National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for determination sintered copper

  1. Copper-base alloy for liquid phase sintering of ferrous powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, John L.; Pickus, Milton R.; Chen, Meng-Hsiu

    1978-01-01

    A copper-base alloy composition consisting essentially of 85 - 89% copper, 2 - 4% manganese, and 8 - 11% silicon and use of same in liquid phase sintering of ferrous powders.

  2. Determination of total chlorine and bromine in solid wastes by sintering and inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osterlund, Helene Rodushkin, Ilia; Ylinenjaervi, Karin; Baxter, Douglas C.

    2009-04-15

    A sample preparation method based on sintering, followed by analysis by inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) for the simultaneous determination of chloride and bromide in diverse and mixed solid wastes, has been evaluated. Samples and reference materials of known composition were mixed with a sintering agent containing Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and ZnO and placed in an oven at 560 deg. C for 1 h. After cooling, the residues were leached with water prior to a cation-exchange assisted clean-up. Alternatively, a simple microwave-assisted digestion using only nitric acid was applied for comparison. Thereafter the samples were prepared for quantitative analysis by ICP-SFMS. The sintering method was evaluated by analysis of certified reference materials (CRMs) and by comparison with US EPA Method 5050 and ion chromatography with good agreement. Median RSDs for the sintering method were determined to 10% for both chlorine and bromine, and median recovery to 96% and 97%, respectively. Limits of detection (LODs) were 200 mg/kg for chlorine and 20 mg/kg for bromine. It was concluded that the sintering method is suitable for chlorine and bromine determination in several matrices like sewage sludge, plastics, and edible waste, as well as for waste mixtures. The sintering method was also applied for determination of other elements present in anionic forms, such as sulfur, arsenic, selenium and iodine.

  3. Determination of Method Detection Limits for Trace 232-Thorium and 238-Uranium in Copper using Ion Exchange and ICPMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Eric W.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Maiti, Tapas C.; Soin, Aleksandr

    2014-04-15

    Determination of Method Detection Limits for Trace 232-Thorium and 238-Uranium in Copper using Ion Exchange and ICPMS

  4. Consolidation of thermites by pressing and sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, M.D.; Abney, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    Consolidated thermites can be used as chemical heat sources. Pressing and sintering, a power metallurgy technique, has been developed to consolidate thermite parts with uniform density, composition, and calorific output. These materials are safe to handle, machineable, and generate minimum gas pressure upon reaction. This technique consists of die pressing various compositions of blended thermite powders, then isostatic pressing the parts before sintering to ensure the uniform density of the thermite composites. Parts sintered at various temperatures were examined metallographically for compositional uniformity and to determine whether diffusion between the powders had occurred. Flexure and tensile strength values were obtained to determine the temperature range required to produce strong parts. The coordination of metallography and strength values for various compositions and sintering temperature resulted in data that were used to optimize the fabrication process. Consolidation of thermite by pressing and sintering was found to be a valid process for producing uniform, dense, strong thermite parts.

  5. Microstructural development during sintering of lithium fluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullard, J.W.; Searcy, A.W. |

    1997-09-01

    Measurements are reported of the influences of temperature, green density, and pore network breakup on the densification, grain growth, and pore volume distribution in LiF compacts. As long as most of the pore volume remained open to the compact perimeter, the ratio of the rate of densification to the rate of grain growth was higher than that sometimes reported for copper or typical oxides. Plots of the logarithm of densification rates versus sintered density for LiF are approximately linear during intermediate-stage sintering, like those for some oxides. But the plots for LiF are unlike those of the oxides in that, for LiF, densification rates measured at different temperatures converge near the density at which half the pore volume is isolated from Hg intrusion. Calculations suggest that further densification of the LiF compacts is blocked because air trapped in isolated pores becomes sufficiently compressed to balance the sintering stress.

  6. Methods of flash sintering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raj, Rishi; Cologna, Marco; Francis, John S.

    2016-05-10

    This disclosure provides methods of flash sintering and compositions created by these methods. Methods for sintering multilayered bodies are provided in which a sintered body is produced in less than one minute. In one aspect, each layer is of a different composition, and may be constituted wholly from a ceramic or from a combination of ceramic and metallic particles. When the body includes a layer of an anode composition, a layer of an electrolyte composition and a layer of a cathode composition, the sintered body can be used to produce a solid oxide fuel cell.

  7. SINTERED REFRACTORY MASS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, A.E.

    1955-09-01

    A method is given for joining sintered masses of refractory compounds. It consists in maintaining the masses in contact with each other by application of a moderate pressure, while they are at sintering temperature. The sintered masses are subjected to am applied pressure of about 1/2 to 1 ton per square inch of the surface in contact for about 10 minutes, and the temperature employed may be fropn about 1400 deg C to 2000 deg C. Refractory oxides to which the invention may be applied are beryllia, alumina, thoria, and magnesia.

  8. Determination of microgram amounts of selenium and tellurium in copper-base alloys by atomic absorption spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bedrossian, M.

    1984-02-01

    Trace amounts of selenium and tellurium in copper-base alloys are determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The alloys are dissolved in nitric acid to yield selenious and tellurous acids which are readily reduced to elemental form. Iodide complexes of both selenium and tellurium are extracted simultaneously using a solution of trioctylphosphine oxide and methyl isobutyl ketone. Selenium and tellurium are determined by flame atomic absorption with a sensitivity of 0.0002%. 6 references, 2 tables.

  9. Process Of Bonding Copper And Tungsten

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slattery, Kevin T.; Driemeyer, Daniel E.; Davis, John W.

    2000-07-18

    Process for bonding a copper substrate to a tungsten substrate by providing a thin metallic adhesion promoting film bonded to a tungsten substrate and a functionally graded material (FGM) interlayer bonding the thin metallic adhesion promoting film to the copper substrate. The FGM interlayer is formed by sintering a stack of individual copper and tungsten powder blend layers having progressively higher copper content/tungsten content, by volume, ratio values in successive powder blend layers in a lineal direction extending from the tungsten substrate towards the copper substrate. The resulting copper to tungsten joint well accommodates the difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the materials.

  10. Sintered wire annode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falce, Louis R.; Ives, R. Lawrence

    2007-12-25

    A plurality of high atomic number wires are sintered together to form a porous rod that is parted into porous disks which will be used as x-ray targets. A thermally conductive material is introduced into the pores of the rod, and when a stream of electrons impinges on the sintered wire target and generates x-rays, the heat generated by the impinging x-rays is removed by the thermally conductive material interspersed in the pores of the wires.

  11. METHOD OF SINTERING URANIUM DIOXIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henderson, C.M.; Stavrolakis, J.A.

    1963-04-30

    This patent relates to a method of sintering uranium dioxide. Uranium dioxide bodies are heated to above 1200 nif- C in hydrogen, sintered in steam, and then cooled in hydrogen. (AEC)

  12. app_sintering.cpp

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-09-12

    This application simulates simple solid state sintering by incorporating all the active mechanisms, namely, curvature-driven gain growth, pore shaping and migration by surface diffusion, and creation, diffusion and annihilation of vacancies. It is an application developed for SPPARKS and has to be run within this framework.

  13. Determining copper and lead binding in Larrea tridentata through chemical modification and X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polette, L.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.; Chianelli, R.; Pickering, I.J.; George, G.N.

    1997-12-31

    Metal contamination in soils has become a widespread problem. Emerging technologies, such as phytoremediation, may offer low cost cleanup methods. The authors have identified a desert plant, Larrea tridentata (creosote bush), which naturally grows and uptakes copper and lead from a contaminated area near a smelting operation. They determined, through chemical modification of carboxyl groups with methanol, that these functional groups may be responsible for a portion of copper(II) binding. In contrast, lead binding was minimally affected by modification of carboxyl groups. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies conducted at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) further support copper binding to oxygen-coordinated ligands and also imply that the binding is not solely due to phytochelatins. The EXAFS data indicate the presence of both Cu-O and Cu-S back scatters, no short Cu-Cu interactions, but with significant Cu-Cu back scattering at 3.7 {angstrom} (unlike phytochelatins with predominantly Cu-S coordination and short Cu-Cu interactions at 2.7 {angstrom}). Cu EXAFS of roots and leaves also vary depending on the level of heavy metal contamination in the environment from which the various creosote samples were obtained. In contrast, Pb XANES data of roots and leaves of creosote collected from different contaminated sites indicate no difference in valence states or ligand coordination.

  14. Sintered composite filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, W.

    1986-05-02

    A particulate filter medium formed of a sintered composite of 0.5 micron diameter quartz fibers and 2 micron diameter stainless steel fibers is described. Preferred composition is about 40 vol.% quartz and about 60 vol.% stainless steel fibers. The media is sintered at about 1100/sup 0/C to bond the stainless steel fibers into a cage network which holds the quartz fibers. High filter efficiency and low flow resistance are provided by the smaller quartz fibers. High strength is provided by the stainless steel fibers. The resulting media has a high efficiency and low pressure drop similar to the standard HEPA media, with tensile strength at least four times greater, and a maximum operating temperature of about 550/sup 0/C. The invention also includes methods to form the composite media and a HEPA filter utilizing the composite media. The filter media can be used to filter particles in both liquids and gases.

  15. Sintered wire cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falce, Louis R.; Ives, R. Lawrence

    2009-06-09

    A porous cathode structure is fabricated from a plurality of wires which are placed in proximity to each other in elevated temperature and pressure for a sintering time. The sintering process produces the porous cathode structure which may be divided into a plurality of individual porous cathodes, one of which may be placed into a dispenser cathode support which includes a cavity for containing a work function reduction material such as BaO, CaO, and Al.sub.2O.sub.3. The work function reduction material migrates through the pores of the porous cathode from a work replenishment surface adjacent to the cavity of the dispenser cathode support to an emitting cathode surface, thereby providing a dispenser cathode which has a uniform work function and therefore a uniform electron emission.

  16. Preliminary characterization of interlayer for Be/Cu sintered compacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakamoto, N.; Kawamura, H.

    1995-09-01

    At present, beryllium is under consideration as a main candidate material for plasma facing components of ITER, because of its many advantages such as low Z, high thermal conductivity, low tritium retention, low activation and so on. Among the different divertor design options, the duplex structure where the beryllium armor is bonded with heat sink structural materials (DS-copper, Cu-Cr-Zr and so on) is under consideration. And plasma facing components will be exposed to high heat load and high neutron flux generated by the plasma. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the reliable bonding technologies between beryllium and heat sink structural materials in order to fabricate plasma facing components which can resist those. Then, we started the bonding technology development of beryllium and copper alloy with FGM (functional gradient material) in order to reduce thermal stress due to the difference of thermal expansion between beryllium and copper alloy. As the interlayers for FGM, eleven kinds of sintered compacts in which the mixing ratio of beryllium powder and oxygen free copper powder is different, were fabricated by the hot press/HIP method. The dimension of each compact is 8mm in diameter, 2mm in thickness. Then, thermal diffusivity and specific heat of these compacts were measured by laser flash method, and thermal conductivity was calculated from those values. From metalographical observation, it became clear that the sintered compacts of mixture of beryllium powder and copper powder contain residual beryllium, copper and two kinds of intermetallic compounds, Be{sub 2}Cu({delta}) and BeCu({gamma}). From the results of thermal characterization, thermal diffusivity of interlayers increased with increase of copper containing ratio. And, specific heat gradually decreased with increase of copper containing ratio.

  17. Zone sintering of ceramic fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matthews, R. Bruce; Chidester, Kenneth M.; Moore, H. Gene

    1994-01-01

    Cold pressed UC.sub.2 fuel compacts are sintered at temperatures greater than about 1850.degree. C. while in contact with a sintering facilitator material, e.g., tantalum, niobium, tungsten or a metal carbide such as uranium carbide, thereby allowing for a reduction in the overall porosity and leaving the desired product, i.e., a highly dense, large-grained uranium dicarbide. The process of using the sintering facilitator materials can be applied in the preparation of other carbide materials.

  18. Microwave sintering of multiple articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blake, Rodger D.; Katz, Joel D.

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus and method for producing articles of alumina and of alumina and silicon carbide in which the articles are sintered at high temperatures using microwave radiation. The articles are placed in a sintering container which is placed in a microwave cavity for heating. The rates at which heating and cooling take place is controlled.

  19. Method of sintering ceramic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.

    1992-11-17

    A method for sintering ceramic materials is described. A ceramic article is coated with layers of protective coatings such as boron nitride, graphite foil, and niobium. The coated ceramic article is embedded in a container containing refractory metal oxide granules and placed within a microwave oven. The ceramic article is heated by microwave energy to a temperature sufficient to sinter the ceramic article to form a densified ceramic article having a density equal to or greater than 90% of theoretical density. 2 figs.

  20. Method of sintering ceramic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.

    1992-01-01

    A method for sintering ceramic materials is described. A ceramic article is coated with layers of protective coatings such as boron nitride, graphite foil, and niobium. The coated ceramic article is embedded in a container containing refractory metal oxide granules and placed within a microwave oven. The ceramic article is heated by microwave energy to a temperature sufficient to sinter the ceramic article to form a densified ceramic article having a density equal to or greater than 90% of theoretical density.

  1. Properties of Bulk Sintered Silver As a Function of Porosity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A; Vuono, Daniel J; Wang, Hsin; Ferber, Mattison K; Liang, Zhenxian

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes a study where various properties of bulk-sintered silver were investigated over a range of porosity. This work was conducted within the National Transportation Research Center's Power Device Packaging project that is part of the DOE Vehicle Technologies Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program. Sintered silver, as an interconnect material in power electronics, inherently has porosity in its produced structure because of the way it is made. Therefore, interest existed in this study to examine if that porosity affected electrical properties, thermal properties, and mechanical properties because any dependencies could affect the intended function (e.g., thermal transfer, mechanical stress relief, etc.) or reliability of that interconnect layer and alter how its performance is modeled. Disks of bulk-sintered silver were fabricated using different starting silver pastes and different sintering conditions to promote different amounts of porosity. Test coupons were harvested out of the disks to measure electrical resistivity and electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield stress. The authors fully recognize that the microstructure of processed bulk silver coupons may indeed not be identical to the microstructure produced in thin (20-50 microns) layers of sintered silver. However, measuring these same properties with such a thin actual structure is very difficult, requires very specialized specimen preparation and unique testing instrumentation, is expensive, and has experimental shortfalls of its own, so the authors concluded that the herein measured responses using processed bulk sintered silver coupons would be sufficient to determine acceptable values of those properties. Almost all the investigated properties of bulk sintered silver changed with porosity content within a range of 3-38% porosity. Electrical resistivity, electrical conductivity, thermal

  2. A novel assay method for the trace determination of Th and U in copper and lead using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaFerriere, Brian D.; Maiti, Tapas C.; Arnquist, Isaac J.; Hoppe, Eric W.

    2015-03-01

    This study describes a novel sample preparation and assay method developed in support of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR experiment for the determination of thorium and uranium levels in copper and lead shielding components. Meticulously clean sample preparation methods combined with novel anion exchange separations for analyte pre-concentration and matrix removal were developed. Quantification was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Detection limits of 0.0084 pg 232Th/g and 0.0106 pg 238U/g were determined for copper, while detection limits of 0.23 pg 232Th/g and 0.46 pg 238U/g were achieved for lead. These methods allow the Majorana Collaboration to accurately assay detector components and ensure that the experiment’s stringent radiopurity requirements are met.

  3. Welding of titanium and nickel alloy by combination of explosive welding and spark plasma sintering technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malyutina, Yu. N. Bataev, A. A. Shevtsova, L. I.; Mali, V. I. Anisimov, A. G.

    2015-10-27

    A possibility of titanium and nickel-based alloys composite materials formation using combination of explosive welding and spark plasma sintering technologies was demonstrated in the current research. An employment of interlayer consisting of copper and tantalum thin plates makes possible to eliminate a contact between metallurgical incompatible titanium and nickel that are susceptible to intermetallic compounds formation during their interaction. By the following spark plasma sintering process the bonding has been received between titanium and titanium alloy VT20 through the thin powder layer of pure titanium that is distinguished by low defectiveness and fine dispersive structure.

  4. Microwave sintering of boron carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blake, R.D.; Katz, J.D.; Petrovic, J.J.; Sheinberg, H.

    1988-06-10

    A method for forming boron carbide into a particular shape and densifying the green boron carbide shape. Boron carbide in powder form is pressed into a green shape and then sintered, using a microwave oven, to obtain a dense boron carbide body. Densities of greater than 95% of theoretical density have been obtained. 1 tab.

  5. Grain boundary and triple junction diffusion in nanocrystalline copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wegner, M. Leuthold, J.; Peterlechner, M.; Divinski, S. V.; Song, X.; Wilde, G.

    2014-09-07

    Grain boundary and triple junction diffusion in nanocrystalline Cu samples with grain sizes, ?d?, of ?35 and ?44?nm produced by spark plasma sintering were investigated by the radiotracer method using the {sup 63}Ni isotope. The measured diffusivities, D{sub eff}, are comparable with those determined previously for Ni grain boundary diffusion in well-annealed, high purity, coarse grained, polycrystalline copper, substantiating the absence of a grain size effect on the kinetic properties of grain boundaries in a nanocrystalline material at grain sizes d???35?nm. Simultaneously, the analysis predicts that if triple junction diffusion of Ni in Cu is enhanced with respect to the corresponding grain boundary diffusion rate, it is still less than 500?D{sub gb} within the temperature interval from 420?K to 470?K.

  6. Sintered composite medium and filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, Werner

    1987-01-01

    A particulate filter medium is formed of a sintered composite of 0.5 micron diameter quartz fibers and 2 micron diameter stainless steel fibers. A preferred composition is about 40 vol. % quartz and about 60 vol. % stainless steel fibers. The media is sintered at about 1100.degree. C. to bond the stainless steel fibers into a cage network which holds the quartz fibers. High filter efficiency and low flow resistance are provided by the smaller quartz fibers. High strength is provided by the stainless steel fibers. The resulting media has a high efficiency and low pressure drop similar to the standard HEPA media, with tensile strength at least four times greater, and a maximum operating temperature of about 550.degree. C. The invention also includes methods to form the composite media and a HEPA filter utilizing the composite media. The filter media can be used to filter particles in both liquids and gases.

  7. Sintered wire cesium dispenser photocathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montgomery, Eric J; Ives, R. Lawrence; Falce, Louis R

    2014-03-04

    A photoelectric cathode has a work function lowering material such as cesium placed into an enclosure which couples a thermal energy from a heater to the work function lowering material. The enclosure directs the work function lowering material in vapor form through a low diffusion layer, through a free space layer, and through a uniform porosity layer, one side of which also forms a photoelectric cathode surface. The low diffusion layer may be formed from sintered powdered metal, such as tungsten, and the uniform porosity layer may be formed from wires which are sintered together to form pores between the wires which are continuous from the a back surface to a front surface which is also the photoelectric surface.

  8. Non-Sintered Nickel Electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernard, Patrick; Dennig, Corinne; Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel; Alcorta, Jose; Coco, Isabelle

    2002-01-01

    A non-sintered nickel electrode contains a conductive support and a paste comprising an electrochemically active material containing nickel hydroxide and a binder which is a mixture of an elastomer and a crystalline polymer. The proportion of the elastomer is in the range 25% to 60% by weight of the binder and the proportion of the crystalline polymer is in the range 40% to 75% by weight of the binder.

  9. Electroless copper plating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McHenry, Michael R.

    1998-12-15

    An optimized electroless copper plating technique suitable for plating electroless copper upon ceramics.

  10. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, Haskell; Meek, Thomas T.; Blake, Rodger D.

    1989-01-01

    A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

  11. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, Haskell; Meek, Thomas T.; Blake, Rodger D.

    1990-01-01

    A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

  12. SELF SINTERING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McVay, T.N.; Johnson, J.R.; Struxness, E.G.; Morgan, K.Z.

    1959-12-29

    A method is described for disposal of radioactive liquid waste materials. The wastes are mixed with clays and fluxes to form a ceramic slip and disposed in a thermally insulated container in a layer. The temperature of the layer rises due to conversion of the energy of radioactivity to heat boillng off the liquid to fomn a dry mass. The dry mass is then covered with thermal insulation, and the mass is self-sintered into a leach-resistant ceramic cake by further conversion of the energy of radioactivity to heat.

  13. Method of sintering materials with microwave radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kimrey, Jr., Harold D.; Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.

    1994-01-01

    A method of sintering ceramic materials following: A compacted article comprising inorganic particles coated with carbon is provided, the carbon providing improved microwave coupling. The compacted article is then heated by microwave radiation to a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to sinter the compacted article.

  14. Method of sintering materials with microwave radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kimrey, H.D. Jr.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Dykes, N.L.

    1994-06-14

    Disclosed is a method of sintering ceramic materials. A compacted article comprising inorganic particles coated with carbon is provided, the carbon providing improved microwave coupling. The compacted article is then heated by microwave radiation to a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to sinter the compacted article. No Drawings

  15. Thermal barrier coating resistant to sintering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Ramesh; Sabol, Stephen M.

    2001-01-01

    A device (10) having a ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (16) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (18) with a sintering inhibiting material (22) disposed on the columns (20) within the gaps (18). The sintering resistant material (22) is stable over the range of operating temperatures of the device (10) and is not soluble with the underlying ceramic layer (16). For a YSZ ceramic layer (16) the sintering resistant layer (22) may preferably be aluminum oxide or yttrium aluminum oxide, deposited as a continuous layer or as nodules.

  16. Liquid phase sintering of silicon carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cutler, R.A.; Virkar, A.V.; Hurford, A.C.

    1989-05-09

    Liquid phase sintering is used to densify silicon carbide based ceramics using a compound comprising a rare earth oxide and aluminum oxide to form liquids at temperatures in excess of 1,600 C. The resulting sintered ceramic body has a density greater than 95% of its theoretical density and hardness in excess of 23 GPa. Boron and carbon are not needed to promote densification and silicon carbide powder with an average particle size of greater than one micron can be densified via the liquid phase process. The sintered ceramic bodies made by the present invention are fine grained and have secondary phases resulting from the liquid phase. 4 figs.

