National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for dioxide helium hydrogen

  1. Helium Migration Mechanisms in Polycrystalline Uranium Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Guillaume; Desgardin, Pierre; Sauvage, Thierry; Barthe, Marie-France; Garcia, Philippe; Carlot, Gaelle

    2007-07-01

    This study aims at identifying the release mechanisms of helium in uranium dioxide. Two sets of polycrystalline UO{sub 2} sintered samples presenting different microstructures were implanted with {sup 3}He ions at concentrations in the region of 0.1 at.%. Changes in helium concentrations were monitored using two Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) techniques based on the {sup 3}He(d,{alpha}){sup 1}H reaction. {sup 3}He release is measured in-situ during sample annealing at temperatures ranging between 700 deg. C and 1000 deg. C. Accurate helium depth profiles are generated after each annealing stage. Results that provide data for further understanding helium release mechanisms are discussed. It is found that helium diffusion appears to be enhanced above 900 deg. C in the vicinity of grain boundaries possibly as a result of the presence of defects. (authors)

  2. Surprisingly Large Generation and Retention of Helium and Hydrogen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Surprisingly Large Generation and Retention of Helium and Hydrogen in ... Title: Surprisingly Large Generation and Retention of Helium and Hydrogen in Pure Nickel ...

  3. Understanding Helium-Hydrogen Plasma Mediated Tungsten Surface...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Helium-Hydrogen Plasma Mediated Tungsten Surface Response to Predict Fusion Plasma Facing ... The realization of fusion as a practical, 21st Century energy source requires improved ...

  4. Compact hydrogen/helium isotope mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funsten, Herbert O.; McComas, David J.; Scime, Earl E.

    1996-01-01

    The compact hydrogen and helium isotope mass spectrometer of the present invention combines low mass-resolution ion mass spectrometry and beam-foil interaction technology to unambiguously detect and quantify deuterium (D), tritium (T), hydrogen molecule (H.sub.2, HD, D.sub.2, HT, DT, and T.sub.2), .sup.3 He, and .sup.4 He concentrations and concentration variations. The spectrometer provides real-time, high sensitivity, and high accuracy measurements. Currently, no fieldable D or molecular speciation detectors exist. Furthermore, the present spectrometer has a significant advantage over traditional T detectors: no confusion of the measurements by other beta-emitters, and complete separation of atomic and molecular species of equivalent atomic mass (e.g., HD and .sup.3 He).

  5. Nuclear Hydrogen and Captured Carbon Dioxide for Alternative...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Nuclear Hydrogen and Captured Carbon Dioxide for Alternative Liquid Fuels. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nuclear Hydrogen and Captured Carbon Dioxide for ...

  6. NUCLEAR HYDROGEN AND CAPTURED CARBON DIOXIDE FOR ALTERNATIVE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: NUCLEAR HYDROGEN AND CAPTURED CARBON DIOXIDE FOR ALTERNATIVE LIQUID FUELS. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: NUCLEAR HYDROGEN AND CAPTURED CARBON DIOXIDE ...

  7. Recovery of purified helium or hydrogen from gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriman, J.R.; Pashley, J.H.; Stephenson, M.J.; Dunthorn, D.I.

    1974-01-15

    A process is described for the removal of helium or hydrogen from gaseous mixtures also containing contaminants. The gaseous mixture is contacted with a liquid fluorocarbon in an absorption zone maintained at superatomspheric pressure to preferentially absorb the contaminants in the fluorocarbon. Unabsorbed gas enriched in hydrogen or helium is withdrawn from the absorption zone as product. Liquid fluorocarbon enriched in contaminants is withdrawn separately from the absorption zone. (10 claims)

  8. Modeling Helium--Hydrogen Plasma Mediated Tungsten Surface Response to

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Predict Fusion Plasma Facing Component Performance in ITER | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Helium--Hydrogen Plasma Mediated Tungsten Surface Response to Predict Fusion Plasma Facing Component Performance in ITER PI Name: Brian Wirth PI Email: bdwirth@utk.edu Institution: University of Tennessee Allocation Program: ALCC Allocation Hours at ALCF: 70 Million Year: 2016 Research Domain: Materials Science The purpose of this project is to develop high performance materials suitable for a

  9. USE OF THE MODULAR HELIUM REACTOR FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SCHULTZ,KR

    2003-09-01

    OAK-B135 A significant ''Hydrogen Economy'' is predicted that will reduce our dependence on petroleum imports and reduce pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels, but contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels. The author has recently completed a three-year project for the US Department of Energy (DOE) whose objective was to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source''. Thermochemical water-slitting, a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen, met this objective. The goal of the first phase of this study was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen, and to select one for further detailed consideration. They selected the Sulfur-Iodine cycle. In the second phase, they reviewed all the basic reactor types for suitability to provide the high temperature heat needed by the selected thermochemical water splitting cycle and chose the helium gas-cooled reactor. In the third phase they designed the chemical flowsheet for the thermochemical process and estimated the efficiency and cost of the process and the projected cost of producing hydrogen. These results are summarized in this report.

  10. Production of carbon monoxide-free hydrogen and helium from a high-purity source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golden, Timothy Christopher; Farris, Thomas Stephen

    2008-11-18

    The invention provides vacuum swing adsorption processes that produce an essentially carbon monoxide-free hydrogen or helium gas stream from, respectively, a high-purity (e.g., pipeline grade) hydrogen or helium gas stream using one or two adsorber beds. By using physical adsorbents with high heats of nitrogen adsorption, intermediate heats of carbon monoxide adsorption, and low heats of hydrogen and helium adsorption, and by using vacuum purging and high feed stream pressures (e.g., pressures of as high as around 1,000 bar), pipeline grade hydrogen or helium can purified to produce essentially carbon monoxide -free hydrogen and helium, or carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and methane-free hydrogen and helium.

  11. Onboard Hydrogen/Helium Sensors in Support of the Global Technical...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Onboard HydrogenHelium Sensors in Support of the Global Technical Regulation: An Assessment of Performance in Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Crash Tests Matthew B. Post, Robert ...

  12. Gettering of hydrogen and methane from a helium gas mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crdenas, Rosa Elia; Stewart, Kenneth D.; Cowgill, Donald F.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the authors developed an approach for accurately quantifying the helium content in a gas mixture also containing hydrogen and methane using commercially available getters. The authors performed a systematic study to examine how both H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} can be removed simultaneously from the mixture using two SAES St 172{sup } getters operating at different temperatures. The remaining He within the gas mixture can then be measured directly using a capacitance manometer. The optimum combination involved operating one getter at 650?C to decompose the methane, and the second at 110?C to remove the hydrogen. This approach eliminated the need to reactivate the getters between measurements, thereby enabling multiple measurements to be made within a short time interval, with accuracy better than 1%. The authors anticipate that such an approach will be particularly useful for quantifying the He-3 in mixtures that include tritium, tritiated methane, and helium-3. The presence of tritiated methane, generated by tritium activity, often complicates such measurements.

  13. Gettering of Hydrogen and Methane from a Helium Gas Mixture

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Cardenas, Rosa E.; Stewart, Kenneth D.; Cowgill, Donald F.

    2014-10-21

    In our study, the authors developed an approach for accurately quantifying the helium content in a gas mixture also containing hydrogen and methane using commercially available getters. The authors performed a systematic study to examine how both H2 and CH4 can be removed simultaneously from the mixture using two SAES St 172® getters operating at different temperatures. The remaining He within the gas mixture can then be measured directly using a capacitance manometer. Moreover, the optimum combination involved operating one getter at 650°C to decompose the methane, and the second at 110°C to remove the hydrogen. Finally, this approach eliminatedmore » the need to reactivate the getters between measurements, thereby enabling multiple measurements to be made within a short time interval, with accuracy better than 1%. The authors anticipate that such an approach will be particularly useful for quantifying the He-3 in mixtures that include tritium, tritiated methane, and helium-3. The presence of tritiated methane, generated by tritium activity, often complicates such measurements.« less

  14. Gettering of Hydrogen and Methane from a Helium Gas Mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cardenas, Rosa E.; Stewart, Kenneth D.; Cowgill, Donald F.

    2014-10-21

    In our study, the authors developed an approach for accurately quantifying the helium content in a gas mixture also containing hydrogen and methane using commercially available getters. The authors performed a systematic study to examine how both H2 and CH4 can be removed simultaneously from the mixture using two SAES St 172® getters operating at different temperatures. The remaining He within the gas mixture can then be measured directly using a capacitance manometer. Moreover, the optimum combination involved operating one getter at 650°C to decompose the methane, and the second at 110°C to remove the hydrogen. Finally, this approach eliminated the need to reactivate the getters between measurements, thereby enabling multiple measurements to be made within a short time interval, with accuracy better than 1%. The authors anticipate that such an approach will be particularly useful for quantifying the He-3 in mixtures that include tritium, tritiated methane, and helium-3. The presence of tritiated methane, generated by tritium activity, often complicates such measurements.

  15. Continuum-scale Modeling of Hydrogen and Helium Bubble Growth in Metals |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Continuum-scale Modeling of Hydrogen and Helium Bubble Growth in Metals Continuum-scale Modeling of Hydrogen and Helium Bubble Growth in Metals Presentation from the 34th Tritium Focus Group Meeting held in Idaho Falls, Idaho on September 23-25, 2014. Continuum-Scale Modeling of Hydrogen and Helium Bubble Growth in Metals (2.2 MB) More Documents & Publications H-Sensors and Fusion Work at SNL-CA Low-temperature Swelling in LWR Internal Components: Current Data and

  16. Preparation and thermal desorption properties of dc sputtered zirconium-hydrogen-helium thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Y. C.; Shi, L. Q.; Zhang, L.; He, Z. J.; Zhang, B.; Wang, L. B.

    2008-11-15

    We developed a new approach for preparing hydrogen and helium co-containing zirconium films (Zr-H-He) to simulate aging metal tritides. We also studied the effect of hydrogen on helium behavior, in which we applied direct current magnetron sputtering in a mixture of working gases (helium, argon, and hydrogen). The amount and depth profile of helium and hydrogen trapped in the films were determined using the elastic recoil detection analysis. The microstructure and surface morphology of the Zr-H-He films were studied by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. To investigate the effect of hydrogen on the thermal release behavior of helium in the Zr film, thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS) was used, which revealed a similar desorption behavior to aged tritides. TDS experiments showed that the spectra were constituted by low-temperature peaks around 300 deg. C and high temperature peaks above 750 deg. C. Furthermore, the solid-phase {alpha} to {delta} transformation changed the shapes of the high-temperature peaks related to microstates of helium bubbles and caused the peak with a massive helium release shift toward lower temperature obviously.

  17. Coupling a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle to a Helium-Cooled Reactor.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Middleton, Bobby; Pasch, James Jay; Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Walker, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    This report outlines the thermodynamics of a supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) recompression closed Brayton cycle (RCBC) coupled to a Helium-cooled nuclear reactor. The baseline reactor design for the study is the AREVA High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). Using the AREVA HTGR nominal operating parameters, an initial thermodynamic study was performed using Sandia's deterministic RCBC analysis program. Utilizing the output of the RCBC thermodynamic analysis, preliminary values of reactor power and of Helium flow rate through the reactor were calculated in Sandia's HelCO2 code. Some research regarding materials requirements was then conducted to determine aspects of corrosion related to both Helium and to sCO2 , as well as some mechanical considerations for pressures and temperatures that will be seen by the piping and other components. This analysis resulted in a list of materials-related research items that need to be conducted in the future. A short assessment of dry heat rejection advantages of sCO2> Brayton cycles was also included. This assessment lists some items that should be investigated in the future to better understand how sCO2 Brayton cycles and nuclear can maximally contribute to optimizing the water efficiency of carbon free power generation

  18. A comparison of hydrogen vs. helium glow discharge effects on fusion device first-wall conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dylla, H.F.

    1989-09-01

    Hydrogen- and deuterium-fueled glow discharges are used for the initial conditioning of magnetic fusion device vacuum vessels following evacuation from atmospheric pressure. Hydrogenic glow discharge conditioning (GDC) significantly reduces the near-surface concentration of simple adsorbates, such as H/sub 2/O, CO, and CH/sub 4/, and lowers ion-induced desorption coefficients by typically three orders of magnitude. The time evolution of the residual gas production observed during hydrogen-glow discharge conditioning of the carbon first-wall structure of the TFTR device is similar to the time evolution observed during hydrogen GDC of the initial first-wall configuration in TFTR, which was primarily stainless steel. Recently, helium GDC has been investigated for several wall-conditioning tasks on a number of tokamaks including TFTR. Helium GDC shows negligible impurity removal with stainless steel walls. For impurity conditioning with carbon walls, helium GDC shows significant desorption of H/sub 2/O, CO, and CO/sub 2/; however, the total desorption yield is limited to the monolayer range. In addition, helium GDC can be used to displace hydrogen isotopes from the near-surface region of carbon first-walls in order to lower hydrogenic retention and recycling. 38 refs., 6 figs.

  19. SPHERICALLY SYMMETRIC NLTE MODEL ATMOSPHERES OF HOT HYDROGEN-HELIUM FIRST STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubat, Jiri

    2012-12-15

    We present results of our calculations of NLTE model stellar atmospheres for hot Population III stars composed of hydrogen and helium. We use our own computer code for the calculation of spherically symmetric NLTE model atmospheres in hydrostatic and radiative equilibrium. The model atmospheres are then used for the calculation of emergent fluxes. These fluxes serve to evaluate the flow of high-energy photons for energies higher than ionization energies of hydrogen and helium, the so-called ionizing photon fluxes. We also present the time evolution of the ionizing photon fluxes.

  20. Benchmarking density functionals for hydrogen-helium mixtures with quantum Monte Carlo: Energetics, pressures, and forces

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Clay, Raymond C.; Holzmann, Markus; Ceperley, David M.; Morales, Maguel A.

    2016-01-19

    An accurate understanding of the phase diagram of dense hydrogen and helium mixtures is a crucial component in the construction of accurate models of Jupiter, Saturn, and Jovian extrasolar planets. Though DFT based rst principles methods have the potential to provide the accuracy and computational e ciency required for this task, recent benchmarking in hydrogen has shown that achieving this accuracy requires a judicious choice of functional, and a quanti cation of the errors introduced. In this work, we present a quantum Monte Carlo based benchmarking study of a wide range of density functionals for use in hydrogen-helium mixtures atmore » thermodynamic conditions relevant for Jovian planets. Not only do we continue our program of benchmarking energetics and pressures, but we deploy QMC based force estimators and use them to gain insights into how well the local liquid structure is captured by di erent density functionals. We nd that TPSS, BLYP and vdW-DF are the most accurate functionals by most metrics, and that the enthalpy, energy, and pressure errors are very well behaved as a function of helium concentration. Beyond this, we highlight and analyze the major error trends and relative di erences exhibited by the major classes of functionals, and estimate the magnitudes of these e ects when possible.« less

  1. Stepped-anneal and total helium/hydrogen measurements in high-energy proton-irradiated tungsten

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliver, B.M.; Hamilton, M.L.; Garner, F.A.; Sommer, W.F.; Maloy, S.A.; Ferguson, P.D.

    1998-12-31

    To provide structural material design data for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project, a 1 mA, 800 MeV proton beam at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) was used to irradiate a large number of metal samples, including a tungsten target similar to that being considered as the neutron source for the tritium production. The maximum proton fluence to the tungsten target was {approximately} 10{sup 21} protons/cm{sup 2}. An unavoidable byproduct of spallation reactions is the formation of large amounts of hydrogen and helium. Postulated accident scenarios for APT involving the use of tungsten rods clad with Alloy 718, raise concerns as to the amount and rate of release of these gases due to temperatures increases from afterheat accumulation, with the major concern being pressurizing and possibly failure of the cladding. To address these issues, portions of the LANSCE tungsten rods were subjected to temperature histories calculated as likely to occur, and the time-dependent evolution of helium and hydrogen gases was measured. Stepped-anneal and total helium/hydrogen measurements were conducted on multiple samples of the tungsten material. Helium measurements were conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using a high-sensitivity magnetic-sector isotope-dilution helium analysis system. Stepped-anneal measurements were conducted at temperatures from {approximately} 25 C to {approximately} 1,600 C in {approximately} 100 C steps. Total helium measurements were conducted by rapid vaporization after completion of the stepped-anneal process, and are compared with Monte Carlo calculations performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) using the LAHET code system. Hydrogen measurements were conducted between {approximately} 750 C and {approximately} 1,200 C using a high-temperature furnace that had been extensively modified for the application. Hydrogen detection was accomplished by periodic sampling of the furnace gas using a separate

  2. Hydrogen storage and carbon dioxide capture in an iron-based...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen storage and carbon dioxide capture in an iron-based sodalite-type metal-organic framework (Fe-BTT) discovered via high-throughput methods Previous Next List Kenji Sumida, ...

  3. Method and means of reducing erosion of components of plasma devices exposed to helium and hydrogen isotope radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaminsky, Manfred S.; Das, Santosh K.; Rossing, Thomas D.

    1977-01-25

    Surfaces of components of plasma devices exposed to radiation by atoms or ions of helium or isotopes of hydrogen can be protected from damage due to blistering by shielding the surfaces with a structure formed by sintering a powder of aluminum or beryllium and its oxide or by coating the surfaces with such a sintered metal powder.

  4. Metal hydride differential scanning calorimetry as an approach to compositional determination of mixtures of hydrogen isotopologues and helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, David B.; Luo, Weifang; Cai, Trevor Y.; Stewart, Kenneth D.

    2015-09-26

    Gaseous mixtures of diatomic hydrogen isotopologues and helium are often encountered in the nuclear energy industry and in analytical chemistry. Compositions of stored mixtures can vary due to interactions with storage and handling materials. When tritium is present, it decays to form ions and helium-3, both of which can lead to further compositional variation. Monitoring of composition is typically achieved by mass spectrometry, a method that is bulky and energy-intensive. Mass spectrometers disperse sample material through vacuum pumps, which is especially troublesome if tritium is present. Moreover, our ultimate goal is to create a compact, fast, low-power sensor that can determine composition with minimal gas consumption and waste generation, as a complement to mass spectrometry that can be instantiated more widely. We propose calorimetry of metal hydrides as an approach to this, due to the strong isotope effect on gas absorption, and demonstrate the sensitivity of measured heat flow to atomic composition of the gas. Peak shifts are discernible when mole fractions change by at least 1%. A mass flow restriction results in a unique dependence of the measurement on helium concentration. We present a mathematical model as a first step toward prediction of the peak shapes and positions. The model includes a useful method to compute estimates of phase diagrams for palladium in the presence of arbitrary mixtures of hydrogen isotopologues. We expect that this approach can be used to deduce unknown atomic compositions from measured calorimetric data over a useful range of partial pressures of each component.

  5. Tunneling effects in the kinetics of helium and hydrogen isotopes desorption from single-walled carbon nanotube bundles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danilchenko, B. A. Yaskovets, I. I.; Uvarova, I. Y.; Dolbin, A. V.; Esel'son, V. B.; Basnukaeva, R. M.; Vinnikov, N. A.

    2014-04-28

    The kinetics of desorption both helium isotopes and molecules of hydrogen and deuterium from open-ended or ?-irradiated single-walled carbon nanotube bundles was investigated in temperature range of 10300?K. The gases desorption rates obey the Arrhenius law at high temperatures, deviate from it with temperature reduction and become constant at low temperatures. These results indicate the quantum nature of gas outflow from carbon nanotube bundles. We had deduced the crossover temperature below which the quantum corrections to the effective activation energy of desorption become significant. This temperature follows linear dependence against the inverse mass of gas molecule and is consistent with theoretical prediction.

  6. Cryogenic system with GM cryocooler for krypton, xenon separation from hydrogen-helium purge gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, X. X.; Zhang, D. X.; Qian, Y.; Liu, W.; Zhang, M. M.; Xu, D.

    2014-01-29

    In the thorium molten salt reactor (TMSR), fission products such as krypton, xenon and tritium will be produced continuously in the process of nuclear fission reaction. A cryogenic system with a two stage GM cryocooler was designed to separate Kr, Xe, and H{sub 2} from helium purge gas. The temperatures of two stage heat exchanger condensation tanks were maintained at about 38 K and 4.5 K, respectively. The main fluid parameters of heat transfer were confirmed, and the structural heat exchanger equipment and cold box were designed. Designed concentrations after cryogenic separation of Kr, Xe and H{sub 2} in helium recycle gas are less than 1 ppb.

  7. Metal hydride differential scanning calorimetry as an approach to compositional determination of mixtures of hydrogen isotopologues and helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, David B.; Luo, Weifang; Cai, Trevor Y.; Stewart, Kenneth D.

    2015-09-26

    Gaseous mixtures of diatomic hydrogen isotopologues and helium are often encountered in the nuclear energy industry and in analytical chemistry. Compositions of stored mixtures can vary due to interactions with storage and handling materials. When tritium is present, it decays to form ions and helium-3, both of which can lead to further compositional variation. Monitoring of composition is typically achieved by mass spectrometry, a method that is bulky and energy-intensive. Mass spectrometers disperse sample material through vacuum pumps, which is especially troublesome if tritium is present. Moreover, our ultimate goal is to create a compact, fast, low-power sensor that can determine composition with minimal gas consumption and waste generation, as a complement to mass spectrometry that can be instantiated more widely. We propose calorimetry of metal hydrides as an approach to this, due to the strong isotope effect on gas absorption, and demonstrate the sensitivity of measured heat flow to atomic composition of the gas. Peak shifts are discernible when mole fractions change by at least 1%. A mass flow restriction results in a unique dependence of the measurement on helium concentration. We present a mathematical model as a first step toward prediction of the peak shapes and positions. The model includes a useful method to compute estimates of phase diagrams for palladium in the presence of arbitrary mixtures of hydrogen isotopologues. As a result, we expect that this approach can be used to deduce unknown atomic compositions from measured calorimetric data over a useful range of partial pressures of each component.

  8. Metal hydride differential scanning calorimetry as an approach to compositional determination of mixtures of hydrogen isotopologues and helium

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Robinson, David B.; Luo, Weifang; Cai, Trevor Y.; Stewart, Kenneth D.

    2015-09-26

    Gaseous mixtures of diatomic hydrogen isotopologues and helium are often encountered in the nuclear energy industry and in analytical chemistry. Compositions of stored mixtures can vary due to interactions with storage and handling materials. When tritium is present, it decays to form ions and helium-3, both of which can lead to further compositional variation. Monitoring of composition is typically achieved by mass spectrometry, a method that is bulky and energy-intensive. Mass spectrometers disperse sample material through vacuum pumps, which is especially troublesome if tritium is present. Moreover, our ultimate goal is to create a compact, fast, low-power sensor that canmore » determine composition with minimal gas consumption and waste generation, as a complement to mass spectrometry that can be instantiated more widely. We propose calorimetry of metal hydrides as an approach to this, due to the strong isotope effect on gas absorption, and demonstrate the sensitivity of measured heat flow to atomic composition of the gas. Peak shifts are discernible when mole fractions change by at least 1%. A mass flow restriction results in a unique dependence of the measurement on helium concentration. We present a mathematical model as a first step toward prediction of the peak shapes and positions. The model includes a useful method to compute estimates of phase diagrams for palladium in the presence of arbitrary mixtures of hydrogen isotopologues. As a result, we expect that this approach can be used to deduce unknown atomic compositions from measured calorimetric data over a useful range of partial pressures of each component.« less

  9. Efficient photocatalytic hydrogen generation by silica supported and platinum promoted titanium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshi, Meenal M.; Labhsetwar, Nitin K.; Parwate, D.V.; Rayalu, Sadhana S.

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: Titanium dioxide was supported on mesoporous silica and promoted with Pt and Ru. The supported photocatalysts show high surface area and better photocatalytic activity in visible light as compared to the benchmark Degussa P25. These photocatalysts were characterized using XRD, BET-SA, and UV-DRS techniques. The surface area of supported photocatalyst was 140.6 m{sup 2}/g which is higher than Degussa P-25. Supported photocatalyst was evaluated for hydrogen evolution via water splitting reaction using ethanol as a sacrificial donor. Hydrogen yield observed is 4791.43 ?mol/h/g of TiO{sub 2} and that for P-25 is 161 ?mol/h/g of TiO{sub 2} under visible light irradiation. The value is 30 times higher than benchmark material Degussa P-25. This photocatalyst is also found stable up to 24 h without replenishing with sacrificial donor ethanol. - Highlights: Semiconductor titanium dioxide has been supported on silica gel and promoted with Pt by simple wet impregnation route. This synthesized photocatalyst is showing high surface area of 140.6 m{sup 2}/g with crystallite size in the range of 15.44 ?. This photocatalyst is showing enhanced hydrogen yield of about 4791.43 ?mol/h/g of TiO{sub 2}. This photocatalyst is also found stable up to 24 h without replenishing with sacrificial donor ethanol. The effect of various operating parameters on supported photocatalyst also has been studied. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide was supported on mesoporous silica and promoted with Pt and Ru. The supported photocatalysts show high surface area and better photocatalytic activity in visible light as compared to the benchmark Degussa P25. These photocatalysts were characterized using XRD, BET-SA, and UV-DRS techniques. The surface area of supported photocatalyst was 140.6 m{sup 2}/g which is higher than Degussa P-25. Supported photocatalyst was evaluated for hydrogen evolution via water splitting reaction using ethanol as a sacrificial donor. Hydrogen yield

  10. The effect of plutonium dioxide water surface coverage on the generation of hydrogen and oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veirs, Douglas K.; Berg, John M.; Crowder, Mark L.

    2012-06-20

    The conditions for the production of oxygen during radiolysis of water adsorbed onto plutonium dioxide powder are discussed. Studies in the literature investigating the radiolysis of water show that both oxygen and hydrogen can be generated from water adsorbed on high-purity plutonium dioxide powder. These studies indicate that there is a threshold in the amount of water below which oxygen is not generated. The threshold is associated with the number of monolayers of adsorbed water and is shown to occur at approximately two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water. Material in equilibrium with 50% relative humidity (RH) will be at the threshold for oxygen generation. Using two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water as the threshold for oxygen production, the total pressure under various conditions is calculated assuming stoichiometric production of hydrogen and oxygen. The specific surface area of the oxide has a strong effect on the final partial pressure. The specific surface areas resulting in the highest pressures within a 3013 container are evaluated. The potential for oxygen generation is mitigated by reduced relative humidity, and hence moisture adsorption, at the oxide surface which occurs if the oxide is warmer than the ambient air. The potential for oxygen generation approaches zero as the temperature difference between the ambient air and the material approaches 6 C.

  11. Equilibrium hydrate formation conditions for hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane in aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol and sodium chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, A.; Mahmoodaghdam, E.; Bishnoi, P.R.

    2000-02-01

    Natural gas components such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane form gas hydrates of structure I under suitable temperature and pressure conditions. Information on such conditions is vital to the oil and gas industry in order to design and operate processing equipment and pipelines so that hydrate formation is avoided. Incipient equilibrium hydrate formation conditions for hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane in aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol and sodium chloride were experimentally obtained in the temperature range 264--290 K and the pressure range 0.23--3.18 MPa. A variable-volume sapphire cell was used for the measurements.

  12. Engineering Bacteria for Efficient Fuel Production: Novel Biological Conversion of Hydrogen and Carbon Dioxide Directly into Free Fatty Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-12

    Electrofuels Project: OPX Biotechnologies is engineering a microorganism currently used in industrial biotechnology to directly produce a liquid fuel from hydrogen and carbon dioxide (CO2). The microorganism has the natural ability to use hydrogen and CO2 for growth. OPX Biotechnologies is modifying the microorganism to divert energy and carbon away from growth and towards the production of liquid fuels in larger, commercially viable quantities. The microbial system will produce a fuel precursor that can be chemically upgraded to various hydrocarbon fuels.

  13. Hydrodynamic simulations of a combined hydrogen, helium thermonuclear runaway on a 10-km neutron star

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starrfield, S.; Kenyon, S.; Truran, J.W.; Sparks, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    We have used a Lagrangian, hydrodynamic stellar-evolution computer code to evolve a thermonuclear runaway in the accreted hydrogen rich envelope of a 1.0M, 10-km neutron star. Our simulation produced an outburst which lasted about 2000 sec and peak effective temperature was 3 keV. The peak luminosity exceeded 2 x 10/sup 5/ L. A shock wave caused a precursor in the light curve which lasted 10/sup -5/ sec.

  14. Heat capacity of quantum adsorbates: Hydrogen and helium on evaporated gold films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birmingham, J.T. |

    1996-06-01

    The author has constructed an apparatus to make specific heat measurements of quantum gases adsorbed on metallic films at temperatures between 0.3 and 4 K. He has used this apparatus to study quench-condensed hydrogen films between 4 and 923 layers thick with J = 1 concentrations between 0.28 and 0.75 deposited on an evaporated gold surface. He has observed that the orientational ordering of the J = 1 molecules depends on the substrate temperature during deposition of the hydrogen film. He has inferred that the density of the films condensed at the lowest temperatures is 25% higher than in bulk H{sub 2} crystals and have observed that the structure of those films is affected by annealing at 3.4 K. The author has measured the J = 1 to J = 0 conversion rate to be comparable to that of the bulk for thick films; however, he found evidence that the gold surface catalyzes conversion in the first two to four layers. He has also used this apparatus to study films of {sup 4}He less than one layer thick adsorbed on an evaporated gold surface. He shows that the phase diagram of the system is similar to that for {sup 4}He/graphite although not as rich in structure, and the phase boundaries occur at different coverages and temperatures. At coverages below about half a layer and at sufficiently high temperatures, the {sup 4}He behaves like a two-dimensional noninteracting Bose gas. At lower temperatures and higher coverages, liquidlike and solidlike behavior is observed. The Appendix shows measurements of the far-infrared absorptivity of the high-{Tc} superconductor La{sub 1.87}Sr{sub 0.13}CuO{sub 4}.

  15. Method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Mitchell, William L.; Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Thijssen, Johannes H. J.

    2000-01-01

    A method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide within a reformer 10 is disclosed. According to the method, a stream including an oxygen-containing gas is directed adjacent to a first vessel 18 and the oxygen-containing gas is heated. A stream including unburned fuel is introduced into the oxygen-containing gas stream to form a mixture including oxygen-containing gas and fuel. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and unburned fuel is directed tangentially into a partial oxidation reaction zone 24 within the first vessel 18. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and fuel is further directed through the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 to produce a heated reformate stream including hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide. Steam may also be mixed with the oxygen-containing gas and fuel, and the reformate stream from the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 directed into a steam reforming zone 26. High- and low-temperature shift reaction zones 64,76 may be employed for further fuel processing.

  16. Molten metal reactor and method of forming hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using the molten alkaline metal reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2012-11-13

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  17. Characterization of the products and comparison of the product yields from the flash pyrolysis of fir wood in hydrogen and helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sundaram, M.S.; Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.

    1984-01-01

    A seasoned sawdust of Douglas Fir wood was flash pyrolyzed in an entrained tubular reactor in the presence of hydrogen and helium at short residence times (less than 4 sec) at temperatures varying from 600/sup 0/ to 1000/sup 0/C and pressures of 50 to 500 psi. A significant quantity of gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons and CO were produced. The liquid products were characterized via GC/MS and Pyrolysis Mass Spectrometry. The composition of the liquid products and the influence of the processing conditions on the product yields are discussed. 2 references, 13 figures, 2 tables.

  18. Design, fabrication, and testing of a getter-based atmosphere purification and waste treatment system for a nitrogen-hydrogen-helium glovebox

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibeault, M. L.; Paglieri, S. N.; Tuggle, D. G.; Wermer, J. R.; Nobile Jr, A.

    2008-07-15

    A system containing a combination of getters (Zr-Mn-Fe, SAES St909; and Zr{sub 2}Fe, SAES St198) was used to process the nitrogen-hydrogen-helium atmosphere in a glovebox used for handling metal tritide samples. During routine operations, the glovebox atmosphere is recirculated and hydrogenous impurities (i.e. CQ{sub 4}, Q{sub 2}O, and NQ{sub 3}, where Q =H, D, T) are decomposed (cracked) and removed by Zr-Mn-Fe without absorbing elemental hydrogen isotopes. If the tritium content of the glovebox atmosphere becomes unacceptably high, the getter system can rapidly strip the glovebox atmosphere of all hydrogen isotopes by absorption on the Zr{sub 2}Fe, thus lessening the burden on the facility waste gas treatment system. The getter system was designed for high flowrate ( > 100 1/min), which is achieved by using a honeycomb support for the getter pellets and 1.27-cm diameter tubing throughout the system for reduced pressure drop. The novel getter bed design also includes an integral preheater and copper liner to accommodate swelling of the getter pellets, which occurs during loading with oxygen and carbon impurities. Non-tritium functional tests were conducted to determine the gettering efficiencies at different getter bed temperatures and flowrates by recirculating gas through the system from, a 6-m{sup 3} glovebox containing known concentrations of impurities. (authors)

  19. METHOD OF SINTERING URANIUM DIOXIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henderson, C.M.; Stavrolakis, J.A.

    1963-04-30

    This patent relates to a method of sintering uranium dioxide. Uranium dioxide bodies are heated to above 1200 nif- C in hydrogen, sintered in steam, and then cooled in hydrogen. (AEC)

  20. Impact of Increased Use of Hydrogen on Petroleum Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions, The

    Reports and Publications

    2008-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Senator Byron L. Dorgan for an analysis of the impacts on U.S. energy import dependence and emission reductions resulting from the commercialization of advanced hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in the transportation and distributed generation markets.

  1. AB INITIO EQUATIONS OF STATE FOR HYDROGEN (H-REOS.3) AND HELIUM (He-REOS.3) AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR THE INTERIOR OF BROWN DWARFS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, Andreas; Lorenzen, Winfried; Schttler, Manuel; Redmer, Ronald; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Nettelmann, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    We present new equations of state (EOSs) for hydrogen and helium covering a wide range of temperatures from 60 K to 10{sup 7} K and densities from 10{sup 10} g cm{sup 3} to 10{sup 3} g cm{sup 3}. They include an extended set of ab initio EOS data for the strongly correlated quantum regime with an accurate connection to data derived from other approaches for the neighboring regions. We compare linear mixing isotherms based on our EOS tables with available real mixture data. A first important astrophysical application of this new EOS data is the calculation of interior models for Jupiter and comparison with recent results. Second, mass-radius relations are calculated for Brown Dwarfs (BDs) which we compare with predictions derived from the widely used EOS of Saumon, Chabrier, and van Horn. Furthermore, we calculate interior models for typical BDs with different masses, namely, Corot-3b, Gliese-229b, and Corot-15b, and the giant planet KOI-889b. The predictions for the central pressures and densities differ by up to 10% dependent on the EOS used. Our EOS tables are made available in the supplemental material of this paper.

  2. Measurements of the volt-ampere characteristics and the breakdown voltages of direct-current helium and hydrogen discharges in microgaps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klas, M.; Matej?ik, .; Radjenovi?, B.; Radmilovi?-Radjenovi?, M.

    2014-10-15

    The discharge phenomena for micro meter gap sizes include many interesting problems from engineering and physical perspectives. In this paper, the authors deal with the experimental and theoretical results of the breakdown voltage and current-voltage characteristics of the direct-current helium and hydrogen discharges. The measurements were performed at a constant pressure of around one atmosphere, while varying the gap size between two parallel plane tungsten electrodes between 1??m and 100??m. From the measured breakdown voltage curves, the effective yields and the ionization coefficients were derived for both gases. Present data for the ionization coefficients correlate with the data obtained for the breakdown voltage curves measured for fixed 100??m interelectrode separation. The current-voltage characteristics were plotted for the various gap sizes illustrating the role of the field emission effects in the microgaps. Based on the Fowler-Nordheim theory, the enhancement factors were determined. The gap spacing dependence of the field emission current can be explained by the introduction of two ideas, the first being a space charge effect by emitted electrons, and the second a change in the breakdown mechanism. Experimental results, presented here, demonstrate that Townsend phenomenology breaks down when field emission becomes the key mechanism affecting the breakdown and deforming the left hand side of the breakdown voltage curves.

  3. Fuel from Bacteria: Bioconversion of Carbon Dioxide to Biofuels by Facultatively Autotrophic Hydrogen Bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    Electrofuels Project: Ohio State is genetically modifying bacteria to efficiently convert carbon dioxide directly into butanol, an alcohol that can be used directly as a fuel blend or converted to a hydrocarbon, which closely resembles a gasoline. Bacteria are typically capable of producing a certain amount of butanol before it becomes too toxic for the bacteria to survive. Ohio State is engineering a new strain of the bacteria that could produce up to 50% more butanol before it becomes too toxic for the bacteria to survive. Finding a way to produce more butanol more efficiently would significantly cut down on biofuel production costs and help make butanol cost competitive with gasoline. Ohio State is also engineering large tanks, or bioreactors, to grow the biofuel-producing bacteria in, and they are developing ways to efficiently recover biofuel from the tanks.

