Low Wind Energy Prices Highlighted in Annual State-of-the-Industry Market Reports Annual reports analyzing the wind energy industry released today by the Energy Department show continued rapid growth in wind power installations in 2015,

  15. Time domain reflectometry development for use in geotechnical engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, S.I.; Drnevich, V.P.; Deschamps, R.J.

    2000-03-01

    This study extends the use of time domain reflectometry (TDR) in geotechnical engineering, a technique originally developed to locate faults in transmission lines. Different elements of the TDR technique are developed, including design of TDR probes, probe installation/test methodology, and relationships between TDR measured dielectric constant and water content of soil. A coaxial probe is developed that is used for measuring the dielectric constant of soil prepared in a cylindrical cell or compaction mold. A multiple-rod field probe is developed that modifies previously developed multiple-rod probes and extends their capability for measuring the in-place dielectric constant of soil. An analytical solution is developed to determine the sampling volume and spatial bias of the TDR measurement. The solution is extended to study the effect of soil disturbance and presence of air gaps due to probe insertion. Experimental results validate the solutions. New relationships are proposed between dielectric constant and water content to eliminate some of the limitations of the existing calibration relationships. Several possible applications of the developed probes, test methodology, and calibration equations for measuring water content and density of soil are illustrated.

  16. Magnetic bead detection using domain wall-based nanosensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corte-León, H.; Krzysteczko, P.; Schumacher, H. W.; Manzin, A.; Cox, D.; Antonov, V.; Kazakova, O.

    2015-05-07

    We investigate the effect of a single magnetic bead (MB) on the domain wall (DW) pinning/depinning fields of a DW trapped at the corner of an L-shaped magnetic nanodevice. DW propagation across the device is investigated using magnetoresistance measurements. DW pinning/depinning fields are characterized in as-prepared devices and after placement of a 1 μm-sized MB (Dynabeads{sup ®} MyOne{sup ™}) at the corner. The effect of the MB on the DW dynamics is seen as an increase in the depinning field for specific orientations of the device with respect to the external magnetic field. The shift of the depinning field, ΔB{sub dep} = 4.5–27.0 mT, is highly stable and reproducible, being significantly above the stochastic deviation which is about 0.5 mT. The shift in the deppinning field is inversely proportional to the device width and larger for small negative angles between the device and the external magnetic field. Thus, we demonstrate that DW-based devices can be successfully used for detection of single micron size MB.

  17. THz time-domain spectroscopy for tokamak plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Causa, F.; Zerbini, M.; Buratti, P.; Gabellieri, L.; Pacella, D.; Romano, A.; Tuccillo, A. A.; Tudisco, O.; Johnston, M.; Doria, A.; Gallerano, G. P.; Giovenale, E.

    2014-08-21

    The technology is now becoming mature for diagnostics using large portions of the electromagnetic spectrum simultaneously, in the form of THz pulses. THz radiation-based techniques have become feasible for a variety of applications, e.g., spectroscopy, imaging for security, medicine and pharmaceutical industry. In particular, time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) is now being used also for plasma diagnostics in various fields of application. This technique is promising also for plasmas for fusion applications, where plasma characteristics are non-uniform and/or evolve during the discharge This is because THz pulses produced with femtosecond mode-locked lasers conveniently span the spectrum above and below the plasma frequency and, thus, can be used as very sensitive and versatile probes of widely varying plasma parameters. The short pulse duration permits time resolving plasma characteristics while the large frequency span permits a large dynamic range. The focus of this work is to present preliminary experimental and simulation results demonstrating that THz TDS can be realistically adapted as a versatile tokamak plasma diagnostic technique.

  18. An Analog Filter Approach to Frequency Domain Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trainham, Clifford P.; O'Neill, Mary D.; McKenna, Ian J.

    2015-04-24

    The rate equations found in frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy are the same as those found in electronics under analog filter theory. Laplace transform methods are a natural way to solve the equations, and the methods can provide solutions for arbitrary excitation functions. The fluorescence terms can be modeled as circuit components and cascaded with drive and detection electronics to produce a global transfer function. Electronics design tools such as Spicea can be used to model fluorescence problems. In applications, such as remote sensing, where detection electronics are operated at high gain and limited bandwidth, a global modeling of the entire system is important, since the filter terms of the drive and detection electronics affect the measured response of the fluorescence signals. The techniques described here can be used to separate signals from fast and slow fluorophores emitting into the same spectral band, and data collection can be greatly accelerated by means of a frequency comb driver waveform and appropriate signal processing of the response.

  19. An analog filter approach to frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Trainham, Clifford P.; O'Neill, Mary D.; McKenna, Ian J.

    2015-10-01

    The rate equations found in frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy are the same as those found in electronics under analog filter theory. Laplace transform methods are a natural way to solve the equations, and the methods can provide solutions for arbitrary excitation functions. The fluorescence terms can be modeled as circuit components and cascaded with drive and detection electronics to produce a global transfer function. Electronics design tools such as Spicea can be used to model fluorescence problems. In applications, such as remote sensing, where detection electronics are operated at high gain and limited bandwidth, a global modeling of the entiremore » system is important, since the filter terms of the drive and detection electronics affect the measured response of the fluorescence signals. Furthermore, the techniques described here can be used to separate signals from fast and slow fluorophores emitting into the same spectral band, and data collection can be greatly accelerated by means of a frequency comb driver waveform and appropriate signal processing of the response.« less

  20. Structural Characterization of a Newly Identified Component of α-Carboxysomes: The AAA+ Domain Protein CsoCbbQ

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Sutter, Markus; Roberts, Evan W.; Gonzalez, Raul C.; Bates, Cassandra; Dawoud, Salma; Landry, Kimberly; Cannon, Gordon C.; Heinhorst, Sabine; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.

    2015-11-05

    Carboxysomes are bacterial microcompartments that enhance carbon fixation by concentrating ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and its substrate CO2 within a proteinaceous shell. They are found in all cyanobacteria, some purple photoautotrophs and many chemoautotrophic bacteria. Carboxysomes consist of a protein shell that encapsulates several hundred molecules of RuBisCO, and contain carbonic anhydrase and other accessory proteins. Genes coding for carboxysome shell components and the encapsulated proteins are typically found together in an operon. The α-carboxysome operon is embedded in a cluster of additional, conserved genes that are presumably related to its function. In many chemoautotrophs, products of the expanded carboxysome locusmore » include CbbO and CbbQ, a member of the AAA+ domain superfamily. We bioinformatically identified subtypes of CbbQ proteins and show that their genes frequently co-occur with both Form IA and Form II RuBisCO. The α-carboxysome-associated ortholog, CsoCbbQ, from Halothiobacillus neapolitanus forms a hexamer in solution and hydrolyzes ATP. The crystal structure shows that CsoCbbQ is a hexamer of the typical AAA+ domain; the additional C-terminal domain, diagnostic of the CbbQ subfamily, structurally fills the inter-monomer gaps, resulting in a distinctly hexagonal shape. Finally, we show that CsoCbbQ interacts with CsoCbbO and is a component of the carboxysome shell, the first example of ATPase activity associated with a bacterial microcompartment.« less

  1. ORISE report shows number of health physics Ph.D.s declined in...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ORISE report shows number of health physics Ph.D.s declined in 2009 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE June 15, 2010 FY10-37 OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-Health physics undergraduate degrees increased...

  2. Buckle up for the #LabsRoadShow | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers

    With the Fourth of July right around the corner, what's more American than taking a road trip? Join us as we embark on the National Labs Road Show, a virtual journey to meet the ...

  3. B&W Y-12 responds to NNSA's show cause letter | Y-12 National...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    responds to ... B&W Y-12 responds to NNSA's show cause letter Posted: September 12, 2012 - 3:29pm On September 10, B&W Y-12 provided its response to the National Nuclear Security ...

  4. David Friedman: On the Future of Transportation and the LA Auto Show

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    David Friedman, Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary in the Energy Department's Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), visited the L.A. Auto Show in November 2015. In this video...

  5. David Friedman: On the Future of Transportation and the L.A. Auto Show

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    David Friedman, Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, visited the L.A. Auto Show in November 2015. He shared his thoughts about transportation's future in this video.

  6. The Consumer Electronics Show round-up | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    The highlights of this year's show were OLED TVs, ultra-thin laptops, tablets, and smartphones. However, a few smart grid-related technologies were making an impression. There...

  7. Thursday: Secretary Moniz to Make Remarks at the Washington Auto Show

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Tomorrow, Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz will attend the Washington Auto Show and make an important announcement about supporting the U.S. clean energy economy and the 21st century automotive industry.

  8. "Show Preview" button is not working; gives error | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    "Show Preview" button is not working; gives error Home > Groups > Utility Rate Submitted by Ewilson on 3 January, 2013 - 09:52 1 answer Points: 0 Eric, thanks for reporting this. I...

  9. Crystal structure of the N-terminal region of human Ash2L shows...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of the N-terminal region of human Ash2L shows a winged-helix motif involved in DNA binding Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Crystal structure of the N-terminal ...

  10. How Would IBM's Quiz-Show Computer, Watson, Do as a Competitor...

    Office of Science (SC) [DOE]

    How Would IBM's Quiz-Show Computer, Watson, Do as a Competitor in the National Science Bowl? News News Home Featured Articles 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 ...

  11. NREL Shows Heavy Duty Hybrid Trucks Deliver on Fuel Economy - News Releases

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    | NREL NREL Shows Heavy Duty Hybrid Trucks Deliver on Fuel Economy September 11, 2012 A performance evaluation of Class 8 hybrid electric tractor trailers compared with similar conventional vehicles by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) shows significant improvements in fuel economy. "During our 13-month study, the hybrid tractors demonstrated 13.7 percent higher fuel economy than the conventional tractors, resulting in a 12 percent

  12. NREL Study Shows 20 Percent Wind is Possible by 2024 - News Releases | NREL

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Study Shows 20 Percent Wind is Possible by 2024 Analysis Shows Transmission Upgrades, Offshore Wind, and Operational Changes Needed to Incorporate 20 to 30 Percent Wind January 20, 2010 Today, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) released the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS). This unprecedented two-and-a-half year technical study of future high-penetration wind scenarios was designed to analyze the economic, operational,

  13. NREL Study: Hybrid Delivery Vans Show Nearly 20 Percent Higher Fuel Economy

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    - News Releases | NREL Study: Hybrid Delivery Vans Show Nearly 20 Percent Higher Fuel Economy September 28, 2012 The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)'s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently completed a performance evaluation report that showed significant fuel economy benefits of hybrid electric delivery vans compared to similar conventional vans. "During the on-road portion of our study, the hybrid vans demonstrated a 13 to 20 percent higher fuel economy than the

  14. Fact #910: February 1, 2016 Study Shows Average Cost of Electric Vehicle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Charger Installations | Department of Energy 0: February 1, 2016 Study Shows Average Cost of Electric Vehicle Charger Installations Fact #910: February 1, 2016 Study Shows Average Cost of Electric Vehicle Charger Installations SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week The EV Project and the ChargePoint America project were conducted for the Department of Energy by Idaho National Laboratory (INL). From 2011-2013 the project installed nearly 17,000 alternating current (AC) Level 2 charging stations

  15. Life-Cycle Analysis Shows Potential for Almost 70% Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Reductions of Renewable Diesel from Algae Fractionation Compared to Conventional Diesel | Department of Energy Life-Cycle Analysis Shows Potential for Almost 70% Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions of Renewable Diesel from Algae Fractionation Compared to Conventional Diesel Life-Cycle Analysis Shows Potential for Almost 70% Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions of Renewable Diesel from Algae Fractionation Compared to Conventional Diesel October 21, 2016 - 12:05pm Addthis A new analysis from

  16. 2014 Data Book Shows Increased Use of Renewable Electricity - News Releases

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    | NREL 2014 Data Book Shows Increased Use of Renewable Electricity December 9, 2015 The 2014 Renewable Energy Data Book shows that U.S. renewable electricity grew to 15.5 percent of total installed capacity and 13.5 percent of total electricity generation. Published annually by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) on behalf of the Energy Department's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, the Data Book illustrates United States and global energy statistics, including

  17. New Study Shows Solar Manufacturing Costs Not Driven Primarily by Labor |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Shows Solar Manufacturing Costs Not Driven Primarily by Labor New Study Shows Solar Manufacturing Costs Not Driven Primarily by Labor September 5, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Production scale, not lower labor costs, drives China's current advantage in manufacturing photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems, according to a new report released today by the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Although

  18. New York Event to Show Bi-Partisan, International Support for Geothermal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy in America | Department of Energy York Event to Show Bi-Partisan, International Support for Geothermal Energy in America New York Event to Show Bi-Partisan, International Support for Geothermal Energy in America June 29, 2008 - 4:15pm Addthis NEW YORK, -- Demonstrating the widespread support for renewable, geothermal energy, the President of Iceland as well as officials of the current Bush and former Clinton Administrations are scheduled to speak at a workshop in New York City, July

  19. Study Shows Active Power Controls from Wind May Increase Revenues and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Improve System Reliability | Department of Energy Shows Active Power Controls from Wind May Increase Revenues and Improve System Reliability Study Shows Active Power Controls from Wind May Increase Revenues and Improve System Reliability January 6, 2014 - 10:00am Addthis This is an excerpt from the Fourth Quarter 2013 edition of the Wind Program R&D Newsletter. The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Program and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently published a study

  20. Boron-Nitride Nanotubes Show Potential in Cancer Treatment | Jefferson Lab

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Boron-Nitride Nanotubes Show Potential in Cancer Treatment Boron-Nitride Nanotubes Show Potential in Cancer Treatment NEWPORT NEWS, VA, April 26 - A new study has shown that adding boron-nitride nanotubes to the surface of cancer cells can double the effectiveness of Irreversible Electroporation, a minimally invasive treatment for soft tissue tumors in the liver, lung, prostate, head and neck, kidney and pancreas. Although this research is in the very early stages, it could one day lead to

  1. Time-resolved observation of fast domain-walls driven by vertical spin currents in short tracks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sampaio, Joao; Lequeux, Steven; Chanthbouala, Andre; Cros, Vincent; Grollier, Julie; Matsumoto, Rie; Yakushiji, Kay; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji; Nishimura, Kazumasa; Nagamine, Yoshinori; Maehara, Hiroki; Tsunekawa, Koji

    2013-12-09

    We present time-resolved measurements of the displacement of magnetic domain-walls (DWs) driven by vertical spin-polarized currents in track-shaped magnetic tunnel junctions. In these structures, we observe very high DW velocities (600 m/s) at current densities below 10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2}. We show that the efficient spin-transfer torque combined with a short propagation distance allows avoiding the Walker breakdown process and achieving deterministic, reversible, and fast (≈1 ns) DW-mediated switching of magnetic tunnel junction elements, which is of great interest for the implementation of fast DW-based spintronic devices.