  17. Liquid phase sintering of silicon carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cutler, Raymond A.; Virkar, Anil V.; Hurford, Andrew C.

    1989-01-01

    Liquid phase sintering is used to densify silicon carbide based ceramics using a compound comprising a rare earth oxide and aluminum oxide to form liquids at temperatures in excess of 1600.degree. C. The resulting sintered ceramic body has a density greater than 95% of its theoretical density and hardness in excess of 23 GPa. Boron and carbon are not needed to promote densification and silicon carbide powder with an average particle size of greater than one micron can be densified via the liquid phase process. The sintered ceramic bodies made by the present invention are fine grained and have secondary phases resulting from the liquid phase.

  18. The Absence of Plasma in"Spark Plasma Sintering"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulbert, Dustin M.; Anders, Andre; Dudina, Dina V.; Andersson, Joakim; Jiang, Dongtao; Unuvar, Cosan; Anselmi-Tamburini, Umberto; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Mukherjee, Amiya K.

    2008-04-10

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is a remarkable method for synthesizing and consolidating a large variety of both novel and traditional materials. The process typically uses moderate uni-axial pressures (<100 MPa) in conjunction with a pulsing on-off DC current during operation. There are a number of mechanisms proposed to account for the enhanced sintering abilities of the SPS process. Of these mechanisms, the one most commonly put forth and the one that draws the most controversy involves the presence of momentary plasma generated between particles. This study employees three separate experimental methods in an attempt to determine the presence or absence of plasma during SPS. The methods employed include: in-situ atomic emission spectroscopy, direct visual observation and ultra-fast in-situ voltage measurements. It was found using these experimental techniques that no plasma is present during the SPS process. This result was confirmed using several different powders across a wide spectrum of SPS conditions.

  19. A comparative study of conventionally sintered and microwave sintered nickel zinc ferrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rani, Rekha; Juneja, J. K.; Raina, K. K.; Kotnala, R. K.; Prakash, Chandra

    2014-04-24

    For the present work, nickel zinc ferrite having compositional formula Ni{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was synthesized by conventional solid state method and sintered in conventional and microwave furnaces. Pellets were sintered with very short soaking time of 10 min at 1150 °C in microwave furnace whereas 4 hrs of soaking time was selected for conventional sintering at 1200 °C. Phase formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis technique. Scanning electron micrographs were taken for microstructural study. Dielectric properties were studied as a function of temperature. To study magnetic behavior, M-H hysteresis loops were recorded for both samples. It is observed that microwave sintered sample could obtain comparable properties to the conventionally sintered one in lesser soaking time at lower sintering temperature.

  20. Electroless copper plating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McHenry, M.R.

    1998-12-15

    An optimized electroless copper plating technique is described suitable for plating electroless copper upon ceramics. 12 figs.

  1. Thermal barrier coating resistant to sintering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Ramesh; Seth, Brig B.

    2005-08-23

    A device (10) is made, having a ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (16) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (18) with a sintering inhibiting material (22) disposed on the columns (20) within the gaps (18). The sintering resistant material (22) is stable over the range of operating temperatures of the device (10), is not soluble with the underlying ceramic layer (16) and is applied by a process that is not an electron beam physical vapor deposition process. The sintering inhibiting material (22) has a morphology adapted to improve the functionality of the sintering inhibiting material (22), characterized as continuous, nodule, rivulet, grain, crack, flake and combinations thereof and being disposed within at least some of the vertical and horizontal gaps.

  2. Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Warner, Kathryn A.

    1999-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation.

  3. Pressureless sintering of whiskered-toughened ceramic composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, Terry N.

    1994-01-01

    A pressureless sintering method is disclosed for use in the production of whisker-toughened ceramic composites wherein the sintered density of composites containing up to about 20 vol. % SiC whiskers is improved by reducing the average aspect ratio of the whiskers to from about 10 to about 20. Sintering aids further improve the density, permitting the production of composites containing 20 vol. % SiC with sintered densities of 94% or better of theoretical density by a pressureless sintering method.

  4. Pressureless sintering of whisker-toughened ceramic composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, Terry N.

    1993-01-01

    A pressureless sintering method is disclosed for use in the production of whisker-toughened ceramic composites wherein the sintered density of composites containing up to about 20 vol. % SiC whiskers is improved by reducing the average aspect ratio of the whiskers to from about 10 to about 20. Sintering aids further improve the density, permitting the production of composites containing 20 vol. % SiC with sintered densities of 94% or better of theoretical density by a pressureless sintering method.

  5. Pressureless sintering of whisker-toughened ceramic composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, T.N.

    1993-05-04

    A pressureless sintering method is disclosed for use in the production of whisker-toughened ceramic composites wherein the sintered density of composites containing up to about 20 vol. % SiC whiskers is improved by reducing the average aspect ratio of the whiskers to from about 10 to about 20. Sintering aids further improve the density, permitting the production of composites containing 20 vol. % SiC with sintered densities of 94% or better of theoretical density by a pressureless sintering method.

  6. Thermal barrier coating resistant to sintering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Ramesh; Seth, Brij B.

    2004-06-29

    A device (10) is made, having a ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (16) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (18) with a sintering inhibiting material (22) disposed on the columns (20) within the gaps (18). The sintering resistant material (22) is stable over the range of operating temperatures of the device (10), is not soluble with the underlying ceramic layer (16) and is applied by a process that is not an electron beam physical vapor deposition process.

  7. Spark Plasma Sintering of Ultracapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, Curtis W.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Tucker, Dennis; Kolopus, James A.; Cheng, Zhongyang

    2016-01-01

    A solid-state ultracapacitor module to replace standard electrochemical batteries would achieve major performance gains and mass/volume reduction. This report summarizes a project to evaluate an alternative sintering process to produce a solid-state ultracapacitor to overcome the limitations of both the electrochemical batteries presently in use on spacecraft and of currently available electrochemical ultracapacitors. It will provide a robust energy storage device with higher reliability, wider working temperature range, longer lifetime, and less weight and volume than electrochemical batteries. As modern electronics decrease in size, more efficient and robust remote power is needed. Current state-of-the-art rechargeable batteries cannot be rapidly charged, contain harmful chemicals, and suffer from early wear-out mechanisms. Solid-state ultracapacitors are recyclable energy storage devices that offer the promise of higher power and a greater number of charge/discharge cycles than current rechargeable batteries. In addition, the theoretical energy density when compared to current electrochemical batteries indicates that a significant weight savings is possible. This is a project to develop a very high density solid-state ultracapacitor with giant permittivity and acceptable dielectric loss to overcome the energy-density barrier such that it will be a suitable replacement for batteries.

  8. High Thermoelectric Performance in Copper Telluride

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    He, Ying; Zhang, Tiansong; Shi, Xun; Wei, Su-Huai; Chen, Lidong

    2015-06-21

    Recently, Cu 2-δ S and Cu 2-δ Se were reported to have an ultralow thermal conductivity and high thermoelectric figure of merit zT. Thus, as a member of the copper chalcogenide group, Cu 2-δ Te is expected to possess superior zTs because Te is less ionic and heavy. However, the zT value is low in the Cu2Te sintered using spark plasma sintering, which is typically used to fabricate high-density bulk samples. In addition, the extra sintering processes may change the samples’ compositions as well as their physical properties, especially for Cu2Te, which has many stable and meta-stable phasesmore » as well as weaker ionic bonding between Cu and Te as compared with Cu2S and Cu2Se. In this study, high-density Cu2Te samples were obtained using direct annealing without a sintering process. In the absence of sintering processes, the samples’ compositions could be well controlled, leading to substantially reduced carrier concentrations that are close to the optimal value. The electrical transports were optimized, and the thermal conductivity was considerably reduced. The zT values were significantly improved—to 1.1 at 1000 K—which is nearly 100% improvement. Furthermore, this method saves substantial time and cost during the sample’s growth. The study demonstrates that Cu 2-δ X (X=S, Se and Te) is the only existing system to show high zTs in the series of compounds composed of three sequential primary group elements.« less

  9. High Thermoelectric Performance in Copper Telluride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Ying; Zhang, Tiansong; Shi, Xun; Wei, Su-Huai; Chen, Lidong

    2015-06-21

    Recently, Cu 2-δ S and Cu 2-δ Se were reported to have an ultralow thermal conductivity and high thermoelectric figure of merit zT. Thus, as a member of the copper chalcogenide group, Cu 2-δ Te is expected to possess superior zTs because Te is less ionic and heavy. However, the zT value is low in the Cu2Te sintered using spark plasma sintering, which is typically used to fabricate high-density bulk samples. In addition, the extra sintering processes may change the samples’ compositions as well as their physical properties, especially for Cu2Te, which has many stable and meta-stable phases as well as weaker ionic bonding between Cu and Te as compared with Cu2S and Cu2Se. In this study, high-density Cu2Te samples were obtained using direct annealing without a sintering process. In the absence of sintering processes, the samples’ compositions could be well controlled, leading to substantially reduced carrier concentrations that are close to the optimal value. The electrical transports were optimized, and the thermal conductivity was considerably reduced. The zT values were significantly improved—to 1.1 at 1000 K—which is nearly 100% improvement. Furthermore, this method saves substantial time and cost during the sample’s growth. The study demonstrates that Cu 2-δ X (X=S, Se and Te) is the only existing system to show high zTs in the series of compounds composed of three sequential primary group elements.

  10. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, H.; Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1990-01-09

    A composition of matter is described which is comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide. A method for making this composition of matter is also described. This invention relates to the art of powder metallurgy and, more particularly, it relates to dispersion strengthened metals.

  11. Multi-physics microstructural simulation of sintering.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tikare, Veena

    2010-06-01

    Simulating the detailed evolution of microstructure at the mesoscale is increasingly being addressed by a number of methods. Discrete element modeling and Potts kinetic Monte Carlo have achieved success in capturing different aspects of sintering well. Discrete element cannot treat the details of neck formation and other shape evolution, especially when considering particles of arbitrary shapes. Potts kMC treats the micorstructural evolution very well, but cannot incorporate complex stress states that form especially during differential sintering. A model that is capable of simulating microstructural evolution during sintering at the mesoscale and can incorporate differential stresses is being developed. This multi-physics model that can treat both interfacial energies and the inter-particle stresses will be introduced. It will be applied to simulate microstructural evolution while resolving individual particles and the stresses that develop between them due to local shrinkage. Results will be presented and the future development of this model will be discussed.

  12. CX-005780: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Sintered Copper Zinc Tin Selenium Nanoparticle Solar Cells on Metal FoilCX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B3.6Date: 05/11/2011Location(s): San Jose, CaliforniaOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

  13. Process for microwave sintering boron carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Morrow, M.S.

    1993-10-12

    A method of microwave sintering boron carbide comprises leaching boron carbide powder with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to form a leached boron carbide powder. The leached boron carbide powder is coated with a glassy carbon precursor to form a coated boron carbide powder. The coated boron carbide powder is consolidated in an enclosure of boron nitride particles coated with a layer of glassy carbon within a container for microwave heating to form an enclosed coated boron carbide powder. The enclosed coated boron carbide powder is sintered within the container for microwave heating with microwave energy.

  14. Process for microwave sintering boron carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Morrow, Marvin S.

    1993-01-01

    A method of microwave sintering boron carbide comprises leaching boron carbide powder with an aqueous solution of nitric acid to form a leached boron carbide powder. The leached boron carbide powder is coated with a glassy carbon precursor to form a coated boron carbide powder. The coated boron carbide powder is consolidated in an enclosure of boron nitride particles coated with a layer of glassy carbon within a container for microwave heating to form an enclosed coated boron carbide powder. The enclosed coated boron carbide powder is sintered within the container for microwave heating with microwave energy.

  15. EFFECT OF FAST NEUTRON IRRADIATION ON SINTERED ALUMINA AND MAGNESIA...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    IRRADIATION; LATTICES; MAGNESIUM OXIDES; MONOCRYSTALS; NEUTRON FLUX; RADIATION DOSES; RADIATION EFFECTS; SINTERED MATERIALS; TEMPERATURE; THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY ALUMINUM OXIDES

  16. Microwave sintering of single plate-shaped articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Joel D. (Los Alamos, NM); Blake, Rodger D. (Tucson, AZ)

    1995-01-01

    Apparatus and method for high temperature sintering of plate-shaped articles of alumina, magnesia, silica, yttria, zirconia, and mixtures thereof using microwave radiation. An article is placed within a sintering structure located within a sintering container which is placed in a microwave cavity for heating. The rates at which heating and cooling take place is controlled.

  17. Microwave sintering of single plate-shaped articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, J.D.; Blake, R.D.

    1995-07-11

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for high temperature sintering of plate-shaped articles of alumina, magnesia, silica, yttria, zirconia, and mixtures thereof using microwave radiation. An article is placed within a sintering structure located within a sintering container which is placed in a microwave cavity for heating. The rates at which heating and cooling take place is controlled. 2 figs.

  18. Sintering behavior of Lanthana-bearing nanostructured ferritic steel consolidated via spark plasma sintering

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Pasebani, Somayeh; Charit, Indrajit; Butt, Darryl P.; Cole, James I.; Wu, Yaqiao; Burns, Jatuporn

    2015-08-03

    Elemental powder mixture of Fe–14Cr–1Ti–0.3Mo–0.5La2O3 (wt%) composition is mechanically alloyed for different milling durations (5, 10 and 20 h) and subsequently consolidated via spark plasma sintering under vacuum at 950 °C for 7 min. The effects of milling time on the densification behavior and density/microhardness are studied. The sintering activation energy is found to be close to that of grain boundary diffusion. The bimodal grain structure created in the milled and sintered material is found to be a result of milling and not of sintering alone. The oxide particle diameter varies between 2 and 70 nm. As a result, facetedmore » precipitates smaller than 10 nm in diameter are found to be mostly La–Ti–Cr-enriched complex oxides that restrict further recrystallization and related phenomena.« less

  19. Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, R.J.; Warner, K.A.

    1999-06-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation. 4 figs.

  20. Pressureless sintering of whiskered-toughened ceramic composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, T.N.

    1994-12-27

    A pressureless sintering method is disclosed for use in the production of whisker-toughened ceramic composites wherein the sintered density of composites containing up to about 20 vol. % SiC whiskers is improved by reducing the average aspect ratio of the whiskers to from about 10 to about 20. Sintering aids further improve the density, permitting the production of composites containing 20 vol. % SiC with sintered densities of 94% or better of theoretical density by a pressureless sintering method. 6 figures.

  1. Organic ligands reduce copper toxicity in Pseudomonas syringae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azenha, M.; Vasconcelos, M.T.; Cabral, J.P.S.

    1995-03-01

    Pseudomonas syringae cells were exposed to 100 {mu}M copper alone, or to previously equilibrated copper sulfate-ligand solutions. Ligand concentrations were determined experimentally as those that reduced the free copper concentration to 5 {mu}M (determined with a Cu{sup 2+}-selective electrode). These values were in agreement with those calculated by computational equilibrium simulation based on published stability constants. Exposure of P. syringae cells to copper sulfate, chloride, or nitrate resulted in similar high mortality, suggesting that copper was responsible for cell death. Acetate, succinate, proline, lysine, cysteine, and EDTA significantly reduced both the amount of copper bound to the cells and cell death, indicating that not only strong chelating agents but also weak and moderate copper ligands can effectively antagonize copper toxicity. However, cysteine and EDTA were considerably more effective than acetate, succinate, proline, and lysine, indicating that copper toxicity is not simply a function of free copper concentration but depends on the nature of the ligand. The results suggested that a significant fraction of copper bound to acetate, succinate, proline, or lysine was displaced to the bacteria or, alternatively, mixed copper-ligand-cell complexes could be formed. On the contrary, none of these phenomena occurred for the copper complexes with cysteine or EDTA.

  2. Use of sinter in Taranto blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palchetti, M.; Palomba, R.; Tolino, E.; Salvatore, E.; Calcagni, M.

    1995-12-01

    Lowering the production cost of the crude steel is the ultimate aim when planning operations in an integrated steelworks. Designing the Blast Furnace burden is a crucial point in this context, for which account must be taken not only of the raw materials cost but also of other important aims such as maximum plants productivity, minimum possible energy consumption, a proper product quality at the various production stages. This paper describes the criteria used in Ilva Laminati Piani (ILP) Taranto Works to design the BF burden, based on sinter, using the results of extensive research activity carried out by Centro Sviluppo Materiali (CSM), the Research Center with major involvement with the R and D of the Italian Steel Industry. Great attention is paid at ILP to the sinter quality in order to obtain the optimum performance of the BFs, which are operating at high productivity, high pulverized coal rate and low fuel consumption.

  3. Sintering aid for lanthanum chromite refractories

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flandermeyer, Brian K. (Bolingbrook, IL); Poeppel, Roger B. (Glen Ellyn, IL); Dusek, Joseph T. (Downers Grove, IL); Anderson, Harlan U. (Rolla, MO)

    1988-01-01

    An electronically conductive interconnect layer for use in a fuel cell or other electrolytic device is formed with sintering additives to permit densification in a monolithic structure with the electrode materials. Additions including an oxide of boron and a eutectic forming composition of Group 2A metal fluorides with Group 3B metal fluorides and Group 2A metal oxides with Group 6B metal oxides lower the required firing temperature of lanthanum chromite to permit densification to in excess of 94% of theoretical density without degradation of electrode material lamina. The monolithic structure is formed by tape casting thin layers of electrode, interconnect and electrolyte materials and sintering the green lamina together under common densification conditions.

  4. Production of sintered porous metal fluoride pellets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, L.W.; Stephenson, M.J.

    1973-12-25

    Porous pellets characterized by a moderately reactive crust and a softer core of higher reactivity are produced by forming agglomerates containing a metal fluoride powder and a selected amount ofwater. The metal fluoride is selected to be sinterable and essentially non-reactive with gaseous fluorinating agents. The agglomerates are contacted with a gaseous fluorinating agent under controlled conditions whereby the heat generated by localized reaction of the agent and water is limited to values effccting bonding by localized sintering. Porous pellets composed of cryolite (Na/sub 3/AlF/sub 6/) can be used to selectively remove trace quantities of niobium pentafluoride from a feed gas consisting predominantly of uranium hexafluoride. (Official Gazette)

  5. Sintering and ripening resistant noble metal nanostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    van Swol, Frank B; Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A; Miller, James E; Challa, Sivakumar R

    2013-09-24

    Durable porous metal nanostructures comprising thin metal nanosheets that are metastable under some conditions that commonly produce rapid reduction in surface area due to sintering and/or Ostwald ripening. The invention further comprises the method for making such durable porous metal nanostructures. Durable, high-surface area nanostructures result from the formation of persistent durable holes or pores in metal nanosheets formed from dendritic nanosheets.

  6. Raw material preparation for ultra high production rate sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kortmann, H.A.; Ritz, V.J.; Cappel, F.; Weisel, H.; Richter, G.

    1995-12-01

    An R and D program in pot grate sintering showed, that an intensive preparation of ores, additives and coke breeze improves the sintering capacity. The tests were conducted using an ore mixture composed of typical ores imported to Europe. The highest capacities were attained up to 63.8 t/m{sup 2} {times} 24 h maximum for a sinter which well fulfills the high requirements on chemical, physical and metallurgical properties.

  7. Partial-Flow Diesel Particulate Filter of Sintered Metal Fiber...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Partial-Flow Diesel Particulate Filter of Sintered Metal Fiber Fleece Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in ...

  8. High-pressure, high-temperature plastic deformation of sintered...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: High-pressure, high-temperature plastic deformation of sintered diamonds Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-pressure, high-temperature plastic ...

  9. Copper-tantalum alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Verhoeven, John D.; Gibson, Edwin D.

    1986-07-15

    A tantalum-copper alloy can be made by preparing a consumable electrode consisting of an elongated copper billet containing at least two spaced apart tantalum rods extending longitudinally the length of the billet. The electrode is placed in a dc arc furnace and melted under conditions which co-melt the copper and tantalum to form the alloy.

  10. Production of reactive sintered nickel aluminide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Effort over the past 3 months was directed at increasing manufacturing capacity (ball milling) and improving product quality. Orders for the powder have increased, mainly for plasma spray powders. NiAl is an excellent coat between a metal and a ceramic, and its use instead of cobalt should extending operating range for carbide tools. The feather phase in the sintered Ni[sub 3]Al was identified to be a Ni-rich phase nucleated on the grain boundaries with 10 wt % Al composition. The ductile to brittle temperature of powder extruded NiAl was found to be between 500 and 600 C, and shows a 50% elongation at 600 C.

  11. LIQUID PHASE SINTERING OF METALLIC CARBIDES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammond, J.; Sease, J.D.

    1964-01-21

    An improved method is given for fabricating uranium carbide composites, The method comprises forming a homogeneous mixture of powdered uranium carbide, a uranium intermetallic compound which wets and forms a eutectic with said carbide and has a non-uranium component which has a relatively high vapor pressure at a temperature in the range 1200 to 1500 deg C, and an organic binder, pressing said mixture to a composite of desired green strength, and then vacuum sintering said composite at the eutectic forming temperature for a period sufficient to remove at least a portion of the non-uranium containing component of said eutectic. (AEC)

  12. In situ formation of sintered cordieritemullite nanomicro composites by utilizing of waste silica fume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khattab, R.M.; EL-Rafei, A.M.; Zawrah, M.F.

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ? We succeeded to obtain in situ formed sintered cordieritemullite nanomacro composites from waste and pure materials at 1400 C. ? Their sinterability was greatly dependent on both firing temperature and composition. ? XRD patterns showed that the optimum temperature required for formation of sintered cordieritemullite nanomacro composites was achieved at 1400 C. ? The batch containing 70 wt.% cordierite and 30 wt.% mullite exhibited the best properties. ? Microstructures of the densified composites were composed of nanomacro cordieritemullite structures. -- Abstract: This study aims at in situ formation of sintered cordieritemullite nanomacro composites having high technological properties using waste silica fume, calcined ball clay, calcined alumina, and magnesia as starting materials. The starting materials were mixed in different ratios to obtain different cordieritemullite composite batches in which the cordierite contents ranged from 50 to 100 wt.%. The batches were uni-axially pressed at 100 MPa and sintered at 1350, 1400 and 1450 C to select the optimum temperature required for cordieritemullite nanomacro composites formation. The formed phases were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. The sintering parameters in terms of bulk density (BD) and apparent porosity (AP) were determined. The microstructure of composites has been investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Cold crushing strength (CCS) of the sintered batches was evaluated. The result revealed that the cordieritemullite nanomacro composites were in-situ formed at 1400 C. The batch containing 70 wt.% cordierite showed good physical and mechanical properties.

  13. Method for sintering fuel cell electrodes using a carrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donelson, Richard; Bryson, E. S.

    1995-01-01

    A carrier for conveying components of a fuel cell to be sintered through a sintering furnace. The carrier comprises a metal sheet coated with a carbon-based paint, the carbon-based paint comprising an organic binder. The carbon-based paint may be an alcohol or a solvent-based paint or a water-based paint.

  14. Method for sintering fuel cell electrodes using a carrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donelson, R.; Bryson, E.S.

    1995-03-28

    A carrier is described for conveying components of a fuel cell to be sintered through a sintering furnace. The carrier comprises a metal sheet coated with a carbon-based paint, the carbon-based paint comprising an organic binder. The carbon-based paint may be an alcohol or a solvent-based paint or a water-based paint.

  15. Coated metal sintering carriers for fuel cell electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donelson, Richard (Glen Waverly, AU); Bryson, E. S. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1998-01-01

    A carrier for conveying components of a fuel cell to be sintered through a sintering furnace. The carrier comprises a metal sheet coated with a water-based carbon paint, the water-based carbon paint comprising water, powdered graphite, an organic binder, a wetting agent, a dispersing agent and a defoaming agent.

  16. Method for the manufacture of iron-containing sintered electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buhl, H.; Gutjahr, M.

    1980-12-02

    A method is described for manufacturing an iron-containing sintered electrode for alkaline accumulators as well as the product obtained by such method, in which iron powder and at least one reducible iron compound are intimately mixed with each other; the powder mixture is sintered into a stable body and the reducible iron compound is reduced to highly active iron.

  17. Coated metal sintering carriers for fuel cell electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donelson, R.; Bryson, E.S.

    1998-11-10

    A carrier is described for conveying components of a fuel cell to be sintered through a sintering furnace. The carrier comprises a metal sheet coated with a water-based carbon paint, the water-based carbon paint comprising water, powdered graphite, an organic binder, a wetting agent, a dispersing agent and a defoaming agent.

  18. Microwave sintering of sol-gel derived abrasive grain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plovnick, Ross; Celikkaya, Ahmet; Blake, Rodger D.

    1997-01-01

    A method is provided for making microwave-sintered, free flowing alpha alumina-based ceramic abrasive grain, under conditions effective to couple microwaves with calcined alpha alumina-based abrasive gain precursor and sinter it at a temperature of at least about 1150.degree. C.

  19. Sintered silver joints via controlled topography of electronic packaging subcomponents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wereszczak, Andrew A.

    2014-09-02

    Disclosed are sintered silver bonded electronic package subcomponents and methods for making the same. Embodiments of the sintered silver bonded EPSs include topography modification of one or more metal surfaces of semiconductor devices bonded together by the sintered silver joint. The sintered silver bonded EPSs include a first semiconductor device having a first metal surface, the first metal surface having a modified topography that has been chemically etched, grit blasted, uniaxial ground and/or grid sliced connected to a second semiconductor device which may also include a first metal surface with a modified topography, a silver plating layer on the first metal surface of the first semiconductor device and a silver plating layer on the first metal surface of the second semiconductor device and a sintered silver joint between the silver plating layers of the first and second semiconductor devices which bonds the first semiconductor device to the second semiconductor device.

  20. Formation of calcium aluminates in the lime sinter process. [Extraction of alumina from fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, K.S.

    1980-03-01

    A study of the formation of several calcium aluminates from pure components in the lime sinter process was undertaken to determine the kinetics of formation and subsequent leaching using a dilute sodium carbonate solution. The composition CaO 61.98%, SiO/sub 2/ 26.67%, and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ 11.53% was used. Isothermal sintering runs of 0.2 to 10.0 h were carried out at 1200, 1250, 1300, and 1350/sup 0/C. When the sintering temperature was below the eutectic temperature (1335/sup 0/C), the ternary mixture behaved like two binary systems, i.e. CaO-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and CaO-SiO/sub 2/. Only one compound, 3CaO.SiO/sub 2/, was formed between CaO and SiO/sub 2/. With lower sintering temperature and shorter sintering time, the ..beta..-phase was dominant. However, when both temperature and time increased, more and more of the ..beta..-C/sub 2/S was transformed into the ..gamma..-phase. Several different aluminates were formed during the sintering of CaO and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. The compounds CaO.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and 3CaO.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ were observed at all tested sintering temperatures, while the 5CaO.3Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ phase was found only at 1200/sup 0/C and 12CaO.7Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ at 1250/sup 0/C or higher. The first compound formed between CaO and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ was probably 12CaO.7Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, but the amount did not increase immediately with time. The first dominant compound between CaO and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ was CaO.3Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. When the calcium ion diffused through the product layer of CaO.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 3CaO.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ was formed. If unreacted Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ were present after the formation of CaO.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, CaO.2Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ would form. Subsequent leaching of the sinters showed that the extractable alumina in the products increased with both sintering temperature and time, reaching a max of about 90%. These extraction data corresponded very well to the quantities of aluminates in the sinters. 59 figures, 13 tables.

  1. Effects of sintering temperature and duration on the structural and electrical properties of CuBiS{sub 2} bulks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wubet, Walelign; Kuo, Dong-Hau Abdullah, Hairus

    2015-10-15

    CuBiS{sub 2} bulks were prepared by reactive sintering the mixture of Cu{sub 2}S and Bi{sub 2}S{sub 3} at 300, 350, 400, and 450 °C for 2 h and at the sintering temperature of 400 °C for 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 h under a compensation disc of CuS for atmospheric control. Composition, structure, morphology, and electrical properties of the sintered bulks were analyzed. The compositions of Cu, Bi, and S did not change until the temperature reached at 450 °C.The highest electrical conductivity of 4.3 S cm{sup −1} and the highest Hall mobility of 11.1 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} were obtained for CuBiS{sub 2} sintered at 400 °C for 2 h. The deviation in the S/(Cu+Bi) ration caused the degradation of electrical properties, though the CuBiS{sub 2} remained as a single phase. Therefore, CuBiS{sub 2}, a less studied ternary copper based sulfide, is the p-type semiconductor for potential energy-related application and needs to have a good control in composition. - Graphical abstract: CuBiS{sub 2}, a less studied ternary copper based sulfide, is the p-type semiconductor and needs to have a good control in composition to achieve the optimal electrical properties. - Highlights: • CuBiS{sub 2}, a less studied copper-based sulfide, is a p-type semiconductor. • Electrical properties of CuBiS{sub 2} are important for its photovoltaic applications. • Deviation in composition leads a change in the electrical properties of CuBiS{sub 2}. • n of 2.4×10{sup 18} cm{sup −3}, μ of 11.1 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}, and σ of 4.3 S cm{sup −1} were obtained. • The process control in CuSbS{sub 2} is critical to achieve consistent performance.

  2. Effect of thermal history on Mossbauer signature and hyperfine interaction parameters of copper ferrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Modi, K. B. Raval, P. Y.; Dulera, S. V.; Kathad, C. R.; Shah, S. J.; Trivedi, U. N.; Chandra, Usha

    2015-06-24

    Two specimens of copper ferrite, CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, have been synthesized by double sintering ceramic technique with different thermal history i.e. slow cooled and quenched. X-ray diffractometry has confirmed single phase fcc spinel structure for slow cooled sample while tetragonal distortion is present in quenched sample. Mossbauer spectral analysis for slow-cooled copper ferrite reveals super position of two Zeeman split sextets along with paramagnetic singlet in the centre position corresponds to delafossite (CuFeO{sub 2}) phase that is completely absent in quenched sample. The hyperfine interaction parameters are highly influenced by heat treatment employed.

  3. Effect of YSZ sintering temperature on mixed potential sensor performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sekhar, Praveen K; Brosha, Eric L; Rangachary, Mukundan; Garzon, Fernando H; Nelson, Mark A; Toracco, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the influence of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) sintering temperature on a Pt/YSZ/La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}CrO{sub 3} mixed potential sensor performance is reported. The sintering temperature of YSZ was varied from 1000 to 1200 C. Mercury porosity measurements were performed to estimate the porosity and tortuosity of the YSZ sample as a function of sintering temperature. Further, the surface area of YSZ was computed by the BET method. After YSZ characterization, the unbiased and biased sensor response was recorded. The 1000 C sintered YSZ sample was taken as the reference for comparison purposes. Experimental results indicated a 30% reduction in porosity for the 1200 C sintered YSZ sample, accounting for a 14-fold increase in the sensor response rise time. In addition, for the same sample, a 13-fold increase in sensitivity was observed upon exposure to propylene (100 ppm), associated with a 76% reduction in surface area. The slow response time of the sensor with YSZ sintered at higher temperatures has been attributed to higher tortuosity (delay in gas permeation to the three phase interface). Whereas, reduced heterogeneous catalysis induced by lower surface area accounts for the rise in sensitivity levels. The optimum YSZ sintering temperature was found to lie between 1100 and 1150 C.

  4. COPPER COATED URANIUM ARTICLE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, A.G.

    1958-10-01

    Various techniques and methods for obtaining coppercoated uranium are given. Specifically disclosed are a group of complex uranium coatings having successive layers of nickel, copper, lead, and tin.

  5. Microwave sintering of nanophase ceramics without concomitant grain growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eastman, Jeffrey A.; Sickafus, Kurt E.; Katz, Joel D.

    1993-01-01

    A method of sintering nanocrystalline material is disclosed wherein the nanocrystalline material is microwaved to heat the material to a temperature less than about 70% of the melting point of the nanocrystalline material expressed in degrees K. This method produces sintered nanocrystalline material having a density greater than about 95% of theoretical and an average grain size not more than about 3 times the average grain size of the nanocrystalline material before sintering. Rutile TiO.sub.2 as well as various other ceramics have been prepared. Grain growth of as little as 1.67 times has resulted with densities of about 90% of theoretical.

  6. End Uses Mechanical Properties Settled By The Modified Sintering Conditions Of The Metal Injection Molding Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marray, Tarek [Laboratoire Materiaux, ECAM, 40 montee Saint Barthelemy, 69321, Lyon, Cedex 05 (France); Arts et Metiers ParisTech, MecaSurf Laboratory (EA 4496), 2, Cours des Arts et Metiers, 13617 Aix en Provence (France); Jaccquet, Philippe; Moinard-Checot, Delphine [Laboratoire Materiaux, ECAM, 40 montee Saint Barthelemy, 69321, Lyon, Cedex 05 (France); Arts et Metiers ParisTech, LaBoMaP, Rue Porte de Paris, 71250 CLUNY (France); Fabre, Agnes; Barrallier, Laurent [Arts et Metiers ParisTech, MecaSurf Laboratory (EA 4496), 2, Cours des Arts et Metiers, 13617 Aix en Provence (France)

    2011-01-17

    Most common mechanical applications require parts with specific properties as hard faced features. It is well known that treating parts under suitable atmospheres may improve hardness and strength yield of steels. Heat treatment process and more particularly thermo-chemical diffusion processes (such as carburizing or its variation: carbonitriding) can be performed to reach the industrial hardness profile requirements. In this work, a low-alloyed steel feedstock based on water soluble binder system is submitted to the MIM process steps (including injection molding, debinding and sintering). As-sintered parts are then treated under a low pressure carbonitriding treatment. This contribution focuses on preliminary results such as microstructural analyses and mechanical properties which are established at each stage of the process to determine and monitor changes.

  7. High adherence copper plating process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nignardot, Henry

    1993-01-01

    A process for applying copper to a substrate of aluminum or steel by electrodeposition and for preparing an aluminum or steel substrate for electrodeposition of copper. Practice of the invention provides good adhesion of the copper layer to the substrate.

  8. NID Copper Sample Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

    2011-09-12

    The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0νββ). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76Ge. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology, possibly one under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID), will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in January 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here. A second sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in August 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are also reported here.

  9. Copper-containing zeolite catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Price, G.L.; Kanazirev, V.

    1996-12-10

    A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, is formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl{sub 2}, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

  10. Copper-containing zeolite catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Price, Geoffrey L.; Kanazirev, Vladislav

    1996-01-01

    A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl.sub.2, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

  11. Development of Continuous, Direct Feedback Control Systems for Sintering of Metallic Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diran Apelian; Marc M. Baum

    2006-09-18

    . EBS thermolyzes relatively cleanly in a range of furnace atmospheres, but the mechanism governing the pyrolysis of EBS, compacted with iron powder, is not known and needs to be investigated to determine the parameters important for industrial control, as well as the optimal conditions of delubrication. In addition, a thorough understanding of the pre-sintering chemistry will enable the development of a process control sensor.

  12. High Pressure-Induced Phase Transformation Sintering and Optical Coupling

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Nanoparticle Arrays. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: High Pressure-Induced Phase Transformation Sintering and Optical Coupling of Nanoparticle Arrays. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Pressure-Induced Phase Transformation Sintering and Optical Coupling of Nanoparticle Arrays. Abstract not provided. Authors: Fan, Hongyou Publication Date: 2015-03-01 OSTI Identifier: 1247090 Report Number(s): SAND2015-2035C 579835 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type:

  13. Development of a sintering process for recycling oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash into glass ceramic composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Glass ceramic composite is prepared from oil shale fly ash and MSWI bottom ash. • A novel method for the production of glass ceramic composite is presented. • It provides simple route and lower energy consumption in terms of recycling waste. • The vitrified slag can promote the sintering densification process of glass ceramic. • The performances of products decrease with the increase of oil shale fly ash content. - Abstract: Oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash are industrial and municipal by-products that require further treatment before disposal to avoid polluting the environment. In the study, they were mixed and vitrified into the slag by the melt-quench process. The obtained vitrified slag was then mixed with various percentages of oil shale fly ash and converted into glass ceramic composites by the subsequent sintering process. Differential thermal analysis was used to study the thermal characteristics and determine the sintering temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to analyze the crystalline phase compositions. Sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, density and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition and study the co-sintering mechanism of vitrified amorphous slag and oil shale fly ash. The results showed the product performances increased with the increase of sintering temperatures and the proportion of vitrified slag to oil shale fly ash. Glass ceramic composite (vitrified slag content of 80%, oil shale fly ash content of 20%, sintering temperature of 1000 °C and sintering time of 2 h) showed the properties of density of 1.92 ± 0.05 g/cm{sup 3}, weight loss on ignition of 6.14 ± 0.18%, sintering shrinkage of 22.06 ± 0.6% and compressive strength of 67 ± 14 MPa. The results indicated that it was a comparable waste-based material compared to previous researches. In particular, the energy consumption in the production process was reduced

  14. NID Copper Sample Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

    2011-02-01

    The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0νββ). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID) will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making these isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here.

  15. A device for microwave sintering large ceramic articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kimrey, H.D. Jr.

    1987-07-24

    A microwave sintering system is provided for uniform sintering of large and/or irregular shapes ceramic articles at microwave frequencies of at least 28 GHz in the hundreds of kilowatts power range in an untuned cavity. A 28 GHz, 200 kw gyrotron with variable power output is used as the microwave source connected to an untuned microwave cavity formed of an electrically conductive housing. The part to be sintered is placed in the cavity and supported on a removable high temperature table in a central location within the cavity. The part is surrounded by a microwave transparent bulk insulating material to reduce thermal heat loss at the part surfaces and maintain more uniform temperature. The cavity may be operated at a high vacuum to aid in preventing arcing. The system allows controlled increased heating rates of greater than 200/degree/C/min to provide rapid heating of a ceramic part to a selected sintering temperature where it is maintained by regulating the microwave power applied to the part. As a result of rapid heating, the extent on non-isothermal processes such as segregation of impurities to the grain boundaries are minimized and exaggerated grain growth is reduced, thereby strengthening the mechanical properties of the ceramic part being sintered. 1 fig.

  16. Improvements in strand feeding and its effect of sintering performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beer, H.; Kersting, K.; Werner, P.

    1995-12-01

    Sintering may be considered a rather simple, counter current gas-solid process. A bed of granular solids is moved horizontally on a strand of pallets and suction is applied beneath the grate. Shortly after the sinter mix is fed onto the strand the incorporated solid fuel is ignited in the surface layer and the hot gases are drawn into the bed. The temperature of the top layer is raised high enough to burn the fuel particles while air is sucked down through it. Passing the upper, already sintered part of the bed the air is first preheated then sustains the combustion reaction. The hot, still oxygen-rich combustion gases leave the sintering zone and transfer its heat to the charge below. While the solids are preheated, carbonates, combined water, and moisture are driven off, rapidly cooling the gas. Thus, a flame front propagates through the traveling bed, generating at peak temperatures enough heat to agglomerate the bed of quasi-particles into a sinter cake. The strand speed is adjusted so that the burning through of the combustion zone coincides with the end of the suction area. To ensure stable operation this cross stream reactor has to be kept in a steady state.

  17. Oxidation Protection of Uranium Nitride Fuel using Liquid Phase Sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Paul A. Lessing

    2012-03-01

    Two methods are proposed to increase the oxidation resistance of uranium nitride (UN) nuclear fuel. These paths are: (1) Addition of USi{sub x} (e.g. U3Si2) to UN nitride powder, followed by liquid phase sintering, and (2) 'alloying' UN nitride with various compounds (followed by densification via Spark Plasma Sintering or Liquid Phase Sintering) that will greatly increase oxidation resistance. The advantages (high thermal conductivity, very high melting point, and high density) of nitride fuel have long been recognized. The sodium cooled BR-10 reactor in Russia operated for 18 years on uranium nitride fuel (UN was used as the driver fuel for two core loads). However, the potential advantages (large power up-grade, increased cycle lengths, possible high burn-ups) as a Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel are offset by uranium nitride's extremely low oxidation resistance (UN powders oxidize in air and UN pellets decompose in hot water). Innovative research is proposed to solve this problem and thereby provide an accident tolerant LWR fuel that would resist water leaks and high temperature steam oxidation/spalling during an accident. It is proposed that we investigate two methods to increase the oxidation resistance of UN: (1) Addition of USi{sub x} (e.g. U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) to UN nitride powder, followed by liquid phase sintering, and (2) 'alloying' UN nitride with compounds (followed by densification via Spark Plasma Sintering) that will greatly increase oxidation resistance.

  18. Toward Interpreting Failure in Sintered-Silver Interconnection Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A; Waters, Shirley B

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical strength and subsequent reliability of a sintered-silver interconnection system is a function of numerous independent parameters. That system is still undergoing process development. Most of those parameters (e.g., choice of plating) are arguably and unfortunately taken for granted and are independent of the silver s cohesive strength. To explore such effects, shear strength testing and failure analyses were completed on a simple, mock sintered-silver interconnection system consisting of bonding two DBC ceramic substrates. Silver and gold platings were part of the test matrix, as was pre-drying strategies, and the consideration of stencil-printing vs. screen-printing. Shear strength of sintered-silver interconnect systems was found to be was insensitive to the choice of plating, drying practice, and printing method provided careful and consistent processing of the sintered-silver are practiced. But if the service stress in sintered silver interconnect systems is anticipated to exceed ~ 60 MPa, then the system will likely fail.

  19. Low sintering temperature glass waste forms for sequestering radioactive iodine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Krumhansl, James L.; Garino, Terry J.; Ockwig, Nathan W.

    2012-09-11

    Materials and methods of making low-sintering-temperature glass waste forms that sequester radioactive iodine in a strong and durable structure. First, the iodine is captured by an adsorbant, which forms an iodine-loaded material, e.g., AgI, AgI-zeolite, AgI-mordenite, Ag-silica aerogel, ZnI.sub.2, CuI, or Bi.sub.5O.sub.7I. Next, particles of the iodine-loaded material are mixed with powdered frits of low-sintering-temperature glasses (comprising various oxides of Si, B, Bi, Pb, and Zn), and then sintered at a relatively low temperature, ranging from 425.degree. C. to 550.degree. C. The sintering converts the mixed powders into a solid block of a glassy waste form, having low iodine leaching rates. The vitrified glassy waste form can contain as much as 60 wt % AgI. A preferred glass, having a sintering temperature of 500.degree. C. (below the silver iodide sublimation temperature of 500.degree. C.) was identified that contains oxides of boron, bismuth, and zinc, while containing essentially no lead or silicon.

  20. Low cost improvements in air pollution control for ARMCO's Ashland, Kentucky Works Sinter Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felton, S.S. )

    1987-01-01

    Particulate emissions from sinter plants can contribute a significant percentage of the total emissions from integrated steelmaking facilities. A well-known sinter plant air pollution phenomenon is called blue haze emissions. These emissions are caused when hydrocarbons introduced by filter cake, coke breeze, and mill scale are not burned in the sintering process and pass through the system as a very finely divided stable dispersed fog. The Sinter Plant at Ashland Works consists of Dravo-Lurgi traveling grate sintering machine which processes a mixture of materials including iron ore, iron pellet fines, blast furnace flue dust, limestone, melt shop slag, coke breeze and sinter return fines. This system is illustrated by the authors. Upon completion of the sintering process, the hot agglomerated sinter product is discharged to the sinter crusher. The sinter is then cooled and screened for use in Ashland Works' Amanda Blast Furnace. This system is illustrated. The Ashland Works Sinter Plant complex consists of a Sintering Machine Building, Sinter Screens Building and Ore Screens Building. For the purposes of this study, the Ore Transfer Tower Building was also included. The general layout of the complex is illustrated.

  1. Method and apparatus for radio frequency ceramic sintering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Daniel J.; Kimrey, Jr., Harold D.

    1993-01-01

    Radio frequency energy is used to sinter ceramic materials. A coaxial waveguide resonator produces a TEM mode wave which generates a high field capacitive region in which a sample of the ceramic material is located. Frequency of the power source is kept in the range of radio frequency, and preferably between 60-80 MHz. An alternative embodiment provides a tunable radio frequency circuit which includes a series input capacitor and a parallel capacitor, with the sintered ceramic connected by an inductive lead. This arrangement permits matching of impedance over a wide range of dielectric constants, ceramic volumes, and loss tangents.

  2. Method and apparatus for radio frequency ceramic sintering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffman, D.J.; Kimrey, H.D. Jr.

    1993-11-30

    Radio frequency energy is used to sinter ceramic materials. A coaxial waveguide resonator produces a TEM mode wave which generates a high field capacitive region in which a sample of the ceramic material is located. Frequency of the power source is kept in the range of radio frequency, and preferably between 60-80 MHz. An alternative embodiment provides a tunable radio frequency circuit which includes a series input capacitor and a parallel capacitor, with the sintered ceramic connected by an inductive lead. This arrangement permits matching of impedance over a wide range of dielectric constants, ceramic volumes, and loss tangents. 6 figures.

  3. Effect of spray drying on the sintering of Y2O3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasmussen, M.D.; Akinc, M.; Milius, D.; Mctaggart, M.G.

    1985-02-01

    The effect of spray drying of precipitates on the sintering of yttrium oxide was studied. Spray drying of the oxide precursors improves the sinterability of powders significantly compared to powders obtained by pan drying. The improvement in sintered density was explained by the morphology of the powders produced. For spray-dried powders, statistical analysis shows that higher atomizer air flow rates favor higher sintered densities. 21 references.

  4. Real-Time Ab Initio KMC Simulation of the Self-Assembly and Sintering...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    sintering of bimetallic nanoclusters is extremely sensitive to the periphery diffusion and intermixing kinetics. Precise characterization of the many distinct...

  5. Sintered rare earth-iron Laves phase magnetostrictive alloy product and preparation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malekzadeh, Manoochehr; Pickus, Milton R.

    1979-01-01

    A sintered rare earth-iron Laves phase magnetostrictive alloy product characterized by a grain oriented morphology. The grain oriented morphology is obtained by magnetically aligning powder particles of the magnetostrictive alloy prior to sintering. Specifically disclosed are grain oriented sintered compacts of Tb.sub.x Dy.sub.1-x Fe.sub.2 and their method of preparation. The present sintered products have enhanced magnetostrictive properties.

  6. Method of making an air electrode material having controlled sinterability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vasilow, T.R.; Kuo, L.J.H.; Ruka, R.J.

    1994-08-30

    A tubular, porous ceramic electrode structure is made from the sintered admixture of doped lanthanum manganite and an additive containing cerium where a solid electrolyte, substantially surrounds the air electrode, and a porous outer fuel electrode substantially surrounds the electrolyte, to form a fuel cell. 2 figs.

  7. Method of making an air electrode material having controlled sinterability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vasilow, Theodore R.; Kuo, Lewis J. H.; Ruka, Roswell J.

    1994-01-01

    A tubular, porous ceramic electrode structure (3) is made from the sintered admixture of doped lanthanum manganite and an additive containing cerium where a solid electrolyte (4), substantially surrounds the air electrode, and a porous outer fuel electrode (7) substantially surrounds the electrolyte, to form a fuel cell (1).

  8. Stress Intensity of Delamination in a Sintered-Silver Interconnection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVoto, D. J.; Paret, P. P.; Wereszczak, A. A.

    2014-08-01

    In automotive power electronics packages, conventional thermal interface materials such as greases, gels, and phase-change materials pose bottlenecks to heat removal and are also associated with reliability concerns. The industry trend is toward high thermal performance bonded interfaces for large-area attachments. However, because of coefficient of thermal expansion mismatches between materials/layers and resultant thermomechanical stresses, adhesive and cohesive fractures could occur, posing a reliability problem. These defects manifest themselves in increased thermal resistance. This research aims to investigate and improve the thermal performance and reliability of sintered-silver for power electronics packaging applications. This has been experimentally accomplished by the synthesis of large-area bonded interfaces between metalized substrates and copper base plates that have subsequently been subjected to thermal cycles. A finite element model of crack initiation and propagation in these bonded interfaces will allow for the interpretation of degradation rates by a crack-velocity (V)-stress intensity factor (K) analysis. A description of the experiment and the modeling approach are discussed.

  9. High adherence copper plating process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nignardot, H.

    1993-09-21

    A process is described for applying copper to a substrate of aluminum or steel by electrodeposition and for preparing the surface of an aluminum or steel substrate for the electrodeposition of copper. Practice of the invention provides good adhesion of the copper layer to either substrate.

  10. Processing optimization and sintering time dependent magnetic and optical behaviors of Aurivillius Bi{sub 5}Ti{sub 3}FeO{sub 15} ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Guang; Sun Lin; Ren Qing; Xu Wenfei; Yang Jing; Tang Xiaodong; Bai Wei; Duan Chungang; Chu Junhao; Wu Jing; Meng Xiangjian

    2013-01-21

    Aurivillius Bi{sub 5}Ti{sub 3}FeO{sub 15} (BTF) ceramics were synthesized using the conventional solid state reaction method by optimizing excess of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and sintering time. Their structures, magnetic, and optical properties were investigated in detail. The optimum process to sinter pure Aurivillius BTF ceramics was confirmed to be 3 wt. % excess Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} to compensate the Bi volatilization at 1050 Degree-Sign C for 240 min (BTF-240M). The microstructure and crystalline structure of the BTF ceramics had little dependence on the sintering time from the x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopic data. Nevertheless, the magnetic and optical properties were closely related with the sintering time. The overall magnetic behavior of these BTF ceramics was superparamagnetic (SPM), whereas there were unambiguous clues for the existence of antiferromagnetic (AFM) interactions. However, whether the SPM behavior was intrinsic or arised from a tiny amount of spinel Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} impurity phase cannot be thoroughly ruled out in the XRD detection limit in the present stage. The AFM interactions were weakened upon extending the sintering time. The effective magnetic moment ({mu}{sub eff}), however, demonstrated different dependency on the sintering time. It increased with the sintering time from 80 min to 240 min, and then dropped with further extending the sintering time. Compared with other BTF ceramics, the BTF-240M ceramic showed the highest values of the refractive index n and real part {epsilon}{sub 1}, as well as the lowest ones of the extinction coefficient k and imagine part {epsilon}{sub 2} in whole photon energy range. Finally, a direct inter-band transition was confirmed for these BTF ceramics and optical energy band gaps were determined to be about 3.08, 3.18, and 3.39 eV for 80 min, 150 min, and 240 min sintered BTF ceramics, respectively, yet abnormal optical behavior was observed in BTF-360M ceramic.

  11. Anisotropic constitutive model and FE simulation of the sintering process of slip cast traditional porcelain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarbandi, B.; Besson, J.; Boussuge, M.; Ryckelynck, D. [Centre des Materiaux / Mines ParisTech / CNRS UMR 7633 / BP 87, 91003 Evry (France)

    2010-06-15

    Slip cast ceramic components undergo both sintering shrinkage and creep deformation caused by gravity during the firing cycle. In addition sintering may be anisotropic due to the development of preferential directions during slip casting. Both phenomena induce complex deformations of parts which make the design of casting molds difficult. To help solving this problem, anisotropic constitutive equations are proposed to represent the behavior of the ceramic compacts during sintering. The model parameters are identified using tests allowing to characterize both sintering and creep. The model was implemented in a finite element software and used to simulate the deformation of a traditional ceramic object during sintering.

  12. Sintering Kinetics of Inkjet Printed Conductive Silver Lines on Insulating Plastic Substrate

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Zhou, Wenchao; List, III, Frederick Alyious; Duty, Chad E; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh

    2015-01-24

    This paper focuses on sintering kinetics of inkjet printed lines containing silver nanoparticles deposited on a plastic substrate. Upon heat treatment, the change of resistance in the printed lines was measured as a function of time and sintering temperatures from 150 to 200 C. A critical temperature was observed for the sintering process, beyond which there was no further reduction in resistance. Analysis shows the critical temperature correlates to the boiling point of the solvent, which is attributed to a liquid-mediated sintering mechanism. It is demonstrated that the sintering process shuts down after the solvent has completely evaporated.

  13. Precursors for formation of copper selenide, indium selenide, copper indium diselenide, and/or copper indium gallium diselenide films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Van Hest, Maikel; Ginley, David S

    2014-11-04

    Liquid-based precursors for formation of Copper Selenide, Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Diselenide, and/or copper Indium Galium Diselenide include copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent. These liquid-based precursors can be deposited in liquid form onto substrates and treated by rapid thermal processing to form crystalline copper selenide and indium selenide films.

  14. Effect of TiO{sub 2} additives to the sintering of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Issa, Tarik Talib; Majeed, Kawakib Jassim; Ibrahim, Harith J.

    2013-12-16

    The effect of sintering additive on the microstructure development of yttrium oxide was investigated. Different combinations of yttrium oxide with TiO{sub 2} were used as x-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis (DTA) were sintering additive. The investigated and microstructure of resulting compacts were characterized by, using scanning electron microscopy, porosity and sintering density for all compacting samples sintered at different sintering temperature under static air.

  15. Method of making bonded or sintered permanent magnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCallum, R.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Lograsso, B.K.; Anderson, I.E.

    1993-08-31

    An isotropic permanent magnet is made by mixing a thermally responsive, low viscosity binder and atomized rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) alloy powder having a carbon-bearing (e.g., graphite) layer thereon that facilitates wetting and bonding of the powder particles by the binder. Prior to mixing with the binder, the atomized alloy powder may be sized or classified to provide a particular particle size fraction having a grain size within a given relatively narrow range. A selected particle size fraction is mixed with the binder and the mixture is molded to a desired complex magnet shape. A molded isotropic permanent magnet is thereby formed. A sintered isotropic permanent magnet can be formed by removing the binder from the molded mixture and thereafter sintering to full density.

  16. Method of making bonded or sintered permanent magnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCallum, R. William; Dennis, Kevin W.; Lograsso, Barbara K.; Anderson, Iver E.

    1995-11-28

    An isotropic permanent magnet is made by mixing a thermally responsive, low viscosity binder and atomized rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) alloy powder having a carbon-bearing (e.g., graphite) layer thereon that facilitates wetting and bonding of the powder particles by the binder. Prior to mixing with the binder, the atomized alloy powder may be sized or classified to provide a particular particle size fraction having a grain size within a given relatively narrow range. A selected particle size fraction is mixed with the binder and the mixture is molded to a desired complex magnet shape. A molded isotropic permanent magnet is thereby formed. A sintered isotropic permanent magnet can be formed by removing the binder from the molded mixture and thereafter sintering to full density.

  17. Method of making bonded or sintered permanent magnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCallum, R.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Lograsso, B.K.; Anderson, I.E.

    1995-11-28

    An isotropic permanent magnet is made by mixing a thermally responsive, low viscosity binder and atomized rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) alloy powder having a carbon-bearing (e.g., graphite) layer thereon that facilitates wetting and bonding of the powder particles by the binder. Prior to mixing with the binder, the atomized alloy powder may be sized or classified to provide a particular particle size fraction having a grain size within a given relatively narrow range. A selected particle size fraction is mixed with the binder and the mixture is molded to a desired complex magnet shape. A molded isotropic permanent magnet is thereby formed. A sintered isotropic permanent magnet can be formed by removing the binder from the molded mixture and thereafter sintering to full density. 14 figs.

  18. Method of making sintered ductile intermetallic-bonded ceramic composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plucknett, K.; Tiegs, T.N.; Becher, P.F.

    1999-05-18

    A method of making an intermetallic-bonded ceramic composite involves combining a particulate brittle intermetallic precursor with a particulate reactant metal and a particulate ceramic to form a mixture and heating the mixture in a non-oxidizing atmosphere at a sufficient temperature and for a sufficient time to react the brittle intermetallic precursor and the reactant metal to form a ductile intermetallic and sinter the mixture to form a ductile intermetallic-bonded ceramic composite. 2 figs.

  19. Method of making sintered ductile intermetallic-bonded ceramic composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plucknett, Kevin; Tiegs, Terry N.; Becher, Paul F.

    1999-01-01

    A method of making an intermetallic-bonded ceramic composite involves combining a particulate brittle intermetallic precursor with a particulate reactant metal and a particulate ceramic to form a mixture and heating the mixture in a non-oxidizing atmosphere at a sufficient temperature and for a sufficient time to react the brittle intermetallic precursor and the reactant metal to form a ductile intermetallic and sinter the mixture to form a ductile intermetallic-bonded ceramic composite.

  20. Hexagonal OsB2: Sintering, microstructure and mechanical properties

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Xie, Zhilin; Lugovy, Mykola; Orlovskaya, Nina; Graule, Thomas; Kuebler, Jakob; Mueller, Martin; Gao, Huili; Radovic, Miladin; Cullen, David A.

    2015-02-07

    In this study, the metastable high pressure ReB2-type hexagonal OsB2 bulk ceramics was produced by spark plasma sintering. The phase composition, microstructure, and mechanical behavior of the sintered OsB2 were studied by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, EDS, and nanoindentation. The produced ceramics was rather porous and contained a mixture of hexagonal (~80 wt.%) and orthorhombic (~20 wt.%) phases as identified by X-ray diffraction and EBSD analysis. Two boron-rich phases, which do not contain Os, were also identified by TEM and SEM/EDS analysis. Nanoindentation measurements yielded a hardness of 31 ± 9 GPa and Young’s modulus of 574 ±more » 112 GPa, indicating that the material is rather hard and very stiff; but, it is very prone to crack formation and propagation, which is indicative of a very brittle nature of this material. Improvements in the sintering regime are required in order to produce dense, homogeneous and single phase hexagonal OsB2 bulk ceramics.« less

  1. Chromated Copper Arsenate

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Peter S. Nico1, Scott E. Fendorf2, Yvette W. Lowney3, Stewart E. Holm4, and Michael V. Ruby3 1Chemistry Department, Cal State University, Stanislaus, Turlock, CA 2Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 3Exponent, Boulder, CO 4Georgia-Pacific Corporation, Atlanta, Georgia wood playground In recent years, regulatory and public attention has become focused on the potential risks associated with exposure to chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood - the most

  2. Die Casting Copper Motor Rotors

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Though it conducts electricity less efficiently than copper, aluminum is the industry’s preferred fabrication material in electric induction motor rotors. Traditional tool steel casting molds...

  3. Preliminary attempt at sintering an ultrafine alumina powder using microwaves. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alhambra, E.M.

    1994-09-01

    A commercially available microwave oven was used to sinter ultrafine alumina powders (0.02 - 0.05 micrometers particle size) with and without CaO sintering aid. The oven was modified by inserting a thermocouple probe through the bottom housing, and thoroughly insulating the interior with insulating material. The oven was placed in a glove box and filled with argon to prevent degradation of the thermocouple, and oxidation of the powdered graphite susceptor. Heating rates of 50-75 Deg C/sec with a maximum temperature of 1575 Deg C were obtained. Limited success in sintering of the the powder compacts was achieved in this preliminary effort. The microstructures of the sintered products were examined by scanning electron microscopy. It was concluded that further work is necessary to develop this technique into one which can be used for the routine sintering of fine powdered ceramic material. A review of the literature on microwave sintering of ceramic powders is also reported.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF A REPRODUCIBLE SCREENING METHOD TO DETERMINE THE MECHANISM AND EFFECT OF ORGANIC ACIDS AND OTHER CONTAMINANTS ON THE CORROSION OF ALUMINUM-FINNED COPPER-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGE COILS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard A. Corbett; Dave Severance

    2005-02-01

    Formicary corrosion is an insidious form of localized pitting corrosion. Notoya (1997b) wrote, ?In Japan, this type of corrosion is found in approximately 10% of cases of premature failure of copper tubes.? Attack characteristically features very small surface pits which are not visible to the un-aided eye, and random directional changes in the underlying copper metal. Attack is rapid. Failures have occurred before installation, shortly thereafter, or within several years later. Objectives of this Research Project Conduct an in depth literature search on the subject of formicary corrosion. Define the corrosion mechanism. Develop a test method that will reproduce formicary corrosion. Develop a test method for screening candidate materials that could cause formicary corrosion.

  5. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

    1990-05-15

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  6. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

    1987-07-30

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  7. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, Milton; Sinha, Shome N.

    1990-01-01

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  8. NREL: Process Development and Integration Laboratory - Copper...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Cluster Tool Capabilities The Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide (CIGS) cluster tool in the Process Development and Integration Laboratory offers ...

  9. Apparatus and method for direct measurement of coal ash sintering and fusion properties at elevated temperatures and pressures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khan, M. Rashid

    1990-01-01

    A high-pressure microdilatometer is provided for measuring the sintering and fusion properties of various coal ashes under the influence of elevated pressures and temperatures in various atmospheres. Electrical resistivity measurements across a sample of coal ash provide a measurement of the onset of the sintering and fusion of the ash particulates while the contraction of the sample during sintering is measured with a linear variable displacement transducer for detecting the initiation of sintering. These measurements of sintering in coal ash at different pressures provide a mechanism by which deleterious problems due to the sintering and fusion of ash in various combustion systems can be minimized or obviated.

  10. Highly defective oxides as sinter resistant thermal barrier coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Ramesh

    2005-08-16

    A thermal barrier coating material formed of a highly defective cubic matrix structure having a concentration of a stabilizer sufficiently high that the oxygen vacancies created by the stabilizer interact within the matrix to form multi-vacancies, thereby improving the sintering resistance of the material. The concentration of stabilizer within the cubic matrix structure is greater than that concentration of stabilizer necessary to give the matrix a peak ionic conductivity value. The concentration of stabilizer may be at least 30 wt. %. Embodiments include a cubic matrix of zirconia stabilized by at least 30-50 wt. % yttria, and a cubic matrix of hafnia stabilized by at least 30-50 wt. % gadolinia.

  11. Synthesis and Optimization of the Sintering Kinetics of Actinide Nitrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drryl P. Butt; Brian Jaques

    2009-03-31

    Research conducted for this NERI project has advanced the understanding and feasibility of nitride nuclear fuel processing. In order to perform this research, necessary laboratory infrastructure was developed; including basic facilities and experimental equipment. Notable accomplishments from this project include: the synthesis of uranium, dysprosium, and cerium nitrides using a novel, low-cost mechanical method at room temperature; the synthesis of phase pure UN, DyN, and CeN using thermal methods; and the sintering of UN and (Ux, Dy1-x)N (0.7 ≤ X ≤ 1) pellets from phase pure powder that was synthesized in the Advanced Materials Laboratory at Boise State University.

  12. METHOD OF PREPARING SINTERED ZIRCONIUM METAL FROM ITS HYDRIDES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angier, R.P.

    1958-02-11

    The invention relates to the preparation of metal shapes from zirconium hydride by powder metallurgical techniques. The zirconium hydride powder which is to be used for this purpose can be prepared by rendering massive pieces of crystal bar zirconium friable by heat treatment in purified hydrogen. This any then be ground into powder and powder can be handled in the air without danger of it igniting. It may then be compacted in the normal manner by being piaced in a die. The compact is sintered under vacuum conditions preferably at a temperature ranging from 1200 to 1300 deg C and for periods of one to three hours.

  13. Temperature modeling for analysis and design of the sintering furnance in HTR fuel type of ball

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saragi, Elfrida; Setiadji, Moch

    2013-09-09

    One of the factors that determine the safety of the operation of the sintering furnace fuel HTR ball is the temperature distribution in the ceramic tube furnace. The temperature distribution must be determined at design stage. The tube has a temperature of 1600 C at one end and about 40 C at the other end. The outside of the tube was cooled by air through natural convection. The tube is a furnace ceramic tube which its geometry are 0.08, 0.09 and 0.5 m correspondingly for the inner tube diameter, outer tube diameter and tube length. The temperature distribution of the tube is determined by the natural convection coefficient (NCF), which is difficult to be calculated manually. The determination of NCF includes the Grasshoff, Prandtl, and Nusselt numbers which is a function of the temperature difference between the surrounding air with the ceramic tube. If the temperature vary along the tube, the complexity of the calculations increases. Thus the proposed modeling was performed to determine the temperature distribution along the tube and heat transfer coefficient using a self-developed software which permit the design process easier.

  14. Methanobactin: a copper binding compound having antibiotic and antioxidant activity isolated from methanotrophic bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DiSpirito, Alan A.; Zahn, James A.; Graham, David W.; Kim, Hyung J.; Alterman, Michail; Larive, Cynthia

    2007-04-03

    A means and method for treating bacterial infection, providing antioxidant activity, and chelating copper using a copper binding compound produced by methanotrophic bacteria is described. The compound, known as methanobactin, is the first of a new class of antibiotics having gram-positive activity. Methanobactin has been sequenced, and its structural formula determined.

  15. Synthesis and sintering of UN-UO2 fuel composites

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Jaques, Brian J.; Watkins, Jennifer; Croteau, Joseph R.; Alanko, Gordon A.; Tyburska-Puschel, Beata; Meyer, Mitch; Xu, Peng; Lahoda, Edward J.; Butt, Darryl P.

    2015-06-17

    In this study, the design and development of an economical, accident tolerant fuel (ATF) for use in the current light water reactor (LWR) fleet is highly desirable for the future of nuclear power. Uranium mononitride has been identified as an alternative fuel with higher uranium density and thermal conductivity when compared to the benchmark, UO2, which could also provide significant economic benefits. However, UN by itself reacts with water at reactor operating temperatures. In order to reduce its reactivity, the addition of UO2 to UN has been suggested. In order to avoid carbon impurities, UN was synthesized from elemental uraniummore » using a hydride-dehydride-nitride thermal synthesis route prior to mixing with up to 10 wt% UO2 in a planetary ball mill. UN and UN – UO2 composite pellets were sintered in Ar – (0–1 at%) N2 to study the effects of nitrogen concentration on the evolved phases and microstructure. UN and UN-UO2 composite pellets were also sintered in Ar – 100 ppm N2 to assess the effects of temperature (1700–2000 °C) on the final grain morphology and phase concentration.« less

  16. Method of making highly sinterable lanthanum chromite powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, Von L.; Singhal, Subhash C.

    1992-01-01

    A highly sinterable powder consisting essentially of LaCrO.sub.3, containing from 5 weight % to 20 weight % of a chromite of dopant Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, or Mg and a coating of a chromate of dopant Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, or Mg; is made by (1) forming a solution of La, Cr, and dopant; (2) heating their solutions; (3) forming a combined solution having a desired ratio of La, Cr, and dopant and heating to reduce solvent; (4) forming a foamed mass under vacuum; (5) burning off organic components and forming a charred material; (6) grinding the charred material; (7) heating the char at from 590.degree. C. to 950 C. in inert gas containing up to 50,000 ppm O.sub.2 to provide high specific surface area particles; (8) adding that material to a mixture of a nitrate of Cr and dopant to form a slurry; (9) grinding the particles in the slurry; (10) freeze or spray drying the slurry to provide a coating of nitrates on the particles; and (11) heating the coated particles to convert the nitrate coating to a chromate coating and provide a highly sinterable material having a high specific surface area of over 7 m.sup.2 /g.

  17. Method of making highly sinterable lanthanum chromite powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, V.L.; Singhal, S.C.

    1992-09-01

    A highly sinterable powder consisting essentially of LaCrO[sub 3], containing from 5 weight % to 20 weight % of a chromite of dopant Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, or Mg and a coating of a chromate of dopant Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, or Mg; is made by (1) forming a solution of La, Cr, and dopant; (2) heating their solutions; (3) forming a combined solution having a desired ratio of La, Cr, and dopant and heating to reduce solvent; (4) forming a foamed mass under vacuum; (5) burning off organic components and forming a charred material; (6) grinding the charred material; (7) heating the char at from 590 C to 950 C in inert gas containing up to 50,000 ppm O[sub 2] to provide high specific surface area particles; (8) adding that material to a mixture of a nitrate of Cr and dopant to form a slurry; (9) grinding the particles in the slurry; (10) freeze or spray drying the slurry to provide a coating of nitrates on the particles; and (11) heating the coated particles to convert the nitrate coating to a chromate coating and provide a highly sinterable material having a high specific surface area of over 7 m[sup 2]/g. 2 figs.

  18. World copper smelter sulfur balance-1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Towle, S.W. )

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, the US Bureau of Mines initiated a contract to gather engineering, operating, and environmental cost data for 1988 for 30 major foreign primary copper smelters in market economy countries. Data were collected for 29 of the designated smelters together with information on applicable environmental regulations. Materials balance data obtained were used with available data for the eight US smelters to determine the approximate extent of copper smelter sulfur emission control in 1988. A broad characterization of the status of sulfur emission control regulation was made. The 37 US and foreign smelters represented roughly 73.2% of world and 89.3% of market economy primary copper production in 1988. The 29 non-US smelters attained 55.3% control of their input sulfur in 1988. Combined with the 90.4% control of US smelters, an aggregate 63.4% sulfur control existed. Roughly 1,951,100 mt of sulfur was emitted from the 37 market economy smelters in 1988. Identifiable SO[sub 2] control regulations covered 72.4% of the 29 foreign smelters, representing 65.5% of smelting capacity. Including US smelters, 78.4% of the major market economy smelters were regulated, representing 73.1% of smelting capacity. Significant changes since 1988 that may increase sulfur emission control are noted.

  19. Influence of solid fuel on the carbon-monoxide and nitrogen-oxide emissions on sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.F. Vitushchenko; N.L. Tatarkin; A.I. Kuznetsov; A.E. Vilkov

    2007-07-01

    Laboratory and industrial research now underway at the sintering plant of AO Mittal Steel Temirtau is focusing on the preparation of fuel of optimal granulometric composition, the replacement of coke fines, and the adaptation of fuel-input technology so as to reduce fuel consumption and toxic emissions without loss of sinter quality.

  20. Selective light sintering of Aerosol-Jet printed silver nanoparticle inks on polymer substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuetz, K. E-mail: hoerber@faps.uni-erlangen.de Hoerber, J. E-mail: hoerber@faps.uni-erlangen.de Franke, J. E-mail: hoerber@faps.uni-erlangen.de

    2014-05-15

    Printing silver nanoparticle inks to generate conductive structures for electronics on polymer substrates has gained increasing relevance in recent years. In this context, the Aerosol-Jet Technology is well suited to print silver ink on 3D-Molded Interconnect Devices (MID). The deposited ink requires thermal post-treatment to obtain sufficient electrical conductivity and adhesion. However, commonly used oven sintering cannot be applied for many thermoplastic substrates due to low melting temperatures. In this study a new sintering technology, selective light sintering, is presented, based on the focused, continuous light beam of a xenon lamp. Sintering experiments were conducted with Aerosol-Jet printed structures on various polycarbonate (PC) substrates. Especially on neat, light transparent PC, silver tracks were evenly sintered with marginal impact to the substrate. Electrical conductivities significantly exceed the values obtained with conventional oven sintering. Adhesive strength is sufficient for conductive tracks. Experiments with non-transparent PC substrates led to substrate damage due to increased light absorption. Therefore a concept for a variation of light sintering was developed, using optical filters. First experiments showed significant reduction of substrate damage and good sintering qualities. The highly promising results of the conducted experiments provide a base for further investigations to increase adhesion and qualifying the technology for MID applications and a broad spectrum of thermoplastic substrates.

  1. Incidence of High Nitrogen in Sintered Uranium Dioxide: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balakrishna, Palanki; Murty, B. Narasimha; Anuradha, M.; Yadav, R.B.; Jayaraj, R.N

    2005-05-15

    Nitrogen content, above the specified limit of 75 {mu}g(gU){sup -1}, was encountered in sintered uranium dioxide in the course of its manufacture. The cause was traced to the sintering process, wherein carbon, a degradation product of the die wall or admixed lubricant, was retained in the compact as a result of inadvertent reversal of gas flow in the sintering furnace. In the presence of carbon, the uranium dioxide reacted with nitrogen from the furnace atmosphere to form nitride. The compacts with high nitrogen were also those with low sintered density, arising from low green density. The low green density was due to filling problems of an inhomogeneous powder. The experiments carried out establish the causes of high nitrogen to be the carbon residue from lubricant when the UO{sub 2} is sintered in a cracked ammonia atmosphere.

  2. Method for heat treating and sintering metal oxides with microwave radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.; Meek, Thomas T.

    1989-01-01

    A method for microwave sintering materials, primarily metal oxides, is described. Metal oxides do not normally absorb microwave radiation at temperatures ranging from about room temperature to several hundred degrees centrigrade are sintered with microwave radiation without the use of the heretofore required sintering aids. This sintering is achieved by enclosing a compact of the oxide material in a housing or capsule formed of a oxide which has microwave coupling properties at room temprature up to at least the microwave coupling temperature of the oxide material forming the compact. The heating of the housing effects the initial heating of the oxide material forming the compact by heat transference and then functions as a thermal insulator for the encased oxide material after the oxide material reaches a sufficient temperature to adequately absorb or couple with microwave radiation for heating thereof to sintering temperature.

  3. Improvement of mechanical properties by additive assisted laser sintering of PEEK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroh, M. Bonten, C.; Eyerer, P.

    2014-05-15

    The additive assisted laser sintering was recently developed at IKT: A carbon black (CB) additive is used to adjust the polymer's laser absorption behavior with the aim to improve the interconnection of sintered powder layers. In this paper a parameter study, Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) samples were prepared with different contents of carbon black and were laser sintered with varying thermal treatment. The samples were mechanically tested and investigated by optical light and transmission electron microscopy. An influence on the morphology at the border areas of particles and intersections of laser sintered layers was found. Depending on the viscosity of the raw material and CB content, different shapes of lamellae were observed. These (trans-) crystalline or polymorph structures, respectively, influence the thermal and mechanical behavior of the virgin PEEK. Moreover, the thermal treatment during the sintering process caused an improvement of mechanical properties like tensile strength and elongation at break.

  4. Effect of a-site cation deficiency and YSZ additions on sintering and properties of doped lanthanum manganite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, T.R.; Weber, W.J.

    1995-06-01

    The sintering behavior of Ca- and Sr-doped lanthanum manganite (the preferred SOFC cathode material) is highly dependent on the relative proportion of A and B site cations in the material. In general, A-site cation deficiency increases sintered density. The effect of additions of YSZ to lanthanum manganite (to expand the reactive region at the cathode/electrolyte interface and improve thermal expansion and sintering shrinkage matches) on sintering and other properties will also be reported.

  5. The New Face of Protein-bound Copper: The Type Zero Copper Site

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    The New Face of Protein-bound Copper: The Type Zero Copper Site Nature adapts copper ions to a multitude of tasks, yet in doing so forces the metal into only a few different ...

  6. Majorana Electroformed Copper Mechanical Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Overman, Nicole R.; Overman, Cory T.; Kafentzis, Tyler A.; Edwards, Danny J.; Hoppe, Eric W.

    2012-04-30

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize ultra high purity electroformed copper for a variety of detector components and shielding. A preliminary mechanical evaluation was performed on the Majorana prototype electroformed copper material. Several samples were removed from a variety of positions on the mandrel. Tensile testing, optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, and hardness testing were conducted to evaluate mechanical response. Analyses carried out on the Majorana prototype copper to this point show consistent mechanical response from a variety of test locations. Evaluation shows the copper meets or exceeds the design specifications.

  7. Source category survey: secondary copper smelting and refining industry. Final report Oct 79-Jan 80

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, M.K.; Shobe, F.D.

    1980-05-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of the secondary copper smelting and refining industry to determine the probable impact of the development of new source performance standards under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act. The surveyed industry processes copper scrap to produce pure copper or copper alloy, other than brass and bronze. Secondary copper foundries, which melt and cast high-quality copper scrap without refining it, are excluded. Primary copper smelters and refiners, which produce copper from ore, are also excluded, although they also process copper scrap. Process, emissions, and economic data were gathered by literature searches, contacts with representatives of the industry, trade associations, federal government agencies, and state and local air pollution control agencies, and visits to two plants. The industry's production processes, actual and allowable air emissions, and emission control systems are described. State and local emission regulations are compared. Production and capacity are projected to 1989 and the impact of new source performance standards is assessed.

  8. Formation of copper-indium-selenide and/or copper-indium-gallium-selenide films from indium selenide and copper selenide precursors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Van Hest, Maikel; Ginley, David S.; Nekuda, Jennifer A.

    2011-11-15

    Liquid-based indium selenide and copper selenide precursors, including copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent, are used to form crystalline copper-indium-selenide, and/or copper indium gallium selenide films (66) on substrates (52).

  9. Plastic deformation and sintering of alumina under high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Fangming; Liu, Pingping; Wang, Haikuo; Xu, Chao; Yin, Shuai; Yin, Wenwen; Li, Yong; He, Duanwei

    2013-12-21

    Plastic deformation of alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) under high pressure was investigated by observing the shape changes of spherical particles, and the near fully dense transparent bulks were prepared at around 5.5 GPa and 900 °C. Through analyzing the deformation features, densities, and residual micro-strain of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} compacts prepared under high pressures and temperatures (2.0–5.5 GPa and 600–1200 °C), the effects of plastic deformation on the sintering behavior of alumina have been demonstrated. Under compression, the microscopic deviatoric stress caused by grain-to-grain contact could initiate the plastic deformation of individual particles, eliminate pores of the polycrystalline samples, and enhance the local atomic diffusion at the grain boundaries, thus produced transparent alumina bulks.

  10. Mechanical properties and microstructure of pressureless sintered duophase sialon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Ran-Rong; Novich, B.E.; Franks, G.; Quellette, D. ); Ferber, M.K.; Hubbard, C.R.; More, K. )

    1991-01-01

    Duophase ({alpha}{prime}/{beta}{prime}) sialon is being developed for ceramic engine applications by using the Quickset{trademark} injection molding process, followed by pressureless sintering and a thermal treatment. The sialon had an average four-point flexural strength of 670 MPa at room temperature and 490 MPa at 1370{degree}C. It survived the flexural stress rupture test at 1300{degree}C and 340 MPa for 190 hours. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization showed that crystallization of the grain boundary phase improved the high temperature flexural strength of this sialon material. The creep behavior was also found to be affected by the crystallized grain boundary phases. The formation of a yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) phase and elongated grains yielded better creep resistance. The correlation between mechanical properties and microstructure is discussed. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Joining of beta-SiC by spark plasma sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grasso, Salvatore; Tatarko, Peter; Rizzo, S.; Porwal, Harshit; Hu, Chunfeng; Katoh, Yutai; Salvo, M; Reece, Michael John; Ferraris, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) was employed to join monolithic -SiC with or without titanium as intermediate joining material. Both the localizedand rapid heating contributed to the inherent energy saving of electric current assisted joining technique. The effects of uniaxial pressure and surfacepreparation were analyzed independently with respect to the flexural strength and the morphology of the joints. In particular samples polisheddown to 1 m and joined at 1900 C for 5 min achieved the strength of the as received material. The failure occurred outside the joining interface,confirming the optimum quality of the joint. Pressure in combination with surface preparation was necessary to achieve perfect adhesion and porefree direct joining of SiC. The use of Ti foil as a joining material and pressure allowed joining of unpolished SiC.

  12. Method for forming porous sintered bodies with controlled pore structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whinnery, LeRoy Louis (4929 Julie St., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); Nichols, Monte Carl (4070 Guilford Ave., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is based, in part, on a method for combining a mixture of hydroxide and hydride functional siloxanes to form a polysiloxane polymer foam, that leaves no residue (zero char yield) upon thermal decomposition, with ceramic and/or metal powders and appropriate catalysts to produce porous foam structures having compositions, densities, porosities and structures not previously attainable. The siloxanes are mixed with the ceramic and/or metal powder, wherein the powder has a particle size of about 400 .mu.m or less, a catalyst is added causing the siloxanes to foam and crosslink, thereby forming a polysiloxane polymer foam having the metal or ceramic powder dispersed therein. The polymer foam is heated to thermally decompose the polymer foam and sinter the powder particles together. Because the system is completely nonaqueous, this method further provides for incorporating reactive metals such as magnesium and aluminum, which can be further processed, into the foam structure.

  13. Reduction of FeO contents in sinter under high bed operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujii, K.; Hazama, K.; Hoshikuma, Y.; Tarumoto, S.; Nunomura, S.; Hirota, N.

    1996-12-31

    High-bed operation (bed height more than 700 mm) is currently being carried out at the Kure No. 1 sintering plant. Before initiating this high-bed operation, the authors conducted sinter pot tests at various bed heights to investigate the effect of bed height on sintering. The following results were obtained from these pot tests: Heightening of the sinter bed increased yield at the upper layer, but at the lower layer, the yield reached a maximum value at a certain bed height. From observation of the sinter cakes, the reduction in yield is attributed to uneven burn caused by surplus heat at the lower layers. Therefore, when high-bed operation is carried out, reduction of the burning energy (reduction of the FeO content in the sinter) is required. This high-bed operation with lower FeO content has enabled the company to reduce fuel consumption and SiO{sub 2} content, while maintaining high yield and high sinter quality.

  14. Studying the sintering behavior of BeO{sub x}-SiC{sub 1-x} Composite ceramic Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Issa, Tarik Talib

    2011-12-26

    The sintering behavior for BeO-SiC compacts composite ceramic at different sintering temperatures in air were conducted, resulting data indicated that the percentage of SiC (Wt% 5) sintered at 800 C deg. lead to higher sintering density of (1.80 gm/cm3). The x-ray diffraction pattern analysis indicated nothing change concerning the crystal structure. Microstructure development has been studied as a function SiC content. Silicon carbide found to be suppressed the sinter ability of the matrix BeO powder.

  15. Feasibility assessment of copper-base waste package container materials in a tuff repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acton, C.F.; McCright, R.D.

    1986-09-30

    This report discussed progress made during the second year of a two-year study on the feasibility of using copper or a copper-base alloy as a container material for a waste package in a potential repository in tuff rock at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. Corrosion testing in potentially corrosive irradiated environments received emphasis during the feasibility study. Results of experiments to evaluate the effect of a radiation field on the uniform corrosion rate of the copper-base materials in repository-relevant aqueous environments are given as well as results of an electrochemical study of the copper-base materials in normal and concentrated J-13 water. Results of tests on the irradiation of J-13 water and on the subsequent formation of hydrogen peroxide are given. A theoretical study was initiated to predict the long-term corrosion behavior of copper in the repository. Tests were conducted to determine whether copper would adversely affect release rates of radionuclides to the environment because of degradation of the Zircaloy cladding. A manufacturing survey to determine the feasibility of producing copper containers utilizing existing equipment and processes was completed. The cost and availability of copper was also evaluated and predicted to the year 2000. Results of this feasibility assessment are summarized.

  16. Fuel electrode containing pre-sintered nickel/zirconia for a solid oxide fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Vora, Shailesh D.

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell structure (2) is provided, having a pre-sintered nickel-zirconia fuel electrode (6) and an air electrode (4), with a ceramic electrolyte (5) disposed between the electrodes, where the pre-sintered fuel electrode (6) contains particles selected from the group consisting of nickel oxide, cobalt and cerium dioxide particles and mixtures thereof, and titanium dioxide particles, within a matrix of yttria-stabilized zirconia and spaced-apart filamentary nickel strings having a chain structure, and where the fuel electrode can be sintered to provide an active solid oxide fuel cell.

  17. Microstructure and mechanical properties of NiCoCrAlYTa alloy processed by press and sintering route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pereira, J.C.; Zambrano, J.C.; Afonso, C.R.M.; Amigó, V.

    2015-03-15

    Nickel-based superalloys such as NiCoCrAlY are widely used in high-temperature applications, such as gas turbine components in the energy and aerospace industries, due to their strength, high elastic modulus, and high-temperature oxidation resistance. However, the processing of these alloys is complex and costly, and the alloys are currently used as a bond coat in thermal barrier coatings. In this work, the effect of cold press and sintering processing parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of NiCoCrAlY alloy were studied using the powder metallurgy route as a new way to obtain NiCoCrAlYTa samples from a gas atomized prealloyed powder feedstock. High mechanical strength and adequate densification up to 98% were achieved. The most suitable compaction pressure and sintering temperature were determined for NiCoCrAlYTa alloy through microstructure characterization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive spectroscopy microanalysis (EDS) were performed to confirm the expected γ-Ni matrix and β-NiAl phase distribution. Additionally, the results demonstrated the unexpected presence of carbides and Ni–Y-rich zones in the microstructure due to the powder metallurgy processing parameters used. Thus, microhardness, nanoindentation and uniaxial compression tests were conducted to correlate the microstructure of the alloy samples with their mechanical properties under the different studied conditions. The results show that the compaction pressure did not significantly affect the mechanical properties of the alloy samples. In this work, the compaction pressures of 400, 700 and 1000 MPa were used. The sintering temperature of 1200 °C for NiCoCrAlYTa alloy was preferred; above this temperature, the improvement in mechanical properties is not significant due to grain coarsening, whereas a lower temperature produces a decrease in mechanical properties due to high porosity and

  18. Evaluation of Models for Solubility and Volatility of Copper...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; COPPER; COPPER COMPOUNDS; EVALUATION; POWER PLANTS; SOLUBILITY; STEAM; STEAM GENERATION; VOLATILITY; WATER

  19. Influence of granule character and compaction on the mechanical properties of sintered silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Hideo; Shinohara, Nobuhiro; Uematsu, Keizo; JunIchiro, Tsubaki

    1996-04-01

    The influence of granule character and compaction on the mechanical properties of sintered silicon nitride was studied as a function of the pH of the spray-dry slurry. The character and the compaction behavior of the spray-dried silicon nitride granules considerably affect the mechanical properties of the sintered body. Dense and hard granules resulting from a well-dispersed slurry retained their shape in green compacts and caused numerous pore defects in sintered body. Decreasing the slurry pH to a certain value (e.g., 7.9) caused slurry flocculation and reduced the granule density as well as the diametral compression strength of the granules. Sintered bodies fabricated with these weak granules contained fewer defects and showed remarkable strength increase.

  20. The effect of carbon on surface quality of solid-state-sintered...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The effect of carbon on surface quality of solid-state-sintered silicon carbide as optical materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The effect of carbon on surface ...

  1. Precision digital dilatometry: a microcomputer-based approach to sintering studies. Final technical report. [SYNROC Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batchelor, A.D.; Paisley, M.J.; Hare, T.M.; Palmour, H. III

    1983-11-01

    Representing significant advances in precision, atmosphere control, programming flexibility, experimental convenience and rate-controlled sintering capability, a new University-constructed instrument designed for operation to 1873K incorporates evolutionary thermal and mechanical features with novel microcomputer-based functions for measurement, control, data logging, data reduction, and graphical data representation. Principal design features, hardware selections, and performance data are reviewed; rationales for software development are discussed and typical sintering applications shown. 13 references, 9 figures.

  2. Copper doped polycrystalline silicon solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lovelace, Alan M. Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space; Koliwad, Krishna M.; Daud, Taher

    1981-01-01

    Photovoltaic cells having improved performance are fabricated from polycrystalline silicon containing copper segregated at the grain boundaries.

  3. Novel methods of copper vapor laser excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McColl, W.B.; Ching, H.; Bosch, R.; Brake, M.; Gilgenbach, R.

    1990-12-31

    Microwave and intense electron beam excitation of copper vapor are being investigated to be used in copper vapor lasers for isotope separation. Both methods use copper chloride vapor by heating copper chloride. Helium was used as the buffer gas at 2 to 100 torr. In the microwave system, intense copperlines at 510 nm and 578 nm were observed. Initial electron beam results indicate that light emission follows the beam current.

  4. Copper (II) chloride-tetrachloroaluminate battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erbacher, J.K.; Hussey, C.L.; King, L.A.

    1980-06-10

    A pelletized, light weight, thermal battery having copper (II) chloride and an alkali tetrachloroaluminate as electrolytic components is disclosed.

  5. Microwave sintering of Ag-nanoparticle thin films on a polyimide substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujii, S.; Kawamura, S.; Maitani, M. M.; Suzuki, E.; Wada, Y.; Mochizuki, D.

    2015-12-15

    Ag-nanoparticle thin films on a polyimide substrate were subjected to microwave sintering by use of a single-mode waveguide applicator. A two-step sintering process was employed. First, at low conductivities of the film, the film sample was placed at the site of the maximum electric field and subjected to microwave irradiation. Second, when the conductivity of the film increased, the film sample was placed at the site of the maximum magnetic field and again subjected to microwave irradiation. The microwave sintering process was completed within 1.5 min, which is significantly lower than the time required for the oven heating process. The resulting conductivity of the film, albeit only 30% of that of the bulk material, was seven times that of a film annealed at the same temperature in a furnace. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the nanoparticles underwent both grain necking and grain growth during microwave sintering. In addition, this sintering process was equivalent to the oven heating process performed at a 50 °C higher annealing temperature. An electromagnetic wave simulation and a heat transfer simulation of the microwave sintering process were performed to gain a thorough understanding of the process.

  6. Copper vs. Copper at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (2005)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brookhaven Lab - Fulvia Pilat

    2009-06-09

    To investigate a new form of matter not seen since the Big Bang, scientists are using a new experimental probe: collisions between two beams of copper ions. The use of intermediate size nuclei is expected to result in intermediate energy density - not as

  7. Copper vs. Copper at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (2005)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Brookhaven Lab - Fulvia Pilat

    2016-07-12

    To investigate a new form of matter not seen since the Big Bang, scientists are using a new experimental probe: collisions between two beams of copper ions. The use of intermediate size nuclei is expected to result in intermediate energy density - not as

  8. Molybdenum-copper and tungsten-copper alloys and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, F.A.; Verhoeven, J.D.; Gibson, E.D.

    1989-05-23

    Molybdenum-copper and tungsten-copper alloys are prepared by a consumable electrode method in which the electrode consists of a copper matrix with embedded strips of refractory molybdenum or tungsten. The electrode is progressively melted at its lower end with a superatmospheric inert gas pressure maintained around the liquefying electrode. The inert gas pressure is sufficiently above the vapor pressure of copper at the liquidus temperature of the alloy being formed to suppress boiling of liquid copper. 6 figs.

  9. Molybdenum-copper and tungsten-copper alloys and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Verhoeven, John D.; Gibson, Edwin D.

    1989-05-23

    Molybdenum-copper and tungsten-copper alloys are prepared by a consumable electrode method in which the electrode consists of a copper matrix with embedded strips of refractory molybdenum or tungsten. The electrode is progressively melted at its lower end with a superatmospheric inert gas pressure maintained around the liquifying electrode. The inert gas pressure is sufficiently above the vapor pressure of copper at the liquidus temperature of the alloy being formed to suppress boiling of liquid copper.

  10. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-COPPER ALLOYS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-05-12

    A low melting point plutonium alloy useful as fuel is a homogeneous liquid metal fueled nuclear reactor is described. Vessels of tungsten or tantalum are useful to contain the alloy which consists essentially of from 10 to 30 atomic per cent copper and the balance plutonium and cerium. with the plutontum not in excess of 50 atomic per cent.

  11. Tetraphenylphosphonium copper(I) dicyanamide.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlueter, J. A.; Geiser, U.; Materials Science Division

    2007-01-01

    In the title compound, {l_brace}(C{sub 24}H{sub 20}P)[Cu(C{sub 2}N{sub 3}){sub 2}]{r_brace}{sub n}, the copper(I) dicyanamide anion forms a distorted three-dimensional single diamondoid network. Templating tetraphenylphosphonium cations reside within the cavities of the polymeric anion.

  12. Estimated safe zinc and copper levels for chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in the upper Sacremento River, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finlayson, B.J.; Verrue, K.M.

    1980-04-01

    Experiments to determine the tolerance levels of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, to copper and zinc from acid wastes in a tributary to the Sacremento River are described. Copper-zinc ratios in the acid mine waste in Spring Creek varied between 1:2 and 1:12, with pH ranging from 6.6 to 7.4.

  13. Shape-dependent bactericidal activity of copper oxide nanoparticle mediated by DNA and membrane damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laha, Dipranjan; Pramanik, Arindam; Laskar, Aparna; Jana, Madhurya; Pramanik, Panchanan; Karmakar, Parimal

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Spherical and sheet shaped copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized. • Physical characterizations of these nanoparticles were done by TEM, DLS, XRD, FTIR. • They showed shape dependent antibacterial activity on different bacterial strain. • They induced both membrane damage and ROS mediated DNA damage in bacteria. - Abstract: In this work, we synthesized spherical and sheet shaped copper oxide nanoparticles and their physical characterizations were done by the X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The antibacterial activity of these nanoparticles was determined on both gram positive and gram negative bacterial. Spherical shaped copper oxide nanoparticles showed more antibacterial property on gram positive bacteria where as sheet shaped copper oxide nanoparticles are more active on gram negative bacteria. We also demonstrated that copper oxide nanoparticles produced reactive oxygen species in both gram negative and gram positive bacteria. Furthermore, they induced membrane damage as determined by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Thus production of and membrane damage are major mechanisms of the bactericidal activity of these copper oxide nanoparticles. Finally it was concluded that antibacterial activity of nanoparticles depend on physicochemical properties of copper oxide nanoparticles and bacterial strain.

  14. Process Of Bonding Copper And Tungsten

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slattery, Kevin T.; Driemeyer, Daniel E.

    1999-11-23

    Process for bonding a copper substrate to a tungsten substrate by providing a thin metallic adhesion promoting film bonded to a tungsten substrate and a functionally graded material (FGM) interlayer bonding the thin metallic adhesion promoting film to the copper substrate. The FGM interlayer is formed by thermal plasma spraying mixtures of copper powder and tungsten powder in a varied blending ratio such that the blending ratio of the copper powder and the tungsten powder that is fed to a plasma torch is intermittently adjusted to provide progressively higher copper content/tungsten content, by volume, ratio values in the interlayer in a lineal direction extending from the tungsten substrate towards the copper substrate. The resulting copper to tungsten joint well accommodates the difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the materials.

  15. Reactivity test between beryllium and copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawamura, H.; Kato, M.

    1995-09-01

    Beryllium has been expected for using as plasma facing material on ITER. And, copper alloy has been proposed as heat sink material behind plasma facing components. Therefore, both materials must be joined. However, the elementary process of reaction between beryllium and copper alloy does not clear in detail. For example, other authors reported that beryllium reacted with copper at high temperature, but it was not obvious about the generation of reaction products and increasing of the reaction layer. In the present work, from this point, for clarifying the elementary process of reaction between beryllium and copper, the out-of-pile compatibility tests were conducted with diffusion couples of beryllium and copper which were inserted in the capsule filled with high purity helium gas (6N). Annealing temperatures were 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700{degrees}C, and annealing periods were 100, 300 and 1000h. Beryllium specimens were hot pressed beryllium, and copper specimens were OFC (Oxygen Free Copper).

  16. Effect of processing conditions on microstructural features in Mn–Si sintered steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oro, Raquel; Hryha, Eduard; Campos, Mónica; Torralba, José M.

    2014-09-15

    Sintering of steels containing oxidation sensitive elements is possible if such elements are alloyed with others which present lower affinity for oxygen. In this work, a master alloy powder containing Fe–Mn–Si–C, specifically designed to create a liquid phase during sintering, has been used for such purpose. The effect of processing conditions such as sintering temperature and atmosphere was studied with the aim of describing the microstructural evolution as well as the morphology and distribution of oxides in the sintered material, evaluating the potential detrimental effect of such oxides on mechanical properties. Chemical analyses, metallography and fractography studies combined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses on the fracture surfaces were used to reveal the main mechanism of fracture and their correlation with the chemical composition of the different fracture surfaces. The results indicate that the main mechanism of failure in these steels is brittle fracture in the surrounding of the original master alloy particles due to degradation of grain boundaries by the presence of oxide inclusions. Mn–Si oxide inclusions were observed on intergranular decohesive facets. The use of reducing atmospheres and high sintering temperatures reduces the amount and size of such oxide inclusions. Besides, high heating and cooling rates reduce significantly the final oxygen content in the sintered material. A model for microstructure development and oxide evolution during different stages of sintering is proposed, considering the fact that when the master alloy melts, the liquid formed can dissolve some of the oxides as well as the surface of the surrounding iron base particles. - Highlights: • Oxide distribution in steels containing oxidation-sensitive elements • Mn, Si introduced in a master alloy powder, mixed with a base iron powder • Selective oxidation of Mn and Si on iron grain boundaries • Decohesive fracture caused by degradation of grain

  17. Identification of copper-copper and copper-hydrogen complexes in silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarykin, N. A.; Weber, J.

    2013-02-15

    The centers formed in silicon as a result of interaction between the substitutional copper impurity (Cu{sub s}) and interstitial copper (Cu{sub i}) or hydrogen (H) atoms, which are mobile at room temperature, are investigated in this study using the deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) technique. It is shown that a well-known photoluminescence center, which includes four copper atoms, is formed from Cu{sub s} via the subsequent addition of Cu{sub i}. Both intermediate complexes (Cu{sub s}-Cu{sub i} and Cu{sub s}-2Cu{sub i}) are identified by their deep levels in the lower half of the band gap. It is found that Cu{sub s} atoms form complexes with one, two, and three hydrogen atoms, with Cu{sub s}-H and Cu{sub s}-2H being electrically active. It is noted that the addition of either hydrogen or copper has a similar effect on the deep-level structure of Cu{sub s}.

  18. Removal of copper from carbon-saturated iron with an aluminum sulfide ferrous sulfide flux.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, A.; Blander, M.; Energy Technology

    1998-04-01

    Scrap iron and steel have long been considered as resources in the steelmaking industry, and their value is largely determined by the impurity content. Copper is a particularly troublesome impurity because of its role in causing hot shortness and should be kept below ==0.1 wt pct. A method for reducing copper content in steel to <0.1 wt pct could lead to increased use of lower-quality scrap.

  19. Enery Efficient Press and Sinter of Titanium Powder for Low-Cost Components in Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Zwitter; Phillip Nash; Xiaoyan Xu; Chadwick Johnson

    2011-03-31

    This is the final technical report for the Department of Energy NETL project NT01931 Energy Efficient Press and Sinter of Titanium Powder for Low-Cost Components in Vehicle Applications. Titanium has been identified as one of the key materials with the required strength that can reduce the weight of automotive components and thereby reduce fuel consumption. Working with newly developed sources of titanium powder, Webster-Hoff will develop the processing technology to manufacture low cost vehicle components using the single press/single sinter techniques developed for iron based powder metallurgy today. Working with an automotive or truck manufacturer, Webster-Hoff will demonstrate the feasibility of manufacturing a press and sinter titanium component for a vehicle application. The project objective is two-fold, to develop the technology for manufacturing press and sinter titanium components, and to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a titanium component for a vehicle application. The lowest cost method for converting metal powder into a net shape part is the Powder Metallurgy Press and Sinter Process. The method involves compaction of the metal powder in a tool (usually a die and punches, upper and lower) at a high pressure (up to 60 TSI or 827 MPa) to form a green compact with the net shape of the final component. The powder in the green compact is held together by the compression bonds between the powder particles. The sinter process then converts the green compact to a metallurgically bonded net shape part through the process of solid state diffusion. The goal of this project is to expand the understanding and application of press and sinter technology to Titanium Powder applications, developing techniques to manufacture net shape Titanium components via the press and sinter process. In addition, working with a vehicle manufacturer, demonstrate the feasibility of producing a titanium component for a vehicle. This is not a research program, but rather a

  20. Improvement of productivity of sintering plant at Nagoya Works of NSC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshida, Hitoshi; Iida, Hiroyuki; Kabuto, Shigehisa; Suzuki, Haruhisa

    1996-12-31

    It is well known that in the sintering process generally, the state of charging raw materials into the sintering machine and whether or not its stability is good significantly influence the productivity, quality and cost of this process. At the Nagoya sintering plant, therefore, the peripheral of the slit bar-type segregation charging equipment developed by Nippon Steel were improved in 1994. The main improvements were: the improvement of the raw materials charging control mode, the introduction of fluffer bar to improve permeability and the addition of equipment for removal of lumps from sinter mix. After these measures were taken, the state of segregation of the raw materials and carbon between the upper and lower portions of the sinter bed was improved, the charging stability was also improved and the charging density was decreased, making it possible to achieve productivity improvement and cost reduction as originally intended. This report described the outline and concept of the equipment improvement measures and the operation results of the actual machine.

  1. FY 1985 status report on feasibility assessment of copper-base waste package container materials in a tuff repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCright, R.D.

    1985-09-30

    This report discusses progress made during the first year of a two-year study on the feasibility of using copper or a copper-base alloy as a container material for a waste package in a potential repository in tuff rock at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. The expected corrosion and oxidation performances of oxygen-free copper, aluminum bronze, and 70% copper-30% nickel are presented; a test plan for determining whether copper or one of the alloys can meet the containment requirements is outlined. Some preliminary corrosion test data are presented and discussed. Fabrication and joining techniques for forming waste package containers are descibed. Preliminary test data and analyses indicate that copper and copper-base alloys have several attractive features as waste package container materials, but additional work is needed before definitive conclusions can be made on the feasibility of using copper or a copper-base alloy for containers. Plans for work to be undertaken in the second year are indicated.

  2. Linking strain anisotropy and plasticity in copper metallization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, Conal E. Jordan-Sweet, Jean; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Nguyen, Son

    2015-05-04

    The elastic anisotropy of copper leads to significant variation in the x-ray elastic constants (XEC), which link diffraction-based strain measurements to stress. An accurate depiction of the mechanical response in copper thin films requires a determination of an appropriate grain interaction model that lies between Voigt and Reuss limits. It is shown that the associated XEC weighting fraction, x*, between these limits provides a metric by which strain anisotropy can be quantified. Experimental values of x*, as determined by a linear regression scheme of diffraction data collected from multiple reflections, reveal the degree of strain anisotropy and its dependence on plastic deformation induced during in-situ and ex-situ thermal treatments.

  3. Solar cogeneration for copper smelting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curto, P.; Gillespie, A.

    1981-01-01

    Work is reported on designing a system for solar repowering of a cogenerating flash smelting furnace that produces copper and sulfuric acid. Smelter energy requirements are listed and the proposed project is described. Several modifications to existing equipment and additional investment in the plant are listed that are necessary as a result of the solar power system improvement. Expected enhancements of the smelting process performance are discussed and the economics of the project are examined. (LEW)

  4. Yb:(YLa){sub 2}O{sub 3} laser ceramics produced by microwave sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balabanov, S S; Bykov, Yu V; Egorov, S V; Eremeev, A G; Gavrishchuk, E M; Khazanov, Efim A; Mukhin, I B; Palashov, O V; Permin, D A; Zelenogorskii, V V

    2013-04-30

    The possibility of using microwave heating for sintering of optical oxide ceramics and the advantages of this method are considered. Sintering of Yb{sub 0.1}:(YLa){sub 1.9}O{sub 3} ceramics by heating with 24-GHz radiation is studied. The compacts for sintering are prepared from nanosized powders obtained by high-temperature synthesis from acetate-nitrates of rare-earth metals. The effect of addition of lanthanum oxide and of the uniaxial pressing conditions on the microstructure and optical transmission of ceramics is studied. Lasing at a wavelength of 1030 nm with an efficiency of 7.5 % is achieved in ceramic samples of the (Yb{sub 0.05}Y{sub 0.1}La{sub 0.85}){sub 2}O{sub 3} composition under pumping by a laser diode at a wavelength of 940 nm. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  5. Optimization of thorium oxalate precipitation conditions relative to thorium oxide sinterability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, G.D.; Bray, L.A.; Hart, P.E.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of thorium oxalate precipitation conditions on derived oxide sinterability was investigated with the objective of producing ThO/sub 2/ powder that could be sintered to high density without premilling. Precipitation conditions examined were temperature, digestion time and agitation method which were employed in a two-level factorial experimental design to delineate their effects. The two levels for each of the factors, respectively, were 10/sup 0/C and 70/sup 0/C, 15 min and 360 min, and mechanical stirrer and a homogenizer that imparted both mechanical and ultrasonic agitation. The ThO/sub 2/ derived from each of the precipitation trials was characterized with respect to morphology, surface area, and crystallite size as well as sinterability. Only precipitation temperature had a significant effect upon all the properties of the derived oxide powders.

  6. Electrochemical synthesis of highly crystalline copper nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaur, Amandeep; Gupta, Tanish; Kumar, Akshay; Kumar, Sanjeev; Singh, Karamjeet; Thakur, Anup

    2015-05-15

    Copper nanowires were fabricated within the pores of anodic alumina template (AAT) by template synthesis method at pH = 2.9. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to investigate the structure, morphology and composition of fabricated nanowires. These characterizations revealed that the deposited copper nanowires were highly crystalline in nature, dense and uniform. The crystalline copper nanowires are promising in application of future nanoelectronic devices and circuits.

  7. Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Graphic showing the five layers of a CIGS PV cell: glass (or metal foil or plastics), Mo, CIGS, CdS, and transparent conductive oxide. DOE supports innovative research focused on overcoming the current technological and commercial barreirs for copper indium gallium diselenide [Cu(InxGa1-x)Se2], or CIGS, solar cells. A list of current projects, summary of the benefits, and discussion on the production and manufacturing of this

  8. Copper binding affinity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) gills: Implications for assessing bioavailable metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacRae, R.K.; Smith, D.E.; Swoboda-Colberg, N.; Meyer, J.S.; Bergman, H.L. . Dept. of Zoology and Physiology)

    1999-06-01

    In this study, the authors determined the conditional stability constant (log K[prime]) of copper for the gills of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; RBT) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis; BT). Using toxicity-based complexation bioassays, which measure the effect of competing organic ligands on copper toxicity, the RBT gill copper log K[prime] range was 6.4 to 7.2. Using a Scatchard analysis of gill Cu accumulation, the RBT log K[prime] was 7.50 and the BT log K[prime] was 7.25. The close agreement in RBT log K[prime] values between these two methods suggests that measurement of gill copper accumulation is an acceptable alternative for determining a toxicity-based gill copper binding affinity. The results also suggest that there is either a single gill copper binding component or, more realistically, multiple components with similar binding properties that function collectively to define a single toxicologically relevant copper conditional stability constant. These results suggest analytical approaches to measuring bioavailable metal concentrations, such as geochemical modeling where biological ligands are included in speciation calculations, may adequately simulate complex biological ligands. A method to convert gill copper accumulation to a bioavailable water criterion is also discussed.

  9. Process Simulation of Cold Pressing and Sintering of Armstrong CP-Ti Powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorti, Sarma B; Sabau, Adrian S; Peter, William H; Nunn, Stephen D; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Chen, Wei

    2011-01-01

    A computational methodology is presented for the process simulation of cold pressing and sintering of Armstrong CP-Ti powders. Since the powder consolidation is governed by specific pressure-dependent constitutive equations, solution algorithms were developed for the ABAQUS user material subroutine, UMAT, for computing the plastic strain increments based on an implicit integration of the nonlinear yield function, flow rule, and hardening equations. Sintering was simulated using a model based on diffusional creep using the user subroutine CREEP. The initial mesh, stress, and density for the simulation of sintering were obtained from the results of the cold pressing simulation, minimizing the errors from decoupling the cold pressing and sintering simulations. Numerical simulation results are presented for the cold compaction followed by a sintering step of the Ti powders. The numerical simulation results for the relative density were compared to those measured from experiments before and after sintering, showing that the relative density can be accurately predicted. Notice: This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research was sponsored by the U.S. DOE, and carried out at ORNL, under Contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC. This research was sponsored by the U.S. DOE, EERE Industrial Technology Program Office under CPS Agreement # 17881.

  10. Copper, cadmium, and nickel accumulation in crayfish populations near copper-nickel smelters at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagatto, G.; Aikhan, M.A.

    1987-03-01

    The Sudbury basin, an elliptical 646 square mile depression containing a number of freshwater reservoirs, has been subjected to extreme ecological disturbances from logging, mining and smelting activities. The purpose of the present study was to compare tissue concentration of copper, cadmium and nickel in freshwater crayfish at selected distances of the habitat from the emission source. Various tissue concentrations in crayfish from the sites were also examined to determine if particular body tissues were specific sites for metal accumulation.

  11. Reciprocal influences of temperature and copper on survival of fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richards, V.L.; Beitinger, T.L.

    1995-08-01

    Contemporary ecological concerns of accelerated global warming, increase in toxic chemicals and loss of biodiversity make relevant studies of tolerance of various organisms to abiotic variables. In this study, the reciprocal effects of temperature and copper on survival of fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, were determined. Temperature tolerance of fishes is limited by a cornucopia of biotic and abiotic factors, including various toxicants. Not only do chemicals affect temperature tolerance of fishes, temperature influences the sensitivity of fish to toxic chemicals; however, the relationship between temperature and lethality is complex, difficult to predict, and has not been the focus of many studies. Copper, a necessary trace element in animal metabolism and ubiquitous in aquatic environments, was selected as our test toxicant. Hodson et al. (1979) reported copper concentrations of one to 29 {mu}g/L in unpolluted surface waters in the United States. Copper sulfate (CuSO{sub 4}), is an algicide, bactericide and herbicide for ponds, lakes and fish hatcheries. Also, copper is recommended as a fungicide for a variety of ornamental plants and crops, and in various chemical forms enters the environment through mining, smelting, and refining activities. Copper is toxic in parts per billion concentrations ({mu}g/L) and is an EPA priority pollutant. In this research two null hypotheses were tested: (1) temperature has no effect on the lethality of copper sulfate, and (2) sublethal concentrations of copper do not affect the upper temperature tolerance of fathead minnows. It was found that acclimation temperature significantly affects the 96-hr median lethal concentration. Exposure to copper adversely affects the ability of minnows to withstand high temperatures. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Sintering of beta-type alumina bodies using alpha-alumina encapsulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEntire, Bryan J.; Virkar, Anil V.

    1981-01-01

    A method of sintering a shaped green, beta-type alumina body comprising: (A) inserting said body into an open chamber prepared by exposing the interior surface of a container consisting essentially of at least about 50 weight percent of alpha-alumina and a remainder of other refractory material to a sodium oxide or sodium oxide producing environment; (B) sealing the chamber; and heating the chamber with the shaped body encapsulated therein to a temperature and for a time necessary to sinter said body to the desired density. The encapsulation chamber prepared as described above is also claimed.

  13. Development of nano-structured duplex and ferritic stainless steels by pulverisette planetary milling followed by pressureless sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R, Shashanka Chaira, D.

    2015-01-15

    Nano-structured duplex and ferritic stainless steel powders are prepared by planetary milling of elemental Fe, Cr and Ni powder for 40 h and then consolidated by conventional pressureless sintering. The progress of milling and the continuous refinement of stainless steel powders have been confirmed by means of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Activation energy for the formation of duplex and ferritic stainless steels is calculated by Kissinger method using differential scanning calorimetry and is found to be 159.24 and 90.17 KJ/mol respectively. Both duplex and ferritic stainless steel powders are consolidated at 1000, 1200 and 1400 °C in argon atmosphere to study microstructure, density and hardness. Maximum sintered density of 90% and Vickers microhardness of 550 HV are achieved for duplex stainless steel sintered at 1400 °C for 1 h. Similarly, 92% sintered density and 263 HV microhardness are achieved for ferritic stainless steel sintered at 1400 °C. - Highlights: • Synthesized duplex and ferritic stainless steels by pulverisette planetary milling • Calculated activation energy for the formation of duplex and ferritic stainless steels • Studied the effect of sintering temperature on density, hardness and microstructure • Duplex stainless steel exhibits 90% sintered density and microhardness of 550 HV. • Ferritic stainless steel shows 92% sintered density and 263 HV microhardness.

  14. An Atomic-Level Understanding of Copper-Based Catalysts

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    An Atomic-Level Understanding of Copper-Based Catalysts An Atomic-Level Understanding of Copper-Based Catalysts Print Thursday, 05 May 2016 12:20 Copper-based catalysts are widely ...

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission profiles and removal efficiency by electrostatic precipitator and wetfine scrubber in an iron ore sintering plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ettore Guerriero; Antonina Lutri; Rosanna Mabilia; Maria Concetta Tomasi Sciano; Mauro Rotatori

    2008-11-15

    A monitoring campaign of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyl was carried out in an Italian iron ore sintering plant by sampling the combustion gases at the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) outlet, at the Wetfine scrubber (WS) outlet, and by collecting the ESP dust. Few data are available on these micropollutants produced in iron ore sintering plants, particularly from Italian plants. This study investigates the PAH emission profiles and the removal efficiency of ESPs and WS. PAHs were determined at the stack, ESP outlet flue gases, and in ESP dust to characterize the emission profiles and the performance of the ESP and the WS for reducing PAH emission. The 11 PAHs monitored are listed in the Italian legislative decree 152/2006. The mean total PAH sum concentration in the stack flue gases is 3.96 {mu}g/N m{sup 3}, in ESP outlet flue gases is 9.73 {mu}g/N m{sup 3}, and in ESP dust is 0.53 {mu}g/g. Regarding the emission profiles, the most abundant compound is benzo(b)fluoranthene, which has a relative low BaP toxic equivalency factors (TEF) value, followed by dibenzo(a,l)pyrene, which has a very high BaP(TEF) value. The emission profiles in ESP dust and in the flue gases after the ESP show some changes, whereas the fingerprint in ESP and stack flue gases is very similar. The removal efficiency of the ESP and of WS on the total PAH concentration is 5.2 and 59.5%, respectively. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Removal of copper from carbon-saturated steel with an aluminum sulfide/iron sulfide slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, A.; Blander, M.

    1995-12-01

    Scrap iron and steel has long been considered a resource in the steel-making industry, and its value is largely determined by its impurity content. As the mini-mills, the major consumers of scrap iron and steel, expand into producing flat-rolled sheet, the demand for high-quality scrap will increase. Of the impurities present in scrap, copper is particularly troublesome because of its role in causing hot shortness. Therefore, the copper content of scrap should be kept below {approx} 0.1 wt%. A method for removing copper from steel could be used to improve the quality of scrap and make it more available for use by mini-mills. To determine the effectiveness of a binary slag consisting of aluminum sulfide and iron sulfide on the removal of copper from steel and iron, the distribution coefficient of copper between the slag and a carbon-saturated iron melt was investigated at 1,365 C. The composition of the slag was varied from nearly pure aluminum sulfide to pure iron sulfide. A maximum distribution coefficient of 30 was found, and the copper level in the iron melt was reduced to as low as 0.07 wt.% with a 4:1 ratio of iron to slag.

  17. Implementation of a spark plasma sintering facility in a hermetic glovebox for compaction of toxic, radiotoxic, and air sensitive materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyrpekl, V. E-mail: vaclav.tyrpekl@gmail.com; Berkmann, C.; Holzhäuser, M.; Köpp, F.; Cologna, M.; Somers, J.; Wangle, T.

    2015-02-15

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is a rapidly developing method for densification of powders into compacts. It belongs to the so-called “field assisted sintering techniques” that enable rapid sintering at much lower temperatures than the classical approaches of pressureless sintering of green pellets or hot isostatic pressing. In this paper, we report the successful integration of a SPS device into a hermetic glovebox for the handling of highly radioactive material containing radioisotopes of U, Th, Pu, Np, and Am. The glovebox implantation has been facilitated by the replacement of the hydraulic system to apply pressure with a compact electromechanical unit. The facility has been successfully tested using UO{sub 2} powder. Pellets with 97% of the theoretical density were obtained at 1000 °C for 5 min, significantly lower than the ∼1600 °C for 5-10 h used in conventional pellet sintering.

  18. Corrosion of copper as a used nuclear fuel disposal container material: effects of sulfide ions and gamma radiolysis. Report No. 89-211-K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lam, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Review of the corrosion performance of copper as a container material for the disposal of used nuclear fuel. The review determined long-term corrosion data for copper in a saline groundwater-sodium bentonite slurry and derived a rate equation for a diffusion limited corrosion reaction for comparison with the empirical data. The effects of oxygen, salinity, temperatures, sulfide ions and gamma radiation on copper's corrosion rate were examined and the corrosion products identified.

  19. Energy and materials flows in the copper industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaines, L.L.

    1980-12-01

    The copper industry comprises both the primary copper industry, which produces 99.9%-pure copper from copper ore, and the secondary copper industry, which salvages and recycles copper-containing scrap metal to extract pure copper or copper alloys. The United States uses about 2 million tons of copper annually, 60% of it for electrical applications. Demand is expected to increase less than 4% annually for the next 20 years. The primary copper industry is concentrated in the Southwest; Arizona produced 66% of the 1979 total ore output. Primary production uses about 170 x 10/sup 12/ Btu total energy annually (about 100 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton pure copper produced from ore). Mining and milling use about 60% of the total consumption, because low-grade ore (0.6% copper) is now being mined. Most copper is extracted by smelting sulfide ores, with concomitant production of sulfur dioxide. Clean air regulations will require smelters to reduce sulfur emissions, necessitating smelting process modifications that could also save 20 x 10/sup 12/ Btu (10 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton of copper) in smelting energy. Energy use in secondary copper production averages 20 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton of copper. If all copper products were recycled, instead of the 30% now salvaged, the energy conservation potential would be about one-half the total energy consumption of the primary copper industry.

  20. An Updated Assessement of Copper Wire Thefts from Electric Utilities...

    Energy Savers

    An Updated Assessement of Copper Wire Thefts from Electric Utilities - October 2010 An Updated Assessement of Copper Wire Thefts from Electric Utilities - October 2010 The U.S. ...

  1. Copper-assisted, anti-reflection etching of silicon surfaces...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Copper-assisted, anti-reflection etching of ... The method (300) includes electroless deposition of copper nanoparticles about 20 ...

  2. COPPER-ASSISTED, ANTI-REFLECTION ETCHING OF SILICON SURFACES...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories Return to Search COPPER-ASSISTED, ... The method (300) includes electroless deposition of copper nanoparticles about 20 ...

  3. AMO Director Delivers Keynote at Copper Development Association...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Delivers Keynote at Copper Development Association Spring Meeting AMO Director Delivers Keynote at Copper Development Association Spring Meeting June 29, 2016 - 4:40pm Addthis AMO ...

  4. Fabricating Dielectric Ceramic Films on Copper Foils | Argonne...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Fabricating Dielectric Ceramic Films on Copper Foils Technology available for licensing: A method for coating a ceramic film on copper foil. Process creates higher performing and ...

  5. Exciton-Exciton Annihilation in Copper-Phthalocyanine Single...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Annihilation in Copper-Phthalocyanine Single-Crystal Nanowires Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Exciton-Exciton Annihilation in Copper-Phthalocyanine ...

  6. Modeling of Electromagnetic Heating in RF Copper Accelerating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Modeling of Electromagnetic Heating in RF Copper Accelerating Cavities Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling of Electromagnetic Heating in RF Copper Accelerating ...

  7. Microstructural Effects on Void Nucleation in Single-Phase Copper...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in Single-Phase Copper Polycrystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microstructural Effects on Void Nucleation in Single-Phase Copper Polycrystals You are ...

  8. EFFECTIVENESS OF COPPER AND BRONZE FOR ZINC CAPTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P. S.

    2012-11-02

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine the efficacy of using copper and bronze sheet and screen under high vacuum conditions to capture zinc vapor. The experiments were conducted in a parametric manner using a fixed zinc vaporization temperature (350°C) but varying the filter temperature from ambient to 550°C. Consistent with previous work, metallic zinc was deposited at low temperatures, but the deposit was non‐adherent. At an intermediate temperature range (350‐450°C), the deposit formed an alloy with both copper and bronze materials. At higher temperatures (> 500°C) the zinc did not deposit on the surfaces likely due to its high vapor pressure. Additional testing to optimize the zinc 'getter' chemistry and surface condition is warranted.

  9. Common Sense Copper and RF Guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulhollan, G.

    2005-01-18

    The purpose of this document is to gather together both fundamental information on copper and on the cleaning and operation of copper in RF gun structures. While incomplete, this is a living document and will be added to and updated as necessary.

  10. Effects of copper on immune system parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dethloff, G.M.; Bailey, H.C.

    1998-09-01

    Agricultural, urban, industrial, and mining sources release metals into waterways. The effects of sublethal concentrations of metals on integrated physiological processes in fish, such as immunocompetency, are not well understood. The objective of this study was to determine the physiological effects of a range of sublethal copper concentrations on Shasta-strain rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed in soft water. Trout were sampled after 3, 7, 14, and 21 d of exposure to copper. The percentage of monocytes was consistently elevated at 26.9 {micro}g Cu/L, and the percentage of lymphocytes was decreased. A consistent increase in the percentage of neutrophils occurred at 26.9 and 6.4 {micro}g Cu/L. Respiratory burst activity was decreased for all concentrations at all sampling days, but a significant reduction occurred only at 14 and 21 d of exposure to copper. B-like cell proliferation was decreased by exposure to the higher copper concentrations. Proliferation results, however, had high variability. T-like cell proliferation and phagocytosis were not altered. Hepatic copper concentration was consistently elevated in trout exposed to 26.9 {micro}g Cu/L; no correlation was found between hepatic copper concentration and the immune system responses investigated. Consistent alterations in immunological parameters suggest that these parameters could serve as indicators of chronic metal toxicity in natural systems.

  11. Highly selective plasma-activated copper catalysts for carbon dioxide reduction to ethylene

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Mistry, Hemma; Varela, Ana Sofia; Bonifacio, Cecile S.; Zegkinoglou, Ioannis; Sinev, Ilya; Choi, Yong-Wook; Kisslinger, Kim; Stach, Eric A.; Yang, Judith C.; Strasser, Peter; et al

    2016-06-30

    There is an urgent need to develop technologies that use renewable energy to convert waste products such as carbon dioxide into hydrocarbon fuels. Carbon dioxide can be electrochemically reduced to hydrocarbons over copper catalysts, although higher efficiency is required. We have developed oxidized copper catalysts displaying lower overpotentials for carbon dioxide electroreduction and record selectivity towards ethylene (60%) through facile and tunable plasma treatments. Herein we provide insight into the improved performance of these catalysts by combining electrochemical measurements with microscopic and spectroscopic characterization techniques. Operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy and cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy show that copper oxides aremore » surprisingly resistant to reduction and copper+ species remain on the surface during the reaction. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that the roughness of oxide-derived copper catalysts plays only a partial role in determining the catalytic performance, while the presence of copper+ is key for lowering the onset potential and enhancing ethylene selectivity.« less

  12. Copper and organisms in the Fly River: Linking laboratory testing and field responses to copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.E.W.; Ahsanullah, M.

    1995-12-31

    The Ok Tedi copper mine has operated in the headwaters of the Fly River system in Papua New Guinea since 1984, and has discharged both tailings and waste rock into the river system. ANCOVA modelling of total catches of fish by standardized effort indicated that the suspended particulate copper concentration was negatively correlated with fish catches, but that the concentrations of suspended solids and dissolved copper were not significantly related to fish catches. Multivariate analyses of fish catch compositions have indicated that the effects caused by dissolved and particulate copper have differed, and that the observed changes in fish catch composition have trended in a direction similar to the particulate copper vectors. The types of catch composition changes do not match the natural assemblages found to be associated with high uncontaminated suspended solids concentrations. Laboratory toxicity testing of native fish, prawns, cladocerans, mayflies, algae and higher plants has demonstrated that the dissolved copper concentrations in the Fly River system ({approximately}up to 20 pg/L) have low bioavailability and would not be expected to cause acute toxicity. Provided the dissolved copper concentration is in this range, particulate copper, as derived from mine wastes, has low acute and chronic toxicity at concentrations up to 8.5 times observed levels. Hypotheses put forward to explain the apparent paradox include: total particulate copper is a better measure of the toxic fraction of dissolved copper than is the concentration of copper passing a 0.45 {micro}m filter; or that fish are able to avoid particulate copper when the associated dissolved copper concentrations are less than the detectable threshold. Behavioral toxicity testing is being used to test these hypotheses.

  13. Copper removal from solid ferrous scrap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fruehan, R.J.; Cramb, A.W.

    1991-04-01

    As discussed in detail in the Appendix, copper is detrimental to the properties of steel. Copper is present in most forms of recycled scrap, such as bundles and shredded scrap. Typical levels of copper in these forms of scrap are 0.2 to 0.4%, whereas critical grades of steel require less than 0.1 and often 0.06% Cu. Therefore, these forms of scrap cannot be used alone to produce quality steels. Steelmakers must dilute the copper from lower quality scrap with expensive high quality scrap or direct reduced iron pellets. Currently there is no effective method for removing copper from scrap. The only proven method is improved physical separation which is labor intensive, expensive, and only marginally reduces the copper content. Chemical treatments, such as sulfide treatment of liquid metal and vacuum, are not effective as discussed in the Appendix in detail. Carnegie Mellon University developed a concept for removing copper from solid ferrous scrap at 900--1000{degrees}C using a FeS-Na{sub 2}S reagent. Small laboratory tests showed 90% of the Cu from simulated solid scrap could be removed. The major results of this study are summarized in this report. Details are given in the reports in the Appendix.

  14. Watch copper deposited in a chemical reaction at the nanoscale...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Watch copper deposited in a chemical reaction at the nanoscale Share Topic Programs Materials science Nanoscience

  15. Fluid bed dryer efficient with abrasive copper concentrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marczeski, C.D.; Hodel, A.E.

    1985-11-01

    Thermally efficient dryers were needed to remove 11-12% moisture from very fine (70%, -325 mesh), copper concentrate at Asarco, Inc., in Hayden, AZ. More than 128 t/hr of the wet, dust-like material produced by the copper mine's grinders had to be made bone dry (0.1% moisture) before being fed to a flash smelting furnace. Two 12 ft diam fluidized bed dryers, each with a capacity of 64 wet t/hr, were installed to dry the copper concentrate. Each dryer's push/pull air system employs a 1250 hp fluidizing air fan to provide air at 80 in (wc) static pressure. A natural gas fired heater raises the air temperature to 600/sup 0/F to dry the dense (100 lb/cu ft bulk density) ore. The dense, wet copper concentrate is fed to the dryer from the top, countercurrent to the flow of the light, dry product. Drying begins when the wet feed reaches the fluidized bed of gravel rock. Lighter, dried material is conveyed by the air back to the top of the dryer and out through a duct to the baghouse. The throughput of the dryer is determined by the wetness of the concentrate and the temperature of the fluidizing air. Asarco, Inc. has found the fluid bed drying system simple and efficient to operate. Fuel gas consumption of the dryer is on the order of 1000 cu ft/ton of wet feed. The abrasion resistant lining provided in the dryer (a hard brick lining in the rock bed zone; castable refractory in the top and in the ducting) and ceramic tiles at the inlet of the dust collector have been effective in long term operation with the highly abrasive product.

  16. Fabrication and Spark plasma sintering of nanostructured bismuth telluride (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3})

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saleemi, Mohsin; Toprak, Muhammet S.; Li, Shanghua; Johnsson, Mats; Muhammed, Mamoun

    2012-06-26

    Thermoelectric (TE) devices can harvest residual low-grade waste heat energy. Bismuth telluride (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) and its alloys are mostly used TE materials in the bulk form for making TE modules. We report a simple, fast and very high yield synthetic process for the bulk Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanopowders with hexagonal plate like morphology. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) process has been optimized in order to preserve nanostructure while achieving a high compaction density of the pellets. Electron microscopy analysis was used to determine the effect of SPS parameters during compaction on the grain growth. Optimal conditions for the fabricated nanopowder was determined as 673 K, 70 MPa pressure with no holding time, which resulted in average lateral grain size in the range of 165-190 nm for a compact density of 98%. About 50% reduction of thermal conductivity was observed as compared to its bulk counterparts, revealing the feasibility of suggested route in the preservation of nanostructure and enhanced phonon scattering.

  17. Hydrogen ingress into copper-nickel alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pound, B.G. . Materials Research Center)

    1994-04-01

    Hydrogen (H) ingress into two copper (Cu)-nickel (Ni) alloys -- a commercial 77% Cu-15% Ni alloy (aged) and alloy K-500 (UNS N05500, aged and unaged) --- was studied using a technique referred to as hydrogen ingress analysis by potentiostatic pulsing (HIAPP). Anodic current transients obtained for these alloys in an acetate buffer (1 mol/L acetic acid + 1 mol/L sodium acetate [NaAc]) were analyzed using a diffusion-trapping model to determine trapping constants and H entry fluxes. A small increase was observed in the irreversible trapping constant for alloy K-500 with aging. Trapping constants of the aged alloys were similar within the limits of uncertainty, but H entry flux for the 77% Cu alloy was lower than that for aged or unaged alloy K-500. The lower flux may have accounted at least partly, for the Cu alloy's higher resistance to H embrittlement. Trap densities were consistent qualitatively with levels of sulfur (S) and phosphorus (P) in the two alloys. This finding supported an assumption that S and P provided the primary irreversible traps.

  18. Introduction of sulfur into copper converter slags to produce copper matte. Report of investigations/1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paige, J.I.; Anable, W.E.

    1982-08-01

    The Bureau of Mines investigated a method to totally utilize copper converter slags without recycling them back through the matte smelting furnace. The research was directed toward (1) recovering the contained copper in converting slags by producing a recyclable copper-iron matte, (2) carbothermically reducing the slags to recover the iron, and (3) producing slag wool from the depleted slags. This report deals with the reduction of three industrial converting slags, containing 2.0 to 7.3 wt-pct Cu, in an 800-kVA electric arc furnace to produce a recyclable copper-iron matte.

  19. Effect of fission neutron irradiation on the tensile and electrical properties of copper and copper alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fabritsiev, S.A.; Zinkle, S.J.; Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the properties of several copper alloys following fission reactor irradiation at ITER-relevant temperatures of 80 to 200{degrees}C. This study provides some of the data needed for the ITER research and development Task T213. These low temperature irradiations caused significant radiation hardening and a dramatic decrease in the work hardening ability of copper and copper alloys. The uniform elongation was higher at 200{degree}C compared to 100{degree}C, but still remained below 1% for most of the copper alloys.

  20. A new method for recovering Fe(II) sulfate, copper, and cobalt from converter slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziyadanogullari, R. )

    1992-03-01

    The aim of this study was to recover copper and cobalt from the stock-piled converter slags at the Ergani Mining Co. in Turkey. Copper and cobalt are present in various chemical forms in the slag. For that reason, copper and cobalt were first converted to Cu{sub 2}S and CoS by passing H{sub 2}S gas through a slurry of ground slag in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions. In the second stage, the slurry was filtered and it was determined that 30-40% of the iron and trace amounts of copper and cobalt passed into the solution as Fe{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+} ions. The slag residue was then dried at 105C for 2 h and roasted in a muffle furnace at about 600-700C for different time periods. In the third stage, the mass obtained at the end of the roasting process was boiled with distilled water and filtered. The final solution was brought to volume and analyzed for copper and cobalt. It was determined that practically all of the Cu and 70.7% of the Co passed into the solution.

  1. The operation results with the modified charging equipment and ignition furnace at Kwangyang No. 2 sinter plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K.J.; Pi, Y.J.; Kim, J.R.; Lee, J.N.

    1996-12-31

    There will be another blast furnace, the production capacity of which is 3.0 million tonnes per year in 1999 and mini mill plant, the production capacity of which is 1.8 million tonnes per year in 1996 at Kwangyang Works. Therefore, the coke oven gas and burnt lime will be deficient and more sinter will be needed. To meet with these situations, the authors modified the charging equipment and ignition furnace at Kwangyang No. 2 sinter plant in April 1995. After the modification of the charging equipment and ignition furnace, the consumption of burnt lime and coke oven gas could be decreased and the sinter productivity increased in spite of the reduction of burnt lime consumption. This report describes the operation results with the modification of the charging equipment and ignition furnace in No. 2 sinter plant Kwangyang works.

  2. Method of preparing a sintered lithium aluminate structure for containing electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sim, James W.; Kinoshita, Kimio

    1981-01-01

    A porous sintered tile is formed of lithium aluminate for retaining molten lectrolyte within a fuel cell. The tile is prepared by reacting lithium hydroxide in aqueous solution with alumina particles to form beta lithium aluminate particles. The slurry is evaporated to dryness and the solids dehydrated to form a beta lithium aluminate powder. The powder is compacted into the desired shape and sintered at a temperature in excess of 1200 K. but less than 1900 K. to form a porous integral structure that is subsequently filled with molten electrolyte. A tile of this type is intended for use in containing molten alkali metal carbonates as electolyte for use in a fuel cell having porous metal or metal oxide electrodes for burning a fuel gas such as hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide with an oxidant gas containing oxygen.

  3. Thermal insulation for high temperature microwave sintering operations and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.; Morrow, Marvin S.

    1995-01-01

    Superior microwave transparent thermal insulations for high temperature microwave sintering operations were prepared. One embodiment of the thermal insulation comprises granules of boron nitride coated with a very thin layer of glassy carbon made by preparing a glassy carbon precursor and blending it with boron nitride powder to form a mixture. The blended mixture is granulated to form a grit which is dried and heated to form the granules of boron nitride coated with a glassy carbon. Alternatively, grains of glassy carbon are coated with boron nitride by blending a mixture of a slurry comprising boron nitride, boric acid binder, and methyl alcohol with glassy carbon grains to form a blended mixture. The blended mixture is dried to form grains of glassy carbon coated with boron nitride. In addition, a physical mixture of boron nitride powder and glassy carbon grains has also been shown to be an excellent thermal insulation material for microwave processing and sintering.

  4. Method of preparing thermal insulation for high temperature microwave sintering operations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.; Morrow, M.S.

    1996-07-16

    Superior microwave transparent thermal insulations for high temperature microwave sintering operations were prepared. One embodiment of the thermal insulation comprises granules of boron nitride coated with a very thin layer of glassy carbon made by preparing a glassy carbon precursor and blending it with boron nitride powder to form a mixture. The blended mixture is granulated to form a grit which is dried and heated to form the granules of boron nitride coated with a glassy carbon. Alternatively, grains of glassy carbon are coated with boron nitride by blending a mixture of a slurry comprising boron nitride, boric acid binder, and methyl alcohol with glassy carbon grains to form a blended mixture. The blended mixture is dried to form grains of glassy carbon coated with boron nitride. In addition, a physical mixture of boron nitride powder and glassy carbon grains has also been shown to be an excellent thermal insulation material for microwave processing and sintering. 1 fig.

  5. Thermal insulation for high temperature microwave sintering operations and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.; Morrow, M.S.

    1995-09-12

    Superior microwave transparent thermal insulations for high temperature microwave sintering operations were prepared. One embodiment of the thermal insulation comprises granules of boron nitride coated with a very thin layer of glassy carbon made by preparing a glassy carbon precursor and blending it with boron nitride powder to form a mixture. The blended mixture is granulated to form a grit which is dried and heated to form the granules of boron nitride coated with a glassy carbon. Alternatively, grains of glassy carbon are coated with boron nitride by blending a mixture of a slurry comprising boron nitride, boric acid binder, and methyl alcohol with glassy carbon grains to form a blended mixture. The blended mixture is dried to form grains of glassy carbon coated with boron nitride. In addition, a physical mixture of boron nitride powder and glassy carbon grains has also been shown to be an excellent thermal insulation material for microwave processing and sintering. 1 fig.

  6. Method of preparing thermal insulation for high temperature microwave sintering operations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.; Morrow, Marvin S.

    1996-01-01

    Superior microwave transparent thermal insulations for high temperature microwave sintering operations were prepared. One embodiment of the thermal insulation comprises granules of boron nitride coated with a very thin layer of glassy carbon made by preparing a glassy carbon precursor and blending it with boron nitride powder to form a mixture. The blended mixture is granulated to form a grit which is dried and heated to form the granules of boron nitride coated with a glassy carbon. Alternatively, grains of glassy carbon are coated with boron nitride by blending a mixture of a slurry comprising boron nitride, boric acid binder, and methyl alcohol with glassy carbon grains to form a blended mixture. The blended mixture is dried to form grains of glassy carbon coated with boron nitride. In addition, a physical mixture of boron nitride powder and glassy carbon grains has also been shown to be an excellent thermal insulation material for microwave processing and sintering.

  7. Experimental study of the maximum resolution and packing density achievable in sintered and non-sintered binder-jet 3D printed steel microchannels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Amy M; Mehdizadeh Momen, Ayyoub; Benedict, Michael; Kiggans Jr, James O

    2015-01-01

    Developing high resolution 3D printed metallic microchannels is a challenge especially when there is an essential need for high packing density of the primary material. While high packing density could be achieved by heating the structure to the sintering temperature, some heat sensitive applications require other strategies to improve the packing density of primary materials. In this study the goal is to develop high green or pack densities microchannels on the scale of 2-300 microns which have a robust mechanical structure. Binder-jet 3D printing is an additive manufacturing process in which droplets of binder are deposited via inkjet into a bed of powder. By repeatedly spreading thin layers of powder and depositing binder into the appropriate 2D profiles, complex 3D objects can be created one layer at time. Microchannels with features on the order of 500 microns were fabricated via binder jetting of steel powder and then sintered and/or infiltrated with a secondary material. The average particle size of the steel powder was varied along with the droplet volume of the inkjet-deposited binder. The resolution of the process, packing density of the primary material, the subsequent features sizes of the microchannels, and the overall microchannel quality were characterized as a function of particle size distribution, droplet sizes and heat treatment temperatures.

  8. Copper mercaptides as sulfur dioxide indicators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eller, Phillip G.; Kubas, Gregory J.

    1979-01-01

    Organophosphine copper(I) mercaptide complexes are useful as convenient and semiquantitative visual sulfur dioxide gas indicators. The air-stable complexes form 1:1 adducts in the presence of low concentrations of sulfur dioxide gas, with an associated color change from nearly colorless to yellow-orange. The mercaptides are made by mixing stoichiometric amounts of the appropriate copper(I) mercaptide and phosphine in an inert organic solvent.

  9. Irradiation creep of nano-powder sintered silicon carbide at low neutron fluences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koyanagi, Takaaki; Shimoda, Kazuya; Kondo, Sosuke; Hinoki, Tatsuya; Ozawa, Kazumi; Katoh, Yutai

    2014-12-01

    The irradiation creep behavior of nano-powder sintered silicon carbide was investigated using the bend stress relaxation method under neutron irradiation up to 1.9 dpa. The creep deformation was observed at all temperatures ranging from 380 to 1180 C mainly from the irradiation creep but with the increasing contributions from the thermal creep at higher temperatures. Microstructural observation and data analysis were performed.

  10. Sintering behavior of lanthanide-containing glass-ceramic sealants for solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goel, Ashutosh; Reddy, Allu Amarnath; Pascual, Maria J.; Gremillard, Laurent; Malchere, Annie; Ferreira, Jose M.

    2012-05-01

    This article reports on the influence of different lanthanides (La, Nd, Gd and Yb) on sintering behavior of alkaline-earth aluminosilicate glass-ceramics sealants for their application in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). All the glasses have been prepared by melt-quench technique. The in situ follow up of sintering behavior of glass powders has been done by high temperature - environmental scanning electron microscope (HT-ESEM) and hot-stage microscope (HSM) while the crystalline phase evolution and assemblage has been analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the glass compositions exhibit a glass-in-glass phase separation followed by two stage sintering resulting in well sintered glass powder compacts after heat treatment at 850 C for 1 h. Diopside (CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}) based phases constituted the major crystalline part in glass-ceramics followed by some minor phases. The increase in lanthanide content in glasses suppressed their tendency towards devitrification, thus, resulting in glass-ceramics with high amount of residual glassy phase (50-96 wt.%) which is expected to facilitate their self-healing behavior during SOFC operation. The electrical conductivity of the investigated glass-ceramics varied between (1.19 and 7.33) x 10{sup -7} S cm{sup -1} (750-800 C), and depended on the ionic field strength of lanthanide cations. Further experimentation with respect to the long term thermal and chemical stability of residual glassy phase under SOFC operation conditions along with high temperature viscosity measurements will be required in order to elucidate the potential of these glass-ceramics as self-healing sealants.

  11. Nanoalloy Printed and Pulse-Laser Sintered Flexible Sensor Devices with Enhanced Stability and Materials Compatibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Wei; Rovore, Thomas; Weerawarne, Darshana; Osterhoudt, Gavin; Kang, Ning; Joseph, Pharrah; Luo, Jin; Shim, Bonggu; Poliks, Mark; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2015-06-02

    While conformal and wearable devices have become one of the most desired formats for printable electronics, it is challenging to establish a scalable process that produces stable conductive patterns but also uses substrates compatible with widely available wearable materials. Here, we describe findings of an investigation of a nanoalloy ink printed and pulsed laser sintered conductive patterns as flexible functional devices with enhanced stability and materials compatibility. While nanoparticle inks are desired for printable electronics, almost all existing nanoparticle inks are based on single-metal component, which, as an electronic element, is limited by its inherent stabilities of the metal such as propensity of metal oxidation and mobility of metal ions, especially in sintering processes. The work here has demonstrated the first example in exploiting plasmonic coupling of nanoalloys and pulsed-laser energy with controllable thermal penetration. The experimental and theoretical results have revealed clear correlation between the pulsed laser parameters and the nanoalloy structural characteristics. The superior performance of the resulting flexible sensor device, upon imparting nanostructured sensing materials, for detecting volatile organic compounds has significant implications to developing stable and wearable sensors for monitoring environmental pollutants and breath biomarkers. This simple “nanoalloy printing 'laser sintering' nanostructure printing” process is entirely general to many different sensor devices and nanostructured sensing materials, enabling the ability to easily construct sophisticated sensor array.

  12. Controlled metal-semiconductor sintering/alloying by one-directional reverse illumination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1993-01-01

    Metal strips deposited on a top surface of a semiconductor substrate are sintered at one temperature simultaneously with alloying a metal layer on the bottom surface at a second, higher temperature. This simultaneous sintering of metal strips and alloying a metal layer on opposite surfaces of the substrate at different temperatures is accomplished by directing infrared radiation through the top surface to the interface of the bottom surface with the metal layer where the radiation is absorbed to create a primary hot zone with a temperature high enough to melt and alloy the metal layer with the bottom surface of the substrate. Secondary heat effects, including heat conducted through the substrate from the primary hot zone and heat created by infrared radiation reflected from the metal layer to the metal strips, as well as heat created from some primary absorption by the metal strips, combine to create secondary hot zones at the interfaces of the metal strips with the top surface of the substrate. These secondary hot zones are not as hot as the primary hot zone, but they are hot enough to sinter the metal strips to the substrate.

  13. Effect of gravity on three-dimensional coordination number distribution in liquid phase sintered microstructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, A.; Gokhale, A.M.; Gereman, R.M.

    1999-10-08

    Gravity affects microstructural evolution when a liquid phase is present during sintering. The effect of gravity on the three-dimensional coordination number distribution of tungsten grains in liquid phase sintered heavy alloy specimens is quantitatively characterized. A combination of montage serial sectioning, digital image processing, and unbiased stereological sampling procedures is used to estimate the coordination number distribution in three-dimensional microstructures. The microgravity environment decreases the mean coordination number. However, hardly any isolated grains are observed in the specimens, liquid phase sintered in a microgravity environment. The effect of microgravity on the coordination numbers mainly resides in its effect on the mean coordination number. In all specimens, there is a strong correlation between grain size and coordination number, which can be expressed as [D{sub c}/{bar D}]{sup 2} = C/C{sub 0} where C{sub 0} is the mean coordination number, {bar D} the global average size of the tungsten grains, and D{sub c} the average size of only those grains which have coordination number C.

  14. Development of an Innovative High-Thermal Conductivity UO2 Ceramic Composites Fuel Pellets with Carbon Nano-Tubes Using Spark Plasma Sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subhash, Ghatu; Wu, Kuang-Hsi; Tulenko, James

    2014-03-10

    thermally conductive UO2-CNT composite is obtained with a minimal volume fraction of CNTs. The mixtures are sintered in the SPS facility at a range of temperatures, pressures, and time durations so as to identify the optimal processing conditions to obtain the desired microstructure of sintered UO2-CNT pellets. The second objective of the proposed work is to identify the optimal volume fraction of CNTs in the microstructure of the composites that provides the desired high thermal conductivity yet retaining the mechanical strength required for efficient function as a reactor fuel. We will systematically study the resulting microstructure (grain size, porosity, distribution of CNTs, etc.) obtained at various SPS processing conditions using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). We will conduct indentation hardness measurements and uniaxial strength measurements as a function of volume fraction of CNTs to determine the mechanical strength and compare them to the properties of UO2. The fracture surfaces will be studied to determine the fracture characteristics that may relate to the observed cracking during service. Finally, we will perform thermal conductivity measurements on all the composites up to 1000° C. This study will relate the microstructure, mechanical properties, and thermal properties at various volume fractions of CNTs. The overall intent is to identify optimal processing conditions that will provide a well-consolidated compact with optimal microstructure and thermo-mechanical properties. The deliverables include: (1) fully characterized UO2-CNT composite with optimal CNT volume fraction and high thermal conductivity and (2) processing conditions for production of UO2-CNT composite pellets using SPS method.

  15. Method for providing uranium with a protective copper coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waldrop, Forrest B.; Jones, Edward

    1981-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for providing uranium metal with a protective coating of copper. Uranium metal is subjected to a conventional cleaning operation wherein oxides and other surface contaminants are removed, followed by etching and pickling operations. The copper coating is provided by first electrodepositing a thin and relatively porous flash layer of copper on the uranium in a copper cyanide bath. The resulting copper-layered article is then heated in an air or inert atmosphere to volatilize and drive off the volatile material underlying the copper flash layer. After the heating step an adherent and essentially non-porous layer of copper is electro-deposited on the flash layer of copper to provide an adherent, multi-layer copper coating which is essentially impervious to corrosion by most gases.

  16. Distribution of nickel between copper-nickel and alumina saturated iron silicate slags

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reddy, R.G.; Acholonu, C.C.

    1984-03-01

    The solubility of nickel in slag is determined in this article by equilibrating copper-nickel alloys with alumina-saturated iron silicate slags in an alumina crucible at 1573 K. The results showed that nickel dissolves in slag both as nickel oxide and as nickel metal. The presence of alumina is shown to increase the solubility of nickel in slags.

  17. Growth and characterization of diammonium copper disulphate hexahydrate single crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siva Sankari, R.; Perumal, Rajesh Narayana

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: Diammonium copper disulphate hexahydrate (DACS) is one of the most promising inorganic dielectric crystals with exceptional mechanical properties. Good quality crystals of DACS were grown by using solution method in a period of 30 days. The grown crystals were subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis in order to establish their crystalline nature. Thermo gravimetric, differential thermal analysis, FTIR, and UV–vis–NIR analysis were performed for the crystal. Several solid state physical parameters have been determined for the grown crystals. The dielectric constant and the dielectric loss and AC conductivity of the grown crystal were studied as a function of frequency and temperature has been calculated and plotted. - Highlights: • Diammonium copper disulphate is grown for the first time and CCDC number obtained. • Thermal analysis is done to see the stability range of the crystals. • Band gap and UV cut off wavelength of the crystal are determined to be 2.4 eV and 472.86 nm, respectively. • Dielectric constant, dielectric loss and AC conductivity are plotted as a function of applied field. - Abstract: Diammonium copper disulphate hexahydrate is one of the most promising inorganic crystals with exceptional dielectric properties. A good quality crystal was harvested in a 30-day period using solution growth method. The grown crystal was subjected to various characterization techniques like single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, thermo gravimetric, differential thermal analysis, FTIR, and UV–vis–NIR analysis. Unit cell dimensions of the grown crystal have been identified from XRD studies. Functional groups of the title compounds have been identified from FTIR studies. Thermal stability of the samples was checked by TG/DTA studies. Band gap of the crystal was calculated. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss were studied as a function of frequency of the applied field. AC conductivity was plotted as a function

  18. History of ancient copper smelting pollution during Roman and Medieval times recorded in Greenland ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Sungmin; Candelone, J.P.; Patterson, C.C.; Boultron, C.F.

    1996-04-12

    Determination of copper concentrations in Greenland ice dated from seven millennia ago to the present showed values exceeding natural levels, beginning about 2500 years ago. This early large-scale pollution of the atmosphere of the Northern Hemisphere is attributed to emissions from the crude, highly polluting smelting technologies used for copper production during Roman and medieval times, especially in Europe and China. This study opens the way to a quantitative assessment of the history of early metal production, which was instrumental in the development of human cultures during ancient eras. 27 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  19. Shapes of Spectral Lines of Nonuniform Plasma of Electric Arc Discharge Between Copper Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babich, Ida L.; Boretskij, Viacheslav F.; Veklich, Anatoly N.

    2007-09-28

    The radial profiles of the temperature and electron density in the plasma of the free burning electric arc between copper electrodes are studied by optical spectroscopy techniques. The electron density and the temperature in plasma as initial parameters were used in the calculation of the plasma composition in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) assumption. We used the Saha's equation for copper, nitrogen and oxygen, dissociation equation for nitrogen and oxygen, the equation of plasma electrical neutrality and Dalton's law as well. So, it would be possible to determine the amounts of metal vapours in plasma.

  20. Vacuum Bellows, Vacuum Piping, Cryogenic Break, and Copper Joint Failure Rate Estimates for ITER Design Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. C. Cadwallader

    2010-06-01

    The ITER international project design teams are working to produce an engineering design in preparation for construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak. During the course of this work, questions have arisen in regard to safety barriers and equipment reliability as important facets of system design. The vacuum system designers have asked several questions about the reliability of vacuum bellows and vacuum piping. The vessel design team has asked about the reliability of electrical breaks and copper-copper joints used in cryogenic piping. Research into operating experiences of similar equipment has been performed to determine representative failure rates for these components. The following chapters give the research results and the findings for vacuum system bellows, power plant stainless steel piping (amended to represent vacuum system piping), cryogenic system electrical insulating breaks, and copper joints.

  1. Synchrotron Infrared Microspectroscopy Study of Film Formation and Breakdown on Copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melendres, C. A.; Hahn, F.

    2010-02-03

    This work demonstrates the utility of synchrotron infrared reflectance microspectroscopy (SIRM), in the far and mid IR, for the determination of the composition of electrogenerated surface films formed during the general and localized corrosion of copper in bicarbonate solution. The back-reflection geometry was used. The anodic passivation film formed on copper at 0.2 V, in 0.01 M NaHCO{sub 3} solution consisted mainly of bicarbonate, copper carbonate dihydroxide or malachite [CuCO{sub 3}.Cu(OH){sub 2}], Cu(OH){sub 2}, and possibly some CuO. At higher potentials, the passive film breaks down and localized corrosion occurs leading to the formation of pits. The composition of the surface films inside the pits formed at 0.6 V was found to be essentially the same as that outside but the relative amount of Cu(OH){sub 2} is higher.

  2. An Atomic-Level Understanding of Copper-Based Catalysts

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    An Atomic-Level Understanding of Copper-Based Catalysts Print Copper-based catalysts are widely used in chemical industries to convert water and carbon monoxide to hydrogen, carbon ...

  3. Copper is Key in Burning Fat, New Study Finds

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Copper is Key in Burning Fat, New Study Finds A new study led by a Berkeley Lab scientist ... Researchers want to explore if a copper deficiency is linked to obesity and obesity ...

  4. Copper Valley Elec Assn, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Valley Elec Assn, Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Copper Valley Elec Assn, Inc Place: Alaska Phone Number: Copper Basin: 907-822-3211 or Valdez: 907-835-4301 Website:...

  5. High energy X-ray diffraction study of a dental ceramics–titanium functional gradient material prepared by field assisted sintering technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witte, K.; Bodnar, W.; Schell, N.; Lang, H.; Burkel, E.

    2014-09-15

    A functional gradient material with eleven layers composed of a dental ceramics and titanium was successfully consolidated using field assisted sintering technique in a two-step sintering process. High energy X-ray diffraction studies on the gradient were performed at High Energy Material Science beamline at Desy in Hamburg. Phase composition, crystal unit edges and lattice mismatch along the gradient were determined applying Rietveld refinement procedure. Phase analysis revealed that the main crystalline phase present in the gradient is α-Ti. Crystallinity increases stepwisely along the gradient with a decreasing increment between every next layer, following rather the weight fraction of titanium. The crystal unit edge a of titanium remains approximately constant with a value of 2.9686(1) Å, while c is reduced with increasing amount of titanium. In the layer with pure titanium the crystal unit edge c is constant with a value of 4.7174(2) Å. The lattice mismatch leading to an internal stress was calculated over the whole gradient. It was found that the maximal internal stress in titanium embedded in the studied gradient is significantly smaller than its yield strength, which implies that the structure of titanium along the whole gradient is mechanically stable. - Highlights: • High energy XRD studies of dental ceramics–Ti gradient material consolidated by FAST. • Phase composition, crystallinity and lattice parameters are determined. • Crystallinity increases stepwisely along the gradient following weight fraction of Ti. • Lattice mismatch leading to internal stress is calculated over the whole gradient. • