National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for discharge hid mercury

  1. RAPID/Roadmap/18-HI-d | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Geothermal Hydropower Solar Tools Contribute Contact Us Variance from Pollution Control (18-HI-d) A variance is required to discharge water pollutant in excess of applicable...

  2. HID Laboratories Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Park, California Zip: 94025 Product: HID Laboratories develops commercial-grade, high intensity lighting products that manage lighting demand and reduce energy use. References:...

  3. Hanford Identification (HID) PIA, Richland Operations Office | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Energy Identification (HID) PIA, Richland Operations Office Hanford Identification (HID) PIA, Richland Operations Office Hanford Identification (HID) PIA, Richland Operations Office Hanford Identification (HID) PIA, Richland Operations Office (69.08 KB) More Documents & Publications Integrated Safety Management Workshop Registration, PIA, Idaho National Laboratory Occupational Medicine - Assistant PIA, Idaho National Laboratory Manchester Software 1099 Reporting PIA, Idaho National

  4. RAPID/Roadmap/14-HI-d | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About Bulk Transmission Geothermal Hydropower Solar Tools Contribute Contact Us 401 Water Quality Certification (14-HI-d) Under Section...

  5. RAPID/Roadmap/3-HI-d | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Geothermal Hydropower Solar Tools Contribute Contact Us Use and Occupancy Permit (3-HI-d) A developer needs a Use and Occupancy Permit from the Hawaii Department of...

  6. RAPID/Roadmap/6-HI-d | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Tools Contribute Contact Us Oversize andor Overweight Vehicles and Loads Permit (6-HI-d) 06HIDOversizeOverweightVehiclesAndLoadsPermit.pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page...

  7. Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scholand, Michael

    2012-04-01

    High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps are most often found in industrial and commercial applications, and are the light source of choice in street and area lighting, and sports stadium illumination. HID lamps are produced in three types - mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS) and metal halide (MH). Of these, MV and MH are considered white-light sources (although the MV exhibits poor color rendering) and HPS produces a yellow-orange color light. A fourth lamp, low-pressure sodium (LPS), is not a HID lamp by definition, but it is used in similar applications and thus is often grouped with HID lamps. With the notable exception of MV which is comparatively inefficient and in decline in the US from both a sales and installed stock point of view; HPS, LPS and MH all have efficacies over 100 lumens per watt. The figure below presents the efficacy trends over time for commercially available HID lamps and LPS, starting with MV and LPS in 1930's followed by the development of HPS and MH in the 1960's. In HID lamps, light is generated by creating an electric arc between two electrodes in an arc tube. The particles in the arc are partially ionized, making them electrically conductive, and a light-emitting 'plasma' is created. This arc occurs within the arc tube, which for most HID lamps is enclosed within an evacuated outer bulb that thermally isolates and protects the hot arc tube from the surroundings. Unlike a fluorescent lamp that produces visible light through down-converting UV light with phosphors, the arc itself is the light source in an HID lamp, emitting visible radiation that is characteristic of the elements present in the plasma. Thus, the mixture of elements included in the arc tube is one critical factor determining the quality of the light emitted from the lamp, including its correlated color temperature (CCT) and color rendering index (CRI). Similar to fluorescent lamps, HID lamps require a ballast to start and maintain stable operating conditions, and

  8. T-547: Microsoft Windows Human Interface Device (HID) Vulnerability

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Microsoft Windows does not properly warn the user before enabling additional Human Interface Device (HID) functionality over USB, which allows user-assisted attackers to execute arbitrary programs via crafted USB data, as demonstrated by keyboard and mouse data sent by malware on a Smartphone that the user connected to the computer.

  9. High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics High-Intensity Discharge Lighting Basics August 15, 2013 - 5:59pm Addthis Illustration of a high-intensity discharge (HID) lIllustration amp. The lamp is a tall cylindrical shape, and a cutout of the outer tube shows the materials inside. A long, thin cylinder called the arc tube runs through the lamp between two electrodes. The space around the arc tube is labeled as a vacuum. High-intensity discharge (HID) lighting can provide high efficacy and long

  10. EM Mercury Challenge

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... were discharged to the high level waste (HLW) tanks for storage and ultimate disposition. ... This mercury has been isolated within the LWS process vessels and HLW tanks, with minimal ...

  11. Catalytic Reactor For Oxidizing Mercury Vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Helfritch, Dennis J.

    1998-07-28

    A catalytic reactor (10) for oxidizing elemental mercury contained in flue gas is provided. The catalyst reactor (10) comprises within a flue gas conduit a perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) having a plurality of through openings (33) and a plurality of projecting corona discharge electrodes (31); a perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) having a plurality of through openings (43) axially aligned with the through openings (33) of the perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) displaced from and opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31); and a catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) overlaying that face of the perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31). A uniformly distributed corona discharge plasma (1000) is intermittently generated between the plurality of corona discharge electrode tips (31) and the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) when a stream of flue gas is passed through the conduit. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is not being generated, the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) adsorb mercury vapor contained in the passing flue gas. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is being generated, ions and active radicals contained in the generated corona discharge plasma (1000) desorb the mercury from the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d), oxidizing the mercury in virtually simultaneous manner. The desorption process regenerates and activates the catalyst member molecules.

  12. Apparatus for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.; Marcucci, Rudolph V.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for enriching the isotopic Hg content of mercury is provided. The apparatus includes a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill including mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. In a preferred embodiment, constant mercury pressure is maintained in the filter by means of a water-cooled tube that depends from it, the tube having a drop of mercury disposed in it. The reactor is arranged around the filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of a material which is transparent to ultraviolet light.

  13. Filter for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1989-01-01

    A filter for enriching the .sup.196 Hg content of mercury, including a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill of mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. The reactor is arranged around said filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of quartz, and are transparent to ultraviolet light. The .sup.196 Hg concentration in the mercury fill is less than that which is present in naturally occurring mercury, that is less than about 0.146 atomic weight percent. Hydrogen is also included in the fill and serves as a quenching gas in the filter, the hydrogen also serving to prevent disposition of a dark coating on the interior of the filter.

  14. Filter for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1989-06-13

    A filter is described for enriching the [sup 196]Hg content of mercury, including a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill of mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. The reactor is arranged around said filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of quartz, and are transparent to ultraviolet light. The [sup 196]Hg concentration in the mercury fill is less than that which is present in naturally occurring mercury, that is, less than about 0.146 atomic weight percent. Hydrogen is also included in the fill and serves as a quenching gas in the filter, the hydrogen also serving to prevent disposition of a dark coating on the interior of the filter. 9 figs.

  15. Mercury contamination extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fuhrmann, Mark; Heiser, John; Kalb, Paul

    2009-09-15

    Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

  16. Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... MH lamps, and more specifically, ceramic MH lamps are continuing to improve in efficacy as well as light quality, manufacturability and lamp life. Within an HID lamp, the ...

  17. High intensity discharge device containing oxytrihalides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lapatovich, Walter P.; Keeffe, William M.; Liebermann, Richard W.; Maya, Jakob

    1987-01-01

    A fill composition for a high intensity discharge device including mercury, niobium oxytrihalide, and a molecular stabilization agent is provided. The molar ratio of niobium oxytrihalide to the molecular stabilization agent in the fill is in the range of from about 5:1 to about 7.5:1. Niobium oxytrihalide is present in the fill in sufficient amount to produce, by dissociation in the discharge, atomic niobium, niobium oxide, NbO, and niobium dioxide, NbO.sub.2, with the molar ratio of niobium-containing vapor species to mercury in the fill being in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.50:1; and mercury pressure of about 1 to about 50 atmospheres at lamp operating temperature. There is also provided a high intensity discharge device comprising a sealed light-transmissive arc tube; the arc tube including the above-described fill; and an energizing means for producing an electric discharge within the arc tube.

  18. High intensity discharge device containing oxytrihalides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lapatovich, W.P.; Keeffe, W.M.; Liebermann, R.W.; Maya, J.

    1987-06-09

    A fill composition for a high intensity discharge device including mercury, niobium oxytrihalide, and a molecular stabilization agent is provided. The molar ratio of niobium oxytrihalide to the molecular stabilization agent in the fill is in the range of from about 5:1 to about 7.5:1. Niobium oxytrihalide is present in the fill in sufficient amount to produce, by dissociation in the discharge, atomic niobium, niobium oxide, NbO, and niobium dioxide, NbO[sub 2], with the molar ratio of niobium-containing vapor species to mercury in the fill being in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.50:1; and mercury pressure of about 1 to about 50 atmospheres at lamp operating temperature. There is also provided a high intensity discharge device comprising a sealed light-transmissive arc tube; the arc tube including the above-described fill; and an energizing means for producing an electric discharge within the arc tube. 7 figs.

  19. FINAL REPORT ON THE AQUATIC MERCURY ASSESSMENT STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halverson, N

    2008-09-30

    In February 2000, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 4 issued a proposed Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for total mercury in the middle and lower Savannah River. The initial TMDL, which would have imposed a 1 ng/l mercury limit for discharges to the middle/lower Savannah River, was revised to 2.8 ng/l in the final TMDL released in February 2001. The TMDL was intended to protect people from the consumption of contaminated fish, which is the major route of mercury exposure to humans. The most bioaccumulative form of mercury is methylmercury, which is produced in aquatic environments by the action of microorganisms on inorganic mercury. Because of the environmental and economic significance of the mercury discharge limits that would have been imposed by the TMDL, the Savannah River Site (SRS) initiated several studies concerning: (1) mercury in SRS discharges, SRS streams and the Savannah River, (2) mercury bioaccumulation factors for Savannah River fish, (3) the use of clams to monitor the influence of mercury from tributary streams on biota in the Savannah River, and (4) mercury in rainwater falling on the SRS. The results of these studies are presented in detail in this report. The first study documented the occurrence, distribution and variation of total and methylmercury at SRS industrial outfalls, principal SRS streams and the Savannah River where it forms the border with the SRS. All of the analyses were performed using the EPA Method 1630/31 ultra low-level and contaminant-free techniques for measuring total and methylmercury. Total mercury at National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) outfalls ranged from 0.31-604 ng/l with a mean of 8.71 ng/l. Mercury-contaminated groundwater was the source for outfalls with significantly elevated mercury concentrations. Total mercury in SRS streams ranged from 0.95-15.7 ng/l. Mean total mercury levels in the streams varied from 2.39 ng/l in Pen Branch to 5.26 ng/l in Tims Branch

  20. Process for low mercury coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, N.W.; Grimes, R.W.; Tweed, R.E.

    1995-04-04

    A process is described for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal. 4 figures.

  1. Process for low mercury coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, Norman W.; Grimes, R. William; Tweed, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

  2. EM Mercury Challenge

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Technology Plan to Address the EM Mercury Challenge FEBRUARY 2016 Table of Contents SUMMARY 1 1. BACKGROUND 2 1.1 OAK RIDGE RESERVATION'S MERCURY CHALLENGE 2 1.2 SAVANNAH RIVER SITE'S MERCURY CHALLENGE 3 2. APPROACH 4 3. OREM'S 2014 TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PLAN 5 4. RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AREAS FOR OAK RIDGE 6 4.1 MERCURY DETECTION AND MEASUREMENT 6 4.2 Y-12 SITE CLEANUP 7 4.3 EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK REMEDIATION 9 4.4 MODELING 10 5. RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AREAS FOR THE

  3. HISTORY OF MERCURY USE AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Scott C; Southworth, George R

    2011-01-01

    Between 1950 and 1963 approximately 11 million kilograms of mercury (Hg) were used at the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 NSC) for lithium isotope separation processes. About 3% of the Hg was lost to the air, soil and rock under facilities, and East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) which originates in the plant site. Smaller amounts of Hg were used at other Oak Ridge facilities with similar results. Although the primary Hg discharges from Y-12 NSC stopped in 1963, small amounts of Hg continue to be released into the creek from point sources and diffuse contaminated soil and groundwater sources within Y-12 NSC. Mercury concentration in EFPC has decreased 85% from not, vert, similar2000 ng/L in the 1980s. In general, methylmercury concentrations in water and in fish have not declined in response to improvements in water quality and exhibit trends of increasing concentration in some cases.Mercury discharges from an industrial plant have created a legacy contamination problem exhibiting complex and at times counter-intuitive patterns in Hg cycling.

  4. Mercury in the environment

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Idaho National Laboratory - Mike Abbott

    2016-07-12

    Abbott works for Idaho National Laboratory as an environmental scientist. Using state-of-thescienceequipment, he continuously samples the air, looking for mercury. In turn, he'll analyzethis long-term data and try to figure out the mercury's point of or

  5. Category:Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Mercury Vapor Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Mercury Vapor page? For detailed information on Mercury Vapor as...

  6. Mercury Metadata Toolset

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-09-08

    Mercury is a federated metadata harvesting, search and retrieval tool based on both open source software and software developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It was originally developed for NASA, and the Mercury development consortium now includes funding from NASA, USGS, and DOE. A major new version of Mercury (version 3.0) was developed during 2007 and released in early 2008. This Mercury 3.0 version provides orders of magnitude improvements in search speed, support for additionalmore » metadata formats, integration with Google Maps for spatial queries, facetted type search, support for RSS delivery of search results, and ready customization to meet the needs of the multiple projects which use Mercury. For the end users, Mercury provides a single portal to very quickly search for data and information contained in disparate data management systems. It collects metadata and key data from contributing project servers distributed around the world and builds a centralized index. The Mercury search interfaces then allow the users to perform simple, fielded, spatial, and temporal searches across these metadata sources. This centralized repository of metadata with distributed data sources provides extremely fast search results to the user, while allowing data providers to advertise the availability of their data and maintain complete control and ownership of that data.« less

  7. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  8. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1991-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  9. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1989-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  10. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1989-11-07

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H[sub 2]O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds. 3 figs.

  11. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1991-06-18

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H[sub 2]O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds. 3 figures.

  12. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durham, M.D.; Schlager, R.J.; Sappey, A.D.; Sagan, F.J.; Marmaro, R.W.; Wilson, K.G.

    1997-10-21

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber. 15 figs.

  13. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durham, Michael D.; Schlager, Richard J.; Sappey, Andrew D.; Sagan, Francis J.; Marmaro, Roger W.; Wilson, Kevin G.

    1997-01-01

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber.

  14. Sources of Mercury to East Fork Poplar Creek Downstream from the Y-12 National Security Complex: Inventories and Export Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southworth, George R; Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen; Peterson, Mark J; Lowe, Kenneth Alan; Ketelle, Richard H; Floyd, Stephanie B

    2010-02-01

    East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, has been heavily contaminated with mercury (also referred to as Hg) since the 1950s as a result of historical activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (formerly the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and hereinafter referred to as Y-12). During the period from 1950 to 1963, spills and leaks of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) contaminated soil, building foundations, and subsurface drainage pathways at the site, while intentional discharges of mercury-laden wastewater added 100 metric tons of mercury directly to the creek (Turner and Southworth 1999). The inventory of mercury estimated to be lost to soil and rock within the facility was 194 metric tons, with another estimated 70 metric tons deposited in floodplain soils along the 25 km length of EFPC (Turner and Southworth 1999). Remedial actions within the facility reduced mercury concentrations in EFPC water at the Y-12 boundary from > 2500 ng/L to about 600 ng/L by 1999 (Southworth et al. 2000). Further actions have reduced average total mercury concentration at that site to {approx}300 ng/L (2009 RER). Additional source control measures planned for future implementation within the facility include sediment/soil removal, storm drain relining, and restriction of rainfall infiltration within mercury-contaminated areas. Recent plans to demolish contaminated buildings within the former mercury-use areas provide an opportunity to reconstruct the storm drain system to prevent the entry of mercury-contaminated water into the flow of EFPC. Such actions have the potential to reduce mercury inputs from the industrial complex by perhaps as much as another 80%. The transformation and bioaccumulation of mercury in the EFPC ecosystem has been a perplexing subject since intensive investigation of the issue began in the mid 1980s. Although EFPC was highly contaminated with mercury (waterborne mercury exceeded background levels by 1000-fold, mercury in

  15. Follow that mercury!

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linero, A.A.

    2008-07-01

    The article discusses one technology option for avoiding release of mercury captured by power plant pollution control equipment in order to render it usable in concrete. This is the use of selective catalytic reduction for NOx control and lime spray dryer absorbers (SDA) for SO{sub 2} control prior to particulate collection by fabric filters. In this scenario all mercury removed is trapped in the fabric filter baghouse. The US EPA did not establish mercury emission limits for existing cement plants in the latest regulation 40 CFR 63, Subpart LLL (December 2006) and was sued by the Portland Cement Association because of the Hg limits established for new kilns and by several states and environmental groups for the lack of limits on existing ones. A full version of this article is available on www.acaa-usa.org/AshatWork.htm. 2 figs.

  16. Water displacement mercury pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielsen, Marshall G.

    1985-01-01

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  17. Water displacement mercury pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1984-04-20

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  18. Method and apparatus for sampling atmospheric mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trujillo, Patricio E.; Campbell, Evan E.; Eutsler, Bernard C.

    1976-01-20

    A method of simultaneously sampling particulate mercury, organic mercurial vapors, and metallic mercury vapor in the working and occupational environment and determining the amount of mercury derived from each such source in the sampled air. A known volume of air is passed through a sampling tube containing a filter for particulate mercury collection, a first adsorber for the selective adsorption of organic mercurial vapors, and a second adsorber for the adsorption of metallic mercury vapor. Carbon black molecular sieves are particularly useful as the selective adsorber for organic mercurial vapors. The amount of mercury adsorbed or collected in each section of the sampling tube is readily quantitatively determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  19. Mercury Information Clearinghouse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chad A. Wocken; Michael J. Holmes; Dennis L. Laudal; Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett; Greg F. Weber; Nicholas V. C. Ralston; Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Edwin S. Olson; Laura J. Raymond; John H. Pavlish; Everett A. Sondreal; Steven A. Benson

    2006-03-31

    The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) identified a need and contracted the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to create and maintain an information clearinghouse on global research and development activities related to mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. With the support of CEA, the Center for Air Toxic Metals{reg_sign} (CATM{reg_sign}) Affiliates, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the EERC developed comprehensive quarterly information updates that provide a detailed assessment of developments in the various areas of mercury monitoring, control, policy, and research. A total of eight topical reports were completed and are summarized and updated in this final CEA quarterly report. The original quarterly reports can be viewed at the CEA Web site (www.ceamercuryprogram.ca). In addition to a comprehensive update of previous mercury-related topics, a review of results from the CEA Mercury Program is provided. Members of Canada's coal-fired electricity generation sector (ATCO Power, EPCOR, Manitoba Hydro, New Brunswick Power, Nova Scotia Power Inc., Ontario Power Generation, SaskPower, and TransAlta) and CEA, have compiled an extensive database of information from stack-, coal-, and ash-sampling activities. Data from this effort are also available at the CEA Web site and have provided critical information for establishing and reviewing a mercury standard for Canada that is protective of environment and public health and is cost-effective. Specific goals outlined for the CEA mercury program included the following: (1) Improve emission inventories and develop management options through an intensive 2-year coal-, ash-, and stack-sampling program; (2) Promote effective stack testing through the development of guidance material and the support of on-site training on the Ontario Hydro method for employees, government representatives, and contractors on an as-needed basis; (3) Strengthen laboratory analytical capabilities through

  20. Mercury control in 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sjostrom, S.; Durham, M.; Bustard, J.; Martin, C.

    2009-07-15

    Although activated carbon injection (ACI) has been proven to be effective for many configurations and is a preferred option at many plants sufficient quantities of powdered activated coking (PAC) must be available to meet future needs. The authors estimate that upcoming federal and state regulations will result in tripling the annual US demand for activated carbon to nearly 1.5 billion lb from approximately 450 million lb. Rapid expansion of US production capacity is required. Many PAC manufacturers are discussing expansion of their existing production capabilities. One company, ADA Carbon Solutions, is in the process of constructing the largest activated carbon facility in North America to meet the future demand for PAC as a sorbent for mercury control. Emission control technology development and commercialization is driven by regulation and legislation. Although ACI will not achieve > 90% mercury control at every plant, the expected required MACT legislation level, it offers promise as a low-cost primary mercury control technology option for many configurations and an important trim technology for others. ACI has emerged as the clear mercury-specific control option of choice, representing over 98% of the commercial mercury control system orders to date. As state regulations are implemented and the potential for a federal rule becomes more imminent, suppliers are continuing to develop technologies to improve the cost effectiveness and limit the balance of plant impacts associated with ACI and are developing additional PAC production capabilities to ensure that the industry's needs are met. The commercialisation of ACI is a clear example of industry, through the dedication of many individuals and companies with support from the DOE and EPRI, meeting the challenge of developing cost-effectively reducing emissions from coal-fired power plants. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1987-02-27

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and thence quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal. 1 fig.

  2. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1989-01-01

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

  3. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1989-12-05

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

  4. Mercury Strategic Plan Outfall 200 Mercury Treatment Facility

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Plan for Mercury Remediation at Y-12 Laura Wilkerson Portfolio Federal Project Director ...sediment studies * Technology Development Plan * Debris treatability study * Fate and ...

  5. Mercury Treatment Facility overview | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Mercury Treatment Facility overview Mercury Treatment Facility overview This fact sheet provides a brief overview for the need and capabilities of the Mercury Treatment Facility at Y-12. The project will provide a mechanism to control and limit mercury migration resulting from future large-scale demolition of the site's mercury contaminated facilities. Mercury Treatment Facility overview (796.41 KB) More Documents & Publications Upper East Fork Poplar Creek OREM overview Technology Plan to

  6. Mercury Vapor (Kooten, 1987) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    DOE-funding Unknown Notes Surface soil-mercury surveys are an inexpensive and useful exploration tool for geothermal resources. ---- Surface geochemical surveys for mercury...

  7. Geothermal Exploration Using Surface Mercury Geochemistry | Open...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Surface Mercury Geochemistry Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Geothermal Exploration Using Surface Mercury Geochemistry Abstract...

  8. Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    hydrothermal system. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Introduction Mercury is a natural byproduct of mantle or deep-crustal derived fluids, high concentrations can be...

  9. Apparatus for mercury refinement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-07-16

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the [sup 196]Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures.

  10. Method for mercury refinement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; Speer, Richard; George, William A.

    1991-01-01

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the .sup.196 Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering.

  11. Apparatus for mercury refinement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; Speer, Richard; George, William A.

    1991-01-01

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the .sup.196 Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering.

  12. Method for mercury refinement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-04-09

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the [sup 196]Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures.

  13. Method for scavenging mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-ger; Liu, Shou-heng; Liu, Zhao-rong; Yan, Naiqiang

    2009-01-20

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  14. Method for scavenging mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Liu, Shou-Heng; Liu, Zhao-Rong; Yan, Naiqiang

    2011-08-30

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  15. Method for scavenging mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-ger; Liu, Shou-heng; Liu, Zhao-rong; Yan, Naiqiang

    2010-07-13

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  16. Mercury removal sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2016-03-29

    Sorbents and methods of using them for removing mercury from flue gases over a wide range of temperatures are disclosed. Sorbent materials of this invention comprise oxy- or hydroxyl-halogen (chlorides and bromides) of manganese, copper and calcium as the active phase for Hg.sup.0 oxidation, and are dispersed on a high surface porous supports. In addition to the powder activated carbons (PACs), this support material can be comprised of commercial ceramic supports such as silica (SiO.sub.2), alumina (Al.sub.2O.sub.3), zeolites and clays. The support material may also comprise of oxides of various metals such as iron, manganese, and calcium. The non-carbon sorbents of the invention can be easily injected into the flue gas and recovered in the Particulate Control Device (PCD) along with the fly ash without altering the properties of the by-product fly ash enabling its use as a cement additive. Sorbent materials of this invention effectively remove both elemental and oxidized forms of mercury from flue gases and can be used at elevated temperatures. The sorbent combines an oxidation catalyst and a sorbent in the same particle to both oxidize the mercury and then immobilize it.

  17. Nonsputtering impulse magnetron discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khodachenko, G. V.; Mozgrin, D. V.; Fetisov, I. K.; Stepanova, T. V.

    2012-01-15

    Experiments with quasi-steady high-current discharges in crossed E Multiplication-Sign B fields in various gases (Ar, N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and SF{sub 6}) and gas mixtures (Ar/SF{sub 6} and Ar/O{sub 2}) at pressures from 10{sup -3} to 5 Torr in discharge systems with different configurations of electric and magnetic fields revealed a specific type of stable low-voltage discharge that does not transform into an arc. This type of discharge came to be known as a high-current diffuse discharge and, later, a nonsputtering impulse magnetron discharge. This paper presents results from experimental studies of the plasma parameters (the electron temperature, the plasma density, and the temperature of ions and atoms of the plasma-forming gas) of a high-current low-pressure diffuse discharge in crossed E Multiplication-Sign B fields.

  18. The Clean Air Mercury Rule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Rossler

    2005-07-01

    Coming into force on July 15, 2005, the US Clean Air Mercury Rule will use a market-based cap-and-trade approach under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act to reduce mercury emissions from the electric power sector. This article provides a comprehensive summary of the new rule. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Methods for dispensing mercury into devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1987-04-28

    A process for dispensing mercury into devices which requires mercury. Mercury is first electrolytically separated from either HgO or Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 and plated onto a cathode wire. The cathode wire is then placed into a device requiring mercury.

  20. Methods for dispensing mercury into devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1987-04-28

    A process is described for dispensing mercury into devices which requires mercury. Mercury is first electrolytically separated from either HgO or Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] and plated onto a cathode wire. The cathode wire is then placed into a device requiring mercury. 2 figs.

  1. Fluorescent sensor for mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zidong; Lee, Jung Heon; Lu, Yi

    2011-11-22

    The present invention provides a sensor for detecting mercury, comprising: a first polynucleotide, comprising a first region, and a second region, a second polynucleotide, a third polynucleotide, a fluorophore, and a quencher, wherein the third polynucleotide is optionally linked to the second region; the fluorophore is linked to the first polynucleotide and the quencher is linked to the second polynucleotide, or the fluorophore is linked to the second polynucleotide and the quencher is linked to the first polynucleotide; the first region and the second region hybridize to the second polynucleotide; and the second region binds to the third polynucleotide in the presence of Hg.sup.2+ ions.

  2. Method for removal and stabilization of mercury in mercury-containing gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Broderick, Thomas E.

    2005-09-13

    The present invention is directed to a process and apparatus for removing and stabilizing mercury from mercury-containing gas streams. A gas stream containing vapor phase elemental and/or speciated mercury is contacted with reagent, such as an oxygen-containing oxidant, in a liquid environment to form a mercury-containing precipitate. The mercury-containing precipitate is kept or placed in solution and reacts with one or more additional reagents to form a solid, stable mercury-containing compound.

  3. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, B.E.; Miller, J.L.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-08-23

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window. 2 figs.

  4. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Bruce E.; Miller, John L.; Ault, Earl R.

    1994-01-01

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window.

  5. Co-axial discharges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luce, J. S.; Smith, L. P.

    1960-11-22

    An apparatus is described for producing coaxial arc discharges in an evacuated enclosure and within a strong, confining magnetic field. The arcs are maintained at a high potential difference. Electrons diffuse to the more positive arc from the negative arc, and positive ions diffuse from the more positive arc to the negative arc. Coaxial arc discharges have the advantuge that ions that return to strike the positive arc discharge will lose no energy since they do not strike a solid wall or electrode. These discharges are useful in confining an ionized plasma between the discharges and have the advantage of preventing impurities from the walls of the enclosure from entering the plasma area because of the arc barrier set up by the cylindrical outer arc. (auth)

  6. HOLLOW CARBON ARC DISCHARGE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-10-11

    A device is described for producing an energetic, direct current, hollow, carbon-arc discharge in an evacuated container and within a strong magnetic field. Such discharges are particularly useful not only in dissociation and ionization of high energy molecular ion beams, but also in acting as a shield or barrier against the instreaming of lowenergy neutral particles into a plasma formed within the hollow discharge when it is used as a dissociating mechanism for forming the plasma. There is maintained a predetermined ratio of gas particles to carbon particles released from the arc electrodes during operation of the discharge. The carbon particles absorb some of the gas particles and are pumped along and by the discharge out of the device, with the result that smaller diffusion pumps are required than would otherwise be necessary to dispose of the excess gas.

  7. CO-AXIAL DISCHARGES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luce, J.S.; Smith, L.P.

    1960-11-22

    A method and apparatus are given for producing coaxial arc discharges in an evacuated enclosure and within a strong, confining magnetic field. The arcs are maintained at a high potential difference. Electrons will diffuse to the more positive arc from the negative arc, and positive ions will diffuse from the more positive arc to the negative arc. Coaxial arc discharges have the advantage that ions which return to strike the positive arc discharge will lose no energy since they do not strike a solid wall or electrode. Those discharges are useful in confining an ionized plasma between the discharges, and have the advantage of preventing impurities from the walls of the enclosure from entering ihe plasma area because of the arc barrier set up bv the cylindrical outer arc.

  8. Achieving very low mercury levels in refinery wastewater by membrane filtration.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urgun Demirtas, M.; Benda, P.; Gillenwater, P. S.; Negri, M. C.; Xiong, H.; Snyder, S. W.

    2012-05-15

    Microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were evaluated for their ability to achieve the world's most stringent Hg discharge criterion (<1.3 ng/L) in an oil refinery's wastewater. The membrane processes were operated at three different pressures to demonstrate the potential for each membrane technology to achieve the targeted effluent mercury concentrations. The presence of mercury in the particulate form in the refinery wastewater makes the use of MF and UF membrane technologies more attractive in achieving very low mercury levels in the treated wastewater. Both NF and RO were also able to meet the target mercury concentration at lower operating pressures (20.7 bar). However, higher operating pressures ({ge}34.5 bar) had a significant effect on NF and RO flux and fouling rates, as well as on permeate quality. SEM images of the membranes showed that pore blockage and narrowing were the dominant fouling mechanisms for the MF membrane while surface coverage was the dominant fouling mechanism for the other membranes. The correlation between mercury concentration and particle size distribution was also investigated to understand mercury removal mechanisms by membrane filtration. The mean particle diameter decreased with filtration from 1.1 {+-} 0.0 {micro}m to 0.74 {+-} 0.2 {micro}m after UF.

  9. Localized surface plasmon resonance mercury detection system and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, Jay; Lucas, Donald; Crosby, Jeffrey Scott; Koshland, Catherine P.

    2016-03-22

    A mercury detection system that includes a flow cell having a mercury sensor, a light source and a light detector is provided. The mercury sensor includes a transparent substrate and a submonolayer of mercury absorbing nanoparticles, e.g., gold nanoparticles, on a surface of the substrate. Methods of determining whether mercury is present in a sample using the mercury sensors are also provided. The subject mercury detection systems and methods find use in a variety of different applications, including mercury detecting applications.

  10. Glow discharge detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koo, Jackson C.; Yu, Conrad M.

    2002-01-01

    A highly sensitive electronic ion cell for the measurement of trace elements in He carrier gas which involves glow discharge. A constant wave (CW) glow discharge detector which is controlled through a biased resistor, can detect the change of electron density caused by impurities in the He carrier gas by many orders of magnitude larger than that caused by direct ionization or electron capture. The glow discharge detector utilizes a floating pseudo-electrode to form a probe in or near the plasma. By using this probe, the large variation of electron density due to trace amounts of impurities can be directly measured.

  11. Effects of discharge voltage waveform on the discharge characteristics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    atmospheric plasma jet Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effects of discharge voltage waveform on the discharge characteristics in a helium atmospheric plasma jet We ...

  12. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2005-06-01

    Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems. Our current strategy is to engineer plants to

  13. Discharge diagnostics in GIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutgers, W.R.; Poorts, C.J.H.M.; Verhaart, H.F.A.

    1995-12-31

    Partial discharges in gas insulated substations (GIS) are a pre-stage for electrical breakdown. Several diagnostic techniques have been developed to detect p.d. Optical, acoustical, and electrical detection techniques and chemical analyses of their effects on gas composition have been demonstrated in laboratory experiments and in-situ. The diagnostic techniques can be used to monitor the presence of p.d., to locate the position of the discharge, to classify the type of discharge and, in case of corona, to find the various stages towards breakdown. Calibration of the various techniques is not always easy. Judgement of the risk of the different types of partial discharges to trigger a complete voltage breakdown needs further investigations. In this paper we report on our experiences with the different detection techniques and calibration procedures.

  14. Mercury switch with non-wettable electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karnowsky, Maurice M.; Yost, Frederick G.

    1987-01-01

    A mercury switch device comprising a pool of mercury and a plurality of electrical contacts made of or coated with a non-wettable material such as titanium diboride.

  15. Method for the removal and recovery of mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Easterly, C.E.; Vass, A.A.; Tyndall, R.L.

    1997-01-28

    The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

  16. Method for the removal and recovery of mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Easterly, Clay E.; Vass, Arpad A.; Tyndall, Richard L.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

  17. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2004-12-01

    Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems.

  18. Mercury Continuous Emmission Monitor Calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster; Joseph Rovani

    2009-03-12

    Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMs) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks throughput the U.S. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor calibrators/generators. These devices are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 and vacated by a Federal appeals court in early 2008 required that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Despite the vacature, mercury emissions regulations in the future will require NIST traceable calibration standards, and EPA does not want to interrupt the effort towards developing NIST traceability protocols. The traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued a conceptual interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The EPA traceability protocol document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of calibrator models by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the calibrators that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma

  19. Coping with uncertainties of mercury regulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reich, K.

    2006-09-15

    The thermometer is rising as coal-fired plants cope with the uncertainties of mercury regulation. The paper deals with a diagnosis and a suggested cure. It describes the state of mercury emission rules in the different US states, many of which had laws or rules in place before the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) was promulgated.

  20. Stable glow discharge detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koo, Jackson C.; Yu, Conrad M.

    2004-05-18

    A highly sensitive electronic ion cell for the measurement of trace elements in He carrier gas which involves glow discharge. A constant wave (CW) stable glow discharge detector which is controlled through a biased resistor, can detect the change of electron density caused by impurities in the He carrier gas by many orders of magnitude larger than that caused by direct ionization or electron capture. The stable glow discharge detector utilizes a floating pseudo-electrode to form a probe in or near the plasma and a solid rod electrode. By using this probe, the large variation of electron density due to trace amounts of impurities can be directly measured. The solid rod electrode provides greater stability and thus easier alignment.

  1. Apparatus for control of mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing mercury in industrial gases such as the flue gas produced by the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal adds hydrogen sulfide to the flue gas in or just before a scrubber of the industrial process which contains the wet scrubber. The method and apparatus of the present invention is applicable to installations employing either wet or dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization systems. The present invention uses kraft green liquor as a source for hydrogen sulfide and/or the injection of mineral acids into the green liquor to release vaporous hydrogen sulfide in order to form mercury sulfide solids.

  2. Longitudinal discharge laser baffles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Bruce E.; Ault, Earl R.

    1994-01-01

    The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam.

  3. Longitudinal discharge laser baffles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, B.E.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-06-07

    The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam. 1 fig.

  4. Chemical Form Matters: Differential Accumulation of Mercury Following Inorganic and Organic Mercury Exposures in Zebrafish Larvae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korbas, Malgorzata; MacDonald, Tracy C.; Pickering, Ingrid J.; George, Graham N.; Krone, Patrick H.

    2013-04-08

    Mercury, one of the most toxic elements, exists in various chemical forms each with different toxicities and health implications. Some methylated mercury forms, one of which exists in fish and other seafood products, pose a potential threat, especially during embryonic and early postnatal development. Despite global concerns, little is known about the mechanisms underlying transport and toxicity of different mercury species. To investigate the impact of different mercury chemical forms on vertebrate development, we have successfully combined the zebrafish, a well-established developmental biology model system, with synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence imaging. Our work revealed substantial differences in tissue-specific accumulation patterns of mercury in zebrafish larvae exposed to four different mercury formulations in water. Methylmercury species not only resulted in overall higher mercury burdens but also targeted different cells and tissues than their inorganic counterparts, thus revealing a significant role of speciation in cellular and molecular targeting and mercury sequestration. For methylmercury species, the highest mercury concentrations were in the eye lens epithelial cells, independent of the formulation ligand (chloride versus L-cysteine). For inorganic mercury species, in absence of L-cysteine, the olfactory epithelium and kidney accumulated the greatest amounts of mercury. However, with L-cysteine present in the treatment solution, mercuric bis-L-cysteineate species dominated the treatment, significantly decreasing uptake. Our results clearly demonstrate that the common differentiation between organic and inorganic mercury is not sufficient to determine the toxicity of various mercury species.

  5. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  6. Mercury exposure from interior latex paint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agocs, M.M.; Etzel, R.A.; Parrish, R.G.; Paschal, D.C.; Campagna, P.R.; Cohen, D.S.; Kilbourne, E.M.; Hesse, J.L. )

    1990-10-18

    Many paint companies have used phenylmercuric acetate as a preservative to prolong the shelf life of interior latex paint. In August 1989, acrodynia, a form of mercury poisoning, occurred in a child exposed to paint fumes in a home recently painted with a brand containing 4.7 mmol of mercury per liter (at that time the Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit was 1.5 mmol or less per liter). To determine whether the recent use of that brand of paint containing phenylmercuric acetate was associated with elevated indoor-air and urinary mercury concentrations, we studied 74 exposed persons living in 19 homes recently painted with the brand and 28 unexposed persons living in 10 homes not recently painted with paint containing mercury. The paint samples from the homes of exposed persons contained a median of 3.8 mmol of mercury per liter, and air samples from the homes had a median mercury content of 10.0 nmol per cubic meter (range, less than 0.5 to 49.9). No mercury was detected in paint or air samples from the homes of unexposed persons. The median urinary mercury concentration was higher in the exposed persons (4.7 nmol of mercury per millimole of creatinine; range, 1.4 to 66.5) than in the unexposed persons (1.1 nmol per millimole; range, 0.02 to 3.9; P less than 0.001). Urinary mercury concentrations within the range that we found in exposed persons have been associated with symptomatic mercury poisoning. We found that potentially hazardous exposure to mercury had occurred among persons whose homes were painted with a brand of paint containing mercury at concentrations approximately 2 1/2 times the Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit.

  7. Hanford Identification (HID) PIA, Richland Operations Office...

    Energy Savers

    Safety Management Workshop Registration, PIA, Idaho National Laboratory Occupational Medicine - Assistant PIA, Idaho National Laboratory Manchester Software 1099 Reporting PIA,...

  8. Powerful glow discharge excilamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarasenko, Victor F.; Panchenko, Aleksey N.; Skakun, Victor S.; Sosnin, Edward A.; Wang, Francis T.; Myers, Booth R.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A powerful glow discharge lamp comprising two coaxial tubes, the outer tube being optically transparent, with a cathode and anode placed at opposite ends of the tubes, the space between the tubes being filled with working gas. The electrodes are made as cylindrical tumblers placed in line to one other in such a way that one end of the cathode is inserted into the inner tube, one end of the anode coaxially covers the end of the outer tube, the inner tube penetrating and extending through the anode. The increased electrodes' surface area increases glow discharge electron current and, correspondingly, average radiation power of discharge plasma. The inner tube contains at least one cooling liquid tube placed along the axis of the inner tube along the entire lamp length to provide cathode cooling. The anode has a circumferential heat extracting radiator which removes heat from the anode. The invention is related to lighting engineering and can be applied for realization of photostimulated processes under the action of powerful radiation in required spectral range.

  9. Improved Ex-Situ Mercury Remediation - Energy Innovation Portal

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search Improved Ex-Situ Mercury Remediation Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary The present invention provides a process for the treatment of mercury containing waste in a single reaction vessel. The process is effective in treating various types of mercury contaminated waste; such as elemental mercury or mercury compounds, mercury contaminated bulk material, or

  10. In-Situ Mercury Remediation - Energy Innovation Portal

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    In-Situ Mercury Remediation Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary In Situ Mercury Stabilization (ISMS) is a method that can remove toxic mercury from soil, sediment, sludge, and other industrial waste. Description ISMS includes a device and method for remediation of mercury contamination in which mercury is first concentrated by inserting rods of sulfur reagent into the waste. Mercury is drawn to specially designed treatment rods, which

  11. Microsoft Word - Groundwater Discharge Permit

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    State Renews Groundwater Discharge Permit for WIPP CARLSBAD, N.M., September 11, 2008 - The New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) has renewed the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) groundwater discharge permit until 2013. The permit regulates the discharge of water from WIPP facilities and operations to lined ponds, which protect groundwater resources. The permit allows WIPP to discharge domestic wastewater, non-hazardous wastewater and storm water into 13

  12. Historical Liquid Discharges and Outfalls

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Historical Liquid Discharges and Outfalls Historical Liquid Discharges and Outfalls During the 1940s and 1950s, untreated radioactive liquids were discharged to Pueblo and Los Alamos Canyons. August 1, 2013 Contamination from the Acid Canyon outfall has been clean up to below residential levels Contamination from the Acid Canyon outfall has been clean up to below residential levels During the 1940s and 1950s, untreated radioactive liquids were discharged to Pueblo and Los Alamos Canyons.