  2. Structure of the Catalytic Domain of EZH2 Reveals Conformational...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H. ; Schapira, Matthieu 1 + Show Author Affiliations (Toronto) Toronto Publication Date: 2014-03-10 OSTI Identifier: 1114843 Resource Type: Journal ...

  3. Experimental measurement of stress at a four-domain junction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    patterns in the transmission electron microscope. ... Analysis of the data showed that large stresses were ... TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY Word Cloud More Like ...

  4. Structure of Protein Having Inhibitory Disintegrin and Leukotriene Scavenging Functions Contained in Single Domain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Xueqing; Francischetti, Ivo M.B.; Lai, Ren; Ribeiro, Jos M.C.; Andersen, John F.

    2012-08-10

    The antihemostatic/antiangiogenic protein tablysin-15 is a member of the CAP (cysteine-rich secretory, antigen 5, and pathogenesis-related 1 protein) superfamily and has been shown to bind the integrins {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} and {alpha}{sub V}{beta}{sub 3} by means of an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) tripeptide sequence. Here we describe the x-ray crystal structure of tablysin-15 and show that the RGD motif is located in a novel structural context. The motif itself is contained in a type II {beta}-turn structure that is similar in its conformation to the RGD sequence of the cyclic pentapeptide cilengitide when bound to integrin {alpha}V{beta}3. The CAP domain also contains a hydrophobic channel that appears to bind a fatty acid molecule in the crystal structure after purification from Escherichia coli. After delipidation of the protein, tablysin-15 was found to bind proinflammatory cysteinyl leukotrienes with submicromolar affinities. The structure of the leukotriene E{sub 4}-tablysin-15 complex shows that the ligand binds with the nonfunctionalized end of the fatty acid chain buried in the hydrophobic pocket, whereas the carboxylate end of the ligand binds forms hydrogen bond/salt bridge interactions with polar side chains at the channel entrance. Therefore, tablysin-15 functions as an inhibitor of integrin function and as an anti-inflammatory scavenger of eicosanoids.

  5. U.S. diesel fuel price shows no movement from a week ago

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    diesel fuel price shows no movement from a week ago The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel showed no movement from a week ago. The average price remained flat at $3.81 a gallon on Monday, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the West Coast region at 4.03 a gallon, up 4-tenths of a penny from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast region at 3.72 a gallon, down half a penny.

  6. Better Buildings Challenge Webinar: Show Me the Money!: How to Find

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Financing, Access Incentives, and Get Projects Done | Department of Energy Better Buildings Challenge Webinar: Show Me the Money!: How to Find Financing, Access Incentives, and Get Projects Done Better Buildings Challenge Webinar: Show Me the Money!: How to Find Financing, Access Incentives, and Get Projects Done December 6, 2016 1:00PM to 2:00PM MST The Better Buildings Challenge is hosting a webinar to demo the Efficiency Financing Navigator, a new tool to help find the right financing,

  7. 4 Charts That Show Renewable Energy is on the Rise in America | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Energy Charts That Show Renewable Energy is on the Rise in America 4 Charts That Show Renewable Energy is on the Rise in America November 14, 2016 - 3:30pm Addthis In 2015 alone, installed wind capacity increased by more than 12% (8,100 megawatts), accounting for more than half of all new renewable capacity additions in the United States. | <em>Photo credit: Warren Gretz/NREL</em> In 2015 alone, installed wind capacity increased by more than 12% (8,100 megawatts), accounting

  8. New Report Shows Trend Toward Larger Offshore Wind Systems, with 11

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Advanced Stage Projects Proposed in U.S. Waters | Department of Energy Trend Toward Larger Offshore Wind Systems, with 11 Advanced Stage Projects Proposed in U.S. Waters New Report Shows Trend Toward Larger Offshore Wind Systems, with 11 Advanced Stage Projects Proposed in U.S. Waters October 23, 2013 - 10:52am Addthis The Energy Department today released a new report showing progress for the U.S. offshore wind energy market in 2012, including the completion of two commercial lease auctions

  9. Sour Gas Streams Safe for Carbon Sequestration, DOE-Sponsored Study Shows |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Sour Gas Streams Safe for Carbon Sequestration, DOE-Sponsored Study Shows Sour Gas Streams Safe for Carbon Sequestration, DOE-Sponsored Study Shows September 23, 2010 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, D.C. -- Gas streams containing high levels of both carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can be safely used for carbon capture and storage (CCS), according to results from a field test completed by the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership. The test by PCOR--one of

  10. ORISE report shows number of health physics Ph.D.s declined in 2009

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ORISE report shows number of health physics Ph.D.s declined in 2009 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE June 15, 2010 FY10-37 OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-Health physics undergraduate degrees increased slightly in 2009 continuing a six-year trend, but doctorate degrees reported a 40-year low, says a report recently released by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education. The report also showed the number of M.S. degrees was 21 percent less than in 2008. The ORISE report, Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees

  11. New Carbon Storage Atlas Shows Hundreds of Years of CO2 Storage Potential |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Carbon Storage Atlas Shows Hundreds of Years of CO2 Storage Potential New Carbon Storage Atlas Shows Hundreds of Years of CO2 Storage Potential December 21, 2012 - 9:58am Addthis Atlas IV was created by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and includes input from the more than 400 organizations in 43 states and four Canadian provinces that make up the Department’s seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (as shown above). <a

  12. Circleville, Ohio Solar Plant Shows Value of Clean Energy Tax Credits |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Circleville, Ohio Solar Plant Shows Value of Clean Energy Tax Credits Circleville, Ohio Solar Plant Shows Value of Clean Energy Tax Credits May 22, 2012 - 5:03pm Addthis NEWS MEDIA CONTACT (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON -- As part of the Obama Administration's all-out, all-of-the-above approach to American energy, U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today recognized the grand opening of DuPont's expanded manufacturing plant in Circleville, Ohio and called on Congress to extend

  13. Cummins Case Study Shows a 12.6% Improvement in Energy Performance with SEP

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    | Department of Energy Technical Assistance » Superior Energy Performance » Cummins Case Study Shows a 12.6% Improvement in Energy Performance with SEP Cummins Case Study Shows a 12.6% Improvement in Energy Performance with SEP August 6, 2015 - 11:38am Addthis A recently published case study examines the successes of Cummins Inc., a global engine manufacturer that implemented an energy management system (EnMS) that meets the requirements of ISO 50001 and Superior Energy Performance®

  14. Studies Show No Evidence of Impacts from Wind on Residential Property

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Values | Department of Energy Studies Show No Evidence of Impacts from Wind on Residential Property Values Studies Show No Evidence of Impacts from Wind on Residential Property Values January 6, 2014 - 10:00am Addthis Multi-story farm buildings, grain silos, and trees look small compared to the two multimegawatt wind turbines. This is an excerpt from the Fourth Quarter 2013 edition of the Wind Program R&D Newsletter. The U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

  15. First principles study of electronic structure for cubane-like and ring-shaped structures of M{sub 4}O{sub 4}, M{sub 4}S{sub 4} clusters (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Datta, Soumendu; Rahaman, Badiur

    2015-11-15

    Spin-polarized DFT has been used to perform a comparative study of the geometric structures and electronic properties for isolated M{sub 4}X{sub 4} nano clusters between their two stable isomers - a planar rhombus-like 2D structure and a cubane-like 3D structure with M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu ; X = O, S. These two structural patterns of the M{sub 4}X{sub 4} clusters are commonly found as building blocks in several poly-nuclear transition metal complexes in inorganic chemistry. The effects of the van der Waals corrections to the physical properties have been considered in the electronic structure calculations employing the empirical Grimme’s correction (DFT+D2). We report here an interesting trend in their relative structural stability - the isolated M{sub 4}O{sub 4} clusters prefer to stabilize more in the planar structure, while the cubane-like 3D structure is more favorable for most of the isolated M{sub 4}S{sub 4} clusters than their planar 2D counterparts. Our study reveals that this contrasting trend in the relative structural stability is expected to be driven by an interesting interplay between the s-d and p-d hybridization effects of the constituents’ valence electrons.

  16. Magnetic thin-film split-domain current sensor-recorder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsieh, Edmund J.

    1979-01-01

    A sensor-recorder for recording a representation of the direction and peak amplitude of a transient current. A magnetic thin film is coated on a glass substrate under the influence of a magnetic field so that the finished film is magnetically uniaxial and anisotropic. The film is split into two oppositely magnetized contiguous domains with a central boundary by subjecting adjacent portions of the film simultaneously to magnetic fields that are opposed 180.degree.. With the split-domain sensor-recorder placed with the film plane and domain boundary either perpendicular or parallel to the expected conductive path of a transient current, the occurrence of the transient causes switching of a portion of one domain to the direction of the other domain. The amount of the switched domain portion is indicative of the amplitude of the peak current of the transient, while the particular domain that is switched is indicative of the direction of the current. The resulting domain patterns may be read with a passive magnetic tape viewer.

  17. Spin-wave-driven high-speed domain-wall motions in soft magnetic nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Jaehak; Yoo, Myoung-Woo; Kim, Sang-Koog

    2015-10-28

    We report on a micromagnetic simulation study of interactions between propagating spin waves and a head-to-head domain wall in geometrically confined magnetic nanotubes. We found that incident spin waves of specific frequencies can lead to sufficiently high-speed (on the order of a few hundreds of m/s or higher) domain-wall motions in the same direction as that of the incident spin-waves. The domain-wall motions and their speed vary remarkably with the frequency and the amplitude of the incident spin-waves. High-speed domain-wall motions originate from the transfer torque of spin waves' linear momentum to the domain wall, through the partial or complete reflection of the incident spin waves from the domain wall. This work provides a fundamental understanding of the interaction of the spin waves with a domain wall in the magnetic nanotubes as well as a route to all-magnetic control of domain-wall motions in the magnetic nanoelements.

  18. Latest Report Shows Cost of Going Solar has Dropped Significantly for 5 Years

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lawrence Berkeley National Lab today released the eighth installment of the Tracking the Sun report series, which is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The report shows that the installed price of distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) power systems in the United States continues to fall precipitously, especially in the last 5 years.

  19. Self-annihilation of inversion domains by high energy defects in III-Nitrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koukoula, T.; Kioseoglou, J. Kehagias, Th.; Komninou, Ph.; Ajagunna, A. O.; Georgakilas, A.

    2014-04-07

    Low-defect density InN films were grown on Si(111) by molecular beam epitaxy over an ?1??m thick GaN/AlN buffer/nucleation layer. Electron microscopy observations revealed the presence of inverse polarity domains propagating across the GaN layer and terminating at the sharp GaN/InN (0001{sup }) interface, whereas no inversion domains were detected in InN. The systematic annihilation of GaN inversion domains at the GaN/InN interface is explained in terms of indium incorporation on the Ga-terminated inversion domains forming a metal bonded In-Ga bilayer, a structural instability known as the basal inversion domain boundary, during the initial stages of InN growth on GaN.

  20. Scaling Behavior of the First Arrival Time of a Random-Walking Magnetic Domain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Im, M.-Y.; Lee, S.-H.; Kim, D.-H.; Fischer, P.; Shin, S.-C.

    2008-02-04

    We report a universal scaling behavior of the first arrival time of a traveling magnetic domain wall into a finite space-time observation window of a magneto-optical microscope enabling direct visualization of a Barkhausen avalanche in real time. The first arrival time of the traveling magnetic domain wall exhibits a nontrivial fluctuation and its statistical distribution is described by universal power-law scaling with scaling exponents of 1.34 {+-} 0.07 for CoCr and CoCrPt films, despite their quite different domain evolution patterns. Numerical simulation of the first arrival time with an assumption that the magnetic domain wall traveled as a random walker well matches our experimentally observed scaling behavior, providing an experimental support for the random-walking model of traveling magnetic domain walls.

  1. A magnesium-carboxylate framework showing luminescent sensing for CS{sub 2} and nitroaromatic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Zhao-Feng; Tan, Bin; Feng, Mei-Ling; Du, Cheng-Feng; Huang, Xiao-Ying

    2015-03-15

    A magnesium metal-organic framework compound, namely [NH{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}][Mg{sub 3}(NDC){sub 2.5}(HCO{sub 2}){sub 2}(DMF){sub 0.75}(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.25}]·1.25DMF·0.75H{sub 2}O (1) (H{sub 2}NDC=1,4-naphthalene dicarboxylic acid, DMF=N,N′-dimethylformamide), has been synthesized in solvothermal conditions and structurally characterized. It features a three-dimensionally anionic framework with aligned channels parallel to the b-axis. Luminescent studies indicated that it showed significant luminescence quenching for carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}) and nitrobenzene after being activated, at a content of only 3.0 and 0.1 vol% in DMF, respectively. In addition, the activated sample showed sensitive luminescence quenching for 1,3,5-trinitrophenol with a low concentration of 5×10{sup −5} mol/L. - Graphical abstract: Presented is a microporous 3D Mg-MOF, namely, [NH{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}][Mg{sub 3}(NDC){sub 2.5}(HCO{sub 2}){sub 2}(DMF){sub 0.75}(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.25}]·1.25DMF·0.75H{sub 2}O (1) (H{sub 2}NDC=1,4-naphthalene dicarboxylic acid) showing significant luminescence quenching for carbon disulfide and nitrobenzene. - Highlights: • A microporous 3D metal-organic framework based on Mg. • The compound shows significant luminescence quenching for CS{sub 2} and nitrobenzene after activated. • The compound shows sensitive luminescence quenching for 1,3,5-trinitrophenol with a low concentration of 5×10{sup −5} mol/L.