  4. Hydrogen and electricity from coal with carbon dioxide separation using chemical looping reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiang Wenguo; Chen Yingying

    2007-08-15

    Concern about global climate change has led to research on low CO{sub 2} emission in the process of the energy conversion of fossil fuel. One of the solutions is the conversion of fossil fuel into carbon-free energy carriers, hydrogen, and electricity with CO{sub 2} capture and storage. In this paper, the main purpose is to investigate the thermodynamics performance of converting coal to a hydrogen and electricity system with chemical-looping reactors and to explore the influences of operating parameters on the system performance. Using FeO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} as an oxygen carrier, we propose a carbon-free coproduction system of hydrogen and electricity with chemical-looping reactors. The performance of the new system is simulated using ASPEN PLUS software tool. The influences of the chemical-looping reactor's temperature, steam conversion rate, and O{sub 2}/coal quality ratio on the system performance, and the exergy performance are discussed. The results show that a high-purity of H{sub 2} (99.9%) is reached and that CO{sub 2} can be separated. The system efficiency is 57.85% assuming steam reactor at 815 C and the steam conversion rate 37%. The system efficiency is affected by the steam conversion rate, rising from 53.17 to 58.33% with the increase of the steam conversion rate from 28 to 41%. The exergy efficiency is 54.25% and the losses are mainly in the process of gasification and HRSG. 14 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Hydrogen

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ... Batteries Electric Drive Systems Hydrogen Materials & Components Compatibility Hydrogen ...

  6. Method And Apparatus For Converting Hydrocarbon Fuel Into Hydrogen Gas And Carbon Dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2001-03-27

    A hydrocarbon fuel reforming method is disclosed suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. A first mixture of an oxygen-containing gas and a first fuel is directed into a first tube 108 to produce a first reaction reformate. A second mixture of steam and a second fuel is directed into a second tube 116 annularly disposed about the first tube 108 to produce a second reaction reformate. The first and second reaction reformates are then directed into a reforming zone 144 and subject to a catalytic reforming reaction. In another aspect of the method, a first fuel is combusted with an oxygen-containing gas in a first zone 108 to produce a reformate stream, while a second fuel under steam reforming in a second zone 116. Heat energy from the first zone 108 is transferred to the second zone 116.

  7. Apparatus for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2001-01-01

    A hydrocarbon fuel reformer (200) is disclosed suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. The reformer (200) comprises first and second tubes (208,218). The first tube (208) includes a first catalyst (214) and receives a first mixture of steam and a first fuel. The second tube (218) is annularly disposed about the first tube (208) and receives a second mixture of an oxygen-containing gas and a second fuel. In one embodiment, a third tube (224) is annularly disposed about the second tube (218) and receives a first reaction reformate from the first tube (208) and a second reaction reformate from the second tube (218). A catalyst reforming zone (260) annularly disposed about the third tube (224) may be provided to subject reformate constituents to a shift reaction. In another embodiment, a fractionator is provided to distill first and second fuels from a fuel supply source.

  8. Apparatus for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Mitchell, William L.; Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Thijssen, Johannes H. J.

    2002-01-01

    Hydrocarbon fuel reformer 100 suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. A first tube 108 has a first tube inlet 110 and a first tube outlet 112. The first tube inlet 110 is adapted for receiving a first mixture including an oxygen-containing gas and a first fuel. A partially oxidized first reaction reformate is directed out of the first tube 108 into a mixing zone 114. A second tube 116 is annularly disposed about the first tube 108 and has a second tube inlet 118 and a second tube outlet 120. The second tube inlet 118 is adapted for receiving a second mixture including steam and a second fuel. A steam reformed second reaction reformate is directed out of the second tube 116 and into the mixing zone 114. From the mixing zone 114, the first and second reaction reformates may be directed into a catalytic reforming zone 144 containing a reforming catalyst 147.

  9. Method And Apparatus For Converting Hydrocarbon Fuel Into Hydrogen Gas And Carbon Dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2000-09-26

    A method is disclosed for synthesizing hydrogen gas from hydrocarbon fuel. A first mixture of steam and a first fuel is directed into a first tube 208 to subject the first mixture to a first steam reforming reaction in the presence of a first catalyst 214. A stream of oxygen-containing gas is pre-heated by transferring heat energy from product gases. A second mixture of the pre-heated oxygen-containing gas and a second fuel is directed into a second tube 218 disposed about the first tube 208 to subject the second mixture to a partial oxidation reaction and to provide heat energy for transfer to the first tube 208. A first reaction reformate from the first tube 208 and a second reaction reformate from the second tube 218 are directed into a third tube 224 disposed about the second tube 218 to subject the first and second reaction reformates to a second steam reforming reaction, wherein heat energy is transferred to the third tube 224 from the second tube 218.

  10. Methods and systems for the production of hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oh, Chang H.; Kim, Eung S.; Sherman, Steven R.

    2012-03-13

    Methods and systems are disclosed for the production of hydrogen and the use of high-temperature heat sources in energy conversion. In one embodiment, a primary loop may include a nuclear reactor utilizing a molten salt or helium as a coolant. The nuclear reactor may provide heat energy to a power generation loop for production of electrical energy. For example, a supercritical carbon dioxide fluid may be heated by the nuclear reactor via the molten salt and then expanded in a turbine to drive a generator. An intermediate heat exchange loop may also be thermally coupled with the primary loop and provide heat energy to one or more hydrogen production facilities. A portion of the hydrogen produced by the hydrogen production facility may be diverted to a combustor to elevate the temperature of water being split into hydrogen and oxygen by the hydrogen production facility.

  11. Thermochemical method for producing hydrogen from hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrington, D.R.

    1984-02-21

    Hydrogen is produced from hydrogen sulfide by a 3-step, thermochemical process comprising: (a) contacting hydrogen sulfide with carbon dioxide to form carbonyl sulfide and water, (b) contacting the carbonyl sulfide produced in (a) with oxygen to form carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide, and (c) contacting the carbon monoxide produced in (b) with water to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen.

  12. hydrogen

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    3%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:www.nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  13. hydrogen

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    3%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  14. Engineering Ralstonia eutropha for Production of Isobutanol (IBT) Motor Fuel from Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinskey, Anthony J.; Worden, Robert Mark; Brigham, Christopher; Lu, Jingnan; Quimby, John Westlake; Gai, Claudia; Speth, Daan; Elliott, Sean; Fei, John Qiang; Bernardi, Amanda; Li, Sophia; Grunwald, Stephan; Grousseau, Estelle; Maiti, Soumen; Liu, Chole

    2013-12-16

    This research project is a collaboration between the Sinskey laboratory at MIT and the Worden laboratory at Michigan State University. The goal of the project is to produce Isobutanol (IBT), a branched-chain alcohol that can serve as a drop-in transportation fuel, through the engineered microbial biosynthesis of Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen using a novel bioreactor. This final technical report presents the findings of both the biological engineering work at MIT that extended the native branched-chain amino acid pathway of the wild type Ralstonia eutropha H16 to perform this biosynthesis, as well as the unique design, modeling, and construction of a bioreactor for incompatible gasses at Michigan State that enabled the operational testing of the complete system. This 105 page technical report summarizing the three years of research includes 72 figures and 11 tables of findings. Ralstonia eutropha (also known as Cupriavidus necator) is a Gram-negative, facultatively chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. It has been the principle organism used for the study of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) polymer biosynthesis. The wild-type Ralstonia eutropha H16 produces PHB as an intracellular carbon storage material while under nutrient stress in the presence of excess carbon. Under this stress, it can accumulate approximately 80 % of its cell dry weight (CDW) as this intracellular polymer. With the restoration of the required nutrients, the cells are then able to catabolize this polymer. If extracted from the cell, this PHB polymer can be processed into biodegradable and biocompatible plastics, however for this research, it is the efficient metabolic pathway channeling the captured carbon that is of interest. R. eutropha is further unique in that it contains two carbon-fixation Calvin–Benson–Bassham cycle operons, two oxygen-tolerant hydrogenases, and several formate dehydrogenases. It has also been much studied for its ability in the presence of oxygen, to fix carbon dioxide

  15. Integrated Boiler, Superheater & Decomposer Bayonet for Hydrogen...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Technologies Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find ... Applications and Industries Hydrogen production Renewable ... into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an ...

  16. Hydrogen

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Jobs While Providing Clean Energy Sandia National Laboratories joins the nation in celebrating National Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Day by marking the growth of the industry and ...

  17. Novel Biological Conversion of Hydrogen and Carbon Dioxide Directly into Biodiesel: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number: CRD-10-408

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maness, P. C.

    2014-06-01

    OPX Biotechnologies, Inc. (OPX), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Johnson Matthey will develop and optimize a novel, engineered microorganism that directly produces biodiesel from renewable hydrogen (H2) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The proposed process will fix CO2 utilizing H2 to generate an infrastructure-compatible, energy-dense fuel at costs of less than $2.50 per gallon, with water being produced as the primary byproduct. NREL will perform metabolic engineering on the bacterium Cupriavidus necator (formerly Ralstonia eutropha) and a techno-economic analysis to guide future scale-up work. H2 and CO2 uptakes rates will be genetically increased, production of free fatty acids will be enhanced and their degradation pathway blocked in order to meet the ultimate program goals.

  18. Onboard Hydrogen/Helium Sensors in Support of the Global Technical Regulation: An Assessment of Performance in Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Crash Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Post, M. B.; Burgess, R.; Rivkin, C.; Buttner, W.; O'Malley, K.; Ruiz, A.

    2012-09-01

    Automobile manufacturers in North America, Europe, and Asia project a 2015 release of commercial hydrogen fuel cell powered light-duty road vehicles. These vehicles will be for general consumer applications, albeit initially in select markets but with much broader market penetration expected by 2025. To assure international harmony, North American, European, and Asian regulatory representatives are striving to base respective national regulations on an international safety standard, the Global Technical Regulation (GTR), Hydrogen Fueled Vehicle, which is part of an international agreement pertaining to wheeled vehicles and equipment for wheeled vehicles.

  19. Carbon dioxide fixation and photoevolution of hydrogen and oxygen in a mutant of Chlamydomonas lacking Photosystem I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.; Tevault, C.V.

    1995-09-01

    Sustained photoassimilation of atmospheric CO{sub 2} and simultaneous photoevolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen has been observed in a Photosystem I deficient mutant B4 of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that contains only Photosystem II. The data indicate that Photosystem II alone is capable of spanning the potential difference between water oxidation/oxygen evolution and ferredoxin reduction. The rates of both CO{sub 2} fixation and hydrogen and oxygen evolution are similar in the mutant to that of the wild-type C. reinhardtii 137c containing both photosystems. The wild-type had stable photosynthetic activity, measured as CO{sub 2} fixation, under both air and anaerobic conditions, while the mutant was stable only under anaerobic conditions. The results are discussed in terms of the fundamental mechanisms and energetics of photosynthesis and possible implications for the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis.

  20. Calcium looping process for high purity hydrogen production integrated with capture of carbon dioxide, sulfur and halides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramkumar, Shwetha; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2015-11-04

    A process for producing hydrogen comprising the steps of: (i) gasifying a fuel into a raw synthesis gas comprising CO, hydrogen, steam, sulfur and halide contaminants in the form of H.sub.2S, COS, and HX, wherein X is a halide; (ii) passing the raw synthesis gas through a water gas shift reactor (WGSR) into which CaO and steam are injected, the CaO reacting with the shifted gas to remove CO.sub.2, sulfur and halides in a solid-phase calcium-containing product comprising CaCO.sub.3, CaS and CaX.sub.2; (iii) separating the solid-phase calcium-containing product from an enriched gaseous hydrogen product; and (iv) regenerating the CaO by calcining the solid-phase calcium-containing product at a condition selected from the group consisting of: in the presence of steam, in the presence of CO.sub.2, in the presence of synthesis gas, in the presence of H.sub.2 and O.sub.2, under partial vacuum, and combinations thereof.

  1. Calcium looping process for high purity hydrogen production integrated with capture of carbon dioxide, sulfur and halides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramkumar, Shwetha; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2013-07-30

    A process for producing hydrogen comprising the steps of: (i) gasifying a fuel into a raw synthesis gas comprising CO, hydrogen, steam, sulfur and halide contaminants in the form of H.sub.2S, COS, and HX, wherein X is a halide; (ii) passing the raw synthesis gas through a water gas shift reactor (WGSR) into which CaO and steam are injected, the CaO reacting with the shifted gas to remove CO.sub.2, sulfur and halides in a solid-phase calcium-containing product comprising CaCO.sub.3, CaS and CaX.sub.2; (iii) separating the solid-phase calcium-containing product from an enriched gaseous hydrogen product; and (iv) regenerating the CaO by calcining the solid-phase calcium-containing product at a condition selected from the group consisting of: in the presence of steam, in the presence of CO.sub.2, in the presence of synthesis gas, in the presence of H.sub.2 and O.sub.2, under partial vacuum, and combinations thereof.

  2. High Purity Hydrogen Production with In-Situ Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Capture in a Single Stage Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nihar Phalak; Shwetha Ramkumar; Daniel Connell; Zhenchao Sun; Fu-Chen Yu; Niranjani Deshpande; Robert Statnick; Liang-Shih Fan

    2011-07-31

    Enhancement in the production of high purity hydrogen (H{sub 2}) from fuel gas, obtained from coal gasification, is limited by thermodynamics of the water gas shift (WGS) reaction. However, this constraint can be overcome by conducting the WGS in the presence of a CO{sub 2}-acceptor. The continuous removal of CO{sub 2} from the reaction mixture helps to drive the equilibrium-limited WGS reaction forward. Since calcium oxide (CaO) exhibits high CO{sub 2} capture capacity as compared to other sorbents, it is an ideal candidate for such a technique. The Calcium Looping Process (CLP) developed at The Ohio State University (OSU) utilizes the above concept to enable high purity H{sub 2} production from synthesis gas (syngas) derived from coal gasification. The CLP integrates the WGS reaction with insitu CO{sub 2}, sulfur and halide removal at high temperatures while eliminating the need for a WGS catalyst, thus reducing the overall footprint of the hydrogen production process. The CLP comprises three reactors - the carbonator, where the thermodynamic constraint of the WGS reaction is overcome by the constant removal of CO{sub 2} product and high purity H{sub 2} is produced with contaminant removal; the calciner, where the calcium sorbent is regenerated and a sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} stream is produced; and the hydrator, where the calcined sorbent is reactivated to improve its recyclability. As a part of this project, the CLP was extensively investigated by performing experiments at lab-, bench- and subpilot-scale setups. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis was also conducted to determine the feasibility of the CLP at commercial scale. This report provides a detailed account of all the results obtained during the project period.

  3. Metal tritides helium emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beavis, L.C.

    1980-02-01

    Over the past several years, we have been measuring the release of helium from metal tritides (primarily erbium tritide). We find that qualitatively all tritides of interest to us behave the same. When they are first formed, the helium is released at a low rate that appears to be related to the amount of surface area which has access to the outside of the material (either film or bulk). For example, erbium tritide films initially release about 0.3% of the helium generated. Most tritide films emit helium at about this rate initially. At some later time, which depends upon the amount of helium generated, the parent occluding element and the degree of tritium saturation of the dihydride phase the helium emission changes to a new mode in which it is released at approximately the rate at which it is generated (for example, we measure this value to be approx. = .31 He/Er for ErT/sub 1/./sub 9/ films). If erbium ditritide is saturated beyond 1.9 T/Er, the critical helium/metal ratio decreases. For example, in bulk powders ErT/sub 2/./sub 15/ reaches critical release concentration at approx. = 0.03. Moderate elevation of temperature above room temperature has little impact on the helium release rate. It appears that the process may have approx. = 2 kcal/mol activation energy. The first helium formed is well bound. As the tritide ages, the helium is found in higher energy sites. Similar but less extensive measurements on scandium, titanium, and zirconium tritides are also described. Finally, the thermal desorption of erbium tritides of various ages from 50 days to 3154 days is discussed. Significant helium is desorbed along with the tritium in all but the youngest samples during thermodesorption.

  4. Helium Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Helium Energy Place: Spain Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Spain-based renewable energy development company. References: Helium Energy1...

  5. How to make Raman-inactive helium visible in Raman spectra of tritium-helium gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schloesser, M.; Pakari, O.; Rupp, S.; Mirz, S.; Fischer, S.

    2015-03-15

    Raman spectroscopy, a powerful method for the quantitative compositional analysis of molecular gases, e.g. mixtures of hydrogen isotopologues, is not able to detect monoatomic species like helium. This deficit can be overcome by using radioluminescence emission from helium atoms induced by β-electrons from tritium decay. We present theoretical considerations and combined Raman/radioluminescence spectra. Furthermore, we discuss the linearity of the method together with validation measurements for determining the pressure dependence. Finally, we conclude how this technique can be used for samples of helium with traces of tritium, and vice versa. (authors)

  6. Bisphosphine dioxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moloy, Kenneth G.

    1990-01-01

    A process for the production of organic bisphosphine dioxides from organic bisphosphonates. The organic bisphosphonate is reacted with a Grignard reagent to give relatively high yields of the organic bisphosphine dioxide.

  7. Bisphosphine dioxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moloy, K.G.

    1990-02-20

    A process is described for the production of organic bisphosphine dioxides from organic bisphosphonates. The organic bisphosphonate is reacted with a Grignard reagent to give relatively high yields of the organic bisphosphine dioxide.

  8. Dispersion of Hydrogen Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael R. Swain; Eric S. Grilliot; Matthew N. Swain

    2000-06-30

    The following is the presentation of a simplification of the Hydrogen Risk Assessment Method previously developed at the University of Miami. It has been found that for simple enclosures, hydrogen leaks can be simulated with helium leaks to predict the concentrations of hydrogen gas produced. The highest concentrations of hydrogen occur near the ceiling after the initial transients disappear. For the geometries tested, hydrogen concentrations equal helium concentrations for the conditions of greatest concern (near the ceiling after transients disappear). The data supporting this conclusion is presented along with a comparison of hydrogen, LPG, and gasoline leakage from a vehicle parked in a single car garage. A short video was made from the vehicle fuel leakage data.

  9. DEUTERIUM, TRITIUM, AND HELIUM DESORPTION FROM AGED TITANIUM TRITIDES. PART I.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanahan, K; Jeffrey Holder, J

    2006-07-10

    Six new samples of tritium-aged bulk titanium have been examined by thermal desorption and isotope exchange chemistry. The discovery of a lower temperature hydrogen desorption state in these materials, previously reported, has been confirmed in one of the new samples. The helium release of the samples shows the more severe effects obtained from longer aging periods, i.e. higher initial He/M ratios. Several of the more aged samples were spontaneously releasing helium. Part I will discuss the new results on the new lower temperature hydrogen desorption state found in one more extensively studied sample. Part II will discuss the hydrogen/helium release behavior of the remaining samples.

  10. DEUTERIUM, TRITIUM, AND HELIUM DESORPTION FROM AGED TITANIUM TRITIDES. PART II.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanahan, K; Jeffrey Holder, J

    2006-08-17

    Six new samples of tritium-aged bulk titanium have been examined by thermal desorption and isotope exchange chemistry. The discovery of a lower temperature hydrogen desorption state in these materials, previously reported, has been confirmed in one of the new samples. The helium release of the samples shows the more severe effects obtained from longer aging periods, i.e. higher initial He/M ratios. Several of the more aged samples were spontaneously releasing helium. Part I discussed the new results on the new lower temperature hydrogen desorption state found in one more extensively studied sample. Part II will discuss the hydrogen/helium release behavior of the remaining samples.

  11. Initial assessment of environmental effects on SiC/SiC composites in helium-cooled nuclear systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Contescu, Cristian I

    2013-09-01

    This report summarized the information available in the literature on the chemical reactivity of SiC/SiC composites and of their components in contact with the helium coolant used in HTGR, VHTR and GFR designs. In normal operation conditions, ultra-high purity helium will have chemically controlled impurities (water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, hydrogen) that will create a slightly oxidizing gas environment. Little is known from direct experiments on the reactivity of third generation (nuclear grade) SiC/SiC composites in contact with low concentrations of water or oxygen in inert gas, at high temperature. However, there is ample information about the oxidation in dry and moist air of SiC/SiC composites at high temperatures. This information is reviewed first in the next chapters. The emphasis is places on the improvement in material oxidation, thermal, and mechanical properties during three stages of development of SiC fibers and at least two stages of development of the fiber/matrix interphase. The chemical stability of SiC/SiC composites in contact with oxygen or steam at temperatures that may develop in off-normal reactor conditions supports the conclusion that most advanced composites (also known as nuclear grade SiC/SiC composites) have the chemical resistance that would allow them maintain mechanical properties at temperatures up to 1200 1300 oC in the extreme conditions of an air or water ingress accident scenario. Further research is needed to assess the long-term stability of advanced SiC/SiC composites in inert gas (helium) in presence of very low concentrations (traces) of water and oxygen at the temperatures of normal operation of helium-cooled reactors. Another aspect that needs to be investigated is the effect of fast neutron irradiation on the oxidation stability of advanced SiC/SiC composites in normal operation conditions.

  12. Is solid helium a supersolid?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallock, Robert

    2015-05-15

    Recent experiments suggest that helium-4 atoms can flow through an experimental cell filled with solid helium. But that incompletely understood flow is quite different from the reported superfluid-like motion that so excited physicists a decade ago.

  13. Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Electrosynthesis with Synthetic Electromicrobiology and System Design | Department of Energy Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial Electrosynthesis with Synthetic Electromicrobiology and System Design Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial Electrosynthesis with Synthetic Electromicrobiology and System Design Presentation by Derek Lovley, UMass Amherst, during the "Targeting High-Value Challenges" panel at the Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons,

  14. Method for synthesis of titanium dioxide nanotubes using ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Jun; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng

    2013-11-19

    The invention is directed to a method for producing titanium dioxide nanotubes, the method comprising anodizing titanium metal in contact with an electrolytic medium containing an ionic liquid. The invention is also directed to the resulting titanium dioxide nanotubes, as well as devices incorporating the nanotubes, such as photovoltaic devices, hydrogen generation devices, and hydrogen detection devices.

  15. Electron Bubbles in Liquid Helium

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Bubbles in Liquid Helium and Quantum Mechanics Humphrey J. Maris Brown University September 16, 2015 4:00 p.m. An electron entering liquid helium forces open a cavity referred to as an electron bubble. These objects have been studied in many past experiments and appear to be well understood. However, experiments have revealed that in addition to these normal electron bubbles there are other negatively charged objects in liquid helium. Despite much effort the structure of these so-called

  16. Method of Making Uranium Dioxide Bodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilhelm, H. A.; McClusky, J. K.

    1973-09-25

    Sintered uranium dioxide bodies having controlled density are produced from U.sub.3 O.sub.8 and carbon by varying the mole ratio of carbon to U.sub.3 O.sub.8 in the mixture, which is compressed and sintered in a neutral or slightly oxidizing atmosphere to form dense slightly hyperstoichiometric uranium dioxide bodies. If the bodies are to be used as nuclear reactor fuel, they are subsequently heated in a hydrogen atmosphere to achieve stoichiometry. This method can also be used to produce fuel elements of uranium dioxide -- plutonium dioxide having controlled density.

  17. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roach, P.R.; Gray, K.E.

    1988-09-13

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation is disclosed. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains [sup 3]He and [sup 4]He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing [sup 3]He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a [sup 3]He rich liquid phase from a dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the [sup 3]He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase. 2 figs.

  18. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roach, Patrick R.; Gray, Kenneth E.

    1988-01-01

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains .sup.3 He and .sup.4 He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing .sup.3 He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a .sup.3 He rich liquid phase from a dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the .sup.3 He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase.

  19. Carbon Dioxide and Helium Emissions from a Reservoir of Magmatic...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    in eastern California. The gas is released mainly as diffuse emissions from normal-temperature soils, but some gas issues from steam vents or leaves the mountain dissolved...

  20. Storing Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hyun Jeong; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Autrey, Thomas; Chupas, Peter; Proffen, Thomas E.

    2010-05-31

    Researchers have been studying mesoporous materials for almost two decades with a view to using them as hosts for small molecules and scaffolds for molding organic compounds into new hybrid materials and nanoparticles. Their use as potential storage systems for large quantities of hydrogen has also been mooted. Such systems that might hold large quantities of hydrogen safely and in a very compact volume would have enormous potential for powering fuel cell vehicles, for instance. A sponge-like form of silicon dioxide, the stuff of sand particles and computer chips, can soak up and store other compounds including hydrogen. Studies carried out at the XOR/BESSRC 11-ID-B beamline at the APS have revealed that the nanoscopic properties of the hydrogenrich compound ammonia borane help it store hydrogen more efficiently than usual. The material may have potential for addressing the storage issues associated with a future hydrogen economy. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  1. Hydrogen separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mundschau, Michael; Xie, Xiaobing; Evenson, IV, Carl; Grimmer, Paul; Wright, Harold

    2011-05-24

    A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to an integrated water gas shift/hydrogen separation membrane system wherein the hydrogen separation membrane system comprises a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for pretreating a membrane, comprising: heating the membrane to a desired operating temperature and desired feed pressure in a flow of inert gas for a sufficient time to cause the membrane to mechanically deform; decreasing the feed pressure to approximately ambient pressure; and optionally, flowing an oxidizing agent across the membrane before, during, or after deformation of the membrane. A method of supporting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising selecting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising one or more catalyst outer layers deposited on a hydrogen transport membrane layer and sealing the hydrogen separation membrane system to a porous support.

  2. Mass spectrometric helium analysis of solid and gas samples from cold-fusion type experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliver, B.M.

    1995-12-01

    A custom mass spectrometer system, operating in static mode, has been used to measure helium in both solid and gas samples front cold-fusion type experiments. The mass spectrometer is a 2-in. Radius, 60{degrees}, permanent angle magnet instrument with a single electron-multiplier collecting. Depending on the absolute levels of helium expected, the analysis are conducted by isotope dilution or by measuring absolute collector values. Solid samples are vaporized to ensure complete helium release. Prior to analysis, the fraction of sample gas to be analyzed is exposed to a series of physical and chemical getters, including room temperature Zr-Al alloy (SAES type 101) and liquid-nitrogen cooled activated charcoal. This is done to remove active gases and hydrogen isotopes which could interfere with the helium determinations. Generally, the analysis protocol is to analyze an equal or greater number of {open_quotes}controls{close_quotes} along with the samples to accurately characterize system background and reproducibility. Absolute sensitivity for the system is approximately 1 x 10{sup 9} atoms. Absolute accuracy is 1% or better for helium levels > 10{sup 11} atoms. With few exceptions, helium analysis of solid samples front cold fusion type experiments have yielded no excess helium above usual system background. A few samples have shown helium levels in the low 10{sup 9} atom range, and some gas samples have shown {sup 4}He levels up to several hundred ppm.

  3. ITER helium ash accumulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, J.T.; Hillis, D.L.; Galambos, J.; Uckan, N.A. ); Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H. . Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik); Hulse, R.A.; Budny, R.V. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    Many studies have shown the importance of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} in determining the level of He ash accumulation in future reactor systems. Results of the first tokamak He removal experiments have been analysed, and a first estimate of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} to be expected for future reactor systems has been made. The experiments were carried out for neutral beam heated plasmas in the TEXTOR tokamak, at KFA/Julich. Helium was injected both as a short puff and continuously, and subsequently extracted with the Advanced Limiter Test-II pump limiter. The rate at which the He density decays has been determined with absolutely calibrated charge exchange spectroscopy, and compared with theoretical models, using the Multiple Impurity Species Transport (MIST) code. An analysis of energy confinement has been made with PPPL TRANSP code, to distinguish beam from thermal confinement, especially for low density cases. The ALT-II pump limiter system is found to exhaust the He with maximum exhaust efficiency (8 pumps) of {approximately}8%. We find 1<{upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E}<3.3 for the database of cases analysed to date. Analysis with the ITER TETRA systems code shows that these values would be adequate to achieve the required He concentration with the present ITER divertor He extraction system.

  4. Hydrogen Production: Biomass-Derived Liquid Reforming | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... growth process as they make biomass, off-setting the carbon dioxide released from producing hydrogen through biomass gasification and resulting in low net greenhouse gas emissions. ...

  5. The CNG process: Acid gas removal with liquid carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.C.; Auyang, L.; Brown, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    The CNG acid gas removal process has two unique features: the absorption of sulfur-containing compounds and other trace contaminants with liquid carbon dioxide, and the regeneration of pure liquid carbon dioxide by triple-point crystallization. The process is especially suitable for treating gases which contain large amounts of carbon dioxide and much smaller amounts (relative to carbon dioxide) of hydrogen sulfide. Capital and energy costs are lower than conventional solvent processes. Further, products of the CNG process meet stringent purity specifications without undue cost penalties. A process demonstration unit has been constructed and operated to demonstrate the two key steps of the CNG process. Hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide removal from gas streams with liquid carbon dioxide absorbent to sub-ppm concentrations has been demonstrated. The production of highly purified liquid carbon dioxide (less than 0.1 ppm total contaminant) by triple-point crystallization also has been demonstrated.

  6. New Texas Oil Project Will Help Keep Carbon Dioxide Underground |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Texas Oil Project Will Help Keep Carbon Dioxide Underground New Texas Oil Project Will Help Keep Carbon Dioxide Underground February 5, 2013 - 12:05pm Addthis The Air Products and Chemicals hydrogen production facilities in Port Arthur, Texas, is funded by the Energy Department through the 2009 Recovery Act. It is managed by the Office of Fossil Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory. | Photo credit Air Products and Chemicals hydrogen production facilities.

  7. Methods and Systems for the Production of Hydrogen - Energy Innovation...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    This process uses a combination of hydrogen recycle, a molten salt or helium, and a supercritical CO2 cycle. This method preheats the feed, reduces pumping power in the primary ...

  8. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, Roswitha S. (Knoxville, TN); Todd, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1987-01-01

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  9. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, R.S.; Todd, R.A.

    1985-04-09

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  10. Oxidation resistant organic hydrogen getters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J.; Buffleben, George M.

    2008-09-09

    A composition for removing hydrogen from an atmosphere, comprising a mixture of a polyphenyl ether and a hydrogenation catalyst, preferably a precious metal catalyst, and most preferably Pt. This composition is stable in the presence of oxygen, will not polymerize or degrade upon exposure to temperatures in excess of 200.degree. C., or prolonged exposure to temperatures in the range of 100-300.degree. C. Moreover, these novel hydrogen getter materials can be used to efficiently removing hydrogen from mixtures of hydrogen/inert gas (e.g., He, Ar, N.sub.2), hydrogen/ammonia atmospheres, such as may be encountered in heat exchangers, and hydrogen/carbon dioxide atmospheres. Water vapor and common atmospheric gases have no adverse effect on the ability of these getter materials to absorb hydrogen.

  11. Hydrogen production from carbonaceous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lackner, Klaus S.; Ziock, Hans J.; Harrison, Douglas P.

    2004-09-14

    Hydrogen is produced from solid or liquid carbon-containing fuels in a two-step process. The fuel is gasified with hydrogen in a hydrogenation reaction to produce a methane-rich gaseous reaction product, which is then reacted with water and calcium oxide in a hydrogen production and carbonation reaction to produce hydrogen and calcium carbonate. The calcium carbonate may be continuously removed from the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction zone and calcined to regenerate calcium oxide, which may be reintroduced into the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction zone. Hydrogen produced in the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction is more than sufficient both to provide the energy necessary for the calcination reaction and also to sustain the hydrogenation of the coal in the gasification reaction. The excess hydrogen is available for energy production or other purposes. Substantially all of the carbon introduced as fuel ultimately emerges from the invention process in a stream of substantially pure carbon dioxide. The water necessary for the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction may be introduced into both the gasification and hydrogen production and carbonation reactions, and allocated so as transfer the exothermic heat of reaction of the gasification reaction to the endothermic hydrogen production and carbonation reaction.

  12. Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennline, Henry W.; Hoffman, James S.

    2002-05-14

    A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

  13. Polymer formulations for gettering hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, T.J.; Whinnery, L.L.

    1998-11-17

    A novel composition is described comprising organic polymer molecules having carbon-carbon double bonds, for removing hydrogen from the atmosphere within enclosed spaces. Organic polymers molecules containing carbon-carbon double bonds throughout their structures, preferably polybutadiene, polyisoprene and derivatives thereof, intimately mixed with an insoluble catalyst composition, comprising a hydrogenation catalyst and a catalyst support, preferably Pd supported on carbon, provide a hydrogen getter composition useful for removing hydrogen from enclosed spaces even in the presence of contaminants such as common atmospheric gases, water vapor, carbon dioxide, ammonia, oil mists, and water. The hydrogen getter composition disclosed herein is particularly useful for removing hydrogen from enclosed spaces containing potentially explosive mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen. 1 fig.

  14. Polymer formulations for gettering hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy Jon; Whinnery, LeRoy L.

    1998-11-17

    A novel composition comprising organic polymer molecules having carbon-carbon double bonds, for removing hydrogen from the atmosphere within enclosed spaces. Organic polymers molecules containing carbon-carbon double bonds throughout their structures, preferably polybutadiene, polyisoprene and derivatives thereof, intimately mixed with an insoluble catalyst composition, comprising a hydrogenation catalyst and a catalyst support, preferably Pd supported on carbon, provide a hydrogen getter composition useful for removing hydrogen from enclosed spaces even in the presence of contaminants such as common atmospheric gases, water vapor, carbon dioxide, ammonia, oil mists, and water. The hydrogen getter composition disclosed herein is particularly useful for removing hydrogen from enclosed spaces containing potentially explosive mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen.

  15. Polymer system for gettering hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy Jon; Whinnery, LeRoy L.

    2000-01-01

    A novel composition comprising organic polymer molecules having carbon-carbon double bonds, for removing hydrogen from the atmosphere within enclosed spaces. Organic polymers molecules containing carbon-carbon double bonds throughout their structures, preferably polybutadiene, polyisoprene and derivatives thereof, intimately mixed with an insoluble catalyst composition, comprising a hydrogenation catalyst and a catalyst support, preferably Pd supported on carbon, provide a hydrogen getter composition useful for removing hydrogen from enclosed spaces even in the presence of contaminants such as common atmospheric gases, water vapor, carbon dioxide, ammonia, oil mists, and water. The hydrogen getter composition disclosed herein is particularly useful for removing hydrogen from enclosed spaces containing potentially explosive mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen.

  16. Low cost hydrogen/novel membrane technology for hydrogen separation from synthesis gas, Phase 1. [Poly(etherimide) and poly(ether-ester-amide) membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    During the last quarter several high performance membranes for the separation of hydrogen from nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. The heat-resistant resin poly(etherimide) has been selected as the polymer with the most outstanding properties for the separation of hydrogen from nitrogen and carbon monoxide. Flat sheet and hollow fiber poly(etherimide) membranes have been prepared and evaluated with pure gases and gas mixtures at elevated pressures and temperatures. Multilayer composite poly(ether-ester-amide) membranes were also developed. These membranes are useful for the separation of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide hydrogen. They have very high selectivities and extremely high normalized carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide fluxes. Separation of carbon dioxide/hydrogen streams is a key problem in hydrogen production from coal. The development of the two membranes now gives us two approaches to separate these gas streams, depending on the stream's composition. If the stream contains small quantities of hydrogen, the hydrogen- permeable poly(etherimide) membrane would be used to produce a hydrogen-enriched permeate. If the stream contains small quantities of carbon dioxide or hydrogen sulfide, the poly(ether-ester-amide) membrane would be used to produce a carbon dioxide/hydrogen sulfide-free, hydrogen-enriched residue stream. 6 fig., 4 tabs.

  17. Low cost hydrogen/novel membrane technology for hydrogen separation from synthesis gas, Phase 1. Quarterly technical progress report for the period ending December 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-12-31

    During the last quarter several high performance membranes for the separation of hydrogen from nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. The heat-resistant resin poly(etherimide) has been selected as the polymer with the most outstanding properties for the separation of hydrogen from nitrogen and carbon monoxide. Flat sheet and hollow fiber poly(etherimide) membranes have been prepared and evaluated with pure gases and gas mixtures at elevated pressures and temperatures. Multilayer composite poly(ether-ester-amide) membranes were also developed. These membranes are useful for the separation of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide hydrogen. They have very high selectivities and extremely high normalized carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide fluxes. Separation of carbon dioxide/hydrogen streams is a key problem in hydrogen production from coal. The development of the two membranes now gives us two approaches to separate these gas streams, depending on the stream`s composition. If the stream contains small quantities of hydrogen, the hydrogen- permeable poly(etherimide) membrane would be used to produce a hydrogen-enriched permeate. If the stream contains small quantities of carbon dioxide or hydrogen sulfide, the poly(ether-ester-amide) membrane would be used to produce a carbon dioxide/hydrogen sulfide-free, hydrogen-enriched residue stream. 6 fig., 4 tabs.

  18. Effect of helium growth and carbon impurities on the properties of aged metal tritides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McConville, G.T.; Menke, D.A.; West, D.; Woods, C.M.

    1995-10-01

    The interaction of tritium with metals is made complex by two phenomena. The beta decay in the metal produces {sup 3}He. The helium moves to form bubbles. We shall show that the growth of the bubbles produces a two stage swelling of the metal coming first from the appearance of the helium and second from the relaxation of the lattice disorder caused by the bubble growth. The second phenomenon is the steady state ion and free radical concentration in the tritium over gas which interacts with impurities on the metal surface. We shall show that the reaction rates are much faster than for normal hydrogen cleaning. 12 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Nitrogen dioxide detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N.; Agnew, Stephen F.; Christensen, William H.

    1993-01-01

    Method and apparatus for detecting the presence of gaseous nitrogen dioxide and determining the amount of gas which is present. Though polystyrene is normally an insulator, it becomes electrically conductive in the presence of nitrogen dioxide. Conductance or resistance of a polystyrene sensing element is related to the concentration of nitrogen dioxide at the sensing element.

  20. Investigation of Cellular Interactions of Nanoparticles by Helium Ion Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arey, Bruce W.; Shutthanandan, V.; Xie, Yumei; Tolic, Ana; Williams, Nolann G.; Orr, Galya

    2011-06-01

    The helium ion mircroscope (HIM) probes light elements (e.g. C, N, O, P) with high contrast due to the large variation in secondary electron yield, which minimizes the necessity of specimen staining. A defining characteristic of HIM is its remarkable capability to neutralize charge by the implementation of an electron flood gun, which eliminates the need for coating non-conductive specimens for imaging at high resolution. In addition, the small convergence angle in HeIM offers a large depth of field (~5x FE-SEM), enabling tall structures to be viewed in focus within a single image. Taking advantage of these capabilities, we investigate the interactions of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) at the surface of alveolar type II epithelial cells grown at the air-liquid interface (ALI). The increasing use of nanomaterials in a wide range of commercial applications has the potential to increase human exposure to these materials, but the impact of such exposure on human health is still unclear. One of the main routs of exposure is the respiratory tract, where alveolar epithelial cells present a vulnerable target at the interface with ambient air. Since the cellular interactions of NPs govern the cellular response and ultimately determine the impact on human health, our studies will help delineating relationships between particle properties and cellular interactions and response to better evaluate NP toxicity or biocompatibility. The Rutherford backscattered ion (RBI) is a helium ions imaging mode, which backscatters helium ions from every element except hydrogen, with a backscatter yield that depends on the atomic number of the target. Energy-sensitive backscatter analysis is being developed, which when combined with RBI image information, supports elemental identification at helium ion nanometer resolution. This capability will enable distinguishing NPs from cell surface structures with nanometer resolution.

  1. Energy, helium, and the future: II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krupka, M.C.; Hammel, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    The importance of helium as a critical resource material has been recognized specifically by the scientific community and more generally by the 1960 Congressional mandate to institute a long-range conservation program. A major study mandated by the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 resulted in the publication in 1975 of the document, The Energy-Related Applications of Helium, ERDA-13. This document contained a comprehensive review and analysis relating to helium resources and present and future supply/demand relationships with particular emphasis upon those helium-dependent energy-related technologies projected to be implemented in the post-2000 year time period, e.g., fusion. An updated overview of the helium situation as it exists today is presented. Since publication of ERDA-13, important changes in the data base underlying that document have occurred. The data have since been reexamined, revised, and new information included. Potential supplies of helium from both conventional and unconventional natural gas resources, projected supply/demand relationships to the year 2030 based upon a given power-generation scenario, projected helium demand for specific energy-related technologies, and the supply options (national and international) available to meet that demand are discussed. An updated review will be given of the energy requirements for the extraction of helium from natural gas as they relate to the concentration of helium. A discussion is given concerning the technical and economic feasibility of several methods available both now and conceptually possible, to extract helium from helium-lean natural gas, the atmosphere, and outer space. Finally, a brief review is given of the 1980 Congressional activities with respect to the introduction and possible passage of new helium conservation legislation.

  2. Electrolysis - Hydrogen - Energy Innovation Portal

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Find More Like This Return to Search Electrolysis - Hydrogen Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary INL has invented a process that leverages nuclear technology in combination with various carbon sources to produce synthetic gases for refinement into synthetic transportation fuels/chemicals. Using solid-state electrolysis, water is decomposed to hydrogen and oxygen in one process, while carbon dioxide is

  3. Design of the cryogenic hydrogen release laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hecht, Ethan S.; Zimmerman, Mark D.; LaFleur, Angela Christine; Ciotti, Michael

    2015-09-01

    A cooperative research and development agreement was made between Linde, LLC and Sandia to develop a plan for modifying the Turbulent Combustion Laboratory (TCL) with the necessary infrastructure to produce a cold (near liquid temperature) hydrogen jet. A three-stage heat exchanger will be used to cool gaseous hydrogen using liquid nitrogen, gaseous helium, and liquid helium. A cryogenic line from the heat exchanger into the lab will allow high-fidelity diagnostics already in place in the lab to be applied to cold hydrogen jets. Data from these experiments will be used to develop and validate models that inform codes and standards which specify protection criteria for unintended releases from liquid hydrogen storage, transport, and delivery infrastructure.

  4. Microwave-excited microplasma thruster with helium and hydrogen propellants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Takeshi; Takao, Yoshinori; Ichida, Yugo; Eriguchi, Koji; Ono, Kouichi

    2011-06-15

    Microplasma thruster of electrothermal type has been investigated with feed or propellant gases of He and H{sub 2}. The thruster consisted of an azimuthally symmetric microwave-excited microplasma source 1.5 mm in diameter and 10 mm long with a rod antenna on axis, and a converging-diverging micronozzle 1 mm long with a throat 0.2 mm in diameter. Surface wave-excited plasmas were established by 4.0-GHz microwaves at powers of {<=} 6 W, with the source pressure in the range 0.5-12 kPa at flow rates of 2-70 sccm. The microplasma generation, micronozzle flow, and thrust performance with He were numerically analyzed by using a two-dimensional fluid model, coupled with an electromagnetic model for microwaves interacting with plasmas in the source region. In experiments, the plasma electron density and gas temperature in the microplasma source were measured at around the top of the microwave antenna, or just upstream of the micronozzle inlet, by optical emission spectroscopy with a small amount of additive gases of H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}. In the case of He propellant, the Stark broadening of H Balmer-{beta} line and the vibronic spectrum of N{sub 2} 2nd positive (0, 2) band indicated that the electron density was in the range (2-5)x10{sup 19}m{sup -3} and the gas or rotational temperature was in the range 600-700 K. The thrust performance was also measured by using a target-type microthrust stand, giving a thrust in the range 0.04-0.51 mN, a specific impulse in the range 150-270 s, and a thrust efficiency in the range 2%-12%. These experimental results were consistent with those of numerical analysis, depending on microwave power and gas flow rate. Similar plasma characteristics and thrust performance were obtained with H{sub 2} propellant, where the specific impulse of {<=} 450 s was more than 1.5 times higher than that with He, owing to a difference in mass between He and H{sub 2}. A comparison with previous studies with Ar propellant [T. Takahashi et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 083505 (2009)] indicated that in the presence as well as absence of plasma discharge, the specific impulse was enhanced by more than 3-5 times with light-mass propellants He and H{sub 2} as has been known for large-scale propulsion systems. Thus, it follows that in the microplasma thruster of electrothermal type, the high diffusivity and thermal conductivity of He and H{sub 2} in the microplasma source of high surface-to-volume ratios do not lead to a deterioration of the thrust performance, primarily owing to a more significant thermal energy gain due to elastic collisions between electrons and heavy particles in He and H{sub 2}.

  5. Generation and Retention of Helium and Hydrogen in Austenitic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Steels Irradiated in a Variety of LWR and Test Reactor Spectral Environments Citation ... Steels Irradiated in a Variety of LWR and Test Reactor Spectral Environments In fission ...

  6. Generation and Retention of Helium and Hydrogen in Austenitic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Steels Irradiated in a Variety of LWR and Test Reactor Spectral Environments Citation ... Steels Irradiated in a Variety of LWR and Test Reactor Spectral Environments You are ...

  7. Hydrogen Production

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Components and Systems Batteries Electric Drive Systems Hydrogen Materials & Components Compatibility Hydrogen Behavior Quantitative Risk Assessment Technical ...

  8. Hydrogen Behavior

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Components and Systems Batteries Electric Drive Systems Hydrogen Materials & Components Compatibility Hydrogen Behavior Quantitative Risk Assessment Technical ...

  9. Double, Double Toil and Trouble: Tungsten Burns and Helium Bubbles...

    Office of Science (SC) [DOE]

    Helium bubbles are detrimental to plasma-facing materials such as tungsten in fusion reactors, which could serve as a possible new power source. Thus, understanding how helium ...

  10. Process for the thermochemical production of hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norman, John H.; Russell, Jr., John L.; Porter, II, John T.; McCorkle, Kenneth H.; Roemer, Thomas S.; Sharp, Robert

    1978-01-01

    Hydrogen is thermochemically produced from water in a cycle wherein a first reaction produces hydrogen iodide and H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 by the reaction of iodine, sulfur dioxide and water under conditions which cause two distinct aqueous phases to be formed, i.e., a lighter sulfuric acid-bearing phase and a heavier hydrogen iodide-bearing phase. After separation of the two phases, the heavier phase containing most of the hydrogen iodide is treated, e.g., at a high temperature, to decompose the hydrogen iodide and recover hydrogen and iodine. The H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 is pyrolyzed to recover sulfur dioxide and produce oxygen.

  11. Carbon Dioxide Utilization Summit

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 6th Carbon Dioxide Utilization Summit will be held in Newark, New Jersey, from Feb. 24–26, 2016. The conference will look at the benefits and challenges of carbon dioxide utilization. Advanced Algal Systems Program Manager Alison Goss Eng and Technology Manager Devinn Lambert will be in attendance. Dr. Goss Eng will be chairing a round table on Fuels and Chemicals during the Carbon Dioxide Utilization: From R&D to Commercialization discussion session.

  12. Process for producing hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide from hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide using a heteropolyanionic metal complex catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuch, Ph. L.

    1984-12-18

    Hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide are produced by a process comprising contracting gaseous hydrogen sulfide with gaseous carbon monoxide in the presence of a heteropolymolybdate or tungstate complex. Use of these catalysts reduce the amount of by-product carbon dioxide and methane formation and thus enhance the make of hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide.

  13. Design progress of cryogenic hydrogen system for China Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, G. P.; Zhang, Y.; Xiao, J.; He, C. C.; Ding, M. Y.; Wang, Y. Q.; Li, N.; He, K.

    2014-01-29

    China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is a large proton accelerator research facility with 100 kW beam power. Construction started in October 2011 and is expected to last 6.5 years. The cryogenic hydrogen circulation is cooled by a helium refrigerator with cooling capacity of 2200 W at 20 K and provides supercritical hydrogen to neutron moderating system. Important progresses of CSNS cryogenic system were concluded as follows. Firstly, process design of cryogenic system has been completed including helium refrigerator, hydrogen loop, gas distribution, and safety interlock. Secondly, an accumulator prototype was designed to mitigate pressure fluctuation caused by dynamic heat load from neutron moderation. Performance test of the accumulator has been carried out at room and liquid nitrogen temperature. Results show the accumulator with welding bellows regulates hydrogen pressure well. Parameters of key equipment have been identified. The contract for the helium refrigerator has been signed. Mechanical design of the hydrogen cold box has been completed, and the hydrogen pump, ortho-para hydrogen convertor, helium-hydrogen heat exchanger, hydrogen heater, and cryogenic valves are in procurement. Finally, Hydrogen safety interlock has been finished as well, including the logic of gas distribution, vacuum, hydrogen leakage and ventilation. Generally, design and construction of CSNS cryogenic system is conducted as expected.

  14. Helium refrigeration considerations for cryomodule design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P.

    2014-01-29

    Many of the present day accelerators are based on superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities, packaged in cryo-modules (CM), which depend on helium refrigeration at sub-atmospheric pressures, nominally 2 K. These specialized helium refrigeration systems are quite cost intensive to produce and operate. Particularly as there is typically no work extraction below the 4.5-K supply, it is important that the exergy loss between this temperature level and the CM load temperature(s) be minimized by the process configuration choices. This paper will present, compare and discuss several possible helium distribution process arrangements to support the CM loads.

  15. Hydrogen compatibility handbook for stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1983-06-01

    This handbook compiles data on the effects of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of stainless steels and discusses this data within the context of current understanding of hydrogen compatibility of metals. All of the tabulated data derives from continuing studies of hydrogen effects on materials that have been conducted at the Savannah River Laboratory over the past fifteen years. Supplementary data from other sources are included in the discussion. Austenitic, ferritic, martensitic, and precipitation hardenable stainless steels have been studied. Damage caused by helium generated from decay of tritium is a distinctive effect that occurs in addition to the hydrogen isotopes protium and deuterium. The handbook defines the scope of our current knowledge of hydrogen effects in stainless steels and serves as a guide to selection of stainless steels for service in hydrogen.

  16. Method for dissolving plutonium dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tallent, Othar K.

    1976-01-01

    A method for dissolving plutonium dioxide comprises adding silver ions to a nitric acid-hydrofluoric acid solution to significantly speed up dissolution of difficultly soluble plutonium dioxide.

  17. Future Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Pitcher, Hugh M.; Wigley, Tom M.

    2005-12-01

    The importance of sulfur dioxide emissions for climate change is now established, although substantial uncertainties remain. This paper presents projections for future sulfur dioxide emissions using the MiniCAM integrated assessment model. A new income-based parameterization for future sulfur dioxide emissions controls is developed based on purchasing power parity (PPP) income estimates and historical trends related to the implementation of sulfur emissions limitations. This parameterization is then used to produce sulfur dioxide emissions trajectories for the set of scenarios developed for the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). We use the SRES methodology to produce harmonized SRES scenarios using the latest version of the MiniCAM model. The implications, and requirements, for IA modeling of sulfur dioxide emissions are discussed. We find that sulfur emissions eventually decline over the next century under a wide set of assumptions. These emission reductions result from a combination of emission controls, the adoption of advanced electric technologies, and a shift away from the direct end use of coal with increasing income levels. Only under a scenario where incomes in developing regions increase slowly do global emission levels remain at close to present levels over the next century. Under a climate policy that limits emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide emissions fall in a relatively narrow range. In all cases, the relative climatic effect of sulfur dioxide emissions decreases dramatically to a point where sulfur dioxide is only a minor component of climate forcing by the end of the century. Ecological effects of sulfur dioxide, however, could be significant in some developing regions for many decades to come.

  18. Hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duan, Yixiang; Jia, Quanxi; Cao, Wenqing

    2010-11-23

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  19. Large-scale atomistic simulations of helium-3 bubble growth in complex palladium alloys

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Hale, Lucas M.; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Wong, Bryan M.

    2016-05-18

    Palladium is an attractive material for hydrogen and hydrogen-isotope storage applications due to its properties of large storage density and high diffusion of lattice hydrogen. When considering tritium storage, the material’s structural and mechanical integrity is threatened by both the embrittlement effect of hydrogen and the creation and evolution of additional crystal defects (e.g., dislocations, stacking faults) caused by the formation and growth of helium-3 bubbles. Using recently developed inter-atomic potentials for the palladium-silver-hydrogen system, we perform large-scale atomistic simulations to examine the defect-mediated mechanisms that govern helium bubble growth. Our simulations show the evolution of a distribution of materialmore » defects, and we compare the material behavior displayed with expectations from experiment and theory. In conclusion, we also present density functional theory calculations to characterize ideal tensile and shear strengths for these materials, which enable the understanding of how and why our developed potentials either meet or confound these expectations.« less

  20. Removal of hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide from gas-streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deal, C.H.; Lieder, C.A.

    1982-06-01

    Hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide are removed from a gas stream in a staged procedure characterized by conversion of the hydrogen sulfide to produce sulfur in aqueous solution, hydrolysis of the carbonyl sulfide remaining in the gas stream to produce hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide, and removal of the hydrogen sulfide from the gas stream.

  1. Tritium-helium effects in metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caskey, G.R.

    1985-09-01

    Investigations of helium effects in metals at the Savannah River Laboratory have been carried out by introducing helium by radioactive decay of tritium. This process does not create concurrent radiation damage, such as accompanies ion implantation and (n,..cap alpha..) reactions. The process has its own peculiarities, however, which partially mask and interact with the helium effect of interest. The distribution and local concentration of helium and tritium, which are responsible for changes in mechanical properties and fracture mode, are controlled by the large difference in solubility and diffusivity between the two atoms and by their differing interaction energies with lattice defects, impurities, and internal boundaries. Furthermore, in all investigations with helium generated from tritium decay, some tritium and deuterium are always present. Consequently, property changes include tritium-helium interaction effects to some extent. Results of investigations with several austenitic stainless steels, Armco iron, and niobium single crystals illustrate the variety of phenomena and some of the complex interactions that can be encountered.

  2. Tritium-helium effects in metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Investigations of helium effects in metals at the Savannah River Laboratory have been carried out by introducing helium by radioactive decay of tritium. This process does not create concurrent radiation damage, such as accompanies ion implantation and (n,..cap alpha..) reactions. The process has its own peculiarities, however, which partially mask and interact with the helium effect of interest. The distribution and local concentration of helium and tritium, which are responsible for changes in mechanical properties and fracture mode, are controlled by the large difference in solubility and diffusivity between the two atoms and by their differing interaction energies with lattice defects, impurities, and internal boundaries. Furthermore, in all investigations with helium generated from tritium decay, some tritium and deuterium are always present. Consequently, property changes include tritium-helium interaction effects to some extent. Results of investigations with several austenitic stainless steels, Armco iron, and niobium single crystals illustrate the variety of phenomena and some of the complex interactions that can be encountered.

  3. Nucleosynthesis in helium-enriched asymptotic giant branch models: Implications for heavy element enrichment in ω Centauri

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karakas, Amanda I.; Marino, Anna F.; Nataf, David M.

    2014-03-20

    We investigate the effect of helium enrichment on the evolution and nucleosynthesis of low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars of 1.7 M {sub ☉} and 2.36 M {sub ☉} with a metallicity of Z = 0.0006 ([Fe/H] ≈–1.4). We calculate evolutionary sequences with the primordial helium abundance (Y = 0.24) and with helium-enriched compositions (Y = 0.30, 0.35, 0.40). For comparison, we calculate models of the same mass but at a lower metallicity Z = 0.0003 ([Fe/H] ≈–1.8) with Y = 0.24. Post-processing nucleosynthesis calculations are performed on each of the evolutionary sequences to determine the production of elements from hydrogen to bismuth. Elemental surface abundance predictions and stellar yields are presented for each model. The models with enriched helium have shorter main sequence and AGB lifetimes, and they enter the AGB with a more massive hydrogen-exhausted core than the primordial helium model. The main consequences are as follows: (1) low-mass AGB models with enhanced helium will evolve more than twice as fast, giving them the chance to contribute sooner to the chemical evolution of the forming globular clusters, and (2) the stellar yields will be strongly reduced relative to their primordial helium counterparts. An increase of ΔY = 0.10 at a given mass decreases the yields of carbon by up to ≈60% and of fluorine by up to 80%; it also decreases the yields of the s-process elements barium and lanthanum by ≈45%. While the yields of first s-process peak elements strontium, yttrium, and zirconium decrease by up to 50%, the yields of rubidium either do not change or increase.

  4. Hydrogenation apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friedman, Joseph [Encino, CA; Oberg, Carl L [Canoga Park, CA; Russell, Larry H [Agoura, CA

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogenation reaction apparatus comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1100.degree. to 1900.degree. C., while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products.

  5. Cyclic thermochemical process for producing hydrogen using cerium-titanium compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bamberger, C.E.

    A thermochemical cyclic process for producing hydrogen employs the reaction between ceric oxide and titanium dioxide to form cerium titanate and oxygen. The titanate is treated with an alkali metal hydroxide to give hydrogen, ceric oxide, an alkali metal titanate and water. Alkali metal titanate and water are boiled to give titanium dioxide which, along with ceric oxide, is recycled.

  6. Cyclic thermochemical process for producing hydrogen using cerium-titanium compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1980-01-01

    A thermochemical cyclic process for producing hydrogen employs the reaction between ceric oxide and titanium dioxide to form cerium titanate and oxygen. The titanate is treated with an alkali metal hydroxide to give hydrogen, ceric oxide, an alkali metal titanate and water. Alkali metal titanate and water are boiled to give titanium dioxide which, along with ceric oxide, is recycled.

  7. Molecular-dynamics analysis of mobile helium cluster reactions near surfaces of plasma-exposed tungsten

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Lin; Maroudas, Dimitrios; Hammond, Karl D.; Wirth, Brian D.

    2015-10-28

    We report the results of a systematic atomic-scale analysis of the reactions of small mobile helium clusters (He{sub n}, 4 ≤ n ≤ 7) near low-Miller-index tungsten (W) surfaces, aiming at a fundamental understanding of the near-surface dynamics of helium-carrying species in plasma-exposed tungsten. These small mobile helium clusters are attracted to the surface and migrate to the surface by Fickian diffusion and drift due to the thermodynamic driving force for surface segregation. As the clusters migrate toward the surface, trap mutation (TM) and cluster dissociation reactions are activated at rates higher than in the bulk. TM produces W adatoms and immobile complexes of helium clusters surrounding W vacancies located within the lattice planes at a short distance from the surface. These reactions are identified and characterized in detail based on the analysis of a large number of molecular-dynamics trajectories for each such mobile cluster near W(100), W(110), and W(111) surfaces. TM is found to be the dominant cluster reaction for all cluster and surface combinations, except for the He{sub 4} and He{sub 5} clusters near W(100) where cluster partial dissociation following TM dominates. We find that there exists a critical cluster size, n = 4 near W(100) and W(111) and n = 5 near W(110), beyond which the formation of multiple W adatoms and vacancies in the TM reactions is observed. The identified cluster reactions are responsible for important structural, morphological, and compositional features in the plasma-exposed tungsten, including surface adatom populations, near-surface immobile helium-vacancy complexes, and retained helium content, which are expected to influence the amount of hydrogen re-cycling and tritium retention in fusion tokamaks.

  8. Hydrogen cooling options for MgB{sub 2}-based superconducting systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stautner, W.; Xu, M.; Mine, S.; Amm, K.

    2014-01-29

    With the arrival of MgB{sub 2} for low-cost superconducting magnets, hydrogen cooling has become an interesting alternative to costly liquid helium. Hydrogen is generally regarded as the most efficient coolant in cryogenics and, in particular, is well suited for cooling superconducting magnets. Cooling methods need to take into account the specific quench propagation in the MgB{sub 2} magnet winding and facilitate a cryogenically reliable and safe cooling environment. The authors propose three different multi-coolant options for MRI scanners using helium or hydrogen within the same design framework. Furthermore, a design option for whole-body scanners which employs technology, components, fueling techniques and safety devices from the hydrogen automotive industry is presented, continuing the trend towards replacing helium with hydrogen as a safe and cost efficient coolant.

  9. Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, Jerome W. (Lockport, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Westmount, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

  10. Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.

    1993-03-30

    A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

  11. Hydrogen Pipelines

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Gaseous hydrogen can be transported through pipelines much the way natural gas is today. Approximately 1,700 miles of hydrogen pipelines are currently operating in the United States. Transporting gaseous hydrogen via existing pipelines is a low-cost option for delivering large volumes of hydrogen. The high initial capital costs of new pipeline construction constitute a major barrier to expanding hydrogen pipeline delivery infrastructure. Research today therefore focuses on overcoming technical concerns related to pipeline transmission.

  12. Carbon dioxide removal process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W.; Da Costa, Andre R.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2003-11-18

    A process and apparatus for separating carbon dioxide from gas, especially natural gas, that also contains C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons. The invention uses two or three membrane separation steps, optionally in conjunction with cooling/condensation under pressure, to yield a lighter, sweeter product natural gas stream, and/or a carbon dioxide stream of reinjection quality and/or a natural gas liquids (NGL) stream.

  13. Commercializing solar hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmes, J.T.; Prairie, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the need for a government-supported program to commercialize hydrogen production methods which use solar energy as the main source of energy. Current methods use hydrocarbons and generate large amounts of carbon dioxide. The paper describes results from a literature survey performed to identify technologies using direct solar energy that were likely to succeed on an industrial scale in the near term. Critical parameters included calculated efficiencies, measured efficiencies, and development status. The cost of solar collectors is cited as the reason most promising solar hydrogen research is not taken to the pilot plant stage. The author recommends use of existing DOE facilities already in operation for pilot plant testing. 14 refs. (CK)

  14. MODEL OF DIFFUSERS / PERMEATORS FOR HYDROGEN PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hang, T; William Jacobs, W

    2007-08-27

    Palladium-silver (Pd-Ag) diffusers are mainstays of hydrogen processing. Diffusers separate hydrogen from inert species such as nitrogen, argon or helium. The tubing becomes permeable to hydrogen when heated to more than 250 C and a differential pressure is created across the membrane. The hydrogen diffuses better at higher temperatures. Experimental or experiential results have been the basis for determining or predicting a diffuser's performance. However, the process can be mathematically modeled, and comparison to experimental or other operating data can be utilized to improve the fit of the model. A reliable model-based diffuser system design is the goal which will have impacts on tritium and hydrogen processing. A computer model has been developed to solve the differential equations for diffusion given the operating boundary conditions. The model was compared to operating data for a low pressure diffuser system. The modeling approach and the results are presented in this paper.

  15. TRANSPARENT HELIUM IN STRIPPED ENVELOPE SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piro, Anthony L.; Morozova, Viktoriya S., E-mail: piro@caltech.edu [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., M/C 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Using simple arguments based on photometric light curves and velocity evolution, we propose that some stripped envelope supernovae (SNe) show signs that a significant fraction of their helium is effectively transparent. The main pieces of evidence are the relatively low velocities with little velocity evolution, as are expected deep inside an exploding star, along with temperatures that are too low to ionize helium. This means that the helium should not contribute to the shaping of the main SN light curve, and thus the total helium mass may be difficult to measure from simple light curve modeling. Conversely, such modeling may be more useful for constraining the mass of the carbon/oxygen core of the SN progenitor. Other stripped envelope SNe show higher velocities and larger velocity gradients, which require an additional opacity source (perhaps the mixing of heavier elements or radioactive nickel) to prevent the helium from being transparent. We discuss ways in which similar analysis can provide insights into the differences and similarities between SNe Ib and Ic, which will lead to a better understanding of their respective formation mechanisms.

  16. Method for absorbing hydrogen using an oxidation resisant organic hydrogen getter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J.; Buffleben, George M.

    2009-02-03

    A composition for removing hydrogen from an atmosphere, comprising a mixture of a polyphenyl ether and a hydrogenation catalyst, preferably a precious metal catalyst, and most preferably platinum, is disclosed. This composition is stable in the presence of oxygen, will not polymerize or degrade upon exposure to temperatures in excess of 200.degree. C., or prolonged exposure to temperatures in the range of 100-300.degree. C. Moreover, these novel hydrogen getter materials can be used to efficiently remove hydrogen from mixtures of hydrogen/inert gas (e.g., He, Ar, N.sub.2), hydrogen/ammonia atmospheres, such as may be encountered in heat exchangers, and hydrogen/carbon dioxide atmospheres. Water vapor and common atmospheric gases have no adverse effect on the ability of these getter materials to absorb hydrogen.

  17. SCREW COMPRESSOR CHARACTERISTICS FOR HELIUM REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganni, Venkatarao; Knudsen, Peter; Creel, Jonathan; Arenius, Dana; Casagrande, Fabio; Howell, Matt

    2008-03-01

    The oil injected screw compressors have practically replaced all other types of compressors in modern helium refrigeration systems due to their large displacement capacity, minimal vibration, reliability and capability of handling helium's high heat of compression.At the present state of compressor system designs for helium systems, typically two-thirds of the lost input power is due to the compression system. Therefore it is important to understand the isothermal and volumetric efficiencies of these machines to help properly design these compression systems to match the refrigeration process. This presentation summarizes separate tests that have been conducted on Sullair compressors at the Superconducting Super-Collider Laboratory (SSCL) in 1993, Howden compressors at Jefferson Lab (JLab) in 2006 and Howden compressors at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in 2006. This work is part of an ongoing study at JLab to understand the theoretical basis for these efficiencies and their loss

  18. Thermochemical generation of hydrogen and oxygen from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, Paul R.; Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1982-01-01

    A thermochemical cyclic process for the production of hydrogen exploits the reaction between sodium manganate (NaMnO.sub.2) and titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) to form sodium titanate (Na.sub.2 TiO.sub.3), manganese (II) titanate (MnTiO.sub.3) and oxygen. The titanate mixture is treated with sodium hydroxide, in the presence of steam, to form sodium titanate, sodium manganate (III), water and hydrogen. The sodium titanate-manganate (III) mixture is treated with water to form sodium manganate (III), titanium dioxide and sodium hydroxide. Sodium manganate (III) and titanium dioxide are recycled following dissolution of sodium hydroxide in water.

  19. Thermochemical generation of hydrogen and oxygen from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, Paul R.; Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1981-01-01

    A thermochemical cyclic process for the production of hydrogen exploits the reaction between sodium manganate (NaMnO.sub.2) and titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) to form sodium titanate (Na.sub.2 TiO.sub.3), manganese (II) titanate (MnTiO.sub.3) and oxygen. The titanate mixture is treated with sodium hydroxide, in the presence of steam, to form sodium titanate, sodium manganate (III), water and hydrogen. The sodium titanate-manganate (III) mixture is treated with water to form sodium manganate (III), titanium dioxide and sodium hydroxide. Sodium manganate (III) and titanium dioxide are recycled following dissolution of sodium hydroxide in water.

  20. Production of negative hydrogen ions on metal grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oohara, W.; Maetani, Y.; Takeda, Takashi; Takeda, Toshiaki; Yokoyama, H.; Kawata, K.

    2015-03-15

    Negative hydrogen ions are produced on a nickel grid with positive-ion irradiation. In order to investigate the production mechanism, a copper grid without the chemisorption of hydrogen atoms and positive helium ions without negative ionization are used for comparison. Positive hydrogen ions reflected on the metal surface obtain two electrons from the surface and become negatively ionized. It is found that the production yield of negative ions by desorption ionization of chemisorbed hydrogen atoms seems to be small, and the production is a minor mechanism.

  1. Hydrogen sensor (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydrogen sensor Title: Hydrogen sensor A hydrogen sensor for detectingquantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites ...

  2. Helium damage in austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.; Mezzanotte, D.A. Jr.; Rawl, D.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Helium produced by tritium decay was first shown to embrittle austenitic stainless steel at ambient temperature in tensile specimens of Nitronic-40 steel (Armco, Inc.). A long-term study was initiated to study this form of helium damage in five austenitic alloys. Results from this study have been analyzed by the J-integral technique and show a decrease in ductile fracture toughness with increasing He-3 concentration. Sustained-load cracking tests indicate that the stress intensity required to initiate and propagate a crack also decreases with increasing He-3 concentration. 9 figures, 3 tables.

  3. Hydrogen Storage

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen storage technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains the different ways in which hydrogen can be stored, as well a

  4. Hydrogen Safety

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This 2-page fact sheet, intended for a non-technical audience, explains the basic properties of hydrogen and provides an overview of issues related to the safe use of hydrogen as an energy carrier.

  5. Hydrogen Scenarios

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    OnLocation, Inc., Energy Systems Consulting 1 Hydrogen Scenarios Presentation to the Hydrogen Delivery Analysis Meeting by Frances Wood OnLocation, Inc. Energy Systems Consulting May 9, 2007 OnLocation, Inc., Energy Systems Consulting 2 Outline * Brief summary of NEMS-H2 model * Representation of Hydrogen Delivery * Hydrogen Demand Sensitivities * Integration and Energy System Impacts - A Carbon Policy Scenario Example OnLocation, Inc., Energy Systems Consulting 3 NEMS-H2 Overview OnLocation,

  6. Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produce hydrogen. It includes an overview of research goals as well as “quick facts” about hydrogen energy resources and production technologies.

  7. Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-11-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen storage technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains the different ways in which hydrogen can be stored, as well as the technical challenges and research goals for storing hydrogen on board a vehicle.

  8. Methods and Systems for the Production of Hydrogen

    Energy Innovation Portal

    2011-04-14

    INL has developed a novel process for producing hydrogen using a reduced outlet temperature of Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor. This process uses a combination of hydrogen recycle, a molten salt or helium, and a supercritical CO2 cycle. This method preheats the feed, reduces pumping power in the primary side and/or thermal transmission piping, and converts the power unit, achieving a high electrical conversion efficiency of 45%. This process reduces the operating outlet temperature...

  9. Carbonate thermochemical cycle for the production of hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, Jack L [Knoxville, TN; Dole, Leslie R [Knoxville, TN; Ferrada, Juan J [Knoxville, TN; Forsberg, Charles W [Oak Ridge, TN; Haire, Marvin J [Oak Ridge, TN; Hunt, Rodney D [Oak Ridge, TN; Lewis Jr., Benjamin E [Knoxville, TN; Wymer, Raymond G [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-02-23

    The present invention is directed to a thermochemical method for the production of hydrogen from water. The method includes reacting a multi-valent metal oxide, water and a carbonate to produce an alkali metal-multi-valent metal oxide compound, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen.

  10. Carbonate Thermochemical Cycle for the Production of Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrada, Juan J; Collins, Jack Lee; Dole, Leslie Robert; Forsberg, Charles W; Haire, Marvin Jonathan; Hunt, Rodney Dale; Lewis Jr, Benjamin E; Wymer, Raymond; Ladd-Lively, Jennifer L

    2009-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a thermochemical method for the production of hydrogen from water. The method includes reacting a multi-valent metal oxide, water and a carbonate to produce an alkali metal-multi-valent metal oxide compound, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen.

  11. Hydrogenation apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friedman, J.; Oberg, C. L.; Russell, L. H.

    1981-06-23

    Hydrogenation reaction apparatus is described comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1,100 to 1,900 C, while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products. 2 figs.

  12. Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial Electrosynthesis with Synthetic Electromicrobiology and System Design Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: ...

  13. Florida Hydrogen Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Block, David L

    2013-06-30

    at any facility engaged in transport, handling and use of hydrogen. Development of High Efficiency Low Cost Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Production and PEM Fuel Cell Applications ? M. Rodgers, Florida Solar Energy Center The objective of this project was to decrease platinum usage in fuel cells by conducting experiments to improve catalyst activity while lowering platinum loading through pulse electrodeposition. Optimum values of several variables during electrodeposition were selected to achieve the highest electrode performance, which was related to catalyst morphology. Understanding Mechanical and Chemical Durability of Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assemblies ? D. Slattery, Florida Solar Energy Center The objective of this project was to increase the knowledge base of the degradation mechanisms for membranes used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The results show the addition of ceria (cerium oxide) has given durability improvements by reducing fluoride emissions by an order of magnitude during an accelerated durability test. Production of Low-Cost Hydrogen from Biowaste (HyBrTec?) ? R. Parker, SRT Group, Inc., Miami, FL This project developed a hydrogen bromide (HyBrTec?) process which produces hydrogen bromide from wet-cellulosic waste and co-produces carbon dioxide. Eelectrolysis dissociates hydrogen bromide producing recyclable bromine and hydrogen. A demonstration reactor and electrolysis vessel was designed, built and operated. Development of a Low-Cost and High-Efficiency 500 W Portable PEMFC System ? J. Zheng, Florida State University, H. Chen, Bing Energy, Inc. The objectives of this project were to develop a new catalyst structures comprised of highly conductive buckypaper and Pt catalyst nanoparticles coated on its surface and to demonstrate fuel cell efficiency improvement and durability and cell cost reductions in the buckypaper based electrodes. Development of an Interdisciplinary Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Academic Program ? J

  14. Carbon dioxide sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

    2011-11-15

    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  15. --No Title--

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    of legacy Compressed Gas Cylinders that contain, but not limited to: acetylene, argon, boron trifluoride, butane, carbon dioxide, Freon, helium, hydrogen, krypton, liquid...

  16. Polymer formulations for gettering hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J.; Even, Jr., William R.

    2000-01-01

    A novel method for preparing a hydrogenation composition comprising organic polymer molecules having carbon--carbon double bonds, for removing hydrogen from the atmosphere within enclosed spaces and particularly from atmospheres within enclosed spaces that contain air, water vapor, oxygen, carbon dioxide or ammonia. The organic polymers molecules containing carbon--carbon double bonds throughout their structures, preferably polybutadiene, polyisoprene and derivatives thereof, intimately mixed with an insoluble noble metal catalyst composition. High molecular weight polymers may be added to the organic polymer/catalyst mixture in order to improve their high temperature performance. The hydrogenation composition is prepared by dispersing the polymers in a suitable solvent, forming thereby a solution suspension, flash-freezing droplets of the solution in a liquid cryogen, freeze-drying the frozen droplets to remove frozen solvent incorporated in the droplets, and recovering the dried powder thus formed.

  17. Hydrogen Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Production Hydrogen can be produced using diverse, domestic resources. Fossil fuels, such as natural gas and coal, can be converted to produce hydrogen, and the use of carbon capture, utilization, and storage can reduce the carbon footprint of these processes. Hydrogen can also be produced from low carbon and renewable resources, including biomass grown from non-food crops and splitting water using electricity from wind, solar, geothermal, nuclear, and hydroelectric. This diversity of potential

  18. Hydrogen Infrastructure

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ... capable of producing and dispensing hydrogen at scales relevant to market growth. ...

  19. THERMAL OSCILLATIONS IN LIQUID HELIUM TARGETS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WANG,L.; JIA,L.X.

    2001-07-16

    A liquid helium target for the high-energy physics was built and installed in the proton beam line at the Alternate Gradient Synchrotron of Brookhaven National Laboratory in 2001. The target flask has a liquid volume of 8.25 liters and is made of thin Mylar film. A G-M/J-T cryocooler of five-watts at 4.2K was used to produce liquid helium and refrigerate the target. A thermosyphon circuit for the target was connected to the J-T circuit by a liquid/gas separator. Because of the large heat load to the target and its long transfer lines, thermal oscillations were observed during the system tests. To eliminate the oscillation, a series of tests and analyses were carried out. This paper describes the phenomena and provides the understanding of the thermal oscillations in the target system.

  20. Closed-loop pulsed helium ionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, Roswitha S.; Todd, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    A helium ionization detector for gas chromatography is operated in a constant current, pulse-modulated mode by configuring the detector, electrometer and a high voltage pulser in a closed-loop control system. The detector current is maintained at a fixed level by varying the frequency of fixed-width, high-voltage bias pulses applied to the detector. An output signal proportional to the pulse frequency is produced which is indicative of the charge collected for a detected species.

  1. Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Donald P.

    1985-01-01

    A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

  2. Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, D.P.

    1984-06-05

    A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

  3. Hydrogen isotope MicroChemLab FY15.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, David; Luo, Weifang; Stewart, Kenneth D.

    2015-09-01

    We have developed a new method to measure the composition of gaseous mixtures of any two hydrogen isotopes, as well as an inert gas component. When tritium is one of those hydrogen isotopes, there is usually some helium present, because the tritium decays to form helium at a rate of about 1% every 2 months. The usual way of measuring composition of these mixtures involves mass spectrometry, which involves bulky, energy-intensive, expensive instruments, including vacuum pumps that can quite undesirably disperse tritium. Our approach uses calorimetry of a small quantity of hydrogen-absorbing material to determine gas composition without consuming or dispersing the analytes. Our work was a proof of principle using a rather large and slow benchtop calorimeter. Incorporation of microfabricated calorimeters, such as those that have been developed in Sandia’s MicroChemLab program or that are now commercially available, would allow for faster measurements and a smaller instrument footprint.

  4. Hydrogen | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Hydrogen Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description Related Links List of Companies in Hydrogen Sector List of Hydrogen Incentives Hydrogen Energy Data Book Retrieved from...

  5. CATALYST EVALUATION FOR A SULFUR DIOXIDE-DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H

    2007-01-31

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. Testing examined the activity and stability of platinum and palladium as the electrocatalyst for the SDE in sulfuric acid solutions. Cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry revealed that platinum provided better catalytic activity with much lower potentials and higher currents than palladium. Testing also showed that the catalyst activity is strongly influenced by the concentration of the sulfuric acid electrolyte.

  6. Hydrogen Bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The Hydrogen Bibliography is a compilation of research reports that are the result of research funded over the last fifteen years. In addition, other documents have been added. All cited reports are contained in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Hydrogen Program Library.

  7. In situ controlled modification of the helium density in single helium-filled nanobubbles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David, M.-L. Pailloux, F.; Alix, K.; Mauchamp, V.; Pizzagalli, L.; Couillard, M.; Botton, G. A.

    2014-03-28

    We demonstrate that the helium density and corresponding pressure can be modified in single nano-scale bubbles embedded in semiconductors by using the electron beam of a scanning transmission electron microscope as a multifunctional probe: the measurement probe for imaging and chemical analysis and the irradiation source to modify concomitantly the pressure in a controllable way by fine tuning of the electron beam parameters. The control of the detrapping rate is achieved by varying the experimental conditions. The underlying physical mechanisms are discussed; our experimental observations suggest that the helium detrapping from bubbles could be interpreted in terms of direct ballistic collisions, leading to the ejection of the helium atoms from the bubble.

  8. Hydrogen and Materials: Influence of the Hydrogen Environment on the Metallic Materials Behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamani, Emil; Jouinot, Patrice

    2010-01-21

    The materials sensitivity to hydrogen is studied and measured in this work using the disk pressure testing, whose principle is the comparison of the rupture parameters obtained with metallic membranes tested similarly under helium and hydrogen. Such technique allows various studies and reveals parameters that remain not significant with less sensitive methods. This work presents an overview of numerous experimental results concerning the influence of various factors (material and gas composition, mechanical and heat treatments, type of microstructure...) on the hydrogen embrittlement of ferrous and nonferrous alloys. There are shown synergies between such factors, related to physical and metallurgical phenomena and we give some practical considerations, which can be useful for the evaluation of the safety offered by different materials in contact with hydrogen and for searching ways to improve their behavior.

  9. Thermochemical cyclic system for splitting water and/or carbon dioxide by means of cerium compounds and reactions useful therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bamberger, C.E.; Robinson, P.R.

    A thermochemical cyclic process for producing hydrogen from water comprises reacting ceric oxide with monobasic or dibasic alkali metal phosphate to yield a solid reaction product, oxygen and water. The solid reaction product, alkali metal carbonate or bicarbonate, and water, are reacted to yield hydrogen, ceric oxide, carbon dioxide and trialkali metal phosphate. Ceric oxide is recycled. Trialkali metal phosphate, carbon dioxide and water are reacted to yield monobasic or dibasic alkali metal phosphate and alkali metal bicarbonate, which are recycled. The cyclic process can be modified for producing carbon monoxide from carbon dioxide by reacting the alkali metal cerous phosphate and alkali metal carbonate or bicarbonate in the absence of water to produce carbon monoxide, ceric oxide, carbon dioxide and trialkali metal phosphate. Carbon monoxide can be converted to hydrogen by the water gas shift reaction.

  10. Thermochemical cyclic system for splitting water and/or carbon dioxide by means of cerium compounds and reactions useful therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bamberger, Carlos E.; Robinson, Paul R.

    1980-01-01

    A thermochemical cyclic process for producing hydrogen from water comprises reacting ceric oxide with monobasic or dibasic alkali metal phosphate to yield a solid reaction product, oxygen and water. The solid reaction product, alkali metal carbonate or bicarbonate, and water, are reacted to yield hydrogen, ceric oxide, carbon dioxide and trialkali metal phosphate. Ceric oxide is recycled. Trialkali metal phosphate, carbon dioxide and water are reacted to yield monobasic or dibasic alkali metal phosphate and alkali metal bicarbonate, which are recycled. The cylic process can be modified for producing carbon monoxide from carbon dioxide by reacting the alkali metal cerous phosphate and alkali metal carbonate or bicarbonate in the absence of water to produce carbon monoxide, ceric oxide, carbon dioxide and trialkali metal phosphate. Carbon monoxide can be converted to hydrogen by the water gas shift reaction.

  11. Research questions reality of 'supersolid' in helium-4

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Research questions reality of 'supersolid' in helium-4 Research questions reality of 'supersolid' in helium-4 When cooled to temperatures below minus 452 degrees below zero Fahrenheit, helium-4 becomes a liquid-and an extraordinary liquid at that. May 17, 2011 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma

  12. Demonstrating Strong Electric Fields in Liquid Helium for Tests...

    Office of Science (SC) [DOE]

    Demonstrating Strong Electric Fields in Liquid Helium for Tests of Matter-Antimatter Symmetry Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of ...

  13. Simplified Helium Refrigerator Cycle Analysis Using the `Carnot Step'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Knudsen; V. Ganni

    2006-05-01

    An analysis of the Claude form of an idealized helium liquefier for the minimum input work reveals the ''Carnot Step'' for helium refrigerator cycles. As the ''Carnot Step'' for a multi-stage polytropic compression process consists of equal pressure ratio stages; similarly for an idealized helium liquefier the ''Carnot Step'' consists of equal temperature ratio stages for a given number of expansion stages. This paper presents the analytical basis and some useful equations for the preliminary examination of existing and new Claude helium refrigeration cycles.

  14. Lab researchers simulate helium bubble behavior in fusion reactors

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Lab researchers simulate helium bubble behavior in fusion reactors A team performed ... One of the most important challenges for successful commercialization of fusion power is ...

  15. Helium isotopes in geothermal systems- Iceland, The Geysers,...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    isotopes in geothermal systems- Iceland, The Geysers, Raft River and Steamboat Springs Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Helium...

  16. Boron-10 Neutron Detectors for Helium-3 Replacement

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    efficiencies comparable to Helium-3 detectors, with demonstrated gamma neutron discrimination. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Boron-10 Neutron...

  17. Hydrogen behavior in ice condenser containments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundstroem, P.; Hongisto, O.; Theofanous, T.G.

    1995-09-01

    A new hydrogen management strategy is being developed for the Loviisa ice condenser containment. The strategy relies on containment-wide natural circulations that develop, once the ice condenser doors are forced open, to effectively produce a well-mixed behavior, and a correspondingly slow rise in hydrogen concentration. Levels can then be kept low by a distributed catalytic recombiner system, and (perhaps) an igniter system as a backup, while the associated energy releases can be effectively dissipated in the ice bed. Verification and fine-tuning of the approach is carried out experimentally in the VICTORIA facility and by associated scaling/modelling studies. VICTORIA represents an 1/15th scale model of the Loviisa containment, hydrogen is simulated by helium, and local concentration measurements are obtained by a newly developed instrument specifically for this purpose, called SPARTA. This paper is focused on experimental results from several key experiments that provide a first delineation of key behaviors.

  18. Process for sequestering carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroto-Valer, M. Mercedes (State College, PA); Zhang, Yinzhi (State College, PA); Kuchta, Matthew E. (State College, PA); Andresen, John M. (State College, PA); Fauth, Dan J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2009-10-20

    A process for sequestering carbon dioxide, which includes reacting a silicate based material with an acid to form a suspension, and combining the suspension with carbon dioxide to create active carbonation of the silicate-based material, and thereafter producing a metal salt, silica and regenerating the acid in the liquid phase of the suspension.

  19. Hydrogen Production

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produ

  20. Helium transport and ash control studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miley, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Primary goal of this research is to develop a helium (ash) transport scaling law based on experimental data from devices such as TFTR and JET. To illustrate the importance of this, we have studied ash accumulation effects on ignition requirements using a O-D transport model. Ash accumulation is characterized in the model by the ratio of the helium particle confinement time to the energy confinement time t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E}. Results show that the ignition window'' shrinks rapidly as t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E} increases, closing for high t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E} increases, closing for high t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E}. A best'' value for t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E} will ultimately be determined from our scaling law studies. A helium transport scaling law is being sought that expresses the transport coefficients (D{sub {alpha}}, V{sub {alpha}}) as a function of the local plasma parameters. This is necessary for use in transport code calculations, e.g. for BALDUR. Based on experimental data from L-mode plasma operation in TFTR, a scaling law to a power law expression has been obtained using a least-square fit method. It is found that the transport coefficients are strongly affected by the local magnetic field and safety factor q. A preliminary conclusion from this work is that active control of ash buildup must be developed. To study control, we have developed a O-D plasma model which employs a simple pole-placement control model. Some preliminary calculations with this model are presented.

  1. Alternatives for Helium-3 in Multiplicity Counters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ely, James H.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

    2013-04-01

    Alternatives to helium-3 are being actively pursued due to the shortage and rising costs of helium-3. For safeguards applications, there are a number of ongoing investigations to find alternatives that provide the same capability in a cost-effective manner. One of the greatest challenges is to find a comparable alternative for multiplicity counters, since they require high efficiency and short collection or die-away times. Work has been progressing on investigating three commercially available alternatives for high efficiency multiplicity counters: boron trifluoride (BF3) filled proportional tubes, boron-lined proportional tubes, and lithium fluoride with zinc sulfide coated light guides. The baseline multiplicity counter used for the investigation is the Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter with 121 helium-3 filled tubes at 10 atmosphere pressure, which is a significant capability to match. The primary tool for the investigation has been modeling and simulation using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) radiation transport program, with experiments to validate the models. To directly calculate the coincidence rates in boron-lined (and possibly other) detectors, the MCNPX code has been enhanced to allow the existing coincidence tally to be used with energy deposition rather than neutron capture reactions. This allows boron-lined detectors to be modeled more accurately. Variations of tube number and diameter along with variations in the amount of inter-tube moderator have been conducted for the BF3 and boron-lined cases. Tube pressure was investigated for BF3, up to two atmospheres, as well as optimal boron thickness in the boron-lined tubes. The lithium fluoride was modeled as sheets of material with light guides in between, and the number and thickness of the sheets investigated. The amount of light guide, which in this case doubles as a moderator, was also optimized. The results of these modeling and simulation optimization investigations are described

  2. Helium-3 and Helium-4 acceleration by high power laser pulses for hadron therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bulanov, S. S.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C. B.; Leemans, W. P.; Bulanov, S. V.; Margarone, D.; Korn, G.; Haberer, T.

    2015-06-24

    The laser driven acceleration of ions is considered a promising candidate for an ion source for hadron therapy of oncological diseases. Though proton and carbon ion sources are conventionally used for therapy, other light ions can also be utilized. Whereas carbon ions require 400 MeV per nucleon to reach the same penetration depth as 250 MeV protons, helium ions require only 250 MeV per nucleon, which is the lowest energy per nucleon among the light ions. This fact along with the larger biological damage to cancer cells achieved by helium ions, than that by protons, makes this species an interesting candidate for the laser driven ion source. Two mechanisms (Magnetic Vortex Acceleration and hole-boring Radiation Pressure Acceleration) of PW-class laser driven ion acceleration from liquid and gaseous helium targets are studied with the goal of producing 250 MeV per nucleon helium ion beams that meet the hadron therapy requirements. We show that He3 ions, having almost the same penetration depth as He4 with the same energy per nucleon, require less laser power to be accelerated to the required energy for the hadron therapy.

  3. Renewable Hydrogen

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Hydrogen NREL Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center Dr. Robert J. Remick November 16, 2009 NREL/PR-560-47433 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. U.S. Dependence on Imported Oil National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future 2 Energy Solutions are Challenging We need a balanced portfolio of options- including clean, domestic energy

  4. Production of thorium-229 using helium nuclei

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirzadeh, Saed (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Garland, Marc Alan (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2010-12-14

    A method for producing .sup.229Th includes the steps of providing .sup.226Ra as a target material, and bombarding the target material with alpha particles, helium-3, or neutrons to form .sup.229Th. When neutrons are used, the neutrons preferably include an epithermal neutron flux of at least 1.times.10.sup.13 n s.sup.-1cm.sup.-2. .sup.228Ra can also be bombarded with thermal and/or energetic neutrons to result in a neutron capture reaction to form .sup.229Th. Using .sup.230Th as a target material, .sup.229Th can be formed using neutron, gamma ray, proton or deuteron bombardment.

  5. Carbon dioxide and climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

  6. Helium Release Behavior of Aged Titanium Tritides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SHANAHAN, KIRKL.

    2004-07-27

    One sample of bulk Ti has been loaded with a 50 per cent / 50 per cent deuterium/tritium mixture and statically aged for 6.5 years. Thermal desorption of the sample shows an initial release of hydrogen isotopes followed by 3He release. Subsequent D2 loading/desorption was used to quantify the trapped tritium heel. The sample shows an excess hydrogen capacity as a second thermal desorption peak that partially disappears and shifts with annealing at 923-973K. The main hydrogen desorption peak also shifts to higher temperature, indicating a partial reversal of the tritium-decay induced damage by annealing.

  7. Method for the purification of noble gases, nitrogen and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, John D.; Meikrantz, David H.; Tuggle, Dale G.

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the purification and collection of hydrogen isotopes in a flowing inert gaseous mixture containing impurities, wherein metal alloy getters having the capability of sorbing non-hydrogen impurities such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, ammonia, nitrogen and water vapor are utilized to purify the gaseous mixture of impurities. After purification hydrogen isotopes may be more efficiently collected. A plurality of parallel process lines utilizing metal getter alloys can be used to provide for the continuous purification and collection of the hydrogen isotopes.

  8. Method for the purification of noble gases, nitrogen and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, J.D.; Meikrantz, D.H.; Tuggle, D.G.

    1997-09-23

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the purification and collection of hydrogen isotopes in a flowing inert gaseous mixture containing impurities, wherein metal alloy getters having the capability of sorbing non-hydrogen impurities such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, ammonia, nitrogen and water vapor are utilized to purify the gaseous mixture of impurities. After purification hydrogen isotopes may be more efficiently collected. A plurality of parallel process lines utilizing metal getter alloys can be used to provide for the continuous purification and collection of the hydrogen isotopes. 15 figs.

  9. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate ...

  10. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide / Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions Jump to: navigation, search Geothermal Lab Call Projects for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Reservoir Rock...

  11. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate...

  12. Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems This case study documents one year of ...

  13. The primordial helium abundance from updated emissivities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aver, Erik; Olive, Keith A.; Skillman, Evan D.; Porter, R.L. E-mail: olive@umn.edu E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu

    2013-11-01

    Observations of metal-poor extragalactic H II regions allow the determination of the primordial helium abundance, Y{sub p}. The He I emissivities are the foundation of the model of the H II region's emission. Porter, Ferland, Storey, and Detisch (2012) have recently published updated He I emissivities based on improved photoionization cross-sections. We incorporate these new atomic data and update our recent Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis of the dataset published by Izotov, Thuan, and Stasi'nska (2007). As before, cuts are made to promote quality and reliability, and only solutions which fit the data within 95% confidence level are used to determine the primordial He abundance. The previously qualifying dataset is almost entirely retained and with strong concordance between the physical parameters. Overall, an upward bias from the new emissivities leads to a decrease in Y{sub p}. In addition, we find a general trend to larger uncertainties in individual objects (due to changes in the emissivities) and an increased variance (due to additional objects included). From a regression to zero metallicity, we determine Y{sub p} = 0.2465 ± 0.0097, in good agreement with the BBN result, Y{sub p} = 0.2485 ± 0.0002, based on the Planck determination of the baryon density. In the future, a better understanding of why a large fraction of spectra are not well fit by the model will be crucial to achieving an increase in the precision of the primordial helium abundance determination.

  14. Liquid uranium alloy-helium fission reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minkov, Vladimir (Skokie, IL)

    1986-01-01

    This invention teaches a nuclear fission reactor having a core vessel and at least one tandem heat exchanger vessel coupled therewith across upper and lower passages to define a closed flow loop. Nuclear fuel such as a uranium alloy in its liquid phase fills these vessels and flow passages. Solid control elements in the reactor core vessel are adapted to be adjusted relative to one another to control fission reaction of the liquid fuel therein. Moderator elements in the other vessel and flow passages preclude fission reaction therein. An inert gas such as helium is bubbled upwardly through the heat exchanger vessel operable to move the liquid fuel upwardly therein and unidirectionally around the closed loop and downwardly through the core vessel. This helium gas is further directed to heat conversion means outside of the reactor vessels to utilize the heat from the fission reaction to generate useful output. The nuclear fuel operates in the 1200.degree.-1800.degree. C. range, and even higher to 2500.degree. C., limited only by the thermal effectiveness of the structural materials, increasing the efficiency of power generation from the normal 30-35% with 300.degree.-500.degree. C. upper limit temperature to 50-65%. Irradiation of the circulating liquid fuel, as contrasted to only localized irradiation of a solid fuel, provides improved fuel utilization.

  15. Liquid uranium alloy-helium fission reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minkov, V.

    1984-06-13

    This invention describes a nuclear fission reactor which has a core vessel and at least one tandem heat exchanger vessel coupled therewith across upper and lower passages to define a closed flow loop. Nuclear fuel such as a uranium alloy in its liquid phase fills these vessels and flow passages. Solid control elements in the reactor core vessel are adapted to be adjusted relative to one another to control fission reaction of the liquid fuel therein. Moderator elements in the other vessel and flow passages preclude fission reaction therein. An inert gas such as helium is bubbled upwardly through the heat exchanger vessel operable to move the liquid fuel upwardly therein and unidirectionally around the closed loop and downwardly through the core vessel. This helium gas is further directed to heat conversion means outside of the reactor vessels to utilize the heat from the fission reaction to generate useful output. The nuclear fuel operates in the 1200 to 1800/sup 0/C range, and even higher to 2500/sup 0/C.

  16. High-temperature oxidation of Zircaloy in hydrogen-steam mixtures. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, H.M.; Thomas, G.R.

    1982-09-01

    Oxidation rates of Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes have been measured in hydrogen-steam mixtures at 1200 to 1700/sup 0/C. For a given isothermal oxidation temperature, the oxide layer thicknesses have been measured as a function of time, steam supply rate, and hydrogen overpressure. The oxidation rates in the mixtures were compared with similar data obtained in pure steam and helium-steam environments under otherwise identical conditions. The rates in pure steam and helium-steam mixtures were equivalent and comparable to the parabolic rates obtained under steam-saturated conditions and reported in the literature. However, when the helium was replaced with hydrogen of equivalent partial pressure, a significantly smaller oxidation rate was observed. For high steam-supply rates, the oxidation kinetics in a hydrogen-steam mixture were parabolic, but the rate was smaller than for pure steam or helium-steam mixtures. Under otherwise identical conditions, the ratio of the parabolic rate for hydrogen-steam to that for pure steam decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing steam-supply rate.

  17. Double photoionization of helium with synchrotron x-rays: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Overview and comparison of photoionization with charged particle impact; The ratio of double to single ionization of helium: the relationship of photon and bare charged particle impact ionization; Double photoionization of helium at high energies; Compton scattering of photons from electrons bound in light elements; Electron ionization and the Compton effect in double ionization of helium; Elimination of two atomic electrons by a single energy photon; Double photoionization of helium at intermediate energies; Double Photoionization: Gauge Dependence, Coulomb Explosion; Single and Double Ionization by high energy photon impact; The effect of Compton Scattering on the double to single ionization ratio in helium; and Double ionization of He by photoionization and Compton scattering. These papers have been cataloged separately for the database.

  18. Detailed and simplified nonequilibrium helium ionization in the solar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golding, Thomas Peter; Carlsson, Mats; Leenaarts, Jorrit E-mail: mats.carlsson@astro.uio.no

    2014-03-20

    Helium ionization plays an important role in the energy balance of the upper chromosphere and transition region. Helium spectral lines are also often used as diagnostics of these regions. We carry out one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of the solar atmosphere and find that the helium ionization is set mostly by photoionization and direct collisional ionization, counteracted by radiative recombination cascades. By introducing an additional recombination rate mimicking the recombination cascades, we construct a simplified three-level helium model atom consisting of only the ground states. This model atom is suitable for modeling nonequilibrium helium ionization in three-dimensional numerical models. We perform a brief investigation of the formation of the He I 10830 and He II 304 spectral lines. Both lines show nonequilibrium features that are not recovered with statistical equilibrium models, and caution should therefore be exercised when such models are used as a basis for interpretating observations.

  19. Uranium dioxide electrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willit, James L.; Ackerman, John P.; Williamson, Mark A.

    2009-12-29

    This is a single stage process for treating spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors. The spent nuclear fuel, uranium oxide, UO.sub.2, is added to a solution of UCl.sub.4 dissolved in molten LiCl. A carbon anode and a metallic cathode is positioned in the molten salt bath. A power source is connected to the electrodes and a voltage greater than or equal to 1.3 volts is applied to the bath. At the anode, the carbon is oxidized to form carbon dioxide and uranium chloride. At the cathode, uranium is electroplated. The uranium chloride at the cathode reacts with more uranium oxide to continue the reaction. The process may also be used with other transuranic oxides and rare earth metal oxides.

  20. Low cost hydrogen/novel membrane technology for hydrogen separation from synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, R.W.; Bell, C.M.; Chow, P.; Louie, J.; Mohr, J.M.; Peinemann, K.V.; Pinnau, I.; Wijmans, J.G.; Gottschlich, D.E.; Roberts, D.L.

    1990-10-01

    The production of hydrogen from synthesis gas made by gasification of coal is expensive. The separation of hydrogen from synthesis gas is a major cost element in the total process. In this report we describe the results of a program aimed at the development of membranes and membrane modules for the separation and purification of hydrogen from synthesis gas. The performance properties of the developed membranes were used in an economic evaluation of membrane gas separation systems in the coal gasification process. Membranes tested were polyetherimide and a polyamide copolymer. The work began with an examination of the chemical separations required to produce hydrogen from synthesis gas, identification of three specific separations where membranes might be applicable. A range of membrane fabrication techniques and module configurations were investigated to optimize the separation properties of the membrane materials. Parametric data obtained were used to develop the economic comparison of processes incorporating membranes with a base-case system without membranes. The computer calculations for the economic analysis were designed and executed. Finally, we briefly investigated alternative methods of performing the three separations in the production of hydrogen from synthesis gas. The three potential opportunities for membranes in the production of hydrogen from synthesis gas are: (1) separation of hydrogen from nitrogen as the final separation in a air-blown or oxygen-enriched air-blown gasification process, (2) separation of hydrogen from carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide to reduce or eliminate the conventional ethanolamine acid gas removal unit, and (3) separation of hydrogen and/or carbon dioxide form carbon monoxide prior to the shift reactor to influence the shift reaction. 28 refs., 54 figs., 40 tabs.

  1. Hydrogen program overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gronich, S.

    1997-12-31

    This paper consists of viewgraphs which summarize the following: Hydrogen program structure; Goals for hydrogen production research; Goals for hydrogen storage and utilization research; Technology validation; DOE technology validation activities supporting hydrogen pathways; Near-term opportunities for hydrogen; Market for hydrogen; and List of solicitation awards. It is concluded that a full transition toward a hydrogen economy can begin in the next decade.

  2. Hydrogen Liquefaction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Hydrogen: Over The Road Delivery Hydrogen Liquefaction February 26, 2014 1 Attributes ■ Product Density (4,500 Kgs/dilivery) ■ Purity - four 9's+ ■ Four North American Producers ■ Large Transportation Fleet ■ Easy Set-up, Reliable Supply ■ Distribution Range ■ Pump vs. Compression energy Overview Challenges ■ Safety ■ Molecule conditioning (purity) ■ Liquefaction Energy (13 kWh/kg) ■ Capex / Opex ■ Source Dependency 2 Purification Steps  SMR-PSA  De-Oxo  Carbon

  3. Hydrogen Technologies Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-03-01

    The Hydrogen Technologies Group at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory advances the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center's mission by researching a variety of hydrogen technologies.

  4. Hydrogen | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Hydrogen Jump to: navigation, search <-- Back to Hydrogen Gateway Technical Reference for Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials KIA FCEV SUNRISE MG 7955 6 7.jpg Guidance on materials...

  5. Hydrogen Transition Infrastructure Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A.

    2005-05-01

    Presentation for the 2005 U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program review analyzes the hydrogen infrastructure needed to accommodate a transitional hydrogen fuel cell vehicle demand.

  6. Superconducting cable cooling system by helium gas and a mixture of gas and liquid helium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dean, John W.

    1977-01-01

    Thermally contacting, oppositely streaming cryogenic fluid streams in the same enclosure in a closed cycle that changes from a cool high pressure helium gas to a cooler reduced pressure helium fluid comprised of a mixture of gas and boiling liquid so as to be near the same temperature but at different pressures respectively in go and return legs that are in thermal contact with each other and in thermal contact with a longitudinally extending superconducting transmission line enclosed in the same cable enclosure that insulates the line from the ambient at a temperature T.sub.1. By first circulating the fluid in a go leg from a refrigerator at one end of the line as a high pressure helium gas near the normal boiling temperature of helium; then circulating the gas through an expander at the other end of the line where the gas becomes a mixture of reduced pressure gas and boiling liquid at its boiling temperature; then by circulating the mixture in a return leg that is separated from but in thermal contact with the gas in the go leg and in the same enclosure therewith; and finally returning the resulting low pressure gas to the refrigerator for compression into a high pressure gas at T.sub.2 is a closed cycle, where T.sub.1 >T.sub.2, the temperature distribution is such that the line temperature is nearly constant along its length from the refrigerator to the expander due to the boiling of the liquid in the mixture. A heat exchanger between the go and return lines removes the gas from the liquid in the return leg while cooling the go leg.

  7. J-controlled crack growth as an indicator of hydrogen-stainless steel compatibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dietrich, M.R.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.; Donovan, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The J-integral was evaluated as a parameter to characterize fracture of stainless steels and as a measure of hydrogen damage. C-shaped specimens of type 304L, 316, and 21-6-9 stainless steels were tested in high pressure helium and hydrogen. The critical force for crack initiation (Jm), and tearing resistance (dJ/da) were decreased by hydrogen in all three alloys. The J-integral appears useful as a measure of hydrogen compatibility because it is sensitive to both test environment and microstructure.

  8. Helium isotopes and tectonics in southern Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sano, Yuji; Wakita, Hiroshi ); Nuccio, M.P. ); Italiano, F.

    1989-06-01

    Geodynamic evolution of southern Italy can be understood within the framework of the Mediterranean-Alpine System. Subduction of a plate along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc under the Tyrrhenian Sea has been suggested by many geophysicists, although it is not yet confirmed and remains somewhat controversial. Helium isotope ratios provide useful information on the geotectonic structure of the region. The authors report here the {sup 3}H/{sup 4}He ratios of terrestrial gas samples from southern Italy. The observed {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios are relatively high in the Eolian volcanic arc region and low in the other areas. Dichotomous explanations are presented. Firstly, volcanic arc-forearc hypothesis suggests the subduction along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc. Secondly, horizontal transport hypothesis is described based on the relationship between the ratios and radial distance from the recent spreading basin in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea.

  9. Two plateaux for palladium hydride and the effect of helium from tritium decay on the desorption plateau pressure for palladium tritide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, R.T.; Lee, M.W. )

    1991-10-01

    Two plateaux are observed in the desorption isotherm for palladium hydride: a lower plateau pressure for a hydrogen/metal atom ratio (H/M) less than about 0.3 and a slightly higher plateau pressure for H/M greater than about 0.3. This higher pressure corresponds to the reported pressure for palladium hydride. These observations were made for a large surface area palladium powder exposed to both protium and tritium. Helium buildup form tritium decay decreases the lower plateau pressure but does not affect the observations for H/M greater than about 0.3. In this paper, a multiple-energy hydrogen site occupancy model is proposed to explain qualitatively both the dual plateau and the helium effect in palladium hydride.

  10. Reducing carbon dioxide to products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

    2014-09-30

    A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

  11. Recuperative supercritical carbon dioxide cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Sprouse, Kenneth M; Subbaraman, Ganesan; O'Connor, George M; Johnson, Gregory A

    2014-11-18

    A power plant includes a closed loop, supercritical carbon dioxide system (CLS-CO.sub.2 system). The CLS-CO.sub.2 system includes a turbine-generator and a high temperature recuperator (HTR) that is arranged to receive expanded carbon dioxide from the turbine-generator. The HTR includes a plurality of heat exchangers that define respective heat exchange areas. At least two of the heat exchangers have different heat exchange areas.

  12. METHOD OF MAKING PLUTONIUM DIOXIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garner, C.S.

    1959-01-13

    A process is presented For converting both trivalent and tetravalent plutonium oxalate to substantially pure plutonium dioxide. The plutonium oxalate is carefully dried in the temperature range of 130 to300DEC by raising the temperature gnadually throughout this range. The temperature is then raised to 600 C in the period of about 0.3 of an hour and held at this level for about the same length of time to obtain the plutonium dioxide.

  13. Hydrogen Technology Validation

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This fact sheet provides a basic introduction to the DOE Hydrogen National Hydrogen Learning Demonstration for non-technical audiences.

  14. Hydrogen Technology Validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-11-01

    This fact sheet provides a basic introduction to the DOE Hydrogen National Hydrogen Learning Demonstration for non-technical audiences.

  15. Hydrogen scavengers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carroll, David W.; Salazar, Kenneth V.; Trkula, Mitchell; Sandoval, Cynthia W.

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented a codeposition process for fabricating hydrogen scavengers. First, a .pi.-bonded allylic organometallic complex is prepared by reacting an allylic transition metal halide with an organic ligand complexed with an alkali metal; and then, in a second step, a vapor of the .pi.-bonded allylic organometallic complex is combined with the vapor of an acetylenic compound, irradiated with UV light, and codeposited on a substrate.

  16. EIS-0431: Hydrogen Energy California's Project, Kern County, California

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to provide financial assistance for the construction and operation of Hydrogen Energy California's LLC project, which would produce and sell electricity, carbon dioxide and fertilizer. DOE selected this project for an award of financial assistance through a competitive process under the Clean Coal Power Initiative program.

  17. Rapid heating tensile tests of hydrogen-charged high-energy-rate-forged 316L stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosley, W.C.

    1989-05-19

    316L stainless steel is a candidate material for construction of equipment that will be exposed to tritium. Proper design of the equipment will require an understanding of how tritium and its decay product helium affect mechanical properties. This memorandum describes results of rapid heating tensile testing of hydrogen-charged specimens of high-energy-rate-forged (HERF) 316L stainless steel. These results provide a data base for comparison with uncharged and tritium-charged-and-aged specimens to distinguish the effects of hydrogen and helium. Details of the experimental equipment and procedures and results for uncharged specimens were reported previously. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Helium bubble distributions in reactor tank repair specimens. Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tosten, M.H.; Kestin, P.A.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses the Reactor Tank Repair (RTR) program was initiated to develop an in-tank repair process capable of repairing stress corrosion cracks within the SRS reactor tank walls, in the event that such a repair is needed. Previous attempts to repair C-reactor tank with a gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding process were unsuccessful due to significant cracking that occurred in the heat-affected-zones adjacent to the repair welds. It was determined that this additional cracking was a result of helium embrittlement caused by the combined effects of helium (existing within the tank walls), the high heat input associated with the GTA process, and weld shrinkage stresses. Based on the results of earlier studies it was suggested that the effects of helium embrittlement could be minimized by using a low heat input GMA process. Metallographic analysis played an important role throughout the investigation of alternative welding methods for the repair of helium-containing materials.

  19. Technique to eliminate helium induced weld cracking in stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chin-An Wang; Chin, B.A.; Grossbeck, M.L.

    1992-12-31

    Experiments have shown that Type 316 stainless steel is susceptible to heat-affected-zone (HAZ) cracking upon cooling when welded using the gas tungsten arc (GTA) process under lateral constraint. The cracking has been hypothesized to be caused by stress-assisted helium bubble growth and rupture at grain boundaries. This study utilized an experimental welding setup which enabled different compressive stresses to be applied to the plates during welding. Autogenous GTA welds were produced in Type 316 stainless steel doped with 256 appm helium. The application of a compressive stress, 55 Mpa, during welding suppressed the previously observed catastrophic cracking. Detailed examinations conducted after welding showed a dramatic change in helium bubble morphology. Grain boundary bubble growth along directions parallel to the weld was suppressed. Results suggest that stress-modified welding techniques may be used to suppress or eliminate helium-induced cracking during joining of irradiated materials.

  20. Helium bubble distributions in reactor tank repair specimens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tosten, M.H.; Kestin, P.A.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses the Reactor Tank Repair (RTR) program was initiated to develop an in-tank repair process capable of repairing stress corrosion cracks within the SRS reactor tank walls, in the event that such a repair is needed. Previous attempts to repair C-reactor tank with a gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding process were unsuccessful due to significant cracking that occurred in the heat-affected-zones adjacent to the repair welds. It was determined that this additional cracking was a result of helium embrittlement caused by the combined effects of helium (existing within the tank walls), the high heat input associated with the GTA process, and weld shrinkage stresses. Based on the results of earlier studies it was suggested that the effects of helium embrittlement could be minimized by using a low heat input GMA process. Metallographic analysis played an important role throughout the investigation of alternative welding methods for the repair of helium-containing materials.

  1. Ab initio study of helium behavior in titanium tritides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, J. H.; Dai, Yunya; Yang, Li; Peng, SM; Fan, K. M.; Long, XG; Zhou, X. S.; Zu, Xiaotao; Gao, Fei

    2013-03-01

    Ab initio calculations based on density functional theory have been performed to investigate the relative stability of titanium tritides and the helium behavior in stable titanium tritides. The results show that the β-phase TiT1.5 without two tritium along the [100] direction (TiT1.5[100]) is more stable than other possible structures. The stability of titanium tritides decrease with the increased generation of helium in TiT1.5[100]. In addition, helium generated by tritium decay prefers locating at a tetrahedral site, and favorably migrates between two neighbor vacant tetrahedral sites through an intermediate octahedral site in titanium tritides, with a migration energy of 0.23 eV. Furthermore, helium is easily accumulated on a (100) plane in β-phase TiT1.5[100].

  2. The Hall D solenoid helium refrigeration system at JLab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laverdure, Nathaniel A.; Creel, Jonathan D.; Dixon, Kelly d.; Ganni, Venkatarao; Martin, Floyd D.; Norton, Robert O.; Radovic, Sasa

    2014-01-01

    Hall D, the new Jefferson Lab experimental facility built for the 12GeV upgrade, features a LASS 1.85 m bore solenoid magnet supported by a 4.5 K helium refrigerator system. This system consists of a CTI 2800 4.5 K refrigerator cold box, three 150 hp screw compressors, helium gas management and storage, and liquid helium and nitrogen storage for stand-alone operation. The magnet interfaces with the cryo refrigeration system through an LN2-shielded distribution box and transfer line system, both designed and fabricated by JLab. The distribution box uses a thermo siphon design to respectively cool four magnet coils and shields with liquid helium and nitrogen. We describe the salient design features of the cryo system and discuss our recent commissioning experience.

  3. Underground helium travels to the Earth's surface via aquifers...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Tweet EmailPrint Before it can put the party in party balloons, helium is carried from deep within the Earth's crust to the surface via aquifers, according to new research...

  4. Process Options for Nominal 2-K Helium Refrigeration System Designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Knudsen, Venkatarao Ganni

    2012-07-01

    Nominal 2-K helium refrigeration systems are frequently used for superconducting radio frequency and magnet string technologies used in accelerators. This paper examines the trade-offs and approximate performance of four basic types of processes used for the refrigeration of these technologies; direct vacuum pumping on a helium bath, direct vacuum pumping using full or partial refrigeration recovery, cold compression, and hybrid compression (i.e., a blend of cold and warm sub-atmospheric compression).

  5. Helium segregation on surfaces of plasma-exposed tungsten

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Maroudas, Dimitrios; Blondel, Sophie; Hu, Lin; Hammond, Karl D.; Wirth, Brian D.

    2016-01-21

    Here we report a hierarchical multi-scale modeling study of implanted helium segregation on surfaces of tungsten, considered as a plasma facing component in nuclear fusion reactors. We employ a hierarchy of atomic-scale simulations based on a reliable interatomic interaction potential, including molecular-statics simulations to understand the origin of helium surface segregation, targeted molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations of near-surface cluster reactions, and large-scale MD simulations of implanted helium evolution in plasma-exposed tungsten. We find that small, mobile He-n (1 <= n <= 7) clusters in the near-surface region are attracted to the surface due to an elastic interaction force that provides themore » thermodynamic driving force for surface segregation. Elastic interaction force induces drift fluxes of these mobile Hen clusters, which increase substantially as the migrating clusters approach the surface, facilitating helium segregation on the surface. Moreover, the clusters' drift toward the surface enables cluster reactions, most importantly trap mutation, in the near-surface region at rates much higher than in the bulk material. Moreover, these near-surface cluster dynamics have significant effects on the surface morphology, near-surface defect structures, and the amount of helium retained in the material upon plasma exposure. We integrate the findings of such atomic-scale simulations into a properly parameterized and validated spatially dependent, continuum-scale reaction-diffusion cluster dynamics model, capable of predicting implanted helium evolution, surface segregation, and its near-surface effects in tungsten. This cluster-dynamics model sets the stage for development of fully atomistically informed coarse-grained models for computationally efficient simulation predictions of helium surface segregation, as well as helium retention and surface morphological evolution, toward optimal design of plasma facing components.« less

  6. Focused helium-ion beam irradiation effects on electrical transport

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    properties of few-layer WSe2: Enabling nanoscale direct write homo-junctions (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Focused helium-ion beam irradiation effects on electrical transport properties of few-layer WSe2: Enabling nanoscale direct write homo-junctions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Focused helium-ion beam irradiation effects on electrical transport properties of few-layer WSe2: Enabling nanoscale direct write homo-junctions Atomically thin transition metal

  7. Helium Pumping Wall for a Liquid Lithium Tokamak Richard Majeski |

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Helium Pumping Wall for a Liquid Lithium Tokamak Richard Majeski This invention is designed to be a subsystem of a device, a tokamak with walls or plasma facing components of liquid lithium. This approach to constructing the lithium-bearing walls of the tokamak allows the wall to fulfill a necessary function -- helium pumping - for which a complex structure was formerly required. The primary novel feature of the invention is that a permeable wall is used to

  8. David Lee, Douglas Osheroff, Superfluidity, and Helium 3

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    David Lee, Douglas Osheroff, Superfluidity, and Helium 3 Resources with Additional Information David M. Lee and Douglas D. Osheroff received the 1996 Nobel Prize in Physics for 'their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3'. "In 1976, Lee shared with Richardson and Osheroff their earliest recognition for studies of superfluidity, the Simon Memorial Prize of the British Physical Society. The Buckley Prize of the American Physical Society followed for the trio in 1981. ... Douglas D. Osheroff

  9. Hydrogen Sensor Testing, Hydrogen Technologies (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-11-01

    Factsheet describing the hydrogen sensor testing laboratory at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  10. Inhibition of the fermentation of propionate to methane by hydrogen, acetate, and propionate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukuzaki, Satoshi; Nishio, Naomichi; Shobayashi, Manabu; Nagai, Shiro )

    1990-03-01

    Inhibition of the fermentation of propionate to methane and carbon dioxide by hydrogen, acetate, and propionate was analyzed with a mesophilic propionate-acclimatized sludge that consisted of numerous flocs (size, 150 to 300 {mu}). The acclimatized sludge could convert propionate to methane and carbon dioxide stoichiometrically without accumulating hydrogen and acetate in a propionate-minimal medium. Inhibition of propionate utilization by propionate could be analyzed by a second-order substrate inhibition model. For inhibition by hydrogen and acetate to propionate utilization, a noncompetitive product inhibition model was used. It could be concluded that the increase in undissociated propionic acid concentration was a key factor in inhibition of propionate utilization and that hydrogen and acetate cooperatively inhibited propionate degradation, suggesting that hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogens might play an important role in enhancing propionate degradation to methane and carbon dioxide.

  11. Helium Loop Cooling Channel Hydraulic Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olivas, Eric Richard; Morgan, Robert Vaughn; Woloshun, Keith Albert

    2015-07-02

    New methods for generating ⁹⁹Mo are being explored in an effort to eliminate proliferation issues and provide a domestic supply of ⁹⁹mTc for medical imaging. Electron accelerating technology is used by sending an electron beam through a series of ¹⁰⁰Mo targets. During this process a large amount of heat is created, which directly affects the operating temperature set for the system. In order to maintain the required temperature range, helium gas is used to serve as a cooling agent that flows through narrow channels between the target disks. Currently we are tailoring the cooling channel entrance and exits to decrease the pressure drop through the targets. Currently all hardware has be procured and manufactured to conduct flow measurements and visualization via solid particle seeder. Pressure drop will be studied as a function of mass flow and diffuser angle. The results from these experiments will help in determining target cooling geometry and validate CFD code results.

  12. Hydrogen Event Containment Response Code System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-11-23

    Version: 00 Distribution is restricted to the United States Only. HECTR1.5 (Hydrogen Event-Containment Transient Response) is a lumped-volume containment analysis program that is most useful for performing parametric studies. Its main purpose is to analyze nuclear reactor accidents involving the transport and combustion of hydrogen, but HECTR can also function as an experiment analysis tool and can solve a limited set of other containment problems. Six gases; steam, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbonmore » dioxide are modified along with sumps containing liquid water. HECTR can model virtually all the containment systems of importance in ice condenser, large dry and Mark III containments. A postprocessor, ACHILES1.5, is included. It processes the time-dependent variable output (compartment pressures, flow junction velocities, surface temperatures, etc.) produced by HECTR. ACHILES can produce tables and graphs of these data.« less

  13. A Basic, and Slightly Acidic, Solution to Hydrogen Storage | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy A Basic, and Slightly Acidic, Solution to Hydrogen Storage A Basic, and Slightly Acidic, Solution to Hydrogen Storage March 23, 2012 - 2:17pm Addthis Brookhaven researchers Etsuko Fujita, Jonathan Hull, and James Muckerman developed a new catalyst that reversibly converts hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide to a liquid under very mild conditions. Their findings were published in the March 18th issue of Nature Chemistry. | Photo courtesy of Brookhaven National Lab. Brookhaven researchers

  14. Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Troy A. Semelsberger Los Alamos National Laboratory Hydrogen Storage Summit Jan 27-29, 2015 Denver, CO Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials 2 Objectives 1. Assess chemical hydrogen storage materials that can exceed 700 bar compressed hydrogen tanks 2. Status (state-of-the-art) of chemical hydrogen storage materials 3. Identify key material characteristics 4. Identify obstacles, challenges and risks for the successful deployment of chemical hydrogen materials in a practical on-board hydrogen

  15. Hydrogen detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kanegae, Naomichi; Ikemoto, Ichiro

    1980-01-01

    A hydrogen detector of the type in which the interior of the detector is partitioned by a metal membrane into a fluid section and a vacuum section. Two units of the metal membrane are provided and vacuum pipes are provided independently in connection to the respective units of the metal membrane. One of the vacuum pipes is connected to a vacuum gauge for static equilibrium operation while the other vacuum pipe is connected to an ion pump or a set of an ion pump and a vacuum gauge both designed for dynamic equilibrium operation.

  16. Safety and Regulatory Structure for CNG, CNG-Hydrogen, Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Hydrogen, Hydrogen Vehicles and Fuels in China Safety and Regulatory Structure for CNG, CNG-Hydrogen, Hydrogen Vehicles and Fuels in China Presentation given by Jinyang Zheng of ...

  17. Ovonic Hydrogen Systems LLC formerly Texaco Ovonic Hydrogen Systems...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Hydrogen Systems LLC formerly Texaco Ovonic Hydrogen Systems LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ovonic Hydrogen Systems LLC (formerly Texaco Ovonic Hydrogen Systems LLC) Place:...

  18. SEPARATING PROTOACTINIUM WITH MANGANESE DIOXIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seaborg, G.T.; Gofman, J.W.; Stoughton, R.W.

    1958-04-22

    The preparation of U/sup 235/ and an improved method for isolating Pa/ sup 233/ from foreign products present in neutronirradiated thorium is described. The method comprises forming a solution of neutron-irradiated thorium together with a manganous salt, then adding potassium permanganate to precipitate the manganese as manganese dioxide whereby protoactinium is carried down with the nnanganese dioxide dissolving the precipitate, adding a soluble zirconium salt, and adding phosphate ion to precipitate zirconium phosphate whereby protoactinium is then carried down with the zirconium phosphate to effect a further concentration.

  19. 97e Intermediate Temperature Catalytic Reforming of Bio-Oil for Distributed Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marda, J. R.; Dean, A. M.; Czernik, S.; Evans, R. J.; French, R.; Ratcliff, M.

    2008-01-01

    With the world's energy demands rapidly increasing, it is necessary to look to sources other than fossil fuels, preferably those that minimize greenhouse emissions. One such renewable source of energy is biomass, which has the added advantage of being a near-term source of hydrogen. While there are several potential routes to produce hydrogen from biomass thermally, given the near-term technical barriers to hydrogen storage and delivery, distributed technologies such that hydrogen is produced at or near the point of use are attractive. One such route is to first produce bio-oil via fast pyrolysis of biomass close to its source to create a higher energy-density product, then ship this bio-oil to its point of use where it can be reformed to hydrogen and carbon dioxide. This route is especially well suited for smaller-scale reforming plants located at hydrogen distribution sites such as filling stations. There is also the potential for automated operation of the conversion system. A system has been developed for volatilizing bio-oil with manageable carbon deposits using ultrasonic atomization and by modifying bio-oil properties, such as viscosity, by blending or reacting bio-oil with methanol. Non-catalytic partial oxidation of bio-oil is then used to achieve significant conversion to CO with minimal aromatic hydrocarbon formation by keeping the temperature at 650 C or less and oxygen levels low. The non-catalytic reactions occur primarily in the gas phase. However, some nonvolatile components of bio-oil present as aerosols may react heterogeneously. The product gas is passed over a packed bed of precious metal catalyst where further reforming as well as water gas shift reactions are accomplished completing the conversion to hydrogen. The approach described above requires significantly lower catalyst loadings than conventional catalytic steam reforming due to the significant conversion in the non-catalytic step. The goal is to reform and selectively oxidize the bio

  20. Mechanochemical hydrogenation of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T.; Smol, Robert; Farber, Gerald; Naphtali, Leonard M.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogenation of coal is improved through the use of a mechanical force to reduce the size of the particulate coal simultaneously with the introduction of gaseous hydrogen, or other hydrogen donor composition. Such hydrogen in the presence of elemental tin during this one-step size reduction-hydrogenation further improves the yield of the liquid hydrocarbon product.

  1. CTP Hydrogen | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    CTP Hydrogen Jump to: navigation, search Name: CTP Hydrogen Place: Westborough, Massachusetts Zip: 1581 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: CTP Hydrogen is an early stage company...

  2. Thermochemical generation of hydrogen and oxygen from water. [NaMnO/sub 2/ and TiO/sub 2/

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, P.R.; Bamberger, C.E.

    1980-02-08

    A thermochemical cyclic process for the production of hydrogen exploits the reaction between sodium manganate (NaMnO/sub 2/) and titanium dioxide (TiO/sub 2/) to form sodium titanate (Na/sub 2/TiO/sub 3/), manganese (II) titanate (MnTiO/sub 3/) and oxygen. The titanate mixture is treated with sodium hydroxide, in the presence of steam, to form sodium titanate, sodium manganate (III), water and hydrogen. The sodium titanate-manganate (III) mixture is treated with water to form sodium manganate (III), titanium dioxide and sodium hydroxide. Sodium manganate (III) and titanium dioxide are recycled following dissolution of sodium hydroxide in water.

  3. Method for dissolving plutonium dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tallent, Othar K.

    1978-01-01

    The fluoride-catalyzed, non-oxidative dissolution of plutonium dioxide in HNO.sub.3 is significantly enhanced in rate by oxidizing dissolved plutonium ions. It is believed that the oxidation of dissolved plutonium releases fluoride ions from a soluble plutonium-fluoride complex for further catalytic action.

  4. NREL: Learning - Hydrogen Basics

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Basics Hydrogen is a clean-burning fuel, and when combined with oxygen in a fuel cell, it produces heat and electricity with only water vapor as a by-product. But hydrogen...

  5. BP and Hydrogen Pipelines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    BP and Hydrogen Pipelines DOE Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop August 30-31, 2005 Gary P. Yoho, P.E. i l i * Green corporate philosophy and senior management commitment * Reduced greenhouse gas emissions nine years ahead of target * Alternatives to oil are a big part of BP' including natural gas, LNG, solar and hydrogen * Hydrogen Bus Project won Australia' prestigious environmental award * UK partnership opened the first hydrogen demonstration refueling station * Two hydrogen pipelines

  6. Why Hydrogen? Hydrogen from Diverse Domestic Resources

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    from Diverse Domestic Resources Hydrogen from Diverse Domestic Resources Distributed Generation Transportation HIGH EFFICIENCY HIGH EFFICIENCY & RELIABILITY & RELIABILITY ZERONEAR...

  7. Hydrogen Safety Panel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    or otherwise restricted information. Project ID: scs07weiner PNNL-SA-65397 2 IEA HIA Task 19 Working Group Hydrogen Safety Training Props Hydrogen Safety Panel Incident...

  8. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Demonstration ...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen fuel cells have a long track record of supplying efficient, emissions-free power ... power, by demonstrating a hydrogen fuel cell deployment in a commercial port setting. ...

  9. Hydrogen Program Overview

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to the DOE Hydrogen Program. It describes the program mission and answers the question: Why Hydrogen?

  10. Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group of research and industry experts focuses on issues related to the cost, safety, and reliability of hydrogen pipelines. Participants represent organizations...

  11. Hydrogen | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Hydrogen Jump to: navigation, search Hydrogen Companies Loading map... "format":"googlemaps3","type":"SATELLITE","types":"ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN","limit":1000,"o...

  12. Helium gas bubble trapped in liquid helium in high magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, H. Hannahs, S. T.; Markiewicz, W. D.; Weijers, H. W.

    2014-03-31

    High magnetic field magnets are used widely in the area of the condensed matter physics, material science, chemistry, geochemistry, and biology at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. New high field magnets of state-of-the-art are being pursued and developed at the lab, such as the current developing 32 T, 32 mm bore fully superconducting magnet. Liquid Helium (LHe) is used as the coolant for superconducting magnets or samples tested in a high magnetic field. When the magnetic field reaches a relatively high value the boil-off helium gas bubble generated by heat losses in the cryostat can be trapped in the LHe bath in the region where BzdBz/dz is less than negative 2100 T{sup 2}/m, instead of floating up to the top of LHe. Then the magnet or sample in the trapped bubble region may lose efficient cooling. In the development of the 32 T magnet, a prototype Yttrium Barium Copper Oxide coil of 6 double pancakes with an inner diameter of 40 mm and an outer diameter of 140 mm was fabricated and tested in a resistive magnet providing a background field of 15 T. The trapped gas bubble was observed in the tests when the prototype coil was ramped up to 7.5 T at a current of 200 A. This letter reports the test results on the trapped gas bubble and the comparison with the analytical results which shows they are in a good agreement.

  13. Controlled Chemistry Helium High Temperature Materials Test Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard N. WRight

    2005-08-01

    A system to test aging and environmental effects in flowing helium with impurity content representative of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) has been designed and assembled. The system will be used to expose microstructure analysis coupons and mechanical test specimens for up to 5,000 hours in helium containing potentially oxidizing or carburizing impurities controlled to parts per million levels. Impurity levels in the flowing helium are controlled through a feedback mechanism based on gas chromatography measurements of the gas chemistry at the inlet and exit from a high temperature retort containing the test materials. Initial testing will focus on determining the nature and extent of combined aging and environmental effects on microstructure and elevated temperature mechanical properties of alloys proposed for structural applications in the NGNP, including Inconel 617 and Haynes 230.

  14. Operation of drift chambers with helium based mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, A. ); Sauli, F. )

    1994-08-01

    Helium based gas mixtures have been investigated for lowering multiple scattering contributions to the momentum resolution for intermediate energy particles. The relevant transport parameters, namely drift velocity and diffusion have been calculated for several mixtures and compared to standard argon based mixtures. Some fast, low diffusion mixtures have been identified. The small Lorentz angle computed make them promising candidates for drift chamber operation in magnetic fields. Measurements on high accuracy drift chambers in a test beam with a helium-DME (dimethyl ether) (70-30) mixture have resulted in a spatial resolution ranging from 70[mu]m to 100[mu]m.

  15. Isotope Effects and Helium Retention Behavior in Vanadium Tritide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, Jr., R. C.; Attalla, A.; Craft, B. D.

    1985-04-01

    The relaxation times of the H, T, and 3He nuclei have been measured in vanadium hydride and tritide samples. Substantial isotope effects in both the phase transition temperatures and diffusion parameters have been found. When compared to hydrides, the tritide samples have lower transition temperatures and faster mobilities. The differences in the occupancies of the interstitial sites are largely responsible for these isotope effects. Most of the helium atoms generated by tritium decay remain trapped in microscopic bubbles formed with the VTx lattice. Evidence is presented for the gradual growth of the helium bubbles over periods of hundreds of days.

  16. Status of the helium afterglow injector for MAMI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arianer, J.; Cohen, S.; Essabaa, S.; Frascaria, R.; Zerhouni, O.; Szeremeta, F.; Wurzinger, R.; Aulenbacher, K.

    1998-01-20

    For the parity-violation experiment at the Mami cw electron accelerator facility at the University of Mainz, we need a stable polarized electron source able to deliver a current >150 {mu}A with polarization >60%. We develop the Orsay polarized electron source SELPO as an injector for MAMI. SELPO source based on a flowing helium afterglow is now operating in a high voltage platform. The terminal will be tested completely at Orsay and is foreseen to be installed at MAMI before the end of this year. Recent results obtained with an array of capillaries to generate the helium flow and a longitudinal spin direction are described.

  17. Maskless Lithography and in situ Visualization of Conductivity of Graphene using Helium Ion Microscopy

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Iberi, Vighter O.; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Zhang, X. -G.; Matola, Brad R.; Linn, Allison R.; Joy, David Charles; Adam Justin Rondinone

    2015-07-07

    The remarkable mechanical and electronic properties of graphene make it an ideal candidate for next generation nanoelectronics. With the recent development of commercial-level single-crystal graphene layers, the potential for manufacturing household graphene-based devices has improved, but significant challenges still remain with regards to patterning the graphene into devices. In the case of graphene supported on a substrate, traditional nanofabrication techniques such as e-beam lithography (EBL) are often used in fabricating graphene nanoribbons but the multi-step processes they require can result in contamination of the graphene with resists and solvents. In this letter, we report the utility of scanning helium ionmore » lithography for fabricating functional graphene nanoconductors that are supported directly on a silicon dioxide layer, and we measure the minimum feature size achievable due to limitations imposed by thermal fluctuations and ion scattering during the milling process. Further we demonstrate that ion beams, due to their positive charging nature, may be used to observe and test the conductivity of graphene-based nanoelectronic devices in situ.« less

  18. Maskless Lithography and in situ Visualization of Conductivity of Graphene using Helium Ion Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iberi, Vighter O.; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Zhang, X. -G.; Matola, Brad R.; Linn, Allison R.; Joy, David Charles; Adam Justin Rondinone

    2015-07-07

    The remarkable mechanical and electronic properties of graphene make it an ideal candidate for next generation nanoelectronics. With the recent development of commercial-level single-crystal graphene layers, the potential for manufacturing household graphene-based devices has improved, but significant challenges still remain with regards to patterning the graphene into devices. In the case of graphene supported on a substrate, traditional nanofabrication techniques such as e-beam lithography (EBL) are often used in fabricating graphene nanoribbons but the multi-step processes they require can result in contamination of the graphene with resists and solvents. In this letter, we report the utility of scanning helium ion lithography for fabricating functional graphene nanoconductors that are supported directly on a silicon dioxide layer, and we measure the minimum feature size achievable due to limitations imposed by thermal fluctuations and ion scattering during the milling process. Further we demonstrate that ion beams, due to their positive charging nature, may be used to observe and test the conductivity of graphene-based nanoelectronic devices in situ.

  19. Process and installation for purification of the helium contained in a mixture of gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avon, M.F.; Markarian, G.R.

    1984-04-24

    The present invention relates to a process and an installation for purification of the helium contained in a mixture of gas, employing a pre-treatment unit to retain the impurities such as water, carbon dioxide gas and heavy organic compounds, and at least one reactor of the chromatographic type located downstream of said pre-treatment unit, said process comprising the following steps of: (a) adjusting the pressure of the mixture of gas until the working pressure of the phase of adsorption is obtained, this pressure being between 10 and 30 bars, and preferably 12 to 15 bars; (b) taking the temperature of the mixture of gas at the outlet of said pre-treatment unit until it is located in the range -15/sup 0/ C./-35/sup 0/ C., and preferably -25/sup 0/ C.; (c) and sending the mixture of gas into the reactor and passing it through an absorbent, which is constituted by a microporous charcoal whose pores are of dimensions less than or equal to 20 A.

  20. Statistical properties of inter-series mixing in helium: From integrability to chaos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puttner, R; Gremaud, B.; Delande, D.; Domke, M.; Martins, M.; Schlachter, A.S.; Kaindl, G.

    2001-04-23

    The photoionization spectrum of helium near the double-ionization threshold shows structure which indicated a transition towards quantum chaos.

  1. Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy of the Ca dimer deposited on helium and mixed helium/xenon clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaveau, Marc-André; Pothier, Christophe; Briant, Marc; Mestdagh, Jean-Michel

    2014-12-09

    We study how the laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy of the calcium dimer deposited on pure helium clusters is modified by the addition of xenon atoms. In the wavelength range between 365 and 385 nm, the Ca dimer is excited from its ground state up to two excited electronic states leading to its photodissociation in Ca({sup 1}P)+Ca({sup 1}S): this process is monitored by recording the Ca({sup 1}P) fluorescence at 422.7nm. One of these electronic states of Ca{sub 2} is a diexcited one correlating to the Ca(4s4p{sup 3}P(+Ca(4s3d{sup 3}D), the other one is a repulsive state correlating to the Ca(4s4p1P)+Ca(4s21S) asymptote, accounting for the dissociation of Ca{sub 2} and the observation of the subsequent Ca({sup 1}P) emission. On pure helium clusters, the fluorescence exhibits the calcium atomic resonance line Ca({sup 1}S←{sup 1}P) at 422.7 nm (23652 cm{sup −1}) assigned to ejected calcium, and a narrow red sided band corresponding to calcium that remains solvated on the helium cluster. When adding xenon atoms to the helium clusters, the intensity of these two features decreases and a new spectral band appears on the red side of calcium resonance line; the intensity and the red shift of this component increase along with the xenon quantity deposited on the helium cluster: it is assigned to the emission of Ca({sup 1}P) associated with the small xenon aggregate embedded inside the helium cluster.

  2. High temperature regenerable hydrogen sulfide removal agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Copeland, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A system for high temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases using regenerable sorbents. One sorbent is stannic oxide (tin oxide, SnO.sub.2), the other sorbent is a metal oxide or mixed metal oxide such as zinc ferrite (ZnFe.sub.2 O.sub.4). Certain otherwise undesirable by-products, including hydrogen sulfide (H.sub.2 S) and sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) are reused by the system, and elemental sulfur is produced in the regeneration reaction. A system for refabricating the sorbent pellets is also described.

  3. FY-05 First Quarter Report on Development of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle: Improving PBR Efficiency and Testing Material Compatibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang Oh

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research is to improve a helium Brayton cycle and to develop a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle for the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) that can also be applied to the Fast Gas-Cooled Reactor (FGR) and the Very-High-Temperature Gas- Cooled Reactor (VHTR). The proposed supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle will be used to improve the PBR, FGR, and VHTR net plant efficiency. Another objective of this research is to test materials to be used in the power conversion side at supercritical carbon dioxide conditions. Generally, the optimized Brayton cycle and balance of plant (BOP) to be developed from this study can be applied to Generation-IV reactor concepts. Particularly, we are interested in VHTR because it has a good chance of being built in the near future.

  4. FY-05 Second Quarter Report On Development of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle: Improving PBR Efficiency and Testing Material Compatibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang Oh

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this research is to improve a helium Brayton cycle and to develop a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle for the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) that can also be applied to the Fast Gas-Cooled Reactor (FGR) and the Very-High-Temperature Gas- Cooled Reactor (VHTR). The proposed supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle will be used to improve the PBR, FGR, and VHTR net plant efficiency. Another objective of this research is to test materials to be used in the power conversion side at supercritical carbon dioxide conditions. Generally, the optimized Brayton cycle and balance of plant (BOP) to be developed from this study can be applied to Generation-IV reactor concepts. Particularly, we are interested in VHTR because it has a good chance of being built in the near future.

  5. High capacity carbon dioxide sorbent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, Steven Dean; Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambalavanan

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides a sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a CO.sub.2 capacity of at least 9 weight percent when measured at 22.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; an H.sub.2O capacity of at most 15 weight percent when measured at 25.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; and an isosteric heat of adsorption of from 5 to 8.5 kilocalories per mole of CO.sub.2. The invention also provides a carbon sorbent in a powder, a granular or a pellet form for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a carbon content of at least 90 weight percent; a nitrogen content of at least 1 weight percent; an oxygen content of at most 3 weight percent; a BET surface area from 50 to 2600 m.sup.2/g; and a DFT micropore volume from 0.04 to 0.8 cc/g.

  6. Method for carbon dioxide sequestration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Yifeng; Bryan, Charles R.; Dewers, Thomas; Heath, Jason E.

    2015-09-22

    A method for geo-sequestration of a carbon dioxide includes selection of a target water-laden geological formation with low-permeability interbeds, providing an injection well into the formation and injecting supercritical carbon dioxide (SC--CO.sub.2) into the injection well under conditions of temperature, pressure and density selected to cause the fluid to enter the formation and splinter and/or form immobilized ganglia within the formation. This process allows for the immobilization of the injected SC--CO.sub.2 for very long times. The dispersal of scCO2 into small ganglia is accomplished by alternating injection of SC--CO.sub.2 and water. The injection rate is required to be high enough to ensure the SC--CO.sub.2 at the advancing front to be broken into pieces and small enough for immobilization through viscous instability.

  7. Economic Analysis of a Nuclear Reactor Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

    2008-08-01

    A reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production was developed to provide a basis for comparing the HTE concept with other hydrogen production concepts. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540°C and 900°C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 4,009,177 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The alternating-current, AC, to direct-current, DC, conversion efficiency is 96%. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the lower heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 47.12% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.356 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed using the standardized H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program, and using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.23/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10%.

  8. Hydrogen delivery technology roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2005-11-15

    Document describing plan for research into and development of hydrogen delivery technology for transportation applications.

  9. Safetygram #9- Liquid Hydrogen

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrogen is colorless as a liquid. Its vapors are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and highly flammable.

  10. Hydrogen Generator Appliance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    J slide presentation: hydrogen Generator appliance Gus Block, Nuvera Fuel Cells

  11. CARBON DIOXIDE AS A FEEDSTOCK.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CREUTZ,C.; FUJITA,E.

    2000-12-09

    This report is an overview on the subject of carbon dioxide as a starting material for organic syntheses of potential commercial interest and the utilization of carbon dioxide as a substrate for fuel production. It draws extensively on literature sources, particularly on the report of a 1999 Workshop on the subject of catalysis in carbon dioxide utilization, but with emphasis on systems of most interest to us. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is an abundant (750 billion tons in atmosphere), but dilute source of carbon (only 0.036 % by volume), so technologies for utilization at the production source are crucial for both sequestration and utilization. Sequestration--such as pumping CO{sub 2} into sea or the earth--is beyond the scope of this report, except where it overlaps utilization, for example in converting CO{sub 2} to polymers. But sequestration dominates current thinking on short term solutions to global warming, as should be clear from reports from this and other workshops. The 3500 million tons estimated to be added to the atmosphere annually at present can be compared to the 110 million tons used to produce chemicals, chiefly urea (75 million tons), salicylic acid, cyclic carbonates and polycarbonates. Increased utilization of CO{sub 2} as a starting material is, however, highly desirable, because it is an inexpensive, non-toxic starting material. There are ongoing efforts to replace phosgene as a starting material. Creation of new materials and markets for them will increase this utilization, producing an increasingly positive, albeit small impact on global CO{sub 2} levels. The other uses of interest are utilization as a solvent and for fuel production and these will be discussed in turn.

  12. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, L.K.; Wicks, G.G.; Enz, G.L.

    1995-05-02

    A hydrogen absorbing composition is described. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  13. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K.; Wicks, George G.; Enz, Glenn L.

    1995-01-01

    A hydrogen absorbing composition. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  14. Solvation of molecules in superfluid helium enhances the interaction induced localization effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walewski, ?ukasz Forbert, Harald; Marx, Dominik

    2014-04-14

    Atomic nuclei become delocalized at low temperatures as a result of quantum effects, whereas they are point-like in the high temperature (classical) limit. For non-interacting nuclei, the delocalization upon lowering the temperature is quantitatively described in terms of the thermal de Broglie wavelength of free particles. Clearly, light non-interacting nuclei the proton being a prominent one are much more delocalized at low temperatures compared to heavy nuclei, such as non-interacting oxygen having water in mind. However, strong interactions due to chemical bonding in conjunction with ultra-low temperatures characteristic to superfluid helium nanodroplets change this common picture substantially for nuclei in molecules or clusters. It turns out that protons shared in hydrogen bonds undergo an extreme interaction induced localization at temperatures on the order of 1 K, which compresses the protonic spatial distributions to the size of the much heavier donor or acceptor atoms, such as O or Cl nuclei, corresponding to about 0.1% of the volume occupied by a non-interacting proton at the same temperature. Moreover, applying our recently developed hybrid ab initio path integral molecular dynamics/bosonic path integral Monte Carlo quantum simulation technique to a HCl/water cluster, HCl(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}, we find that helium solvation has a significant additional localizing effect of up to about 30% in volume. In particular, the solvent-induced excess localization is the stronger the lesser the given nucleus is already localized in the gas phase reference situation.

  15. Lessons Learned From Gen I Carbon Dioxide Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David E. Shropshire

    2004-04-01

    This paper provides a review of early gas cooled reactors including the Magnox reactors originating in the United Kingdom and the subsequent development of the Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors (AGR). These early gas cooled reactors shared a common coolant medium, namely carbon dioxide (CO2). A framework of information is provided about these early reactors and identifies unique problems/opportunities associated with use of CO2 as a coolant. Reactor designers successfully rose to these challenges. After years of successful use of the CO2 gas cooled reactors in Europe, the succeeding generation of reactors, called the High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGR), were designed with Helium gas as the coolant. Again, in the 21st century, with the latest reactor designs under investigation in Generation IV, there is a revived interest in developing Gas Cooled Fast Reactors that use CO2 as the reactor coolant. This paper provides a historical perspective on the 52 CO2 reactors and the reactor programs that developed them. The Magnox and AGR design features and safety characteristics were reviewed, as well as the technologies associated with fuel storage, reprocessing, and disposal. Lessons-learned from these programs are noted to benefit the designs of future generations of gas cooled nuclear reactors.

  16. An investigation of thermally driven acoustical oscillations in helium systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuerst, J.D.

    1990-08-01

    The phenomenon of thermal-acoustic oscillation is seen to arise spontaneously in gas columns subjected to steep temperature gradients, particularly in tubes connecting liquid helium reservoirs with the ambient environment. This if often the arrangement for installed cryogenic instrumentation and is accompanied by undesirably large heat transfer rates to the cold region. Experimental data are collected and matched to theoretical predictions of oscillatory behavior; these results are in good agreement with the analytical model and with previously collected data. The present experiment places the open ends of oscillating tubes of the various lengths and cross sections in communication with flowing helium in the subcooled, 2-phase, or superheated state while the other ends are maintained at some controlled, elevated temperature. Assorted cold end conditions are achieved through adjustments to the Fermilab Tevatron satellite test refrigerator to which the test cryostat is connected. The warm, closed ends of the tubes are maintained by isothermal baths of liquid nitrogen, ice water, and boiling water. The method is contrasted to previous arrangements whereby tubes are run from room temperature into or adjacent to a stagnant pool of liquid helium. Additionally, the effect of pulsations in the flowing helium stream is explored through operation of the refrigerator's wet and dry expanders during data collection. These data confirm the theory to which try were compared and support its use in the design of cryogenic sensing lines for avoidance of thermoacoustic oscillation.

  17. TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY STUDY OF HELIUM BEARING FUSION WELDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tosten, M; Michael Morgan, M

    2008-12-12

    A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study was conducted to characterize the helium bubble distributions in tritium-charged-and-aged 304L and 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn stainless steel fusion welds containing approximately 150 appm helium-3. TEM foils were prepared from C-shaped fracture toughness test specimens containing {delta} ferrite levels ranging from 4 to 33 volume percent. The weld microstructures in the low ferrite welds consisted mostly of austenite and discontinuous, skeletal {delta} ferrite. In welds with higher levels of {delta} ferrite, the ferrite was more continuous and, in some areas of the 33 volume percent sample, was the matrix/majority phase. The helium bubble microstructures observed were similar in all samples. Bubbles were found in the austenite but not in the {delta} ferrite. In the austenite, bubbles had nucleated homogeneously in the grain interiors and heterogeneously on dislocations. Bubbles were not found on any austenite/austenite grain boundaries or at the austenite/{delta} ferrite interphase interfaces. Bubbles were not observed in the {delta} ferrite because of the combined effects of the low solubility and rapid diffusion of tritium through the {delta} ferrite which limited the amount of helium present to form visible bubbles.

  18. Method for determining hydrogen mobility as a function of temperature in superconducting niobium cavities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    May, Robert

    2008-03-11

    A method for determining the mobility of hydrogen as a function of temperature in superconducting niobium cavities comprising: 1) heating a cavity under test to remove free hydrogen; 2) introducing hydrogen-3 gas into the cavity; 3) cooling the cavity to allow absorption of hydrogen-3; and 4) measuring the amount of hydrogen-3 by: a) cooling the cavity to about 4.degree. K while flowing a known and regulated amount of inert carrier gas such as argon or helium into the cavity; b) allowing the cavity to warm at a stable rate from 4.degree. K to room temperature as it leaves the chamber; and c) directing the exit gas to an ion chamber radiation detector.

  19. Detector and energy analyzer for energetic-hydrogen in beams and plasmas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bastasz, R.J.; Hughes, R.C.; Wampler, W.R.

    1988-11-01

    A detector for detecting energetic hydrogen ions and atoms ranging in energy from about 1 eV up to 1 keV in an evacuated environment includes a Schottky diode with a palladium or palladium-alloy gate metal applied to a silicon-dioxide layer on an n-silicon substrate. An array of the energetic-hydrogen detectors having a range of energy sensitivities form a plasma energy analyzer having a rapid response time and a sensitivity for measuring fluxes of energetic hydrogen. The detector is sensitive to hydrogen and its isotopes but is insensitive to non-hydrogenic particles. The array of energetic-hydrogen detectors can be formed on a single silicon chip, with thin-film layers of gold metal applied in various thicknesses to successive detectors in the array. The gold layers serve as particle energy-filters so that each detector is sensitive to a different range of hydrogen energies. 4 figs.

  20. How Atomic Vibrations Transform Vanadium Dioxide

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    How Atomic Vibrations Transform Vanadium Dioxide How Atomic Vibrations Transform Vanadium Dioxide Calculations Confirm Material's Potential for Next-Generation Electronics, Energy November 10, 2014 Contact: Dawn Levy, levyd@ornl.gov, 865.576.6448 Budaivibe Vanadium atoms (blue) have unusually large thermal vibrations that stabilize the metallic state of a vanadium dioxide crystal. Red depicts oxygen atoms. Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory For more than 50 years, scientists have

  1. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate the potential of storing carbon dioxide in depleted oil fields while simultaneously maximizing oil production. January 8, 2014 Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery. Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery.

  2. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate the potential of storing carbon dioxide in depleted oil fields while simultaneously maximizing oil production. January 8, 2014 Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery. Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery.

  3. Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop: Code for Hydrogen Pipelines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Working Group Workshop: Code for Hydrogen Pipelines Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group ... Codes and Standards Workshop and the DOE Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop Agenda

  4. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Report for the 2001 Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Bus Evaluation: Report for the 2001 Hydrogen Program Review Hydrogen Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Report for the 2001 Hydrogen Program Review This paper, presented at the 2001 DOE ...

  5. Hydrogen Power Inc formerly Hydrogen Power International and...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Power Inc formerly Hydrogen Power International and Equitex Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hydrogen Power, Inc. (formerly Hydrogen Power International and Equitex Inc.)...

  6. Hydrogen Delivery Technologies and Systems- Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrogen Delivery Technologies and Systems - Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen. Design and operations standards and materials for hydrogen and natural gas pipelines.

  7. RELATIVE ECONOMIC INCENTIVES FOR HYDROGEN FROM NUCLEAR, RENEWABLE, AND FOSSIL ENERGY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M; Charles W. Forsberg, C

    2008-08-04

    The specific hydrogen market determines the value of hydrogen from different sources. Each hydrogen production technology has its own distinct characteristics. For example, steam reforming of natural gas produces only hydrogen. In contrast, nuclear and solar hydrogen production facilities produce hydrogen together with oxygen as a by-product or co-product. For a user who needs both oxygen and hydrogen, the value of hydrogen from nuclear and solar plants is higher than that from a fossil plant because 'free' oxygen is produced as a by-product. Six factors that impact the relative economics of fossil, nuclear, and solar hydrogen production to the customer are identified: oxygen by-product, avoidance of carbon dioxide emissions, hydrogen transport costs, storage costs, availability of low-cost heat, and institutional factors. These factors imply that different hydrogen production technologies will be competitive in different markets and that the first markets for nuclear and solar hydrogen will be those markets in which they have a unique competitive advantage. These secondary economic factors are described and quantified in terms of dollars per kilogram of hydrogen.

  8. Relative Economic Incentives for Hydrogen from Nuclear, Renewable, and Fossil Energy Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles W [ORNL] [ORNL; Gorensek, M. B. [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)] [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)

    2007-01-01

    The specific hydrogen market determines the value of hydrogen from different sources. Each hydrogen production technology has its own distinct characteristics. For example, steam reforming of natural gas produces only hydrogen. In contrast, nuclear and solar hydrogen production facilities produce hydrogen together with oxygen as a by-product or co-product. For a user who needs both oxygen and hydrogen, the value of hydrogen from nuclear and solar plants is higher than that from a fossil plant because 'free' oxygen is produced as a by-product. Six factors that impact the relative economics of fossil, nuclear, and solar hydrogen production to the customer are identified: oxygen by-product, avoidance of carbon dioxide emissions, hydrogen transport costs, storage costs, availability of low-cost heat, and institutional factors. These factors imply that different hydrogen production technologies will be competitive in different markets and that the first markets for nuclear and solar hydrogen will be those markets in which they have a unique competitive advantage. These secondary economic factors are described and quantified in terms of dollars per kilogram of hydrogen.

  9. ARM - Measurement - Carbon dioxide (CO2) flux

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon dioxide, a heavy, colorless greenhouse gas. Categories Atmospheric Carbon, Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  10. Project Profile: Carbon Dioxide Shuttling Thermochemical Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Project Profile: Carbon Dioxide Shuttling Thermochemical Storage Using Strontium Carbonate University of Florida Logo -- This project is inactive -- The University of Florida (UF), ...

  11. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogden, J.M.; Kreutz, T.G.; Steinbugler, M.

    1996-10-01

    In this report the authors describe results from technical and economic assessments carried out during the past year with support from the USDOE Hydrogen R&D Program. (1) Assessment of technologies for small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas. Because of the cost and logistics of transporting and storing hydrogen, it may be preferable to produce hydrogen at the point of use from more readily available energy carriers such as natural gas or electricity. In this task the authors assess near term technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas at small scale including steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming. (2) Case study of developing a hydrogen vehicle refueling infrastructure in Southern California. Many analysts suggest that the first widespread use of hydrogen energy is likely to be in zero emission vehicles in Southern California. Several hundred thousand zero emission automobiles are projected for the Los Angeles Basin alone by 2010, if mandated levels are implemented. Assuming that hydrogen vehicles capture a significant fraction of this market, a large demand for hydrogen fuel could evolve over the next few decades. Refueling a large number of hydrogen vehicles poses significant challenges. In this task the authors assess near term options for producing and delivering gaseous hydrogen transportation fuel to users in Southern California including: (1) hydrogen produced from natural gas in a large, centralized steam reforming plant, and delivered to refueling stations via liquid hydrogen truck or small scale hydrogen gas pipeline, (2) hydrogen produced at the refueling station via small scale steam reforming of natural gas, (3) hydrogen produced via small scale electrolysis at the refueling station, and (4) hydrogen from low cost chemical industry sources (e.g. excess capacity in refineries which have recently upgraded their hydrogen production capacity, etc.).

  12. Basic Research Needs for the Hydrogen Economy. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Hydrogen Production, Storage and Use, May 13-15, 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dresselhaus, M; Crabtree, G; Buchanan, M; Mallouk, T; Mets, L; Taylor, K; Jena, P; DiSalvo, F; Zawodzinski, T; Kung, H; Anderson, I S; Britt, P; Curtiss, L; Keller, J; Kumar, R; Kwok, W; Taylor, J; Allgood, J; Campbell, B; Talamini, K

    2004-02-01

    The coupled challenges of a doubling in the world's energy needs by the year 2050 and the increasing demands for ''clean'' energy sources that do not add more carbon dioxide and other pollutants to the environment have resulted in increased attention worldwide to the possibilities of a ''hydrogen economy'' as a long-term solution for a secure energy future.

  13. Potential hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures in legacy plutonium oxide packages at Oak Ridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veirs, Douglas K.

    2014-07-07

    An approach to estimate the maximum hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures within sealed containers is described and applied to a set of packages containing high-purity plutonium dioxide. The approach uses experimentally determined maximum hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures and scales the experimentally determined pressures to the relevant packaged material properties. The important material properties are the specific wattage and specific surface area (SSA). Important results from the experimental determination of maximum partial pressures are (1) the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is stoichiometric, and (2) the maximum pressures increase with increasing initial rates of production. The material properties that influence the rates are the material specific wattage and the SSA. The unusual properties of these materials, high specific wattage and high SSA, result in higher predicted maximum pressures than typical plutonium dioxide in storage. The pressures are well within the deflagration range for mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen.

  14. hydrogen | netl.doe.gov

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    hydrogen Why Coal to Hydrogen Syngas derived from most high pressure gasification processes already contains a significant amount of hydrogen (H2), which can be increased through ...

  15. hydrogen-fueled transportation systems

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... materials to store hydrogen onboard vehicles, leading to more reliable, economic hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles. "Hydrogen, as a transportation fuel, has great potential to ...

  16. Hydrogen Materials Advanced Research Consortium

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... materials to store hydrogen onboard vehicles, leading to more reliable, economic hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles. "Hydrogen, as a transportation fuel, has great potential to ...

  17. Hydrogen Safety Knowledge Tools

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Data Partners Best Practices - LANL, SNL, NREL, NASA, Hydrogen Safety Panel, and IEA HIA Tasks 19 and 22 Incident Reporting - NASA and Hydrogen Safety Panel 3 Objectives H2...

  18. Hydrogen Storage Basics

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Developing safe, reliable, compact, and cost-effective hydrogen storage technologies is one of the most technically challenging barriers to the widespread use of hydrogen as a form of energy. To be...

  19. Hydrogen transport membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mundschau, Michael V.

    2005-05-31

    Composite hydrogen transport membranes, which are used for extraction of hydrogen from gas mixtures are provided. Methods are described for supporting metals and metal alloys which have high hydrogen permeability, but which are either too thin to be self supporting, too weak to resist differential pressures across the membrane, or which become embrittled by hydrogen. Support materials are chosen to be lattice matched to the metals and metal alloys. Preferred metals with high permeability for hydrogen include vanadium, niobium, tantalum, zirconium, palladium, and alloys thereof. Hydrogen-permeable membranes include those in which the pores of a porous support matrix are blocked by hydrogen-permeable metals and metal alloys, those in which the pores of a porous metal matrix are blocked with materials which make the membrane impervious to gases other than hydrogen, and cermets fabricated by sintering powders of metals with powders of lattice-matched ceramic.

  20. Hydrogen Program Overview

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to the DOE Hydrogen Program. It describes the program mission and answers the question: “Why Hydrogen?”

  1. Hydrogen Program Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-11-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to the DOE Hydrogen Program. It describes the program mission and answers the question: “Why Hydrogen?”

  2. Hydrogen Fuel Quality (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohi, J.

    2007-05-17

    Jim Ohi of NREL's presentation on Hydrogen Fuel Quality at the 2007 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation on May 15-18, 2007 in Arlington, Virginia.

  3. Hydrogen Storage- Basics

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Storing enough hydrogen on-board a vehicle to achieve a driving range of greater than 300 miles is a significant challenge. On a weight basis, hydrogen has nearly three times the energy content of...

  4. Hydrogen Generation for Refineries

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE PEER REVIEW MEETING May 5-6, 2014 DE-FG02-08ER85135 Hydrogen ... or otherwise restricted information 2 Hydrogen from Heavy, Renewable and Waste Oils - ...

  5. Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Program Record (Offices of Fuel Cell Technologies) Record #: 11007 Date: March 25, 2011 Title: Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation Originator: Mark Ruth & Fred Joseck Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: March 24, 2011 Description: The hydrogen threshold cost is defined as the hydrogen cost in the range of $2.00-$4.00/gge (2007$) which represents the cost at which hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) are projected to become competitive on a cost per mile basis with the competing

  6. National hydrogen energy roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2002-11-01

    This roadmap provides a blueprint for the coordinated, long-term, public and private efforts required for hydrogen energy development.

  7. Hydrogen Compatible Materials Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Hydrogen Compatible Materials Workshop November 3 rd , 2010 Research, Engineering, and Applications Center for Hydrogen Sandia National Laboratory, Livermore, CA Introduction: On November 3 rd , 2010, Sandia National Labs hosted a workshop focused on hydrogen compatible materials and components. The goals of the workshop were two-fold, 1) to identify gaps in hydrogen compatible materials R&D, and 2) to develop international R&D pathways that address the identified R&D gaps. This

  8. Hydrogen Technologies Safety Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivkin, C.; Burgess, R.; Buttner, W.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide basic background information on hydrogen technologies. It is intended to provide project developers, code officials, and other interested parties the background information to be able to put hydrogen safety in context. For example, code officials reviewing permit applications for hydrogen projects will get an understanding of the industrial history of hydrogen, basic safety concerns, and safety requirements.

  9. Quantum entanglement for helium atom in the Debye plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Yen-Chang; Fang, Te-Kuei; Ho, Yew Kam

    2015-03-15

    In the present work, we present an investigation on quantum entanglement of the two-electron helium atom immersed in weakly coupled Debye plasmas, modeled by the Debye-Hckel, or screened Coulomb, potential to mimic the interaction between two charged particles inside the plasma. Quantum entanglement is related to correlation effects in a multi-particle system. In a bipartite system, a measurement made on one of the two entangled particles affects the outcome of the other particle, even if such two particles are far apart. Employing wave functions constructed with configuration interaction B-spline basis, we have quantified von Neumann entropy and linear entropy for a series of He {sup 1,3}S{sup e} and {sup 1,3}P{sup o} states in plasma-embedded helium atom.

  10. Elastic Electron Scattering from Tritium and Helium-3

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Collard, H.; Hofstadter, R.; Hughes, E. B.; Johansson, A.; Yearian, M. R.; Day, R. B.; Wagner, R. T.

    1964-10-01

    The mirror nuclei of tritium and helium-3 have been studied by the method of elastic electron scattering. Absolute cross sections have been measured for incident electron energies in the range 110 - 690 MeV at scattering angles lying between 40 degrees and 135 degrees in this energy range. The data have been interpreted in a straightforward manner and form factors are given for the distributions of charge and magnetic moment in the two nuclei over a range of four-momentum transfer squared 1.0 - 8.0 F{sup -2}. Model-independent radii of the charge and magnetic moment distributions are given and an attempt is made to deduce form factors describing the spatial distribution of the protons in tritium and helium-3.

  11. Source localization of brain activity using helium-free interferometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dammers, Jürgen Chocholacs, Harald; Eich, Eberhard; Boers, Frank; Faley, Michael; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Jon Shah, N.

    2014-05-26

    To detect extremely small magnetic fields generated by the human brain, currently all commercial magnetoencephalography (MEG) systems are equipped with low-temperature (low-T{sub c}) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) sensors that use liquid helium for cooling. The limited and increasingly expensive supply of helium, which has seen dramatic price increases recently, has become a real problem for such systems and the situation shows no signs of abating. MEG research in the long run is now endangered. In this study, we report a MEG source localization utilizing a single, highly sensitive SQUID cooled with liquid nitrogen only. Our findings confirm that localization of neuromagnetic activity is indeed possible using high-T{sub c} SQUIDs. We believe that our findings secure the future of this exquisitely sensitive technique and have major implications for brain research and the developments of cost-effective multi-channel, high-T{sub c} SQUID-based MEG systems.

  12. Effect of Helium Accumulation on the Spent Fuel Microstructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferry, Cecile; Piron, Jean-Paul; Stout, Ray

    2007-07-01

    In a nuclear spent fuel repository, the aqueous rapid release of radio-activity from exposed spent fuel surfaces will depend on the pellet microstructure at the arrival time of water into the disposal container. Research performed on spent fuel evolution in a closed system has shown that the evolution of microstructure under disposal conditions should be governed by the cumulated {alpha}-decay damage and the subsequent helium behavior. The evolution of fission gas bubble characteristics under repository conditions has to be assessed. In UO{sub 2} fuels with a burnup of 47.5 GWd/t, the pressure in fission gas bubbles, including the pressure increase from {alpha}-decay helium atoms, is not expected to reach the critical bubble pressure that will cause failure, thus micro-cracking in UO{sub 2} spent fuel grains is not expected. (authors)

  13. A Process Model for the Production of Hydrogen Using High Temperature Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. G. Mc Kellar; E. A. Harvego; M. Richards; A. Shenoy

    2006-07-01

    High temperature electrolysis (HTE) involves the splitting of stream into hydrogen and oxygen at high temperatures. The primary advantage of HTE over conventional low temperature electrolysis is that considerably higher hydrogen production efficiencies can be achieved. Performing the electrolysis process at high temperatures results in more favorable thermodynamics for electrolysis, more efficient production of electricity, and allows direct use of process heat to generate steam. This paper presents the results of process analyses performed to evaluate the hydrogen production efficiencies of an HTE plant coupled to a 600 MWt Modular Helium Reactor (MHR) that supplies both the electricity and process heat needed to drive the process. The MHR operates with a coolant outlet temperature of 950 C. Approximately 87% of the high-temperature heat is used to generate electricity at high efficiency using a direct, Brayton-cycle power conversion system. The remaining high-temperature heat is used to generate a superheated steam / hydrogen mixture that is supplied to the electrolyzers. The analyses were performed using the HYSYS process modeling software. The model used to perform the analyses consisted of three loops; a primary high temperature helium loop, a secondary helium loop and the HTE process loop. The detailed model included realistic representations of all major components in the system, including pumps, compressors, heat exchange equipment, and the electrolysis stack. The design of the hydrogen production process loop also included a steam-sweep gas system to remove oxygen from the electrolysis stack so that it can be recovered and used for other applications. Results of the process analyses showed that hydrogen production efficiencies in the range of 45% to 50% are achievable with this system.

  14. Purification of Hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newton, A S

    1950-12-05

    Disclosed is a process for purifying hydrogen containing various gaseous impurities by passing the hydrogen over a large surface of uranium metal at a temperature above the decomposition temperature of uranium hydride, and below the decomposition temperature of the compounds formed by the combination of the uranium with the impurities in the hydrogen.

  15. Sensitive hydrogen leak detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    1999-01-01

    A sensitive hydrogen leak detector system using passivation of a stainless steel vacuum chamber for low hydrogen outgassing, a high compression ratio vacuum system, a getter operating at 77.5 K and a residual gas analyzer as a quantitative hydrogen sensor.

  16. Flash hydrogenation of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manowitz, Bernard; Steinberg, Meyer; Sheehan, Thomas V.; Winsche, Warren E.; Raseman, Chad J.

    1976-01-01

    A process for the hydrogenation of coal comprising the contacting of powdered coal with hydrogen in a rotating fluidized bed reactor. A rotating fluidized bed reactor suitable for use in this process is also disclosed. The coal residence time in the reactor is limited to less than 5 seconds while the hydrogen contact time is not in excess of 0.2 seconds.

  17. Sensitive hydrogen leak detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myneni, G.R.

    1999-08-03

    A sensitive hydrogen leak detector system is described which uses passivation of a stainless steel vacuum chamber for low hydrogen outgassing, a high compression ratio vacuum system, a getter operating at 77.5 K and a residual gas analyzer as a quantitative hydrogen sensor. 1 fig.

  18. Biological hydrogen photoproduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nemoto, Y.

    1995-09-01

    Following are the major accomplishments of the 6th year`s study of biological hydrogen photoproduction which were supported by DOE/NREL. (1) We have been characterizing a biological hydrogen production system using synchronously growing aerobically nitrogen-fixing unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. Miami BG 043511. So far it was necessary to irradiate the cells to produce hydrogen. Under darkness they did not produce hydrogen. However, we found that, if the cells are incubated with oxygen, they produce hydrogen under the dark. Under 80% argon + 20% oxygen condition, the hydrogen production activity under the dark was about one third of that under the light + argon condition. (2) Also it was necessary so far to incubate the cells under argon atmosphere to produce hydrogen in this system. Argon treatment is very expensive and should be avoided in an actual hydrogen production system. We found that, if the cells are incubated at a high cell density and in a container with minimum headspace, it is not necessary to use argon for the hydrogen production. (3) Calcium ion was found to play an important role in the mechanisms of protection of nitrogenase from external oxygen. This will be a clue to understand the reason why the hydrogen production is so resistant to oxygen in this strain. (4) In this strain, sulfide can be used as electron donor for the hydrogen production. This result shows that waste water can be used for the hydrogen production system using this strain.

  19. Mathematical modeling of a Fermilab helium liquefier coldbox

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geynisman, M.G.; Walker, R.J.

    1995-12-01

    Fermilab Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) facility is operated 24 hours-a-day to supply 4.6{degrees}K for the Fermilab Tevatron superconducting proton-antiproton collider Ring and to recover warm return gases. The centerpieces of the CHL are two independent cold boxes rated at 4000 and 5400 liters/hour with LN{sub 2} precool. These coldboxes are Claude cycle and have identical heat exchangers trains, but different turbo-expanders. The Tevatron cryogenics demand for higher helium supply from CHL was the driving force to investigate an installation of an expansion engine in place of the Joule-Thompson valve. A mathematical model was developed to describe the thermo- and gas-dynamic processes for the equipment included in the helium coldbox. The model is based on a finite element approach, opposite to a global variables approach, thus providing for higher accuracy and conversion stability. Though the coefficients used in thermo- and gas-dynamic equations are unique for a given coldbox, the general approach, the equations, the methods of computations, and most of the subroutines written in FORTRAN can be readily applied to different coldboxes. The simulation results are compared against actual operating data to demonstrate applicability of the model.

  20. Multiple reheat helium Brayton cycles for sodium fast reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haihua Zhao; Per F. Peterson

    2008-07-01

    Sodium fast reactors (SFR) traditionally adopt the steam Rankine cycle for power conversion. The resulting potential for water-sodium reaction remains a continuing concern which at least partly delays the SFR technology commercialization and is a contributor to higher capital cost. Supercritical CO2 provides an alternative, but is also capable of sustaining energetic chemical reactions with sodium. Recent development on advanced inert-gas Brayton cycles could potentially solve this compatibility issue, increase thermal efficiency, and bring down the capital cost close to light water reactors. In this paper, helium Brayton cycles with multiple reheat and intercooling states are presented for SFRs with reactor outlet temperatures in the range of 510°C to 650°C. The resulting thermal efficiencies range from 39% and 47%, which is comparable with supercritical recompression CO2 cycles (SCO2 cycle). A systematic comparison between multiple reheat helium Brayton cycle and the SCO2 cycle is given, considering compatibility issues, plant site cooling temperature effect on plant efficiency, full plant cost optimization, and other important factors. The study indicates that the multiple reheat helium cycle is the preferred choice over SCO2 cycle for sodium fast reactors.

  1. Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, and Clay Mineral...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, and Clay Mineral Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, and Clay ...

  2. Modeling the Impact of Carbon Dioxide Leakage into an Unconfined...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the Impact of Carbon Dioxide Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling the Impact of Carbon Dioxide Leakage ...

  3. Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Brine and Clay Mineral...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Carbon Dioxide Brine and Clay Mineral Interactions and Determination of Contact Angles. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide ...

  4. Project Profile: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Project Profile: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine Project Profile: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine NREL logo -- This project is inactive -- The ...

  5. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers This fact sheet describes a supercritical carbon ...

  6. Los Alamos probes mysteries of uranium dioxide's thermal conductivity

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Mysteries of uranium dioxide's thermal conductivity Los Alamos probes mysteries of uranium dioxide's thermal conductivity New research is showing that the thermal conductivity of ...

  7. Array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy ...

  8. Impact of Sulfur Dioxide on Lean NOx Trap Catalysts | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Sulfur Dioxide on Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Impact of Sulfur Dioxide on Lean NOx Trap Catalysts 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: University of ...

  9. Electrochemical Membrane for Carbon Dioxide Separation and Power...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Carbon Dioxide Separation and Power Generation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electrochemical Membrane for Carbon Dioxide Separation and Power Generation ...

  10. RECENT ADVANCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D.

    2010-07-22

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In the HyS Process, sulfur dioxide is oxidized in the presence of water at the electrolyzer anode to produce sulfuric acid and protons. The protons are transported through a cation-exchange membrane electrolyte to the cathode and are reduced to form hydrogen. In the second stage of the process, the sulfuric acid by-product from the electrolyzer is thermally decomposed at high temperature to produce sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The two gases are separated and the sulfur dioxide recycled to the electrolyzer for oxidation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been exploring a fuel-cell design concept for the SDE using an anolyte feed comprised of concentrated sulfuric acid saturated with sulfur dioxide. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small footprint compared to a parallel-plate electrolyzer design. This paper will provide a summary of recent advances in the development of the SDE for the HyS process.

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Hydrogen Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on

  12. Maritime Hydrogen & SF-BREEZE

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Components and Systems Batteries Electric Drive Systems Hydrogen Materials & Components Compatibility Hydrogen Behavior Quantitative Risk Assessment Technical ...

  13. New Materials for Hydrogen Pipelines

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Barriers to Hydrogen Delivery: Existing steel pipelines are subject to hydrogen embrittlement and are inadequate for widespread H2 distribution.

  14. Helium-Based Soundwave Chiller: Trillium: A Helium-Based Sonic Chiller- Tons of Freezing with 0 GWP Refrigerants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Penn State is designing a freezer that substitutes the use of sound waves and environmentally benign refrigerant for synthetic refrigerants found in conventional freezers. Called a thermoacoustic chiller, the technology is based on the fact that the pressure oscillations in a sound wave result in temperature changes. Areas of higher pressure raise temperatures and areas of low pressure decrease temperatures. By carefully arranging a series of heat exchangers in a sound field, the chiller is able to isolate the hot and cold regions of the sound waves. Penn State’s chiller uses helium gas to replace synthetic refrigerants. Because helium does not burn, explode or combine with other chemicals, it is an environmentally-friendly alternative to other polluting refrigerants. Penn State is working to apply this technology on a large scale.

  15. Oxidation of PCEA nuclear graphite by low water concentrations in helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Contescu, Cristian I; Mee, Robert; Wang, Peng; Romanova, Anna V; Burchell, Timothy D

    2014-10-01

    Accelerated oxidation tests were performed to determine kinetic parameters of the chronic oxidation reaction of PCEA graphite in contact with helium coolant containing low moisture concentrations in high temperature gas-cooled reactors. To the authors best knowledge such a study has not been done since the detailed analysis of reaction of H-451 graphite with steam [Velasquez, Hightower, Burnette, 1978]. Since that H-451 graphite is now unavailable, it is urgently needed to characterize chronic oxidation behavior of new graphite grades under qualification for gas-cooled reactors. The Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism of carbon oxidation by water results in a non-linear reaction rate expression, with at least six different parameters. They were determined in accelerated oxidation experiments that covered a large range of temperatures (800 to 1100 oC), and partial pressures of water (15 to 850 Pa) and hydrogen (30 to 150 Pa) and used graphite specimens thin enough (4 mm) in order to avoid diffusion effects. Data analysis employed a statistical method based on multiple likelihood estimation of parameters and simultaneous fitting of non-linear equations. The results show significant material-specific differences between graphite grades PCEA and H-451 which were attributed to microstructural dissimilarity of the two materials. It is concluded that kinetic data cannot be transferred from one graphite grade to another.

  16. Renewable Hydrogen | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Hydrogen Renewable Hydrogen Welcoming presentations at the Delivering Renewable Hydrogen Workshop: A Focus on Near-Term Applications, Nov. 16, 2009, Palm Springs, CA renewable_hydrogen_workshop_nov16_remick.pdf (1.11 MB) More Documents & Publications National Hydrogen Learning Demonstration Status Hydrogen Transmission and Distribution Workshop CoolCab Truck Thermal Load Reduction

  17. Thermodynamic properties of uranium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, J.K.; Chasanov, M.G.; Leibowitz, L.

    1981-04-01

    In order to provide reliable and consistent data on the thermophysical properties of reactor materials for reactor safety studies, this revision is prepared for the thermodynamic properties of the uranium dioxide portion of the fuel property section of the report Properties for LMFBR Safety Analysis. Since the original report was issued in 1976, there has been international agreement on a vapor pressure equation for the total pressure over UO/sub 2/, new methods have been suggested for the calculation of enthalpy and heat capacity, and a phase change at 2670 K has been proposed. In this report, an electronic term is used in place of the Frenkel defect term in the enthalpy and heat capacity equation and the phase transition is accepted.

  18. Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masel, Richard I; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

    2015-04-21

    Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion include at least one catalytically active element with a particle size above 0.6 nm. The electrocatalysts can also include a Helper Catalyst. The catalysts can be used to increase the rate, modify the selectivity or lower the overpotential of electrochemical conversion of CO.sub.2. Chemical processes and devices using the catalysts also include processes to produce CO, HCO.sup.-, H.sub.2CO, (HCO.sub.2).sup.-, H.sub.2CO.sub.2, CH.sub.3OH, CH.sub.4, C.sub.2H.sub.4, CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH, CH.sub.3COO.sup.-, CH.sub.3COOH, C.sub.2H.sub.6, (COOH).sub.2, or (COO.sup.-).sub.2, and a specific device, namely, a CO.sub.2 sensor.

  19. Helium-cooled solid breeder blanket design for a tokamak fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huggenberger, M.; Schultz, K.R.

    1983-11-01

    A preliminary design for a helium-cooled solid breeder blanket for a tokamak fusion reactor has been developed, and its performance looks quite good. The design is capable of bearing a 4 MW/m/sup 2/ neutron wall load, and the ideal pumping power required for the whole primary helium loop including the steam generators is only 2.5% of the total thermal power. The maximum blanket thickness including the helium duct work is only 860 mm, the minimum thickness is only 730 mm. The design work was focused on the thermalhydraulic aspects, which represent the key problems associated with using helium as a coolant. The present work demonstrates that the potential disadvantages helium has, due to its limited heat transfer capabilities, can be avoided or minimized by an appropriate thermal-hydraulic design. As a result, helium with its many advantages remains a promising fusion blanket coolant.

  20. Asteroseismic estimate of helium abundance of a solar analog binary system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verma, Kuldeep; Antia, H. M.; Faria, Joo P.; Monteiro, Mrio J. P. F. G.; Basu, Sarbani; Mazumdar, Anwesh; Appourchaux, Thierry; Chaplin, William J.; Garca, Rafael A.

    2014-08-01

    16 Cyg A and B are among the brightest stars observed by Kepler. What makes these stars more interesting is that they are solar analogs. 16 Cyg A and B exhibit solar-like oscillations. In this work we use oscillation frequencies obtained using 2.5 yr of Kepler data to determine the current helium abundance of these stars. For this we use the fact that the helium ionization zone leaves a signature on the oscillation frequencies and that this signature can be calibrated to determine the helium abundance of that layer. By calibrating the signature of the helium ionization zone against models of known helium abundance, the helium abundance in the envelope of 16 Cyg A is found to lie in the range of 0.231 to 0.251 and that of 16 Cyg B lies in the range of 0.218 to 0.266.

  1. Hydrogen Material Compatibility for Hydrogen ICE | Department...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    pm04smith.pdf (1.52 MB) More Documents & Publications Hydrogen Materials Compatibility for the H-ICE Engine Friction Reduction Through Surface Finish and Coatings Vehicle ...

  2. Deployment of GTHTR300 Cogeneration for Hydrogen and Electric Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazuhiko Kunitomi; Xing Yan; Isao Minatsuki

    2004-07-01

    JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) has started the design study on the GTHTR300-cogeneration (GTHTR300C) aiming at producing electricity by a helium gas turbine and hydrogen by a thermochemical water splitting method (IS process method). The GTHTR300C is a block type High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) with its reactor thermal power of 600 MW and outlet coolant temperature of 950 deg. C. The Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) is located between the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and the gas turbine system. The heat capacity of the IHX is 170 MW and is used for hydrogen production. The balance of the reactor thermal power is used for electric generation. The GTHTR300C is designed based on existing technologies for the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) and the helium turbine power conversion technology under development for the Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor (GTHTR300). This paper describes the deployment of the GTHTR300C together with the original design features and advantages of the system. (authors)

  3. System Evaluation and Economic Analysis of a Nuclear Reactor Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen-Production Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

    2010-06-01

    A reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production was developed to provide a basis for comparing the HTE concept with other hydrogen production concepts. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540°C and 900°C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 4,009,177 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC) conversion efficiency is 96%. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the lower heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 47.1% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.356 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed using the standardized H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program, and using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.23/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10%.

  4. Hydrogen Filling Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  5. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions 2.1. Total carbon dioxide emissions Annual U.S. carbon dioxide emissions fell by 419 million metric tons in 2009 (7.1 percent), to 5,447 million metric tons (Figure 9 and Table 6). The annual decrease-the largest over the 19-year period beginning with the 1990 baseline-puts 2009 emissions 608 million metric tons below the 2005 level, which is the Obama Administration's benchmark year for its goal of reducing U.S. emissions by 17 percent by 2020. The key factors

  6. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T.

    1998-08-01

    In this progress report (covering the period May 1997--May 1998), the authors summarize results from ongoing technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Generally, the goal of their research is to illuminate possible pathways leading from present hydrogen markets and technologies toward wide scale use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, highlighting important technologies for RD and D. Over the past year they worked on three projects. From May 1997--November 1997, the authors completed an assessment of hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles, as compared to methanol and gasoline. Two other studies were begun in November 1997 and are scheduled for completion in September 1998. The authors are carrying out an assessment of potential supplies and demands for hydrogen energy in the New York City/New Jersey area. The goal of this study is to provide useful data and suggest possible implementation strategies for the New York City/ New Jersey area, as the Hydrogen Program plans demonstrations of hydrogen vehicles and refueling infrastructure. The authors are assessing the implications of CO{sub 2} sequestration for hydrogen energy systems. The goals of this work are (a) to understand the implications of CO{sub 2} sequestration for hydrogen energy system design; (b) to understand the conditions under which CO{sub 2} sequestration might become economically viable; and (c) to understand design issues for future low-CO{sub 2} emitting hydrogen energy systems based on fossil fuels.

  7. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Iver E.; Ellis, Timothy W.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Ting, Jason; Terpstra, Robert; Bowman, Robert C.; Witham, Charles K.; Fultz, Brent T.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  8. Interim Report on the Optimization and Feasibility Studies for the Neutron Detection without Helium-3 Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ely, James H.

    2012-03-19

    This report provides the status and results of the first year's effort in modeling and simulation to investigate alternatives to helium-3 for neutron detection in safeguards applications.

  9. Theory of Positron Annihilation in Helium-Filled Bubbles in Plutonium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Theory of Positron Annihilation in Helium-Filled Bubbles in Plutonium Citation Details ... This method is capable of treating system cell sizes of several thousand atoms, allowing ...

  10. Ultra high vacuum pumping system and high sensitivity helium leak detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    1997-01-01

    An improved helium leak detection method and apparatus are disclosed which increase the leak detection sensitivity to 10.sup.-13 atm cc s.sup.-1. The leak detection sensitivity is improved over conventional leak detectors by completely eliminating the use of o-rings, equipping the system with oil-free pumping systems, and by introducing measured flows of nitrogen at the entrances of both the turbo pump and backing pump to keep the system free of helium background. The addition of dry nitrogen flows to the system reduces backstreaming of atmospheric helium through the pumping system as a result of the limited compression ratios of the pumps for helium.

  11. Ultra high vacuum pumping system and high sensitivity helium leak detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myneni, G.R.

    1997-12-30

    An improved helium leak detection method and apparatus are disclosed which increase the leak detection sensitivity to 10{sup {minus}13} atm cc/s. The leak detection sensitivity is improved over conventional leak detectors by completely eliminating the use of o-rings, equipping the system with oil-free pumping systems, and by introducing measured flows of nitrogen at the entrances of both the turbo pump and backing pump to keep the system free of helium background. The addition of dry nitrogen flows to the system reduces back streaming of atmospheric helium through the pumping system as a result of the limited compression ratios of the pumps for helium. 2 figs.

  12. Energy-related applications of helium: a revision of the ERDA-13 data base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammel, E.F.; Krupka, M.C.

    1980-08-01

    A re-examination, revision, and re-evaluation of the data base contained within the 1975 document, ERDA-13, The Energy-Related Applications of Helium, were completed and results are presented in this report. New technical and resource data, current legislative proposals, updated supply-and-demand relationships, latest legal developments, programmatic changes affectng the future demand for helium, socio-economic aspects, and the effects of the latest energy-consumption projections were considered and are discussed. In contrast to ERDA-13, however, explicit recommendations with respect to the formulation of Federal helium policy, as it pertains to the energy-related applications of helium, are not given.

  13. Analysis of hydrogen isotope mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Villa-Aleman, Eliel

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining the concentrations of hydrogen isotopes in a sample. Hydrogen in the sample is separated from other elements using a filter selectively permeable to hydrogen. Then the hydrogen is condensed onto a cold finger or cryopump. The cold finger is rotated as pulsed laser energy vaporizes a portion of the condensed hydrogen, forming a packet of molecular hydrogen. The desorbed hydrogen is ionized and admitted into a mass spectrometer for analysis.

  14. PEM fuel cell stack performance using dilute hydrogen mixture. Implications on electrochemical engine system performance and design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inbody, M.A.; Vanderborgh, N.E.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Tafoya, J.I.

    1996-12-31

    Onboard fuel processing to generate a hydrogen-rich fuel for PEM fuel cells is being considered as an alternative to stored hydrogen fuel for transportation applications. If successful, this approach, contrasted to operating with onboard hydrogen, utilizes the existing fuels infrastructure and provides required vehicle range. One attractive, commercial liquid fuels option is steam reforming of methanol. However, expanding the liquid methanol infrastructure will take both time and capital. Consequently technology is also being developed to utilize existing transportation fuels, such as gasoline or diesel, to power PEM fuel cell systems. Steam reforming of methanol generates a mixture with a dry gas composition of 75% hydrogen and 25% carbon dioxide. Steam reforming, autothermal reforming, and partial oxidation reforming of C{sub 2} and larger hydrocarbons produces a mixture with a more dilute hydrogen concentration (65%-40%) along with carbon dioxide ({approx}20%) and nitrogen ({approx}10%-40%). Performance of PEM fuel cell stacks on these dilute hydrogen mixtures will affect the overall electrochemical engine system design as well as the overall efficiency. The Los Alamos Fuel Cell Stack Test facility was used to access the performance of a PEM Fuel cell stack over the range of gas compositions chosen to replicate anode feeds from various fuel processing options for hydrocarbon and alcohol fuels. The focus of the experiments was on the anode performance with dilute hydrogen mixtures with carbon dioxide and nitrogen diluents. Performance with other anode feed contaminants, such as carbon monoxide, are not reported here.

  15. Plasma-chemical treatment of hydrogen sulfide in natural gas processing. Final report, May 1991--December 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-05-01

    A new process for the treatment of hydrogen sulfide waste that uses microwave plasma-chemical technology has been under development in Russia and the United States. Whereas the present waste-treatment technology, at best, only recovers sulfur, this novel process recovers both hydrogen and sulfur by dissociating hydrogen sulfide in a plasma by means of a microwave or radio-frequency reactor. A research project has been undertaken to determine the suitability of the plasma process in natural gas processing applications. The experiments tested acid-gas compositions with 30--65% carbon dioxide, 0--7% water, and 0--0.2% of a standard mixture of pipeline gas. The balance gas in all cases was hydrogen sulfide. The reactor pressure for the experiments was 50 torr, and the microwave power was 1.0 kW. Conversions of hydrogen sulfide ranged from 80 to 100%, while 35--50% of the carbon dioxide was converted to carbon monoxide. This conversion of carbon dioxide resulted in a loss of hydrogen production and an energy loss from a hydrogen sulfide waste-treatment perspective. Tests of a direct natural gas treatment concept showed that hydrocarbon losses were unacceptably high; consequently, the concept would not be economically viable.

  16. Hydrogenation of carbonaceous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friedman, Joseph; Oberg, Carl L.; Russell, Larry H.

    1980-01-01

    A method for reacting pulverized coal with heated hydrogen-rich gas to form hydrocarbon liquids suitable for conversion to fuels wherein the reaction involves injection of pulverized coal entrained in a minimum amount of gas and mixing the entrained coal at ambient temperature with a separate source of heated hydrogen. In accordance with the present invention, the hydrogen is heated by reacting a small portion of the hydrogen-rich gas with oxygen in a first reaction zone to form a gas stream having a temperature in excess of about 1000.degree. C. and comprising a major amount of hydrogen and a minor amount of water vapor. The coal particles then are reacted with the hydrogen in a second reaction zone downstream of the first reaction zone. The products of reaction may be rapidly quenched as they exit the second reaction zone and are subsequently collected.

  17. Hydrogen Permeation Resistant Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KORINKO, PAUL; ADAMS, THAD; CREECH, GREGGORY

    2005-06-15

    As the National Hydrogen Economy continues to develop and evolve the need for structural materials that can resist hydrogen assisted degradation will become critical. To date austenitic stainless steel materials have been shown to be mildly susceptible to hydrogen attack which results in lower mechanical and fracture strengths. As a result, hydrogen permeation barrier coatings may be applied to these ferrous alloys to retard hydrogen ingress. Hydrogen is known to be very mobile in materials of construction. In this study, the permeation resistance of bare stainless steel samples and coated stainless steel samples was tested. The permeation resistance was measured using a modular permeation rig using a pressure rise technique. The coating microstructure and permeation results will be discussed in this document as will some additional testing.

  18. Materials Solutions for Hydrogen Delivery in Pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ningileri, Shridas T.; Boggess, Todd A; Stalheim, Douglas

    2013-01-02

    The main objective of the study is as follows: Identify steel compositions/microstructures suitable for construction of new pipeline infrastructure and evaluate the potential use of the existing steel pipeline infrastructure in high pressure gaseous hydrogen applications. The microstructures of four pipeline steels were characterized and tensile testing was conducted in gaseous hydrogen and helium at pressures of 5.5 MPa (800 psi), 11 MPa (1600 psi) and 20.7 MPa (3000 psi). Based on reduction of area, two of the four steels that performed the best across the pressure range were selected for evaluation of fracture and fatigue performance in gaseous hydrogen at 5.5 MPa (800 psi) and 20.7 MPa (3000 psi). The basic format for this phase of the study is as follows: Microstructural characterization of volume fraction of phases in each alloy; Tensile testing of all four alloys in He and H{sub 2} at 5.5 MPa (800 psi), 11 MPa (1600 psi), and 20.7 MPa (3000 psi). RA performance was used to choose the two best performers for further mechanical property evaluation; Fracture testing (ASTM E1820) of two best tensile test performers in H{sub 2} at 5.5 MPa (800 psi) and 20.7 MPa (3000 psi); Fatigue testing (ASTM E647) of two best tensile test performers in H2 at 5.5 MPa (800 psi) and 20.7 MPa (3000 psi) with frequency =1.0 Hz and R-ratio=0.5 and 0.1.

  19. Helium measurements of pore-fluids obtained from SAFOD drillcore

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, S.; Stute, M.; Torgersen, T.; Winckler, G.; Kennedy, B.M.

    2010-04-15

    {sup 4}He accumulated in fluids is a well established geochemical tracer used to study crustal fluid dynamics. Direct fluid samples are not always collectable; therefore, a method to extract rare gases from matrix fluids of whole rocks by diffusion has been adapted. Helium was measured on matrix fluids extracted from sandstones and mudstones recovered during the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling in California, USA. Samples were typically collected as subcores or from drillcore fragments. Helium concentration and isotope ratios were measured 4-6 times on each sample, and indicate a bulk {sup 4}He diffusion coefficient of 3.5 {+-} 1.3 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} at 21 C, compared to previously published diffusion coefficients of 1.2 x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (21 C) to 3.0 x 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (150 C) in the sands and clays. Correcting the diffusion coefficient of {sup 4}He{sub water} for matrix porosity ({approx}3%) and tortuosity ({approx}6-13) produces effective diffusion coefficients of 1 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (21 C) and 1 x 10{sup -7} (120 C), effectively isolating pore fluid {sup 4}He from the {sup 4}He contained in the rock matrix. Model calculations indicate that <6% of helium initially dissolved in pore fluids was lost during the sampling process. Complete and quantitative extraction of the pore fluids provide minimum in situ porosity values for sandstones 2.8 {+-} 0.4% (SD, n=4) and mudstones 3.1 {+-} 0.8% (SD, n=4).

  20. Carbon dioxide-soluble polymers and swellable polymers for carbon dioxide applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeSimone, Joseph M.; Birnbaum, Eva; Carbonell, Ruben G.; Crette, Stephanie; McClain, James B.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Powell, Kimberly R.; Romack, Timothy J.; Tumas, William

    2004-06-08

    A method for carrying out a catalysis reaction in carbon dioxide comprising contacting a fluid mixture with a catalyst bound to a polymer, the fluid mixture comprising at least one reactant and carbon dioxide, wherein the reactant interacts with the catalyst to form a reaction product. A composition of matter comprises carbon dioxide and a polymer and a reactant present in the carbon dioxide. The polymer has bound thereto a catalyst at a plurality of chains along the length of the polymer, and wherein the reactant interacts with the catalyst to form a reaction product.

  1. HYDROGEN ISOTOPE TARGETS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashley, R.W.

    1958-08-12

    The design of targets for use in the investigation of nuclear reactions of hydrogen isotopes by bombardment with accelerated particles is described. The target con struction eomprises a backing disc of a metal selected from the group consisting of molybdenunn and tungsten, a eoating of condensed titaniunn on the dise, and a hydrogen isotope selected from the group consisting of deuterium and tritium absorbed in the coatiag. The proeess for preparing these hydrogen isotope targets is described.

  2. Hydrogen powered bus

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2016-07-12

    Take a ride on a new type of bus, fueled by hydrogen. These hydrogen taxis are part of a Department of Energy-funded deployment of hydrogen powered vehicles and fueling infrastructure at nine federal facilities across the country to demonstrate this market-ready advanced technology. Produced and leased by Ford Motor Company , they consist of one 12- passenger bus and one nine-passenger bus. More information at: http://go.usa.gov/Tgr

  3. National hydrogen energy roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2002-11-01

    This report was unveiled by Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham in November 2002 and provides a blueprint for the coordinated, long-term, public and private efforts required for hydrogen energy development. Based on the results of the government-industry National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap Workshop, held in Washington, DC on April 2-3, 2002, it displays the development of a roadmap for America's clean energy future and outlines the key barriers and needs to achieve the hydrogen vision goals defined in

  4. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Dennis, E.

    1995-09-01

    For several years, researchers at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environmental Studies have carried out technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Initially, we focussed on the long term potential of renewable hydrogen. More recently we have explored how a transition to renewable hydrogen might begin. The goal of our current work is to identify promising strategies leading from near term hydrogen markets and technologies toward eventual large scale use of renewable hydrogen as an energy carrier. Our approach has been to assess the entire hydrogen energy system from production through end-use considering technical performance, economics, infrastructure and environmental issues. This work is part of the systems analysis activity of the DOE Hydrogen Program. In this paper we first summarize the results of three tasks which were completed during the past year under NREL Contract No. XR-11265-2: in Task 1, we carried out assessments of near term options for supplying hydrogen transportation fuel from natural gas; in Task 2, we assessed the feasibility of using the existing natural gas system with hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and in Task 3, we carried out a study of PEM fuel cells for residential cogeneration applications, a market which might have less stringent cost requirements than transportation. We then give preliminary results for two other tasks which are ongoing under DOE Contract No. DE-FG04-94AL85803: In Task 1 we are assessing the technical options for low cost small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas, considering (a) steam reforming, (b) partial oxidation and (c) autothermal reforming, and in Task 2 we are assessing potential markets for hydrogen in Southern California.

  5. Hawaii Renewable Hydrogen Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Renewable Hydrogen Program State & Regional Initiatives Webinar 14 October 2009 Mitch Ewan Hydrogen Systems Program Manager Hawaii Natural Energy Institute Chenoa Farnsworth Partner Kolohala Holdings, LLP Overview * Hawaii's Energy Situation * Mitch Ewan * Hawaii Power Park Project * Mitch Ewan * The Renewables-to-Hydrogen Fund * Chenoa Farnsworth Hawaii - Most Petroleum Dependent State Petroleum dependence for electricity - top six states Highest Electricity Prices in U.S. Hawaii and US

  6. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal

    Reports and Publications

    1994-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

  7. Cathode fall measurement in a dielectric barrier discharge in helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hao, Yanpeng; Zheng, Bin; Liu, Yaoge

    2013-11-15

    A method based on the “zero-length voltage” extrapolation is proposed to measure cathode fall in a dielectric barrier discharge. Starting, stable, and discharge-maintaining voltages were measured to obtain the extrapolation zero-length voltage. Under our experimental conditions, the “zero-length voltage” gave a cathode fall of about 185 V. Based on the known thickness of the cathode fall region, the spatial distribution of the electric field strength in dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric helium is determined. The strong cathode fall with a maximum field value of approximately 9.25 kV/cm was typical for the glow mode of the discharge.

  8. Dual-frequency glow discharges in atmospheric helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xiaojiang; Guo, Ying; Dai, Lu; Zhang, Jing; Shi, J. J.

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, the dual-frequency (DF) glow discharges in atmospheric helium were experimented by electrical and optical measurements in terms of current voltage characteristics and optical emission intensity. It is shown that the waveforms of applied voltages or discharge currents are the results of low frequency (LF) waveforms added to high frequency (HF) waveforms. The HF mainly influences discharge currents, and the LF mainly influences applied voltages. The gas temperatures of DF discharges are mainly affected by HF power rather than LF power.

  9. Helium nano-bubble evolution in aging metal tritides.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowgill, Donald F.

    2004-05-01

    A continuum-scale, evolutionary model of helium (He) nano-bubble nucleation, growth and He release for aging bulk metal tritides is presented which accounts for major features of the experimental database. Bubble nucleation, modeled as self-trapping of interstitially diffusing He atoms, is found to occur during the first few days following tritium introduction into the metal and is sensitive to the He diffusivity and pairing energy. An effective helium diffusivity of 0.3 x 10{sup -16} cm{sup 2}/s at 300 K is required to generate the average bubble density of 5x 1017 bubbles/cm3 observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Early bubble growth by dislocation loop punching with a l/radius bubble pressure dependence produces good agreement with He atomic volumes and bubble pressures determined from swelling data, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements, and hydride pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) shifts. The model predicts that later in life neighboring bubble interactions may first lower the loop punching pressure through cooperative stress effects, then raise the pressure by partial blocking of loops. It also accounts for the shape of the bubble spacing distribution obtained from NMR data. This distribution is found to remain fixed with age, justifying the separation of nucleation and growth phases, providing a sensitive test of the growth formulation, and indicating that further significant bubble nucleation does not occur throughout life. Helium generated within the escape depth of surfaces and surface-connected porosity produces the low-level early helium release. Accelerated or rapid release is modeled as inter-bubble fracture using an average ligament stress criterion. Good agreement is found between the predicted onset of fracture and the observed He-metal ratio (HeM) for rapid He release from bulk palladium tritide. An examination of how inter-bubble fracture varies over the bubble spacing distribution shows that the critical Hem will be

  10. Active helium target: Neutron scalar polarizability extraction via Compton scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, Meg Hornidge, David; Annand, John; Strandberg, Bruno

    2015-12-31

    Precise measurement of the neutron scalar polarizabilities has been a lasting challenge because of the lack of a free-neutron target. Led by the University of Glasgow and the Mount Allison University groups of the A2 collaboration in Mainz, Germany, preparations have begun to test a recent theoretical model with an active helium target with the hope of determining these elusive quantities with small statistical, systematic, and model-dependent errors. Apparatus testing and background-event simulations have been carried out, with the full experiment projected to run in 2015. Once determined, these values can be applied to help understand quantum chromodynamics in the nonperturbative region.

  11. Hydrogen.PDF | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Hydrogen.PDF Hydrogen.PDF Hydrogen.PDF 871916.pdf (1.66 MB) More Documents & Publications Hydrogen Release Behavior Safetygram Gaseous Hydrogen Hydrogen Fuel Cell Engines and Related Technologies Course Manual

  12. Hydrogen Basics | NREL

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Basics Hydrogen is a clean-burning fuel, and when combined with oxygen in a fuel cell, it produces heat and electricity with only water vapor as a by-product. But hydrogen does not exist freely in nature: it is only produced from other sources of energy, so it is often referred to as an energy carrier, that is, an efficient way to store and transport energy. A photo of a Ford hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine (H2ICE) bus at NREL's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC). A

  13. Hydrogen ion microlithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y. Simon (Lakewood, CO); Deb, Satyen K. (Boulder, CO)

    1990-01-01

    Disclosed is a hydrogen ion microlithography process for use in microelectronic fabrication and semiconductor device processing. The process comprises the steps of providing a single layer of either an amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon material. A pattern is recorded in a selected layer of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon materials by preferentially implanting hydrogen ions therein so as to permit the selected layer to serve as a mask-resist wafer suitable for subsequent development and device fabrication. The layer is developed to provide a surface pattern therein adaptable for subsequent use in microelectronic fabrication and semiconductor device processing.

  14. Hydrogen ion microlithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Deb, S.K.

    1990-10-02

    Disclosed is a hydrogen ion microlithography process for use in microelectronic fabrication and semiconductor device processing. The process comprises the steps of providing a single layer of either an amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon material. A pattern is recorded in a selected layer of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon materials by preferentially implanting hydrogen ions therein so as to permit the selected layer to serve as a mask-resist wafer suitable for subsequent development and device fabrication. The layer is developed to provide a surface pattern therein adaptable for subsequent use in microelectronic fabrication and semiconductor device processing. 6 figs.

  15. President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Hydrogen Infrastructure and Fuel Cell Technologies put on an Accelerated Schedule. President Bush commits a total $1.7 billion over first 5 years

  16. Hydrogen permeation resistant barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGuire, Joseph C.; Brehm, William F.

    1982-01-01

    A hydrogen permeation resistant barrier is formed by diffusing aluminum into an iron or nickel alloy and forming an intermetallic aluminide layer.

  17. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J.; Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Fleming, Pamela H.

    1994-01-01

    A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed.

  18. Hydrogen Delivery and Fueling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-09-09

    This MP3 provides an overview of how hydrogen is delivered from the point of production to where it is used.

  19. Hydrogen Education in Texas

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

  20. Hydrogen Fuel Cells

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    The fuel cell an energy conversion device that can efficiently capture and use the power of hydrogen is the key to making it happen.

  1. Hydrogen permeation resistant barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGuire, J.C.; Brehm, W.F.

    1980-02-08

    A hydrogen permeation resistant barrier is formed by diffusing aluminum into an iron or nickel alloy and forming an intermetallic aluminide layer.

  2. Hydrogen purification system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golben, Peter Mark

    2010-06-15

    The present invention provides a system to purify hydrogen involving the use of a hydride compressor and catalytic converters combined with a process controller.

  3. Renewable Hydrogen (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remick, R. J.

    2009-11-16

    Presentation about the United State's dependence on oil, how energy solutions are challenging, and why hydrogen should be considered as a long-term alternative for transportation fuel.

  4. Detroit Commuter Hydrogen Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

  5. Hydrogen | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Sources » Hydrogen Hydrogen November 2, 2016 A rendering of a finalist's hydrogen fueling system from the H-Prize. SimpleFuel's system (built by Ivys, PDC Machines, and McPhy North America) has already produced and dispensed over 70 kg of hydrogen--enough fuel to drive a fuel cell car 4,200 miles. | Photo courtesy of Ivys Inc. H2 Refuel Competition Makes Progress With fuel cell cars hitting the roads now, the need for places to fuel them is becoming a critical challenge. That's why, in

  6. National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... commercialization of fuel cell and hydrogen technologies. ... reactions; and solar photolysis or biological methods. ... Conflicting local vs. state or national interests is a ...

  7. Hydrogen Fuel Cells

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    The fuel cell — an energy conversion device that can efficiently capture and use the power of hydrogen — is the key to making it happen.

  8. ARM - Measurement - Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    concentration ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration The amount of carbon dioxide, a heavy, colorless greenhouse gas, per unit of volume. Categories Atmospheric Carbon Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all

  9. Copper mercaptides as sulfur dioxide indicators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eller, Phillip G.; Kubas, Gregory J.

    1979-01-01

    Organophosphine copper(I) mercaptide complexes are useful as convenient and semiquantitative visual sulfur dioxide gas indicators. The air-stable complexes form 1:1 adducts in the presence of low concentrations of sulfur dioxide gas, with an associated color change from nearly colorless to yellow-orange. The mercaptides are made by mixing stoichiometric amounts of the appropriate copper(I) mercaptide and phosphine in an inert organic solvent.

  10. Thorium dioxide: properties and nuclear applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belle, J.; Berman, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    This is the sixth book on reactor materials published under sponsorship of the Naval Reactors Office of the United States Department of Energy, formerly the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This book presents a comprehensive compilation of the most significant properties of thorium dioxide, much like the book Uranium Dioxide: Properties and Nuclear Applications presented information on the fuel material used in the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor core.

  11. Destruction of oxalate by reaction with hydrogen peroxide. [Hydrazine oxalate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mailen, J.C.; Tallent, O.K.; Arwood, P.C.

    1981-09-01

    The destruction of oxalate by oxidation to carbon dioxide using hydrogen peroxide was studied as an alternative method for the disposal of oxalate in connection with the possible use of an aqueous hydrazine oxalate solution as a scrubbing agent for solvent cleanup in processes for the recovery of uranium, plutonium, and thorium by solvent extraction. The rate of oxidation of oxalate by hydrogen peroxide in acid solution at the reflux temperature was adequate for process application; reaction half-times at 100/sup 0/C were less than one hour when the hydrogen peroxide concentration was greater than 0.5 M. The reaction was first order with respect to both the oxalate and hydrogen peroxide concentrations and had an activation energy of 58.7 kJ/g-mol. The rate increased with the hydrogen ion concentration as (H/sup +/)/sup 0/ /sup 3/ but was not significantly affected by the presence of 100 ppM of uranium or copper in solution. In the near-neutral hydrazine oxalate solutions, the reaction of either component with hydrogen peroxide was too slow for process application.

  12. Beneficial Use of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Beneficial Use of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Beneficial Use of Carbon Dioxide in Precast Concrete Production The feasibility of using carbon dioxide as feedstock in precast concrete production is studied. Carbon dioxide reacts with calcium compounds in concrete, producing solid calcium carbonates in binding matrix. Two typical precast products are examined for their capacity to store carbon dioxide during

  13. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Hydrogen Infrastructure Project Jump to: navigation, search Name: California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project Place: California Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: String...

  14. Massachusetts Hydrogen Coalition | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Hydrogen Coalition Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Massachusetts Hydrogen Coalition Name: Massachusetts Hydrogen Coalition Address: 100 Cummings Center Place: Beverly,...

  15. Development of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle: Improving VHTR Efficiency and Testing Material Compatibility - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang H. Oh

    2006-06-01

    Generation IV reactors will need to be intrinsically safe, having a proliferation-resistant fuel cycle and several advantages relative to existing light water reactor (LWR). They, however, must still overcome certain technical issues and the cost barrier before it can be built in the U.S. The establishment of a nuclear power cost goal of 3.3 cents/kWh is desirable in order to compete with fossil combined-cycle, gas turbine power generation. This goal requires approximately a 30 percent reduction in power cost for stateof-the-art nuclear plants. It has been demonstrated that this large cost differential can be overcome only by technology improvements that lead to a combination of better efficiency and more compatible reactor materials. The objectives of this research are (1) to develop a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle in the secondary power conversion side that can be applied to the Very-High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR), (2) to improve the plant net efficiency by using the carbon dioxide Brayton cycle, and (3) to test material compatibility at high temperatures and pressures. The reduced volumetric flow rate of carbon dioxide due to higher density compared to helium will reduce compression work, which eventually increase plant net efficiency.

  16. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to lower carbon dioxide emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huffman, Gerald P

    2012-09-18

    A method for producing liquid fuels includes the steps of gasifying a starting material selected from a group consisting of coal, biomass, carbon nanotubes and mixtures thereof to produce a syngas, subjecting that syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to produce a hyrdrocarbon product stream, separating that hydrocarbon product stream into C1-C4 hydrocarbons and C5+ hydrocarbons to be used as liquid fuels and subjecting the C1-C4 hydrocarbons to catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) to produce hydrogen and carbon nanotubes. The hydrogen produced by CDH is recycled to be mixed with the syngas incident to the FTS reactor in order to raise the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the syngas to values of 2 or higher, which is required to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This is accomplished with little or no production of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The carbon is captured in the form of a potentially valuable by-product, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), while huge emissions of carbon dioxide are avoided and very large quantities of water employed for the water-gas shift in traditional FTS systems are saved.

  17. The latest developments and outlook for hydrogen liquefaction technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohlig, K.; Decker, L.

    2014-01-29

    Liquefied hydrogen is presently mainly used for space applications and the semiconductor industry. While clean energy applications, for e.g. the automotive sector, currently contribute to this demand with a small share only, their demand may see a significant boost in the next years with the need for large scale liquefaction plants exceeding the current plant sizes by far. Hydrogen liquefaction for small scale plants with a maximum capacity of 3 tons per day (tpd) is accomplished with a Brayton refrigeration cycle using helium as refrigerant. This technology is characterized by low investment costs but lower process efficiency and hence higher operating costs. For larger plants, a hydrogen Claude cycle is used, characterized by higher investment but lower operating costs. However, liquefaction plants meeting the potentially high demand in the clean energy sector will need further optimization with regard to energy efficiency and hence operating costs. The present paper gives an overview of the currently applied technologies, including their thermodynamic and technical background. Areas of improvement are identified to derive process concepts for future large scale hydrogen liquefaction plants meeting the needs of clean energy applications with optimized energy efficiency and hence minimized operating costs. Compared to studies in this field, this paper focuses on application of new technology and innovative concepts which are either readily available or will require short qualification procedures. They will hence allow implementation in plants in the close future.

  18. Combination moisture and hydrogen getter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrah, Larry A.; Mead, Keith E.; Smith, Henry M.

    1983-01-01

    A combination moisture and hydrogen getter comprises (a) a moisture getter comprising a readily oxidizable metal; and (b) a hydrogen getter comprising (i) a solid acetylenic compound and (ii) a hydrogenation catalyst. A method of scavenging moisture from a closed container uses the combination moisture and hydrogen getter to irreversibly chemically reduce the moisture and chemically bind the resultant hydrogen.

  19. Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T.; Li, Yingwel; Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J.

    2011-05-31

    Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonification as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

  20. Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T; Li, Yingwei; Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J

    2013-02-12

    Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonication as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

  1. Combination moisture and hydrogen getter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-04-29

    A combination moisture and hydrogen getter comprises (a) a moisture getter comprising a readily oxidizable metal; and (b) a hydrogen getter comprising (i) a solid acetylenic compound and (ii) a hydrogenation catalyst. A method of scavenging moisture from a closed container uses the combination moisture and hydrogen getter to irreversibly chemically reduce the moisture and chemically bind the reusltant hydrogen.

  2. Combination moisture and hydrogen getter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrah, L.A.; Mead, K.E.; Smith, H.M.

    1983-09-20

    A combination moisture and hydrogen getter comprises (a) a moisture getter comprising a readily oxidizable metal; and (b) a hydrogen getter comprising (1) a solid acetylenic compound and (2) a hydrogenation catalyst. A method of scavenging moisture from a closed container uses the combination moisture and hydrogen getter to irreversibly chemically reduce the moisture and chemically bind the resultant hydrogen.

  3. Process for exchanging hydrogen isotopes between gaseous hydrogen and water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hindin, Saul G.; Roberts, George W.

    1980-08-12

    A process for exchanging isotopes of hydrogen, particularly tritium, between gaseous hydrogen and water is provided whereby gaseous hydrogen depeleted in tritium and liquid or gaseous water containing tritium are reacted in the presence of a metallic catalyst.

  4. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 11007: Hydrogen Threshold...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The hydrogen threshold cost is defined as the hydrogen cost in the range of 2.00-4.00gge (2007), which represents the cost at which hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles are ...

  5. Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project Objectives: To gain basic understanding of hydrogen permeation behavior and its impact on hydrogen embrittlement of pipeline steels under high gaseous pressures relevant to hydrogen gas transmission pipeline

  6. Green Hydrogen Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Hydrogen Company Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Green Hydrogen Company Name: Green Hydrogen Company Abbreviation: GH2 Address: Green Hydrogen Company, Head Office, 9...

  7. Safe Hydrogen LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Hydrogen LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Safe Hydrogen LLC Place: Lexington, Massachusetts Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: Focused on hydrogen storage, through a 'slurry' of...

  8. Hydrogen Car Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Car Co Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hydrogen Car Co Place: Los Angeles, California Zip: 90036 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: The Hydrogen Car Company produces hydrogen...

  9. The Hydrogen Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Company Jump to: navigation, search Name: The Hydrogen Company Abbreviation: HydroGen Address: The Hydrogen Company, HydroGen Engineering and Consulting, Head Office, 9...

  10. Ignition and extinction phenomena in helium micro hollow cathode discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulsreshath, M. K.; Schwaederle, L.; Dufour, T.; Lefaucheux, P.; Dussart, R.; Overzet, L. J.

    2013-12-28

    Micro hollow cathode discharges (MHCD) were produced using 250??m thick dielectric layer of alumina sandwiched between two nickel electrodes of 8??m thickness. A through cavity at the center of the chip was formed by laser drilling technique. MHCD with a diameter of few hundreds of micrometers allowed us to generate direct current discharges in helium at up to atmospheric pressure. A slowly varying ramped voltage generator was used to study the ignition and the extinction periods of the microdischarges. The analysis was performed by using electrical characterisation of the V-I behaviour and the measurement of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms density by tunable diode laser spectroscopy. At the ignition of the microdischarges, 2??s long current peak as high as 24?mA was observed, sometimes followed by low amplitude damped oscillations. At helium pressure above 400?Torr, an oscillatory behaviour of the discharge current was observed just before the extinction of the microdischarges. The same type of instability in the extinction period at high pressure also appeared on the density of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms, but delayed by a few ?s relative to the current oscillations. Metastable atoms thus cannot be at the origin of the generation of the observed instabilities.

  11. Partial cross sections of helium satellites at medium photon energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wehlitz, R.; Sellin, I.A.; Hemmers, O.

    1997-04-01

    Still of current interest is the important role of single ionization with excitation compared to single ionization alone. The coupling between the electrons and the incoming photon is a single-particle operator. Thus, an excitation in addition to an ionization, leading to a so-called satellite line in a photoelectron spectrum, is entirely due to electron-electron interaction and probes the electron correlation in the ground and final state. Therefore the authors have undertaken the study of the intensity of helium satellites He{sup +}nl (n = 2 - 6) relative to the main photoline (n = 1) as a function of photon energy at photon energies well above threshold up to 900 eV. From these results they could calculate the partial cross-sections of the helium satellites. In order to test the consistency of their satellite-to-1s ratios with published double-to-single photoionization ratios, the authors calculated the double-to-single photoionization ratio from their measured ratios using the theoretical energy-distribution curves of Chang and Poe and Le Rouzo and Dal Cappello which proved to be valid for photon energies below 120 eV. These calculated double-to-single ionization ratios agree fairly well with recent ion measurements. In the lower photon energy range the authors ratios agree better with the ratios of Doerner et al. while for higher photon energies the agreement is better with the values of Levin et al.

  12. Helium Nano-Bubble Evolution in Aging Metal Tritides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowgill, Donald F.

    2005-07-15

    A continuum-scale, evolutionary model of bubble nucleation, growth and He release for aging metal tritides is described which accounts for major features of the tritide database. Bubble nucleation, modeled as self-trapping of interstitially diffusing He atoms, occurs during the first few days following tritium introduction into the metal. Bubble growth by dislocation loop punching yields good agreement between He atomic volumes and bubble pressures determined from bulk swelling and {sup 3}He NMR data. The bubble spacing distribution determined from NMR is shown to remain fixed with age, justifying the separation of nucleation and growth phases and providing a sensitive test of the growth formulation. Late in life, bubble interactions are proposed to produce cooperative stress effects, which lower the bubble pressure. Helium generated near surfaces and surface-connected porosity accounts for the low-level early helium release. Use of an average ligament stress criterion predicts an onset of inter-bubble fracture in good agreement with the He/Metal ratio observed for rapid He release. From the model, it is concluded that He retention can be controlled through control of bubble nucleation.

  13. Effect of dynamically charged helium on tensile properties of V-4Cr-4Ti

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, H.M.; Loomis, B.A.; Nowicki, L.; Smith, D.L.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the effect of displacement damage and dynamically charged helium on tensile properties of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy irradiated to 18-31 dpa at 425-600{degree}C in the Dynamic Helium Charging Experiment (DHCE).

  14. Membrane for hydrogen recovery from streams containing hydrogen sulfide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agarwal, Pradeep K.

    2007-01-16

    A membrane for hydrogen recovery from streams containing hydrogen sulfide is provided. The membrane comprises a substrate, a hydrogen permeable first membrane layer deposited on the substrate, and a second membrane layer deposited on the first layer. The second layer contains sulfides of transition metals and positioned on the on a feed side of the hydrogen sulfide stream. The present invention also includes a method for the direct decomposition of hydrogen sulfide to hydrogen and sulfur.

  15. NREL Wind to Hydrogen Project: Renewable Hydrogen Production for Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Storage & Transportation | Department of Energy Wind to Hydrogen Project: Renewable Hydrogen Production for Energy Storage & Transportation NREL Wind to Hydrogen Project: Renewable Hydrogen Production for Energy Storage & Transportation Presented at the Renewable Hydrogen Workshop, Nov. 16, 2009, in Palm Springs, CA renewable_hydrogen_workshop_nov16_ramsden.pdf (1.5 MB) More Documents & Publications Hour-by-Hour Cost Modeling of Optimized Central Wind-Based Water Electrolysis

  16. The Hydrogen Laboratory and The Brazilian Reference Center for Hydrogen

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy | Department of Energy The Hydrogen Laboratory and The Brazilian Reference Center for Hydrogen Energy The Hydrogen Laboratory and The Brazilian Reference Center for Hydrogen Energy Presentation given by Newton Pimenta and Cristiano Pinto of the State University of Campinas at the CNG and Hydrogen Lessons Learned Workshop on December 10, 2009 cng_h2_workshop_12_ohi.pdf (621.46 KB) More Documents & Publications Overview of DOE - DOT December 2009 CNG and Hydrogen Fuels Workshop

  17. Hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subbaraman, Ram; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad; Tripkovic, Dusan

    2016-02-09

    Systems and methods for a hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst are provided. Electrode material includes a plurality of clusters. The electrode exhibits bifunctionality with respect to the hydrogen evolution reaction. The electrode with clusters exhibits improved performance with respect to the intrinsic material of the electrode absent the clusters.

  18. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Lauf, R.J.

    1995-09-19

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors. 8 figs.

  19. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffheins, Barbara S. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  20. Hydrogen Fuel Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rockward, Tommy

    2012-07-16

    For the past 6 years, open discussions and/or meetings have been held and are still on-going with OEM, Hydrogen Suppliers, other test facilities from the North America Team and International collaborators regarding experimental results, fuel clean-up cost, modeling, and analytical techniques to help determine levels of constituents for the development of an international standard for hydrogen fuel quality (ISO TC197 WG-12). Significant progress has been made. The process for the fuel standard is entering final stages as a result of the technical accomplishments. The objectives are to: (1) Determine the allowable levels of hydrogen fuel contaminants in support of the development of science-based international standards for hydrogen fuel quality (ISO TC197 WG-12); and (2) Validate the ASTM test method for determining low levels of non-hydrogen constituents.

  1. Why Hydrogen? Hydrogen from Diverse Domestic Resources | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Overview of FreedomCAR & Fuels PartnershipDOE Delivery Program President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Hydrogen Posture Plan: An Integrated Research, Development and...

  2. Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    and its impact on hydrogen embrittlement of pipeline steels under high gaseous pressures relevant to hydrogen gas transmission pipeline hpwgwpermeabilityintegrityfeng.pdf (1.41 ...

  3. Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Presentation by 03-Babu for the DOE Hydrogen Pipeline R&D Project Review Meeting held ... Delivery Pipelines Proceedings of the 2005 Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop

  4. NMR Studies of Molecular Hydrogen in Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, T.; Chen, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Crandall, R. S.; Mahan, A. H.

    2000-01-01

    Using NMR, the concentrations of molecular hydrogen have been measured directly in hydrogenated amorphous silicon made by the hot wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) technique.

  5. Hydrogen Supply: Cost Estimate for Hydrogen Pathways-Scoping...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    PDF icon 32525.pdf More Documents & Publications Analysis of a Cluster Strategy for Near Term Hydrogen Infrastructure Rollout in Southern California Hydrogen Delivery ...

  6. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - NREL Hydrogen Expert...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Hydrogen Expert Sees Promise in New Discovery Photoelectrochemical pioneer John ... January 8, 2014 Producing hydrogen directly from the sun -- and in a way that is ...

  7. Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop: Code for Hydrogen Pipelines

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Code for Hydrogen Piping and Pipelines. B31 Hydrogen Section Committee to develop a new code for H2 piping and pipelines.

  8. Hydrogen Resource Assessment: Hydrogen Potential from Coal, Natural...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    60-42773 February 2009 Hydrogen Resource Assessment Hydrogen Potential from Coal, Natural Gas, Nuclear, and Hydro Power Anelia Milbrandt and Margaret Mann National Renewable Energy...

  9. Fundamental and applied studies of helium ingrowth and aging in plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, M.F.; Zocco, T.; Albers, R.; Becker, J.D.; Walter, K.; Cort, B.; Paisley, D.; Nastasi, M.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this project was to develop new capabilities to assess the nucleation and growth of helium-associated defects in aged plutonium metal. This effort involved both fundamental and applied models to assist in predicting the transport and kinetics of helium in the metal lattice as well as ab initio calculations of the disposition of gallium in the fcc plutonium lattice and its resulting effects on phase stability. Experimentally this project aimed to establish experimental capabilities crucial to the prediction of helium effects in metals, such as transmission electron microscopy, thermal helium effusion, and the development of a laser-driven mini-flyer for understanding the role of helium and associated defects on shock response of plutonium surrogates.

  10. Powertech: Hydrogen Expertise Storage Needs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Powertech is Chair of: * ISO 15869 draft standard for hydrogen vehicle tanks * ANSICSA HGV2 draft standard for hydrogen vehicle fuel tanks Examples of hydrogen storage (up to 950 ...

  11. Renewable Resources for Hydrogen (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. A.

    2010-05-03

    This presentation provides an overview of renewable resources for hydrogen. It was presented at the National Hydrogen Association Hydrogen Conference & Expo in Long Beach, CA, May 3-6, 2010.

  12. Hydrogen Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Resources Hydrogen Resources Hydrogen can be produced from diverse, domestic resources. Currently, most hydrogen is produced from fossil fuels, specifically natural gas. Electricity-from the grid or from renewable sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, or biomass-is also currently used to produce hydrogen. In the longer term, solar energy and biomass can be used more directly to generate hydrogen. Natural Gas and Other Fossil Fuels Fossil fuels can be reformed to release the hydrogen from

  13. Renewable Hydrogen: The Environmental Perspective

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Hydrogen: The Environmental Perspective Tyson Eckerle Energy Independence Now Delivering Renewable Hydrogen Workshop November 16 th , 2009. Energy Independence Now Why are we here? California Hydrogen Highway SB 1505 co-authors (w/ UCS) Hydrogen Advocates A consistent pro-hydrogen voice Renewable Hydrogen Environmental Perspective SB 1505 Opportunity Government role Harnessing the environmental community The Environmental Community Who are we talking about? NGOs, academics, customers, concerned

  14. Hydrogen Storage | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Storage Hydrogen Storage The Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) is developing onboard automotive hydrogen storage systems that allow for a driving range of more than 300 miles while meeting cost, safety, and performance requirements. Why Study Hydrogen Storage Hydrogen storage is a key enabling technology for the advancement of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in applications including stationary power, portable power, and transportation. Hydrogen has the highest energy per mass of any

  15. Atmospheric Trace Gases from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication, Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. The collections under the CDIAC heading of Atmospheric Trace Gases include: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Atmospheric Methane, Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide, Atmospheric Hydrogen, Isotopes in Greenhouse Gases, Radionuclides, Aerosols, and Other Trace Gases.

  16. Hydrogen Data Book from the Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Hydrogen Data Book contains a wide range of factual information on hydrogen and fuel cells (e.g., hydrogen properties, hydrogen production and delivery data, and information on fuel cells and fuel cell vehicles), and it also provides other data that might be useful in analyses of hydrogen infrastructure in the United States (e.g., demographic data and data on energy supply and/or infrastructure). Its made available from the Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center along with a wealth of related information. The related information includes guidelines for DOE Hydrogen Program Analysis, various calculator tools, a hydrogen glossary, related websites, and analysis tools relevant to hydrogen and fuel cells. [From http://hydrogen.pnl.gov/cocoon/morf/hydrogen

  17. Hydrogen Data Book from the Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Hydrogen Data Book contains a wide range of factual information on hydrogen and fuel cells (e.g., hydrogen properties, hydrogen production and delivery data, and information on fuel cells and fuel cell vehicles), and it also provides other data that might be useful in analyses of hydrogen infrastructure in the United States (e.g., demographic data and data on energy supply and/or infrastructure). ItÆs made available from the Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center along with a wealth of related information. The related information includes guidelines for DOE Hydrogen Program Analysis, various calculator tools, a hydrogen glossary, related websites, and analysis tools relevant to hydrogen and fuel cells. [From http://hydrogen.pnl.gov/cocoon/morf/hydrogen

  18. Extended Operations of the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne Pilot-Scale Compact Reformer Year 6 - Activity 3.2 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almlie, Jay

    2011-10-01

    U.S. and global demand for hydrogen is large and growing for use in the production of chemicals, materials, foods, pharmaceuticals, and fuels (including some low-carbon biofuels). Conventional hydrogen production technologies are expensive, have sizeable space requirements, and are large carbon dioxide emitters. A novel sorbent-based hydrogen production technology is being developed and advanced toward field demonstration that promises smaller size, greater efficiency, lower costs, and reduced to no net carbon dioxide emissions compared to conventional hydrogen production technology. Development efforts at the pilot scale have addressed materials compatibility, hot-gas filtration, and high-temperature solids transport and metering, among other issues, and have provided the basis for a preliminary process design with associated economics. The process was able to achieve a 93% hydrogen purity on a purge gasfree basis directly out of the pilot unit prior to downstream purification.

  19. Hydrogen Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hydrogen Energy Place: Surrey, England, United Kingdom Zip: KT13 0NY Sector: Carbon, Hydro, Hydrogen Product: Surrey-based BP subsidiary...

  20. Hydrogen Ventures | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Ventures Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Hydrogen Ventures Name: Hydrogen Ventures Address: 1219 N. Studabaker Road Place: Long Beach, California Zip: 90811 Region: Southern CA...

  1. Demonstration and System Analysis of High Temperature Steam Electrolysis for Large-Scale Hydrogen Production Using SOFCs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael G. McKellar; James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring

    2008-07-01

    At the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, an integrated laboratory scale (ILS), 15 kW high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) facility has been developed under the U.S. Department of Energy Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. Initial operation of this facility resulted in over 400 hours of operation with an average hydrogen production rate of approximately 0.9 Nm3/hr. The integrated laboratory scale facility is designed to address larger-scale issues such as thermal management (feed-stock heating, high-temperature gas handling), multiple-stack hot-zone design, multiple-stack electrical configurations, and other “integral” issues. Additionally, a reference process model of a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis plant for hydrogen production has been developed. The reference plant design is driven by a 600 megawatt thermal high-temperature helium-cooled reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen consists of 4.01×106 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. A nominal cell area-specific resistance, ASR, value of 0.4 Ohm•cm2 with a current density of 0.25 A/cm2 was used, and isothermal boundary conditions were assumed. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the low heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 47.1% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.36 kg/s with the high-temperature helium-cooled reactor concept. This paper documents the initial operation of the ILS, with experimental details about heat-up, initial stack performance, as well as long-term operation and stack degradation. The paper will also present the optimized design for the reference nuclear-driven HTE hydrogen production plant which may be compared with other hydrogen production methods and power cycles to evaluate relative performance characteristics and plant economics.

  2. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rocheleau, R.; Misra, A.; Miller, E.

    1998-08-01

    A significant component of the US DOE Hydrogen Program is the development of a practical technology for the direct production of hydrogen using a renewable source of energy. High efficiency photoelectrochemical systems to produce hydrogen directly from water using sunlight as the energy source represent one of the technologies identified by DOE to meet this mission. Reactor modeling and experiments conducted at UH provide strong evidence that direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency greater than 10% can be expected using photoelectrodes fabricated from low-cost, multijunction (MJ) amorphous silicon solar cells. Solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiencies as high as 7.8% have been achieved using a 10.3% efficient MJ amorphous silicon solar cell. Higher efficiency can be expected with the use of higher efficiency solar cells, further improvement of the thin film oxidation and reduction catalysts, and optimization of the solar cell for hydrogen production rather than electricity production. Hydrogen and oxygen catalysts developed under this project are very stable, exhibiting no measurable degradation in KOH after over 13,000 hours of operation. Additional research is needed to fully optimize the transparent, conducting coatings which will be needed for large area integrated arrays. To date, the best protection has been afforded by wide bandgap amorphous silicon carbide films.

  3. MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTY PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL GRADE API PIPELINE STEELS IN HIGH PRESSURE GASEOUS HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stalheim, Mr. Douglas; Boggess, Todd; San Marchi, Chris; Jansto, Steven; Somerday, Dr. B; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Sofronis, Prof. Petros

    2010-01-01

    The continued growth of the world s developing countries has placed an ever increasing demand on traditional fossil fuel energy sources. This development has lead to increasing research and development of alternative energy sources. Hydrogen gas is one of the potential alternative energy sources under development. Currently the most economical method of transporting large quantities of hydrogen gas is through steel pipelines. It is well known that hydrogen embrittlement has the potential to degrade steel s mechanical properties when hydrogen migrates into the steel matrix. Consequently, the current pipeline infrastructure used in hydrogen transport is typically operated in a conservative fashion. This operational practice is not conducive to economical movement of significant volumes of hydrogen gas as an alternative to fossil fuels. The degradation of the mechanical properties of steels in hydrogen service is known to depend on the microstructure of the steel. Understanding the levels of mechanical property degradation of a given microstructure when exposed to hydrogen gas under pressure can be used to evaluate the suitability of the existing pipeline infrastructure for hydrogen service and guide alloy and microstructure design for new hydrogen pipeline infrastructure. To this end, the 2 Copyright 2010 by ASME microstructures of relevant steels and their mechanical properties in relevant gaseous hydrogen environments must be fully characterized to establish suitability for transporting hydrogen. A project to evaluate four commercially available pipeline steels alloy/microstructure performance in the presences of gaseous hydrogen has been funded by the US Department of Energy along with the private sector. The microstructures of four pipeline steels were characterized and then tensile testing was conducted in gaseous hydrogen and helium at pressures of 800, 1600 and 3000 psi. Based on measurements of reduction of area, two of the four steels that performed the best

  4. SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; J.E. Fitzgerald; Z. Pan; M. Sudibandriyo

    2003-04-30

    The authors' long-term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure, and adsorbent types. The originally-stated, major objectives of the current project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen, and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coals being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. As this project developed, an important additional objective was added to the above original list. Namely, we were encouraged to interact with industry and/or governmental agencies to utilize our expertise to advance the state of the art in coalbed adsorption science and technology. As a result of this additional objective, we participated with the Department of Energy and industry in the measurement and analysis of adsorption behavior as part of two distinct investigations. These include (a) Advanced Resources International (ARI) DOE Project DE-FC26-00NT40924, ''Adsorption of Pure Methane, Nitrogen, and Carbon Dioxide and Their Mixtures on Wet Tiffany Coal'', and (b) the DOE-NETL Project, ''Round Robin: CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Selected Coals''. These activities, contributing directly to the DOE projects listed above, also

  5. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldridge, F.T.

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu/sub 5/ type of crystal structure, particularly LaNiCo/sub 4/ and CaNi/sub 5/, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation column. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale multi-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen cn produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors.

  6. Extremely weak hydrogen flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lecoustre, V.R.; Sunderland, P.B. [Department of Fire Protection Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Chao, B.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Axelbaum, R.L. [Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Hydrogen jet diffusion flames were observed near their quenching limits. These involved downward laminar flow of hydrogen from a stainless steel hypodermic tube with an inside diameter of 0.15 mm. Near their quenching limits these flames had hydrogen flow rates of 3.9 and 2.1 {mu}g/s in air and oxygen, respectively. Assuming complete combustion, the associated heat release rates are 0.46 and 0.25 W. To the authors' knowledge, these are the weakest self-sustaining steady flames ever observed. (author)

  7. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldridge, Frederick T.

    1981-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu.sub.5 type of crystal structure, particularly LaNiCo.sub.4 and CaNi.sub.5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation colum. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale mutli-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors.

  8. Experimental investigations of electron capture from atomic hydrogen and deuterium by alpha particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gay, T.J.; Park, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    We report progress made during the period 15 September 1991--14 September 1992 on the project Experimental Investigations of Electron Capture from Atomic Hydrogen and Deuterium by Alpha Particles''. In the past year we have developed reliable, narrow energy spread, high-current sources of He[sup ++] based on direct-current magentron and electron-cyclotron resonance discharges. These sources have been proven on our test bench accelerator which has been upgraded to also allow us to test atomic hydrogen effusive targets. We have thus made substantial progress toward our goal of studying single electron capture from atomic hydrogen by doubly-ionized helium. A research plan for the upcoming year is also presented.

  9. Friction-Induced Fluid Heating in Nanoscale Helium Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Zhigang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-05-21

    We investigate the mechanism of friction-induced fluid heating in nanoconfinements. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the temperature variations of liquid helium in nanoscale Poiseuille flows. It is found that the fluid heating is dominated by different sources of friction as the external driving force is changed. For small external force, the fluid heating is mainly caused by the internal viscous friction in the fluid. When the external force is large and causes fluid slip at the surfaces of channel walls, the friction at the fluid-solid interface dominates over the internal friction in the fluid and is the major contribution to fluid heating. An asymmetric temperature gradient in the fluid is developed in the case of nonidentical walls and the general temperature gradient may change sign as the dominant heating factor changes from internal to interfacial friction with increasing external force.

  10. Electron impact excitation of helium in Debye plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diallo, S.; Gomis, L.; Faye, I. G.; Tall, M. S.; Diédhiou, I.; Diatta, C. S.; Zammit, M.

    2015-03-15

    The probability, differential, and integral scattering cross sections of the 1{sup 1}S→2{sup 1}S and 1{sup 1}S→2{sup 1}P transitions of helium have been calculated in the first Born approximation. The projectile-target interactions depending on the temperature and the density of plasma are described by the Debye-Hückel model. Wave functions of the target before and after collision were modeled by non orthogonal Hartree-Fock orbitals. The wave functions parameters are calculated with the Ritz variational method. We improve our unscreened first Born approximation integral cross sections by using the BE-scaled (B stands for binding energy and E excitation energy) method. The second Born approximation has also been used to calculate the excitation cross sections in Debye plasma. Our calculations are compared to other theoretical and experimental results where applicable.

  11. Options for Cryogenic Load Cooling with Forced Flow Helium Circulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Knudsen, Venkatarao Ganni, Roberto Than

    2012-06-01

    Cryogenic pumps designed to circulate super-critical helium are commonly deemed necessary in many super-conducting magnet and other cooling applications. Acknowledging that these pumps are often located at the coldest temperature levels, their use introduces risks associated with the reliability of additional rotating machinery and an additional load on the refrigeration system. However, as it has been successfully demonstrated, this objective can be accomplished without using these pumps by the refrigeration system, resulting in lower system input power and improved reliability to the overall cryogenic system operations. In this paper we examine some trade-offs between using these pumps vs. using the refrigeration system directly with examples of processes that have used these concepts successfully and eliminated using such pumps

  12. Symmetric And Non-Symmetric Muonic Helium Atoms Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammadi, S.

    2011-10-28

    The ground state hyperfine structure and other properties are calculated for muonic helium atoms ({sup 3}He{sup +2}{mu}{sup -}e{sup -} or {sup 4}He{sup +2}{mu}{sup -}e{sup -}) with the use of some local properties of the wave functions in the domains where two particles are close to each other or far away. Simple wave functions incorporating these properties with one variational parameter is developed. The calculated values for hyperfine structure, energy and average interparticle distances in ground state are compared with the correlation function hyper-spherical harmonic method and multibox variational approach. The obtained results are very close to the values calculated by mentioned methods, giving strong indications that the proposed wave functions provide relatively accurate values.

  13. Effect of helium on the electronic structure of palladium tritide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, R.P.; Gupta, M.

    1998-12-31

    Tritium is usually stored in the form of a metal tritide since it is safe to handle in this form, easily recoverable, and further large quantities of tritium can be stored. However, since tritium is radioactive it decays into {sup 3}He and an electron. Helium recoil energy in this reaction is very small, and not enough to create defects. The authors have performed ab-initio electronic structure calculations that show that in PdT, a considerable amount of {sup 3}He can be accommodated at the octahedral interstitial sites where it is produced. Their calculations also show that the presence of {sup 3}He results in an overall enhancement in the strength of the metal-tritium bonding that leads to the lowering of the plateau pressure. They also find that there is a weakening of the metal-metal bonds due to the repulsive interaction with {sup 3}He.

  14. MANGANESE DIOXIDE METHOD FOR PREPARATION OF PROTACTINIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katzin, L.I.

    1958-08-12

    A method of obtaining U/sup 233/ is described. An aqueous solution of neutriln irradiated thoriunn is treated by forming tberein a precipitate of manganese dioxide which carries and thus separates the Pa/sup 233/ from the solution. The carrier precipitate so formed is then dissolved in an acidic solution containing a reducing agent sufficiently electronegative to reduce the tetravalent manganese to the divalent state. Further purification of the Pa/sup 233/ may be obtained by forming another manganese dioxide carrier precipitate and subsequently dissolving it. Ater a sufficient number of such cycles have brought the Pa/sup 233/ to the desired purity, the solution is aged, allowing the formation ot U/sup 233/ by radioaetive decay. A manganese dioxide precipitate is then formed in the U/sup 233/ containing solution. This precipitate carries down any remaining Pa/sup 233/ thus leaving the separated U/sup 233/solution, from whieh it may be easily recovered.

  15. Polymers for metal extractions in carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeSimone, Joseph M.; Tumas, William; Powell, Kimberly R.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Romack, Timothy J.; McClain, James B.; Birnbaum, Eva R.

    2001-01-01

    A composition useful for the extraction of metals and metalloids comprises (a) carbon dioxide fluid (preferably liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide); and (b) a polymer in the carbon dioxide, the polymer having bound thereto a ligand that binds the metal or metalloid; with the ligand bound to the polymer at a plurality of locations along the chain length thereof (i.e., a plurality of ligands are bound at a plurality of locations along the chain length of the polymer). The polymer is preferably a copolymer, and the polymer is preferably a fluoropolymer such as a fluoroacrylate polymer. The extraction method comprises the steps of contacting a first composition containing a metal or metalloid to be extracted with a second composition, the second composition being as described above; and then extracting the metal or metalloid from the first composition into the second composition.

  16. Evaluation of the Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Recent advances in gas-turbine and heat exchanger technology have enhanced the potential for a Modular Helium Reactor (MHR) incorporating a direct gas turbine (Brayton) cycle for power conversion. The resulting Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) power plant combines the high temperature capabilities of the MHR with the efficiency and reliability of modern gas turbines. While the passive safety features of the steam cycle MHR (SC-MHR) are retained, generation efficiencies are projected to be in the range of 48% and steam power conversion systems, with their attendant complexities, are eliminated. Power costs are projected to be reduced by about 20%, relative to the SC-MHR or coal. This report documents the second, and final, phase of a two-part evaluation that concluded with a unanimous recommendation that the direct cycle (DC) variant of the GT-MHR be established as the commercial objective of the US Gas-Cooled Reactor Program. This recommendation has been endorsed by industrial and utility participants and accepted by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Phase II effort, documented herein, concluded that the DC GT-MHR offers substantial technical and economic advantages over both the IDC and SC systems. Both the DC and IDC were found to offer safety advantages, relative to the SC, due to elimination of the potential for water ingress during power operations. This is the dominant consequence event for the SC. The IDC was judged to require somewhat less development than the direct cycle, while the SC, which has the greatest technology base, incurs the least development cost and risk. While the technical and licensing requirements for the DC were more demanding, they were judged to be incremental and feasible. Moreover, the DC offers significant performance and cost improvements over the other two concepts. Overall, the latter were found to justify the additional development needs.

  17. Superconducting cable cooling system by helium gas at two pressures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dean, John W.

    1977-01-01

    Thermally contacting, oppositely streaming, cryogenic fluid streams in the same enclosure in a closed cycle that changes the fluid from a cool high pressure helium gas to a cooler reduced pressure helium gas in an expander so as to be at different temperature ranges and pressures respectively in go and return legs that are in thermal contact with each other and in thermal contact with a longitudinally extending superconducting transmission line enclosed in the same cable enclosure that insulates the line from the ambient at a temperature T.sub.1. By first circulating the fluid from a refrigerator at one end of the line as a cool gas at a temperature range T.sub.2 to T.sub.3 in the go leg, then circulating the gas through an expander at the other end of the line where the gas becomes a cooler gas at a reduced pressure and at a reduced temperature T.sub.4 and finally by circulating the cooler gas back again to the refrigerator in a return leg at a temperature range T.sub.4 to T.sub.5, while in thermal contact with the gas in the go leg, and in the same enclosure therewith for compression into a higher pressure gas at T.sub.2 in a closed cycle, where T.sub.2 >T.sub.3 and T.sub.5 >T.sub.4, the fluid leaves the enclosure in the go leg as a gas at its coldest point in the go leg, and the temperature distribution is such that the line temperature decreases along its length from the refrigerator due to the cooling from the gas in the return leg.

  18. Advancing the Hydrogen Safety Knowledge Base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiner, Steven C.

    2014-12-01

    A White Paper of the International Energy Agency Hydrogen Implementing Agreement Task 31 - Hydrogen Safety

  19. Facile time-of-flight methods for characterizing pulsed superfluid helium droplet beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Yunteng; Zhang, Jie; Li, Yang; Freund, William M.; Kong, Wei

    2015-08-15

    We present two facile time-of-flight (TOF) methods of detecting superfluid helium droplets and droplets with neutral dopants. Without an electron gun and with only a heated filament and pulsed electrodes, the electron impact ionization TOF mass spectrometer can resolve ionized helium clusters such as He{sub 2}{sup +} and He{sub 4}{sup +}, which are signatures of superfluid helium droplets. Without ionizing any helium atoms, multiphoton non-resonant laser ionization of CCl{sub 4} doped in superfluid helium droplets at 266 nm generates complex cluster ions of dopant fragments with helium atoms, including (He){sub n}C{sup +}, (He){sub n}Cl{sup +}, and (He){sub n}CCl{sup +}. Using both methods, we have characterized our cryogenic pulsed valve—the Even-Lavie valve. We have observed a primary pulse with larger helium droplets traveling at a slower speed and a rebound pulse with smaller droplets at a faster speed. In addition, the pickup efficiency of dopant is higher for the primary pulse when the nozzle temperature is higher than 13 K, and the total time duration of the doped droplet pulse is only on the order of 20 μs. These results stress the importance of fast and easy characterization of the droplet beam for sensitive measurements such as electron diffraction of doped droplets.

  20. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Demonstration ...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Brothers, Ltd., at their facility in the Port of Honolulu. The pilot hydrogen fuel cell unit will be used in place of a diesel generator currently used to provide power for...

  1. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; Hoffheins, B.S.; Fleming, P.H.

    1994-11-22

    A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed. 6 figs.

  2. Bacterial Fermentative Hydrogen Production

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Melanie Mormile, Missouri University of Science and Technology, at the Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop held September 24-25, 2013, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado.

  3. Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) held a Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop on September 24–25, 2013, in Golden, Colorado. The workshop...

  4. Hydrogen storage compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Wen; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping

    2011-04-19

    Compositions for hydrogen storage and methods of making such compositions employ an alloy that exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The composition includes a ternary alloy including magnesium, boron and a metal and a metal hydride. The ternary alloy and the metal hydride are present in an amount sufficient to render the composition capable of hydrogen storage. The molar ratio of the metal to magnesium and boron in the alloy is such that the alloy exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The hydrogen storage composition is prepared by combining magnesium, boron and a metal to prepare a ternary alloy and combining the ternary alloy with a metal hydride to form the hydrogen storage composition.

  5. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rocheleau, R.E.; Miller, E.; Misra, A.

    1996-10-01

    The large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing energy provided by a renewable source to split water is one of the most ambitious long-term goals of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hydrogen Program. One promising option to meet this goal is direct photoelectrolysis in which light absorbed by semiconductor-based photoelectrodes produces electrical power internally to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Under this program, direct solar-to-chemical conversion efficiencies as high as 7.8 % have been demonstrated using low-cost, amorphous-silicon-based photoelectrodes. Detailed loss analysis models indicate that solar-to-chemical conversion greater than 10% can be achieved with amorphous-silicon-based structures optimized for hydrogen production. In this report, the authors describe the continuing progress in the development of thin-film catalytic/protective coatings, results of outdoor testing, and efforts to develop high efficiency, stable prototype systems.

  6. The Hydrogen Connection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-05-01

    As the world seeks to identify alternative energy sources, hydrogen and fuel cell technologies will offer a broad range of benefits for the environment, the economy and energy security.

  7. National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report was unveiled by Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham in November 2002 and provides a blueprint for the coordinated, long-term, public and private efforts required for hydrogen energy developme

  8. Method of producing hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Zollinger, William T.

    2006-12-26

    A method of producing hydrogen is disclosed and which includes providing a first composition; providing a second composition; reacting the first and second compositions together to produce a chemical hydride; providing a liquid and reacting the chemical hydride with the liquid in a manner to produce a high pressure hydrogen gas and a byproduct which includes the first composition; and reusing the first composition formed as a byproduct in a subsequent chemical reaction to form additional chemical hydride.

  9. Hydrogen recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; He, Zhenjie; Pinnau, Ingo

    2000-01-01

    A treatment process for a hydrogen-containing off-gas stream from a refinery, petrochemical plant or the like. The process includes three separation steps: condensation, membrane separation and hydrocarbon fraction separation. The membrane separation step is characterized in that it is carried out under conditions at which the membrane exhibits a selectivity in favor of methane over hydrogen of at least about 2.5.

  10. Cryogenic hydrogen release research.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaFleur, Angela Christine

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this project was to devolop a plan for modifying the Turbulent Combustion Laboratory (TCL) with the necessary infrastructure to produce a cold (near liquid temperature) hydrogen jet. The necessary infrastructure has been specified and laboratory modifications are currently underway. Once complete, experiments from this platform will be used to develop and validate models that inform codes and standards which specify protection criteria for unintended releases from liquid hydrogen storage, transport, and delivery infrastructure.

  11. Advanced Hydrogen Liquefaction Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Joseph; Kromer, Brian; Neu, Ben; Jankowiak, Jerome; Barrett, Philip; Drnevich, Raymond

    2011-09-28

    The project identified and quantified ways to reduce the cost of hydrogen liquefaction, and reduce the cost of hydrogen distribution. The goal was to reduce the power consumption by 20% and then to reduce the capital cost. Optimizing the process, improving process equipment, and improving ortho-para conversion significantly reduced the power consumption of liquefaction, but by less than 20%. Because the efficiency improvement was less than the target, the program was stopped before the capital cost was addressed. These efficiency improvements could provide a benefit to the public to improve the design of future hydrogen liquefiers. The project increased the understanding of hydrogen liquefaction by modeling different processes and thoroughly examining ortho-para separation and conversion. The process modeling provided a benefit to the public because the project incorporated para hydrogen into the process modeling software, so liquefaction processes can be modeled more accurately than using only normal hydrogen. Adding catalyst to the first heat exchanger, a simple method to reduce liquefaction power, was identified, analyzed, and quantified. The demonstrated performance of ortho-para separation is sufficient for at least one identified process concept to show reduced power cost when compared to hydrogen liquefaction processes using conventional ortho-para conversion. The impact of improved ortho-para conversion can be significant because ortho para conversion uses about 20-25% of the total liquefaction power, but performance improvement is necessary to realize a substantial benefit. Most of the energy used in liquefaction is for gas compression. Improvements in hydrogen compression will have a significant impact on overall liquefier efficiency. Improvements to turbines, heat exchangers, and other process equipment will have less impact.

  12. Purdue Hydrogen Systems Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay P Gore; Robert Kramer; Timothee L Pourpoint; P. V. Ramachandran; Arvind Varma; Yuan Zheng

    2011-12-28

    The Hydrogen Systems Laboratory in a unique partnership between Purdue University's main campus in West Lafayette and the Calumet campus was established and its capabilities were enhanced towards technology demonstrators. The laboratory engaged in basic research in hydrogen production and storage and initiated engineering systems research with performance goals established as per the USDOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program. In the chemical storage and recycling part of the project, we worked towards maximum recycling yield via novel chemical selection and novel recycling pathways. With the basic potential of a large hydrogen yield from AB, we used it as an example chemical but have also discovered its limitations. Further, we discovered alternate storage chemicals that appear to have advantages over AB. We improved the slurry hydrolysis approach by using advanced slurry/solution mixing techniques. We demonstrated vehicle scale aqueous and non-aqueous slurry reactors to address various engineering issues in on-board chemical hydrogen storage systems. We measured the thermal properties of raw and spent AB. Further, we conducted experiments to determine reaction mechanisms and kinetics of hydrothermolysis in hydride-rich solutions and slurries. We also developed a continuous flow reactor and a laboratory scale fuel cell power generation system. The biological hydrogen production work summarized as Task 4.0 below, included investigating optimal hydrogen production cultures for different substrates, reducing the water content in the substrate, and integrating results from vacuum tube solar collector based pre and post processing tests into an enhanced energy system model. An automated testing device was used to finalize optimal hydrogen production conditions using statistical procedures. A 3 L commercial fermentor (New Brunswick, BioFlo 115) was used to finalize testing of larger samples and to consider issues related to scale up. Efforts

  13. Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Compatibility of Materials August 13, 2013 DOE EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Webinar Chris San Marchi Sandia National Laboratories Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000 SAND2013-6278P 2 Webinar Objectives * Provide context for hydrogen embrittlement and hydrogen

  14. Hydrogen Equipment Certification Guide

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Equipment Certification Guide U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office December 10 th , 2015 Presenter: Nick Barilo Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program Manager DOE Host: Will James - DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office 2 | Fuel Cell Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Question and Answer * Please type your questions into the question box 2 / / Hydrogen Equipment Certification Guide: Introduction and Kickoff for the Stakeholder Review Nick Barilo PNNL

  15. Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop Washington D.C. February 17, 2011 Fred Joseck U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Program Fuel Cells: Diverse Fuels and Applications More than $40 million from the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to fund 12 projects to deploy up to 1,000 fuel cells Recovery Act Funding for Fuel Cells COMPANY AWARD APPLICATION Delphi Automotive $2.4 M Auxiliary Power FedEx

  16. Effects of self-heating and phase change on the thermal profile of hydrogen isotopes in confined geometries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxamusa, S. Field, J.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Kozioziemski, B.; Suratwala, T.; Sater, J.

    2014-03-28

    Growth of high-quality single-crystal hydrogen in confined geometries relies on the in situ formation of seed crystals. Generation of deuterium-tritium seed crystals in a confined geometry is governed by three effects: self-heating due to tritium decay, external thermal environment, and latent heat of phase change at the boundary between hydrogen liquid and vapor. A detailed computation of the temperature profile for liquid hydrogen inside a hollow shell, as is found in inertial confinement fusion research, shows that seeds are likely to form at the equatorial plane of the shell. Radioactive decay of tritium to helium slowly alters the composition of the hydrogen vapor, resulting in a modified temperature profile that encourages seed formation at the top of the shell. We show that the computed temperature profile is consistent with a variety of experimental observations.

  17. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Hydrogen Production and Delivery

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Production and Delivery Learn how NREL is developing and advancing a number of pathways to renewable hydrogen production. Text Version Most of the hydrogen in the United States is produced by steam reforming of natural gas. For the near term, this production method will continue to dominate. Researchers at NREL are developing advanced processes to produce hydrogen economically from sustainable resources. NREL's hydrogen production and delivery R&D efforts, which are led by Huyen

  18. Project Profile: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    aim to demonstrate a multi-megawatt power cycle using supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) as the working fluid. The use of carbon dioxide instead of steam allows higher...

  19. Crystal structure and compressibility of lead dioxide up to 140...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystal structure and compressibility of lead dioxide up to 140 GPa Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Crystal structure and compressibility of lead dioxide up to 140 GPa ...

  20. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Digby Macdonald

    2010-08-09

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not described in the

  1. Examining hydrogen transitions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems

    2007-03-01

    This report describes the results of an effort to identify key analytic issues associated with modeling a transition to hydrogen as a fuel for light duty vehicles, and using insights gained from this effort to suggest ways to improve ongoing modeling efforts. The study reported on here examined multiple hydrogen scenarios reported in the literature, identified modeling issues associated with those scenario analyses, and examined three DOE-sponsored hydrogen transition models in the context of those modeling issues. The three hydrogen transition models are HyTrans (contractor: Oak Ridge National Laboratory), MARKAL/DOE* (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and NEMS-H2 (OnLocation, Inc). The goals of these models are (1) to help DOE improve its R&D effort by identifying key technology and other roadblocks to a transition and testing its technical program goals to determine whether they are likely to lead to the market success of hydrogen technologies, (2) to evaluate alternative policies to promote a transition, and (3) to estimate the costs and benefits of alternative pathways to hydrogen development.

  2. Cavity morphology in a Ni based superalloy under heavy ion irradiation with hot pre-injected helium. II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, He; Yao, Zhongwen, E-mail: yaoz@me.queensu.ca; Daymond, Mark R. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen's University Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Kirk, Marquis A. [Material Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-03-14

    In the current investigation, TEM in-situ heavy ion (1?MeV Kr{sup 2+}) irradiation with helium pre-injected at elevated temperature (400?C) was conducted to simulate in-reactor neutron irradiation induced damage in CANDU spacer material Inconel X-750, in an effort to understand the effects of helium on irradiation induced cavity microstructures. Three different quantities of helium, 400 appm, 1000 appm, and 5000 appm, were pre-injected directly into TEM foils at 400?C. The samples containing helium were then irradiated in-situ with 1?MeV Kr{sup 2+} at 400?C to a final dose of 5.4 dpa (displacement per atom). Cavities were formed from the helium injection solely and the cavity density and size increased with increasing helium dosage. In contrast to previous heavy ion irradiations with cold pre-injected helium, heterogeneous nucleation of cavities was observed. During the ensuing heavy ion irradiation, dynamical observation showed noticeable size increase in cavities which nucleated close to the grain boundaries. A bubble-void transformation was observed after Kr{sup 2+} irradiation to high dose (5.4?dpa) in samples containing 1000 appm and 5000 appm helium. Cavity distribution was found to be consistent with in-reactor neutron irradiation induced cavity microstructures. This implies that the distribution of helium is greatly dependent on the injection temperature, and helium pre-injection at high temperature is preferred for simulating the migration of the transmutation produced helium.

  3. Nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williamson, Andrew J.; Reboredo, Fernando A.

    2007-12-04

    A system for hydrogen storage comprising a porous nano-structured material with hydrogen absorbed on the surfaces of the porous nano-structured material. The system of hydrogen storage comprises absorbing hydrogen on the surfaces of a porous nano-structured semiconductor material.

  4. Hydrogen Distribution and Delivery Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-11-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen delivery technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how hydrogen is transported and delivered today, the challenges to delivering hydrogen for use as a widespread energy carrier, and the research goals for hydrogen delivery.

  5. Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team (HDTT) is to enable the development of hydrogen delivery technologies, which will allow for fuel cell competitiveness with gasoline and hybrid technologies by achieving an as-produced, delivered, and dispensed hydrogen cost of $2-$4 per gallon of gasoline equivalent of hydrogen.

  6. Composites Technology for Hydrogen Pipelines

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Investigate application of composite, fiber-reinforced polymer pipeline technology for hydrogen transmission and distribution

  7. Remote reactor repair: GTA (gas tungsten Arc) weld cracking caused by entrapped helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A repair patch was welded to the wall of a nuclear reactor tank using remotely controlled thirty-foot long robot arms. Further repair was halted when gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds joining type 304L stainless steel patches to the 304 stainless steel wall developed toe cracks in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). The role of helium in cracking was investigated using material with entrapped helium from tritium decay. As a result of this investigation, and of an extensive array of diagnostic tests performed on reactor tank wall material, helium embrittlement was shown to be the cause of the toe cracks.

  8. Effects of helium content of microstructural development in Type 316 stainless steel under neutron irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maziasz, P.J.

    1985-11-01

    This work investigated the sensitivity of microstructural evolution, particularly precipitate development, to increased helium content during thermal aging and during neutron irradiation. Helium (110 at. ppM) was cold preinjected into solution annealed (SA) DO-heat type 316 stainess steel (316) via cyclotron irradiation. These specimens were then exposed side by side with uninjected samples. Continuous helium generation was increased considerably relative to EBR-II irradiation by irradiation in HFIR. Data were obtained from quantitative analytical electron microscopy (AEM) in thin foils and on extraction replicas. 480 refs., 86 figs., 19 tabs.

  9. Geothermal Startup Will Put Carbon Dioxide to Good Use

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Geothermal power holds enormous opportunities to provide affordable, clean energy that avoids greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO2).

  10. Helium bubble evolution in a Zr–Sn–Nb–Fe–Cr alloy during post-annealing: An in-situ investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, H.H.; Peng, S.M.; Chen, B.; Naab, F.N.; Sun, G.A.; Zhou, W.; Xiang, X.; Sun, K.; Zu, X.T.

    2015-09-15

    The formation of helium bubbles is considered to be detrimental to the mechanical performance of the nuclear materials. The growth behaviors of helium bubbles in a helium ion implanted Zr–Sn–Nb–Fe–Cr alloy with respect to the helium fluence and subsequently annealing procedure were investigated by in-situ transmission electron microscopy. In the as-implanted sample, the measured size distributions of the helium bubbles are consistent with the simulated helium concentrations. Moreover, the mean size of the helium bubbles increases with the increase of the irradiation temperatures and the helium fluence. The in-situ heating study performed in a transmission electron microscope indicates that the mean size of the helium bubbles increase slowly below 923 K and dramatically above 923 K. The coarsening mechanism of the helium bubbles in the alloy is suggested based on the study. - Highlights: • Helium bubble growth in zirconium with annealing was in-situ investigated in TEM. • The mean helium bubble size increase with helium fluence and annealing temperature. • Helium bubble size distribution is same as that of helium concentration by SRIM. • Mean bubble size increases slowly and quickly with temperature below and above 923 K. • The growth mechanism of the helium bubbles in Zr alloy has been discussed.

  11. Optimized Flow Sheet for a Reference Commercial-Scale Nuclear-Driven High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. G. McKellar; J. E. O'Brien; E. A. Harvego; J. S. Herring

    2007-11-01

    This report presents results from the development and optimization of a reference commercialscale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540° C and 900°C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen consists of 4.176 × 10 6 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. A nominal cell area-specific resistance, ASR, value of 0.4 Ohm•cm2 with a current density of 0.25 A/cm2 was used, and isothermal boundary conditions were assumed. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the low heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 49.07% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.45 kg/s with the high-temperature helium-cooled reactor concept. The information presented in this report is intended to establish an optimized design for the reference nuclear-driven HTE hydrogen production plant so that parameters can be compared with other hydrogen production methods and power cycles to evaluate relative performance characteristics and plant economics.

  12. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heydorn, Edward C

    2013-03-12

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a real-world retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation's hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to identify vehicle demand (short- and long-term needs). Discussions included identifying potential areas most suited for hydrogen fueling stations

  13. Array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiu, Xiaofeng; Parans Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chi, Miaofang; Ivanov, Ilia N; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2014-12-30

    An array of titanium dioxide nanostructures for solar energy utilization includes a plurality of nanotubes, each nanotube including an outer layer coaxial with an inner layer, where the inner layer comprises p-type titanium dioxide and the outer layer comprises n-type titanium dioxide. An interface between the inner layer and the outer layer defines a p-n junction.

  14. Hydrogen Scenarios | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Scenarios Hydrogen Scenarios Presentation by Frances Wood of OnLocation Inc. at the Joint Meeting on Hydrogen Delivery Modeling and Analysis, May 8-9, 2007 deliv_analysis_wood.pdf (190.7 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE Hydrogen Transition Analysis Workshop Analysis Models and Tools: Systems Analysis of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Joint Meeting on Hydrogen Delivery Modeling and Analysis, May 8-9, 2007, Discussion Session Highlights, Comments, and Action Items

  15. Hydrogen storage and generation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dentinger, Paul M.; Crowell, Jeffrey A. W.

    2010-08-24

    A system for storing and generating hydrogen generally and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses the beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  16. Hydrogen Delivery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Delivery Hydrogen Delivery A viable hydrogen infrastructure requires that hydrogen be able to be delivered from where it's produced to the point of end-use, such as a dispenser at a refueling station or stationary power site. Infrastructure includes the pipelines, trucks, storage facilities, compressors, and dispensers involved in the process of delivering fuel. Delivery technology for hydrogen infrastructure is currently available commercially, and several U.S. companies deliver bulk hydrogen

  17. SunLine Test Drives Hydrogen Bus: Hydrogen Fuel Cell & Infrastructure...

    Energy Savers

    Test Drives Hydrogen Bus: Hydrogen Fuel Cell & Infrastructure Technologies Program, Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Projects Fact Sheet. SunLine Test Drives Hydrogen Bus: Hydrogen Fuel ...

  18. 2014 Hydrogen Student Design Contest to Design Drop-In Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Hydrogen Student Design Contest to Design Drop-In Hydrogen Fueling Station 2014 Hydrogen Student Design Contest to Design Drop-In Hydrogen Fueling Station December 16, 2013 - ...

  19. Acid sorption regeneration process using carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, C. Judson; Husson, Scott M.

    2001-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent in the presence of carbon dioxide under pressure. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by a suitable regeneration method, one of which is treating them with an organic alkylamine solution thus forming an alkylamine-carboxylic acid complex which thermally decomposes to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

  20. SOLUBILITY OF IRON IN METALLIC HYDROGEN AND STABILITY OF DENSE CORES IN GIANT PLANETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, Sean M.; Wilson, Hugh F.; Militzer, Burkhard

    2013-08-20

    The formation of the giant planets in our solar system, and likely a majority of giant exoplanets, is most commonly explained by the accretion of nebular hydrogen and helium onto a large core of terrestrial-like composition. The fate of this core has important consequences for the evolution of the interior structure of the planet. It has recently been shown that H{sub 2}O, MgO, and SiO{sub 2} dissolve in liquid metallic hydrogen at high temperature and pressure. In this study, we perform ab initio calculations to study the solubility of an innermost metallic core. We find dissolution of iron to be strongly favored above 2000 K over the entire pressure range (0.4-4 TPa) considered. We compare with and summarize the results for solubilities on other probable core constituents. The calculations imply that giant planet cores are in thermodynamic disequilibrium with surrounding layers, promoting erosion and redistribution of heavy elements. Differences in solubility behavior between iron and rock may influence evolution of interiors, particularly for Saturn-mass planets. Understanding the distribution of iron and other heavy elements in gas giants may be relevant in understanding mass-radius relationships, as well as deviations in transport properties from pure hydrogen-helium mixtures.