  13. Milestone Project Demonstrates Innovative Mercury Emissions Reduction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Technology | Department of Energy Milestone Project Demonstrates Innovative Mercury Emissions Reduction Technology Milestone Project Demonstrates Innovative Mercury Emissions Reduction Technology January 12, 2010 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - An innovative technology that could potentially help some coal-based power generation facilities comply with anticipated new mercury emissions standards was successfully demonstrated in a recently concluded milestone project at a Michigan power

  14. Process for removing mercury from aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Makarewicz, M.A.; Meredith, P.F.

    1985-03-04

    A process for removing mercury from water to a level not greater than two parts per billion wherein an anion exchange material that is insoluble in water is contacted first with a sulfide containing compound and second with a compound containing a bivalent metal ion forming an insoluble metal sulfide. To this treated exchange material is contacted water containing mercury. The water containing not more than two parts per billion of mercury is separated from the exchange material.

  15. Process for removing mercury from aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Googin, John M.; Napier, John M.; Makarewicz, Mark A.; Meredith, Paul F.

    1986-01-01

    A process for removing mercury from water to a level not greater than two parts per billion wherein an anion exchange material that is insoluble in water is contacted first with a sulfide containing compound and second with a compound containing a bivalent metal ion forming an insoluble metal sulfide. To this treated exchange material is contacted water containing mercury. The water containing not more than two parts per billion of mercury is separated from the exchange material.

  16. Microsoft PowerPoint - DOELM_Mercury_Storage.ppt

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Mercury Storage Concept Pre-Environmental Impact Statement Grand Junction, Colorado, Scoping Meeting Information 2 Mercury Export Ban Act Passed into law in October 2008 Purpose is ...

  17. Evaluation of the Mercury Soil Mapping Geothermal Exploration...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    the Mercury Soil Mapping Geothermal Exploration Techniques Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Evaluation of the Mercury Soil...

  18. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury (Patent) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury A promoted activated carbon ... the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance andor mercury capture. ...

  19. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Fossil Energy Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; Flue Gas; Flue Gas; Mercury; Mercury; ...

  20. CARBON BED MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FOR MIXED WASTE TREATMENT...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: CARBON BED MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FOR MIXED WASTE TREATMENT Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CARBON BED MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FOR MIXED WASTE ...

  1. Mercury Emission Measurement at a CFB Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Lucinda Hamre

    2009-02-28

    In response to pending regulation to control mercury emissions in the United States and Canada, several projects have been conducted to perform accurate mass balances at pulverized coal (pc)-fired utilities. Part of the mercury mass balance always includes total gaseous mercury as well as a determination of the speciation of the mercury emissions and a concentration bound to the particulate matter. This information then becomes useful in applying mercury control strategies, since the elemental mercury has traditionally been difficult to control by most technologies. In this instance, oxidation technologies have proven most beneficial for increased capture. Despite many years of mercury measurement and control projects at pc-fired units, far less work has been done on circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) units, which are able to combust a variety of feedstocks, including cofiring coal with biomass. Indeed, these units have proven to be more problematic because it is very difficult to obtain a reliable mercury mass balance. These units tend to have very different temperature profiles than pc-fired utility boilers. The flexibility of CFB units also tends to be an issue when a mercury balance is determined, since the mercury inputs to the system come from the bed material and a variety of fuels, which can have quite variable chemistry, especially for mercury. In addition, as an integral part of the CFB operation, the system employs a feedback loop to circulate the bed material through the combustor and the solids collection system (the primary cyclone), thereby subjecting particulate-bound metals to higher temperatures again. Despite these issues, CFB boilers generally emit very little mercury and show good native capture. The Energy & Environmental Research Center is carrying out this project for Metso Power in order to characterize the fate of mercury across the unit at Rosebud Plant, an industrial user of CFB technology from Metso. Appropriate solids were collected, and

  2. ccpi_mercury | netl.doe.gov

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Mercury Specie and Multi-Pollutant Control Project - Project Brief PDF-131KB NeuCo, Inc., Boston, MA (acquired original participant, Pegasus Technologies) PROJECT FACT SHEET...

  3. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  4. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  5. Identification of elemental mercury in the subsurface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Dennis G

    2015-01-06

    An apparatus and process is provided for detecting elemental mercury in soil. A sacrificial electrode of aluminum is inserted below ground to a desired location using direct-push/cone-penetrometer based equipment. The insertion process removes any oxides or previously found mercury from the electrode surface. Any mercury present adjacent the electrode can be detected using a voltmeter which indicates the presence or absence of mercury. Upon repositioning the electrode within the soil, a fresh surface of the aluminum electrode is created allowing additional new measurements.

  6. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, Evan J.; Hargis, Richard A.; Pennline, Henry W.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the various promoters and sorbents examined for the removal of mercury from flue gas is presented. Commercial sorbent processes are described along with the chemistry of the various sorbent-mercury interactions. Novel sorbents for removing mercury from flue gas are suggested. Since activated carbons are expensive, alternate sorbents and/or improved activated carbons are needed. Because of their lower cost, sorbent development work can focus on base metal oxides and halides. Additionally, the long-term sequestration of the mercury on the sorbent needs to be addressed. Contacting methods between the flue gas and the sorbent also merit investigation.

  7. Environmental Remediation program completes legacy mercury cleanup...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Stories Legacy slope-side cleanup Environmental Remediation program completes legacy mercury cleanup near Smith's Marketplace Los Alamos National Laboratory performed a ...

  8. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2005-06-01

    Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems. Our current strategy is to engineer plants to

  9. Laser activated diffuse discharge switch (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Laser activated diffuse discharge switch Title: Laser activated diffuse discharge switch The invention is a gas mixture for a diffuse discharge switch which is capable of changing ...

  10. Continuous pile discharging machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Phillips P.

    1976-05-11

    A device for discharging cartridges from tubes under fluid pressure includes a cylindrical housing adapted to be seated in a leak-tight manner on the end of one of the tubes, a chute depending from the cylindrical housing near the end seated on the end of the tube, a rotatable piston having a wrench on the forward end thereof disposed in the cylindrical housing and adapted to manipulate a plug in the end of the tube, and a telescopic hydraulic ram adapted to move the piston toward the plug. In addition the wrench contains a magnet which prevents inadvertent uncoupling of the wrench and the plug.

  11. Fly ash properties and mercury sorbent affect mercury release from curing concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danold W. Golightly; Chin-Min Cheng; Linda K. Weavers; Harold W. Walker; William E. Wolfe

    2009-04-15

    The release of mercury from concrete containing fly ashes from various generator boilers and powdered activated carbon sorbent used to capture mercury was measured in laboratory experiments. Release of gaseous mercury from these concretes was less than 0.31% of the total quantity of mercury present. The observed gaseous emissions of mercury during the curing process demonstrated a dependency on the organic carbon content of the fly ash, with mercury release decreasing with increasing carbon content. Further, lower gaseous emissions of mercury were observed for concretes incorporating ash containing activated carbon sorbent than would be expected based on the observed association with organic carbon, suggesting that the powdered activated carbon more tightly binds the mercury as compared to unburned carbon in the ash. Following the initial 28-day curing interval, mercury release diminished with time. In separate leaching experiments, average mercury concentrations leached from fly ash concretes were less than 4.1 ng/L after 18 h and 7 days, demonstrating that less than 0.02% of the mercury was released during leaching. 25 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Oregon Industrial Stormwater Discharge Monitoring Report (DEQ...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    discharge. Form Type ApplicationNotice Form Topic Industrial Stormwater Discharge Monitoring Report Organization Oregon Department of Environmental Quality Published...

  13. Mercury capture by aerosol transformation in combustion environments. Appendix 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-02-01

    Aerosol transformation of elemental mercury by oxidizing mercury in the air is investigated in this study by varying temperature and residence time. The experimental results show that mercury oxidation is not important at the temperature range and time scale studied. The rate of mercury oxidation is too slow that the capture of mercury vapor by transforming it into mercury oxide in aerosol phase is not practical in real systems. Studies are needed for alternative approaches to capture mercury vapor such as the use of sorbent materials.

  14. Oak Ridge Moves Forward in Mercury Cleanup | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Moves Forward in Mercury Cleanup Oak Ridge Moves Forward in Mercury Cleanup March 28, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Workers recently removed five large mercury-contaminated tanks from Y-12. Workers recently removed five large mercury-contaminated tanks from Y-12. Removing these tanks is part of the steps to reduce potential risk from mercury at Y-12. Removing these tanks is part of the steps to reduce potential risk from mercury at Y-12. Workers recently removed five large mercury-contaminated tanks

  15. Historical Liquid Discharges and Outfalls

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    liquids were discharged to Pueblo and Los Alamos Canyons. August 1, 2013 Contamination from the Acid Canyon outfall has been clean up to below residential levels...

  16. Treatment of mercury containing waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalb, Paul D.; Melamed, Dan; Patel, Bhavesh R; Fuhrmann, Mark

    2002-01-01

    A process is provided for the treatment of mercury containing waste in a single reaction vessel which includes a) stabilizing the waste with sulfur polymer cement under an inert atmosphere to form a resulting mixture and b) encapsulating the resulting mixture by heating the mixture to form a molten product and casting the molten product as a monolithic final waste form. Additional sulfur polymer cement can be added in the encapsulation step if needed, and a stabilizing additive can be added in the process to improve the leaching properties of the waste form.

  17. History of mercury use and environmental contamination at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Scott C; Southworth, George R

    2010-01-01

    Between 1950 and 1963 approximately 11 million kilograms of mercury (Hg) were used at the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 NSC) for lithium isotope separation processes. About 3% of the Hg was lost to the air, soil and rock under facilities, and East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) which originates in the plant site. Smaller amounts of Hg were used at other Oak Ridge facilities with similar results. Although the primary Hg discharges from Y-12 NSC stopped in 1963, small amounts of Hg continue to be released into the creek from point sources and diffuse contaminated soil and groundwater sources within Y-12 NSC. Mercury concentration in EFPC has decreased 85% from 2000 ng/L in the 1980s. In general, methylmercury concentrations in water and in fish have not declined in response to improvements in water quality and exhibit trends of increasing concentration in some cases.

  18. Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants The mission of the Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Applied Field Research Initiative is to control the flux of contaminants in soil and water environments for the purpose of protecting surface water, groundwater, and ecological receptors. Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants (1.7 MB) More Documents & Publications Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury

  19. Capillary discharge source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bender, III, Howard Albert

    2003-11-25

    Debris generation from an EUV electric discharge plasma source device can be significantly reduced or essentially eliminated by encasing the electrodes with dielectric or electrically insulating material so that the electrodes are shielded from the plasma, and additionally by providing a path for the radiation to exit wherein the electrodes are not exposed to the area where the radiation is collected. The device includes: (a) a body, which is made of an electrically insulating material, that defines a capillary bore that has a proximal end and a distal end and that defines at least one radiation exit; (b) a first electrode that defines a first channel that has a first inlet end that is connected to a source of gas and a first outlet end that is in communication with the capillary bore, wherein the first electrode is positioned at the distal end of the capillary bore; (c) a second electrode that defines a second channel that has a second inlet end that is in communication with the capillary bore and an outlet end, wherein the second electrode is positioned at the proximal end of the capillary bore; and (d) a source of electric potential that is connected across the first and second electrodes, wherein radiation generated within the capillary bore is emitted through the at least one radiation exit and wherein the first electrode and second electrode are shielded from the emitted radiation.

  20. Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oakley, D.J.

    1984-05-30

    Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pins passageway extending through the assembly.

  1. Application of a three-dimensional model for a study of the energy transfer of a high-pressure mercury horizontal lamp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben Hamida, M. B.; Charrada, K.

    2012-06-15

    This paper is devoted to study the dynamics of a discharge lamp with high intensity in a horizontal position. As an example of application, we chose the high-pressure mercury lamp. For this, we realized a three-dimensional model, a stable and powered DC. After the validation of this model, we used it to reproduce the influence of some parameters that have appeared on major transport phenomena of mass and energy in studying the lamp operating in a horizontal position. Indeed, the mass of mercury and the electric current are modified and the effect of convective transport is studied.

  2. Removal of mercury from waste gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muster, U.; Marr, R.; Pichler, G.; Kremshofer, S.; Wilferl, R.; Draxler, J.

    1996-12-31

    Waste and process gases from thermal power, incineration and metallurgical plants or those from cement and alkali chloride industries contain metallic, inorganic and organic mercury. Widespread processes to remove the major amount of mercury are absorption and adsorption. Caused by the lowering of the emission limit from 200 to 50 {mu}g/m{sup 3} [STP] by national and European legislators, considerable efforts were made to enhance the efficiency of the main separation units of flue gas cleaning plants. Specially impregnated ceramic carriers can be used for the selective separation of metallic, inorganic and organic mercury. Using the ceramic reactor removal rates lower than 5 {mu}g/m{sup 3} [STP] of gaseous mercury and its compounds can be achieved. The ceramic reactor is active, regenerable and stable for a long term operation. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Mercury sorbent delivery system for flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klunder; ,Edgar B.

    2009-02-24

    The invention presents a device for the removal of elemental mercury from flue gas streams utilizing a layer of activated carbon particles contained within the filter fabric of a filter bag for use in a flue gas scrubbing system.

  4. Mercury Solar Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    of PV products and systems for commercial and residential clients in the New York metrotri-state area. References: Mercury Solar Systems1 This article is a stub. You can...

  5. Innovative Mercury Treatment Benefits Stream, Fish

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    AIKEN, S.C. – A team of scientists is working at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to evaluate the impact of an innovative, inexpensive treatment system that removes mercury from water.

  6. Summary - Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury Contamination...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    for adequacy in reducing Hg levels in the fish and to indentify opportunities to achieve ... contamination in the East Fork Popular Creek and how to reduce mercury levels in the fish. ...

  7. Analysis of Alternative Mercury Control Strategies

    Reports and Publications

    2005-01-01

    This analysis responds to a September 14, 2004, request from Chairmen James M. Inhofe and George V. Voinovich asking the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to analyze the impacts of different approaches for removing mercury from coal-fired power plants.

  8. The Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Statement (Mercury Storage EIS) DOE Grand Junction Disposal Site, CO The Grand Junction Disposal Site is located on DOE-owned land, 18 miles southeast of Grand Junction, Colorado. ...

  9. DISCHARGE DEVICE FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohlinger, L.A.

    1958-09-23

    A device is described fur unloading bodies of fissionable material from a neutronic reactor. It is comprised essentially of a wheeled flat car having a receptacle therein containing a liquid coolant fur receiving and cooling the fuel elements as they are discharged from the reactor, and a reciprocating plunger fur supporting the fuel element during discharge thereof prior to its being dropped into the coolant. The flat car is adapted to travel along the face of the reactor adjacent the discharge ends of the coolant tubes.

  10. HIGH ENERGY GASEOUS DISCHARGE DEVICES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Josephson, V.

    1960-02-16

    The high-energy electrical discharge device described comprises an envelope, a pair of main discharge electrodes supported in opposition in the envelope, and a metallic shell symmetrically disposed around and spaced from the discharge path between the electrodes. The metallic shell comprises a first element of spaced helical turns of metallic material and a second element of spaced helical turns of methllic material insulatedly supported in superposition outside the first element and with the turns overlapping the gap between the turns of the first element.

  11. Mercury-metadata data management system

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-01-03

    Mercury is a federated metadata harvesting, search and retrieval tool based on both open source software and software developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It was originally developed for NASA, USGS, and DOE. A major new version of Mercury (version 3.0) was developed during 2007 and released in early 2008. This Mercury 3.0 version provides orders of magnitude improvements in search speed, support for additional metadata formats, integration with Google Maps for spatial queries, facettedmore » type search, support for RSS delivery of search results, and ready customization to meet the needs of the multiple projects which use Mercury. For the end users, Mercury provides a single portal to very quickly search for data and information contained in disparate data management systems. It collects metadata and key data from contributing project servers distributed around the world and builds a centralized index. The Mercury search interfaces then allow the users to perform simple, fielded, spatial, and temporal searches across these metadata sources. This centralized repository of metadata with distributed data sources provides extremely fast search results to the user, while allowing data providers to advertise the availability of their data and maintain complete control and ownership of that data.« less

  12. Mercury cleanup efforts intensify | Y-12 National Security Complex

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Mercury cleanup efforts ... Mercury cleanup efforts intensify Posted: February 11, 2013 - 3:31pm | Y-12 Report | Volume 9, Issue 2 | 2013 Millions of pounds of mercury were required to support Y-12's post-World War II mission of separating lithium isotopes. Cleaning up the toxic heavy metal poses many challenges, but what Y-12 is learning could help conquer mercury pollution worldwide. There's a reason you won't find mercury in many thermometers these days. Mercury is a heavy metal that occurs

  13. Statute - Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Services » Waste Management » Waste Disposition » Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury is in the Planning Stages » Statute - Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 Statute - Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 Public Law 110-414, 110th Congress - Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 to prohibit the sale, distribution, transfer, and export of elemental mercury, and for other purposes. Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (166.11 KB) More Documents & Publications Section 129 of the Consolidated

  14. Interim Results from a Study of the Impacts of Tin (II) Based Mercury Treatment in a Small Stream Ecosystem: Tims Branch, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, Brian; BryanJr., Larry; Mathews, Teresa J; Peterson, Mark J; Roy, W Kelly; Jett, Robert T; Smith, John G

    2012-03-01

    A research team is assessing the impacts of an innovative mercury treatment system in Tims Branch, a small southeastern stream. The treatment system, installed in 2007, reduces and removes inorganic mercury from water using tin(II) (stannous) chloride addition followed by air stripping. The system results in discharge of inorganic tin to the ecosystem. This screening study is based on historical information combined with measurements of contaminant concentrations in water, fish, sediment, biofilms and invertebrates. Initial mercury data indicate that first few years of mercury treatment resulted in a significant decrease in mercury concentration in an upper trophic level fish, redfin pickerel, at all sampling locations in the impacted reach. For example, the whole body mercury concentration in redfin pickerel collected from the most impacted pond decreased approximately 72% between 2006 (pre-treatment) and 2010 (post-treatment). Over this same period, mercury concentrations in the fillet of redfin pickerel in this pond were estimated to have decreased from approximately 1.45 {micro}g/g (wet weight basis) to 0.45 {micro}g/g - a decrease from 4.8x to 1.5x the current EPA guideline concentration for mercury in fillet (0.3 {micro}g/g). Thermodynamic modeling, scanning electron microscopy, and other sampling data for tin suggest that particulate tin (IV) oxides are a significant geochemical species entering the ecosystem with elevated levels of tin measured in surficial sediments and biofilms. Detectable increases in tin in sediments and biofilms extended approximately 3km from the discharge location. Tin oxides are recalcitrant solids that are relatively non-toxic and resistant to dissolution. Work continues to develop and validate methods to analyze total tin in the collected biota samples. In general, the interim results of this screening study suggest that the treatment process has performed as predicted and that the concentration of mercury in upper trophic level

  15. Discharge cell for ozone generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nakatsuka, Suguru

    2000-01-01

    A discharge cell for use in an ozone generator is provided which can suppress a time-related reduction in ozone concentration without adding a catalytic gas such as nitrogen gas to oxygen gas as a raw material gas. The discharge cell includes a pair of electrodes disposed in an opposed spaced relation with a discharge space therebetween, and a dielectric layer of a three-layer structure consisting of three ceramic dielectric layers successively stacked on at least one of the electrodes, wherein a first dielectric layer of the dielectric layer contacting the one electrode contains no titanium dioxide, wherein a second dielectric layer of the dielectric layer exposed to the discharge space contains titanium dioxide in a metal element ratio of not lower than 10 wt %.

  16. Formation of soluble mercury oxide coatings: Transformation of elemental mercury in soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Carrie L.; Watson, David B.; Lester, Brian P.; Howe, Jane Y.; Phillips, Debra H.; He, Feng; Liang, Liyuan; Pierce, Eric M.

    2015-09-21

    In this study, the impact of mercury (Hg) on human and ecological health has been known for decades. Although a treaty signed in 2013 by 147 nations regulates future large-scale mercury emissions, legacy Hg contamination exists worldwide and small-scale releases will continue. The fate of elemental mercury, Hg(0), lost to the subsurface and its potential chemical transformation that can lead to changes in speciation and mobility are poorly understood. Here, we show that Hg(0) beads interact with soil or manganese oxide solids and X-ray spectroscopic analysis indicates that the soluble mercury coatings are HgO. Dissolution studies show that, after reacting with a composite soil, >20 times more Hg is released into water from the coated beads than from a pure liquid mercury bead. An even larger, >700 times, release occurs from coated Hg(0) beads that have been reacted with manganese oxide, suggesting that manganese oxides are involved in the transformation of the Hg(0) beads and creation of the soluble mercury coatings. Although the coatings may inhibit Hg(0) evaporation, the high solubility of the coatings can enhance Hg(II) migration away from the Hg(0)-spill site and result in potential changes in mercury speciation in the soil and increased mercury mobility.

  17. Formation of soluble mercury oxide coatings: Transformation of elemental mercury in soils

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Miller, Carrie L.; Watson, David B.; Lester, Brian P.; Howe, Jane Y.; Phillips, Debra H.; He, Feng; Liang, Liyuan; Pierce, Eric M.

    2015-09-21

    In this study, the impact of mercury (Hg) on human and ecological health has been known for decades. Although a treaty signed in 2013 by 147 nations regulates future large-scale mercury emissions, legacy Hg contamination exists worldwide and small-scale releases will continue. The fate of elemental mercury, Hg(0), lost to the subsurface and its potential chemical transformation that can lead to changes in speciation and mobility are poorly understood. Here, we show that Hg(0) beads interact with soil or manganese oxide solids and X-ray spectroscopic analysis indicates that the soluble mercury coatings are HgO. Dissolution studies show that, after reactingmore » with a composite soil, >20 times more Hg is released into water from the coated beads than from a pure liquid mercury bead. An even larger, >700 times, release occurs from coated Hg(0) beads that have been reacted with manganese oxide, suggesting that manganese oxides are involved in the transformation of the Hg(0) beads and creation of the soluble mercury coatings. Although the coatings may inhibit Hg(0) evaporation, the high solubility of the coatings can enhance Hg(II) migration away from the Hg(0)-spill site and result in potential changes in mercury speciation in the soil and increased mercury mobility.« less

  18. Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2005-12-30

    The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting new regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. These regulations are directed at the existing fleet of nearly 1,100 boilers. These plants are relatively old with an average age of over 40 years. Although most of these units are capable of operating for many additional years, there is a desire to minimize large capital expenditures because of the reduced (and unknown) remaining life of the plant to amortize the project. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. This is the final site report for tests conducted at Laramie River Station Unit 3, one of five sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The overall objective of the test program is to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at five plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, and AEP's Conesville Station Unit 6. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The goals for the program established by DOE/NETL are to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the benchmark established by DOE of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The goals of the program were exceeded at Laramie River Station by achieving over 90% mercury removal at a sorbent cost of $3,980/lb ($660/oz) mercury removed for a coal mercury content of 7.9 lb/TBtu.

  19. Nucleotide sequence of a chromosomal mercury resistance determinant from a Bacillus sp. with broad-spectrum mercury resistance. [Mercury reductase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Y.; Levinson, H.S.; Mahler, I. ); Moore, M.; Walsh, C. ); Silver, S. )

    1989-01-01

    A 13.5-kilobase HindIII fragment, bearing an intact mercury resistance (mer) operon, was isolated from chromosomal DNA of broad-spectrum mercury-resistant Bacillus sp. strain RC607 by using as a probe a clone containing the mercury reductase (merA) gene. The new clone, pYW33, expressed broad-spectrum mercury resistance both in Escherichia coli and in Bacillus subtilis, but only in B. subtilis was the mercuric reductase activity inducible. Sequencing of a 1.8-kilobase mercury hypersensitivity-producing fragment revealed four open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 may code for a regulatory protein (MerR). ORF2 and ORF4 were associated with cellular transport function and the hypersensitivity phenotype. DNA fragments encompassing the merA and the merB genes were sequenced. The predicted Bacillus sp. strain RC607 MerA (mercuric reductase) and MerB (organomercurial lyase) were similar to those predicted from Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258 (67 and 73% amino acid identities, respectively); however, only 40% of the amino acid residues of RC607 MerA were identical to those of the mercuric reductase from gram-negative bacteria. A 69-kilodalton polypeptide was isolated and identified as the merA gene product by examination of its amino-terminal sequence.

  20. VEE-0020- In the Matter of Mercury Fuel Service, Inc.

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    On April 9, 1996, Mercury Fuel Service, Inc. (Mercury) of Waterbury, Connecticut, filed an Application for Exception with the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) of the Department of Energy (DOE)....

  1. Removal of mercury from coal via a microbial pretreatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borole, Abhijeet P.; Hamilton, Choo Y.

    2011-08-16

    A process for the removal of mercury from coal prior to combustion is disclosed. The process is based on use of microorganisms to oxidize iron, sulfur and other species binding mercury within the coal, followed by volatilization of mercury by the microorganisms. The microorganisms are from a class of iron and/or sulfur oxidizing bacteria. The process involves contacting coal with the bacteria in a batch or continuous manner. The mercury is first solubilized from the coal, followed by microbial reduction to elemental mercury, which is stripped off by sparging gas and captured by a mercury recovery unit, giving mercury-free coal. The mercury can be recovered in pure form from the sorbents via additional processing.

  2. Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    from the United States as of January 1, 2013, the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (MEBA) ... and 2 it will not sell, or otherwise place the elemental mercury into commerce. ...

  3. Operating Experience Level 3, Safe Management of Mercury | Department...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to raise awareness about mercury hazards and to reinforce the informaiton in Safety and Health Bulleting 2005-08, Safe Management of Mercury. OE-3 2012-03: Safe Management of...

  4. Technology Plan to Address the EM Mercury Challenge

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    EM’s Technology Plan to Address the EM Mercury Challenge addresses mercury contamination, and advocates for research and technology development to resolve key technical uncertainties with the pollutant in environmental remediation, facility deactivation and decommissioning, and tank waste processing.

  5. CFD Modeling for Mercury Control Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madsen, J.I.

    2006-12-01

    Compliance with the Clean Air Mercury Rule will require implementation of dedicated mercury control solutions at a significant portion of the U.S. coal-fired utility fleet. Activated Carbon Injection (ACI) upstream of a particulate control device (ESP or baghouse) remains one of the most promising near-term mercury control technologies. The DOE/NETL field testing program has advanced the understanding of mercury control by ACI, but a persistent need remains to develop predictive models that may improve the understanding and practical implementation of this technology. This presentation describes the development of an advanced model of in-flight mercury capture based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The model makes detailed predictions of the induct spatial distribution and residence time of sorbent, as well as predictions of mercury capture efficiency for particular sorbent flow rates and injection grid configurations. Hence, CFD enables cost efficient optimization of sorbent injection systems for mercury control to a degree that would otherwise be impractical both for new and existing plants. In this way, modeling tools may directly address the main cost component of operating an ACI system the sorbent expense. A typical 300 MW system is expected to require between $1 and $2 million of sorbent per year, and so even modest reductions (say 10-20%) in necessary sorbent feed injection rates will quickly make any optimization effort very worthwhile. There are few existing models of mercury capture, and these typically make gross assumptions of plug gas flow, zero velocity slip between particle and gas phase, and uniform sorbent dispersion. All of these assumptions are overcome with the current model, which is based on first principles and includes mass transfer processes occurring at multiple scales, ranging from the large-scale transport in the duct to transport within the porous structure of a sorbent particle. In principle any single one of these processes

  6. DOE Issues Final Mercury Storage Environmental Impact Statement: Texas Site Is Preferred for Long-Term Mercury Storage

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON – The Department of Energy has prepared a Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement to analyze the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven locations

  7. Contribution to the numerical study of turbulence in high intensity discharge lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaziz, S.; Ben Ahmed, R.; Helali, H.; Gazzah, H.; Charrada, K. [Unite d'Etude des Milieux Ionises et Reactifs, IPEIM, 5019 route de Kairouan Monastir (Tunisia)

    2011-07-15

    We present in this paper a comparison between results obtained with a laminar and turbulent models for high-pressure mercury arc. The two models are based on the resolution of bidimensional time-dependent equations by a semi-implicit finite-element code. The numerical computation of turbulent model is solved with large eddy simulation model; this approach takes into account the various scales of turbulence by a filtering method on each scale. The results show the quantitative influence of turbulence on the flow fields and also the difference between laminar and turbulent effects on the dynamic thermal behaviour and on the characteristics of the discharge.

  8. Emerging technologies and approaches to minimize discharges into Lake Michigan, phase 2 module 4 report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negri, M.C.; Gillenwater, P.; Urgun-Demirtas, M.; Nnanna, G.; Yu, J.; Jannotta, I,

    2012-04-19

    The Great Lakes Initiative (GLI) established the new water quality-based discharge criteria for mercury (Hg), thereby increasing the need for many municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants in the region to lower the mercury in their effluents. Information on deployable technologies to satisfy these requirements for industrial and municipal dischargers in the Great lakes region is scarce. Therefore, BP funded Purdue University Calumet and Argonne to identify deployable Hg removal technologies to meet the GLI discharge criterion at its Whiting Refinery in Indiana. The joint PUC/Argonne project was divided into 2 phases. Results from Phase I and Phase II Modules 1-3 have been previously reported. This report summarizes the work done in Phase 3 Module 4, which consisted of the pilot scale testing of Hg removal technologies previously selected in Module 3. The pilot testing was an Argonne/PUC jointly directed project that was hosted at and funded by the BP refinery in Whiting, IN. As two organizations were involved in data analysis and interpretation, this report combines two independent sets of evaluations of the testing that was done, prepared respectively by Argonne and Purdue. Each organization retains sole responsibility for its respective analysis conclusions and recommendations. Based on Module 3 bench testing with pre-Effluent To Lake (pre-ETL) and clarifier effluent (CE) samples from the Whiting refinery, three different technologies were chosen for pilot testing: (1) Ultrafiltration (using GE ZeeWeed(reg sign) Technology, 0.04 {mu}m pore size and made up of PVDF) for particulate mercury removal; (2) Adsorption using Mersorb(reg sign) LW, a sulfur-impregnated activated carbon, for dissolved mercury removal if present and (3) The Blue PRO(reg sign) reactive filtration process for both particulate and dissolved (if present) mercury removal. The ultrafiltration and the Blue PRO(reg sign) reactive filtration pilot studies were done simultaneously at the

  9. Constricted glow discharge plasma source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre; Anders, Simone; Dickinson, Michael; Rubin, Michael; Newman, Nathan

    2000-01-01

    A constricted glow discharge chamber and method are disclosed. The polarity and geometry of the constricted glow discharge plasma source is set so that the contamination and energy of the ions discharged from the source are minimized. The several sources can be mounted in parallel and in series to provide a sustained ultra low source of ions in a plasma with contamination below practical detection limits. The source is suitable for applying films of nitrides such as gallium nitride and oxides such as tungsten oxide and for enriching other substances in material surfaces such as oxygen and water vapor, which are difficult process as plasma in any known devices and methods. The source can also be used to assist the deposition of films such as metal films by providing low-energy ions such as argon ions.

  10. Ultraviolet radiation induced discharge laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilson, Verle A.; Schriever, Richard L.; Shearer, James W.

    1978-01-01

    An ultraviolet radiation source associated with a suitable cathode-anode electrode structure, disposed in a gas-filled cavity of a high pressure pulsed laser, such as a transverse electric atmosphere (TEA) laser, to achieve free electron production in the gas by photoelectric interaction between ultraviolet radiation and the cathode prior to the gas-exciting cathode-to-anode electrical discharge, thereby providing volume ionization of the gas. The ultraviolet radiation is produced by a light source or by a spark discharge.

  11. Compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roesler, Alexander W.; Vernon, George E.; Hoke, Darren A.; De Marquis, Virginia K.; Harris, Steven M.

    2007-06-26

    A compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit (CDU) is disclosed in which a thyristor switch and a flyback charging circuit are both sandwiched about a ceramic energy storage capacitor. The result is a compact rugged assembly which provides a low-inductance current discharge path. The flyback charging circuit preferably includes a low-temperature co-fired ceramic transformer. The CDU can further include one or more ceramic substrates for enclosing the thyristor switch and for holding various passive components used in the flyback charging circuit. A load such as a detonator can also be attached directly to the CDU.

  12. Geochemical, Genetic, and Community Controls on Mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wall, Judy D.

    2014-11-10

    The sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are soil bacteria that share two common characteristics, strict anaerobiosis and the ability to respire sulfate. The metabolic activities of these bacteria play significant roles in the global sulfur cycle, anaerobic degradation of biomass, biological metal corrosion in the environment and, recently, degradation of toxic compounds. The accumulation of evidence suggests these bacteria are also key to the production of the neurotoxin methylmercury in environmental settings. We propose to use our experience with the development of genetics in sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genus Desulfovibrio to create mutations that will eliminate the methylation of mercury, thereby identifying the genes essential for this process. This information may allow the environmental monitoring of the mercury methylation potential to learn the location and quantity of the production this toxin. From these data, more accurate predictive models of mercury cycling can be generated.

  13. Phytoremediation of ionic and methyl mercury pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meagher, R.B.

    1998-06-01

    'The long-term objective of the research is to manipulate single-gene traits into plants, enabling them to process heavy metals and remediate heavy-metal pollution by resistance, sequestration, removal, and management of these contaminants. The authors are focused on mercury pollution as a case study of this plant genetic engineering approach. The working hypothesis behind this proposal was that transgenic plants expressing both the bacterial organo mercury lyase (merB) and the mercuric ion reductase gene (merA) will: (A) remove the mercury from polluted sites and (B) prevent methyl mercury from entering the food chain. The results from the research are so positive that the technology will undoubtedly be applied in the very near future to cleaning large mercury contaminates sites. Many such sites were not remediable previously due to the excessive costs and the negative environmental impact of conventional mechanical-chemical technologies. At the time this grant was awarded 20 months ago, the authors had successfully engineered a small model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, to use a highly modified bacterial mercuric ion reductase gene, merA9, to detoxify ionic mercury (Hg(II)), reducing it to much less toxic and volatile metallic Hg(0) (Rugh et al., 1996). Seeds from these plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of Hg(II) that are lethal to normal plants. In assays on transgenic seedlings suspended in a solution of Hg(II), 10 ng of Hg(0) was evolved per min per mg wet weight of plant tissue. At that time, the authors had no information on expression of merA in any other plant species, nor had the authors tested merB in any plant. However, the results were so startlingly positive and well received that they clearly presaged a paradigm shift in the field of environmental remediation.'

  14. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Edwin S.; Holmes, Michael J.; Pavlish, John H.

    2008-10-14

    A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

  15. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Edwin S.; Holmes, Michael J.; Pavlish, John Henry

    2014-09-02

    A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

  16. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Edwin S.; Holmes, Michael J.; Pavlish, John H.

    2012-05-01

    A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

  17. Method for high temperature mercury capture from gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2006-04-25

    A process to facilitate mercury extraction from high temperature flue/fuel gas via the use of metal sorbents which capture mercury at ambient and high temperatures. The spent sorbents can be regenerated after exposure to mercury. The metal sorbents can be used as pure metals (or combinations of metals) or dispersed on an inert support to increase surface area per gram of metal sorbent. Iridium and ruthenium are effective for mercury removal from flue and smelter gases. Palladium and platinum are effective for mercury removal from fuel gas (syngas). An iridium-platinum alloy is suitable for metal capture in many industrial effluent gas streams including highly corrosive gas streams.

  18. MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

    2005-05-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control

  19. Utility flue gas mercury control via sorbent injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, R.; Carey, T.; Hargrove, B.

    1996-12-31

    The potential for power plant mercury control under Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments generated significant interest in assessing whether cost effective technologies are available for removing the mercury present in fossil-fired power plant flue gas. One promising approach is the direct injection of mercury sorbents such as activated carbon into flue gas. This approach has been shown to be effective for mercury control from municipal waste incinerators. However, tests conducted to date on utility fossil-fired boilers show that it is much more difficult to remove the trace species of mercury present in flue gas. EPRI is conducting research in sorbent mercury control including bench-scale evaluation of mercury sorbent activity and capacity with simulated flue gas, pilot testing under actual flue gas conditions, evaluation of sorbent regeneration and recycle options, and the development of novel sorbents. A theoretical model that predicts maximum mercury removals achievable with sorbent injection under different operating conditions is also being developed. This paper presents initial bench-scale and model results. The results to date show that very fine and large amounts of sorbents are needed for mercury control unless long residence times are available for sorbent-mercury contact. Also, sorbent activity and capacity are highly dependent on flue gas composition, temperature, mercury species, and sorbent properties. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. FY09 assessment of mercury reduction at SNL/NM.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCord, Samuel Adam

    2010-02-01

    This assessment takes the result of the FY08 performance target baseline of mercury at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico, and records the steps taken in FY09 to collect additional data, encourage the voluntary reduction of mercury, and measure success. Elemental (metallic) mercury and all of its compounds are toxic, and exposure to excessive levels can permanently damage or fatally injure the brain and kidneys. Elemental mercury can also be absorbed through the skin and cause allergic reactions. Ingestion of inorganic mercury compounds can cause severe renal and gastrointestinal damage. Organic compounds of mercury such as methyl mercury, created when elemental mercury enters the environment, are considered the most toxic forms of the element. Exposures to very small amounts of these compounds can result in devastating neurological damage and death.1 SNL/NM is required to report annually on the site wide inventory of mercury for the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Program, as the site's inventory is excess of the ten pound reportable threshold quantity. In the fiscal year 2008 (FY08) Pollution Prevention Program Plan, Section 5.3 Reduction of Environmental Releases, a performance target stated was to establish a baseline of mercury, its principle uses, and annual quantity or inventory. This was accomplished on July 29, 2008 by recording the current status of mercury in the Chemical Information System (CIS).

  1. Effect of helium addition on discharge characteristics in a flat fluorescent lamp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Seong-Eui; Lee, Ho-Nyeon; Park, Hyoung-Bin; Lee, Kyo Sung; Choi, Kyung Cheol

    2005-11-01

    The discharge characteristics of a multielectrode dual coplanar in a mercury-free flat fluorescent lamp were investigated using brightness-efficiency measurement and the infrared (IR) spectrum and intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) characteristics. The level of brightness was above 14 900 cd/m{sup 2} under the conditions of neon--50% xenon-8% He gas composition, 150 Torr pressure, and 20 kHz alternating current pulse. The ICCD results revealed a faster and wider discharge with a Ne-50% Xe-8% He gas composition. The effect of adding helium (He) to Ne-50% Xe revealed a faster peak emission, as confirmed by ICCD images. From the gated IR emission spectrum, the intensity ratio of I{sub 823nm}/I{sub 828nm} was {approx}8% higher with Ne-50% Xe-8% He than with Ne-50% Xe under the same pressure and applied voltage conditions.

  2. Conceptual studies for a mercury target circuit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sigg, B.

    1996-06-01

    For the now favored target design of the European Spallation Source project, i.e. the version using mercury as target material, a basic concept of the primary system has been worked out. It does not include a detailed design of the various components of the target circuit, but tries to outline a feasible solution for the system. Besides the removal of the thermal power of about 3MW produced in the target by the proton beam, the primary system has to satisfy a number of other requirements related to processing, safety, and operation. The basic proposal uses an electromagnetic pump and a mercury-water intermediate heat excanger, but other alternatives are also being discussed. Basic safety requirements, i.e. protection against radiation and toxic mercury vapours, are satisfied by a design using an air-tight primary system containment, double-walled tubes in the intermediate heat exchanger, a fail-safe system for decay heat removal, and a remote handling facility for the active part of the system. Much engineering work has still to be done, because many details of the design of the mercury and gas processing systems remain to be clarified, the thermal-hydraulic components need further optimisation, the system for control and instrumentation is only known in outline and a through safety analysis will be required.

  3. Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2008-06-30

    ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL, EPRI, and industry partners, studied mercury control options at six coal-fired power plants. The overall objective of the this test program was to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at six plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, American Electric Power's Conesville Station Unit 6, and Labadie Power Plant Unit 2. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The financial goals for the program established by DOE/NETL were to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the target established by DOE of $60,000 per pound of mercury removed. Results from testing at Holcomb, Laramie, Meramec, Labadie, and Monroe indicate the DOE goal was successfully achieved. However, further improvements for plants with conditions similar to Conesville are recommended that would improve both mercury removal performance and economics.

  4. Mercury Control with Calcium-Based Sorbents and Oxidizing Agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas K. Gale

    2005-07-01

    This Final Report contains the test descriptions, results, analysis, correlations, theoretical descriptions, and model derivations produced from many different investigations performed on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, to investigate calcium-based sorbents and injection of oxidizing agents for the removal of mercury. Among the technologies were (a) calcium-based sorbents in general, (b) oxidant-additive sorbents developed originally at the EPA, and (c) optimized calcium/carbon synergism for mercury-removal enhancement. In addition, (d) sodium-tetrasulfide injection was found to effectively capture both forms of mercury across baghouses and ESPs, and has since been demonstrated at a slipstream treating PRB coal. It has been shown that sodium-tetrasulfide had little impact on the foam index of PRB flyash, which may indicate that sodium-tetrasulfide injection could be used at power plants without affecting flyash sales. Another technology, (e) coal blending, was shown to be an effective means of increasing mercury removal, by optimizing the concentration of calcium and carbon in the flyash. In addition to the investigation and validation of multiple mercury-control technologies (a through e above), important fundamental mechanism governing mercury kinetics in flue gas were elucidated. For example, it was shown, for the range of chlorine and unburned-carbon (UBC) concentrations in coal-fired utilities, that chlorine has much less effect on mercury oxidation and removal than UBC in the flyash. Unburned carbon enhances mercury oxidation in the flue gas by reacting with HCl to form chlorinated-carbon sites, which then react with elemental mercury to form mercuric chloride, which subsequently desorbs back into the flue gas. Calcium was found to enhance mercury removal by stabilizing the oxidized mercury formed on carbon surfaces. Finally, a model was developed to describe these mercury adsorption, desorption, oxidation, and removal mechanisms, including

  5. Removal of Mercury from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-09-29

    A paper study was completed to survey literature, patents, and companies for mercury removal technologies applicable to gasification technologies. The objective was to determine if mercury emissions from gasification of coal are more or less difficult to manage than those from a combustion system. The purpose of the study was to define the extent of the mercury problem for gasification-based coal utilization and conversion systems. It is clear that in coal combustion systems, the speciation of mercury between elemental vapor and oxidized forms depends on a number of factors. The most important speciation factors are the concentration of chlorides in the coal, the temperatures in the ducting, and residence times. The collection of all the mercury was most dependent upon the extent of carbon in the fly ash, and the presence of a wet gas desulfurization system. In combustion, high chloride content plus long residence times at intermediate temperatures leads to oxidation of the mercury. The mercury is then captured in the wet gas desulfurization system and in the fly ash as HgCl{sub 2}. Without chloride, the mercury oxidizes much slower, but still may be trapped on thick bag house deposits. Addition of limestone to remove sulfur may trap additional mercury in the slag. In gasification where the mercury is expected to be elemental, activated carbon injection has been the most effective method of mercury removal. The carbon is best injected downstream where temperatures have moderated and an independent collector can be established. Concentrations of mercury sorbent need to be 10,000 to 20,000 the concentrations of the mercury. Pretreatment of the activated carbon may include acidification or promotion by sulfur.

  6. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1998-01-01

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging.

  7. BERNAS ION SOURCE DISCHARGE SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RUDSKOY,I.; KULEVOY, T.V.; PETRENKO, S.V.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; PERSHIN, V.I.; HERSHCOVITCH, A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; OKS, E.M.; POOLE, H.J.

    2007-08-26

    The joint research and development program is continued to develop steady-state ion source of decaborane beam for ion implantation industry. Bemas ion source is the wide used ion source for ion implantation industry. The new simulation code was developed for the Bemas ion source discharge simulation. We present first results of the simulation for several materials interested in semiconductors. As well the comparison of results obtained with experimental data obtained at the ITEP ion source test-bench is presented.

  8. Interaction between pulsed discharge and radio frequency discharge burst at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jie; Guo, Ying; Shi, Yuncheng; Zhang, Jing; Shi, J. J.

    2015-08-15

    The atmospheric pressure glow discharges (APGD) with dual excitations in terms of pulsed voltage and pulse-modulation radio frequency (rf) power are studied experimentally between two parallel plates electrodes. Pulse-modulation applied in rf APGD temporally separates the discharge into repetitive discharge bursts, between which the high voltage pulses are introduced to ignite sub-microsecond pulsed discharge. The discharge characteristics and spatio-temporal evolution are investigated by means of current voltage characteristics and time resolved imaging, which suggests that the introduced pulsed discharge assists the ignition of rf discharge burst and reduces the maintain voltage of rf discharge burst. Furtherly, the time instant of pulsed discharge between rf discharge bursts is manipulated to study the ignition dynamics of rf discharge burst.

  9. Comparative analysis of discharges into Lake Michigan, Phase I - Southern Lake Michigan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Elcock, D.; Gasper, J. R.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-06-30

    BP Products North America Inc. (BP) owns and operates a petroleum refinery located on approximately 1,700 acres in Whiting, East Chicago, and Hammond, Indiana, near the southern tip of Lake Michigan. BP provided funding to Purdue University-Calumet Water Institute (Purdue) and Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct studies related to wastewater treatment and discharges. Purdue and Argonne are working jointly to identify and characterize technologies that BP could use to meet the previous discharge permit limits for total suspended solids (TSS) and ammonia after refinery modernization. In addition to the technology characterization work, Argonne conducted a separate project task, which is the subject of this report. In Phase I of a two-part study, Argonne estimated the current levels of discharge to southern Lake Michigan from significant point and nonpoint sources in Illinois, Indiana, and portions of Michigan. The study does not consider all of the chemicals that are discharged. Rather, it is narrowly focused on a selected group of pollutants, referred to as the 'target pollutants'. These include: TSS, ammonia, total and hexavalent chromium, mercury, vanadium, and selenium. In Phase II of the study, Argonne will expand the analysis to cover the entire Lake Michigan drainage basin.

  10. Promising Technology: Parking Lot Light-Emitting Diodes with Controls

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    LEDs offer several advantages over conventional high intensity discharge (HID) luminaires. LEDs have longer life times, reduced maintenance and operating costs, superior color rendition, and lower energy consumption.

  11. Promising Technology: High Bay Light-Emitting Diodes

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    High bay LEDs offer several advantages over conventional high intensity discharge (HID) luminaires including longer lifetimes, reduced maintenance costs, and lower energy consumption.

  12. Implementation Report: Energy Conservation Standards Activities

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Act of 2005 EPCA - Energy Policy and Conservation Act HID - High-Intensity Discharge ... the issuance of new or amended energy conservation standards and in response to section ...

  13. Implementation Report: Energy Conservation Activities

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Act of 2005 EPCA - Energy Policy and Conservation Act HID - High-Intensity Discharge ... to comply with statutory deadlines for new or amended energy conservation standards. ...

  14. 2007 Implementation Report to Congress on Energy Conservation...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Standards Activities Submitted Pursuant to Section 141 of the Energy ... Act of 2005 EPCA - Energy Policy and Conservation Act HID - High-Intensity Discharge ...

  15. Implementation Report: Energy Conservation Standards Activities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Implementation Report: Energy Conservation Standards Activities Submitted Pursuant to: ... Act of 2005 EPCA - Energy Policy and Conservation Act HID - High-Intensity Discharge ...

  16. Topanga Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Technologies Place: Canoga Park, California Zip: 91303 Product: Stealth-mode high-intensity discharge (HID) lighting technology developer. References: Topanga Technologies1...

  17. Oxidation of Mercury in Products of Coal Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Walsh; Giang Tong; Neeles Bhopatkar; Thomas Gale; George Blankenship; Conrad Ingram; Selasi Blavo Tesfamariam Mehreteab; Victor Banjoko; Yohannes Ghirmazion; Heng Ban; April Sibley

    2009-09-14

    Laboratory measurements of mercury oxidation during selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide, simulation of pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash, and synthesis of new materials for simultaneous oxidation and adsorption of mercury, were performed in support of the development of technology for control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers and furnaces. Conversion of gas-phase mercury from the elemental state to water-soluble oxidized form (HgCl{sub 2}) enables removal of mercury during wet flue gas desulfurization. The increase in mercury oxidation in a monolithic V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} SCR catalyst with increasing HCl at low levels of HCl (< 10 ppmv) and decrease in mercury oxidation with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio during SCR were consistent with results of previous work by others. The most significant finding of the present work was the inhibition of mercury oxidation in the presence of CO during SCR of NO at low levels of HCl. In the presence of 2 ppmv HCl, expected in combustion products from some Powder River Basin coals, an increase in CO from 0 to 50 ppmv reduced the extent of mercury oxidation from 24 {+-} 3 to 1 {+-} 4%. Further increase in CO to 100 ppmv completely suppressed mercury oxidation. In the presence of 11-12 ppmv HCl, increasing CO from 0 to {approx}120 ppmv reduced mercury oxidation from {approx}70% to 50%. Conversion of SO{sub 2} to sulfate also decreased with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio, but the effects of HCl and CO in flue gas on SO{sub 2} oxidation were unclear. Oxidation and adsorption of mercury by unburned carbon and fly ash enables mercury removal in a particulate control device. A chemical kinetic mechanism consisting of nine homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions for mercury oxidation and removal was developed to interpret pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash in experiments at pilot

  18. In situ remediation technologies for mercury-contaminated soil

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    He, Feng; Gao, Jie; Pierce, Eric; Strong, P. J.; Wang, Hailong; Liang, Liyuan

    2015-04-09

    A pollutant that poses significant risks to humans and the environment is mercury from anthropogenic activities. In soils, mercury remediation can be technically challenging and costly, depending on the subsurface mercury distribution, the types of mercury species, and the regulatory requirements. Our paper introduces the chemistry of mercury and its implications for in situ mercury remediation, which is followed by a detailed discussion of several in situ Hg remediation technologies in terms of applicability, cost, advantages, and disadvantages. The effect of Hg speciation on remediation performance, as well as Hg transformation during different remediation processes, was detailed. Thermal desorption, electrokinetic,more » and soil flushing/washing treatments are removal technologies that mobilize and capture insoluble Hg species, while containment, solidification/stabilization, and vitrification immobilize Hg by converting it to less soluble forms. We also discussed two emerging technologies, phytoremediation and nanotechnology, in this review.« less

  19. Mercury Emissions Control Technologies (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications

    2006-01-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook 2006 reference case assumes that states will comply with the requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency's new Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) regulation. CAMR is a two-phase program, with a Phase I cap of 38 tons of mercury emitted from all U.S. power plants in 2010 and a Phase II cap of 15 tons in 2018. Mercury emissions in the electricity generation sector in 2003 are estimated at around 50 tons. Generators have a variety of options to meet the mercury limits, such as: switching to coal with a lower mercury content, relying on flue gas desulfurization or selective catalytic reduction equipment to reduce mercury emissions, or installing conventional activated carbon injection (ACI) technology.

  20. Mercury residues in south Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisemann, J.D.; Beyer, W.N.; Morton, A.; Bennetts, R.E.

    1997-05-01

    Mercury concentrations in the sediments of south Florida wetlands have increased three fold in the last century. Because south Florida is home to many endemic and endangered species, it is important to understand the potential impacts of mercury in this ecosystem`s food web. Recent research by Malley et al. has shown mollusks to be sensitive indicators of methyl mercury which can reflect small differences in background methyl mercury concentrations. In this study, we attempted to determine if the apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) or its eggs are good indicators of bioavailable mercury. Then, using the apple snail as an indicator, we attempted to determine geographic differences in the concentrations of mercury in south Florida. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. In situ remediation technologies for mercury-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Feng; Gao, Jie; Pierce, Eric; Strong, P. J.; Wang, Hailong; Liang, Liyuan

    2015-04-09

    A pollutant that poses significant risks to humans and the environment is mercury from anthropogenic activities. In soils, mercury remediation can be technically challenging and costly, depending on the subsurface mercury distribution, the types of mercury species, and the regulatory requirements. Our paper introduces the chemistry of mercury and its implications for in situ mercury remediation, which is followed by a detailed discussion of several in situ Hg remediation technologies in terms of applicability, cost, advantages, and disadvantages. The effect of Hg speciation on remediation performance, as well as Hg transformation during different remediation processes, was detailed. Thermal desorption, electrokinetic, and soil flushing/washing treatments are removal technologies that mobilize and capture insoluble Hg species, while containment, solidification/stabilization, and vitrification immobilize Hg by converting it to less soluble forms. We also discussed two emerging technologies, phytoremediation and nanotechnology, in this review.

  2. State waste discharge permit application for cooling water and condensate discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haggard, R.D.

    1996-08-12

    The following presents the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) Application for the Cooling Water and Condensate Discharges on the Hanford Site. This application is intended to cover existing cooling water and condensate discharges as well as similar future discharges meeting the criteria set forth in this document.

  3. Evaluation of mercury in the liquid waste processing facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, Vijay; Shah, Hasmukh; Occhipinti, John E.; Wilmarth, William R.; Edwards, Richard E.

    2015-08-13

    This report provides a summary of Phase I activities conducted to support an Integrated Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste System (LWS) Processing Facilities. Phase I activities included a review and assessment of the liquid waste inventory and chemical processing behavior of mercury using a system by system review methodology approach. Gaps in understanding mercury behavior as well as action items from the structured reviews are being tracked. 64% of the gaps and actions have been resolved.

  4. Thief carbon catalyst for oxidation of mercury in effluent stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2011-12-06

    A catalyst for the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg), in an effluent stream is presented. The catalyst facilitates removal of mercury through the oxidation of elemental Hg into mercury (II) moieties. The active component of the catalyst is partially combusted coal, or "Thief" carbon, which can be pre-treated with a halogen. An untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-promoting in the presence of an effluent gas streams entrained with a halogen.

  5. Argonne/EPA system captures mercury from air in gold shops |...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Typical gold shop hood used to purify gold by superheating the goldmercury amalgam until the mercury vaporizes. The vaporized mercury is directed outside the shop into the open...

  6. Mercury Vapor At Hualalai Northwest Rift Area (Thomas, 1986)...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    The Hualalai lower northwest rift and southern flank were sampled for soil mercury concentration and radon emanation rates (Cox and Cuff, 1981d). The data generated by these...

  7. Mercury Vapor At Olowalu-Ukumehame Canyon Area (Thomas, 1986...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Soil mercury concentration and radon emanometry surveys were conducted along the stream beds in both Olowalu...

  8. Mercury Vapor At Lahaina-Kaanapali Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes The soil mercury concentration and radon emanometry patterns observed for the Lahaina prospect were similar to...

  9. Removal of mercury from coal via a microbial pretreatment process...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The mercury can be recovered in pure form from the sorbents via additional processing. Inventors: Borole, Abhijeet P. 1 ; Hamilton, Choo Y. 1 + Show Author Affiliations ...

  10. Soil mercury investigations, Waunita Hot Springs | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Report: Soil mercury investigations, Waunita Hot Springs Authors C. D. Ringrose and R. H. Pearl Organization Colorado Geological Survey in Cooperation with the U.S. Department...

  11. Mercury Energy formerly Aquus Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Energy formerly Aquus Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Mercury Energy (formerly Aquus Energy) Place: New Rochelle, New York Zip: 10801 Sector: Solar Product: Integrator of...

  12. Mercury Vapor At Mokapu Penninsula Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Mokapu Penninsula Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  13. Mercury Vapor At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  14. Mercury Vapor At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Kawaihae...

  15. Mercury Vapor At Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Area (Thomas, 1986...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details...

  16. Mercury Vapor At Socorro Mountain Area (Kooten, 1987) | Open...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Socorro Mountain Area (Kooten, 1987) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  17. The mission of the Remediation of Mercury and Industrial

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Applied Field Research Initiative Technical Working Group DOE End-Users ITRC, CABs, regulators and stakeholders Universities, ...

  18. Mercury: A Diode-Pumped Solid-State Laser

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Optical Technologies Fiber Lasers Laser-Compton Light Source Technology ... Mercury: A Diode-Pumped Solid-State Laser Concurrent with the development of the National ...

  19. Advanced Gasification Mercury/Trace Metal Control with Monolith...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center ...

  20. Mercury Vapor At Medicine Lake Area (Kooten, 1987) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Medicine Lake Area (Kooten, 1987) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Medicine Lake Area (Kooten, 1987) Exploration...

  1. Mercury Vapor At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Exploration...

  2. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury (Patent) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. ...

  3. Thermally Speciated Mercury in Mineral Exploration | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Speciated Mercury in Mineral Exploration Abstract Abstract unavailable. Author S.C. Smith Conference IGES; Dublin, CA; 20030901 Published IGES, 2003 DOI Not Provided Check...

  4. Laser activated diffuse discharge switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hunter, Scott R. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1988-01-01

    The invention is a gas mixture for a diffuse discharge switch which is capable of changing from a conducting state to an insulating state in the presence of electrons upon the introduction of laser light. The mixture is composed of a buffer gas such as nitrogen or argon and an electron attaching gas such as C.sub.6 H.sub.5 SH, C.sub.6 H.sub.5 SCH.sub.3, CH.sub.3 CHO and CF.sub.3 CHO wherein the electron attachment is brought on by indirect excitation of molecules to long-lived states by exposure to laser light.

  5. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-04-14

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition are disclosed. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 14 figs.

  6. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-03-10

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, are disclosed with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 15 figs.

  7. Multiple discharge cylindrical pump collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, Charlton; Bremner, Robert J.; Meng, Sen Y.

    1989-01-01

    A space-saving discharge collector 40 for the rotary pump 28 of a pool-type nuclear reactor 10. An annular collector 50 is located radially outboard for an impeller 44. The annular collector 50 as a closed outer periphery 52 for collecting the fluid from the impeller 44 and producing a uniform circumferential flow of the fluid. Turning means comprising a plurality of individual passageways 54 are located in an axial position relative to the annular collector 50 for receiving the fluid from the annular collector 50 and turning it into a substantially axial direction.

  8. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION FOR WATERBORNE MERCURY REMOVAL AT THE Y12 NATIONAL SECURITY COMPLEX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Feng; Liang, Liyuan; Miller, Carrie L

    2011-01-01

    The Hg-contaminated processing water produced at Y-12 facility is discharged through the storm drain system, merged at Outfall 200, and then discharged to EFPC. Most of the baseflow mercury at Outfall 200 arises from a small number of short sections of storm drain. This report discusses the waterborne mercury treatment technologies to decrease mercury loading to the surface water of EFPC at Y-12 NSC. We reviewed current available waterborne Hg treatment technologies based on the specific conditions of Y-12 and identified two possible options: SnCl2 reduction coupled with air stripping (SnCl2/air stripping) and sorption. The ORNL 2008 and 2009 field studies suggested that SnCl2/air stripping has the capability to remove waterborne mercury with efficiency higher than 90% at Outfall 200. To achieve this goal, dechlorination (i.e., removing residual chlorine from water) using dechlorinating agents such as thiosulfate has to be performed before the reduction. It is unclear whether or not SnCl2/air stripping can reduce the mercury concentration from ~1000 ng/L to 51 ng/L at a full-scale operation. Therefore, a pilot test is a logical step before a full-scale design to answer questions such as Hg removal efficiency, selection of dechlorinating agents, and so on. The major advantages of the SnCl2/air stripping system are: (1) expected low cost at high flow (e.g., the flow at Outfall 200); and (2) production of minimum secondary waste. However, there are many environmental uncertainties associated with this technology by introducing tin to EFPC ecosystem, for example tin methylation causing abiotic Hg methylation, which should be addressed before a full-scale implementation. Mercury adsorption by granular activated carbon (GAC) is a proven technology for treating Hg at Y-12. The ONRL 2010 lab sorption studies suggest that thiol-based resins hold the promise to combine with GAC to form a more cost-effective treatment system. To achieve a treatment goal of 51 ng/L at Outfall

  9. Mercury Specie and Multi-Pollutant Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rob James; Virgil Joffrion; John McDermott; Steve Piche

    2010-05-31

    This project was awarded to demonstrate the ability to affect and optimize mercury speciation and multi-pollutant control using non-intrusive advanced sensor and optimization technologies. The intent was to demonstrate plant-wide optimization systems on a large coal fired steam electric power plant in order to minimize emissions, including mercury (Hg), while maximizing efficiency and maintaining saleable byproducts. Advanced solutions utilizing state-of-the-art sensors and neural network-based optimization and control technologies were proposed to maximize the removal of mercury vapor from the boiler flue gas thereby resulting in lower uncontrolled releases of mercury into the atmosphere. Budget Period 1 (Phase I) - Included the installation of sensors, software system design and establishment of the as-found baseline operating metrics for pre-project and post-project data comparison. Budget Period 2 (Phase II) - Software was installed, data communications links from the sensors were verified, and modifications required to integrate the software system to the DCS were performed. Budget Period 3 (Phase III) - Included the validation and demonstration of all control systems and software, and the comparison of the optimized test results with the targets established for the project site. This report represents the final technical report for the project, covering the entire award period and representing the final results compared to project goals. NeuCo shouldered 61% of the total project cost; while DOE shouldered the remaining 39%. The DOE requires repayment of its investment. This repayment will result from commercial sales of the products developed under the project. NRG's Limestone power plant (formerly owned by Texas Genco) contributed the host site, human resources, and engineering support to ensure the project's success.

  10. Determination of total mercury in sorbent tubes using direct mercury analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nortje, J.

    2008-08-15

    A U.S. EPA draft method, Method 30 B, has been approved as a reference method for relative accuracy testing audits of Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems (CEMS) and sorbent trap monitoring systems installed at coal-fired utilities. It is also appropriate for mercury emissions testing at such facilities. This method is a procedure for measuring total vapor phase mercury emissions from coal-fired combustion sources using all extractive or thermal analytical technique and UV atomic absorption (AA) or UV atomic fluorescence (AF) cold vapor analyzers as the analytical system. The DMA-80 direct mercury analyzer uses thermal decomposition and ultimately AA spectrophotometry to analyze samples. The analyzer can be used for Method 30 B analysis.

  11. Multiple discharge cylindrical pump collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, C.; Bremmer, R.J.; Meng, S.Y.

    1989-10-17

    This patent describes an improvement in a method for circulating fluid coolant through a reactor core of a pool-type nuclear reactor having a sealed containment vessel containing a reactor core submersed in a body of liquid coolant. The method for circulating coolant including utilization of a rotary pump including an impeller for producing a highly circumferential flow of cooling fluid and a method for collecting and discharging coolant fluid, the improvement to the method of collecting and discharging coolant fluid including the steps of: producing a substantially uniform circumferential flow of the fluid by directing the flow through a plurality of diffuser vanes and into an annular collector located radially outboard from the impeller. The annular collector having an entirely closed outer periphery; and turning the flow of cooling fluid into a substantially axially direction while maintaining a substantially constant average flow velocity by directing the coolant flow from the annular collector into a plurality of individual passageways located in an axial position relative to the annular collector.

  12. Analysis of Halogen-Mercury Reactions in Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paula Buitrago; Geoffrey Silcox; Constance Senior; Brydger Van Otten

    2010-01-01

    Oxidized mercury species may be formed in combustion systems through gas-phase reactions between elemental mercury and halogens, such as chorine or bromine. This study examines how bromine species affect mercury oxidation in the gas phase and examines the effects of mixtures of bromine and chlorine on extents of oxidation. Experiments were conducted in a bench-scale, laminar flow, methane-fired (300 W), quartz-lined reactor in which gas composition (HCl, HBr, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}) and temperature profile were varied. In the experiments, the post-combustion gases were quenched from flame temperatures to about 350 C, and then speciated mercury was measured using a wet conditioning system and continuous emissions monitor (CEM). Supporting kinetic calculations were performed and compared with measured levels of oxidation. A significant portion of this report is devoted to sample conditioning as part of the mercury analysis system. In combustion systems with significant amounts of Br{sub 2} in the flue gas, the impinger solutions used to speciate mercury may be biased and care must be taken in interpreting mercury oxidation results. The stannous chloride solution used in the CEM conditioning system to convert all mercury to total mercury did not provide complete conversion of oxidized mercury to elemental, when bromine was added to the combustion system, resulting in a low bias for the total mercury measurement. The use of a hydroxylamine hydrochloride and sodium hydroxide solution instead of stannous chloride showed a significant improvement in the measurement of total mercury. Bromine was shown to be much more effective in the post-flame, homogeneous oxidation of mercury than chlorine, on an equivalent molar basis. Addition of NO to the flame (up to 400 ppmv) had no impact on mercury oxidation by chlorine or bromine. Addition of SO{sub 2} had no effect on mercury oxidation by chlorine at SO{sub 2} concentrations below about 400 ppmv; some increase in mercury oxidation

  13. Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JoAnn Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Constance Senior; Joseph Helble; Balaji Krishnakumar

    2008-07-31

    The objective of this project was to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involved both experimental and modeling efforts. The team was comprised of the University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and the University of Connecticut. The objective was to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters studied include HCl, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. The results suggested that homogeneous mercury oxidation is below 10% which is not consistent with previous data of others and work which was completed early in this research program. Previous data showed oxidation above 10% and up to 100%. However, the previous data are suspect due to apparent oxidation occurring within the sampling system where hypochlorite ion forms in the KCl impinger, which in turn oxidized mercury. Initial tests with entrained iron oxide particles injected into a flame reactor suggest that iron present on fly ash particle surfaces can promote heterogeneous oxidation of mercury in the presence of HCl under entrained flow conditions. Using the data generated above, with homogeneous reactions accounting for less than 10% of the oxidation, comparisons were made to pilot- and full-scale data. The results suggest that heterogeneous reactions, as with the case of iron oxide, and adsorption on solid carbon must be taking place in the full-scale system. Modeling of mercury oxidation using parameters from the literature was conducted to further study the contribution of homogeneous pathways to Hg oxidation in coal combustion systems. Calculations from the literature used rate parameters developed in different studies, in some cases using transition state theory with a range of approaches and basis sets, and in other cases

  14. Method and apparatus for dispensing small quantities of mercury from evacuated and sealed glass capsules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.; Pai, Robert Y.

    1985-01-01

    A technique for opening an evacuated and sealed glass capsule containing a material that is to be dispensed which has a relatively high vapor pressure such as mercury. The capsule is typically disposed in a discharge tube envelope. The technique involves the use of a first light source imaged along the capsule and a second light source imaged across the capsule substantially transversely to the imaging of the first light source. Means are provided for constraining a segment of the capsule along its length with the constraining means being positioned to correspond with the imaging of the second light source. These light sources are preferably incandescent projection lamps. The constraining means is preferably a multiple looped wire support.

  15. Method and apparatus for dispensing small quantities of mercury from evacuated and sealed glass capsules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.; Pai, R.Y.

    1985-08-13

    A technique is disclosed for opening an evacuated and sealed glass capsule containing a material that is to be dispensed which has a relatively high vapor pressure such as mercury. The capsule is typically disposed in a discharge tube envelope. The technique involves the use of a first light source imaged along the capsule and a second light source imaged across the capsule substantially transversely to the imaging of the first light source. Means are provided for constraining a segment of the capsule along its length with the constraining means being positioned to correspond with the imaging of the second light source. These light sources are preferably incandescent projection lamps. The constraining means is preferably a multiple looped wire support. 6 figs.

  16. Evaluation of Regenerated Catalyst for Mercury Speciation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Laudal

    2007-06-01

    In March of 2005, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR). Mercury from coal-fired power plants was to be reduced from the current 48 to 38 tons/yr by 2010 and then 15 tons/yr by 2018. It is expected that the first phase reduction of {approx}21% will be achieved by cobenefits that will occur as a result of installing additional selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to meet the new Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). Detroit Edison (DTE) is installing SCR at all four units at its Monroe Station and will eventually install wet-FGD systems. As such, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and DTE have contracted with the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to determine the extent of mercury oxidation that occurs at Monroe Station. The EERC originally did mercury speciation sampling at Monroe Station in 2004 and then went back in 2005 to determine if any changes occurred as a result of catalyst aging. During the second test, in addition to measuring the mercury speciation at the inlet and outlet of the SCR, the EERC also completed sampling at a location between the catalyst layers. The results are shown in Table 1. In Table 1, the results show that {approx}40% of the Hg was in oxidized form (Hg{sup 2+}) at the inlet and nearly 100% Hg{sup 2+} at the outlet. The results at the midpoint were between 40% and 100%. As part of their overall strategy to reduce SCR costs, utilities and SCR vendors are attempting to regenerate catalyst layers that have degenerated over time. If these regenerated catalysts are used, the question remains as to the effect this process will have on the ability of these catalysts to oxidize mercury as well as reduce NO{sub x}. The current project is designed to measure the Hg speciation across an SCR using a regenerated catalyst. The results were compared to previous results to determine what, if any, changes

  17. Role of secondary emission on discharge dynamics in an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tay, W. H.; Kausik, S. S.; Yap, S. L.; Wong, C. S.

    2014-04-15

    The discharge dynamics in an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is studied in a DBD reactor consisting of a pair of stainless steel parallel plate electrodes. The DBD discharge has been generated by a 50?Hz ac high voltage power source. The high-speed intensified charge coupled device camera is used to capture the images of filaments occurring in the discharge gap. It is observed that frequent synchronous breakdown of micro discharges occurs across the discharge gap in the case of negative current pulse. The experimental results reveal that secondary emissions from the dielectric surface play a key role in the synchronous breakdown of plasma filaments.

  18. DISCHARGE VALVE FOR GRANULAR MATERIAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stoughton, L.D.; Robinson, S.T.

    1962-05-15

    A gravity-red dispenser or valve is designed for discharging the fueled spherical elements used in a pebble bed reactor. The dispenser consists of an axially movable tube terminating under a hood having side walls with openings. When the tube is moved so that its top edge is above the tops of the side openings the elements will not flow. As the tube is moved downwardly, the elements flow into the hood through the side openings and over the top edge into the tube at an increasing rate as the tube is lowered further. The tube is spaced at all times from the hood and side walls a distance greater than the diameter of the largest element to prevent damaging of the elements when the dispenser is closed to flow. (AEC)

  19. Retention of elemental mercury in fly ashes in different atmospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Lopez-Anton; M. Diaz-Somoano; M.R. Martinez-Tarazona

    2007-01-15

    Mercury is an extremely volatile element, which is emitted from coal combustion to the environment mostly in the vapor phase. To avoid the environmental problems that the toxic species of this element may cause, control technologies for the removal of mercury are necessary. Recent research has shown that certain fly ash materials have an affinity for mercury. Moreover, it has been observed that fly ashes may catalyze the oxidation of elemental mercury and facilitate its capture. However, the exact nature of Hg-fly ash interactions is still unknown, and mercury oxidation through fly ash needs to be investigated more thoroughly. In this work, the influence of a gas atmosphere on the retention of elemental mercury on fly ashes of different characteristics was evaluated. The retention capacity was estimated comparatively in inert and two gas atmospheres containing species present in coal gasification and coal combustion. Fly ashes produced in two pulverized coal combustion (PCC) plants, produced from coals of different rank (CTA and CTSR), and a fly ash (CTP) produced in a fluidized bed combustion (FBC) plant were used as raw materials. The mercury retention capacity of these fly ashes was compared to the retention obtained in different activated carbons. Although the capture of mercury is very similar in the gasification atmosphere and N{sub 2}, it is much more efficient in a coal combustion retention, being greater in fly ashes from PCC than those from FBC plants. 22 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Activated carbon injection - a mercury control success story

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    Almost 100 full-scale activated carbon injection (ACI) systems have been ordered by US electric utilities. These systems have the potential to remove over 90% of the mercury in flue, at a cost below $10,000 per pound of mercury removal. Field trials of ACI systems arm outlined. 1 fig.

  1. Method for removal of mercury from various gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.

    2003-06-10

    The invention provides for a method for removing elemental mercury from a fluid, the method comprising irradiating the mercury with light having a wavelength of approximately 254 nm. The method is implemented in situ at various fuel combustion locations such as power plants and municipal incinerators.

  2. Mercury removal in utility wet scrubber using a chelating agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amrhein, Gerald T.

    2001-01-01

    A method for capturing and reducing the mercury content of an industrial flue gas such as that produced in the combustion of a fossil fuel or solid waste adds a chelating agent, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or other similar compounds like HEDTA, DTPA and/or NTA, to the flue gas being scrubbed in a wet scrubber used in the industrial process. The chelating agent prevents the reduction of oxidized mercury to elemental mercury, thereby increasing the mercury removal efficiency of the wet scrubber. Exemplary tests on inlet and outlet mercury concentration in an industrial flue gas were performed without and with EDTA addition. Without EDTA, mercury removal totaled 42%. With EDTA, mercury removal increased to 71%. The invention may be readily adapted to known wet scrubber systems and it specifically provides for the removal of unwanted mercury both by supplying S.sup.2- ions to convert Hg.sup.2+ ions into mercuric sulfide (HgS) and by supplying a chelating agent to sequester other ions, including but not limited to Fe.sup.2+ ions, which could otherwise induce the unwanted reduction of Hg.sup.2+ to the form, Hg.sup.0.

  3. PyMercury: Interactive Python for the Mercury Monte Carlo Particle Transport Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iandola, F N; O'Brien, M J; Procassini, R J

    2010-11-29

    Monte Carlo particle transport applications are often written in low-level languages (C/C++) for optimal performance on clusters and supercomputers. However, this development approach often sacrifices straightforward usability and testing in the interest of fast application performance. To improve usability, some high-performance computing applications employ mixed-language programming with high-level and low-level languages. In this study, we consider the benefits of incorporating an interactive Python interface into a Monte Carlo application. With PyMercury, a new Python extension to the Mercury general-purpose Monte Carlo particle transport code, we improve application usability without diminishing performance. In two case studies, we illustrate how PyMercury improves usability and simplifies testing and validation in a Monte Carlo application. In short, PyMercury demonstrates the value of interactive Python for Monte Carlo particle transport applications. In the future, we expect interactive Python to play an increasingly significant role in Monte Carlo usage and testing.

  4. Site Discharge Pollution Prevention Plan (SDPPP)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    SDPPP Individual Permit: Site Discharge Pollution Prevention Plan (SDPPP) The 2014 SDPPP update fully incorporates all changes made during the year and reflects changes projected...

  5. Device for generation of pulsed corona discharge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gutsol, Alexander F.; Fridman, Alexander; Blank, Kenneth; Korobtsev, Sergey; Shiryaevsky, Valery; Medvedev, Dmitry

    2012-05-08

    The invention is a method and system for the generation of high voltage, pulsed, periodic corona discharges capable of being used in the presence of conductive liquid droplets. The method and system can be used, for example, in different devices for cleaning of gaseous or liquid media using pulsed corona discharge. Specially designed electrodes and an inductor increase the efficiency of the system, permit the plasma chemical oxidation of detrimental impurities, and increase the range of stable discharge operations in the presence of droplets of water or other conductive liquids in the discharge chamber.

  6. Montana Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (MPDES) Webpage...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    System (MPDES) Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (MPDES) Webpage Abstract Provides...

  7. CDPHE Industrial Individual Wastewater Discharge Permit Application...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    ApplicationLegal Abstract Application provided by the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) for use by all individual industrial process water dischargers...

  8. California Waste Discharge Requirements Website | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Requirements Website Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: California Waste Discharge Requirements Website Abstract This website contains...

  9. Texas Railroad Commission - Pollution Discharge Regulations ...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Not Provided DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for Texas Railroad Commission - Pollution Discharge Regulations Citation...

  10. Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated SRS soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cicero, C.A.

    1996-05-08

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has been charactered by the Department of Enregy (DOE) - Office of Technology Development (OTD) to investigate vitrification technology for the treatment of Low Level Mixed Wastes (LLMW). In fiscal year 1995, LLW streams containing mercury and organics were targeted. This report will present the results of studies with mercury contaminated waste. In order to successfully apply vitrification technology to LLMW, the types and quantities of glass forming additives necessary for producing homogeneous glasses from the wastes had to be determined, and the treatment for the mercury portion had to also be determined. The selected additives had to ensure that a durable and leach resistant waste form was produced, while the mercury treatment had to ensure that hazardous amounts of mercury were not released into the environment.

  11. Apparatus and method for removing mercury vapor from a gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganesan, Kumar

    2008-01-01

    A metallic filter effectively removes mercury vapor from gas streams. The filter captures the mercury which then can be released and collected as product. The metallic filter is a copper mesh sponge plated with a six micrometer thickness of gold. The filter removes up to 90% of mercury vapor from a mercury contaminated gas stream.

  12. Emissions of airborne toxics from coal-fired boilers: Mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.; Zaromb, S.

    1991-09-01

    Concerns over emissions of hazardous air Pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue, and the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants was greatly expanded through the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Mercury has been singled out for particular attention because of concerns over possible effects of emissions on human health. This report evaluates available published information on the mercury content of coals mined in the United States, on mercury emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Anthracite and bituminous coals have the highest mean-mercury concentrations, with subbituminous coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in mercury concentrations. Mercury emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific mercury compounds. Variations in emission rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of mercury by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 20% to over 50% have been reported. Reported removals for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems range between 35 and 95%, while spray-dryer/fabric-filter systems have given removals of 75 to 99% on municipal incinerators. In all cases, better data are needed before any definitive judgments can be made. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in mercury control for existing flue-gas-clean-up technologies and summarizes the status of techniques for measuring mercury emissions from combustion sources.

  13. Environmental release of mercury from coal utilization by-products: will new mercury controls at power plants make a difference?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aljoe, W.W.; Feeley, T.J., III; Brickett, L.A.; Schroeder, K.T.; Murphy, J.T. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA (US)

    2005-09-30

    The US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) uses the term coal utilization by-products (CUBs) to describe the solid materials produced by the combustion or gasification of coal. The following general observations can be drawn from results of field tests that have been carried out thus far to determine whether new technologies for mercury emission control at coal power plants will affect the release of mercury from CUBs. There appears to be only minimal potential mercury release to the environment in typical disposal or utilization application for CUBs generated using ACI control technologies. There appears to be only minimal mercury release to the environment for CUBs generated using wet FGD control technologies. The amount of mercury leached from CUBs samples tested is significantly lower than the federal drinking water standards and water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cho, Young I.; Fridman, Alexander; Gutsol, Alexander F.; Yang, Yong

    2014-07-22

    The present invention is directed to a novel method for cleaning a filter surface using a plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system. The method involves utilizing plasma discharges to induce short electric pulses of nanoseconds duration at high voltages. These electrical pulses generate strong Shockwaves that disintegrate and dislodge particulate matter located on the surface of the filter.

  15. Discharge lamp with reflective jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Kipling, Kent

    2001-01-01

    A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

  16. Fluid jet electric discharge source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bender, Howard A.

    2006-04-25

    A fluid jet or filament source and a pair of coaxial high voltage electrodes, in combination, comprise an electrical discharge system to produce radiation and, in particular, EUV radiation. The fluid jet source is composed of at least two serially connected reservoirs, a first reservoir into which a fluid, that can be either a liquid or a gas, can be fed at some pressure higher than atmospheric and a second reservoir maintained at a lower pressure than the first. The fluid is allowed to expand through an aperture into a high vacuum region between a pair of coaxial electrodes. This second expansion produces a narrow well-directed fluid jet whose size is dependent on the size and configuration of the apertures and the pressure used in the reservoir. At some time during the flow of the fluid filament, a high voltage pulse is applied to the electrodes to excite the fluid to form a plasma which provides the desired radiation; the wavelength of the radiation being determined by the composition of the fluid.

  17. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, S.A.; Glish, G.L.

    1989-07-18

    An atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source that can be used in combination with an analytical instrument which operates at high vacuum, such as a mass spectrometer. The atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source comprises a chamber with at least one pair of electrodes disposed therein, an inlet for a gaseous sample to be analyzed and an outlet communicating with an analyzer which operates at subatmospheric pressure. The ionization chamber is maintained at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, and a voltage difference is applied across the electrodes to induce a glow discharge between the electrodes, so that molecules passing through the inlet are ionized by the glow discharge and directed into the analyzer. The ionization source accepts the sample under atmospheric pressure conditions and processes it directly into the high vacuum instrument, bridging the pressure gap and drawing off unwanted atmospheric gases. The invention also includes a method for analyzing a gaseous sample using the glow discharge ionization source described above. 3 figs.

  18. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, Scott A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Glish, Gary L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01

    An atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source that can be used in combination with an analytical instrument which operates at high vacuum, such as a mass spectrometer. The atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source comprises a chamber with at least one pair of electrodes disposed therein, an inlet for a gaseous sample to be analyzed and an outlet communicating with an analyzer which operates at subatmospheric pressure. The ionization chamber is maintained at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, and a voltage difference is applied across the electrodes to induce a glow discharge between the electrodes, so that molecules passing through the inlet are ionized by the glow discharge and directed into the analyzer. The ionization source accepts the sample under atmospheric pressure conditions and processes it directly into the high vacuum instrument, bridging the pressure gap and drawing off unwanted atmospheric gases. The invention also includes a method for analyzing a gaseous sample using the glow discharge ionization source described above.

  19. BEHAVIOR OF MERCURY DURING DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zamecnik, J.; Koopman, D.

    2012-04-09

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility has experienced significant issues with the stripping and recovery of mercury in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The stripping rate has been inconsistent, often resulting in extended processing times to remove mercury to the required endpoint concentration. The recovery of mercury in the Mercury Water Wash Tank has never been high, and has decreased significantly since the Mercury Water Wash Tank was replaced after the seventh batch of Sludge Batch 5. Since this time, essentially no recovery of mercury has been seen. Pertinent literature was reviewed, previous lab-scale data on mercury stripping and recovery was examined, and new lab-scale CPC Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) runs were conducted. For previous lab-scale data, many of the runs with sufficient mercury recovery data were examined to determine what factors affect the stripping and recovery of mercury and to improve closure of the mercury material balance. Ten new lab-scale SRAT runs (HG runs) were performed to examine the effects of acid stoichiometry, sludge solids concentration, antifoam concentration, form of mercury added to simulant, presence of a SRAT heel, operation of the SRAT condenser at higher than prototypic temperature, varying noble metals from none to very high concentrations, and higher agitation rate. Data from simulant runs from SB6, SB7a, glycolic/formic, and the HG tests showed that a significant amount of Hg metal was found on the vessel bottom at the end of tests. Material balance closure improved from 12-71% to 48-93% when this segregated Hg was considered. The amount of Hg segregated as elemental Hg on the vessel bottom was 4-77% of the amount added. The highest recovery of mercury in the offgas system generally correlated with the highest retention of Hg in the slurry. Low retention in the slurry (high segregation on the vessel bottom) resulted in low recovery in the offgas system. High agitation rates appear to result in lower

  20. Fluorescence dye tagging scheme for mercury quantification and speciation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiao, Hong; Catterall, Hannah

    2015-09-22

    A fluorescent dye or fluorophore capable of forming complexes with mercury comprises 6,8-difluoro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxylate amide, wherein the amide is formed by reacting the succinimidyl ester (Pacific Blue.TM.) with an amino acid containing a thiol group, such as cysteine or glutathione. Mercury complexes of the fluorophore fluoresce when excited by a UV or violet laser diode, and the detected intensity can be calibrated to quantify the concentration of mercury in a sample reacted with the fluorophore.

  1. Demonstration of Mer-Cure Technology for Enhanced Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Marion; Dave O'Neill; Kevin Taugher; Shin Kang; Mark Johnson; Gerald Pargac; Jane Luedecke; Randy Gardiner; Mike Silvertooth; Jim Hicks; Carl Edberg; Ray Cournoyer; Stanley Bohdanowicz; Ken Peterson; Kurt Johnson; Steve Benson; Richard Schulz; Don McCollor; Mike Wuitshick

    2008-06-01

    Alstom Power Inc. has completed a DOE/NETL-sponsored program (under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. De-FC26-07NT42776) to demonstrate Mer-Cure{trademark}, one of Alstom's mercury control technologies for coal-fired boilers. The Mer-Cure{trademark}system utilizes a small amount of Mer-Clean{trademark} sorbent that is injected into the flue gas stream for oxidation and adsorption of gaseous mercury. Mer-Clean{trademark} sorbents are carbon-based and prepared with chemical additives that promote oxidation and capture of mercury. The Mer-Cure{trademark} system is unique in that the sorbent is injected into an environment where the mercury capture kinetics is accelerated. The full-scale demonstration program originally included test campaigns at two host sites: LCRA's 480-MW{sub e} Fayette Unit No.3 and Reliant Energy's 190-MW{sub e} Shawville Unit No.3. The only demonstration tests actually done were the short-term tests at LCRA due to budget constraints. This report gives a summary of the demonstration testing at Fayette Unit No.3. The goals for this Mercury Round 3 program, established by DOE/NETL under the original solicitation, were to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 90% at a cost significantly less than 50% of the previous target of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The results indicated that Mer-Cure{trademark} technology could achieve mercury removal of 90% based on uncontrolled stack emissions. The estimated costs for 90% mercury control, at a sorbent cost of $0.75 to $2.00/lb respectively, were $13,400 to $18,700/lb Hg removed. In summary, the results from demonstration testing show that the goals established by DOE/NETL were met during this test program. The goal of 90% mercury reduction was achieved. Estimated mercury removal costs were 69-78% lower than the benchmark of $60,000/lb mercury removed, significantly less than 50% of the baseline removal cost.

  2. Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Landreth

    2007-12-31

    This report summarizes the work conducted from September 1, 2003 through December 31, 2007 on the project entitled Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program. The project covers the testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant and the Duke Power Cliffside and Buck Stations. The St. Clair Plant used a blend of subbituminous and bituminous coal and controlled the particulate emissions by means of a cold-side ESP. The Duke Power Stations used bituminous coals and controlled their particulate emissions by means of hot-side ESPs. The testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant demonstrated that mercury sorbents could be used to achieve high mercury removal rates with low injection rates at facilities that burn subbituminous coal. A mercury removal rate of 94% was achieved at an injection rate of 3 lb/MMacf over the thirty day long-term test. Prior to this test, it was believed that the mercury in flue gas of this type would be the most difficult to capture. This is not the case. The testing at the two Duke Power Stations proved that carbon- based mercury sorbents can be used to control the mercury emissions from boilers with hot-side ESPs. It was known that plain PACs did not have any mercury capacity at elevated temperatures but that brominated B-PAC did. The mercury removal rate varies with the operation but it appears that mercury removal rates equal to or greater than 50% are achievable in facilities equipped with hot-side ESPs. As part of the program, both sorbent injection equipment and sorbent production equipment was acquired and operated. This equipment performed very well during this program. In addition, mercury instruments were acquired for this program. These instruments worked well in the flue gas at the St. Clair Plant but not as well in the flue gas at the Duke Power Stations. It is believed that the difference in the amount of oxidized mercury, more at Duke Power, was the difference in instrument performance. Much of the equipment was

  3. RL-2007HanfordIdentification(HID)PIA.pdf

    Energy Savers

  4. HID_TP_SNOPR_2014-04-30_v3

    Energy Savers

    of Excess Uranium on Domestic Uranium Mining, Conversion, and Enrichment Industries; ... consequences for the domestic uranium mining, conversion, and enrichment industries. ...

  5. HID_TP_SNOPR_2014-04-30_v3

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Excess Uranium Management: Effects of DOE Transfers of Excess Uranium on Domestic Uranium Mining, Conversion, and Enrichment Industries; Request for Information AGENCY: Office of Nuclear Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Extension of comment period. SUMMARY: On July 19, 2016, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a request for information (RFI) seeking comment on certain issues related to DOE's preparation for a potential new Secretarial Determination covering continued transfers of

  6. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernest F. Stine Jr; Steven T. Downey

    2002-08-14

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) used large quantities of mercury in the uranium separating process from the 1950s until the late 1980s in support of national defense. Some of this mercury, as well as other hazardous metals and radionuclides, found its way into, and under, several buildings, soil and subsurface soils and into some of the surface waters. Several of these areas may pose potential health or environmental risks and must be dealt with under current environmental regulations. DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) awarded a contract ''Alternative Field Methods to Treat Mercury in Soil'' to IT Group, Knoxville TN (IT) and its subcontractor NFS, Erwin, TN to identify remedial methods to clean up mercury-contaminated high-clay content soils using proven treatment chemistries. The sites of interest were the Y-12 National Security Complex located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the David Witherspoon properties located in Knoxville, Tennessee, and at other similarly contaminated sites. The primary laboratory-scale contract objectives were (1) to safely retrieve and test samples of contaminated soil in an approved laboratory and (2) to determine an acceptable treatment method to ensure that the mercury does not leach from the soil above regulatory levels. The leaching requirements were to meet the TC (0.2 mg/l) and UTS (0.025 mg/l) TCLP criteria. In-situ treatments were preferred to control potential mercury vapors emissions and liquid mercury spills associated with ex-situ treatments. All laboratory work was conducted in IT's and NFS laboratories. Mercury contaminated nonradioactive soil from under the Alpha 2 building in the Y-12 complex was used. This soils contained insufficient levels of leachable mercury and resulted in TCLP mercury concentrations that were similar to the applicable LDR limits. The soil was spiked at multiple levels with metallic (up to 6000 mg/l) and soluble mercury compounds (up to 500 mg/kg) to simulate expected ranges of mercury

  7. Mercury Vapor At Kilauea East Rift Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    located within the rift zone, but an analysis of the data showed that soil type and soil pH also had a marked impact on mercury concentration. Making corrections for these effects...

  8. Advanced Gasification Mercury/Trace Metal Control with Monolith...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400F and pressure of 600 ...

  9. Mercury Contents of Natural Thermal and Mineral Fluids, In- U...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Paper 713 Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Book Section: Mercury Contents of Natural Thermal and Mineral Fluids, In- U.S. Geological...

  10. Surface Mercury Geochemistry As A Guide To Volcanic Vent Structure...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Mercury Geochemistry As A Guide To Volcanic Vent Structure And Zones Of High Heat Flow In The Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes, Katmai National Park, Alaska Jump to: navigation,...

  11. Fly Ash and Mercury Oxidation/Chlorination Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sukh Sidhu; Patanjali Varanasi

    2008-12-31

    Mercury is a known pollutant that has detrimental effect on human health and environment. The anthropogenic emissions of mercury account for 10 to 30% of worldwide mercury emissions. There is a need to control/reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions. Many mercury control technologies are available but their effectiveness is dependent on the chemical form of mercury, because different chemical forms of mercury have different physical and chemical properties. Mercury leaves the boiler in its elemental form but goes through various transformations in the post-combustion zone. There is a need to understand how fly ash and flue gas composition affect speciation, partitioning, and reactions of mercury under the full range of post-combustion zone conditions. This knowledge can then be used to predict the chemical transformation of mercury (elemental, oxidized or particulate) in the post combustion zone and thus help with the control of mercury emissions from coal-burning power plants. To accomplish this goal present study was conducted using five coal fly ashes. These ashes were characterized and their catalytic activity was compared under selected reaction conditions in a fixed bed reactor. Based on the results from these fly ash experiments, three key components (carbon, iron oxide and calcium oxide) were chosen. These three components were then used to prepare model fly ashes. Silica/alumina was used as a base for these model fly ashes. One, two or three component model fly ashes were then prepared to investigate mercury transformation reactions. The third set of experiments was performed with CuO and CuCl2 catalysts to further understand the mercury oxidation process. Based on the results of these three studies the key components were predicted for different fly ash compositions under variety of flue gas conditions. A fixed bed reactor system was used to conduct this study. In all the experiments, the inlet concentration of Hg0(g) was maintained at 35 {micro}g/m3 using

  12. Multiple Species of Bacteria Convert Elemental Mercury to Toxic...

    Office of Science (SC) [DOE]

    Researchers are studying how bacteria transform mercury into a toxic form in the environment that can accumulate in the food web, posing a threat to wildlife and people. The ...

  13. Ternary gas mixture for diffuse discharge switch (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ternary gas mixture for diffuse discharge switch Title: Ternary gas mixture for diffuse discharge switch A new diffuse discharge gas switch wherein a mixture of gases is used to ...

  14. Electrolytic recovery of mercury enriched in isotopic abundance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of electrolytically extracting liquid mercury from HgO or Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2. Additionally there are disclosed two related techniques associated with the present invention, namely (1) a technique for selectively removing product from different regions of a long photochemical reactor (photoreactor) and (2) a method of accurately measuring the total quantity of mercury formed as either HgO or Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2.

  15. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; LIPFERT, F.; SUBRAMANIAM, S.; BLAKE, R.

    2005-09-21

    Mercury is a neurotoxin that accumulates in the food chain and is therefore a health concern. The primary human exposure pathway is through fish consumption. Coal-fired power plants emit mercury and there is uncertainty over whether this creates localized hot spots of mercury leading to substantially higher levels of mercury in water bodies and therefore higher exposure. To obtain direct evidence of local deposition patterns, soil and vegetations samples from around three U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of hot spots and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. At all three sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. It was estimated that less than 2% of the total mercury emissions from these plants deposited within 15 km of these plants. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the literature review findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to hot spots, near the plants. The major objective of the sampling studies was to determine if there was evidence for hot spots of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. From a public health perspective, such a hot spot must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must increase mercury concentrations to a level in which health effects are a concern in a water body large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study suggest that neither of these conditions has been met.

  16. Geological and Anthropogenic Factors Influencing Mercury Speciation in Mine

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Wastes Geological and Anthropogenic Factors Influencing Mercury Speciation in Mine Wastes Christopher S. Kim,1 James J. Rytuba,2 Gordon E. Brown, Jr.3 1Department of Physical Sciences, Chapman University, Orange, CA 92866 2U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA 94025 3Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 Introduction Figure 1. Dr. Christopher Kim collects a mine waste sample from the Oat Hill mercury mine in Northern California. The

  17. Mercury Speciation in Piscivorous Fish from Mining-impacted Reservoirs

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Mercury Speciation in Piscivorous Fish from Mining-impacted Reservoirs Mercury toxicity generates environmental concerns in diverse aquatic systems because methylmercury enters the water column in diverse ways then biomagnifies through food webs. At the apex of many freshwater food webs, piscivorous fish can then extend that trophic transfer and potential for neurotoxicity to wildlife and humans. Mining activities, particularly those associated with the San Francisco Bay region, can generate

  18. Thiacrown polymers for removal of mercury from waste streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumann, Theodore F.; Reynolds, John G.; Fox, Glenn A.

    2004-02-24

    Thiacrown polymers immobilized to a polystyrene-divinylbenzene matrix react with Hg.sup.2+ under a variety of conditions to efficiently and selectively remove Hg.sup.2+ ions from acidic aqueous solutions, even in the presence of a variety of other metal ions. The mercury can be recovered and the polymer regenerated. This mercury removal method has utility in the treatment of industrial wastewater, where a selective and cost-effective removal process is required.

  19. DOE Interim Guidance on Mercury Management Procedures and Standards

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    DOE, in consultation with the USEPA and State agencies, prepared this guidance on packaging, transportation, receipt, management, and long-term storage of elemental mercury at a DOE facility or facilities as mandated by the MEBA (the Act). This guidance document establishes basic standards and procedures for the receipt, management, and long-term storage of elemental mercury at a DOE facility as mandated by the Act.

  20. Thiacrown polymers for removal of mercury from waste streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumann, Theodore F.; Reynolds, John G.; Fox, Glenn A.

    2002-01-01

    Thiacrown polymers immobilized to a polystyrene-divinylbenzene matrix react with Hg.sup.2+ under a variety of conditions to efficiently and selectively remove Hg.sup.2+ ions from acidic aqueous solutions, even in the presence of a variety of other metal ions. The mercury can be recovered and the polymer regenerated. This mercury removal method has utility in the treatment of industrial wastewater, where a selective and cost-effective removal process is required.

  1. NMED - Discharge Permit Application | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Discharge Permit ApplicationLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 2014 Legal Citation Not provided DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online...

  2. Glow discharge plasma deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weakliem, Herbert A. (Pennington, NJ); Vossen, Jr., John L. (Bridgewater, NJ)

    1984-05-29

    A glow discharge plasma reactor for deposition of thin films from a reactive RF glow discharge is provided with a screen positioned between the walls of the chamber and the cathode to confine the glow discharge region to within the region defined by the screen and the cathode. A substrate for receiving deposition material from a reactive gas is positioned outside the screened region. The screen is electrically connected to the system ground to thereby serve as the anode of the system. The energy of the reactive gas species is reduced as they diffuse through the screen to the substrate. Reactive gas is conducted directly into the glow discharge region through a centrally positioned distribution head to reduce contamination effects otherwise caused by secondary reaction products and impurities deposited on the reactor walls.

  3. Sandia National Laboratories: Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Laboratory We have field and laboratory capabilities to measure electrostatic environment generation, storage, and charge transfer effects. Non-contact electrostatic field surveillance techniques are available to monitor charge generation of conductors or dielectrics, and induction or physical contact charging of wiring or pin voltage for electrical system components. The Sandia severe personnel electrostatic discharge simulator, with a maximum charge voltage of 25

  4. Site Discharge Pollution Prevention Plan (SDPPP)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    SDPPP Individual Permit: Site Discharge Pollution Prevention Plan (SDPPP) The 2015 SDPPP Update fully incorporates all changes made during the year and reflects changes projected for 2016. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email Site Discharge Pollution Prevention Plan (SDPPP) The 2015 Update to the SDPPP, Revision 1, fulfills the requirements of Part 1.F of the Individual Permit. The first six drop-down items

  5. MERCURY CONTAMINATED MATERIAL DECONTAMINATION METHODS: INVESTIGATION AND ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    Over the years mercury has been recognized as having serious impacts on human health and the environment. This recognition has led to numerous studies that deal with the properties of various mercury forms, the development of methods to quantify and speciate the forms, fate and transport, toxicology studies, and the development of site remediation and decontamination technologies. This report reviews several critical areas that will be used in developing technologies for cleaning mercury from mercury-contaminated surfaces of metals and porous materials found in many DOE facilities. The technologies used for decontamination of water and mixed wastes (solid) are specifically discussed. Many technologies that have recently appeared in the literature are included in the report. Current surface decontamination processes have been reviewed, and the limitations of these technologies for mercury decontamination are discussed. Based on the currently available technologies and the processes published recently in the literature, several processes, including strippable coatings, chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, chemisorbing surface wipes with forager sponge and grafted cotton, and surface/pore fixation through amalgamation or stabilization, have been identified as potential techniques for decontamination of mercury-contaminated metal and porous surfaces. Their potential merits and applicability are discussed. Finally, two processes, strippable coatings and chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, were experimentally investigated in Phase II of this project.

  6. Mercury control challenge for industrial boiler MACT affected facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-09-15

    An industrial coal-fired boiler facility conducted a test program to evaluate the effectiveness of sorbent injection on mercury removal ahead of a fabric filter with an inlet flue gas temperature of 375{sup o}F. The results of the sorbent injection testing are essentially inconclusive relative to providing the facility with enough data upon which to base the design and implementation of permanent sorbent injection system(s). The mercury removal performance of the sorbents was significantly less than expected. The data suggests that 50 percent mercury removal across a baghouse with flue gas temperatures at or above 375{sup o}F and containing moderate levels of SO{sub 3} may be very difficult to achieve with activated carbon sorbent injection alone. The challenge many coal-fired industrial facilities may face is the implementation of additional measures beyond sorbent injection to achieve high levels of mercury removal that will likely be required by the upcoming new Industrial Boiler MACT rule. To counter the negative effects of high flue gas temperature on mercury removal with sorbents, it may be necessary to retrofit additional boiler heat transfer surface or spray cooling of the flue gas upstream of the baghouse. Furthermore, to counter the negative effect of moderate or high SO{sub 3} levels in the flue gas on mercury removal, it may be necessary to also inject sorbents, such as trona or hydrated lime, to reduce the SO{sub 3} concentrations in the flue gas. 2 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, R.

    2009-07-15

    Increasingly stringent US federal and state limits on mercury emissions form coal-fired power plants demand optimal mercury control technologies. This article summarises the successful removal of mercury emissions achieved with activated carbon injection and boiler bromide addition, technologies nearing commercial readiness, as well as several novel control concepts currently under development. It also discusses some of the issues standing in the way of confident performance and cost predictions. In testing conducted on western coal-fired units with fabric filters or TOXECON to date, ACI has generally achieved mercury removal rates > 90%. At units with ESPs, similar performance requires brominated ACI. Alternatively, units firing western coals can use boiler bromide addition to increase flue gas mercury oxidation and downstream capture in a wet scrubber, or to enhance mercury removal by ACI. At eastern bituminous fired units with ESPs, ACI is not as effective, largely due to SO{sub 3} resulting from the high sulfur content of the coal or the use of SO{sub 3} flue gas conditioning to improve ESP performance. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Method and apparatus for controlling the flow rate of mercury in a flow system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; Speer, Richard

    1991-01-01

    A method for increasing the mercury flow rate to a photochemical mercury enrichment utilizing an entrainment system comprises the steps of passing a carrier gas over a pool of mercury maintained at a first temperature T1, wherein the carrier gas entrains mercury vapor; passing said mercury vapor entrained carrier gas to a second temperature zone T2 having temperature less than T1 to condense said entrained mercury vapor, thereby producing a saturated Hg condition in the carrier gas; and passing said saturated Hg carrier gas to said photochemical enrichment reactor.

  9. JV Task 98 - Controlling Mercury Emissions for Utilities Firing Lignites from North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Benson

    2007-06-15

    This project compiled and summarized the findings and conclusions of research, development, and demonstration projects on controlling mercury from lignite coals. A significant amount of work has been conducted since 1994 on mercury in lignite, mercury measurement in flue gases, sorbent, sorbent enhancement additives, oxidation agent development, and full-scale demonstration of mercury control technologies. This report is focused on providing the lignite industry with an understanding of mercury issues associated with the combustion of lignite, as well as providing vital information on the methods to control mercury emissions in coal-fired power plants.

  10. Glow discharge based device for solving mazes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubinov, Alexander E. Mironenko, Maxim S.; Selemir, Victor D.; Maksimov, Artem N.; Pylayev, Nikolay A.

    2014-09-15

    A glow discharge based device for solving mazes has been designed and tested. The device consists of a gas discharge chamber and maze-transformer of radial-azimuth type. It allows changing of the maze pattern in a short period of time (within several minutes). The device has been tested with low pressure air. Once switched on, a glow discharge has been shown to find the shortest way through the maze from the very first attempt, even if there is a section with potential barrier for electrons on the way. It has been found that ionization waves (striations) can be excited in the maze along the length of the plasma channel. The dependancy of discharge voltage on the length of the optimal path through the maze has been measured. A reduction in discharge voltage with one or two potential barriers present has been found and explained. The dependency of the magnitude of discharge ignition voltage on the length of the optimal path through the maze has been measured. The reduction of the ignition voltage with the presence of one or two potential barriers has been observed and explained.

  11. 2008-03 "Actions Regarding the EPA Stormwater Discharge Permit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    3 "Actions Regarding the EPA Stormwater Discharge Permit" 2008-03 "Actions Regarding the EPA Stormwater Discharge Permit" The intent of this recommendation is to prevent any ...

  12. 5 CCR 1002-61 Colorado Discharge Permit System Regulations |...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Discharge Permit System RegulationsLegal Abstract Regulations implementing the Colorado Water Quality Control Act applying to all operations discharging to waters of the state...

  13. Oregon Air Contaminant Discharge Webpage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    library Web Site: Oregon Air Contaminant Discharge Webpage Abstract Provides overview of air quality discharge permit process. Author State of Oregon Published State of Oregon,...

  14. OAR 340-216 - Air Contaminant Discharge Permits | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    OAR 340-216 - Air Contaminant Discharge PermitsLegal Abstract Regulations for air contaminant discharge permits issued by the Department of Environmental Quality....

  15. Oregon Air Contaminant Discharge Permits Webpage | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Air Contaminant Discharge Permits Webpage Citation Oregon Department of Environmental Quality. Oregon Air Contaminant Discharge Permits Webpage Internet. State of Oregon....

  16. Report of Waste Discharge application (Form 200) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Waste Discharge application (Form 200) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Report of Waste Discharge application (Form 200) Abstract Persons...

  17. Surface modified CFx cathode material for ultrafast discharge...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Surface modified CFx cathode material for ultrafast discharge and high energy density Prev Next Title: Surface modified CFx cathode material for ultrafast discharge and high...

  18. Discharge Physics of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Discharge Physics of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Discharge Physics of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering You are ...

  19. Discharge Physics of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Discharge Physics of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Discharge Physics of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering High power ...

  20. Colorado Discharge Permit System General Permit | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    to discharge, as of this date, inaccordance with permit requirements and conditions set forth in Parts I and II hereof. All discharges authorized herein shall be consistent with...

  1. Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern United States Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In...

  2. Direct Measurement of Mercury Reactions In Coal Power Plant Plumes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard Levin

    2005-12-31

    Recent field and pilot-scale results indicate that divalent mercury emitted from power plants may rapidly transform to elemental mercury within the power plant plumes. Simulations of mercury chemistry in plumes based on measured rates to date have improved regional model fits to Mercury Deposition Network wet deposition data for particular years, while not degrading model verification fits for remaining years of the ensemble. The years with improved fit are those with simulated deposition in grid cells in the State of Pennsylvania that have matching MDN station data significantly less than the model values. This project seeks to establish a full-scale data basis for whether or not significant reduction or oxidation reactions occur to mercury emitted from coal-fired power plants, and what numerical redox rate should apply for extension to other sources and for modeling of power plant mercury plumes locally, regionally, and nationally. Although in-stack mercury (Hg) speciation measurements are essential to the development of control technologies and to provide data for input into atmospheric fate and transport models, the determination of speciation in a cooling coal combustion plume is more relevant for use in estimating Hg fate and effects through the atmosphere. It is mercury transformations that may occur in the plume that determine the eventual rate and patterns of mercury deposited to the earth's surface. A necessary first step in developing a supportable approach to modeling any such transformations is to directly measure the forms and concentrations of mercury from the stack exit downwind to full dispersion in the atmosphere. As a result, a study was sponsored by EPRI and jointly funded by EPRI, the U.S Department of Energy (DOE), and the Wisconsin Department of Administration. The study was designed to further our understanding of plume chemistry. The study was carried out at the We Energies Pleasant Prairie Power Plant, Pleasant Prairie, Wisconsin, just

  3. Mercury Emission Control Technologies for PPL Montana-Colstrip Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John P. Kay; Michael L. Jones; Steven A. Benson

    2007-04-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) was asked by PPL Montana LLC (PPL) to provide assistance and develop an approach to identify cost-effective options for mercury control at its coal-fired power plants. The work conducted focused on baseline mercury level and speciation measurement, short-term parametric testing, and week long testing of mercury control technology at Colstrip Unit 3. Three techniques and various combinations of these techniques were identified as viable options for mercury control. The options included oxidizing agents or sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) such as chlorine-based SEA1 and an EERC proprietary SEA2 with and without activated carbon injection. Baseline mercury emissions from Colstrip Unit 3 are comparatively low relative to other Powder River Basin (PRB) coal-fired systems and were found to range from 5 to 6.5 g/Nm3 (2.9 to 3.8 lb/TBtu), with a rough value of approximately 80% being elemental upstream of the scrubber and higher than 95% being elemental at the outlet. Levels in the stack were also greater than 95% elemental. Baseline mercury removal across the scrubber is fairly variable but generally tends to be about 5% to 10%. Parametric results of carbon injection alone yielded minimal reduction in Hg emissions. SEA1 injection resulted in 20% additional reduction over baseline with the maximum rate of 400 ppm (3 gal/min). Week long testing was conducted with the combination of SEA2 and carbon, with injection rates of 75 ppm (10.3 lb/hr) and 1.5 lb/MMacf (40 lb/hr), respectively. Reduction was found to be an additional 30% and, overall during the testing period, was measured to be 38% across the scrubber. The novel additive injection method, known as novel SEA2, is several orders of magnitude safer and less expensive than current SEA2 injection methods. However, used in conjunction with this plant configuration, the technology did not demonstrate a significant level of mercury reduction. Near-future use of this

  4. Methods and sorbents for utilizing a hot-side electrostatic precipitator for removal of mercury from combustion gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Sidney

    2011-02-15

    Methods are provided for reducing emission of mercury from a gas stream by treating the gas with carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles to reduce the mercury content of the gas; collecting the carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles on collection plates of a hot-side ESP; periodically rapping the collection plates to release a substantial portion of the collected carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles into hoppers; and periodically emptying the hoppers, wherein such rapping and emptying are done at rates such that less than 70% of mercury adsorbed onto the mercury sorbent desorbs from the collected mercury sorbent into the gas stream.

  5. Surface breakdown igniter for mercury arc devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bayless, John R.

    1977-01-01

    Surface breakdown igniter comprises a semiconductor of medium resistivity which has the arc device cathode as one electrode and has an igniter anode electrode so that when voltage is applied between the electrodes a spark is generated when electrical breakdown occurs over the surface of the semiconductor. The geometry of the igniter anode and cathode electrodes causes the igniter discharge to be forced away from the semiconductor surface.

  6. Elimination of mercury and organomercurials by nitrogen-fixing bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosh, S.; Sadhukhan, P.C.; Ghosh, D.K.

    1997-06-01

    Bacteria isolated from mercury-polluted environments are often resistant to mercuric ions (Hg{sup 2+}) and organomercurials. Plasmids determining mercury resistance have been well characterized in gram-negative system. However, in Staphylococcus aureus mercury resistance has been found to be chromosomally determined. The known mechanism of bacterial Hg{sup 2+}-resistance is detoxification of the toxic Hg{sup 2+} by its enzymatic transformation by mercuric reductase to Hg (o). Organomercurial lyase mediates the degradation of organomercurial compounds to Hg{sup 2+}. Mercury and organomercurial resistances have been studied in different bacterial genera. There is little information on Hg-resistance in N{sub 2}-fixing soil bacteria, however, in many developing countries, including India, mercury pollution is still a problem because Hg-based pesticides and fungicides are still used routinely as seed-dressers in agriculture to control soil-borne and seed-borne fungal diseases. Volatilization of Hg from laboratory media by mercury-resistant bacteria containing low levels of mercury has been reported by several workers. It is interesting to note that N{sub 2}-fixing, Hg-resistant soil isolates could volatilize Hg from medium containing very high amounts of HgCl{sub 2}. In the present paper we report the volatilization patterns of five N{sub 2}-fixing bacterial strains, the effect of different inducers on mercuric reductase, and the pattern of substrate utilization by organomercurial lyase. In the presence of a low concentration of HgCl{sub 2}. enzymatic detoxification is sufficient to combat the adverse situation created by the presence of Hg{sup 2+} ions. In the presence of a high concentration of HgCl{sub 2}, intracellular sequestration by Hg{sup 2+} binding components may play an additional role in counteracting Hg-toxicity.

  7. Mercury in Fish Collected Upstream and Downstream of Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico: 1991--2004.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P.R. Fresquez

    2004-10-15

    Small amounts of mercury (Hg) may exist in some canyon drainage systems within Los Alamos National Laboratory lands as a result of past discharges of untreated effluents. This paper reports on the concentrations of Hg in muscle (fillets) of various types of fish species collected downstream of LANL's influence from 1991 through 2004. The mean Hg concentration in fish from Cochiti reservoir (0.22 {micro}g/g wet weight), which is located downstream of LANL, was similar to fish collected from a reservoir upstream of LANL (Abiquiu) (0.26 {micro}g/g wet weight). Mercury concentrations in fish collected from both reservoirs exhibited significantly (Abiquiu = p < 0.05 and Cochiti = p < 0.10) decreasing trends over time. Predator fish like the northern pike (Esox lucius) contained significantly higher concentrations of Hg (0.39 {micro}g/g wet weight) than bottom-feeding fish like the white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) (0.10 {micro}g/g wet weight).

  8. Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury Contamination at the Y-12 Plant Oak

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Ridge | Department of Energy Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury Contamination at the Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury Contamination at the Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge Full Document and Summary Versions are available for download Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury Contamination at the Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge (1.04 MB) Summary - Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury Contamination at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, TN (44.29 KB) More Documents & Publications Technology Plan

  9. Direct current dielectric barrier assistant discharge to get homogeneous plasma in capacitive coupled discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Yinchang; Li, Yangfang; Cao, Jinxiang; Liu, Yu; Wang, Jian; Zheng, Zhe

    2014-06-15

    In this paper, we propose a method to get more homogeneous plasma in the geometrically asymmetric capacitive coupled plasma (CCP) discharge. The dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is used for the auxiliary discharge system to improve the homogeneity of the geometrically asymmetric CCP discharge. The single Langmuir probe measurement shows that the DBD can increase the electron density in the low density volume, where the DBD electrodes are mounted, when the pressure is higher than 5?Pa. By this manner, we are able to improve the homogeneity of the plasma production and increase the overall density in the target volume. At last, the finite element simulation results show that the DC bias, applied to the DBD electrodes, can increase the homogeneity of the electron density in the CCP discharge. The simulation results show a good agreement with the experiment results.

  10. Electrodynamic force of dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shang, J. S.; Roveda, F.; Huang, P. G.

    2011-06-01

    The periodic electrostatic force of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in nitrogen for flow control is investigated by a system of physics-based, two-dimensional model equations. The plasma generation process of DBD is mainly the avalanche growth of electrons through the secondary emission from cathode. Therefore, the charged particle motion of a succession of random micro discharges can be approximated by the drift-diffusion model. The force of DBD generated by charge separation and accumulation over the dielectrics is obtained by solving the model equations with the rigorous media interface boundary condition of Maxwell equations in the time domain. The discharge structure and force components by different electrical permittivity and amplitudes of externally applied electrical potential are delineated and quantified.

  11. Partial discharge and the measurement in GIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han Xiaolian; Feng Yunping; Qiu Yuchang; Zheng Xiaoguang; Chen Jinqing

    1996-12-31

    The focal point of this paper is to study on the partial discharge on-line diagnostic measurement system in GIS from the aspect of electrical measurement assuming that there were not any measurement devices before the GIS being put to use. A length of coaxial cable was wound on a magnetic ring. Also by the use of an impedance alternator, a higher sensitivity was realized. The coil sensor and antenna sensor are the important parts of the perfect partial discharge measurement system in GIS. The sensitivities of the sensors were determined by comparing to the charge quantity measured by 50{Omega} resistance. The characteristics of the partial discharge that was produced by the fixed protrusion, free particles and the surface contamination on spacer was studied in the GIS simulating system.

  12. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernie F. Stine

    2002-08-14

    The Department of Energy (DOE) currently has mercury (Hg) contaminated materials and soils at the various sites. Figure 1-1 (from http://www.ct.ornl.gov/stcg.hg/) shows the estimated distribution of mercury contaminated waste at the various DOE sites. Oak Ridge and Idaho sites have the largest deposits of contaminated materials. The majorities of these contaminated materials are soils, sludges, debris, and waste waters. This project concerns treatment of mercury contaminated soils. The technology is applicable to many DOE sites, in-particular, the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge Tennessee and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These sites have the majority of the soils and sediments contaminated with mercury. The soils may also be contaminated with other hazardous metals and radionuclides. At the Y12 plant, the baseline treatment method for mercury contaminated soil is low temperature thermal desorption (LTTD), followed by on-site landfill disposal. LTTD is relatively expensive (estimated cost of treatment which exclude disposal cost for the collect mercury is greater than $740/per cubic yard [cy] at Y-12), does not treat any of the metal or radionuclides. DOE is seeking a less costly alternative to the baseline technology. As described in the solicitation (DE-RA-01NT41030), this project initially focused on evaluating cost-effective in-situ alternatives to stabilize or remove the mercury (Hg) contamination from high-clay content soil. It was believed that ex-situ treatment of soil contaminated with significant quantities of free-liquid mercury might pose challenges during excavation and handling. Such challenges may include controlling potential mercury vapors and containing liquid mercury beads. As described below, the focus of this project was expanded to include consideration of ex-situ treatment after award of the contract to International Technology Corporation (IT). After award of the contract, IT became part of Shaw

  13. Critical review of mercury chemistry in flue gas.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendelsohn, M. H.; Livengood, C. D.

    2006-11-27

    Mercury (Hg) and its compounds have long been recognized as potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. Many man-made sources of mercury have been reduced in recent years through process changes and control measures. However, emissions of mercury from coal-fired power plants, while exceedingly dilute by the usual pollution standards, still constitute a major source when considered in the aggregate. Concerns over those emissions and the prospect of impending emissions regulations have led to a wide range of research projects dealing with the measurement and control of mercury in flue gas. This work has made considerable progress in improving the understanding of mercury emissions and their behavior, but inconsistencies and unexpected results have also shown that a better understanding of mercury chemistry is needed. To develop a more complete understanding of where additional research on mercury chemistry is needed, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a critical review of the available information as reported in the technical literature. The objectives were to summarize the current state of the art of chemistry knowledge, identify significant knowledge gaps, and recommend future research to resolve those gaps. An initial evaluation of potential review topics indicated that the scope of the review would need to be limited and focused on the most important topics relative to mercury control. To aid in this process, Argonne developed a brief survey that was circulated to researchers in the field who could help identify and prioritize the many aspects of the problem. The results of the survey were then used to design and guide a highly focused literature search that identified key papers for analysis. Each paper was reviewed, summarized, and evaluated for the relevance and quality of the information presented. The results of that work provided the basis for conclusions regarding the state of knowledge

  14. Vapor phase elemental sulfur amendment for sequestering mercury in contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.; Jackson, Dennis G.

    2014-07-08

    The process of treating elemental mercury within the soil is provided by introducing into the soil a heated vapor phase of elemental sulfur. As the vapor phase of elemental sulfur cools, sulfur is precipitated within the soil and then reacts with any elemental mercury thereby producing a reaction product that is less hazardous than elemental mercury.

  15. Method for combined removal of mercury and nitrogen oxides from off-gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H.; Livengood, C. David

    2006-10-10

    A method for removing elemental Hg and nitric oxide simultaneously from a gas stream is provided whereby the gas stream is reacted with gaseous chlorinated compound to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds and the nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide. The method works to remove either mercury or nitrogen oxide in the absence or presence of each other.

  16. Method for the removal of elemental mercury from a gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Huang, H.S.

    1999-05-04

    A method is provided to remove elemental mercury from a gas stream by reacting the gas stream with an oxidizing solution to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds. Other constituents are also oxidized. The gas stream is then passed through a wet scrubber to remove the mercuric compounds and oxidized constituents. 7 figs.

  17. Method for the removal of elemental mercury from a gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H.; Huang, Hann-Sheng

    1999-01-01

    A method is provided to remove elemental mercury from a gas stream by reacting the gas stream with an oxidizing solution to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds. Other constituents are also oxidized. The gas stream is then passed through a wet scrubber to remove the mercuric compounds and oxidized constituents.

  18. Novel sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.; Hargis, R.A.

    2000-04-01

    A laboratory-scale packed-bed reactor system is used to screen sorbents for their capability to remove elemental mercury from various carrier gases. When the carrier gas is argon, an on-line atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer (AFS), used in a continuous mode, monitors the elemental mercury concentration in the inlet and outlet streams of the packed-bed reactor. The mercury concentration in the inlet and outlet streams of the packed-bed reactor. The mercury concentration in the reactor inlet gas and the reactor temperature are held constant during a test. For more complex carrier gases, the capacity is determined off-line by analyzing the spent sorbent with either a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer (CVAAS) or an inductively coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer (ICP-AES). The capacities and breakthrough times of several commercially available activated carbons as well as novel sorbents were determined as a function of various parameters. The mechanisms of mercury removal by the sorbents are suggested by combining the results of the packed-bed testing with various analytical results.

  19. Thief process for the removal of mercury from flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennline, Henry W.; Granite, Evan J.; Freeman, Mark C.; Hargis, Richard A.; O'Dowd, William J.

    2003-02-18

    A system and method for removing mercury from the flue gas of a coal-fired power plant is described. Mercury removal is by adsorption onto a thermally activated sorbent produced in-situ at the power plant. To obtain the thermally activated sorbent, a lance (thief) is inserted into a location within the combustion zone of the combustion chamber and extracts a mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas. The semi-combusted coal has adsorptive properties suitable for the removal of elemental and oxidized mercury. The mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas is separated into a stream of gas and semi-combusted coal that has been converted to a stream of thermally activated sorbent. The separated stream of gas is recycled to the combustion chamber. The thermally activated sorbent is injected into the duct work of the power plant at a location downstream from the exit port of the combustion chamber. Mercury within the flue gas contacts and adsorbs onto the thermally activated sorbent. The sorbent-mercury combination is removed from the plant by a particulate collection system.

  20. Natural mercury isotope variation in coal deposits and organic soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abir, Biswas; Joel D. Blum; Bridget A. Bergquist; Gerald J. Keeler; Zhouqing Xie

    2008-11-15

    There is a need to distinguish among sources of Hg to the atmosphere in order to more fully understand global Hg pollution. In this study we investigate whether coal deposits within the United States, China, and Russia-Kazakhstan, which are three of the five greatest coal-producing regions, have diagnostic Hg isotopic fingerprints that can be used to discriminate among Hg sources. We also investigate the Hg isotopic composition of modern organic soil horizons developed in areas distant from point sources of Hg in North America. Mercury stored in coal deposits displays a wide range of both mass dependent fractionation and mass independent fractionation. {delta}{sup 202}Hg varies in coals by 3{per_thousand} and {Delta}{sup 201}Hg varies by 0.9{per_thousand}. Combining these two Hg isotope signals results in what may be a unique isotopic 'fingerprint' for many coal deposits. Mass independent fractionation of mercury has been demonstrated to occur during photochemical reactions of mercury. This suggests that Hg found in most coal deposits was subjected to photochemical reduction near the Earth's surface prior to deposition. The similarity in MDF and MIF of modern organic soils and coals from North America suggests that Hg deposition from coal may have imprinted an isotopic signature on soils. This research offers a new tool for characterizing mercury inputs from natural and anthropogenic sources to the atmosphere and provides new insights into the geochemistry of mercury in coal and soils. 35 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. The fate of mercury in coal utilization byproducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William Aljoe; Thomas Feeley; James Murphy; Lynn Brickett [US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), Pittsburgh, PA (US)

    2005-05-01

    The US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's (DOE/NETL's) research has helped to further scientific understanding of the environmental characteristics of coal-utilization by-products (CUBs) in both disposal and beneficial utilization applications. The following general observations can be drawn from results of the research that has been carried out to date: There appears to be only minimal mercury release to the environment in typical disposal or utilization applications for CUBs generated using activated carbon injection (ACI) control technologies; There appears to be only minimal mercury release to the environment in typical disposal and utilization applications for CUBs generated using wet FGD control technologies. The potential release of mercury from wet FGD gypsum during the manufacture of wallboard is still under evaluation; The amount of mercury leached from CUB samples tested by DOE/NETL is significantly lower than the federal drinking water standards and water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life; in many cases, leachate concentrations were below the standard test method detection limits. DOE/NETL will continue to partner with industry and other key stakeholders in carrying out research to better understand the fate of mercury and other trace elements in the byproducts from coal combustion. 16 refs., 6 tabs.

  2. Mercury Oxidation via Catalytic Barrier Filters Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne Seames; Michael Mann; Darrin Muggli; Jason Hrdlicka; Carol Horabik

    2007-09-30

    In 2004, the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory awarded the University of North Dakota a Phase II University Coal Research grant to explore the feasibility of using barrier filters coated with a catalyst to oxidize elemental mercury in coal combustion flue gas streams. Oxidized mercury is substantially easier to remove than elemental mercury. If successful, this technique has the potential to substantially reduce mercury control costs for those installations that already utilize baghouse barrier filters for particulate removal. Completed in 2004, Phase I of this project successfully met its objectives of screening and assessing the possible feasibility of using catalyst coated barrier filters for the oxidation of vapor phase elemental mercury in coal combustion generated flue gas streams. Completed in September 2007, Phase II of this project successfully met its three objectives. First, an effective coating method for a catalytic barrier filter was found. Second, the effects of a simulated flue gas on the catalysts in a bench-scale reactor were determined. Finally, the performance of the best catalyst was assessed using real flue gas generated by a 19 kW research combustor firing each of three separate coal types.

  3. DMPS (DIMAVAL) as a challenge test to assess the mercury and arsenic body/kidney load in humans and as a treatment of mercury toxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aposhian, H.V.; Maiorino, R.M.; Aposhian, M.M.; Hurlbut, K.M.

    1996-12-31

    Mercury is an element which, with its compounds, is hazardous and is found in hazardous wastes. In Order to develop suitable diagnostic and therapeutic agents for mercury exposure, we have sought alternative test systems. We have used the chelating agent 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate (DMPS, DIMAVAL{reg_sign}) for estimating the body burden of mercury in normal humans and in dental personnel in a developing country, and for detoxifying humans with mercurous chloride exposure. Use of the DMPS-mercury challenge test has shown that two-thirds of the mercury excreted in the urine of volunteers with dental amalgams appears to be derived from the mercury vapor released from their amalgams. The DMPS challenge test (300 mg, by mouth, after an 11 hr fast) was useful for monitoring dental personnel for mercury vapor exposure. The DMPS challenge test was given to 11 factory workers who make a skin lotion that contains mercurous chloride, 8 users of the skin lotion, and 9 controls. The increases in urinary Hg resulting from the DMPS challenge were 45, 87, and 38-fold, respectively. The results demonstrate that in humans exposed to mercurous chloride, the DMPS-mercury challenge test is of value for a more realistic estimation of mobilizable Hg. DMPS should be considered for use to determine mercury body burdens and to treat humans exposed to mercury and its compounds via exposure to hazardous wastes. 42 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JoAnn S. Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Andrew Fry; Joseph Helble; Balaji Krishnakumar

    2006-07-31

    The objective of this project is to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involves both experimental and modeling efforts. The team is comprised of the University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and the University of Connecticut. The objective is to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters to be studied include HCl, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. This report summarizes Year 3 results for the experimental and modeling tasks. Experiments have been completed on the effects of chlorine. However, the experiments with sulfur dioxide and NO, in the presence of water, suggest that the wet-chemistry analysis system, namely the impingers, is possibly giving erroneous results. Future work will investigate this further and determine the role of reactions in the impingers on the oxidation results. The solid-phase experiments have not been completed and it is anticipated that only preliminary work will be accomplished during this study.

  5. After the Clean Air Mercury Eule: prospects for reducing mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jana B. Milford; Alison Pienciak

    2009-04-15

    Recent court decisions have affected the EPA's regulation of mercury emissions from coal burning, but some state laws are helping to clear the air. In 2005, the US EPA issued the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR), setting performance standards for new coal-fired power plants and nominally capping mercury emissions form new and existing plants at 38 tons per year from 2010 to 2017 and 15 tpy in 2018 and thereafter; these down from 48.5 tpy in 1999. To implement the CAMR, 21 states with non-zero emissions adopted EPA's new source performance standards and cap and trade program with little or no modification. By December 2007, 23 other states had proposed or adopted more stringent requirements; 16 states prohibited or restricted interstate trading of mercury emissions. On February 2008, the US Court of Appeal for the District of Columbia Circuit unanimously vacated the CAMR. This article assesses the status of mercury emission control requirements for coal-fired power plants in the US in light of this decision, focusing on state actions and prospects for a new federal rule. 34 refs., 1 fig.

  6. DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF MERCURY REACTIONS IN COAL POWER PLANT PLUMES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard Levin

    2006-06-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-02NT41422 and specifically addresses Program Area of Interest: No.5--Environmental and Water Resources. The project team includes the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) as the contractor and the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Frontier Geosciences as subcontractors. Wisconsin Energies and its Pleasant Prairie Power Plant acted as host for the field-testing portion of the research. The project is aimed at clarifying the role, rates, and end results of chemical transformations that may occur to mercury that has been emitted from elevated stacks of coal-fired electric power plants. Mercury emitted from power plants emerges in either its elemental, divalent, or particulate-bound form. Deposition of the divalent form is more likely to occur closer to the source than that of the other two forms, due to its solubility in water. Thus, if chemical transformations occur in the stack emissions plume, measurements in the stack may mischaracterize the fate of the material. Initial field and pilot plant measurements have shown significant and rapid chemical reduction of divalent to elemental mercury may occur in these plumes. Mercury models currently assume that the chemical form of mercury occurring in stacks is the same as that which enters the free atmosphere, with no alteration occurring in the emissions plume. Recent data indicate otherwise, but need to be evaluated at full operating scale under field conditions. Prestbo and others have demonstrated the likelihood of significant mercury chemical reactions occurring in power plant plumes (Prestbo et al., 1999; MDNR-PPRP, 2000; EERC, 2001). This experiment will thus increase our understanding of mercury atmospheric chemistry, allowing informed decisions regarding source attribution. The experiment was carried out during the period August 22

  7. Clean Air Mercury Rule (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications

    2009-01-01

    On February 8, 2008, a three-judge panel on the D.C. Circuit of the U.S. Court of Appeals issued a decision to vacate the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR). In its ruling, the panel cited the history of hazardous air pollutant regulation under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act (CAA). Section 112, as written by Congress, listed emitted mercury as a hazardous air pollutant that must be subject to regulation unless it can be proved harmless to public welfare and the environment. In 2000, the Environmental Protection Agency ruled that mercury was indeed hazardous and must be regulated under Section 112 and, therefore, subjected to the best available control technology for mitigation.

  8. Catalysts for oxidation of mercury in flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2010-08-17

    Two new classes of catalysts for the removal of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg) from effluent gases. Both of these classes of catalysts are excellent absorbers of HCl and Cl.sub.2 present in effluent gases. This adsorption of oxidizing agents aids in the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants. The catalysts remove mercury by oxidizing the Hg into mercury (II) moieties. For one class of catalysts, the active component is selected from the group consisting of iridium (Ir) and iridum-platinum (Ir/Pt) alloys. The Ir and Ir/Pt alloy catalysts are especially corrosion resistant. For the other class of catalyst, the active component is partially combusted coal or "Thief" carbon impregnated with Cl.sub.2. Untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-activating in the presence of effluent gas streams. The Thief carbon catalyst is disposable by means of capture from the effluent gas stream in a particulate collection device (PCD).

  9. Support Facility for a Mercury Target Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spampinato, P.T.

    2001-12-06

    A conceptual design for a neutrino-producing facility is presented, including the mercury-jet target system, beam absorber, and facility for the target/capture region. The mercury system is a closed loop that includes a containment structure in the high-magnetic field region, a mercury pool beam absorber, conventional equipment such as magnetic-coupled pumps, valves, a heat exchanger, and a special nozzle insert. The superconducting solenoids in the target region are protected from nuclear heating and radiation damage with water-cooled tungsten-carbide shielding; the decay channel solenoids are protected with water-cooled steel shielding. The target region and decay channel have high-neutron fluxes resulting in components that are highly activated. Therefore, the facility configuration is based on remotely maintaining the target system and the magnets, as well as providing sufficient shielding for personnel. Summaries of cost estimates for the target system, magnet shielding, maintenance equipment, and the facility are also presented.

  10. Mercury emissions from German fluidized bed sludge incinerators -- A status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saenger, M.; Werther, J.; Lungwitz, H.

    1999-07-01

    In 1996 19% of the 2.7 million tons dry matter of sewage sludge produced in Germany were disposed by incineration. Incineration of the sludge is carried out mainly in fluidized bed combustors. German emission regulations set a limit to the mercury emission of 0.05 mg/m{sup 3} (under standard condition, dry basis) the observance of which requires special flue gas cleaning installations. In the present paper, an overview is given on the state of the art of flue gas cleaning with respect to mercury emissions from sewage sludge incineration in Germany. A total of 13 plants were examined. Because of the thermochemical instability of the mercury compounds only elemental mercury will exist inside the combustion chamber. During the cooling of the flue gas the elemental mercury reacts depending on the presence of other flue gas components to several mercurous and mercuric compounds. Measurements in the plants investigated indicate that the ratio of elemental to chemically bound mercury decreases with increasing chlorine content in the sludge feed. Different types of gas cleaning systems are used to remove the mercury from the flue gas which may be grouped into two categories, namely scrubbers and adsorbers, respectively. The mercury sink in the cleaning system will therefore be either the excess water of a wet scrubber or the laden adsorbent from an adsorber. If the amount of the practically water-insoluble elemental mercury is below the emission limit wet scrubbers will be sufficient to remove the mercuric and mercurous species. Otherwise elemental mercury has to be additionally removed by adding agents to oxidize the mercury for capture in a scrubber or by an adsorbent. Only 1--6% of the mercury supplied with the sludge is found in the fly ash separated with electrostatic precipitators. The different kinds of mercury capture systems used in German fluidized bed sludge incineration plants, the mercury concentrations in the cleaned flue gas and the removal efficiencies with

  11. Amplitude scaling of solar array discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogorad, A.; Bowman, C.; Rayadurg, L. . Astro-Space Div.); Sterner, T.; Loman, J.; Armenti, J. . Astro Space Div.)

    1990-12-01

    Sections of solar panel of four different sizes were charged in a 20-keV monoenergetic electron beam. The measured amplitudes of discharge transients coupled into power lines scaled linearly with the length of the rows of parallel-connected solar cells in the solar cell circuits.

  12. Pulse circuit apparatus for gas discharge laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradley, Laird P.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus and method using a unique pulse circuit for a known gas discharge laser apparatus to provide an electric field for preconditioning the gas below gas breakdown and thereafter to place a maximum voltage across the gas which maximum voltage is higher than that previously available before the breakdown voltage of that gas laser medium thereby providing greatly increased pumping of the laser.

  13. Discharge temperature higher than 30 deg C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shari Kelley

    2015-06-16

    This submission includes three files from two sources. One file is derived from USGS data and includes a series of manipulations to evaluate only shallow wells with high estimated geothermal gradients. Two other files are springs and wells with discharge temperatures above 30°C from the NMBGMR Aquifer Mapping database

  14. Wire chamber radiation detector with discharge control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, Victor; Mulera, Terrence A.

    1984-01-01

    A wire chamber radiation detector (11) has spaced apart parallel electrodes (16) and grids (17, 18, 19) defining an ignition region (21) in which charged particles (12) or other ionizing radiations initiate brief localized avalanche discharges (93) and defining an adjacent memory region (22) in which sustained glow discharges (94) are initiated by the primary discharges (93). Conductors (29, 32) of the grids (18, 19) at each side of the memory section (22) extend in orthogonal directions enabling readout of the X-Y coordinates of locations at which charged particles (12) were detected by sequentially transmitting pulses to the conductors (29) of one grid (18) while detecting transmissions of the pulses to the orthogonal conductors (36) of the other grid (19) through glow discharges (94). One of the grids (19) bounding the memory region (22) is defined by an array of conductive elements (32) each of which is connected to the associated readout conductor (36) through a separate resistance (37). The wire chamber (11) avoids ambiguities and imprecisions in the readout of coordinates when large numbers of simultaneous or near simultaneous charged particles (12) have been detected. Down time between detection periods and the generation of radio frequency noise are also reduced.

  15. Discharge temperature higher than 30 deg C

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Shari Kelley

    2015-06-16

    This submission includes three files from two sources. One file is derived from USGS data and includes a series of manipulations to evaluate only shallow wells with high estimated geothermal gradients. Two other files are springs and wells with discharge temperatures above 30C from the NMBGMR Aquifer Mapping database

  16. Influence of discharge gap on the discharge stability in a short vacuum arc ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, L.; Zhang, G. L.; Jin, D. Z.; Dai, J. Y.; Yang, L.

    2012-02-15

    The influence of the discharge gap between cathode and anode on the discharge stability in a short vacuum arc (SVA) ion source is presented in this paper. Planar cathode and cylindrical hollow anode made of titanium are investigated. There is a great need in present accelerator injection research for SVA source to produce the small deviation of the ion current beam. Current research shows that increasing the short discharge gap can reduce the level of ion current deviation and ion charge deviation from 29% and 31% to 15% and 17%, respectively. A microplasma plume generation mechanism in SVA and scanning electron microscopic results can be used to explain this interesting phenomenon.

  17. Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury In addition to banning the export of elemental mercury from the United States as of January 1, 2013, the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (MEBA) (Public Law No. 110-414) requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to establish a facility for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury (generated with the U.S.). DOE used the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)

  18. Emerging technologies and approaches to minimize discharges into Lake Michigan Phase 2, Module 3 report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negri, M. C.; Gillenwater, P.; Urgun Demirtas, M.

    2011-05-11

    Purdue University Calumet (Purdue) and Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) have conducted an independent study to identify deployable technologies that could help the BP Whiting Refinery, and other petroleum refineries, meet future wastewater discharge limits. This study has been funded by BP. Each organization tested a subset of the target technologies and retains sole responsibility for its respective test design and implementation, quality assurance and control, test results obtained from each of the technologies, and corresponding conclusions and recommendations. This project was divided in two phases and modules. This report summarizes the work conducted by Argonne in Phase II Module 3 (Bench Scale Testing). Other Modules are discussed elsewhere (Emerging Technologies and Approaches to Minimize Discharges into Lake Michigan, Phase 2, Modules 1-3 Report, April 2011, prepared for BP Americas by the Argonne - Purdue Task Force). The goal of this project was to identify and assess available and emerging wastewater treatment technologies for removing mercury and vanadium from the Whiting Refinery wastewater and to conduct bench-scale tests to provide comparable, transparent, and uniform results across the broad range of technologies tested. After the bench-scale testing phase, a previously developed decision matrix was refined and applied by Argonne to process and review test data to estimate and compare the preliminary performance, engineering configuration, preliminary cost, energy usage, and waste generation of technologies that were shown to be able to remove Hg and/or V to below the target limit at the bench scale. The data were used as the basis to identify the best candidates for further testing at the bench or pilot scale on a slip stream of effluent to lake (ETL) or clarifier effluent (CE) at the Whiting Refinery to determine whether future limits could be met and to generate other pertinent data for scale-up and sustainability evaluation. As a result of

  19. Optimizing Technology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-01-31

    Revised maps and associated data show potential mercury, sulfur, and chlorine emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin. Existing coal mining and coal washing practices result in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hot-side ESP, cold-side ESP, or hot-side ESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cold-side ESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum net mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions.

  20. A study of the effect of chloride on mercury removal in a fluidized bed combustion (FBC) system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, K.; Gao, Y.; Li, F.; Pan, W.P.; Riley, J.T.; Mehta, A.K.; Ho, K.K.; Smith, S.R.

    2000-07-01

    Mercury exists in three forms, which are elemental mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury. Each form of mercury has a very different exposure potential. Oxidized mercury is soluble and has a tendency to associate with particles. Nearly all the post-combustion flue gas cleaning systems proposed to remove mercury may be categorized as either scrubbers or adsorbers. Therefore, the mercury sink in the cleaning system will be either the excess water of a wet scrubber or the mercury laden sorbent from an absorber. The major problem for post-combustion mercury capture systems is capturing the practically water-insoluble elemental mercury. Co-firing with high chlorine coal or RDF in utility boiler systems can provide an HCI atmosphere for the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas at relatively low temperatures (500--600 C). The objective of this study is to increase the efficiency of mercury emission cleaning methods by using HCl to convert elemental mercury to oxidized mercury species at low monetary costs and lower other toxic air emissions. When high chlorine (0.3--0.5%) coals were burned and a high intensity vortex flow (from secondary air) was used, around 70% of the total mercury in the fuel was condensed and absorbed by the fly ash (including calcium compounds). The remaining 30% of total fuel mercury was emitted in the gas phase in the flue gas. As for the gas phase mercury, about 98% of it exists in an oxidized form with a higher boiling temperature than elemental mercury and can be easily captured by an ESP or FGP apparatus. Only about 0.5% of the total fuel mercury was released to the atmosphere in elemental form.

  1. Ranking low cost sorbents for mercury capture from simulated flue gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Revata Seneviratne; Cedric Charpenteau; Anthe George; Marcos Millan; Denis R. Dugwell; Rafael Kandiyoti

    2007-12-15

    Coal fired utility boilers are the largest anthropogenic source of mercury release to the atmosphere, and mercury abatement legislation is already in place in the USA. The present study aimed to rank low cost mercury sorbents (char and activated carbon from the pyrolysis of scrap tire rubber and two coal fly ashes from UK power plants) against Norit Darco HgTM for mercury retention by using a novel bench-scale reactor. In this scheme, a fixed sorbent bed was tested for mercury capture efficiency from a simulated flue gas stream. Experiments with a gas stream of only mercury and nitrogen showed that while the coal ashes were the most effective in mercury capture, char from the pyrolysis of scrap tire rubber was as effective as the commercial sorbent Norit Darco HgTM. Tests conducted at 150{sup o}C, with a simulated flue gas mix that included N{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and HCl, showed that all the sorbents captured approximately 100% of the mercury in the gas stream. The introduction of NO and NO{sub 2} was found to significantly improve the mercury capture, possibly by reactions between NOx and the mercury. Since the sorbents' efficiency decreased with increasing test temperature, physical sorption could be the initial step in the mercury capture process. As the sorbents were only exposed to 64 ng of mercury in the gas stream, the mercury loadings on the samples were significantly less than their equilibrium capacities. The larger capacities of the activated carbons due to their more microporous structure were therefore not utilized. Although the sorbents have been characterized by BET surface area analysis and XRD analysis, further analysis is needed in order to obtain a more conclusive correlation of how the characteristics of the different sorbents correlate with the observed variations in mercury capture ability. 34 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Removal of Elemental Mercury from a Gas Stream Facilitated by a Non-Thermal Plasma Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Mones

    2006-12-01

    Mercury generated from anthropogenic sources presents a difficult environmental problem. In comparison to other toxic metals, mercury has a low vaporization temperature. Mercury and mercury compounds are highly toxic, and organic forms such as methyl mercury can be bio-accumulated. Exposure pathways include inhalation and transport to surface waters. Mercury poisoning can result in both acute and chronic effects. Most commonly, chronic exposure to mercury vapor affects the central nervous system and brain, resulting in neurological damage. The CRE technology employs a series of non-thermal, plasma-jet devices to provide a method for elemental mercury removal from a gas phase by targeting relevant chemical reactions. The technology couples the known chemistry of converting elemental mercury to ionic compounds by mercury-chlorine-oxygen reactions with the generation of highly reactive species in a non-thermal, atmospheric, plasma device. The generation of highly reactive metastable species in a non-thermal plasma device is well known. The introduction of plasma using a jet-injection device provides a means to contact highly reactive species with elemental mercury in a manner to overcome the kinetic and mass-transfer limitations encountered by previous researchers. To demonstrate this technology, WRI has constructed a plasma test facility that includes plasma reactors capable of using up to four plasma jets, flow control instrumentation, an integrated control panel to operate the facility, a mercury generation system that employs a temperature controlled oven and permeation tube, combustible and mercury gas analyzers, and a ductless fume hood designed to capture fugitive mercury emissions. Continental Research and Engineering (CR&E) and Western Research Institute (WRI) successfully demonstrated that non-thermal plasma containing oxygen and chlorine-oxygen reagents could completely convert elemental mercury to an ionic form. These results demonstrate potential the

  3. Particle growth in silane-hydrogen discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kujundzic, Damir; Gallagher, Alan

    2006-02-01

    The growth of silicon particles has been measured in silane-hydrogen radio-frequency (rf) discharges using a typical hydrogen/silane dilution ratio (20) and the pressure range (1.2-2.2 Torr) used for the production of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon films and devices. By operating brief discharges without gas flow, the particle size is obtained from the afterglow diffusion and the particle density from the scattered-light intensity. These small-reactor data thus provide the expected particle size and density versus location-in a commercial large-area-isothermal-flowing-gas reactor. Particle growth rate is a strong function of pressure, whereas film growth rate is almost independent of pressure. Both growth rates are sensitive to rf voltage, although particle growth is more sensitive.

  4. Spectroscopy of triply and quadruply ionized states of mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huttula, M.; Huttula, S.-M.; Lablanquie, P.; Palaudoux, J.; Penent, F.; Andric, L.; Eland, J. H. D.

    2011-03-15

    Multielectron coincidence spectroscopy has been used to study multiple ionization of atomic mercury. The binding energies of triply and quadruply ionized states of Hg have been determined from three- and fourfold electron coincidences. Relativistic ab initio theory has been used to calculate the state energies and predict the experimental findings.

  5. Predictable SCR co-benefits for mercury control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pritchard, S.

    2009-01-15

    A test program, performed in cooperation with Dominion Power and the Babcock and Wilcox Co., was executed at Dominion Power's Mount Storm power plant in Grant County, W. Va. The program was focused on both the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst capability to oxide mercury as well as the scrubber's capability to capture and retain the oxidized mercury. This article focuses on the SCR catalyst performance aspects. The Mount Storm site consists of three units totaling approximately 1,660 MW. All units are equipped with SCR systems for NOx control. A full-scale test to evaluate the effect of the SCR was performed on Unit 2, a 550 MWT-fired boiler firing a medium sulfur bituminous coal. This test program demonstrated that the presence of an SCR catalyst can significantly affect the mercury speciation profile. Observation showed that in the absence of an SCR catalyst, the extent of oxidation of element a mercury at the inlet of the flue gas desulfurization system was about 64%. The presence of a Cornertech SCR catalyst improved this oxidation to levels greater than 95% almost all of which was captured by the downstream wet FGD system. Cornertech's proprietary SCR Hg oxidation model was used to accurately predict the field results. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Novel sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.; Hargis, R.A.

    1999-07-01

    A laboratory-scale packed-bed reactor system is used to screen sorbents for their capability to remove elemental mercury from various carrier gases. When the carrier gas is argon, an on-line atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer (AFS), used in a continuous mode, monitors the elemental mercury concentration in the inlet and outlet streams of the packed-bed reactor. The mercury concentration in the reactor inlet gas and the reactor temperature are held constant during a test. For more complex carrier gases, capacity is determined off-line by analyzing the spent sorbent with either a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer (CVAAS) or an inductively coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer (ICP-AES). The capacities and breakthrough times of several commercially available activated carbons, as well as novel sorbents, were determined as a function of various parameters. The mechanisms of mercury removal by the sorbents are suggested by combining the results of the packed-bed testing with various analytical results.

  7. Enhanced control of mercury emissions through modified speciation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livengood, C.D.; Mendelsohn, M.H.

    1997-07-01

    In anticipation of possible regulations regarding mercury emissions, research efforts sponsored by DOE, EPRI, and others are investigating the risks posed by mercury emissions, improved techniques for measuring those emissions, and possible control measures. The focus in the control research is on techniques that can be used in conjunction with existing flue-gas-cleanup (FGC) systems in order to minimize additional capital costs and operational complexity. Argonne National Laboratory has supported the DOE Fossil Energy Program for over 15 years with research on advanced environmental control technologies. The emphasis in Argonne`s work has been on integrated systems that combine control of several pollutants. Specific topics have included spray drying for sulfur dioxide and particulate-matter control with high-sulfur coal, combined sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides control technologies, and techniques to enhance mercury control in existing FGC systems. The latter area has focused on low-cost dry sorbents for use with fabric filters or electrostatic precipitators and techniques for improving the capture of mercury in wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. This paper presents results from recent work that has studied the effects of several oxidizing agents in combination with typical flue-gas species (e.g., nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide) on the oxidation of Hg{sup 0}.

  8. Oak Ridge EM Program Increases Focus on Mercury Cleanup

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    OAK RIDGE, Tenn. – EM Senior Advisor Dave Huizenga recently joined local lawmakers and state and federal officials to announce their partnership to increase focus on cleanup of mercury — one of Oak Ridge’s greatest environmental threats — at the Y-12 National Security Complex.

  9. Gas mixture for diffuse-discharge switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, L.G.; Carter, J.G.; Hunter, S.R.

    1982-08-31

    Gaseous medium in a diffuse-discharge switch of a high-energy pulse generator is formed of argon combined with a compound selected from the group consisting of CF/sub 4/, C/sub 2/F/sub 6/, C/sub 3/F/sub 8/, n-C/sub 4/F/sub 10/, WF/sub 6/, (CF/sub 3/)/sub 2/S and (CF/sub 3/)/sub 2/O.

  10. Gas mixture for diffuse-discharge switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, Loucas G.; Carter, James G.; Hunter, Scott R.

    1984-01-01

    Gaseous medium in a diffuse-discharge switch of a high-energy pulse generator is formed of argon combined with a compound selected from the group consisting of CF.sub.4, C.sub.2 F.sub.6, C.sub.3 F.sub.8, n-C.sub.4 F.sub.10, WF.sub.6, (CF.sub.3).sub.2 S and (CF.sub.3).sub.2 O.

  11. Handling and characterization of glow-discharge polymer samples...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of glow-discharge polymer samples for the light gas gun Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Handling and characterization of glow-discharge polymer samples for the light ...

  12. Large-Volume Resonant Microwave Discharge for Plasma Cleaning...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Large-Volume Resonant Microwave Discharge for Plasma Cleaning of a CEBAF 5-Cell SRF Cavity Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Large-Volume Resonant Microwave Discharge for...

  13. Magnetism in LithiumOxygen Discharge Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A.; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Ferguson, Glen A.; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2013-05-13

    Nonaqueous lithiumoxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithiumoxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithiumoxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide- type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules.

  14. Surface radicals in silane/hydrogen discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horvath, Peter; Gallagher, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Using threshold ionization mass spectrometry, radical densities have been measured at the substrate surface of a radio frequency discharge in silane plus hydrogen vapor. The conditions are 100-300 Pa pressure and a ratio (R) of hydrogen flow/silane flow typical of discharges used to produce large area amorphous (R=20) and microcrystalline (R=40) silicon. For comparison, we include measurements in pure-silane vapor. The neutral radicals observed in the mixed gases are H, SiH{sub 3}, Si{sub 2}H{sub 2}, and Si{sub 2}H{sub 5}, with decreasing flux in that order. (Si{sub 2}H{sub 4} is also seen in pure silane and SiH{sub 2} for R=20.) The H flux is sufficient for major film etching and restructuring, particularly for R=40. The ion-bombardment species were also measured, establishing that Si{sub y}H{sub n}{sup +} (y=1-3) ion flux is much larger than the H{sub n}{sup +} (n=1-3) flux. The ion flux provides 15{+-}4% of the total Si flux to the film for R=20 and 37{+-}10% for R=40. This is larger than in pure-silane discharges, and it may be very important to film properties due to the impact energy.

  15. Capacitor discharge process for welding braided cable

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Rick D.

    1995-01-01

    A capacitor discharge process for welding a braided cable formed from a plurality of individual cable strands to a solid metallic electrically conductive member comprises the steps of: (a) preparing the electrically conductive member for welding by bevelling one of its end portions while leaving an ignition projection extending outwardly from the apex of the bevel; (b) clamping the electrically conductive member in a cathode fixture; (c) connecting the electrically conductive member clamped in the cathode fixture to a capacitor bank capable of being charged to a preselected voltage value; (d) preparing the braided cable for welding by wrapping one of its end portions with a metallic sheet to form a retaining ring operable to maintain the individual strands of the braided cable in fixed position within the retaining ring; (e) clamping the braided cable and the retaining ring as a unit in an anode fixture so that the wrapped end portion of the braided cable faces the ignition projection of the electrically conductive member; and (f) moving the cathode fixture towards the anode fixture until the ignition projection of the electrically conductive member contacts the end portion of the braided cable thereby allowing the capacitor bank to discharge through the electrically conductive member and through the braided cable and causing the electrically conductive member to be welded to the braided cable via capacitor discharge action.

  16. ADVANCED GASIFICATION MERCURY/TRACE METAL CONTROL WITH MONOLITH TRAPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark A. Musich; Michael L. Swanson; Grant E. Dunham; Joshua J. Stanislowski

    2010-07-31

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-?g/m3 (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-?g/m3 (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most effective arsine and

  17. Mercury stabilization in chemically bonded phosphate ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagh, A. S.; Singh, D.; Jeong, S. Y.

    2000-04-04

    Mercury stabilization and solidification is a significant challenge for conventional stabilization technologies. This is because of the stringent regulatory limits on leaching of its stabilized products. In a conventional cement stabilization process, Hg is converted at high pH to its hydroxide, which is not a very insoluble compound; hence the preferred route for Hg sulfidation to convert it into insoluble cinnabar (HgS). Unfortunately, efficient formation of this compound is pH-dependent. At a high pH, one obtains a more soluble Hg sulfate, in a very low pH range, insufficient immobilization occurs because of the escape of hydrogen sulfide, while efficient formation of HgS occurs only in a moderately acidic region. Thus, the pH range of 4 to 8 is where stabilization with Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramics (CBPC) is carried out. This paper discusses the authors experience on bench-scale stabilization of various US Department of Energy (DOE) waste streams containing Hg in the CBPC process. This process was developed to treat DOE's mixed waste streams. It is a room-temperature-setting process based on an acid-base reaction between magnesium oxide and monopotassium phosphate solution that forms a dense ceramic within hours. For Hg stabilization, addition of a small amount (< 1 wt.%) of Na{sub 2}S or K{sub 2}S is sufficient in the binder composition. Here the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results on CBPC waste forms of surrogate waste streams representing secondary Hg containing wastes such as combustion residues and Delphi DETOX{trademark} residues are presented. The results show that although the current limit on leaching of Hg is 0.2 mg/L, the results from the CBPC waste forms are at least one order lower than this stringent limit. Encouraged by these results on surrogate wastes, they treated actual low-level Hg-containing mixed waste from their facility at Idaho. TCLP results on this waste are presented here. The efficient stabilization in

  18. Mercury Reduction and Removal from High Level Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 12511

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behrouzi, Aria; Zamecnik, Jack

    2012-07-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility processes legacy nuclear waste generated at the Savannah River Site during production of enriched uranium and plutonium required by the Cold War. The nuclear waste is first treated via a complex sequence of controlled chemical reactions and then vitrified into a borosilicate glass form and poured into stainless steel canisters. Converting the nuclear waste into borosilicate glass is a safe, effective way to reduce the volume of the waste and stabilize the radionuclides. One of the constituents in the nuclear waste is mercury, which is present because it served as a catalyst in the dissolution of uranium-aluminum alloy fuel rods. At high temperatures mercury is corrosive to off-gas equipment, this poses a major challenge to the overall vitrification process in separating mercury from the waste stream prior to feeding the high temperature melter. Mercury is currently removed during the chemical process via formic acid reduction followed by steam stripping, which allows elemental mercury to be evaporated with the water vapor generated during boiling. The vapors are then condensed and sent to a hold tank where mercury coalesces and is recovered in the tank's sump via gravity settling. Next, mercury is transferred from the tank sump to a purification cell where it is washed with water and nitric acid and removed from the facility. Throughout the chemical processing cell, compounds of mercury exist in the sludge, condensate, and off-gas; all of which present unique challenges. Mercury removal from sludge waste being fed to the DWPF melter is required to avoid exhausting it to the environment or any negative impacts to the Melter Off-Gas system. The mercury concentration must be reduced to a level of 0.8 wt% or less before being introduced to the melter. Even though this is being successfully accomplished, the material balances accounting for incoming and collected mercury are not equal. In addition, mercury has not been effectively

  19. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility Discharges in 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Signore, John C.

    2015-07-14

    This report documents radioactive discharges from the TA50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facilities (RLWTF) during calendar 2014.

  20. Large-Volume Resonant Microwave Discharge for Plasma Cleaning...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; ACCELERATORS; BREAKDOWN; CAVITIES; CEBAF ACCELERATOR; CLEANING; HIGH-FREQUENCY DISCHARGES; IMPURITIES; OXIDES; PERFORMANCE; PLASMA; PRESSURE RANGE;...

  1. Selective partitioning of mercury from co-extracted actinides in a simulated acidic ICPP waste stream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brewer, K.N.; Herbst, R.S.; Tranter, T.J.

    1995-12-01

    The TRUEX process is being evaluated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) as a means to partition the actinides from acidic sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The mercury content of this waste averages 1 g/l. Because the chemistry of mercury has not been extensively evaluated in the TRUEX process, mercury was singled out as an element of interest. Radioactive mercury, {sup 203}Hg, was spiked into a simulated solution of SBW containing 1 g/l mercury. Successive extraction batch contacts with the mercury spiked waste simulant and successive scrubbing and stripping batch contacts of the mercury loaded TRUEX solvent (0.2 M CMPO-1.4 M TBP in dodecane) show that mercury will extract into and strip from the solvent. The extraction distribution coefficient for mercury, as HgCl{sub 2} from SBW having a nitric acid concentration of 1.4 M and a chloride concentration of 0.035 M was found to be 3. The stripping distribution coefficient was found to be 0.5 with 5 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.077 with 0.25 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. An experimental flowsheet was designed from the batch contact tests and tested counter-currently using 5.5 cm centrifugal contactors. Results from the counter-current test show that mercury can be removed from the acidic mixed SBW simulant and recovered separately from the actinides.

  2. Investigation of a mercury speciation technique for flue gas desulfurization materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J.Y.; Cho K.; Cheng L.; Keener, T.C.; Jegadeesan G.; Al-Abed, S.R.

    2009-08-15

    Most of the synthetic gypsum generated from wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers is currently being used for wallboard production. Because oxidized mercury is readily captured by the wet FGD scrubber, and coal-fired power plants equipped with wet scrubbers desire to benefit from the partial mercury control that these systems provide, some mercury is likely to be bound in with the FGD gypsum and wallboard. In this study, the feasibility of identifying mercury species in the FGD gypsum and wallboard samples was investigated using a large sample size thermal desorption method and samples from power plants in Pennsylvania. Potential candidates of pure mercury standards including mercuric chloride, mercurous chloride, mercury oxide, mercury sulfide, and mercuric sulfate were analyzed to compare their results with those obtained from FGD gypsum and dry wallboard samples. Although any of the thermal evolutionary curves obtained from these pure mercury standards did not exactly match with those of the FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, it was identified that Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and HgCl{sub 2} could be candidates. An additional chlorine analysis from the gypsum and wallboard samples indicated that the chlorine concentrations were approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than the mercury concentrations, suggesting possible chlorine association with mercury. 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. METAL REMOVAL FROM PROCESS AND STORMWATER DISCHARGES BY CONSTRUCTED TREATMENT WETLANDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NELSON, ERIC

    2004-11-02

    The A-01 NPDES outfall at the Savannah River Site receives process wastewater and stormwater which passes through a wetland treatment system (WTS) prior to discharge. The overall objective of our research is to better understand the mechanisms of operation of the A-01 WTS in order to provide better input to the design of future systems. The system is a vegetated surface flow wetland and has a retention time of approximately 48 hours. Sampling conducted during the fourth year of operation validated continued wetland performance, and assessed the fate of a larger suite of metals present in the water. Copper and mercury removal efficiencies were still very high, both in excess of 80 per cent removal from the water after passage through the wetland system. Lead removal from the water by the system was 83 per cent, zinc removal was 60 per cent, and nickel was generally unaffected. Nitrates entering into the wetland cells are almost immediately removed from the water column and generally no nitrates are discharged from the A cells. The wetland cells are very anaerobic and the sediments have negative redox potentials. As a result, manganese and iron mineral phases in the sediments have been reduced to soluble forms and increase in the water during passage through the wetland system. Dissolved organic carbon in the water column is also increased by the system and reduces toxicity of the effluent. Operation and maintenance of the system is minimal, and consists of checking for growth of the vegetation and free flow of the water through the system.

  4. Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2008-02-09

    This is the final technical report for a three-site project that is part of an overall program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) and industry partners to obtain the necessary information to assess the feasibility and costs of controlling mercury from coal-fired utility plants. This report summarizes results from tests conducted at MidAmerican's Louisa Generating Station and Entergy's Independence Steam Electric Station (ISES) and sorbent screening at MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center (CBEC) (subsequently renamed Walter Scott Energy Center (WSEC)). Detailed results for Independence and Louisa are presented in the respective Topical Reports. As no full-scale testing was conducted at CBEC, screening updates were provided in the quarterly updates to DOE. ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL, EPRI, and other industry partners, has conducted evaluations of EPRI's TOXECON II{trademark} process and of high-temperature reagents and sorbents to determine the capabilities of sorbent/reagent injection, including activated carbon, for mercury control on different coals and air emissions control equipment configurations. An overview of each plant configuration is presented: (1) MidAmerican's Louisa Generating Station burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal in its 700-MW Unit 1 and employs hot-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) with flue gas conditioning for particulate control. This part of the testing program evaluated the effect of reagents used in the existing flue gas conditioning on mercury removal. (2) MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center typically burns PRB coal in its 88-MW Unit 2. It employs a hot-side ESP for particulate control. Solid sorbents were screened for hot-side injection. (3) Entergy's Independence Steam Electric Station typically burns PRB coal in its 880-MW Unit 2. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on 1/8 to 1/32 of the flue gas stream either within or in front of one

  5. Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of Coal Combustion By-Product Disposal and Utilizaton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher; Mei Xin; Mae Sexauer Gustin; Rob Jung

    2007-03-31

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a multiyear study to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements (ATEs) on the management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). The ATEs evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Samples of fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were collected preferentially from full-scale coal-fired power plants operating both without and with mercury control technologies in place. In some cases, samples from pilot- and bench-scale emission control tests were included in the laboratory studies. Several sets of 'paired' baseline and test fly ash and FGD materials collected during full-scale mercury emission control tests were also included in laboratory evaluations. Samples from mercury emission control tests all contained activated carbon (AC) and some also incorporated a sorbent-enhancing agent (EA). Laboratory release experiments focused on measuring releases of mercury under conditions designed to simulate CCB exposure to water, ambient-temperature air, elevated temperatures, and microbes in both wet and dry conditions. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: (1) Mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with AC used for mercury emission control and, therefore, present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. (2) Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. (3) The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury being

  6. Interpretation of high voltage solar array discharge experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, N.J.; Underwood, C.S.; Jones, M.R. )

    1990-12-01

    High voltage operation of photovoltaic power sources in low Earth orbit is limited by the probability of discharged in the array. These discharges are initiated by an interaction between the negative voltage portions of the array (relative to the space plasma potential) and the space plasma environment. Laboratory experiments have been conducted to characterize these discharges. The authors propose a model that suggests experiments conducted to date have measured transients related to the decharging of the solar cell cover glass as a result of a discharge rather than the discharge itself. The excellent agreement between the experiment data and the analytical predictions argues for the validity of this model.

  7. The transition mechanism from a symmetric single period discharge to a period-doubling discharge in atmospheric helium dielectric-barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Dingzong; Wang, Yanhui; Wang, Dezhen [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-06-15

    Period-doubling and chaos phenomenon have been frequently observed in atmospheric-pressure dielectric-barrier discharges. However, how a normal single period discharge bifurcates into period-doubling state is still unclear. In this paper, by changing the driving frequency, we study numerically the transition mechanisms from a normal single period discharge to a period-doubling state using a one-dimensional self-consistent fluid model. The results show that before a discharge bifurcates into a period-doubling state, it first deviates from its normal operation and transforms into an asymmetric single period discharge mode. Then the weaker discharge in this asymmetric discharge will be enhanced gradually with increasing of the frequency until it makes the subsequent discharge weaken and results in the discharge entering a period-doubling state. In the whole transition process, the spatial distribution of the charged particle density and the electric field plays a definitive role. The conclusions are further confirmed by changing the gap width and the amplitude of the applied voltage.

  8. State waste discharge permit application: Hydrotest, maintenance and construction discharges. Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    On December 23, 1991, the US DOE< Richland Operation Office (RL) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) agreed to adhere to the provisions of the Department of Ecology Consent Order No. DE91NM-177 (216 Consent Order) (Ecology and US DOE 1991). The 216 Consent Order list regulatory milestones for liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site and requires compliance with the permitting requirements of Washington Administrative Code. Hanford Site liquid effluent streams discharging to the soil column have been categorized on the 216 Consent Order as follows: Phase I Streams; Phase II Streams; Miscellaneous Streams. Phase I and Phase II Streams were initially addressed in two report. Miscellaneous Streams are subject to the requirements of several milestones identified in the 216 Consent Order. This document constitutes the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit application for hydrotest,maintenance and construction discharges throughout the Hanford Site. This categorical permit application form was prepared and approved by Ecology.

  9. Atmospheric Mercury near Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir in Southern Idaho

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Abbott; Jeffrey J. Einerson

    2007-12-01

    Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) were measured over two-week seasonal field campaigns near Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir in south-central Idaho from the summer of 2005 through the fall of 2006 and over the entire summer of 2006 using automated Tekran mercury analyzers. GEM, RGM, and particulate mercury (HgP) were also measured at a secondary site 90 km to the west in southwestern Idaho during the summer of 2006. The study was performed to characterize mercury air concentrations in the southern Idaho area for the first time, estimate mercury dry deposition rates, and investigate the source of observed elevated concentrations. High seasonal variability was observed with the highest GEM (1.91 0.9 ng m-3) and RGM (8.1 5.6 pg m-3) concentrations occurring in the summer and lower values in the winter (1.32 0.3 ng m-3, 3.2 2.9 pg m-3 for GEM, RGM respectively). The summer-average HgP concentrations were generally below detection limit (0.6 1 pg m-3). Seasonally-averaged deposition velocities calculated using a resistance model were 0.034 0.032, 0.043 0.040, 0.00084 0.0017 and 0.00036 0.0011 cm s-1 for GEM (spring, summer, fall, and winter, respectively) and 0.50 0.39, 0.40 0.31, 0.51 0.43 and 0.76 0.57 cm s-1 for RGM. The total annual RGM + GEM dry deposition estimate was calculated to be 11.9 3.3 g m-2, or about 2/3 of the total (wet + dry) deposition estimate for the area. Periodic elevated short-term GEM (2.2 12 ng m-3) and RGM (50 - 150 pg m-3) events were observed primarily during the warm seasons. Back-trajectory modeling and PSCF analysis indicated predominant source directions from the southeast (western Utah, northeastern Nevada) through the southwest (north-central Nevada) with fewer inputs from the northwest (southeastern Oregon and southwestern Idaho).

  10. Environmental chamber measurements of mercury flux from coal utilization by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pekney, Natalie J.; Martello, Donald; Schroeder, Karl; Granite, Evan

    2009-05-01

    An environmental chamber was constructed to measure the mercury flux from coal utilization by-product (CUB) samples. Samples of fly ash, FGD gypsum, and wallboard made from FGD gypsum were tested under both dark and illuminated conditions with or without the addition of water to the sample. Mercury releases varied widely, with 7- day experiment averages ranging from -6.8 to 73 ng/m(2) h for the fly ash samples and -5.2 to 335 ng/m(2) h for the FGD/wallboard samples. Initial mercury content, fly ash type, and light exposure had no observable consistent effects on the mercury flux. For the fly ash samples, the effect of a mercury control technology was to decrease the emission. For three of the four pairs of FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, the wallboard sample released less (or absorbed more) mercury than the gypsum.

  11. Environmental chamber measurements of mercury flux from coal utilization by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pekney, N.J.; Martello, D.V.; Schroeder, K.T.; Granite, E.J.

    2009-05-01

    An environmental chamber was constructed to measure the mercury flux from coal utilization by-product (CUB) samples. Samples of fly ash, FGD gypsum, and wallboard made from FGD gypsum were tested under both dark and illuminated conditions with or without the addition of water to the sample. Mercury releases varied widely, with 7-day experiment averages ranging from -6.8 to 73 ng/m2 h for the fly ash samples and -5.2 to 335 ng/m2 h for the FGD/wallboard samples. Initial mercury content, fly ash type, and light exposure had no observable consistent effects on the mercury flux. For the fly ash samples, the effect of a mercury control technology was to decrease the emission. For three of the four pairs of FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, the wallboard sample released less (or absorbed more) mercury than the gypsum.

  12. EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.A. Withum; S.C. Tseng; J.E. Locke

    2005-11-01

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dryer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the seventh in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 1,300 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing three percent sulfur. The unit was equipped with an ESP and a limestone-based wet FGD to control particulate and SO2 emissions, respectively. At the time of sampling an SCR was not installed on this unit. Four sampling tests were performed in September 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. The results show that the FGD inlet flue gas oxidized:elemental mercury ratio was roughly 2:1, with 66% oxidized mercury and 34% elemental mercury. Mercury removal, on a coal

  13. Phenomena of oscillations in atmospheric pressure direct current glow discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Fu-cheng; Yan, Wen; Wang, De-zhen

    2013-12-15

    Self-sustained oscillations in a dc glow discharge with a semiconductor layer at atmospheric pressure were investigated by means of a one-dimensional fluid model. It is found that the dc glow discharge initially becomes unstable in the subnormal glow region and gives rise to oscillations of plasma parameters. A variety of oscillations with one or more frequencies have been observed under different conditions. The discharge oscillates between the glow discharge mode and the Townsend discharge mode in the oscillations with large amplitude while operates in the subnormal glow discharge mode all the while in the oscillations with small amplitude. Fourier Transform spectra of oscillations reveal the transition mechanism between different oscillations. The effects of semiconductor conductivity on the oscillation frequency of the dominant mode, gas voltage, as well as the discharge current have also been analyzed.

  14. Sensitive glow discharge ion source for aerosol and gas analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, Peter T. A. (Knoxville, TN)

    2007-08-14

    A high sensitivity glow discharge ion source system for analyzing particles includes an aerodynamic lens having a plurality of constrictions for receiving an aerosol including at least one analyte particle in a carrier gas and focusing the analyte particles into a collimated particle beam. A separator separates the carrier gas from the analyte particle beam, wherein the analyte particle beam or vapors derived from the analyte particle beam are selectively transmitted out of from the separator. A glow discharge ionization source includes a discharge chamber having an entrance orifice for receiving the analyte particle beam or analyte vapors, and a target electrode and discharge electrode therein. An electric field applied between the target electrode and discharge electrode generates an analyte ion stream from the analyte vapors, which is directed out of the discharge chamber through an exit orifice, such as to a mass spectrometer. High analyte sensitivity is obtained by pumping the discharge chamber exclusively through the exit orifice and the entrance orifice.

  15. Desensitizing nano powders to electrostatic discharge ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steelman, Ryan; Clark, Billy; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is a main cause for ignition in powder media ranging from grain silos to fireworks. Nanoscale particles are orders of magnitude more ESD ignition sensitive than their micron scale counterparts. This study shows that at least 13 vol. % carbon nanotubes (CNT) added to nano-aluminum and nano-copper oxide particles (nAl + CuO) eliminates ESD ignition sensitivity. The CNT act as a conduit for electric energy and directs electric charge through the powder to desensitize the reactive mixture to ignition. For nanoparticles, the required CNT concentration for desensitizing ESD ignition acts as a diluent to quench energy propagation.

  16. Analysis of radiofrequency discharges in plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, D.; McGlynn, S.P.

    1992-08-04

    Separation of laser optogalvanic signals in plasma into two components: (1) an ionization rate change component, and (2) a photoacoustic mediated component. This separation of components may be performed even when the two components overlap in time, by measuring time-resolved laser optogalvanic signals in an rf discharge plasma as the rf frequency is varied near the electrical resonance peak of the plasma and associated driving/detecting circuits. A novel spectrometer may be constructed to make these measurements. Such a spectrometer would be useful in better understanding and controlling such processes as plasma etching and plasma deposition. 15 figs.

  17. Analysis of radiofrequency discharges in plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, Devendra; McGlynn, Sean P.

    1992-01-01

    Separation of laser optogalvanic signals in plasma into two components: (1) an ionization rate change component, and (2) a photoacoustic mediated component. This separation of components may be performed even when the two components overlap in time, by measuring time-resolved laser optogalvanic signals in an rf discharge plasma as the rf frequency is varied near the electrical resonance peak of the plasma and associated driving/detecting circuits. A novel spectrometer may be constructed to make these measurements. Such a spectrometer would be useful in better understanding and controlling such processes as plasma etching and plasma deposition.

  18. Electrochemical cell assembled in discharged state

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yao, Neng-Ping; Walsh, William J.

    1976-01-01

    A secondary, electrochemical cell is assembled in a completely discharged state within a sealed containment. As assembled, the cell includes a positive electrode separated from a negative electrode by a molten salt electrolyte. The positive electrode is contained within a porous structure, permitting passage of molten electrolyte, and includes one or more layers of a metallic mesh, e.g. iron, impregnated with an intimate mixture of lithium sulfide and the electrolyte. The negative electrode is a porous plaque of aluminum metal. Prior to using the cell, an electrical charge forms lithium-aluminum alloy within the negative electrode and metal sulfide within the positive electrode.

  19. Evaluation of mercury in liquid waste processing facilities - Phase I report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, V.; Occhipinti, J. E.; Shah, H.; Wilmarth, W. R.; Edwards, R. E.

    2015-07-01

    This report provides a summary of Phase I activities conducted to support an Integrated Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste System (LWS) Processing Facilities. Phase I activities included a review and assessment of the liquid waste inventory and chemical processing behavior of mercury using a system by system review methodology approach. Gaps in understanding mercury behavior as well as action items from the structured reviews are being tracked. 64% of the gaps and actions have been resolved.

  20. Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste Processing Facilities - Phase I Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, V.; Occhipinti, J.; Shah, H.; Wilmarth, B.; Edwards, R.

    2015-07-01

    This report provides a summary of Phase I activities conducted to support an Integrated Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste System (LWS) Processing Facilities. Phase I activities included a review and assessment of the liquid waste inventory and chemical processing behavior of mercury using a system by system review methodology approach. Gaps in understanding mercury behavior as well as action items from the structured reviews are being tracked. 64% of the gaps and actions have been resolved.

  1. Obtaining accurate amounts of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1987-01-01

    A process for obtaining pre-determined, accurate rate amounts of mercury. In one embodiment, predetermined, precise amounts of Hg are separated from HgO and plated onto a cathode wire. The method for doing this involves dissolving a precise amount of HgO which corresponds to a pre-determined amount of Hg desired in an electrolyte solution comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. The mercuric ions are then electrolytically reduced and plated onto a cathode producing the required pre-determined quantity of Hg. In another embodiment, pre-determined, precise amounts of Hg are obtained from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2. The method for doing this involves dissolving a precise amount of Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 in an electrolyte solution comprised of concentrated HCl and H.sub.2 O. The mercurous ions in solution are then electrolytically reduced and plated onto a cathode wire producing the required, pre-determined quantity of Hg.

  2. Obtaining accurate amounts of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1987-07-07

    A process is described for obtaining pre-determined, accurate rate amounts of mercury. In one embodiment, predetermined, precise amounts of Hg are separated from HgO and plated onto a cathode wire. The method for doing this involves dissolving a precise amount of HgO which corresponds to a pre-determined amount of Hg desired in an electrolyte solution comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. The mercuric ions are then electrolytically reduced and plated onto a cathode producing the required pre-determined quantity of Hg. In another embodiment, pre-determined, precise amounts of Hg are obtained from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The method for doing this involves dissolving a precise amount of Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] in an electrolyte solution comprised of concentrated HCl and H[sub 2]O. The mercurous ions in solution are then electrolytically reduced and plated onto a cathode wire producing the required, pre-determined quantity of Hg. 1 fig.

  3. INNOVATIVE APPROACHES TO COMPLYING WITH VERY LOW NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM (NPDES) PERMIT LIMITS FOR METALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, B

    2009-06-26

    The NPDES permit issued to the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 2003 contained very low metals limits for several outfalls. Copper, lead and zinc limits were as low as seven micrograms per liter (7 ug/l), 1 ug/l, and 100 ug/l, respectively. The permit contained compliance schedules that provided SRS with only three to five years to select and implement projects that would enable outfall compliance. Discharges from a few outfalls were eliminated or routed into other locations relatively inexpensively. However, some outfall problems were much more difficult to correct. SRS personnel implemented several innovative projects in order to meet compliance schedule deadlines as inexpensively as possible. These innovations included (1) connecting several outfall discharges to the site's Central Sanitary Wastewater Treatment Facility (CSWTF), (2) constructing a treatment wetlands and completing a water-effects ratio (WER) on its effluent, (3) installing a stannous chloride feed system to remove mercury in an existing air stripper, and (4) constructing a humic acid feed system to increase effluent dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content and take advantage of biotic ligand modeling to raise effluent limits.

  4. FGD Additives to Segregate and Sequester Mercury in Solid Byproducts - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Searcy, K; Bltyhe, G M; Steen, W A

    2012-02-28

    Many mercury control strategies for U.S. coal-fired power generating plants involve co-benefit capture of oxidized mercury from flue gases treated by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. For these processes to be effective at overall mercury control, the captured mercury must not be re-emitted to the atmosphere or into surface or ground water. The project sought to identify scrubber additives and FGD operating conditions under which mercury re-emissions would decrease and mercury would remain in the liquor and be blown down from the system in the chloride purge stream. After exiting the FGD system, mercury would react with precipitating agents to form stable solid byproducts and would be removed in a dewatering step. The FGD gypsum solids, free of most of the mercury, could then be disposed or processed for reuse as wallboard or in other beneficial reuse. The project comprised extensive bench-scale FGD scrubber tests in Phases I and II. During Phase II, the approaches developed at the bench scale were tested at the pilot scale. Laboratory wastewater treatment tests measured the performance of precipitating agents in removing mercury from the chloride purge stream. Finally, the economic viability of the approaches tested was evaluated.

  5. Real-time analysis of total, elemental, and total speciated mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlager, R.J.; Wilson, K.G.; Sappey, A.D.

    1995-11-01

    ADA Technologies, Inc., is developing a continuous emissions monitoring system that measures the concentrations of mercury in flue gas. Mercury is emitted as an air pollutant from a number of industrial processes. The largest contributors of these emissions are coal and oil combustion, municipal waste combustion, medical waste combustion, and the thermal treatment of hazardous materials. It is difficult, time consuming, and expensive to measure mercury emissions using current testing methods. Part of the difficulty lies in the fact that mercury is emitted from sources in several different forms, such as elemental mercury and mercuric chloride. The ADA analyzer measures these emissions in real time, thus providing a number of advantages over existing test methods: (1) it will provide a real-time measure of emission rates, (2) it will assure facility operators, regulators, and the public that emissions control systems are working at peak efficiency, and (3) it will provide information as to the nature of the emitted mercury (elemental mercury or speciated compounds). This update presents an overview of the CEM and describes features of key components of the monitoring system--the mercury detector, a mercury species converter, and the analyzer calibration system.

  6. Mercury Vapor At Silver Peak Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) | Open...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Silver Peak Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) Exploration Activity Details...

  7. Mercury Vapor At Salt Wells Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) | Open...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    19811025; Houston, TX. Davis, CA: Geothermal Resources Council; p. 95-98 S.C. Smith. 2003. Thermally Speciated Mercury in Mineral Exploration. In: Programs & Abstracts:...

  8. Mercury capture within coal-fired power plant electrostatic precipitators: model evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clack, H.L.

    2009-03-01

    Efforts to reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions worldwide have recently focused on a variety of sources, including mercury emitted during coal combustion. Toward that end, much research has been ongoing seeking to develop new processes for reducing coal combustion mercury emissions. Among air pollution control processes that can be applied to coal-fired boilers, electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are by far the most common, both on a global scale and among the principal countries of India, China, and the U.S. that burn coal for electric power generation. A previously reported theoretical model of in-flight mercury capture within ESPs is herein evaluated against data from a number of full-scale tests of activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control. By using the established particle size distribution of the activated carbon and actual or estimated values of its equilibrium mercury adsorption capacity, the incremental reduction in mercury concentration across each ESP can be predicted and compared to experimental results. Because the model does not incorporate kinetics associated with gas-phase mercury transformation or surface adsorption, the model predictions represent the mass-transfer-limited performance. Comparing field data to model results reveals many facilities performing at or near the predicted mass-transfer-limited maximum, particularly at low rates of sorbent injection. Where agreement is poor between field data and model predictions, additional chemical or physical phenomena may be responsible for reducing mercury removal efficiencies. 26 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Packaging a liquid metal ESD with micro-scale Mercury droplet...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    There are many challenges surrounding the deposition and containment of micro scale mercury droplets. Novel methods of micro liquid transfer are developed to deliver controllable ...

  10. Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Supplement...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Elemental Mercury Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement 2-58 Commentor No. 15: Carlos ... establishes basic standards and procedures for the receipt, management, and ...

  11. Kids vs. Mercury: Food fight at the creek | Y-12 National Security Complex

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Kids vs. Mercury: Food ... Kids vs. Mercury: Food fight at the creek Posted: May 7, 2014 - 5:26pm | Y-12 Report | Volume 10, Issue 2 | 2014 For years Y-12 has dealt with environmental mercury contamination from historical manufacturing processes. The potential for mercury to seep into nearby streams and harm aquatic life is a continuing issue. To combat the issue, Y-12 recently opened its doors and a local creek to sharp, energetic sixth-grade innovators who have developed a proprietary

  12. Mercury Vapor At Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area (Kodosky...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    on air-dried ( < 80 mesh fraction) samples using the Jerome Instrument 301 Au-film Hg degrees detector. References Lawrence G. Kodosky (1989) Surface Mercury Geochemistry As...

  13. Packaging a liquid metal ESD with micro-scale Mercury droplet.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnard, Casey Anderson

    2011-08-01

    A liquid metal ESD is being developed to provide electrical switching at different acceleration levels. The metal will act as both proof mass and electric contact. Mercury is chosen to comply with operation parameters. There are many challenges surrounding the deposition and containment of micro scale mercury droplets. Novel methods of micro liquid transfer are developed to deliver controllable amounts of mercury to the appropriate channels in volumes under 1 uL. Issues of hermetic sealing and avoidance of mercury contamination are also addressed.

  14. Concentrations and mass balance of mercury in a fluidized bed sewage sludge incineration plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saenger, M.; Werther, J.; Hanssen, H.

    1999-07-01

    The fluidized bed sewage sludge incineration plant of the city of Hamburg started its operation in May 1997. In cooperation with Hamburger Stadtentwaesserung the Technical University Hamburg-Harburg undertook an experimental program to measure the mass balance of mercury across this plant. During the first months of full operation the mercury concentrations in the flue gas and in the solid residues were measured. The measurements show that the concentration in the raw flue gas is between 500 to 950 {micro}g/m{sup 3} and part of the elemental mercury depends on the chlorine content of the fuel. The concentration of the mercury in the flue gas is reduced over the first scrubber to 35--460 {micro}m/m{sup 3}. Some 77% of the mercury input are found in the sediment separated from the liquid of the acid scrubber. It is remarkable that the concentration of the elemental mercury increases while the gas passes through the scrubber. The concentration of mercury in the cleaned stack gas is less than 40 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. Since it is generally known that it is not easy to meet the limit of 50 {micro}g mercury per m{sup 3} (standard conditions, dry basis) of flue gas which is set by the German regulations for waste incineration, the measurements provide a comprehensive picture of the fate of mercury in a fluidized bed sludge incineration plant.

  15. Electrostatic discharge testing of electroexplosive devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hingorani, S.L.

    1990-01-01

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) testing of electroexplosive devices has previously been regarded as single pulse, go/no-go testing, the emphasis being on the safety of the devices when exposed to human handling. For some components it has been found to be a destructive test; for others the test is performed 100% in production product-acceptance testing and is considered a nondestructive and nondegrading test if the component does not fire. Recent studies performed by R. J. Fisher at Sandia have resulted in a new model of the worst case human body electrostatic discharge that is more accurate than the model that is currently in use for testing electroexplosive components. In addition, recent requirements for no degradation or loss of reliability after multiple exposures (up to 100) have changed the go/no-go nature of the test. Several components have been tested to the new ESD model; results regarding both safety and reliability will be presented and discussed. 9 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Method of preparing mercury with an arbitrary isotopic distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1986-01-01

    This invention provides for a process for preparing mercury with a predetermined, arbitrary, isotopic distribution. In one embodiment, different isotopic types of Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2, corresponding to the predetermined isotopic distribution of Hg desired, are placed in an electrolyte solution of HCl and H.sub.2 O. The resulting mercurous ions are then electrolytically plated onto a cathode wire producing mercury containing the predetermined isotopic distribution. In a similar fashion, Hg with a predetermined isotopic distribution is obtained from different isotopic types of HgO. In this embodiment, the HgO is dissolved in an electrolytic solution of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. The isotopic specific Hg is then electrolytically plated onto a cathode and then recovered.

  17. Compatibility of structural materials with liquid bismuth, lead, and mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weeks, J.R.

    1996-06-01

    During the 1950s and 1960s, a substantial program existed at Brookhaven National Laboratory as part of the Liquid Metal Fuel reactor program on the compatibility of bismuth, lead, and their alloys with structural materials. Subsequently, compatibility investigations of mercury with structural materials were performed in support of development of Rankine cycle mercury turbines for nuclear applications. The present talk will review present understanding of the corrosion/mass-transfer reactions of structural materials with these liquid metal coolants. Topics to be discussed include the basic solubility relationships of iron, chromium, nickel, and refractory metals in these liquid metals, the results of inhibition studies, the role of oxygen on the corrosion processes, and specialized topics such as cavitation-corrosion and liquid metal embrittlement. Emphasis will be placed on utilizing the understanding gained in this earlier work on the development of heavy liquid metal targets in spallation neutron sources.

  18. Method of preparing mercury with an arbitrary isotopic distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1986-12-16

    This invention provides for a process for preparing mercury with a predetermined, arbitrary, isotopic distribution. In one embodiment, different isotopic types of Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2], corresponding to the predetermined isotopic distribution of Hg desired, are placed in an electrolyte solution of HCl and H[sub 2]O. The resulting mercurous ions are then electrolytically plated onto a cathode wire producing mercury containing the predetermined isotopic distribution. In a similar fashion, Hg with a predetermined isotopic distribution is obtained from different isotopic types of HgO. In this embodiment, the HgO is dissolved in an electrolytic solution of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. The isotopic specific Hg is then electrolytically plated onto a cathode and then recovered. 1 fig.

  19. Effect of volume and surface charges on discharge structure of glow dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Shao-Wei; He, Feng; Wang, Yu; Li, Lulu; Ouyang, Ji-Ting

    2013-08-15

    The effect of volume and surface charges on the structure of glow dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) has been investigated numerically by using two-dimensional (2D) fluid modeling. The local increase of volume or surface charges induces a kind of activation-inhibition effect, which enhances the local volume discharge and inhibits the discharge in neighborhoods, resulting in non-uniform discharge. The activation-inhibition effect due to the non-uniform volume and/or surface charges depends on the non-uniformity itself and the applied voltage. The activation-inhibition of non-uniform charges has different effects on the volume charges and the accumulated surface charges. The distribution of remaining free charges (seed electrons) in volume at the beginning of voltage pulse plays a key role for the glow DBD structure, resulting in a patterned DBD, when the seed electrons are non-uniform at higher frequency and moderate voltage or uniform DBD, when the seed electrons are uniform at lower frequency or high voltage. The distribution of surface charges is not the determining factor but a result of the formed DBD structure.

  20. EIS-0423: Storage and Management of Elemental Mercury

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS evaluates the environmental impacts associated with the reasonable alternatives for managing and storing elemental mercury at seven candidate locations (i.e., Colorado, Idaho, Missouri, Nevada, South Carolina, Texas, and Washington). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, and the Mesa County Board of Commissioners (Mesa County, Colorado) are cooperating agencies in the preparation of this EIS.

  1. Separation of iodine from mercury containing scrubbing solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burger, Leland L.; Scheele, Randall D.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive iodines can be recovered from a nitric acid scrub solution containing mercuric nitrate by passing a current through the scrub solution to react the iodine with the mercuric nitrate to form mercuric iodate which precipitates out. The mercuric iodate can then be reacted to recover the radioiodine for further processing into a form suitable for long-term storage and to recover the mercury for recycling.

  2. Environmental Remediation program completes legacy mercury cleanup near

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Smith's Marketplace Stories » Legacy slope-side cleanup Environmental Remediation program completes legacy mercury cleanup near Smith's Marketplace Los Alamos National Laboratory performed a high-angle canyon-side cleanup on U.S. Department of Energy property just south of Smith's Marketplace. May 1, 2015 A telescoping crane hoists a spider excavator over Los Alamos Canyon before placing it on the canyon slope to excavate historically contaminated soil. In ongoing efforts to reduce the

  3. Semi-continuous detection of mercury in gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2011-12-06

    A new method for the semi-continuous detection of heavy metals and metalloids including mercury in gaseous streams. The method entails mass measurement of heavy metal oxides and metalloid oxides with a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor having an uncoated substrate. An array of surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors can be used where each sensor is for the semi-continuous emission monitoring of a particular heavy metal or metalloid.

  4. Mercury and tritium removal from DOE waste oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klasson, E.T.

    1997-10-01

    This work covers the investigation of vacuum extraction as a means to remove tritiated contamination as well as the removal via sorption of dissolved mercury from contaminated oils. The radiation damage in oils from tritium causes production of hydrogen, methane, and low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons. When tritium gas is present in the oil, the tritium atom is incorporated into the formed hydrocarbons. The transformer industry measures gas content/composition of transformer oils as a diagnostic tool for the transformers` condition. The analytical approach (ASTM D3612-90) used for these measurements is vacuum extraction of all gases (H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, etc.) followed by analysis of the evolved gas mixture. This extraction method will be adapted to remove dissolved gases (including tritium) from the SRS vacuum pump oil. It may be necessary to heat (60{degrees}C to 70{degrees}C) the oil during vacuum extraction to remove tritiated water. A method described in the procedures is a stripper column extraction, in which a carrier gas (argon) is used to remove dissolved gases from oil that is dispersed on high surface area beads. This method appears promising for scale-up as a treatment process, and a modified process is also being used as a dewatering technique by SD Myers, Inc. (a transformer consulting company) for transformers in the field by a mobile unit. Although some mercury may be removed during the vacuum extraction, the most common technique for removing mercury from oil is by using sulfur-impregnated activated carbon (SIAC). SIAC is currently being used by the petroleum industry to remove mercury from hydrocarbon mixtures, but the sorbent has not been previously tested on DOE vacuum oil waste. It is anticipated that a final process will be similar to technologies used by the petroleum industry and is comparable to ion exchange operations in large column-type reactors.

  5. Charging of moving surfaces by corona discharges sustained in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jun-Chieh Kushner, Mark J.; Zhang, Daihua; Leoni, Napoleon Birecki, Henryk Gila, Omer

    2014-07-28

    Atmospheric pressure corona discharges are used in electrophotographic (EP) printing technologies for charging imaging surfaces such as photoconductors. A typical corona discharge consists of a wire (or wire array) biased with a few hundred volts of dc plus a few kV of ac voltage. An electric discharge is produced around the corona wire from which electrons drift towards and charge the underlying dielectric surface. The surface charging reduces the voltage drop across the gap between the corona wire and the dielectric surface, which then terminates the discharge, as in a dielectric barrier discharge. In printing applications, this underlying surface is continuously moving throughout the charging process. For example, previously charged surfaces, which had reduced the local electric field and terminated the local discharge, are translated out of the field of view and are replaced with uncharged surface. The uncharged surface produces a rebound in the electric field in the vicinity of the corona wire which in turn results in re-ignition of the discharge. The discharge, so reignited, is then asymmetric. We found that in the idealized corona charging system we investigated, a negatively dc biased corona blade with a dielectric covered ground electrode, the discharge is initially sustained by electron impact ionization from the bulk plasma and then dominated by ionization from sheath accelerated secondary electrons. Depending on the speed of the underlying surface, the periodic re-ignition of the discharge can produce an oscillatory charging pattern on the moving surface.

  6. Survey of mercury, cadmium and lead content of household batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Recknagel, Sebastian; Radant, Hendrik; Kohlmeyer, Regina

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • A well selected sample of 146 batteries was analysed for its heavy metals content. • A comparison was made between heavy metals contents in batteries in 2006 and 2011. • No significant change after implementation of the new EU Batteries Directive. • Severe differences in heavy metal contents were found in different battery-types. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to provide updated information on the development of the potential impact of heavy metal containing batteries on municipal waste and battery recycling processes following transposition of the new EU Batteries Directive 2006/66/EC. A representative sample of 146 different types of commercially available dry and button cells as well as lithium-ion accumulators for mobile phones were analysed for their mercury (Hg)-, cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-contents. The methods used for preparing the cells and analysing the heavy metals Hg, Cd, and Pb were either developed during a former study or newly developed. Several batteries contained higher mass fractions of mercury or cadmium than the EU limits. Only half of the batteries with mercury and/or lead fractions above the marking thresholds were labelled. Alkaline–manganese mono-cells and Li-ion accumulators, on average, contained the lowest heavy metal concentrations, while zinc–carbon batteries, on average, contained the highest levels.

  7. Partitioning of mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride in a full-scale coal combustion process equipped with selective catalytic reduction, electrostatic precipitation, and flue gas desulfurization systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chin-Min Cheng; Pauline Hack; Paul Chu; Yung-Nan Chang; Ting-Yu Lin; Chih-Sheng Ko; Po-Han Chiang; Cheng-Chun He; Yuan-Min Lai; Wei-Ping Pan

    2009-09-15

    A full-scale field study was carried out at a 795 MWe coal-fired power plant equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to investigate the distribution of selected trace elements (i.e., mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride) from coal, FGD reagent slurry, makeup water to flue gas, solid byproduct, and wastewater streams. Flue gases were collected from the SCR outlet, ESP inlet, FGD inlet, and stack. Concurrent with flue gas sampling, coal, bottom ash, economizer ash, and samples from the FGD process were also collected for elemental analysis. By combining plant operation parameters, the overall material balances of selected elements were established. The removal efficiencies of As, Se, Hg, and B by the ESP unit were 88, 56, 17, and 8%, respectively. Only about 2.5% of Cl was condensed and removed from flue gas by fly ash. The FGD process removed over 90% of Cl, 77% of B, 76% of Hg, 30% of Se, and 5% of As. About 90% and 99% of the FGD-removed Hg and Se were associated with gypsum. For B and Cl, over 99% were discharged from the coal combustion process with the wastewater. Mineral trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dehydrate, Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) was injected before the ESP unit to control the emission of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}). By comparing the trace elements compositions in the fly ash samples collected from the locations before and after the trona injection, the injection of trona did not show an observable effect on the partitioning behaviors of selenium and arsenic, but it significantly increased the adsorption of mercury onto fly ash. The stack emissions of mercury, boron, selenium, and chloride were for the most part in the gas phase. 47 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Microbial- and thiosulfate-mediated dissolution of mercury sulfide minerals and transformation to gaseous mercury

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Vázquez-Rodríguez, Adiari I.; Hansel, Colleen M.; Zhang, Tong; Lamborg, Carl H.; Santelli, Cara M.; Webb, Samuel M.; Brooks, Scott C.

    2015-06-23

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic heavy metal that poses significant environmental and human health risks. Soils and sediments, where Hg can exist as the Hg sulfide mineral metacinnabar (β-HgS), represent major Hg reservoirs in aquatic environments. Metacinnabar has historically been considered a sink for Hg in all but severely acidic environments, and thus disregarded as a potential source of Hg back to aqueous or gaseous pools. In this study, we conducted a combination of field and laboratory incubations to identify the potential for metacinnabar as a source of dissolved Hg within near neutral pH environments and the underpinning (a)biotic mechanismsmore » at play. We show that the abundant and widespread sulfur-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Thiobacillus extensively colonized metacinnabar chips incubated within aerobic, near neutral pH creek sediments. Laboratory incubations of axenic Thiobacillus thioparus cultures led to the release of metacinnabar-hosted Hg(II) and subsequent volatilization to Hg(0). This dissolution and volatilization was greatly enhanced in the presence of thiosulfate, which served a dual role by enhancing HgS dissolution through Hg complexation and providing an additional metabolic substrate for Thiobacillus. These findings reveal a new coupled abiotic-biotic pathway for the transformation of metacinnabar-bound Hg(II) to Hg(0), while expanding the sulfide substrates available for neutrophilic chemosynthetic bacteria to Hg-laden sulfides. Lastly, they also point to mineral-hosted Hg as an underappreciated source of gaseous elemental Hg to the environment.« less

  9. Microbial- and thiosulfate-mediated dissolution of mercury sulfide minerals and transformation to gaseous mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vázquez-Rodríguez, Adiari I.; Hansel, Colleen M.; Zhang, Tong; Lamborg, Carl H.; Santelli, Cara M.; Webb, Samuel M.; Brooks, Scott C.

    2015-06-23

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic heavy metal that poses significant environmental and human health risks. Soils and sediments, where Hg can exist as the Hg sulfide mineral metacinnabar (β-HgS), represent major Hg reservoirs in aquatic environments. Metacinnabar has historically been considered a sink for Hg in all but severely acidic environments, and thus disregarded as a potential source of Hg back to aqueous or gaseous pools. In this study, we conducted a combination of field and laboratory incubations to identify the potential for metacinnabar as a source of dissolved Hg within near neutral pH environments and the underpinning (a)biotic mechanisms at play. We show that the abundant and widespread sulfur-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Thiobacillus extensively colonized metacinnabar chips incubated within aerobic, near neutral pH creek sediments. Laboratory incubations of axenic Thiobacillus thioparus cultures led to the release of metacinnabar-hosted Hg(II) and subsequent volatilization to Hg(0). This dissolution and volatilization was greatly enhanced in the presence of thiosulfate, which served a dual role by enhancing HgS dissolution through Hg complexation and providing an additional metabolic substrate for Thiobacillus. These findings reveal a new coupled abiotic-biotic pathway for the transformation of metacinnabar-bound Hg(II) to Hg(0), while expanding the sulfide substrates available for neutrophilic chemosynthetic bacteria to Hg-laden sulfides. Lastly, they also point to mineral-hosted Hg as an underappreciated source of gaseous elemental Hg to the environment.

  10. Mercury(II) nitroprusside: A framework with an unusual topology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cano, A.; Osiry, H.; Reguera, L.; Lemus-Santana, A.A.; Reguera, E.

    2015-05-15

    The titled compound was prepared by the precipitation method from diluted aqueous solution of sodium nitroprusside and mercury(II) nitrate. The orange solid formed, with formula unit Hg[Fe(CN){sub 5}NO], crystallizes with an orthorhombic unit cell in the Pmna space group with cell parameters: a=11.2788(3), b=6.1965(3), and c=12.3786(6) Å. The unit cell accommodates four formula of the compound (Z=4). Its crystal structure was solved from X-ray powder patterns and then refined by the Rietveld method. The material framework is formed by tetrahedral coordination of Hg atoms at the N end of the equatorial CN groups of the [Fe(CN){sub 5}NO] building block. That framework results from the interpenetration of two identical sub-frameworks with a relative shift of (a/2, b/2, c/2). The sub-framework has two types of cavities, ellipsoidal and rhombohedral, with transversal section of ca. 4.5×9.2 Å and ca. 8.5 Å transversal section, respectively. That system of cavities results eclipsed by the relative shift of neighboring sub-frameworks. No transport of H{sub 2} and N{sub 2} molecules through the material framework was observed. The thermal decomposition also reveals limitation for the decomposition products diffusion through the practically compact structure. The structural study was complemented with TG, IR, UV–vis and N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} adsorption data. Neighboring Hg atoms are distant 4.54(3) Å, a relatively large distance to suppose the existence of metal–metal interaction. No previous study on the crystal structure and related properties of mercury(II) nitroprusside has been reported. - Graphical abstract: Mercury(II) nitroprusside framework formed by two identical interpenetrated porous subframeworks where neighboring cavities appear eclipsed. - Highlights: • Interpenetrated frameworks in metal nitroprusside. • Eclipsed porous framework in metal nitroprusside. • Structure and related properties for mercury(II) nitroprusside. • Spectral features for

  11. Bench-scale Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe; John Currie; David DeBerry

    2008-03-31

    This document is the final report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42314, 'Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors'. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory and EPRI. The objective of the project has been to determine the mechanisms and kinetics of the aqueous reactions of mercury absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, and develop a kinetics model to predict mercury reactions in wet FGD systems. The model may be used to determine optimum wet FGD design and operating conditions to maximize mercury capture in wet FGD systems. Initially, a series of bench-top, liquid-phase reactor tests were conducted and mercury species concentrations were measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy to determine reactant and byproduct concentrations over time. Other measurement methods, such as atomic absorption, were used to measure concentrations of vapor-phase elemental mercury, that cannot be measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy. Next, a series of bench-scale wet FGD simulation tests were conducted. Because of the significant effects of sulfite concentration on mercury re-emission rates, new methods were developed for operating and controlling the bench-scale FGD experiments. Approximately 140 bench-scale wet FGD tests were conducted and several unusual and pertinent effects of process chemistry on mercury re-emissions were identified and characterized. These data have been used to develop an empirically adjusted, theoretically based kinetics model to predict mercury species reactions in wet FGD systems. The model has been verified in tests conducted with the bench-scale wet FGD system, where both gas-phase and liquid-phase mercury concentrations were measured to determine if the model accurately predicts the tendency for mercury re-emissions. This report presents and discusses results from the initial laboratory kinetics measurements, the bench-scale wet FGD tests, and the kinetics modeling efforts.

  12. Electrostatic Discharge testing of propellants and primers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, R.B.

    1994-02-01

    This report presents the results of testing of selected propellants and primers to Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) characteristic of the human body. It describes the tests and the fixturing built to accommodate loose material (propellants) and the packed energetic material of the primer. The results indicate that all powders passed and some primers, especially the electric primers, failed to pass established requirements which delineate insensitive energetic components. This report details the testing of components and materials to four ESD environments (Standard ESD, Severe ESD, Modified Standard ESD, and Modified Severe ESD). The purpose of this study was to collect data based on the customer requirements as defined in the Sandia Environmental Safety & Health (ES&H) Manual, Chapter 9, and to define static sensitive and insensitive propellants and primers.

  13. Spark discharge trace element detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adler-Golden, Steven; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Bien, Fritz

    1988-01-01

    A spark discharge trace element detection system is provided which includes a spark chamber including a pair of electrodes for receiving a sample of gas to be analyzed at no greater than atmospheric pressure. A voltage is provided across the electrodes for generating a spark in the sample. The intensity of the emitted radiation in at least one primary selected narrow band of the radiation is detected. Each primary band corresponds to an element to be detected in the gas. The intensity of the emission in each detected primary band is integrated during the afterglow time interval of the spark emission and a signal representative of the integrated intensity of the emission in each selected primary bond is utilized to determine the concentration of the corresponding element in the gas.

  14. Spark discharge trace element detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adler-Golden, S.; Bernstein, L.S.; Bien, F.

    1988-08-23

    A spark discharge trace element detection system is provided which includes a spark chamber including a pair of electrodes for receiving a sample of gas to be analyzed at no greater than atmospheric pressure. A voltage is provided across the electrodes for generating a spark in the sample. The intensity of the emitted radiation in at least one primary selected narrow band of the radiation is detected. Each primary band corresponds to an element to be detected in the gas. The intensity of the emission in each detected primary band is integrated during the afterglow time interval of the spark emission and a signal representative of the integrated intensity of the emission in each selected primary bond is utilized to determine the concentration of the corresponding element in the gas. 12 figs.

  15. Extreme-UV electrical discharge source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fornaciari, Neal R.; Nygren, Richard E.; Ulrickson, Michael A.

    2002-01-01

    An extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray radiation electric capillary discharge source that includes a boron nitride housing defining a capillary bore that is positioned between two electrodes one of which is connected to a source of electric potential can generate a high EUV and soft x-ray radiation flux from the capillary bore outlet with minimal debris. The electrode that is positioned adjacent the capillary bore outlet is typically grounded. Pyrolytic boron nitride, highly oriented pyrolytic boron nitride, and cubic boron nitride are particularly suited. The boron nitride capillary bore can be configured as an insert that is encased in an exterior housing that is constructed of a thermally conductive material. Positioning the ground electrode sufficiently close to the capillary bore outlet also reduces bore erosion.

  16. Identification of multiple mercury sources to stream sediments near Oak Ridge, TN, USA

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Donovan, Patrick M.; Blum, Joel D.; Demers, Jason D.; Gu, Baohua; Brooks, Scott C.; Peryam, John

    2014-03-03

    In this paper, sediments were analyzed for total Hg concentration (THg) and isotopic composition from streams and rivers in the vicinity of the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y12) in Oak Ridge, TN (USA). In the stream directly draining Y12, where industrial releases of mercury (Hg) have been documented, high THg (3.26 to 60.1 μg/g) sediments had a distinct Hg isotopic composition (δ202Hg of 0.02 ± 0.15‰ and Δ199Hg of -0.07 ± 0.03‰; mean ± 1SD, n=12) compared to sediments from relatively uncontaminated streams in the region (δ202Hg = -1.40 ± 0.06‰ and Δ199Hg of –0.26 ± 0.03‰; mean ± 1SD,more » n=6). Additionally, several streams that are nearby but do not drain Y12 had sediments with intermediate THg (0.06 to 0.21 μg/g) and anomalous δ202Hg (as low as -5.07‰). We suggest that the low δ202Hg values in these sediments provide evidence for the contribution of an additional Hg source to sediments, possibly derived from atmospheric deposition. In sediments directly downstream of Y12 this third Hg source is not discernible and the Hg isotopic composition can be largely explained by the mixing of low THg sediments with high THg sediments contaminated by Y12 discharges.« less

  17. Identification of multiple mercury sources to stream sediments near Oak Ridge, TN, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donovan, Patrick M.; Blum, Joel D.; Demers, Jason D.; Gu, Baohua; Brooks, Scott C.; Peryam, John

    2014-03-03

    In this paper, sediments were analyzed for total Hg concentration (THg) and isotopic composition from streams and rivers in the vicinity of the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y12) in Oak Ridge, TN (USA). In the stream directly draining Y12, where industrial releases of mercury (Hg) have been documented, high THg (3.26 to 60.1 μg/g) sediments had a distinct Hg isotopic composition (δ202Hg of 0.02 ± 0.15‰ and Δ199Hg of -0.07 ± 0.03‰; mean ± 1SD, n=12) compared to sediments from relatively uncontaminated streams in the region (δ202Hg = -1.40 ± 0.06‰ and Δ199Hg of –0.26 ± 0.03‰; mean ± 1SD, n=6). Additionally, several streams that are nearby but do not drain Y12 had sediments with intermediate THg (0.06 to 0.21 μg/g) and anomalous δ202Hg (as low as -5.07‰). We suggest that the low δ202Hg values in these sediments provide evidence for the contribution of an additional Hg source to sediments, possibly derived from atmospheric deposition. In sediments directly downstream of Y12 this third Hg source is not discernible and the Hg isotopic composition can be largely explained by the mixing of low THg sediments with high THg sediments contaminated by Y12 discharges.

  18. Low current plasmatron fuel converter having enlarged volume discharges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabinovich, Alexander; Alexeev, Nikolai; Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Samokhin, Andrei

    2005-04-19

    A novel apparatus and method is disclosed for a plasmatron fuel converter (""plasmatron"") that efficiently uses electrical energy to produce hydrogen rich gas. The volume and shape of the plasma discharge is controlled by a fluid flow established in a plasma discharge volume. A plasmatron according to this invention produces a substantially large effective plasma discharge volume allowing for substantially greater volumetric efficiency in the initiation of chemical reactions within a volume of bulk fluid reactant flowing through the plasmatron.

  19. Low current plasmatron fuel converter having enlarged volume discharges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabinovich, Alexander; Alexeev, Nikolai; Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Samokhin, Andrei

    2009-10-06

    A novel apparatus and method is disclosed for a plasmatron fuel converter ("plasmatron") that efficiently uses electrical energy to produce hydrogen rich gas. The volume and shape of the plasma discharge is controlled by a fluid flow established in a plasma discharge volume. A plasmatron according to this invention produces a substantially large effective plasma discharge volume allowing for substantially greater volumetric efficiency in the initiation of chemical reactions within a volume of bulk fluid reactant flowing through the plasmatron.

  20. LANL achieves milestone on path to zero wastewater discharge

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    LANL achieves milestone on wastewater discharge LANL achieves milestone on path to zero wastewater discharge Industrial wastewater will be recycled as the result of a long-term strategy to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into the environment. January 20, 2012 Aerial view of Los Alamos National Laboratory Aerial view of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Contact Colleen Curran Communications Office (505) 664-0344 Email Improved compliance while recycling millions of gallons of industrial

  1. Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. A. Withum; S. C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

    2006-01-31

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that these data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the ninth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on Unit 1 at Plant 7, a 566 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 3.6% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO{sub 2} emissions

  2. Cathode fall measurement in a dielectric barrier discharge in helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hao, Yanpeng; Zheng, Bin; Liu, Yaoge

    2013-11-15

    A method based on the “zero-length voltage” extrapolation is proposed to measure cathode fall in a dielectric barrier discharge. Starting, stable, and discharge-maintaining voltages were measured to obtain the extrapolation zero-length voltage. Under our experimental conditions, the “zero-length voltage” gave a cathode fall of about 185 V. Based on the known thickness of the cathode fall region, the spatial distribution of the electric field strength in dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric helium is determined. The strong cathode fall with a maximum field value of approximately 9.25 kV/cm was typical for the glow mode of the discharge.

  3. File:CDPHE Industrial Individual Wastewater Discharge Permit...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    CDPHE Industrial Individual Wastewater Discharge Permit Application.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:CDPHE Industrial Individual...

  4. Table 3. Annual commercial spent fuel discharges and burnup

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    ... Previous surveys (RW-859) reflected all commercial spent nuclear fuel discharges including assemblies that had been shipped to away-from-reactor, off-site facilities. As such, ...

  5. WAC - 173-216 State Wastewater Discharge Permit Program | Open...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Abstract These rules implement a state permit program, applicable to the discharge of waste materials from industrial, commercial, and municipal operations into ground and...

  6. WSDE Report: Wastewater Discharge Permits in Washington State...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Wastewater Discharge Permits in Washington State Author Washington State Department of Ecology Organization Washington State Department of Ecology Published Washington State...

  7. Plasmas in Multiphase Media: Bubble Enhanced Discharges in Liquids...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of atmospheric pressure plasmas in the form of dielectric barrier discharges and plasma jets with organic materials and liquids. We also made advances in our ability to use...

  8. Oregon Water Quality Permit Program (Stormwater Discharge Permits...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Permits) Website Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Oregon Water Quality Permit Program (Stormwater Discharge Permits) Website...

  9. Dual-frequency glow discharges in atmospheric helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xiaojiang; Guo, Ying; Dai, Lu; Zhang, Jing; Shi, J. J.

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, the dual-frequency (DF) glow discharges in atmospheric helium were experimented by electrical and optical measurements in terms of current voltage characteristics and optical emission intensity. It is shown that the waveforms of applied voltages or discharge currents are the results of low frequency (LF) waveforms added to high frequency (HF) waveforms. The HF mainly influences discharge currents, and the LF mainly influences applied voltages. The gas temperatures of DF discharges are mainly affected by HF power rather than LF power.

  10. Capacitor discharge pulse analysis. (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This report summarizes an analysis performed on the discharge current data to extract ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Country of ...

  11. Qualitative experiment with arc discharges on negatively biased solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuninaka, Hitoshi )

    1990-12-01

    The present ground simulation of arc discharges using heat-sensitive materials in dense Ar plasma can preclude interactions with the vacuum chamber wall due to its plasma shielding. The results obtained suggest that arc discharges occurred only on the surface of the masked model, and on the model with a clean conductor. Discharge frequency depended on substrate temperature, and surface luminosity was observed on the insulator mask; this last feature suggests that electrons are incident from the conductor region onto the mask. It is necessary to construct a new theory for the arc discharge integrating the effects of the surface gas adsorption/desorption and the secondary electrons. 14 refs.

  12. AZPDES General Permit for Stormwater Discharges Associated with...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    OtherOther: AZPDES General Permit for Stormwater Discharges Associated with Construction Activity (Permit No. AZG2013-001)Legal Abstract This Construction General Permit governs...

  13. WAC - 173 - 226 - Waste Discharge General Permit Program | Open...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    6 - Waste Discharge General Permit Program Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: WAC - 173 - 226 - Waste...

  14. EPA - Ground Water Discharges (EPA's Underground Injection Control...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Ground Water Discharges (EPA's Underground Injection Control Program) webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: EPA - Ground Water...

  15. Notice of Intent (NOI) for Storm Water Discharges Associated...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    (NOI) for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Construction Activities under TPDES General Permit (TXR150000) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  16. Notice of Intent for Stormwater Discharges Associated with Constructio...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    to library Form: Notice of Intent for Stormwater Discharges Associated with Construction Activity on Moderate Risk Sites Abstract Notice of Intent for required for...

  17. Notice of Intent for Stormwater Discharges Associated with Constructio...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Application: Notice of Intent for Stormwater Discharges Associated with Construction Activity on Low Risk SitesLegal Abstract Notice of Intent for required for...

  18. WAC - 173 - 220 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    WAC - 173 - 220 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit Program Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document-...

  19. High power impulse magnetron sputtering and related discharges...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering and related discharges: Scalable plasma sources ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High power impulse magnetron sputtering and ...

  20. Tracing And Quantifying Magmatic Carbon Discharge In Cold Groundwaters...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Tracing And Quantifying Magmatic Carbon Discharge In Cold Groundwaters- Lessons Learned From Mammoth Mountain, USA Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

  1. Tracing And Quantifying Magmatic Carbon Discharge In Cold Groundwaters...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Journal Article: Tracing And Quantifying Magmatic Carbon Discharge In Cold Groundwaters- Lessons Learned From Mammoth Mountain, Usa Abstract A major campaign to quantify the...

  2. WAC - 173 - 221A - Wastewater Discharge Standards and Effluent...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    A - Wastewater Discharge Standards and Effluent Limitations Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: WAC - 173 -...

  3. WAC - 173 - 221 - Discharge Standards and Effluent Limitations...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    - Discharge Standards and Effluent Limitations for Domestic Wastewater Facilities Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document-...

  4. Bench-scale vitrification studies with Savannah River Site mercury contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cicero, C.A.; Bickford, D.F.

    1995-12-31

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has been charted by the Department of Energy (DOE)--Office of Technology Development (OTD) to investigate vitrification technology for the treatment of Low Level Mixed Wastes (LLMW). In fiscal year 1995, mercury containing LLMW streams were targeted. In order to successfully apply vitrification technology to mercury containing LLMW, the types and quantities of glass forming additives necessary for producing homogeneous glasses from the wastes have to be determined and the treatment for the mercury portion must also be determined. Selected additives should ensure that a durable and leach resistant waste form is produced, while the mercury treatment should ensure that hazardous amounts of mercury are not released into the environment. The mercury containing LLMW selected for vitrification studies at the SRTC was mercury contaminated soil from the TNX pilot-plant facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Samples of this soil were obtained so bench-scale vitrification studies could be performed at the SRTC to determine the optimum waste loading obtainable in the glass product without sacrificing durability and leach resistance. Vitrifying this waste stream also required offgas treatment for the capture of the vaporized mercury.

  5. Avoiding exposure to mercury during inspection and maintenance operations in oil and gas processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, S.M.

    1999-11-01

    Exposure to mercury and its compounds poses a potential health risk to workers involved with inspection and maintenance activities in facilities that process hydrocarbons containing significant amounts. The risks of exposure to mercury are often underestimated for a variety of reasons. Foremost is the fact that the exact amount of mercury present in processed petroleum often is not known with certainty. Secondly, the specific quantities of mercury compounds that may be present in hydrocarbon liquids seldom are known at all. Thirdly, monitoring for mercury vapor in work environments is not a routine procedure for many processing facilities. Lastly, mercury toxicity is gradual and produces no immediately apparent impairment that can easily be associated with occupational exposure. Superimposed on the risk issues are several aspects of the chemistry of mercury that make it illusive both to quantitative analysis and to detection in work environments. The combination of the cited factors increases the likelihood that workers who are inadvertently exposed to occupational environments that contain mercury will be adversely affected.

  6. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, D.D.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; ET AL.

    2004-03-30

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. There are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows (Lopez et al. 2003)). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg

  7. Application of atomic vapor laser isotope separation to the enrichment of mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crane, J.K.; Erbert, G.V.; Paisner, J.A.; Chen, H.L.; Chiba, Z.; Beeler, R.G.; Combs, R.; Mostek, S.D.

    1986-09-01

    Workers at GTE/Sylvania have shown that the efficiency of fluorescent lighting may be markedly improved using mercury that has been enriched in the /sup 196/Hg isotope. A 5% improvement in the efficiency of fluorescent lighting in the United States could provide a savings of approx. 1 billion dollars in the corresponding reduction of electrical power consumption. We will discuss the results of recent work done at our laboratory to develop a process for enriching mercury. The discussion will center around the results of spectroscopic measurements of excited state lifetimes, photoionization cross sections and isotope shifts. In addition, we will discuss the mercury separator and supporting laser mesurements of the flow properties of mercury vapor. We will describe the laser system which will provide the photoionization and finally discuss the economic details of producing enriched mercury at a cost that would be attractive to the lighting industry.

  8. Mercury reduction studies to facilitate the thermal decontamination of phosphor powder residues from spent fluorescent lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alves Durao, Walter; Andreva de Castro, Camila; Carvalhinho Windmoeller, Claudia

    2008-11-15

    This work investigates the thermal release of mercury from phosphor powder of spent fluorescent lamps. The treatment conditions and the ability of various reducing agents (primarily sodium borohydride) to lower the overall heating temperature required to improve the release of Hg have been evaluated. Hg species in samples were monitored in a thermal desorption atomic absorption spectrometer system, and total mercury was analyzed in a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometer. Sodium borohydride was the best reducing agent among the ones studied. However, citric acid presented a high capacity to weaken mercury bonds with the matrix. When the sample was crushed with sodium borohydride for 40 min in a mass ratio of 10:1 (sample:reducing agent) and submitted to thermal treatment at 300 deg. C for 2 h, the concentration of mercury in a phosphor powder sample with 103 mg kg{sup -1} of mercury reached 6.6 mg kg{sup -1}.

  9. Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. A. Withum; J. E. Locke

    2006-02-01

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that this data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the tenth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on two 468 MW units burning bituminous coal containing 1.3-1.7% sulfur. Unit 2 is equipped with an SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO{sub 2} emissions, respectively. Unit 1

  10. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Constance Senior; Temi Linjewile

    2003-10-31

    This is the third Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, the second set of mercury measurements was made after the catalysts had been exposed to flue gas for about 2,000 hours. There was good agreement between the Ontario Hydro measurements and the SCEM measurements. Carbon trap measurements of total mercury agreed fairly well with the SCEM. There did appear to be some loss of mercury in the sampling system toward the end of the sampling campaign. NO{sub x} reductions across the catalysts ranged from 60% to 88%. Loss of total mercury across the commercial catalysts was not observed, as it had been in the March/April test series. It is not clear whether this was due to aging of the catalyst or to changes in the sampling system made between March/April and August. In the presence of ammonia, the blank monolith showed no oxidation. Two of the commercial catalysts showed mercury oxidation that was comparable to that in the March/April series. The other three commercial catalysts showed a decrease in mercury oxidation relative to the March/April series. Oxidation of mercury increased without ammonia present. Transient experiments showed that when ammonia was turned on, mercury appeared to desorb from the catalyst, suggesting displacement of adsorbed mercury by the ammonia.

  11. The retention time of inorganic mercury in the brain — A systematic review of the evidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rooney, James P.K.

    2014-02-01

    Reports from human case studies indicate a half-life for inorganic mercury in the brain in the order of years—contradicting older radioisotope studies that estimated half-lives in the order of weeks to months in duration. This study systematically reviews available evidence on the retention time of inorganic mercury in humans and primates to better understand this conflicting evidence. A broad search strategy was used to capture 16,539 abstracts on the Pubmed database. Abstracts were screened to include only study types containing relevant information. 131 studies of interest were identified. Only 1 primate study made a numeric estimate for the half-life of inorganic mercury (227–540 days). Eighteen human mercury poisoning cases were followed up long term including autopsy. Brain inorganic mercury concentrations at death were consistent with a half-life of several years or longer. 5 radionucleotide studies were found, one of which estimated head half-life (21 days). This estimate has sometimes been misinterpreted to be equivalent to brain half-life—which ignores several confounding factors including limited radioactive half-life and radioactive decay from surrounding tissues including circulating blood. No autopsy cohort study estimated a half-life for inorganic mercury, although some noted bioaccumulation of brain mercury with age. Modelling studies provided some extreme estimates (69 days vs 22 years). Estimates from modelling studies appear sensitive to model assumptions, however predications based on a long half-life (27.4 years) are consistent with autopsy findings. In summary, shorter estimates of half-life are not supported by evidence from animal studies, human case studies, or modelling studies based on appropriate assumptions. Evidence from such studies point to a half-life of inorganic mercury in human brains of several years to several decades. This finding carries important implications for pharmcokinetic modelling of mercury and potentially for

  12. The use of a mercury biosensor to evaluate the bioavailability of mercury-thiol complexes and mechanisms of mercury uptake in bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ndu, Udonna; Barkay, Tamar; Mason, Robert P.; Schartup, Amina Traore; Al-Farawati, Radwan; Liu, Jie; Reinfelder, John R.; Chang, Yung -Fu

    2015-09-15

    We discuss as mercury (Hg) biosensors are sensitive to only intracellular Hg, they are useful in the investigation of Hg uptake mechanisms and the effects of speciation on Hg bioavailability to microbes. In this study, bacterial biosensors were used to evaluate the roles that several transporters such as the glutathione, cystine/cysteine, and Mer transporters play in the uptake of Hg from Hg-thiol complexes by comparing uptake rates in strains with functioning transport systems to strains where these transporters had been knocked out by deletion of key genes. The Hg uptake into the biosensors was quantified based on the intracellular conversion of inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) to elemental mercury (Hg(0)) by the enzyme MerA. It was found that uptake of Hg from Hg-cysteine (Hg(CYS)2) and Hg-glutathione (Hg(GSH)2) complexes occurred at the same rate as that of inorganic complexes of Hg(II) into Escherichia coli strains with and without intact Mer transport systems. However, higher rates of Hg uptake were observed in the strain with a functioning Mer transport system. These results demonstrate that thiol-bound Hg is bioavailable to E. coli and that this bioavailability is higher in Hg-resistant bacteria with a complete Mer system than in non-resistant strains. No difference in the uptake rate of Hg from Hg(GSH)2 was observed in E. coli strains with or without functioning glutathione transport systems. There was also no difference in uptake rates between a wildtype Bacillus subtilis strain with a functioning cystine/cysteine transport system, and a mutant strain where this transport system had been knocked out. These results cast doubt on the viability of the hypothesis that the entire Hg-thiol complex is taken up into the cell by a thiol transporter. It is more likely that the Hg in the Hg-thiol complex is transferred to a transport protein on the cell membrane and is subsequently internalized.

  13. The use of a mercury biosensor to evaluate the bioavailability of mercury-thiol complexes and mechanisms of mercury uptake in bacteria

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Ndu, Udonna; Barkay, Tamar; Mason, Robert P.; Schartup, Amina Traore; Al-Farawati, Radwan; Liu, Jie; Reinfelder, John R.; Chang, Yung -Fu

    2015-09-15

    We discuss as mercury (Hg) biosensors are sensitive to only intracellular Hg, they are useful in the investigation of Hg uptake mechanisms and the effects of speciation on Hg bioavailability to microbes. In this study, bacterial biosensors were used to evaluate the roles that several transporters such as the glutathione, cystine/cysteine, and Mer transporters play in the uptake of Hg from Hg-thiol complexes by comparing uptake rates in strains with functioning transport systems to strains where these transporters had been knocked out by deletion of key genes. The Hg uptake into the biosensors was quantified based on the intracellular conversionmore » of inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) to elemental mercury (Hg(0)) by the enzyme MerA. It was found that uptake of Hg from Hg-cysteine (Hg(CYS)2) and Hg-glutathione (Hg(GSH)2) complexes occurred at the same rate as that of inorganic complexes of Hg(II) into Escherichia coli strains with and without intact Mer transport systems. However, higher rates of Hg uptake were observed in the strain with a functioning Mer transport system. These results demonstrate that thiol-bound Hg is bioavailable to E. coli and that this bioavailability is higher in Hg-resistant bacteria with a complete Mer system than in non-resistant strains. No difference in the uptake rate of Hg from Hg(GSH)2 was observed in E. coli strains with or without functioning glutathione transport systems. There was also no difference in uptake rates between a wildtype Bacillus subtilis strain with a functioning cystine/cysteine transport system, and a mutant strain where this transport system had been knocked out. These results cast doubt on the viability of the hypothesis that the entire Hg-thiol complex is taken up into the cell by a thiol transporter. It is more likely that the Hg in the Hg-thiol complex is transferred to a transport protein on the cell membrane and is subsequently internalized.« less

  14. Atmospheric pressure helium afterglow discharge detector for gas chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rice, Gary; D'Silva, Arthur P.; Fassel, Velmer A.

    1986-05-06

    An apparatus for providing a simple, low-frequency electrodeless discharge system for atmospheric pressure afterglow generation. A single quartz tube through which a gas mixture is passed is extended beyond a concentric electrode positioned thereabout. A grounding rod is placed directly above the tube outlet to permit optical viewing of the discharge between the electrodes.

  15. Atmospheric pressure helium afterglow discharge detector for gas chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rice, G.; D'Silva, A.P.; Fassel, V.A.

    1985-04-05

    An apparatus for providing a simple, low-frequency, electrodeless discharge system for atmospheric pressure afterglow generation. A single quartz tube through which a gas mixture is passed is extended beyond a concentric electrode positioned thereabout. A grounding rod is placed directly above the tube outlet to permit optical viewing of the discharge between the electrodes.

  16. Groundwater Discharge along a Channelized Coastal Plain Stream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaSage, Danita M; Sexton, Joshua L; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Fryar, Alan E; Greb, Stephen F

    2015-10-01

    In the Coastal Plain of the southeastern USA, streams have commonly been artificially channelized for flood control and agricultural drainage. However, groundwater discharge along such streams has received relatively little attention. Using a combination of stream- and spring-flow measurements, spring temperature measurements, temperature profiling along the stream-bed, and geologic mapping, we delineated zones of diffuse and focused discharge along Little Bayou Creek, a channelized, first-order perennial stream in western Kentucky. Seasonal variability in groundwater discharge mimics hydraulic-head fluctuations in a nearby monitoring well and spring-discharge fluctuations elsewhere in the region, and is likely to reflect seasonal variability in recharge. Diffuse discharge occurs where the stream is incised into the semi-confined regional gravel aquifer, which is comprised of the Mounds Gravel. Focused discharge occurs upstream where the channel appears to have intersected preferential pathways within the confining unit. Seasonal fluctuations in discharge from individual springs are repressed where piping results in bank collapse. Thereby, focused discharge can contribute to the morphological evolution of the stream channel.

  17. Low-voltage gas-discharge device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kovarik, V.J.; Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.

    1982-06-08

    An electronic device of the type wherein current flow is conducted by an ionized gas comprising a cathode of the type heated by ionic bombardment, an anode, means for maintaining a predetermined pressure in the region between the anode and the cathode and means for maintaining a field in the region is described. The field, which is preferably a combined magnetic and electric field, is oriented so that the mean distance traveled by electrons before reaching the anode is increased. Because of this increased distance traveled electrons moving to the anode will ionize a large number of gas atoms, thus reducing the voltage necessary to initiate gas breakdown. In a preferred embodiment the anode is a main hollow cathode and the cathode is a smaller igniter hollow cathode located within and coaxial with the main hollow cathode. An axial magnetic field is provided in the region between the hollow cathodes in order to facilitate gas breakdown in that region and initiate plasma discharge from the main hollow cathode.

  18. State Waste Discharge Permit application: 400 Area Septic System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affects groundwater or has the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 400 Area Septic System. The influent to the system is domestic waste water. Although the 400 Area Septic System is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. Therefore, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used.

  19. Radio frequency discharge with control of plasma potential distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudnikov, Vadim; Dudnikov, A.

    2012-02-15

    A RF discharge plasma generator with additional electrodes for independent control of plasma potential distribution is proposed. With positive biasing of this ring electrode relative end flanges and longitudinal magnetic field a confinement of fast electrons in the discharge will be improved for reliable triggering of pulsed RF discharge at low gas density and rate of ion generation will be enhanced. In the proposed discharge combination, the electron energy is enhanced by RF field and the fast electron confinement is improved by enhanced positive plasma potential which improves the efficiency of plasma generation significantly. This combination creates a synergetic effect with a significantly improving the plasma generation performance at low gas density. The discharge parameters can be optimized for enhance plasma generation with acceptable electrode sputtering.

  20. Plasma mixing glow discharge device for analytical applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnaduwage, L.A.

    1999-04-20

    An instrument for analyzing a sample has an enclosure that forms a chamber containing an anode which divides the chamber into a discharge region and an analysis region. A gas inlet and outlet are provided to introduce and exhaust a rare gas into the discharge region. A cathode within the discharge region has a plurality of pins projecting in a geometric pattern toward the anode for exciting the gas and producing a plasma discharge between the cathode and the anode. Low energy electrons (e.g. <0.5 eV) pass into the analysis region through an aperture. The sample to be analyzed is placed into the analysis region and bombarded by the metastable rare gas atoms and the low energy electrons extracted into from the discharge region. A mass or optical spectrometer can be coupled to a port of the analysis region to analyze the resulting ions and light emission. 3 figs.

  1. Plasma mixing glow discharge device for analytical applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A.

    1999-01-01

    An instrument for analyzing a sample has an enclosure that forms a chamber containing an anode which divides the chamber into a discharge region and an analysis region. A gas inlet and outlet are provided to introduce and exhaust a rare gas into the discharge region. A cathode within the discharge region has a plurality of pins projecting in a geometric pattern toward the anode for exciting the gas and producing a plasma discharge between the cathode and the anode. Low energy electrons (e.g. <0.5 eV) pass into the analysis region through an aperture. The sample to be analyzed is placed into the analysis region and bombarded by the metastable rare gas atoms and the low energy electrons extracted into from the discharge region. A mass or optical spectrometer can be coupled to a port of the analysis region to analyze the resulting ions and light emission.

  2. Parallel vacuum arc discharge with microhollow array dielectric and anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Jinghua; Zhou, Lin; Fu, Yuecheng; Zhang, Jianhua; Xu, Rongkun; Chen, Faxin; Li, Linbo; Meng, Shijian

    2014-07-15

    An electrode configuration with microhollow array dielectric and anode was developed to obtain parallel vacuum arc discharge. Compared with the conventional electrodes, more than 10 parallel microhollow discharges were ignited for the new configuration, which increased the discharge area significantly and made the cathode eroded more uniformly. The vacuum discharge channel number could be increased effectively by decreasing the distances between holes or increasing the arc current. Experimental results revealed that plasmas ejected from the adjacent hollow and the relatively high arc voltage were two key factors leading to the parallel discharge. The characteristics of plasmas in the microhollow were investigated as well. The spectral line intensity and electron density of plasmas in microhollow increased obviously with the decease of the microhollow diameter.

  3. Advanced Materials for Mercury 50 Gas Turbine Combustion System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Jeffrey

    2008-09-30

    Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-0CH11049, has conducted development activities to improve the durability of the Mercury 50 combustion system to 30,000 hours life and reduced life cycle costs. This project is part of Advanced Materials in the Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines program in DOE's Office of Distributed Energy. The targeted development engine was the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine, which was developed by Solar under the DOE Advanced Turbine Systems program (DOE contract number DE-FC21-95MC31173). As a generator set, the Mercury 50 is used for distributed power and combined heat and power generation and is designed to achieve 38.5% electrical efficiency, reduced cost of electricity, and single digit emissions. The original program goal was 20,000 hours life, however, this goal was increased to be consistent with Solar's standard 30,000 hour time before overhaul for production engines. Through changes to the combustor design to incorporate effusion cooling in the Generation 3 Mercury 50 engine, which resulted in a drop in the combustor wall temperature, the current standard thermal barrier coated liner was predicted to have 18,000 hours life. With the addition of the advanced materials technology being evaluated under this program, the combustor life is predicted to be over 30,000 hours. The ultimate goal of the program was to demonstrate a fully integrated Mercury 50 combustion system, modified with advanced materials technologies, at a host site for a minimum of 4,000 hours. Solar was the Prime Contractor on the program team, which includes participation of other gas turbine manufacturers, various advanced material and coating suppliers, nationally recognized test laboratories, and multiple industrial end-user field demonstration sites. The program focused on a dual path development route to define an optimum mix of technologies for the Mercury 50 and future gas turbine products. For liner and injector

  4. Design, components, controls and operational experience of mercury circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lielausis, O.

    1996-06-01

    The main activities of the Institute of Physics are connected with magnetohydrodynamics of incompressible media, first at all, liquid metals. Along side with Li, Na, NaK and low temperature eutectic InGaSn, mercury serves as one of the best working medium. A special Hg laboratory complex was built including a 350 m{sup 2} experimental hall. The amount of Hg in use reaches 8x10{sup 3} kg. As an important practical result the development and production of different electromagnetic pumps for heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Bi, Zn, Sn, InGaSn, steel) can be considered. The same can be said about new technologies for Hg chemical treatment (purification). Mercury is used as an effective modeling material for the investigation of a great number of metallurgical processes, as well as for thermohydraulic testing of systems, proposed for other (more aggressive or high temperature) heavy liquid metals. The laboratory is equipped with three easy transferable d=3-5 cm mercury loops as well as with a large closed 12 m long d=10 cm stationary loop. The electromagnetic feeding pump delivers 5 l/s at 5 atm. The loading mercury weights 4.7x10{sup 3} kg. For investigation in magnetohydrodynamics a 2 m long solenoid calculated for a 2 T magnetic field in a d=20cm bore is used, as well as an electromagnet providing 1.5 T in a 15 cm gap between round d=50 cm poles. Since in the case of Hg almost all traditional measuring techniques (including thermoanemometry) can be applied, complex physical problems can be considered. So, results gained in this laboratory, served as a base for ideas about 2D MHD turbulence, possessing all the strange features predicted by theory for 2D turbulence. So, recently it was showed that by means of an outer magnetic field the intensity of heat transfer can be enhanced by an order compared with an ordinary turbulent motion outside the field. Detailed modeling of heat transfer processes typical to the liquid metal blanket of proposed thermonuclear reactors was performed.

  5. Enhanced response of an oligonucleotide-based biosensor to environmental mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edenborn, H.M.

    2006-10-01

    One environmental pollutant of particular relevance to the coal-generated power industry is mercury. Power plants in the U.S., led by Texas, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Indiana, and Alabama, collectively emitted over 90,000 pounds of mercury into the air in 2003. Calls for increased mercury monitoring activities have come from many groups concerned with environmental contamination and mercury bioconcentration in fish. Additionally, the benefits of improvements in the reduction of mercury emissions from existing power plants cannot be seriously evaluated without extensive monitoring of the environment. Low in situ mercury concentrations and the expense of traditional laboratory analyses currently limit such routine and effective monitoring. Microbial biosensors sensitive to mercury have been developed that quantitatively produce light in response to the amount of mercury (II) entering the cells. However, these sensors are typically difficult to prepare, can have long lag times between initial exposure and subsequent light emission, and are difficult to use in the field. Whole cell biosensors using living bacteria also require attention to the growth requirements of the cells, as well as complications brought on by the presence of other toxic compounds in addition to mercury. A molecular beacon sensor for mercury (II) reported by Ono and Togashi (Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2004, 43:4300-4302.) was modified to enhance its sensitivity and fluorescence response. The basic detection method involves the selective binding of mercury ions to thymine-thymine (T-T) base pairs in DNA duplexes. An oligonucleotide sequence in the sensor changes its conformation upon binding with mercury ions, and causes a fluorophore at one end of the oligonucleotide sequence to come in proximity with a quencher molecule attached to the other end. Enhanced fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) results in a decrease in the intensity of the fluorescence spectrum. The use of fluorescein as a harvester

  6. Exposure to mercury among Spanish preschool children: Trend from birth to age four

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Llop, Sabrina; Murcia, Mario; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Vioque, Jesus; Rebagliato, Marisa; Iñiguez, Carmen; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Amurrio, Ascensión; María Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva; and others

    2014-07-15

    The purpose of this study is to describe the total hair mercury concentrations and their determinants in preschool Spanish children, as well as to explore the trend in mercury exposure from birth to the age four. This evolution has been scarcely studied in other birth cohort studies. The study population was 580 four year old children participating in the INMA (i.e. Childhood and Environment) birth cohort study in Valencia (2008–2009). Total mercury concentration at age four was measured in hair samples by atomic absorption spectrometry. Fish consumption and other covariates were obtained by questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression models were conducted in order to explore the association between mercury exposure and fish consumption, socio-demographic characteristics and prenatal exposure to mercury. The geometric mean was 1.10 µg/g (95%CI: 1.02, 1.19). Nineteen percent of children had mercury concentrations above the equivalent to the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake proposed by WHO. Mercury concentration was associated with increasing maternal age, fish consumption and cord blood mercury levels, as well as decreasing parity. Children whose mothers worked had higher mercury levels than those with non working mothers. Swordfish, lean fish and canned fish were the fish categories most associated with hair mercury concentrations. We observed a decreasing trend in mercury concentrations between birth and age four. In conclusion, the children participating in this study had high hair mercury concentrations compared to reported studies on children from other European countries and similar to other countries with high fish consumption. The INMA study design allows the evaluation of the exposure to mercury longitudinally and enables this information to be used for biomonitoring purposes and dietary recommendations. - Highlights: • The geometric mean of hair Hg concentrations was 1.10 µg/g. • 19% of children had Hg concentrations above the RfD proposed by

  7. Potential Moderating Effects of Selenium on Mercury Uptake and Selenium:Mercury Molar Ratios in Fish From Oak Ridge and Savannah River Site - 12086

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Donio, Mark; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn

    2012-07-01

    Mercury contamination is an important remediation issue at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation and to a lesser extent at other DOE sites because of the hazard it presents, potential consequences to humans and eco-receptors, and completed pathways, to offsite receptors. Recent work has emphasized that selenium might ameliorate the toxicity of mercury, and we examine the selenium:mercury (Se:Hg) molar ratios in fish from Oak Ridge, and compare them to Se:Hg molar ratios in fish from the Savannah River. Selenium/mercury molar ratios varied considerably among and within fish species. There was considerable variation in the molar ratios for individual fish (as opposed to mean ratios by species) for freshwater fish from both sites. The inter-individual variation in molar ratios indicates that such that the molar ratios of mean Se and Hg concentrations may not be representative. Even for fish species with relatively low mercury levels, some individual fish have molar ratios less than unity, the value sometime thought to be protective. Selenium levels varied narrowly regardless of fish size, consistent with homeostatic regulation of this essential trace element. The data indicate that considerable attention will need to be directed toward variations and variances, as well as the mechanisms of the interaction of selenium and mercury, before risk assessment and risk management policies can use this information to manage mercury pollution and risk. Even so, if there are high levels of selenium in the fish from Poplar Creek on Oak Ridge, then the potential exists for some amelioration of adverse health effects, on the fish themselves, predators that eat them, and people who consume them. This work will aid DOE because it will allow managers and scientists to understand another aspect that affects fate and transport of mercury, as well as the potential effects of methylmercury in fish for human and ecological receptors. The variability within fish

  8. Detrecting and Locating Partial Discharges in Transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shourbaji, A.; Richards, R.; Kisner, R. A.; Hardy, J.

    2005-02-04

    A collaborative research between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the American Electric Power (AEP), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), and the State of Ohio Energy Office (OEO) has been formed to conduct a feasibility study to detect and locate partial discharges (PDs) inside large transformers. The success of early detection of the PDs is necessary to avoid costly catastrophic failures that can occur if the process of PD is ignored. The detection method under this research is based on an innovative technology developed by ORNL researchers using optical methods to sense the acoustical energy produced by the PDs. ORNL researchers conducted experimental studies to detect PD using an optical fiber as an acoustic sensor capable of detecting acoustical disturbances at any point along its length. This technical approach also has the potential to locate the point at which the PD was sensed within the transformer. Several optical approaches were experimentally investigated, including interferometric detection of acoustical disturbances along the sensing fiber, light detection and ranging (LIDAR) techniques using frequency modulation continuous wave (FMCW), frequency modulated (FM) laser with a multimode fiber, FM laser with a single mode fiber, and amplitude modulated (AM) laser with a multimode fiber. The implementation of the optical fiber-based acoustic measurement technique would include installing a fiber inside a transformer allowing real-time detection of PDs and determining their locations. The fibers are nonconductive and very small (core plus cladding are diameters of 125 μm for single-mode fibers and 230 μm for multimode fibers). The research identified the capabilities and limitations of using optical technology to detect and locate sources of acoustical disturbances such as in PDs in large transformers. Amplitude modulation techniques showed the most promising results and deserve further research to better quantify the technique’s sensitivity

  9. Method and apparatus for monitoring the flow of mercury in a system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus and method for monitoring the flow of mercury in a system. The equipment enables the entrainment of the mercury in a carrier gas e.g., an inert gas, which passes as mercury vapor between a pair of optically transparent windows. The attenuation of the emission is indicative of the quantity of mercury (and its isotopes) in the system. A 253.7 nm light is shone through one of the windows and the unabsorbed light is detected through the other window. The absorption of the 253.7 nm light is thereby measured whereby the quantity of mercury passing between the windows can be determined. The apparatus includes an in-line sensor for measuring the quantity of mercury. It includes a conduit together with a pair of apertures disposed in a face to face relationship and arranged on opposite sides of the conduit. A pair of optically transparent windows are disposed upon a pair of viewing tubes. A portion of each of the tubes is disposed inside of the conduit and within each of the apertures. The two windows are disposed in a face to face relationship on the ends of the viewing tubes and the entire assembly is hermetically sealed from the atmosphere whereby when 253.7 nm ultraviolet light is shone through one of the windows and detected through the other, the quantity of mercury which is passing by can be continuously monitored due to absorption which is indicated by attenuation of the amplitude of the observed emission.

  10. Removal of Mercury from Aqueous Streams of Fossil Fuel Power Plants Using Novel Functionalized Nanoporous Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Feng, X; Parker, Kent E.; Pierce, Eric M.

    2006-01-11

    A new class of hybrid nanoporous materials has been developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for removing toxic heavy metals such as mercury from aqueous and nonaqueous waste streams. These novel materials consist of functional molecules capable of selectively binding mercury (thiol groups) covalently bound (as densely populated monolayers) to the synthetic nanoporous substrates. Tests indicated that this sorbent (Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Silica - SAMMS) can achieve mercury loading as high as {approx}635 mg/g. The high affinity for Hg adsorption by this material was reflected by Kd values as high as 3.5 x 108 ml/g. Data indicated that SAMMS can adsorb both inorganic and organic forms of mercury. Experimental data indicated that mercury adsorption performance of SAMMS was not significantly affected by pH, ionic strength, presence of other cations (Na, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn), and complexing anions (Cl, CN, CO3, SO4, and PO4) in solution. Adsorption kinetics studies indicated that SAMMS adsorbed mercury very rapidly (about 99.9% adsorption occurring within first five minutes). Tests conducted using samples of different aqueous and non-aqueous waste streams have confirmed the exemplary performance characteristics of SAMMS sorbents. Preliminary cost estimates indicated that using SAMMS would result in significant savings in mercury remediation costs as compared to the use of conventional adsorbents such as ion exchange resin and activated carbon.

  11. Biomonitoring of mercury pollution in a wetland near Ravenna, Italy by translocated bivalves (Mytilus galloprovincialis)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cattani, O.; Fabbri, D.; Salvati, M.; Trombini, C.; Vassura, I.

    1999-08-01

    An active biomonitoring experiment using mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) was performed in Pialassa Baiona, a mercury-polluted coastal wetland near Ravenna, Italy. Three stations (A, B, and C) were selected along the south to north axis. Following a 52-d field exposure, organisms transplanted in the southernmost polluted area (station A) showed mean mercury concentration values of 660 ng/g (dry weight), 4.4 times the initial background level, and were still accumulating mercury. Mussels in both the central area (station B) and the northern area (station C) seemed to reach a steady state with mean mercury concentration values of 323 and 412 ng/g, respectively. This field experiment is the first study carried out in the Ravenna wetlands to evaluate mercury bioavailability in this environment. Finally, the efficiency of the population of Mytilus galloprovincialis selected for the field experiment as mercury bioaccumulators was tested in a laboratory experiment that revealed that up to 135 {micro}g/g (dry weight) could be reached after 77 d of exposure to mercury-polluted water.

  12. PRELIMINARY FIELD EVALUATION OF MERCURY CONTROL USING COMBUSTION MODIFICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitali Lissianski; Antonio Marquez

    2004-02-19

    In this project General Electric Energy and Environmental Research Corporation conducts a preliminary field evaluation of a novel technology, referred to as Hg/NO{sub x}, that can reduce emissions of both mercury (Hg) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) from coal-fired power plants. The evaluation takes place in Green Station Unit 2 operated by Western Kentucky Energy. Reduction of Hg and NO{sub x} emissions in Unit 2 is achieved using coal reburning. Activities during first project year (January 23, 2003--January 22, 2004) included measurements of baseline Hg emissions in Unit 2 and pilot-scale testing. Baseline testing of Hg emissions in Green Unit 2 has been completed. Two fuels were tested with OFA system operating at minimum air flow. Mercury emissions were measured at ESP inlet and outlet, and at the stack using Ontario Hydro revised method. Testing demonstrated that baseline Hg reductions at ESP outlet and stack were 30-45% and 70-80%, respectively. Pilot-scale testing demonstrated good agreement with baseline measurements in Unit 2. Testing showed that fuel composition had an effect on the efficiency of Hg absorption on fly ash. Maximum achieved Hg removal in reburning was close to 90%. Maximum achieved Hg reduction at air staging conditions was 60%. Testing also demonstrated that lowering ESP temperature improved efficiency of Hg removal.

  13. Waste Coal Fines Reburn for NOx and Mercury Emission Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Johnson; Chetan Chothani; Bernard Breen

    2008-04-30

    Injection of coal-water slurries (CWS) made with both waste coal and bituminous coal was tested for enhanced reduction of NO{sub x} and Hg emissions at the AES Beaver Valley plant near Monaca, PA. Under this project, Breen Energy Solutions (BES) conducted field experiments on the these emission reduction technologies by mixing coal fines and/or pulverized coal, urea and water to form slurry, then injecting the slurry in the upper furnace region of a coal-fired boiler. The main focus of this project was use of waste coal fines as the carbon source; however, testing was also conducted using pulverized coal in conjunction with or instead of waste coal fines for conversion efficiency and economic comparisons. The host site for this research and development project was Unit No.2 at AES Beaver Valley cogeneration station. Unit No.2 is a 35 MW Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) front-wall fired boiler that burns eastern bituminous coal. It has low NO{sub x} burners, overfire air ports and a urea-based selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system for NO{sub x} control. The back-end clean-up system includes a rotating mechanical ash particulate removal and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber. Coal slurry injection was expected to help reduce NOx emissions in two ways: (1) Via fuel-lean reburning when the slurry is injected above the combustion zone. (2) Via enhanced SNCR reduction when urea is incorporated into the slurry. The mercury control process under research uses carbon/water slurry injection to produce reactive carbon in-situ in the upper furnace, promoting the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal-fired power boilers. By controlling the water content of the slurry below the stoichiometric requirement for complete gasification, water activated carbon (WAC) can be generated in-situ in the upper furnace. As little as 1-2% coal/water slurry (heat input basis) can be injected and generate sufficient WAC for mercury

  14. Anaerobic Mercury Methylation and Demethylation by Geobacter bemidjiensis Bem

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Lu, Xia; Liu, Yurong; Johs, Alexander; Zhao, Linduo; Wang, Tieshan; Yang, Ziming; Lin, Hui; Elias, Dwayne A.; Pierce, Eric M.; Liang, Liyuan; et al

    2016-03-28

    Two competing processes controlling the net production and bioaccumulation of neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) in natural ecosystems are microbial methylation and demethylation. Though mercury (Hg) methylation by anaerobic microorganisms and demethylation by aerobic Hg-resistant bacteria have both been extensively studied, little attention has been given to MeHg degradation by anaerobic bacteria, particularly the iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter bemidjensis Bem. Here we report, for the first time, that the strain G. bemidjensis Bem can methylate inorganic Hg and degrade MeHg concurrently under anoxic conditions. Our results suggest that G. bemidjensis cells utilize a reductive demethylation pathway to degrade MeHg, with elemental Hg(0) asmore » the major reaction product, possibly due to the presence of homologs encoding both organo-mercurial lyase (MerB) and mercuric reductase (MerA) in this organism. In addition, the cells can mediate multiple reactions including Hg/MeHg sorption, Hg reduction and oxidation, resulting in both time and concentration dependent Hg species transformations. Moderate concentrations (10 500 M) of Hg-binding ligands such as cysteine enhance Hg(II) methylation but inhibit MeHg degradation. These findings indicate a cycle of methylation and demethylation among anaerobic bacteria and suggest that mer-mediated demethylation may play a role in the net balance of MeHg production in anoxic water and sediments.« less

  15. Properties of water surface discharge at different pulse repetition rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruma,; Yoshihara, K.; Hosseini, S. H. R. Sakugawa, T.; Akiyama, H.; Akiyama, M.; Lukeš, P.

    2014-09-28

    The properties of water surface discharge plasma for variety of pulse repetition rates are investigated. A magnetic pulse compression (MPC) pulsed power modulator able to deliver pulse repetition rates up to 1000 Hz, with 0.5 J per pulse energy output at 25 kV, was used as the pulsed power source. Positive pulse with a point-to-plane electrode configuration was used for the experiments. The concentration and production yield of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) were quantitatively measured and orange II organic dye was treated, to evaluate the chemical properties of the discharge reactor. Experimental results show that the physical and chemical properties of water surface discharge are not influenced by pulse repetition rate, very different from those observed for under water discharge. The production yield of H₂O₂ and degradation rate per pulse of the dye did not significantly vary at different pulse repetition rates under a constant discharge mode on water surface. In addition, the solution temperature, pH, and conductivity for both water surface and underwater discharge reactors were measured to compare their plasma properties for different pulse repetition rates. The results confirm that surface discharge can be employed at high pulse repetition rates as a reliable and advantageous method for industrial and environmental decontamination applications.

  16. EPA issues draft general permits for industrial stormwater discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    EPA on Nov. 16, 1990, issued stormwater discharge regulations associated with industrial activity'' under the authority of CWA's National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). Those regulations established NPDES permit application requirements for industrial and certain municipal separate stormwater discharge systems. Three permit application options were made available for industrial stormwater discharges -- filing an individual application, becoming a participant in a group application or filing a notice of intent to be covered under a general permit and its requirements. The Agency of Nov. 19 proposed a draft general permit for group applications. Industrial dischargers choosing the group option previously were required to file in two parts. Part 1 was due by Sept. 30, 1991, and Part 2 was due by Oct. 1, 1992. The proposed permit would apply to industrial facilities, including certain Indian lands, in selected areas of EPA Regions I, II, III, IV, VI, VIII, IX and X. The permit would cover industrial stormwater discharges to US waters, and would include discharges transmitted through large, medium-sized and other municipal separate storm sewer systems.

  17. Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement Volume1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    Pursuant to the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-414), DOE was directed to designate a facility or facilities for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury generated within the United States. Therefore, DOE has analyzed the storage of up to 10,000 metric tons (11,000 tons) of elemental mercury in a facility(ies) constructed and operated in accordance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (74 FR 31723).DOE prepared this Final Mercury Storage EIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) implementing regulations (40 CFR 1500–1508), and DOE’s NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021) to evaluate reasonable alternatives for a facility(ies) for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury. This Final Mercury Storage EIS analyzes the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven candidate locations:Grand Junction Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado; Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; Hawthorne Army Depot near Hawthorne, Nevada; Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho;Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, Missouri; Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas. As required by CEQ NEPA regulations, the No Action Alternative was also analyzed as a basis for comparison. DOE intends to decide (1) where to locate the elemental mercury storage facility(ies) and (2) whether to use existing buildings, new buildings, or a combination of existing and new buildings. DOE’s Preferred Alternative for the long-term management and storage of mercury is the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas.

  18. Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    Pursuant to the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-414), DOE was directed to designate a facility or facilities for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury generated within the United States. Therefore, DOE has analyzed the storage of up to 10,000 metric tons (11,000 tons) of elemental mercury in a facility(ies) constructed and operated in accordance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (74 FR 31723). DOE prepared this Final Mercury Storage EIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) implementing regulations (40 CFR 1500–1508), and DOE’s NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021) to evaluate reasonable alternatives for a facility(ies) for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury. This Final Mercury Storage EIS analyzes the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven candidate locations: Grand Junction Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado; Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; Hawthorne Army Depot near Hawthorne, Nevada; Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, Missouri; Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas. As required by CEQ NEPA regulations, the No Action Alternative was also analyzed as a basis for comparison. DOE intends to decide (1) where to locate the elemental mercury storage facility(ies) and (2) whether to use existing buildings, new buildings, or a combination of existing and new buildings. DOE’s Preferred Alternative for the long-term management and storage of mercury is the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas.

  19. Subtask 1.23 - Mercury Removal from Barite the Oil Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Holmes; Carolyn Nyberg; Katie Brandt; Kurt Eylands; Nathan Fiala; Grant Dunham

    2008-09-01

    Drilling muds are used by the oil and gas industry to provide a seal and to float rock chips to the surface during the drilling process. Barite (naturally occurring barium sulfate ore) is commonly used as a weighting agent additive in drilling muds because it is chemically nonreactive and has a high specific gravity (between 4.2 and 4.25 at 20 C). Because of environmental concerns, barite used by the oil and gas industry in the Gulf of Mexico must be certified to contain less than 1 mg/kg of mercury. Faced with these regulations, the U.S. Gulf Coast oil industry has looked to foreign sources of low-mercury barite, primarily India and China. These sources tend to have high-grade barite deposits and relatively inexpensive domestic transportation costs; as of late, however, U.S. purchasers have been forced to pay increasing costs for shipping to U.S. grinding plants. The objective of this project was to demonstrate two mercury removal techniques for high-mercury barite sources. Two barite samples of unique origins underwent processing to reduce mercury to required levels. The chemical treatment with dilute acid removed a portion of the mercury in both barite samples. The desired concentration of 1 mg/kg was achieved in both barite samples. An economic analysis indicates that thermal removal of mercury would not significantly add to the cost of barite processing, making higher-mercury barite a viable alternative to more expensive barite sources that contain lower concentrations of mercury.

  20. Evaluation of MerCAP for Power Plant Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl Richardson

    2008-09-30

    This report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41993, 'Evaluation of EPRI's MerCAP{trademark} Technology for Power Plant Mercury Control'. This project has investigated the mercury removal performance of EPRI's Mercury Capture by Amalgamation Process (MerCAP{trademark}) technology. Test programs were conducted to evaluate gold-based MerCAP{trademark} at Great River Energy's Stanton Station Unit 10 (Site 1), which fired both North Dakota lignite (NDL) and Power River Basin (PRB) coal during the testing period, and at Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 (Site 2) [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of The Southern Company] which fires a low sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. Additional tests were carried out at Alabama Power's Plant Miller, which fires Powder River Basin Coal, to evaluate a carbon-based MerCAP{trademark} process for removing mercury from flue gas downstream of an electrostatic precipitator [Alabama Power is a subsidiary of The Southern Company]. A full-scale gold-based sorbent array was installed in the clean-air plenum of a single baghouse compartment at GRE's Stanton Station Unit 10, thereby treating 1/10th of the unit's exhaust gas flow. The substrates that were installed were electroplated gold screens oriented parallel to the flue gas flow. The sorbent array was initially installed in late August of 2004, operating continuously until its removal in July 2006, after nearly 23 months. The initial 4 months of operation were conducted while the host unit was burning North Dakota lignite (NDL). In November 2004, the host unit switched fuel to burn Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal and continued to burn the PRB fuel for the final 19 months of this program. Tests were conducted at Site 1 to evaluate the impacts of flue gas flow rate, sorbent plate spacing, sorbent pre-cleaning and regeneration, and spray dryer operation on Mer

  1. Pulsed chemical HF laser with a large discharge gap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azarov, M A; Klimuk, Evgenii A; Kutumov, Konstantin A; Troshchinenko, G A; Lacour, Bernard M

    2004-11-30

    The characteristics of the radiation emitted by an electric-discharge pulsed chemical HF laser with a discharge gap of 10 cm are studied. The discharge was stabilised by a semiconducting ferroelectric ceramic layer deposited on plane metal electrodes. The specific energy and technical efficiency were 3 J L{sup -1} and 3.4%, respectively, for a laser operating on a nonchain reaction in SF{sub 6}-H{sub 2} mixture and 25 J L{sup -1} and 26%, respectively, for a laser operating on a chain reaction in F{sub 2}-O{sub 2}-SF{sub 6}-H{sub 2} mixture. (lasers)

  2. Plasma Acceleration from RF Discharge in Dielectric Capillary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Dunaevsky; Y. Raitses; N. J. Fisch

    2005-08-09

    Plasma acceleration from rf discharge in dielectric capillary was demonstrated. Observed plasma flow had ion energies of approximately 100 eV and electron energies of approximately 20 eV. The discharge was powered by a MHz-range rf generator and fed by Ar. Experimental results indicate possible validity of assumptions about formation of a potential difference at the open end of the capillary and presence of hot electron fraction in the capillary discharge. Simplicity and small dimensions of the source are attractive for micro-propulsion applications.

  3. Summary - Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury Contamination at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, TN

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Oak Ridge, TN EM Project: Mitigation/Remediation of Hg ETR Report Date: April 2008 ETR-13 United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) External Technical Review of the Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury Contamination at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, TN Why DOE-EM Did This Review From 1953 to 1983, ~240,000 pounds of mercury (Hg) were released to the East Fork Popular Creek during the operation of the Y-12 Plant. In 1963, direct systematic releases of mercury

  4. EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.A. Withum

    2006-03-07

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), evaluated the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)-wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber-fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL determined mercury speciation and removal at 10 bituminous coal-fired facilities; at four of these facilities, additional tests were performed on units without SCR, or with the existing SCR bypassed. This project final report summarizes the results and discusses the findings of the body of work as a whole. Eleven Topical Reports were issued (prior to this report) that describe in great detail the sampling results at each of the ten power plants individually. The results showed that the SCR-FGD combination removed a substantial fraction of mercury from flue gas. The coal-to-stack mercury removals ranged from 65% to 97% for the units with SCR and from 53% to 87% for the units without SCR. There was no indication that any type of FGD system was more effective at mercury removal than others. The coal-to-stack mercury removal and the removal in the wet scrubber were both negatively correlated with the elemental mercury content of the flue gas and positively correlated with the scrubber liquid chloride concentration. The coal chlorine content was not a statistically significant factor in either case. Mercury removal in the ESP was positively correlated with the fly ash carbon content and negatively correlated with the flue gas temperature. At most of the units, a substantial fraction (>35%) of the flue gas mercury was in the elemental form at the boiler economizer outlet. After passing through the SCR-air heater combination very little of the total mercury (<10%) remained in the elemental form in

  5. Influence of driving frequency on discharge modes in a dielectric-barrier discharge with multiple current pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Weiman; Tang, Jie; Wang, Yishan; Zhao, Wei; Duan, Yixiang; Research Center of Analytical Instrumentation, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064

    2013-07-15

    A one-dimensional self-consistent fluid model was employed to investigate the effect of the driving frequency on the discharge modes in atmospheric-pressure argon discharge with multiple current pulses. The discharge mode was discussed in detail not only at current peaks but also between two adjacent peaks. The simulation results show that different transitions between the Townsend and glow modes during the discharge take place with the driving frequency increased. A complicated transition from the Townsend mode, through glow, Townsend, and glow, and finally back to the Townsend one is found in the discharge with the driving frequency of 8 kHz. There is a tendency of transition from the Townsend to glow mode for the discharge both at the current peaks and troughs with the increasing frequency. The discharge in the half period can all along operate in the glow mode with the driving frequency high enough. This is resulted from the preservation of more electrons in the gas gap and acquisition of more electron energy from the swiftly varying electric field with the increase in driving frequency. Comparison of the spatial and temporal evolutions of the electron density at different driving frequencies indicates that the increment of the driving frequency allows the plasma chemistry to be enhanced. This electrical characteristic is important for the applications, such as surface treatment and biomedical sterilization.

  6. Igniter for gas discharge pipe with a flame detection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guerra, R.E.

    1990-03-06

    This patent describes a method of burning waste gas, using an igniter of the type having a nozzle, a main gas conduit extending to the nozzle, and an electrical spark means for creating a spark in the nozzle. It comprises: mounting the igniter to a waste gas discharge pipe with the nozzle directed across the opening of the gas discharge pipe; supplying a gaseous fuel to the main gas conduit; igniting the gaseous fuel with the electrical spark means, creating a flame for igniting the waste gas being discharged from the gas discharge pipe; providing the igniter with an auxiliary gas line extending to the vicinity of the nozzle; and supplying a second and lower volume source of waste gas to the auxiliary gas line for burning at the nozzle.

  7. Finding of No Significant Impact for the National Pollution Discharge...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... Outfall Z-01: This outfall receives runoff from a drainage area of approximately 51 acres located in the southern portion of Z Area. Due to a lack of any discharge from this ...

  8. Geysering discharge of a geothermal wellbore at Zunil, Guatemala

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michels, Donald E.

    1991-01-01

    Within two hours after discharge began, for a production test in 1989 of well ZCQ-4, pressure variations changed from approximately sinusoidal to a cycle of sudden and complex peak discharge pressures, to 9 bar, separated by irregular pressure declines to 5 bar. Initial cycle periods of 42 minutes evolved to 150 minutes by day 20 of continuous testing, when three of four surge peaks were well separated. Chemical signatures of fluids discharged with pressure surges were distinctive. When combined with downwell pressure measurements, assignments can be made for elevations of fluid entry points. The variety of chemical signatures indicates a scarcity of interzone connectivity. These constrained discharges are suspected to derive from altered rubble zones between layered volcanic rocks.

  9. Handling and characterization of glow-discharge polymer samples...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for the light gas gun Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Handling and characterization of glow-discharge polymer samples for the light gas gun Authors: Akin, M C ; ...

  10. Montana Facilities Which Do Not Discharge Process Wastewater...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Form 2E) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Montana Facilities Which Do Not Discharge Process Wastewater (MDEQ Form 2E) Abstract Form...

  11. Plasma density diagnostic for capillary-discharge based plasma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Plasma density diagnostic for capillary-discharge based plasma channels Authors: Daniels, J. 1 Search SciTech Connect for author "Daniels, J." Search SciTech Connect for...

  12. UPDES General Permit for Discharges from Construction Activities...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    General Permit for Discharges from Construction Activities (Permit No. UTRC00000) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther:...

  13. DEVICE AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING A HIGH INTENSITY ARC DISCHARGE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-01-01

    A device is described for producing an energetic d-c carbon arc discharge between widely spaced electrodes with arc currents in excess of 100 amperes in a magnetic field of about 3000 gauss and witnin an evacuated enclo sure at a pressure of about 10/sup -5/ mm Hg. No defining electrodes are used in the device, thus essentially eliminating the problems of shorting which heretofore limited the amount of current that could be produced in an arc discharge. The energetic carbon arc discharge is sustained by the potential across the electrodes and by carbon ions and electrons released from the electrodes during arc operation. A large part of the potential drop of the arc occurs along the arc and many energetic electrons reach the anode because the arc pressure is relatively low, and few collisions occur. The carbon discharge is also an efficient ion pump.

  14. Investigation on collisions of filament pairs in dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Lifang; Zhang, Chao; Li, Ben; Zhang, Xinpu; He, Yafeng; Li, Xuechen; Hebei Key Laboratory of Optic-electronic Information Materials, Baoding 071002

    2013-12-15

    Collisions of filament pairs in a hexagonal superlattice pattern in dielectric barrier discharge are investigated on different timescales. In the evolution of the pattern, the space scale of each hexagon cell decreases with the increasing voltage. The duration of one collision is seven half voltage cycles at least. Two stable orientations of a pair are approximately perpendicular to each other and the orientational changes occurring during the entire colliding process should be a multiple of 30. The time interval between two consecutive collisions decreases with the increasing voltage. The distance between the paired spots decreases nonmonotonically. Based on the discharge order of the pattern, it is inferred that the collision should be the interaction between a discharging filament and the surface charges deposited by another discharged filament, and the nonmonotonic decrease of distance D is explained.

  15. Use of microalgae to remove pollutants from power plant discharges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilde, Edward W.; Benemann, John R.; Weissman, Joseph C.; Tillett, David M.

    1991-01-01

    A method and system for removing pollutants dissolved in the aqueous discharge of a plant, such as a power plant, from a body of water having known hydraulogy and physicochemical characteristics, the method comprising (a) modifying the hydraulic system of the body of water including use of physical barriers to define a zone in a portion of the body of water which zone includes the discharge point and where the water has a range of physicochemical characteristics; (b) selecting a large and preferably filamentous, planktonically growing strain of algae adapted to absorb the particular pollutants and genetically dominating algae at the physicochemical characteristics of the zone; (c) establishing a colony of the selected algal strain in the zone; (d) harvesting a portion of the colony; and (e) reinnoculating the zone near the discharge point with a fraction of the harvested portion. The fraction used for reinnoculation can be adjusted to balance the rate of pollutant removal to the rate of pollutant discharge.

  16. Discharging a DC bus capacitor of an electrical converter system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kajouke, Lateef A; Perisic, Milun; Ransom, Ray M

    2014-10-14

    A system and method of discharging a bus capacitor of a bidirectional matrix converter of a vehicle are presented here. The method begins by electrically shorting the AC interface of the converter after an AC energy source is disconnected from the AC interface. The method continues by arranging a plurality of switching elements of a second energy conversion module into a discharge configuration to establish an electrical current path from a first terminal of an isolation module, through an inductive element, and to a second terminal of the isolation module. The method also modulates a plurality of switching elements of a first energy conversion module, while maintaining the discharge configuration of the second energy conversion module, to at least partially discharge a DC bus capacitor.

  17. Spent nuclear fuel discharges from U.S. reactors 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-01

    Spent Nuclear Fuel Discharges from US Reactors 1994 provides current statistical data on fuel assemblies irradiated at commercial nuclear reactors operating in the US. This year`s report provides data on the current inventories and storage capacities at these reactors. Detailed statistics on the data are presented in four chapters that highlight 1994 spent fuel discharges, storage capacities and inventories, canister and nonfuel component data, and assembly characteristics. Five appendices, a glossary, and bibliography are also included. 10 figs., 34 tabs.

  18. Reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections, 1984 to 2020

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeb, C.M.; Libby, R.A.; Holter, G.M.

    1985-04-01

    The original spent fuel utility data base (SFDB) has been adjusted to produce agreement with the EIA nuclear energy generation forecast. The procedure developed allows the detail of the utility data base to remain intact, while the overall nuclear generation is changed to match any uniform nuclear generation forecast. This procedure adjusts the weight of the reactor discharges as reported on the SFDB and makes a minimal (less than 10%) change in the original discharge exposures in order to preserve discharges of an integral number of fuel assemblies. The procedure used in developing the reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections, as well as the resulting data bases themselves, are described in detail in this report. Discussions of the procedure cover the following topics: a description of the data base; data base adjustment procedures; addition of generic power reactors; and accuracy of the data base adjustments. Reactor-specific discharge and storage requirements are presented. Annual and cumulative discharge projections are provided. Annual and cumulative requirements for additional storage are shown for the maximum at-reactor (AR) storage assumption, and for the maximum AR with transshipment assumption. These compare directly to the storage requirements from the utility-supplied data, as reported in the Spent Fuel Storage Requirements Report. The results presented in this report include: the disaggregated spent fuel discharge projections; and disaggregated projections of requirements for additional spent fuel storage capacity prior to 1998. Descriptions of the methodology and the results are included in this report. Details supporting the discussions in the main body of the report, including descriptions of the capacity and fuel discharge projections, are included. 3 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Discharge source with gas curtain for protecting optics from particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fornaciari, Neal R.; Kanouff, Michael P.

    2004-03-30

    A gas curtain device is employed to deflect debris that is generated by an extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray radiation discharge source such as an electric discharge plasma source. The gas curtain device projects a stream of gas over the path of the radiation to deflect debris particles into a direction that is different from that of the path of the radiation. The gas curtain can be employed to prevent debris accumulation on the optics used in photolithography.

  20. Advances in electron kinetics and theory of gas discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolobov, Vladimir I.; The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama 35899

    2013-10-15

    “Electrons, like people, are fertile and infertile: high-energy electrons are fertile and able to reproduce.”—Lev TsendinModern physics of gas discharges increasingly uses physical kinetics for analysis of non-equilibrium plasmas. The description of underlying physics at the kinetic level appears to be important for plasma applications in modern technologies. In this paper, we attempt to grasp the legacy of Professor Lev Tsendin, who advocated the use of the kinetic approach for understanding fundamental problems of gas discharges. We outline the fundamentals of electron kinetics in low-temperature plasmas, describe elements of the modern kinetic theory of gas discharges, and show examples of the theoretical approach to gas discharge problems used by Lev Tsendin. Important connections between electron kinetics in gas discharges and semiconductors are also discussed. Using several examples, we illustrate how Tsendin's ideas and methods are currently being developed for the implementation of next generation computational tools for adaptive kinetic-fluid simulations of gas discharges used in modern technologies.

  1. Improved plasma uniformity in a discharge system with electron injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vizir, A. V.; Tyunkov, A. V.; Shandrikov, M. V.

    2009-02-15

    We present the results of experiments leading to improvement in bulk plasma uniformity of a constricted-arc discharge system with electron injection. The steady-state discharge was in argon, at a gas pressure of 0.5 mTorr, and operated with a main discharge voltage between 20 and 100 V and current between 3 and 15 A. The radial plasma distribution was measured with a movable Langmuir probe. We find that geometric modification of the intermediate electrode exit aperture and the main discharge cathode add little to the plasma uniformity. Improved bulk plasma uniformity is observed when a special distributing grid electrode is used and the main discharge voltage is less than 20-30 V. The application of a weakly divergent magnetic field in the region of the intermediate electrode exit aperture decreases the plasma nonuniformity from 20% to 14% over a radial distance of 30 cm. The plasma uniformity was further improved by compensating the magnetic self-field of the injected electron beam by a reverse magnetic field produced with a special electrode compensator. It is shown that an increase in discharge current causes a proportional increase in back current in the distributing electrode. The approach allows a decrease in plasma nonuniformity from 20% to 13% over a radial distance of 30 cm.

  2. Mercury contamination of terrestrial vegetation near a caustic soda factory in Thailand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suckcharoen, S.

    1980-03-01

    The present study is concerned with the fall-out of mercury on some terrestrial plants and one species of aquatic plant growing in the vicinity of the TACSCO factory.

  3. INVESTIGATION AND DEMONSTRATION OF DRY CARBON-BASED SORBENT INJECTION FOR MERCURY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry Hunt; Mark Fox; Lillian Stan; Sheila Haythornthwaite; Justin Smith; Jason Ruhl

    1998-10-01

    This quarterly report describes the activities that have taken place during the first full quarter of the Phase II project ''Investigation and Demonstration of Dry Carbon-Based Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control''. Modifications were completed and sampling began at the 600 acfm pilot-scale particulate control module (PCM) located at the Comanche Station in Pueblo, CO. The PCM was configured as an electrostatic precipitator for these tests. A Perkin-Elmer flue gas mercury analyzer was installed on-site and operated. Initial test results using both manual sampling methodology and the mercury analyzer are presented herein. Preparations were made during this period for full-scale mercury testing of several PSCo units. A site visit was made to Arapahoe and Cherokee Generating Stations to determine sample locations and to develop a test plan.

  4. EM's Los Alamos Site Completes Canyon-Side Cleanup ofMercury...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    A spider excavator extracts mercury-contaminated soil. Workers position a crane above the project site. Workers position a crane above the project site. A waste container is loaded ...

  5. Mercury retention by fly ashes from coal combustion: Influence of the unburned carbon content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Anton, M.A.; Diaz-Somoano, M.; Martinez-Tarazona, M.R.

    2007-01-31

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of unburned carbon particles present in fly ashes produced by coal combustion on mercury retention. To achieve this objective, the work was divided into two parts. The aim of the first part of the study was to estimate the amount of mercury captured by the fly ashes during combustion in power stations and the relationship of this retention to the unburned carbon content. The second part was a laboratory-scale study aimed at evaluating the retention of mercury concentrations greater than those produced in power stations by fly ashes of different characteristics and by unburned carbon particles. From the results obtained it can be inferred that the unburned carbon content is not the only variable that controls mercury capture in fly ashes. The textural characteristics of these unburned particles and of other components of fly ashes also influence retention.

  6. EIS-0347: Long-Term Management of the National Defense Stockpile Inventory of Excess Mercury

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Defense Logistics Agency EIS evaluated alternatives for managing the Defense National Stockpile Center inventory of excess mercury. DOE was a cooperating agency for preparation of the draft EIS.

  7. Comparative study of the embrittlement of Monel 400 at room temperature by hydrogen and by mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, C.E.; Fredell, R.S.

    1986-05-01

    Slow strain rate tensile tests were performed at room temperature on Monel 400 specimens of grain sizes 35 to 500 microns, in the environments of air, mercury, and electrolytically generated hydrogen. Specimens of grain size 250 microns were tested at a range of strain rates in the three environments. It was found that cracks initiated easiest in hydrogen but propagated easiest in mercury; consequently the embrittlement was usually more severe in mercury. The embrittlement decreased with increasing strain rate, and with increasing grain size in hydrogen. Embrittlement in mercury was maximum at intermediate grain sizes. A fracture sequence of intergranular to transgranular to microvoid coalescence was common. The intergranular and transgranular fractures are interpreted in terms of the reduced cohesive stress and enhanced shear models of embrittlement, respectively. 52 references.

  8. Emissions, Monitoring and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Bland; Kumar Sellakumar; Craig Cormylo

    2007-08-01

    The Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) identified a need to re-test stack gas emissions from power plants that burn subbituminous coal relative to compliance with the EPA mercury control regulations for coal-fired plants. In addition, the SEC has also identified the specialized monitoring needs associated with mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEM). The overall objectives of the program were to develop and demonstrate solutions for the unique emission characteristics found when burning subbituminous coals. The program was executed in two phases; Phase I of the project covered mercury emission testing programs at ten subbituminous coal-fired plants. Phase II compared the performance of continuous emission monitors for mercury at subbituminous coal-fired power plants and is reported separately. Western Research Institute and a number of SEC members have partnered with Eta Energy and Air Pollution Testing to assess the Phase I objective. Results of the mercury (Hg) source sampling at ten power plants burning subbituminous coal concluded Hg emissions measurements from Powder River Basin (PBR) coal-fired units showed large variations during both ICR and SEC testing. Mercury captures across the Air Pollution Control Devices (APCDs) present much more reliable numbers (i.e., the mercury captures across the APCDs are positive numbers as one would expect compared to negative removal across the APCDs for the ICR data). Three of the seven units tested in the SEC study had previously shown negative removals in the ICR testing. The average emission rate is 6.08 lb/TBtu for seven ICR units compared to 5.18 lb/TBtu for ten units in the SEC testing. Out of the ten (10) SEC units, Nelson Dewey Unit 1, burned a subbituminous coal and petcoke blend thus lowering the total emission rate by generating less elemental mercury. The major difference between the ICR and SEC data is in the APCD performance and the mercury closure around the APCD. The average mercury removal values

  9. EM’s Los Alamos Site Completes Canyon-Side Cleanup of Mercury-Contaminated Soil

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    LOS ALAMOS, N.M. – EM’s Los Alamos Field Office recently completed a steep canyon-side cleanup of mercury-contaminated soil on DOE property just south of a shopping center here.

  10. Emissions, Monitoring, and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants - Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Allen Kephart; Volker Schmidt; Gerald Butcher

    2008-10-31

    Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with Western Farmers Electric Cooperative (WFEC), has teamed with Clean Air Engineering of Pittsburgh PA to conduct a mercury monitoring program at the WEFC Hugo plant in Oklahoma. Sponsored by US Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-26-98FT40323, the program included the following members of the Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) as co-sponsors: Missouri Basin Power Project; DTE Energy; Entergy; Grand River Dam Authority; and Nebraska Public Power District. This research effort had five objectives: (1) determine the mass balance of mercury for subbituminous coal-fired power plant; (2) assess the distribution of mercury species in the flue gas (3) perform a comparison of three different Hg test methods; (4) investigate the long-term (six months) mercury variability at a subbituminous coal-fired power plant; and (5) assess operation and maintenance of the Method 324 and Horiba CEMS utilizing plant personnel.

  11. 2014-05-05 Issuance: Test Procedures for High-Intensity Discharge...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    notice of proposed rulemaking regarding test procedures for high-intesity discharge ... access to this document. 2014-05-05 Test Procedures for High-Intensity Discharge ...

  12. Device for generation of pulsed corona discharge (Patent) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Device for generation of pulsed corona discharge The invention is a method and system for the generation of high voltage, pulsed, periodic corona discharges capable of being ...

  13. Binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in glow discharge closing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Highly efficient binary and ternary gas mixtures for use in diffuse glow discharge closing ... discharge; closing; switches; highly; efficient; binary; ternary; gas; mixtures; ...

  14. Statistical modelling of discharge behavior of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tay, W. H.; Kausik, S. S.; Wong, C. S. Yap, S. L.; Muniandy, S. V.

    2014-11-15

    In this work, stochastic behavior of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) has been investigated. The experiment is performed in a DBD reactor consisting of a pair of stainless steel parallel plate electrodes powered by a 50 Hz ac high voltage source. Current pulse amplitude distributions for different space gaps and the time separation between consecutive current pulses are studied. A probability distribution function is proposed to predict the experimental distribution function for the current pulse amplitudes and the occurrence of the transition regime of the pulse distribution. Breakdown voltage at different positions on the dielectric surface is suggested to be stochastic in nature. The simulated results based on the proposed distribution function agreed well with the experimental results and able to predict the regime of transition voltage. This model would be useful for the understanding of stochastic behaviors of DBD and the design of DBD device for effective operation and applications.

  15. OPTIMIZING TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE MERCURY AND ACID GAS EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-10-01

    Maps showing potential mercury, sulfur, chlorine, and moisture emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin were made from publicly available data (plates 1, 2, 3, and 4). Published equations that predict mercury capture by emission control technologies used at U.S. coal-fired utilities were applied to average coal quality values for 169 U.S. counties. The results were used to create five maps that show the influence of coal origin on mercury emissions from utility units with: (1) hot-side electrostatic precipitator (hESP), (2) cold-side electrostatic precipitator (cESP), (3) hot-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (hESP/FGD), (4) cold-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (cESP/FGD), and (5) spray-dry adsorption with fabric filter (SDA/FF) emission controls (plates 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9). Net (lower) coal heating values were calculated from measured coal Btu values, and estimated coal moisture and hydrogen values; the net heating values were used to derive mercury emission rates on an electric output basis (plate 10). Results indicate that selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hESP, cESP, or hESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions. Comparison of in-ground coal quality with the quality of commercially mined coal indicates that existing coal mining and coal washing practice results in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Further pre-combustion mercury reductions may be possible, especially for coal from Texas, Ohio, parts of Pennsylvania and much of the western U.S.

  16. Final Technical Report: Mercury Release from Organic Matter (OM) and OM-Coated Mineral Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagy, Kathryn L.

    2015-08-18

    Chemical reactions between mercury, a neurotoxin, and sulfur, an essential nutrient, in the environment control to a large extent the distribution and amount of mercury available for uptake by living organisms. The largest reservoir of sulfur in soils is in living, decaying, and dissolved natural organic matter. The decaying and dissolved organic matter can also coat the surfaces of minerals in the soil. Mercury (as a divalent cation) can bind to the sulfur species in the organic matter as well as to the bare mineral surfaces, but the extent of binding and release of this mercury is not well understood. The goals of the research were to investigate fundamental relationships among mercury, natural organic matter, and selected minerals to better understand specifically the fate and transport of mercury in contaminated soils downstream from the Y-12 plant along East Fork Poplar Creek, Tennessee, and more generally in any contaminated soil. The research focused on (1) experiments to quantify the uptake and release of mercury from two clay minerals in the soil, kaolinite and vermiculite, in the presence and absence of dissolved organic matter; (2) release of mercury from cinnabar under oxic and anoxic conditions; (3) characterization of the forms of mercury in the soil using synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopic techniques; and, (4) determination of molecular forms of mercury in the presence of natural organic matter. We also leveraged funding from the National Science Foundation to (5) evaluate published approaches for determining sulfur speciation in natural organic matter by fitting X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectra obtained at the sulfur K-edge and apply optimized fitting schemes to new measurements of sulfur speciation in a suite of dissolved organic matter samples from the International Humic Substances Society. Lastly, in collaboration with researchers at the University of Colorado and the U.S. Geological Survey in Boulder, Colorado, (6

  17. Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe; Conor Braman; Katherine Dombrowski; Tom Machalek

    2010-12-31

    This document is the final technical report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT41992, 'Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,' which was conducted over the time-period January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2010. The objective of this project has been to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid catalysts and/or fixed-structure mercury sorbents to promote the removal of total mercury and oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal combustion, followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL), EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), TXU Energy (now called Luminant), Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP) and Duke Energy. URS Group was the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses fixed-structure sorbents and/or catalysts to promote the removal of total mercury and/or oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone FGD systems. Oxidized mercury not adsorbed is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and leaves with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project has tested candidate materials at pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. Pilot-scale catalytic oxidation tests have been completed for periods of approximately 14 to19 months at three sites, with an additional round of pilot-scale fixed-structure sorbent tests being conducted at one of those sites. Additionally, pilot-scale wet FGD tests have been conducted downstream of mercury oxidation catalysts at a total of four sites. The sites include the two of three sites from this project and two sites where catalytic oxidation pilot testing was conducted as part of a previous DOE-NETL project. Pilot-scale wet FGD tests were also conducted at a fifth site, but with no catalyst or fixed

  18. Removing mercury from coal emissions: options for ash-friendly technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sager, J.

    2009-07-01

    The article gives a brief description of techniques to remove mercury emitted from coal-fired power plants and discusses environmental considerations associated with the effect of emission controls on coal fly ash. Techniques covered include use of injected mercury sorbents (activated carbon, metal oxide catalysts, MerCAP{trademark} and MercScreen{trademark}) and fuel cleaning. Technologies currently being researched are mentioned. 8 refs.

  19. Processing results of 1,800 gallons of mercury and radioactively contaminated mixed waste rinse solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thiesen, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    The mercury-contaminated rinse solution (INEL waste ID{number_sign} 123; File 8 waste) was successfully treated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This waste was generated during the decontamination of the Heat Transfer Reactor Experiment 3 (HTRE-3) reactor shield tank. Approximately 1,800 gal of waste was generated and was placed into 33 drums. Each drum contained precipitated sludge material ranging from 1--10 in. in depth, with the average depth of about 2.5 in. The pH of each drum varied from 3--11. The bulk liquid waste had a mercury level of 7.0 mg/l, which exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) limit of 0.2 mg/l. The average liquid bulk radioactivity was about 2.1 pCi/ml, while the average sludge contamination was about 13,800 pci/g. Treatment of the waste required separation of the liquid from the sludge, filtration, pH adjustment, and ion exchange. Because of difficulties in processing, three trials were required to reduce the mercury levels to below the RCRA limit. In the first trial, insufficient filtration of the waste allowed solid particulate produced during pH adjustment to enter into the ion exchange columns and ultimately the waste storage tank. In the second trial, the waste was filtered down to 0.1 {mu} to remove all solid mercury compounds. However, before filtration could take place, a solid mercury complex dissolved and mercury levels exceeded the RCRA limit after filtration. In the third trial, the waste was filtered through 0.3-A filters and then passed through the S-920 resin to remove the dissolved mercury. The resulting solution had mercury levels at 0.0186 mg/l and radioactivity of 0.282 pCi/ml. This solution was disposed of at the TAN warm waste pond, TAN782, TSF-10.

  20. Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas - Energy Innovation Portal

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication 7776780.pdf (365 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Disclosed in this patent are catalysts for the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas. These novel catalysts include iridium (Ir), platinum/iridium (Pt/Ir), and Thief carbons. The catalyst materials will adsorb