  2. NREL Study Shows Power Grid can Accommodate Large Increase in Wind and

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Generation - News Releases | NREL Study Shows Power Grid can Accommodate Large Increase in Wind and Solar Generation Increased Coordination Over Wider Areas and More Frequent Scheduling Needed; Wind and Solar Significantly Reduce Carbon and Fuel Costs May 20, 2010 The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) today released an initial study assessing the operational impacts and economics of increased contributions from wind and solar energy producers on the power grid. The Western

  3. NREL Study Shows Renewable Energy Potential in Every State - News Releases

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    | NREL NREL Study Shows Renewable Energy Potential in Every State U.S. RE Technical Potential study produces estimates across technologies July 26, 2012 A new study of renewable energy's technical potential finds that every state in the nation has the space and resource to generate clean energy. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory produced the study, U.S. RE Technical Potential, which looks at available renewable resources in each state. It establishes an

  4. NREL report shows E85 gives gas stations a competitive edge - News Releases

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    | NREL report shows E85 gives gas stations a competitive edge Quantity of E85 sold most important factor in profitability July 18, 2008 A study released by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) can help gas station owners and Clean Cities stakeholders determine whether adding E85 to their product mix can increase profitability. Competition in the fueling station business continues to intensify, particularly as grocery stores and discount clubs

  5. NREL: News - Expo to Show Consumers How to Cut Energy Use

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Expo to Show Consumers How to Cut Energy Use Golden, Colo., June 6, 2002 Consumers can learn how to save energy and money at home from experts who specialize in energy efficient and renewable energy products and services at the Consumer Energy Expo June 21 - 22. The Expo is hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in conjunction with Colorado Energy Science Center (CESC). The Expo at NREL's Visitors Center includes exhibits and activities for the

  6. Customizable Interactive Map Shows U.S. Alternative Fuel Data - News

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases | NREL Customizable Interactive Map Shows U.S. Alternative Fuel Data Users can find fuel stations, vehicle concentrations, and production plants June 9, 2009 The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) announced the launch of a comprehensive mapping tool to help industry and government planners implement alternative fuels and advanced vehicles. The new TransAtlas tool combines several different types of geographic data to identify areas with

  7. Pantex-Y-12 resource-sharing shows the benefit of consolidation | National

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Pantex-Y-12 resource-sharing shows the benefit of consolidation Wednesday, March 9, 2016 - 4:51pm Y 12 engineers Tucker Fritz, Sarah Cruise and Damita Mason (seated) accepted temporary assignments at Pantex. Shown with them are Pantex Engineering Manager Joe Papp and CNS Vice President of Engineering Mike Beck. Three Y-12 employees recently completed temporary assignments at Pantex. Y-12 engineers Sarah Cruise, Tucker Fritz and Damita Mason spent

  8. Taking on the Heat in Solar Cells: New Calculations Show Atomic Vibrations

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Hurt Efficiency | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Taking on the Heat in Solar Cells: New Calculations Show Atomic Vibrations Hurt Efficiency Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F:

  9. ORISE: Report shows nuclear engineering graduation rates on the rise in

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    2013 ORISE report shows nuclear engineering graduation rates on the rise in 2013 Number of graduate degrees expected to remain consistent, but undergraduate degrees could see decrease come 2015 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE March 3, 2014 FY14-11 OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-The number of college students graduating with majors in nuclear engineering continues to increase, according to a report by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, which surveyed 32 U.S. universities with nuclear engineering

  10. Saint-Gobain Shows the Way on Effectively Preparing for Energy Savings Assessments

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    As the front runner in the world's habitation markets, Saint-Gobain has set itself the goal of providing innovative solutions to the upcoming challenges of environmental protection and energy saving. - Pierre-André deChalendar, Saint Gobain CEO continued > Saint-Gobain Shows the Way on Effectively Preparing for Energy Savings Assessments Saint-Gobain, a world leader in high-performance materials and glass manufacturing, uses its rich history in energy efficiency and experiences with DOE's

  11. Configuration of ripple domains and their topological defects...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    materials. Authors: Park, Yeonggu 1 ; Choi, Jin Sik 2 ; Choi, Taekjib 3 ; Lee, Mi Jung 1 ; Jia, Quanxi 4 ; Park, Minwoo 1 ; Lee, Hoonkyung 1 ; Park, Bae Ho 1 + Show...

  12. Configuration of ripple domains and their topological defects...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Park, Yeonggu 1 ; Choi, Jin Sik 2 ; Choi, Taekjib 3 ; Lee, Mi Jung 1 ; Jia, Quanxi 4 ; Park, Minwoo 1 ; Lee, Hoonkyung 1 ; Park, Bae Ho 1 + Show Author...

  13. Pennsylvania and West Virginia show largest increases in natural gas proved reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Pennsylvania and West Virginia show largest increases in natural gas proved reserves U.S. natural gas proved reserves have hit an all-time high...with Pennsylvania and West Virginia accounting for 70% of the increase ...according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration. In a new report, EIA says that U.S. proved reserves of natural gas reached a record 354 trillion cubic feet at the end of 2013. That's up 10% from the year before. Proved reserves are those volumes of natural gas that

  14. KCP shows off the fun side of science | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration | (NNSA) shows off the fun side of science Friday, May 9, 2014 - 3:23pm From liquid nitrogen to the 3D simulation room, students were immersed in hands-on science fun at this year's Take Your Child To Work Day at the Kansas City Plant. "We are proud of the work we do, and we welcome any opportunity to share the story of our mission." said Mark Holecek, Kansas City Field Office Manager. "As a parent, I think it is even more important that we share our scientific

  15. SRS 'teach-ins' show why math and science are cool | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration | (NNSA) 'teach-ins' show why math and science are cool Thursday, March 13, 2014 - 4:00pm More than 40 engineers, scientists and technicians from the Savannah River Site recently brought creative science- and engineering-based demonstrations to more than 3,000 middle school students, captivating their minds with things like flying objects and robotic creatures to give them a broader understanding of the field of engineering. Over a two-week period, employees of SRS

  16. NREL Report Shows U.S. Solar Photovoltaic Costs Continuing to Fall in 2016

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    - News Releases | NREL NREL Report Shows U.S. Solar Photovoltaic Costs Continuing to Fall in 2016 September 28, 2016 chart of solar pv costs from q4 2009 to q1 2016 NREL U.S. PV system cost benchmarks, from the fourth quarter of 2009 to the first quarter of 2016 The modeled costs to install solar photovoltaic (PV) systems continued to decline in the first quarter of 2016 in the U.S. residential, commercial, and utility-scale sectors, according to updated benchmarks from the Energy

  17. Domain pinning near a single-grain boundary in tetragonal and rhombohedral lead zirconate titanate films

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Marincel, Dan M.; Zhang, H. R.; Briston, J.; Belianinov, Alex; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Chen, L. Q.; Rainforth, William M.; Reaney, Ian M.; Randall, Clive A.; et al

    2015-04-27

    The interaction of grain boundaries with ferroelectric domain walls strongly influences the extrinsic contribution to piezoelectric activity in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT), ubiquitous in modern transducers and actuators. However, the fundamental understanding of these phenomena has been limited by complex mechanisms originating from the interplay of atomic-level domain wall pinning, collective domain wall dynamics, and emergent mesoscopic behavior. This contribution utilizes engineered grain boundaries created by depositing epitaxial PZT films with various Zr:Ti ratio onto 24º SrTiO3 tilt bicrystals. The nonlinear piezoelectric response and surface domain structure across the boundary are investigated using piezoresponse force microscopy whilst cross section domain structure ismore » studied using transmission electron microscopy. The grain boundary reduces domain wall motion over a width of 800±70 nm for PZT 45:55 and 450±30 nm for PZT 52:48. Phase field modeling provides an understanding of the elastic and electric fields associated with the grain boundary and local domain configurations. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that complex mesoscopic behaviors can be explored to complement atomic-level pictures of the material system.« less

  18. The structure of the catalytic domain of a plant cellulose synthase and its assembly into dimers

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Olek, Anna T.; Rayon, Catherine; Makowski, Lee; Kim, Hyung Rae; Ciesielski, Peter; Badger, John; Paul, Lake N.; Ghosh, Subhangi; Kihara, Daisuke; Crowley, Michael; et al

    2014-07-10

    Cellulose microfibrils are para-crystalline arrays of several dozen linear (1→4)-β-d-glucan chains synthesized at the surface of the cell membrane by large, multimeric complexes of synthase proteins. Recombinant catalytic domains of rice (Oryza sativa) CesA8 cellulose synthase form dimers reversibly as the fundamental scaffold units of architecture in the synthase complex. Specificity of binding to UDP and UDP-Glc indicates a properly folded protein, and binding kinetics indicate that each monomer independently synthesizes single glucan chains of cellulose, i.e., two chains per dimer pair. In contrast to structure modeling predictions, solution x-ray scattering studies demonstrate that the monomer is a two-domain, elongatedmore » structure, with the smaller domain coupling two monomers into a dimer. The catalytic core of the monomer is accommodated only near its center, with the plant-specific sequences occupying the small domain and an extension distal to the catalytic domain. This configuration is in stark contrast to the domain organization obtained in predicted structures of plant CesA. As a result, the arrangement of the catalytic domain within the CesA monomer and dimer provides a foundation for constructing structural models of the synthase complex and defining the relationship between the rosette structure and the cellulose microfibrils they synthesize.« less

  19. The structure of the catalytic domain of a plant cellulose synthase and its assembly into dimers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olek, Anna T.; Rayon, Catherine; Makowski, Lee; Kim, Hyung Rae; Ciesielski, Peter; Badger, John; Paul, Lake N.; Ghosh, Subhangi; Kihara, Daisuke; Crowley, Michael; Himmel, Michael E.; Bolin, Jeffrey T.; Carpita, Nicholas C.

    2014-07-10

    Cellulose microfibrils are para-crystalline arrays of several dozen linear (1→4)-β-d-glucan chains synthesized at the surface of the cell membrane by large, multimeric complexes of synthase proteins. Recombinant catalytic domains of rice (Oryza sativa) CesA8 cellulose synthase form dimers reversibly as the fundamental scaffold units of architecture in the synthase complex. Specificity of binding to UDP and UDP-Glc indicates a properly folded protein, and binding kinetics indicate that each monomer independently synthesizes single glucan chains of cellulose, i.e., two chains per dimer pair. In contrast to structure modeling predictions, solution x-ray scattering studies demonstrate that the monomer is a two-domain, elongated structure, with the smaller domain coupling two monomers into a dimer. The catalytic core of the monomer is accommodated only near its center, with the plant-specific sequences occupying the small domain and an extension distal to the catalytic domain. This configuration is in stark contrast to the domain organization obtained in predicted structures of plant CesA. As a result, the arrangement of the catalytic domain within the CesA monomer and dimer provides a foundation for constructing structural models of the synthase complex and defining the relationship between the rosette structure and the cellulose microfibrils they synthesize.

  20. Domain patterning by electron beam of MgO doped lithium niobate covered by resist

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shur, V. Ya. Chezganov, D. S.; Akhmatkhanov, A. R.; Kuznetsov, D. K.

    2015-06-08

    Periodical domain structuring by focused electron beam irradiation of MgO-doped lithium niobate (MgOCLN) single crystalline plate covered by resist layer was studied both experimentally and by computer simulation. The dependences of domain size on the charge dose and distance between isolated domains were measured. It has been shown that the quality of periodical domain pattern depends on the thickness of resist layer and electron energy. The experimentally obtained periodic domain structures have been divided into four types. The irradiation parameters for the most uniform patterning were obtained experimentally. It was shown by computer simulation that the space charge slightly touching the crystal surface produced the maximum value of electric field at the resist/LN interface thus resulting in the best pattern quality. The obtained knowledge allowed us to optimize the poling process and to make the periodical domain patterns in 1-mm-thick wafers with an area up to 1 × 5 mm{sup 2} and a period of 6.89 μm for green light second harmonic generation. Spatial distribution of the efficiency of light frequency conversion confirmed the high homogeneity of the tailored domain patterns.

  1. BnNHL18A shows a localization change by stress-inducing chemical treatments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Suk-Bae; Ham, Byung-Kook; Park, Jeong Mee; Kim, Young Jin; Paek, Kyung-Hee . E-mail: khpaek95@korea.ac.kr

    2006-01-06

    The two genes, named BnNHL18A and BnNHL18B, showing sequence homology with Arabidopsis NDR1/HIN1-like (NHL) genes, were isolated from cDNA library prepared with oilseed rape (Brassica napus) seedlings treated with NaCl. The transcript level of BnNHL18A was increased by sodium chloride, ethephon, hydrogen peroxide, methyl jasmonate, or salicylic acid treatment. The coding regions of BnNHL18A and BnNHL18B contain a sarcolipin (SLN)-like sequence. Analysis of the localization of smGFP fusion proteins showed that BnNHL18A is mainly localized to endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This result suggests that the SLN-like sequence plays a role in retaining proteins in ER membrane in plants. In response to NaCl, hydrogen peroxide, ethephon, and salicylic acid treatments, the protein localization of BnNHL18A was changed. Our findings suggest a common function of BnNHL18A in biotic and abiotic stresses, and demonstrate the presence of the shared mechanism of protein translocalization between the responses to plant pathogen and to osmotic stress.

  2. Rethinking conventional field development: 3-D shows direct detection of new reserves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sibley, D. ); Mastoris, S. )

    1993-09-01

    Accurate well to seismic ties of several producing sands and analyses of reservoir characters have revealed hidden reserves in an aging field that was previously determined to be uneconomic. The combination of a recent three-dimensional survey shot over Eugene Island Blocks 338 and 339, Gulf of Mexico, and new interactive workstation technology were instrumental in identifying swept and unswept portions of different oil reservoirs and allowed new infill wells to pinpoint key targets. Amplitudes were extracted along mapped horizons, which showed lateral variations in the reservoir properties, identifying zones where the waterfront had passed through (deterioration in amplitudes) and areas it had missed (strong amplitudes). For one of the successful wells, overlaying structural contours on the amplitude map showed that much of the oil could be recovered by drilling west and up to 30 m downdip from the current tilted oil/water contact-counterintuitive to traditional field development. Net pay (detuned, composite isopach) maps were constructed by calibrating amplitudes to pay thicknesses. The top and base of these net pay surfaces were displayed in geologic cross sections to direct the horizontal paths of subsequent wells. The result was a 100% success rate in five out of five development wells, to date. The wells are producing between 5740-9250 bbl/day, for Chevron and its operating partner, Texaco. This economic scenario directly resulted in a [open quotes]turnaround[close quotes] decision to keep what was once thought to be a B-rated property.

  3. Solution structure of telomere binding domain of AtTRB2 derived from Arabidopsis thaliana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, Ji-Hye; Lee, Won Kyung; Kim, Heeyoun; Kim, Eunhee; Cheong, Chaejoon; Cho, Myeon Haeng; Lee, Weontae

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • We have determined solution structure of Myb domain of AtTRB2. • The Myb domain of AtTRB2 is located in the N-terminal region. • The Myb domain of AtTRB2 binds to plant telomeric DNA without fourth helix. • Helix 2 and 3 of the Myb domain of AtTRB2 are involved in DNA recognition. • AtTRB2 is a novel protein distinguished from other known plant TBP. - Abstract: Telomere homeostasis is regulated by telomere-associated proteins, and the Myb domain is well conserved for telomere binding. AtTRB2 is a member of the SMH (Single-Myb-Histone)-like family in Arabidopsis thaliana, having an N-terminal Myb domain, which is responsible for DNA binding. The Myb domain of AtTRB2 contains three α-helices and loops for DNA binding, which is unusual given that other plant telomere-binding proteins have an additional fourth helix that is essential for DNA binding. To understand the structural role for telomeric DNA binding of AtTRB2, we determined the solution structure of the Myb domain of AtTRB2 (AtTRB2{sub 1–64}) using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In addition, the inter-molecular interaction between AtTRB2{sub 1–64} and telomeric DNA has been characterized by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and NMR titration analyses for both plant (TTTAGGG)n and human (TTAGGG)n telomere sequences. Data revealed that Trp28, Arg29, and Val47 residues located in Helix 2 and Helix 3 are crucial for DNA binding, which are well conserved among other plant telomere binding proteins. We concluded that although AtTRB2 is devoid of the additional fourth helix in the Myb-extension domain, it is able to bind to plant telomeric repeat sequences as well as human telomeric repeat sequences.

  4. Terahertz time domain interferometry of a SIS tunnel junction and a quantum point contact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karadi, C

    1995-09-01

    The author has applied the Terahertz Time Domain Interferometric (THz-TDI) technique to probe the ultrafast dynamic response of a Superconducting-Insulating-Superconducting (SIS) tunnel junction and a Quantum Point Contact (QPC). The THz-TDI technique involves monitoring changes in the dc current induced by interfering two picosecond electrical pulses on the junction as a function of time delay between them. Measurements of the response of the Nb/AlO{sub x}/Nb SIS tunnel junction from 75--200 GHz are in full agreement with the linear theory for photon-assisted tunneling. Likewise, measurements of the induced current in a QPC as a function of source-drain voltage, gate voltage, frequency, and magnetic field also show strong evidence for photon-assisted transport. These experiments together demonstrate the general applicability of the THz-TDI technique to the characterization of the dynamic response of any micron or nanometer scale device that exhibits a non-linear I-V characteristic. 133 refs., 49 figs.

  5. Thermal conductivity measurements via time-domain thermoreflectance for the characterization of radiation induced damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheaito, Ramez; Gorham, Caroline S.; Misra, Amit; Hattar, Khalid; Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2015-05-01

    The progressive build up of displacement damage and fission products inside different systems and components of a nuclear reactor can lead to significant defect formation, degradation, and damage of the constituent materials. This structural modification can highly influence the thermal transport mechanisms and various mechanical properties of solids. In this paper we demonstrate the use of time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR), a non-destructive method capable of measuring the thermal transport in material systems from nano to bulk scales, to study the effect of radiation damage and the subsequent changes in the thermal properties of materials. We use TDTR to show that displacement damage from ion irradiation can significantly reduce the thermal conductivity of Optimized ZIRLO, a material used as fuel cladding in several current nuclear reactors. We find that the thermal conductivity of copper-niobium nanostructured multilayers does not change with helium ion irradiation doses of up to 1015 cm-2 and ion energy of 200 keV suggesting that these structures can be used and radiation tolerant materials in nuclear reactors. We compare the effect of ion doses and ion beam energies on the measured thermal conductivity of bulk silicon. Results demonstrate that TDTR thermal measurements can be used to quantify depth dependent damage.

  6. Thermal conductivity measurements via time-domain thermoreflectance for the characterization of radiation induced damage

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Cheaito, Ramez; Gorham, Caroline S.; Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA; Misra, Amit; Hattar, Khalid; Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2015-05-01

    The progressive build up of displacement damage and fission products inside different systems and components of a nuclear reactor can lead to significant defect formation, degradation, and damage of the constituent materials. This structural modification can highly influence the thermal transport mechanisms and various mechanical properties of solids. In this paper we demonstrate the use of time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR), a non-destructive method capable of measuring the thermal transport in material systems from nano to bulk scales, to study the effect of radiation damage and the subsequent changes in the thermal properties of materials. We use TDTR to show that displacementmore » damage from ion irradiation can significantly reduce the thermal conductivity of Optimized ZIRLO, a material used as fuel cladding in several current nuclear reactors. We find that the thermal conductivity of copper-niobium nanostructured multilayers does not change with helium ion irradiation doses of up to 1015 cm-2 and ion energy of 200 keV suggesting that these structures can be used and radiation tolerant materials in nuclear reactors. We compare the effect of ion doses and ion beam energies on the measured thermal conductivity of bulk silicon. Results demonstrate that TDTR thermal measurements can be used to quantify depth dependent damage.« less

  7. Axial current generation by P-odd domains in QCD matter

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Iatrakis, Ioannis; Yin, Yi; Lin, Shu

    2015-06-23

    The dynamics of topological domains which break parity (P) and charge-parity (CP) symmetry of QCD are studied. We derive in a general setting that those local domains will generate an axial current and quantify the strength of the induced axial current. Thus, our findings are verified in a top-down holographic model. The relation between the real time dynamics of those local domains and the chiral magnetic field is also elucidated. We finally argue that such an induced axial current would be phenomenologically important in a heavy-ion collisions experiment.

  8. Smart Grid Conceptual Actors/Data Flow Diagram- Cross Domain Network

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Focued- Open SG/SG-Network TF | Department of Energy Smart Grid Conceptual Actors/Data Flow Diagram- Cross Domain Network Focued- Open SG/SG-Network TF Smart Grid Conceptual Actors/Data Flow Diagram- Cross Domain Network Focued- Open SG/SG-Network TF Smart Grid data flow diagram. Smart Grid Conceptual Actors/Data Flow Diagram- Cross Domain Network Focued- Open SG/SG-Network TF (523.02 KB) More Documents & Publications Report to NIST on the Smart Grid Interoperability Standards Roadmap SG

  9. Domain wall motion driven by spin Hall effect—Tuning with in-plane magnetic anisotropy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rushforth, A. W.

    2014-04-21

    This letter investigates the effects of in-plane magnetic anisotropy on the current induced motion of magnetic domain walls in systems with dominant perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, where accumulated spins from the spin Hall effect in an adjacent heavy metal layer are responsible for driving the domain wall motion. It is found that that the sign and magnitude of the domain wall velocity in the uniform flow regime can be tuned significantly by the in-plane magnetic anisotropy. These effects are sensitive to the ratio of the adiabatic and non-adiabatic spin transfer torque parameters and are robust in the presence of pinning and thermal fluctuations.

  10. V-084: RSA Archer eGRC Permits Cross-Site Scripting, Cross-Domain Access,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Clickjacking, and File Upload Attacks | Department of Energy 84: RSA Archer eGRC Permits Cross-Site Scripting, Cross-Domain Access, Clickjacking, and File Upload Attacks V-084: RSA Archer eGRC Permits Cross-Site Scripting, Cross-Domain Access, Clickjacking, and File Upload Attacks February 5, 2013 - 12:01am Addthis PROBLEM: RSA Archer eGRC Permits Cross-Site Scripting, Cross-Domain Access, Clickjacking, and File Upload Attacks PLATFORM: RSA Archer SmartSuite Framework version 4.x RSA Archer

  11. Fibroblasts maintained in 3 dimensions show a better differentiation state and higher sensitivity to estrogens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montani, Claudia; Steimberg, Nathalie; Boniotti, Jennifer; Biasiotto, Giorgio; Zanella, Isabella; Diafera, Giuseppe; Biunno, Ida; Caimi, Luigi; Mazzoleni, Giovanna; Di Lorenzo, Diego

    2014-11-01

    Cell differentiation and response to hormonal signals were studied in a 3D environment on an in-house generated mouse fibroblast cell line expressing a reporter gene under the control of estrogen responsive sequences (EREs). 3D cell culture conditions were obtained in a Rotary Cell Culture System; (RCCS™), a microgravity based bioreactor that promotes the aggregation of cells into multicellular spheroids (MCS). In this bioreactor the cells maintained a better differentiated phenotype and more closely resembled in vivo tissue. The RCCS™ cultured fibroblasts showed higher expression of genes regulating cell assembly, differentiation and hormonal functions. Microarray analysis showed that genes related to cell cycle, proliferation, cytoskeleton, migration, adhesion and motility were all down-regulated in 3D as compared to 2D conditions, as well as oncogene expression and inflammatory cytokines. Controlled remodeling of ECM, which is an essential aspect of cell organization, homeostasis and tissue was affected by the culture method as assessed by immunolocalization of β-tubulin. Markers of cell organization, homeostasis and tissue repair, metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and its physiological inhibitor (TIMP4) changed expression in association with the relative formation of cell aggregates. The fibroblasts cultured in the RCCS™ maintain a better responsiveness to estrogens, measured as expression of ERα and regulation of an ERE-dependent reporter and of the endogenous target genes CBP, Rarb, MMP1 and Dbp. Our data highlight the interest of this 3D culture model for its potential application in the field of cell response to hormonal signals and the pharmaco-toxicological analyses of chemicals and natural molecules endowed of estrogenic potential. - Highlights: • We here characterized the first cell line derived from an estrogen reporter mouse. • In the RCCS cells express an immortalized behavior but not a transformed phenotype. • The RCCS provides a system for

  12. Lithium inclusion in indium metal-organic frameworks showing increased surface area and hydrogen adsorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosch, Mathieu; Zhang, Muwei; Feng, Dawei; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Xuan; Chen, Ying-Pin; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2014-12-01

    Investigation of counterion exchange in two anionic In-Metal-Organic Frameworks (In-MOFs) showed that partial replacement of disordered ammonium cations was achieved through the pre-synthetic addition of LiOH to the reaction mixture. This resulted in a surface area increase of over 1600% in (Li [In(1,3 − BDC){sub 2}]){sub n} and enhancement of the H{sub 2} uptake of approximately 275% at 80 000 Pa at 77 K. This method resulted in frameworks with permanent lithium content after repeated solvent exchange as confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Lithium counterion replacement appears to increase porosity after activation through replacement of bulkier, softer counterions and demonstrates tuning of pore size and properties in MOFs.

  13. Structure of the cytoplasmic domain of Yersinia pestis YscD, an essential component of the type III secretion system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lountos, George T.; Tropea, Joseph E.; Waugh, David S.

    2012-09-17

    The Yersinia pestis YscD protein is an essential component of the type III secretion system. YscD consists of an N-terminal cytoplasmic domain (residues 1-121), a transmembrane linker (122-142) and a large periplasmic domain (143-419). Both the cytoplasmic and the periplasmic domains are required for the assembly of the type III secretion system. Here, the structure of the YscD cytoplasmic domain solved by SAD phasing is presented. Although the three-dimensional structure is similar to those of forkhead-associated (FHA) domains, comparison with the structures of canonical FHA domains revealed that the cytoplasmic domain of YscD lacks the conserved residues that are required for binding phosphothreonine and is therefore unlikely to function as a true FHA domain.

  14. New water soluble heterometallic complex showing unpredicted coordination modes of EDTA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mudsainiyan, R.K. Jassal, A.K.; Chawla, S.K.

    2015-10-15

    A mesoporous 3D polymeric complex (I) having formula ([Zr(IV)O-μ{sup 3}-(EDTA)Fe(III)OH]·H{sub 2}O){sub n} has been crystallized and characterized by various techniques. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that complex (I) crystallized in chiral monoclinic space group Cc (space group no. 9) with unexpected coordination modes of EDTA and mixture of two transition metal ions. In this complex, the coordination number of Zr(IV) ion is seven where four carboxylate oxygen atoms, two nitrogen atoms, one oxide atom are coordinating with Zr(IV). Fe(III) is four coordinated and its coordination environment is composed of three different carboxylic oxygen atoms from three different EDTA and one oxygen atom of –OH group. The structure consists of 4-c and 16-c (2-nodal) net with new topology and point symbol for net is (3{sup 36}·4{sup 54}·5{sup 30})·(3{sup 6}). TGA study and XRPD pattern showed that the coordination polymer is quite stable even after losing water molecule and –OH ion. Quenching behavior in fluorescence of ligand is observed by complexation with transition metal ions is due to n–π⁎ transition. The SEM micrograph shows the morphology of complex (I) exhibits spherical shape with size ranging from 50 to 280 nm. The minimum N{sub 2} (S{sub BET}=8.7693 m{sup 2}/g) and a maximum amount of H{sub 2} (high surface area=1044.86 m{sup 2}/g (STP)) could be adsorbed at 77 K. From DLS study, zeta potential is calculated i.e. −7.94 shows the negative charges on the surface of complex. Hirshfeld surface analysis and fingerprint plots revealed influence of weak or non bonding interactions in crystal packing of complex. - Graphical abstract: The complex (I) crystallized with unexpected coordination modes of EDTA having 4-c, 16-c net with new topology and point symbol is (3{sup 36}·4{sup 54}·5{sup 30})·(3{sup 6}). TGA study and XRPD pattern proved its stability with high preference of H{sub 2} uptake by complex. - Highlights: • 3D complex

  15. Domain wall model in the galactic Bose-Einstein condensate halo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souza, J.C.C. de; Pires, M.O.C. E-mail: marcelo.pires@ufabc.edu.br

    2013-05-01

    We assume that the galactic dark matter halo, considered composed of an axionlike particles Bose-Einstein condensate [1], can present topological defects, namely domain walls, arising as the dark soliton solution for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in a self-graviting potential. We investigate the influence that such substructures would have in the gravitational interactions within a galaxy. We find that, for the simple domain wall model proposed, the effects are too small to be identified, either by means of a local measurement of the gradient of the gravitational field or by analysing galaxy rotation curves. In the first case, the gradient of the gravitational field in the vicinity of the domain wall would be 10{sup −31} (m/s{sup 2})/m. In the second case, the ratio of the tangential velocity correction of a star due to the presence of the domain wall to the velocity in the spherical symmetric case would be 10{sup −8}.

  16. Dynamics of spintronic materials: Exploration in the time and frequency domain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zabel, Hartmut

    2014-12-14

    X-ray and neutron reflectivity are mature experimental techniques for the exploration of film thicknesses and interface roughnesses on the nanoscale. Combining with photon and neutron polarization, these methods can be carried forward to the analysis of magnetic thin films and magnetic domain structures. New opportunities open up when these methods are used either in the time or in the frequency domain. Then dynamical processes can be studied such as domain oscillations, domain propagation, precession of spins, and damping effects. Two methods are discussed which have been developed recently: polarized neutron reflectivity from magnetic films in an alternating magnetic field and time resolved resonant magnetic x-ray reflectivity of the free precessional dynamics in films and multilayers.

  17. Compliant ferroelastic domains in epitaxial Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feigl, L.; McGilly, L. J.; Sandu, C. S.; Setter, N.

    2014-04-28

    Ordered patterns of highly compliant ferroelastic domains have been created by use of tensile strained epitaxial Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} thin films, of very low defect density, grown on DyScO{sub 3} substrates. The effect of 180° switching on well-ordered a/c 90° domain patterns is investigated by a combination of transmission electron microscopy, piezoelectric force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. It is shown that ferroelastic a-domains, having an in-plane polarization, can be created and completely removed on a local level by an out-of-plane electric field. The modifications of the ferroelastic domain pattern can be controlled by varying the parameters used during switching with a piezoresponse force microscope to produce the desired arrangement.

  18. Wind Power Plants and System Operation in the Hourly Time Domain...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    * NRELCP-500-33955 Wind Power Plants and System Operation in the Hourly Time Domain Preprint M. Milligan To be presented at WINDPOWER 2003 Austin, Texas May 18-21, 2003 National ...

  19. From LES to DNS of Explosions in Semi-confined Domains | Argonne...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Pierre Wolf, Turbomeca and CERFACS From LES to DNS of Explosions in Semi-confined Domains PI Name: Thierry Poinsot PI Email: poinsot@cerfacs.fr Institution: CERFACS Allocation ...

  20. Analysis of electron capture process in charge pumping sequence using time domain measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hori, Masahiro Watanabe, Tokinobu; Ono, Yukinori; Tsuchiya, Toshiaki

    2014-12-29

    A method for analyzing the electron capture process in the charge pumping (CP) sequence is proposed and demonstrated. The method monitors the electron current in the CP sequence in time domain. This time-domain measurements enable us to directly access the process of the electron capture to the interface defects, which are obscured in the conventional CP method. Using the time-domain measurements, the rise time dependence of the capture process is systematically investigated. We formulate the capture process based on the rate equation and derive an analytic form of the current due to the electron capture to the defects. Based on the formula, the experimental data are analyzed and the capture cross section is obtained. In addition, the time-domain data unveil that the electron capture process completes before the electron channel opens, or below the threshold voltage in a low frequency range of the pulse.

  1. Nonlinear Time Domain Modeling and Simulation of Surface and Embedded NPPS

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nonlinear Time Domain Modeling and Simulation of Surface and Embedded NPPS Boris Jeremic with contributions from Federico Pisanò, Jose Abell, Kohei Watanabe, Chao Luo University of California, Davis Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley DOE NPH, October 2014

  2. The TLR4 agonist fibronectin extra domain A is cryptic, exposed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    matrix cancer vaccine Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The TLR4 agonist fibronectin extra domain A is cryptic, exposed by elastase-2; use in a fibrin matrix cancer ...

  3. Coiled-coil dimerization of the LOV2 domain of the blue-light...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    blue-light photoreceptor phototropin 1 from Arabidopsis thaliana Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Coiled-coil dimerization of the LOV2 domain of the blue-light ...

  4. Secondary PDZ domain-binding site on class B plexins enhances...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Secondary PDZ domain-binding site on class B plexins enhances the affinity for PDZ-RhoGEF Authors: Pascoe, Heath G. ; Gutowski, Stephen ; Chen, Hua ; Brautigam, Chad A. ; ...

  5. Sphingolipid domains in the plasma membranes of fibroblasts are not enriched with cholesterol

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Frisz, Jessica F.; Klitzing, Haley A.; Lou, Kaiyan; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Weber, Peter K.; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Kraft, Mary L.

    2013-04-22

    The plasma membranes of mammalian cells are widely expected to contain domains that are enriched with cholesterol and sphingolipids. In this work, we have used high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry to directly map the distributions of isotope-labeled cholesterol and sphingolipids in the plasma membranes of intact fibroblast cells. Although acute cholesterol depletion reduced sphingolipid domain abundance, cholesterol was evenly distributed throughout the plasma membrane and was not enriched within the sphingolipid domains. As a result, we rule out favorable cholesterol-sphingolipid interactions as dictating plasma membrane organization in fibroblast cells. Because the sphingolipid domains are disrupted by drugs that depolymerize themore » cells actin cytoskeleton, cholesterol must instead affect the sphingolipid organization via an indirect mechanism that involves the cytoskeleton.« less

  6. Structure of the N-terminal dimerization domain of CEACAM7 (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Structure of the N-terminal dimerization domain of CEACAM7 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structure of the N-terminal ...

  7. A 1.3-Å Structure of Zinc-bound N-terminal Domain of Calmodulin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ion-binding Step Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A 1.3- Structure of Zinc-bound N-terminal Domain of Calmodulin Elucidates Potential Early Ion-binding Step Authors: ...

  8. A time-domain estimation of wall conduction transfer function coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davies, M.G.

    1996-11-01

    The wall and roof transfer function coefficients, b{sub n} and d{sub n}, listed in the 1993 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook, have up to now been derived using laplace and Z-transform methods. This paper shows that they can be readily evaluated using straightforward time-domain solutions of the Fourier continuity equation. These include the response of a wall to a ramp increase in temperature and its transient response. The values of d{sub n} can be found from the first few terms in the series of wall decay times in the transient solution. The solutions are combined using a form of Fourier analysis. Appropriate layer transmission matrices enable one to find the wall`s overall characteristics readily. The wall response factors {phi}{sub j} can thus be found. The b{sub n} transfer coefficients are related to the {phi}{sub j} and d{sub n} values. The approach is illustrated using the data for wall group 6. Allowing for conversion from I-P to SI units, the present approach gives results that are almost identical to those listed. It shows, however, that the performance of the coefficients is very specific to the wall from which they were derived. The b{sub n} and d{sub n} values listed in the Handbook permit an estimate to be made of the wall response factors, including the time of peak flow and the first decay time. For heavy walls, however, values beyond d{sub 6} may be needed.

  9. The C-Terminal RpoN Domain of sigma54 Forms an unpredictedHelix-Turn-Helix Motif Similar to domains of sigma70

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doucleff, Michaeleen; Malak, Lawrence T.; Pelton, Jeffrey G.; Wemmer, David E.

    2005-11-01

    The ''{delta}'' subunit of prokaryotic RNA-polymerase allows gene-specific transcription initiation. Two {sigma} families have been identified, {sigma}{sup 70} and {sigma}{sup 54}, which use distinct mechanisms to initiate transcription and share no detectable sequence homology. Although the {sigma}{sup 70}-type factors have been well characterized structurally by x-ray crystallography, no high-resolution structural information is available for the {sigma}{sup 54}-type factors. Here we present the NMR derived structure of the C-terminal domain of {sigma}{sup 54} from Aquifex aeolicus. This domain (Thr323 to Gly389), which contains the highly conserved RpoN box sequence, consists of a poorly structured N-terminal tail followed by a three-helix bundle, which is surprisingly similar to domains of the {sigma}{sup 70}-type proteins. Residues of the RpoN box, which have previously been shown to be critical for DNA binding, form the second helix of an unpredicted helix-turn-helix motif. This structure's homology with other DNA binding proteins, combined with previous biochemical data, suggest how the C-terminal domain of {sigma}{sup 54} binds to DNA.

  10. Structure of the DUF2233 Domain in Bacteria and the Stuttering-associated

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    UCE Glycoprotein | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource the DUF2233 Domain in Bacteria and the Stuttering-associated UCE Glycoprotein Wednesday, July 31, 2013 UCE figure DUF2233, a Domain of Unknown Function (DUF), is present in ~1200 bacterial and several viral and eukaryotic proteins. DUF2233 has been identified in proteins ranging in size from ~300-2000 residues. The 515 amino acid mammalian transmembrane glycoprotein α-N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphodiester N-acetylglucosaminidase

  11. A Linked-Cell Domain Decomposition Method for Molecular Dynamics Simulation on a Scalable Multiprocessor

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Yang, L. H.; Brooks III, E. D.; Belak, J.

    1992-01-01

    A molecular dynamics algorithm for performing large-scale simulations using the Parallel C Preprocessor (PCP) programming paradigm on the BBN TC2000, a massively parallel computer, is discussed. The algorithm uses a linked-cell data structure to obtain the near neighbors of each atom as time evoles. Each processor is assigned to a geometric domain containing many subcells and the storage for that domain is private to the processor. Within this scheme, the interdomain (i.e., interprocessor) communication is minimized.

  12. Evapotranspiration Within the Groundwater Model Domain of the Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2015-03-01

    The revised groundwater model includes estimates of evapotranspiration (ET). The types of vegetation and the influences of ET on groundwater hydrology vary within the model domain. Some plant species within the model domain, classified as phreatophytes, survive by extracting groundwater. ET within these plant communities can result in a net discharge of groundwater if ET exceeds precipitation. Other upland desert plants within the model domain survive on meteoric water, potentially limiting groundwater recharge if ET is equivalent to precipitation. For all plant communities within the model domain, excessive livestock grazing or other disturbances can tip the balance to a net groundwater recharge. This task characterized and mapped vegetation within the groundwater model domain at the Tuba City, Arizona, Site, and then applied a remote sensing algorithm to estimate ET for each vegetation type. The task was designed to address five objectives: 1. Characterize and delineate different vegetation or ET zones within the groundwater model domain, focusing on the separation of plant communities with phreatophytes that survive by tapping groundwater and upland plant communities that are dependent on precipitation. 2. Refine a remote sensing method, developed to estimate ET at the Monument Valley site, for application at the Tuba City site. 3. Estimate recent seasonal and annual ET for all vegetation zones, separating phreatophytic and upland plant communities within the Tuba City groundwater model domain. 4. For selected vegetation zones, estimate ET that might be achieved given a scenario of limited livestock grazing. 5. Analyze uncertainty of ET estimates for each vegetation zone and for the entire groundwater model domain.

  13. Dependence of effective internal field of congruent lithium niobate on its domain configuration and stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Ranjit E-mail: souvik2cat@gmail.com Ghosh, Souvik E-mail: souvik2cat@gmail.com Chakraborty, Rajib E-mail: souvik2cat@gmail.com

    2014-06-28

    Congruent lithium niobate is characterized by its internal field, which arises due to defect clusters within the crystal. Here, it is shown experimentally that this internal field is a function of the molecular configuration in a particular domain and also on the stability of that particular configuration. The measurements of internal field are done using interferometric technique, while the variation of domain configuration is brought about by room temperature high voltage electric field poling.

  14. Dynamic load balancing algorithm for molecular dynamics based on Voronoi cells domain decompositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fattebert, J.-L.; Richards, D.F.; Glosli, J.N.

    2012-12-01

    We present a new algorithm for automatic parallel load balancing in classical molecular dynamics. It assumes a spatial domain decomposition of particles into Voronoi cells. It is a gradient method which attempts to minimize a cost function by displacing Voronoi sites associated with each processor/sub-domain along steepest descent directions. Excellent load balance has been obtained for quasi-2D and 3D practical applications, with up to 440106 particles on 65,536 MPI tasks.

  15. Phase Behavior and Domain Size in Sphingomyelin-Containing Lipid Bilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petruzielo, Robin S [Cornell University; Heberle, Frederick A [ORNL; Drazba, Paul [ORNL; Katsaras, John [ORNL; Feigenson, Gerald [Cornell University

    2013-01-01

    Membrane raft size measurements are crucial to understanding the stability and functionality of rafts in cells. The challenge of accurately measuring raft size is evidenced by the disparate reports of domain sizes, which range from nanometers to microns for the ternary model membrane system sphingomyelin (SM)/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC)/cholesterol (Chol). Using F rster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), we established phase diagrams for porcine brain SM (bSM)/dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC)/Chol and bSM/POPC/Chol at 15 and 25 C. By combining two techniqueswith different spatial sensitivities, namely FRET and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS),we have significantly narrowed the uncertainty in domain size estimates for bSM/POPC/Chol mixtures. Compositional trends in FRET data revealed coexisting domains at 15 and 25 C for bothmixtures, while SANS measurements detected no domain formation for bSM/POPC/Chol. Together these results indicate that liquid domains in bSM/POPC/Chol are between 2 and 7 nmin radius at 25 C: that is, domains must be on the order of the 2 6 nmF rster distance of the FRET probes, but smaller than the ~7 nm minimum cluster size detectable with SANS. However, for palmitoyl SM (PSM)/POPC/Chol at a similar composition, SANS detected coexisting liquid domains. This increase in domain size upon replacing the natural SMcomponent (which consists of amixture of chain lengths) with synthetic PSM, suggests a role for SM chain length in modulating raft size in vivo.

  16. Nanoimages show disruption of tubulin polymerization by chlorpyrifos oxon: Implications for neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigoryan, Hasmik; Lockridge, Oksana

    2009-10-15

    Organophosphorus agents cause cognitive deficits and depression in some people. We hypothesize that the mechanism by which organophosphorus agents cause these disorders is by modification of proteins in the brain. One such protein could be tubulin. Tubulin polymerizes to make the microtubules that transport cell components to nerve axons. The goal of the present work was to measure the effect of the organophosphorus agent chlorpyrifos oxon on tubulin polymerization. An additional goal was to identify the amino acids covalently modified by chlorpyrifos oxon in microtubule polymers and to compare them to the amino acids modified in unpolymerized tubulin dimers. Purified bovine tubulin (0.1 mM) was treated with 0.005-0.1 mM chlorpyrifos oxon for 30 min at room temperature and then polymerized by addition of 1 mM GTP to generate microtubules. Microtubules were visualized by atomic force microscopy. Chlorpyrifos oxon-modified residues were identified by tandem ion trap electrospray ionization and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides. Nanoimaging showed that low concentrations (0.005 and 0.01 mM) of chlorpyrifos oxon yielded short, thin microtubules. A concentration of 0.025 mM stimulated polymerization, while high concentrations (0.05 and 0.1 mM) caused aggregation. Of the 17 tyrosines covalently modified by chlorpyrifos oxon in unpolymerized tubulin dimers, only 2 tyrosines were labeled in polymerized microtubules. The two labeled tyrosines in polymerized tubulin were Tyr 103 in EDAANNY*R of alpha tubulin, and Tyr 281 in GSQQY*R of beta tubulin. In conclusion, chlorpyrifos oxon binding to tubulin disrupts tubulin polymerization. These results may lead to an understanding of the neurotoxicity of organophosphorus agents.

  17. Post-deposition control of ferroelastic stripe domains and internal electric field by thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feigl, L.; Iwanowska, M.; Sandu, C. S.; Setter, N.; Janolin, P.-E.; Yamada, T.

    2015-01-19

    The dependence of the formation of ferroelastic stripe domain patterns on the thermal history is investigated by detailed piezoresponse force microscopy and X-ray diffraction experiments after and during annealing of tensile strained tetragonal Pb(Ti,Zr)O{sub 3} epitaxial thin films on DyScO{sub 3} substrates. In particular, the ferroelastic pattern is reversibly interchanged between a cross-hatched and a stripe domain pattern if the films are cooled at different rates after annealing above the formation temperature of a-domains. Different types of 180 and non-180 patterns can be created, depending on the thermal treatment. The changes in the 180 domain structure and lattice parameters are attributed to a change of oxygen vacancy concentration, which results in a modification of the internal electric field and unit cell size, causing also a shift of T{sub C}. Thermal treatment is done on rhombohedral La:BiFeO{sub 3} thin films as well. It is observed that also in these films, appropriate heat treatment modifies the domain pattern and films with a stripe domain pattern can be created, confirming the general validity of the developed model.

  18. Edge instability in a chiral stripe domain under an electric current and skyrmion generation

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Lin, Shi -Zeng

    2016-07-05

    Motivated by the recent experimental observations on the skyrmion creation by cutting chiral stripe domains under a current drive [Jiang et al., Science 349, 283 (2015)], we study the mechanism of skyrmion generation by simulating the dynamics of stripe domains. Our theory for skyrmion generation is based on the fact that there are two half skyrmions attached to the ends of a stripe domain. These half skyrmions move due to the coupling between the skyrmion topological charge and current. As a consequence, the stripe domain is bent or stretched depending on the direction of motion of the half skyrmions. Formore » a large current, skyrmions are created by chopping the stripe domains via strong bending or stretching. Our theory provides an explanation to the experiments and is supported by the new experiments. Moreover, we predict that skyrmions can also be generated using a Bloch stripe domain under a spin transfer torque which can be realized in B20 compounds.« less

  19. Structure and Dynamics of Domains in Ferroelectric Nanostructures. In-situ TEM Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Xiaoqing

    2015-06-30

    The goal of this project was to explore the structure and dynamic behaviors of ferroelectric domains in ferroelectric thin films and nanostructures by advanced transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques in close collaboration with phase field modeling. The experimental techniques used include aberration-corrected sub-Å resolution TEM and in-situ TEM using a novel scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) - TEM holder that allows the direct observation of nucleation and dynamic evolution of ferroelectric domains under applied electric field. Specifically, this project was aimed to (1) to study the roles of static electrical boundary conditions and electrical charge in controlling the equilibrium domain structures of BiFeO3 thin films with controlled substrate constraints, (2) to explore the fundamental mechanisms of ferroelectric domain nucleation, growth, and switching under an applied electric field in both uniform thin films and nanostructures, and to understand the roles of crystal defects such as dislocations and interfaces in these processes, (3) to understand the physics of ferroelectric domain walls and the influence of defects on the electrical switching of ferroelectric domains.

  20. Integrative curriculum reform, domain dependent knowing, and teachers` epistemological theories: Implications for middle-level teaching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, R.R.

    1998-12-01

    Integrative curriculum as both a theoretical construct and a practical reality, and as a theme-based, problem-centered, democratic way of schooling, is becoming more widely considered as a feasible alternative to traditional middle-level curricula. Importantly for teaching and learning, domain dependence requires teachers to view one area of knowledge as fully interdependent with other areas of knowledge during the learning process. This requires teachers to adopt personal epistemological theories that reflect integrative, domain dependent knowing. This study explored what happened when teachers from highly traditional domain independent school settings encountered an ambitious college-level curriculum project that was designed to help the teachers understand the potential that integrative, domain dependent teaching holds for precollege settings. This study asked: What influence does an integrative, domain dependent curriculum project have on teachers` domain independent, epistemological theories for teaching and learning? Finding an answer to this question is essential if we, as an educational community, are to understand how integrative curriculum theory is transformed by teachers into systemic curriculum reform. The results suggest that the integrative curriculum project that teachers participated in did not explicitly alter their classroom practices in a wholesale manner. Personal epistemological theories of teachers collectively precluded teachers from making any wholesale changes in their individual classroom teaching. However, teachers became aware of integrative curriculum as an alternative, and they expressed interest in infusing integrative practices into their classrooms as opportunities arise.

  1. Structure of the JmjC domain-containing protein NO66 complexed with ribosomal protein Rpl8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Chengliang; Zhang, Qiongdi; Hang, Tianrong; Tao, Yue; Ma, Xukai; Wu, Minhao; Zhang, Xuan Zang, Jianye

    2015-08-28

    The structure of the complex of NO66 and Rpl8 was solved in the native state and NO66 recognizes the consensus motif NHXH . Tetramerization is required for efficient substrate binding and catalysis by NO66. The JmjC domain-containing proteins belong to a large family of oxygenases possessing distinct substrate specificities which are involved in the regulation of different biological processes, such as gene transcription, RNA processing and translation. Nucleolar protein 66 (NO66) is a JmjC domain-containing protein which has been reported to be a histone demethylase and a ribosome protein 8 (Rpl8) hydroxylase. The present biochemical study confirmed the hydroxylase activity of NO66 and showed that oligomerization is required for NO66 to efficiently catalyze the hydroxylation of Rpl8. The structures of NO66{sup 176–C} complexed with Rpl8{sup 204–224} in a tetrameric form and of the mutant protein M2 in a dimeric form were solved. Based on the results of structural and biochemical analyses, the consensus sequence motif NHXH recognized by NO66 was confirmed. Several potential substrates of NO66 were found by a BLAST search according to the consensus sequence motif. When binding to substrate, the relative positions of each subunit in the NO66 tetramer shift. Oligomerization may facilitate the motion of each subunit in the NO66 tetramer and affect the catalytic activity.

  2. A Different Mechanism for the Inhibition of the Carboxyltransferase Domain of Acetyl-coenzyme A Carboxylase by Tepraloxydim

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiang, S.; Callaghan, M; Watson, K; Tong, L

    2009-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCs) are crucial metabolic enzymes and are attractive targets for drug discovery. Haloxyfop and tepraloxydim belong to two distinct classes of commercial herbicides and kill sensitive plants by inhibiting the carboxyltransferase (CT) activity of ACC. Our earlier structural studies showed that haloxyfop is bound near the active site of the CT domain, at the interface of its dimer, and a large conformational change in the dimer interface is required for haloxyfop binding. We report here the crystal structure at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution of the CT domain of yeast ACC in complex with tepraloxydim. The compound has a different mechanism of inhibiting the CT activity compared to haloxyfop, as well as the mammalian ACC inhibitor CP-640186. Tepraloxydim probes a different region of the dimer interface and requires only small but important conformational changes in the enzyme, in contrast to haloxyfop. The binding mode of tepraloxydim explains the structure-activity relationship of these inhibitors, and provides a molecular basis for their distinct sensitivity to some of the resistance mutations, as compared to haloxyfop. Despite the chemical diversity between haloxyfop and tepraloxydim, the compounds do share two binding interactions to the enzyme, which may be important anchoring points for the development of ACC inhibitors

  3. Magnetism reflectometer study shows LiF layers improve efficiency in spin valve devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bardoel, Agatha A; Lauter, Valeria; Szulczewski, Greg J

    2012-01-01

    in the spin valve and enhancing the overall properties of the system. In related work the magnetic properties of the cobalt film and the permalloy Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} were characterized. Cobalt in particular needed attention, as it cannot be grown epitaxially (i.e., deposited) on an organic semiconductor film. Cobalt becomes polycrystalline or amorphous, and this affects its magnetic properties. The data from the first experiment showed that the cobalt layer in the system 'did not have typical magnetic properties,' Lauter said. 'The results showed that the cobalt had low magnetization. To improve the efficiency, the cobalt magnetization should be much higher. So this experiment helped us to improve the growth conditions and to get a cobalt layer with better magnetic properties.' In a subsequent experiment the researchers increased the magnetization of the cobalt, and a follow-up paper is in progress.

  4. Domain imaging on multiferroic BiFeO{sub 3}(001) by linear and circular dichroism in threshold photoemission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sander, Anke; Christl, Maik; Chiang, Cheng-Tien; Alexe, Marin; Widdra, Wolf

    2015-12-14

    We demonstrate ferroelectric domain imaging at BiFeO{sub 3}(001) single crystal surfaces with laser-based threshold photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM). Work function differences and linear dichroism allow for the identification of the eight independent ferroelectric domain configurations in the PEEM images. There, the determined domain structure is consistent with piezoresponse force microscopy of the sample surface and can also be related to the circular dichroic PEEM images. Our results provide a method for efficient mapping of complex ferroelectric domains with laser-excited PEEM and may allow lab-based time-resolved studies of the domain dynamics in the future.

  5. Ultraviolet laser-induced poling inhibition produces bulk domains in MgO-doped lithium niobate crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boes, Andreas, E-mail: s3363819@student.rmit.edu.au; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Sivan, Vijay; Mitchell, Arnan [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia); ARC Center for Ultra-high Bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS), RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia); Yudistira, Didit [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia); Wade, Scott [Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Mailis, Sakellaris [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Soergel, Elisabeth [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn, Wegelerstr. 8, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2014-09-01

    We report the realization of high-resolution bulk domains achieved using a shallow, structured, domain inverted surface template obtained by UV laser-induced poling inhibition in MgO-doped lithium niobate. The quality of the obtained bulk domains is compared to those of the template and their application for second harmonic generation is demonstrated. The present method enables domain structures with a period length as small as 3??m to be achieved. Furthermore, we propose a potential physical mechanism that leads to the transformation of the surface template into bulk domains.

  6. Self-powdering and nonlinear optical domain structures in ferroelastic beta'-Gd{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} crystals formed in glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsukada, Y.; Honma, T.; Komatsu, T.

    2009-08-15

    Ferroelastic beta'-Gd{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3}, (GMO), crystals are formed through the crystallization of 21.25Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-63.75MoO{sub 3}-15B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass (mol%), and two scientific curious phenomena are observed. (1) GMO crystals formed in the crystallization break into small pieces with a triangular prism or pyramid shape having a length of 50-500 {mu}m spontaneously during the crystallizations in the inside of an electric furnace, not during the cooling in air after the crystallization. This phenomenon is called 'self-powdering phenomenon during crystallization' in this paper. (2) Each self-powdered GMO crystal grain shows a periodic domain structure with different refractive indices, and a spatially periodic second harmonic generation (SHG) depending on the domain structure is observed. It is proposed from polarized micro-Raman scattering spectra and the azimuthal dependence of second harmonic intensities that GMO crystals are oriented in each crystal grain and the orientation of (MoO{sub 4}){sup 2-} tetrahedra in GMO crystals changes periodically due to spontaneous strains in ferroelastic GMO crystals. - Graphical abstract: This figure shows the polarized optical photograph at room temperature for a particle (piece) obtained by a heat treatment of the glass at 590 deg. C for 2 h in an electric furnace in air. This particle was obtained through the self-powdering behavior in the crystallization of glass. The periodic domain structure is observed. Ferroelastic beta'-Gd{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} crystals are formed in the particle, and second harmonic generations are detected, depending on the domain structure.

  7. Ionic field effect and memristive phenomena in single-point ferroelectric domain switching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ievlev, Anton; Morozovska, A. N.; Eliseev, E. A.; Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2014-01-01

    Electric field induced polarization switching underpins most functional applications of ferroelectric materials in information technology, materials science, and optoelectronics. In the last 20 years, much attention has been focused on the switching of individual domains using scanning probe microscopy, both as model of ferroelectric data storage and approach to explore fundamental physics of ferroelectric switching. The classical picture of tip induced switching includes formation of cylindrical domain oriented along the tip field, with the domain size is largely determined by the tip-induced field distribution and domain wall motion kinetics. The polarization screening is recognized as a necessary precondition to the stability of ferroelectric phase; however, screening processes are generally considered to be uniformly efficient and not leading to changes in switching behavior. Here, we demonstrate that single-point tip-induced polarization switching can give rise to a surprisingly broad range of domain morphologies, including radial and angular instabilities. These behaviors are traced to the surface screening charge dynamics, which in some cases can even give rise to anomalous switching against the electric field (ionic field effect). The implications of these behaviors for ferroelectric materials and devices are discussed.

  8. Detection of ferromagnetic domain wall pinning and depinning with a semiconductor device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malec, Chris E.; Bennett, Brian R.; Johnson, Mark B.

    2015-12-21

    We demonstrate the detection of a ferromagnetic domain wall using a nanoscale Hall cross. A narrow permalloy wire is defined lithographically on top of a Hall cross fabricated from an InAs quantum well. The width of the Hall cross (500 nm–1 μm) is similar to the width of the ferromagnetic wire (200–500 nm), and a geometric pinning site is fabricated in the ferromagnetic wire to trap a domain wall within the area of the Hall cross. The devices provide a signal that is often the same order of magnitude as the offset Hall voltage when a domain wall is located above the Hall cross, and may be useful for memory applications. Different geometries for the Hall cross and ferromagnetic wire are tested, and radiofrequency pulses are sent into the wire to demonstrate current driven domain wall motion. Further changes to the Hall bar geometry with respect to the wire geometry are investigated by numerical computation. A large gain in signal is seen for Hall bars only slightly wider than the ferromagnetic wires as compared to those twice as wide, as well as a larger sensitivity to the exact position of the domain wall with respect to the center of the Hall cross.

  9. Structural and Energetic Analysis of Activiation by a Cyclic Nucleotide Binding Domain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altieri,S.; Clayton, G.; Silverman, W.; Olivares, A.; De La Cruz, E.; Thomas, L.; Morais-Cabral, J.

    2008-01-01

    MlotiK1 is a prokaryotic homolog of cyclic-nucleotide-dependent ion channels that contains an intracellular C-terminal cyclic nucleotide binding (CNB) domain. X-ray structures of the CNB domain have been solved in the absence of ligand and bound to cAMP. Both the full-length channel and CNB domain fragment are easily expressed and purified, making MlotiK1 a useful model system for dissecting activation by ligand binding. We have used X-ray crystallography to determine three new MlotiK1 CNB domain structures: a second apo configuration, a cGMP-bound structure, and a second cAMP-bound structure. In combination, the five MlotiK1 CNB domain structures provide a unique opportunity for analyzing, within a single protein, the structural differences between the apo state and the bound state, and the structural variability within each state. With this analysis as a guide, we have probed the nucleotide selectivity and importance of specific residue side chains in ligand binding and channel activation. These data help to identify ligand-protein interactions that are important for ligand dependence in MlotiK1 and, more globally, in the class of nucleotide-dependent proteins.

  10. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the bacteriophage CUS-3 virion reveal a conserved coat protein I-domain but a distinct tailspike receptor-binding domain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parent, Kristin N.; Tang, Jinghua; Cardone, Giovanni; Gilcrease, Eddie B.; Janssen, Mandy E.; Olson, Norman H.; Casjens, Sherwood R.; Baker, Timothy S.

    2014-09-15

    CUS-3 is a short-tailed, dsDNA bacteriophage that infects serotype K1 Escherichia coli. We report icosahedrally averaged and asymmetric, three-dimensional, cryo-electron microscopic reconstructions of the CUS-3 virion. Its coat protein structure adopts the “HK97-fold” shared by other tailed phages and is quite similar to that in phages P22 and Sf6 despite only weak amino acid sequence similarity. In addition, these coat proteins share a unique extra external domain (“I-domain”), suggesting that the group of P22-like phages has evolved over a very long time period without acquiring a new coat protein gene from another phage group. On the other hand, the morphology of the CUS-3 tailspike differs significantly from that of P22 or Sf6, but is similar to the tailspike of phage K1F, a member of the extremely distantly related T7 group of phages. We conclude that CUS-3 obtained its tailspike gene from a distantly related phage quite recently. - Highlights: • Asymmetric and symmetric three-dimensional reconstructions of phage CUS-3 are presented. • CUS-3 major capsid protein has a conserved I-domain, which is found in all three categories of “P22-like phage”. • CUS-3 has very different tailspike receptor binding domain from those of P22 and Sf6. • The CUS-3 tailspike likely was acquired by horizontal gene transfer.

  11. Pre-Show Checklist

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Before you leave for your event, you should check that you are prepared and ready to go.  This checklist was designed to remind you of the steps you are required to take before leaving for your event.

  12. Unfolding the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase RNase H domain – how to lose a molecular tug-of-war

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Zheng, Xunhai; Pedersen, Lars C.; Gabel, Scott A.; Mueller, Geoffrey A.; DeRose, Eugene F.; London, Robert E.

    2016-01-14

    Formation of the mature HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) p66/p51 heterodimer requires subunit-specific processing of the p66/p66' homodimer precursor. Since the ribonuclease H (RH) domain contains an occult cleavage site located near its center, cleavage must occur either prior to folding or subsequent to unfolding. Recent NMR studies have identified a slow, subunit-specific RH domain unfolding process proposed to result from a residue tug-of-war between the polymerase and RH domains on the functionally inactive, p66' subunit. Here, we describe a structural comparison of the isolated RH domain with a domain swapped RH dimer that reveals several intrinsically destabilizing characteristics of themore » isolated domain that facilitate excursions of Tyr427 from its binding pocket and separation of helices B and D. These studies provide independent support for the subunit-selective RH domain unfolding pathway in which instability of the Tyr427 binding pocket facilitates its release followed by domain transfer, acting as a trigger for further RH domain destabilization and subsequent unfolding. As further support for this pathway, NMR studies demonstrate that addition of an RH active site-directed isoquinolone ligand retards the subunit-selective RH' domain unfolding behavior of the p66/p66' homodimer. As a result, this study demonstrates the feasibility of directly targeting RT maturation with therapeutics.« less

  13. Stability of a pinned magnetic domain wall as a function of its internal configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montaigne, F.; Duluard, A.; Briones, J.; Lacour, D.; Hehn, M.; Childress, J. R.

    2015-01-14

    It is shown that there are many stable configurations for a domain wall pinned by a notch along a magnetic stripe. The stability of several of these configurations is investigated numerically as a function of the thickness of the magnetic film. The depinning mechanism depends on the structure of the domain wall and on the thickness of the magnetic film. In the case of a spin-valve structure, it appears that the stray fields emerging from the hard layer at the notch location influence the stability of the micromagnetic configuration. Different depinning mechanisms are thus observed for the same film thickness depending on the magnetization orientation of the propagating domain. This conclusion qualitatively explains experimental magnetoresistance measurements.

  14. Domain-Specific Languages For Developing and Deploying Signature Discovery Workflows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacob, Ferosh; Wynne, Adam S.; Liu, Yan; Gray, Jeff

    2013-12-02

    Domain-agnostic Signature Discovery entails scientific investigation across multiple domains through the re-use of existing algorithms into workflows. The existing algorithms may be written in any programming language for various hardware architectures (e.g., desktops, commodity clusters, and specialized parallel hardware platforms). This raises an engineering issue in generating Web services for heterogeneous algorithms so that they can be composed into a scientific workflow environment (e.g., Taverna). In this paper, we present our software tool that defines two simple Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) to automate these processes: SDL and WDL. Our Service Description Language (SDL) describes key elements of a signature discovery algorithm and generates the service code. The Workflow Description Language (WDL) describes the pipeline of services and generates deployable artifacts for the Taverna workflow management system. We demonstrate our tool with a landscape classification example that is represented by BLAST workflows composed of services that wrap original scripts.

  15. Lattice QCD with Domain Decomposition on Intel Xeon Phi Co-Processors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heybrock, Simon; Joo, Balint; Kalamkar, Dhiraj D.; Smelyanskiy, Mikhail; Vaidyanathan, Karthikeyan; Wettig, Tilo; Dubey, Pradeep

    2014-12-01

    The gap between the cost of moving data and the cost of computing continues to grow, making it ever harder to design iterative solvers on extreme-scale architectures. This problem can be alleviated by alternative algorithms that reduce the amount of data movement. We investigate this in the context of Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics and implement such an alternative solver algorithm, based on domain decomposition, on Intel Xeon Phi co-processor (KNC) clusters. We demonstrate close-to-linear on-chip scaling to all 60 cores of the KNC. With a mix of single- and half-precision the domain-decomposition method sustains 400-500 Gflop/s per chip. Compared to an optimized KNC implementation of a standard solver [1], our full multi-node domain-decomposition solver strong-scales to more nodes and reduces the time-to-solution by a factor of 5.

  16. Structural and functional conservation of key domains in InsP[subscript 3] and ryanodine receptors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Min-Duk; Velamakanni, Saroj; Ishiyama, Noboru; Stathopulos, Peter B.; Rossi, Ana M.; Khan, Samir A.; Dale, Philippa; Li, Congmin; Ames, James B.; Ikura, Mitsuhiko; Taylor, Colin W.

    2012-07-11

    Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP{sub 3}Rs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are tetrameric intracellular Ca{sup 2+} channels. In each of these receptor families, the pore, which is formed by carboxy-terminal transmembrane domains, is regulated by signals that are detected by large cytosolic structures. InsP{sub 3}R gating is initiated by InsP{sub 3} binding to the InsP{sub 3}-binding core (IBC, residues 224-604 of InsP{sub 3}R1) and it requires the suppressor domain (SD, residues 1-223 of InsP{sub 3}R1). Here we present structures of the amino-terminal region (NT, residues 1-604) of rat InsP{sub 3}R1 with (3.6 {angstrom}) and without (3.0 {angstrom}) InsP{sub 3} bound. The arrangement of the three NT domains, SD, IBC-{beta} and IBC-{alpha}, identifies two discrete interfaces ({alpha} and {beta}) between the IBC and SD. Similar interfaces occur between equivalent domains (A, B and C) in RyR1 (ref. 9). The orientations of the three domains when docked into a tetrameric structure of InsP{sub 3}R and of the ABC domains docked into RyR are remarkably similar. The importance of the {alpha}-interface for activation of InsP{sub 3}R and RyR is confirmed by mutagenesis and, for RyR, by disease-causing mutations. Binding of InsP{sub 3} causes partial closure of the clam-like IBC, disrupting the {beta}-interface and pulling the SD towards the IBC. This reorients an exposed SD loop ('hotspot' (HS) loop) that is essential for InsP{sub 3}R activation. The loop is conserved in RyR and includes mutations that are associated with malignant hyperthermia and central core disease. The HS loop interacts with an adjacent NT, suggesting that activation re-arranges inter-subunit interactions. The A domain of RyR functionally replaced the SD in full-length InsP{sub 3}R, and an InsP{sub 3}R in which its C-terminal transmembrane region was replaced by that from RyR1 was gated by InsP{sub 3} and blocked by ryanodine. Activation mechanisms are conserved between InsP{sub 3}R and Ry

  17. User`s guide for the frequency domain algorithms in the LIFE2 fatigue analysis code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutherland, H.J.; Linker, R.L.

    1993-10-01

    The LIFE2 computer code is a fatigue/fracture analysis code that is specialized to the analysis of wind turbine components. The numerical formulation of the code uses a series of cycle count matrices to describe the cyclic stress states imposed upon the turbine. However, many structural analysis techniques yield frequency-domain stress spectra and a large body of experimental loads (stress) data is reported in the frequency domain. To permit the analysis of this class of data, a Fourier analysis is used to transform a frequency-domain spectrum to an equivalent time series suitable for rainflow counting by other modules in the code. This paper describes the algorithms incorporated into the code and their numerical implementation. Example problems are used to illustrate typical inputs and outputs.

  18. Template-based CTA to x-ray angio rigid registration of coronary arteries in frequency domain with automatic x-ray segmentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aksoy, Timur; Unal, Gozde; Demirci, Stefanie; Navab, Nassir; Degertekin, Muzaffer

    2013-10-15

    with ground truth values and landmark distances for the images acquired with a solid phantom vessel. Results validate that rotation recovery in frequency domain is robust against differences in segmentations in two modalities. Distance-map translation is successful in aligning coronary trees with highest possible overlap.Conclusions: Numerical and qualitative results show that single view rigid alignment in projection space is successful. This work can be extended with multiple views to resolve depth ambiguity and with deformable registration to account for nonrigid motion in patient data.

  19. Validation of Innovative Exploration Technologies for Newberry Volcano: Map showing location of wells permitted, drilled and seismic test 2012

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jaffe, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Innovative Exploration Technologies for Newberry Volcano: Map showing location of wells permitted, drilled & seismic test, 2012

  20. Validation of Innovative Exploration Technologies for Newberry Volcano: Map showing location of wells permitted, drilled and seismic test 2012

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jaffe, Todd

    Innovative Exploration Technologies for Newberry Volcano: Map showing location of wells permitted, drilled & seismic test, 2012

  1. Candidate Cell and Matrix Interaction Domains on the Collagen Fibril, the Predominant Protein of Vertebrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeney, Shawn M.; Orgel, Joseph P.; Fertala, Andrzej; McAuliffe, Jon D.; Turner, Kevin R.; Di Lullo, Gloria A.; Chen, Steven; Antipova, Olga; Perumal, Shiamalee; Ala-Kokko, Leena; Forlinoi, Antonella; Cabral, Wayne A.; Barnes, Aileen M.; Marini, Joan C.; San Antonio, James D.

    2008-07-18

    Type I collagen, the predominant protein of vertebrates, polymerizes with type III and V collagens and non-collagenous molecules into large cable-like fibrils, yet how the fibril interacts with cells and other binding partners remains poorly understood. To help reveal insights into the collagen structure-function relationship, a data base was assembled including hundreds of type I collagen ligand binding sites and mutations on a two-dimensional model of the fibril. Visual examination of the distribution of functional sites, and statistical analysis of mutation distributions on the fibril suggest it is organized into two domains. The 'cell interaction domain' is proposed to regulate dynamic aspects of collagen biology, including integrin-mediated cell interactions and fibril remodeling. The 'matrix interaction domain' may assume a structural role, mediating collagen cross-linking, proteoglycan interactions, and tissue mineralization. Molecular modeling was used to superimpose the positions of functional sites and mutations from the two-dimensional fibril map onto a three-dimensional x-ray diffraction structure of the collagen microfibril in situ, indicating the existence of domains in the native fibril. Sequence searches revealed that major fibril domain elements are conserved in type I collagens through evolution and in the type II/XI collagen fibril predominant in cartilage. Moreover, the fibril domain model provides potential insights into the genotype-phenotype relationship for several classes of human connective tissue diseases, mechanisms of integrin clustering by fibrils, the polarity of fibril assembly, heterotypic fibril function, and connective tissue pathology in diabetes and aging.

  2. Impact of pulse poling on static and dynamic ferroelastic-domain contributions in tetragonal Pb(Ti, Zr)O{sub 3} films determined by in-situ x–ray diffraction analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakajima, Mitsumasa; Wada, Ayumi; Ehara, Yoshitaka; Funakubo, Hiroshi; Yamada, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2014-11-21

    The effects of bipolar pulse poling on the ferroelastic domain structure and their contribution to the electrical and piezoelectric properties of Pb(Ti{sub 0.7}Zr{sub 0.3})O{sub 3} films are investigated. Micro x-ray diffraction measurements clearly show that the volume fraction of the c-domain increases irreversibly as the poling field is increased, leading to changes in the remanent polarization, dielectric constant, and piezoelectric coefficient. Theoretical estimations well explain the changes of remanent polarization and dielectric constant, but the increase in piezoelectric coefficient is much larger than the theoretical estimation. In-situ x-ray diffraction analysis under an electric field reveals that this disagreement is due to the unexpected activation of the ferroelastic domain wall motion. Our results provide new insight into the poling effect on the electric and piezoelectric properties of ferroelectric films.

  3. A new frequency domain arc furnace model for iterative harmonic analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayordomo, J.G.; Beites, L.F.; Asensi, R.; Izzeddine, M.; Zabala, L.; Amantegui, J.

    1997-10-01

    This paper presents a new frequency domain Arc Furnace model for Iterative Harmonic Analysis (IHA) by means of a Newton method. Powerful analytical expressions for harmonic currents and their derivatives are obtained under the balanced conditions of the system. The model offers a three phase configuration where there is no path for homopolar currents. Moreover, it contemplates continuous and discontinuous evolution of the arc current. The solution obtained is validated by means of time domain simulations. Finally, the model was integrated in a harmonic power flow where studies have been performed in a network with more than 700 busbars and 7 actual Arc Furnace Loads.

  4. Controlling the switching field in nanomagnets by means of domain-engineered antiferromagnets

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Folven, Eric; Linder, J.; Gomonay, O. V.; Scholl, Andreas; Doran, A.; Young, A. T.; Retterer, Scott T.; Malik, V. K.; Tybell, Thomas; Takamura, Yayoi; et al

    2015-09-14

    Using soft x-ray spectromicroscopy, we investigate the magnetic domain structure in embedded nanomagnets defined in La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 thin films and LaFeO3/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 bilayers. We find that shape-controlled antiferromagnetic domain states give rise to a significant reduction of the switching field of the rectangular nanomagnets. This is discussed within the framework of competition between an intrinsic spin-flop coupling and shape anisotropy. In conclusion, the data demonstrates that shape effects in antiferromagnets may be used to control the magnetic properties in nanomagnets.

  5. Electric field driven magnetic domain wall motion in ferromagnetic-ferroelectric heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van de Wiele, Ben; Laurson, Lasse; Franke, Kvin J. A.; Dijken, Sebastiaan van

    2014-01-06

    We investigate magnetic domain wall (MDW) dynamics induced by applied electric fields in ferromagnetic-ferroelectric thin-film heterostructures. In contrast to conventional driving mechanisms where MDW motion is induced directly by magnetic fields or electric currents, MDW motion arises here as a result of strong pinning of MDWs onto ferroelectric domain walls (FDWs) via local strain coupling. By performing extensive micromagnetic simulations, we find several dynamical regimes, including instabilities such as spin wave emission and complex transformations of the MDW structure. In all cases, the time-averaged MDW velocity equals that of the FDW, indicating the absence of Walker breakdown.

  6. Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya domain wall resonance in ferromagnetic nanowires with a spin-transfer torque

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zai-Dong; Liu, Fei; Li, Qiu-Yan; He, P. B.

    2015-05-07

    We theoretically investigate the current-induced domain wall resonance in ferromagnetic nanowires with a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. The adiabatic and nonadiabatic torques distort the wall's internal structure and exert a global pressure on the wall. An effective Newton's equation is obtained analytically for a domain wall moving in one-dimensional potential and subject to a viscous friction and a driving force. Our results demonstrate that the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction affects the critical current density for depinning the wall, resonance frequency, and amplitude.

  7. Gravitational waves from domain walls in the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadota, Kenji; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Saikawa, Ken’ichi

    2015-10-16

    The next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model predicts the formation of domain walls due to the spontaneous breaking of the discrete Z{sub 3}-symmetry at the electroweak phase transition, and they collapse before the epoch of big bang nucleosynthesis if there exists a small bias term in the potential which explicitly breaks the discrete symmetry. Signatures of gravitational waves produced from these unstable domain walls are estimated and their parameter dependence is investigated. It is shown that the amplitude of gravitational waves becomes generically large in the decoupling limit, and that their frequency is low enough to be probed in future pulsar timing observations.

  8. Soluble FGFR4 extracellular domain inhibits FGF19-induced activation of FGFR4 signaling and prevents nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Qiang; The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen ; Jiang, Yuan; An, Yuan; Zhao, Na; Zhao, Yang; Yu, Chundong

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} Soluble FGFR4 extracellular domain (FGFR4-ECD) was effectively expressed. {yields} FGFR4-ECD inhibited FGF19-induced activation of FGFR4 signaling. {yields} FGFR4-ECD reduced palmitic acid-induced steatosis of HepG2 cells. {yields} FGFR4-ECD reduced tetracycline-induced fatty liver in mice. {yields} FGFR4-ECD partially restored tetracycline-repressed PPAR{alpha} expression. -- Abstract: Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor that plays a crucial role in the regulation of hepatic bile acid and lipid metabolism. FGFR4 underlies high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis, suggesting that inhibition of FGFR4 activation may be an effective way to prevent or treat nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To determine whether neutralization of FGFR4 ligands by soluble FGFR4 extracellular domain (FGFR4-ECD) can inhibit the activation of FGFR4, we constructed FGFR4-ECD expression vector and showed that FGFR4-ECD was effectively expressed in cells and secreted into culture medium. FGFR4-ECD inhibited FGF19-induced activation of FGFR4 signaling and reduced steatosis of HepG2 induced by palmitic acid in vitro. Furthermore, in a tetracycline-induced fatty liver model, expression of FGFR4-ECD in mouse liver reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids and partially restored the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha}), which promotes the mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation but is repressed by tetracycline. Taken together, these results demonstrate that FGFR4-ECD can block FGFR4 signaling and prevent hepatic steatosis, highlighting the potential value of inhibition of FGFR4 signaling as a method for therapeutic intervention against NAFLD.

  9. Configuration of ripple domains and their topological defects formed under local mechanical stress on hexagonal monolayer graphene

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Park, Yeonggu; Choi, Jin Sik; Choi, Taekjib; Lee, Mi Jung; Jia, Quanxi; Park, Minwoo; Lee, Hoonkyung; Park, Bae Ho

    2015-03-24

    Ripples in graphene are extensively investigated because they ensure the mechanical stability of two-dimensional graphene and affect its electronic properties. They arise from spontaneous symmetry breaking and are usually manifested in the form of domains with long-range order. It is expected that topological defects accompany a material exhibiting long-range order, whose functionality depends on characteristics of domains and topological defects. However, there remains a lack of understanding regarding ripple domains and their topological defects formed on monolayer graphene. Here we explore configuration of ripple domains and their topological defects in exfoliated monolayer graphenes on SiO₂/Si substrates using transverse shear microscope.more » We observe three-color domains with three different ripple directions, which meet at a core. Furthermore, the closed domain is surrounded by an even number of cores connected together by domain boundaries, similar to topological vortex and anti-vortex pairs. In addition, we have found that axisymmetric three-color domains can be induced around nanoparticles underneath the graphene. This fascinating configuration of ripple domains may result from the intrinsic hexagonal symmetry of two-dimensional graphene, which is supported by theoretical simulation using molecular dynamics. Our findings are expected to play a key role in understanding of ripple physics in graphene and other two-dimensional materials.« less

  10. Configuration of ripple domains and their topological defects formed under local mechanical stress on hexagonal monolayer graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Yeonggu; Choi, Jin Sik; Choi, Taekjib; Lee, Mi Jung; Jia, Quanxi; Park, Minwoo; Lee, Hoonkyung; Park, Bae Ho

    2015-03-24

    Ripples in graphene are extensively investigated because they ensure the mechanical stability of two-dimensional graphene and affect its electronic properties. They arise from spontaneous symmetry breaking and are usually manifested in the form of domains with long-range order. It is expected that topological defects accompany a material exhibiting long-range order, whose functionality depends on characteristics of domains and topological defects. However, there remains a lack of understanding regarding ripple domains and their topological defects formed on monolayer graphene. Here we explore configuration of ripple domains and their topological defects in exfoliated monolayer graphenes on SiO₂/Si substrates using transverse shear microscope. We observe three-color domains with three different ripple directions, which meet at a core. Furthermore, the closed domain is surrounded by an even number of cores connected together by domain boundaries, similar to topological vortex and anti-vortex pairs. In addition, we have found that axisymmetric three-color domains can be induced around nanoparticles underneath the graphene. This fascinating configuration of ripple domains may result from the intrinsic hexagonal symmetry of two-dimensional graphene, which is supported by theoretical simulation using molecular dynamics. Our findings are expected to play a key role in understanding of ripple physics in graphene and other two-dimensional materials.

  11. Kits and methods of detection using cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, O.; Yosef, K.

    1998-04-14

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  12. Kits and methods of detection using cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoseyov, Oded

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  13. Crystal structure of a beta-finger domain of Prp8 reveals analogy to ribosomal proteins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, K.; Heroux, A.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, R.

    2008-09-16

    Prp8 stands out among hundreds of splicing factors as a key regulator of spliceosome activation and a potential cofactor of the splicing reaction. We present here the crystal structure of a 274-residue domain (residues 1,822-2,095) near the C terminus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Prp8. The most striking feature of this domain is a {beta}-hairpin finger protruding out of the protein (hence, this domain will be referred to as the {beta}-finger domain), resembling many globular ribosomal proteins with protruding extensions. Mutations throughout the {beta}-finger change the conformational equilibrium between the first and the second catalytic step. Mutations at the base of the {beta}-finger affect U4/U6 unwinding-mediated spliceosome activation. Prp8 may insert its {beta}-finger into the first-step complex (U2/U5/U6/pre-mRNA) or U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP and stabilize these complexes. Mutations on the {beta}-finger likely alter these interactions, leading to the observed mutant phenotypes. Our results suggest a possible mechanism of how Prp8 regulates spliceosome activation. These results also demonstrate an analogy between a spliceosomal protein and ribosomal proteins that insert extensions into folded rRNAs and stabilize the ribosome.

  14. Inhibition of discoidin domain receptor 2-mediated lung cancer cells progression by gold nanoparticle-aptamer-assisted delivery of peptides containing transmembrane-juxtamembrane 1/2 domain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Daehwan; Yeom, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Boeun; Lee, Kangseok; Bae, Jeehyeon; Rhee, Sangmyung

    2015-08-21

    The delivery of biologically functional peptides into mammalian cells can be a direct and effective method for cancer therapy and treatment of other diseases. Discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) is a collagen-induced receptor tyrosine kinase recently identified as a novel therapeutic target in lung cancer. In this study, we report that peptides containing the functional domain of DDR2 can be efficiently delivered into lung malignant cancer cells via a gold nanoparticle-DNA aptamer conjugate (AuNP-Apt)-based system. Peptide delivery resulted in the abrogation of DDR2 activation triggered by collagen. Moreover, the peptide delivered by the AuNP-Apt system inhibited cancer cell proliferation and invasion mediated by DDR2 activation. Thus, these results suggest that peptide loaded onto AuNP-Apt conjugates can be used for the development of peptide-based biomedical applications for the treatment of DDR2-positive cancer. - Highlights: • TM-JM1/2 peptides are efficiently delivered into cells by AuNP-Apt-conjugates. • TM-JM1/2 peptides loaded onto AuNP-Apt conjugates inhibit DDR2 activation. • Inhibition of DDR2 activation by TM-JM1/2 peptides decreases tumor progression.

  15. Magnetic domain structure and domain-wall energy in UFe{sub 8}Ni{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and UFe{sub 6}Ni{sub 4}Si{sub 2} intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyslocki, J.J.; Suski, W.; Wochowski, K.

    1994-03-01

    Magnetic domain structures in the UFe{sub 8}Ni{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and UFe{sub 6}Ni{sub 4}Si{sub 2} compounds were studied using the powder pattern method. The domain structure observed is typical for uniaxial materials. The domain-wall energy density {gamma} was determined from the average surface domain width D{sub s} observed on surfaces perpendicular to the easy axis as equal to 16 erg/cm{sup 2} for UFe{sub 8}Ni{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and 10 erg/cm{sup 2} for UFe{sub 6}Ni{sub 4}Si{sub 2}. Moreover, the critical diameter for single domain particle D{sub c} was calculated for the studied compounds.

  16. Defect-mediated transport and electronic irradiation effect in individual domains of CVD-grown monolayer MoS2

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Durand, Corentin; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Fowlkes, Jason; Najmaei, Sina; Lou, Jun; Li, An -Ping

    2015-01-16

    We study the electrical transport properties of atomically thin individual crystalline grains of MoS2 with four-probe scanning tunneling microscopy. The monolayer MoS2 domains are synthesized by chemical vapor deposition on SiO2/Si substrate. Temperature dependent measurements on conductance and mobility show that transport is dominated by an electron charge trapping and thermal release process with very low carrier density and mobility. The effects of electronic irradiation are examined by exposing the film to electron beam in the scanning electron microscope in an ultrahigh vacuum environment. The irradiation process is found to significantly affect the mobility and the carrier density of themore » material, with the conductance showing a peculiar time-dependent relaxation behavior. It is suggested that the presence of defects in active MoS2 layer and dielectric layer create charge trapping sites, and a multiple trapping and thermal release process dictates the transport and mobility characteristics. The electron beam irradiation promotes the formation of defects and impact the electrical properties of MoS2. Finally, our study reveals the important roles of defects and the electron beam irradiation effects in the electronic properties of atomic layers of MoS2.« less

  17. The Structure of the Poxvirus A33 Protein Reveals a Dimer of Unique C-Type Lectin-Like Domains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Hua-Poo; Singh, Kavita; Gittis, Apostolos G.; Garboczi, David N. (NIH)

    2010-11-03

    The current vaccine against smallpox is an infectious form of vaccinia virus that has significant side effects. Alternative vaccine approaches using recombinant viral proteins are being developed. A target of subunit vaccine strategies is the poxvirus protein A33, a conserved protein in the Chordopoxvirinae subfamily of Poxviridae that is expressed on the outer viral envelope. Here we have determined the structure of the A33 ectodomain of vaccinia virus. The structure revealed C-type lectin-like domains (CTLDs) that occur as dimers in A33 crystals with five different crystal lattices. Comparison of the A33 dimer models shows that the A33 monomers have a degree of flexibility in position within the dimer. Structural comparisons show that the A33 monomer is a close match to the Link module class of CTLDs but that the A33 dimer is most similar to the natural killer (NK)-cell receptor class of CTLDs. Structural data on Link modules and NK-cell receptor-ligand complexes suggest a surface of A33 that could interact with viral or host ligands. The dimer interface is well conserved in all known A33 sequences, indicating an important role for the A33 dimer. The structure indicates how previously described A33 mutations disrupt protein folding and locates the positions of N-linked glycosylations and the epitope of a protective antibody.

  18. Data encoding based on the shape of the ferroelectric domains produced by a scanning probe microscopy tip

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Kalinin, Sergei V

    2015-01-01

    Ferroelectric materials are broadly considered for information storage due to extremely high storage and information processing densities they enable. To date, ferroelectric based data storage has invariably relied on formation of cylindrical domains, allowing for binary information encoding. Here we demonstrate and explore the potential of high-density encoding based on domain morphology. We explore the domain morphogenesis during the tip-induced polarization switching by sequences of positive and negative pulses in a lithium niobate single-crystal and demonstrate the principal of information coding by shape and size of the domains. We applied cross-correlation and neural network approaches for recognition of the switchingmore » sequence by the shape of the resulting domains and establish optimal parameters for domain shape recognition. These studies both provide insight into the highly non-trivial mechanism of domain switching and potentially establish a new paradigm for multilevel information storage and content retrieval memories. Furthermore, this approach opens a pathway to exploration of domain switching mechanisms via shape analysis.« less

  19. Temperature dependence of carrier spin polarization determined from current-induced domain wall motion in a Co/Ni nanowire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueda, K.; Koyama, T.; Hiramatsu, R.; Kobayashi, K.; Ono, T.; Chiba, D.; Fukami, S.; Tanigawa, H.; Suzuki, T.; Ohshima, N.; Ishiwata, N.; Nakatani, Y.

    2012-05-14

    We have investigated the temperature dependence of the current-induced magnetic domain wall (DW) motion in a perpendicularly magnetized Co/Ni nanowire at various temperatures and with various applied currents. The carrier spin polarization was estimated from the measured domain wall velocity. We found that it decreased more with increasing temperature from 100 K to 530 K than the saturation magnetization did.

  20. Evidence for small-molecule-mediated loop stabilization in the structure of the isolated Pin1 WW domain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mortenson, David E.; Kreitler, Dale F.; Yun, Hyun Gi; Gellman, Samuel H., E-mail: gellman@chem.wisc.edu; Forest, Katrina T., E-mail: gellman@chem.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Two structures of a small protein with a defined tertiary fold, the isolated Pin1 WW domain, have been determined via racemic crystallization with small-molecule additives. These additives, which are either racemic or achiral, appear to stabilize a dynamic loop region of the structure. The human Pin1 WW domain is a small autonomously folding protein that has been useful as a model system for biophysical studies of ?-sheet folding. This domain has resisted previous attempts at crystallization for X-ray diffraction studies, perhaps because of intrinsic conformational flexibility that interferes with the formation of a crystal lattice. Here, the crystal structure of the human Pin1 WW domain has been obtained via racemic crystallization in the presence of small-molecule additives. Both enantiomers of a 36-residue variant of the Pin1 WW domain were synthesized chemically, and the l- and d-polypeptides were combined to afford diffracting crystals. The structural data revealed packing interactions of small carboxylic acids, either achiral citrate or a d,l mixture of malic acid, with a mobile loop region of the WW-domain fold. These interactions with solution additives may explain our success in crystallization of this protein racemate. Molecular-dynamics simulations starting from the structure of the Pin1 WW domain suggest that the crystal structure closely resembles the conformation of this domain in solution. The structural data presented here should provide a basis for further studies of this important model system.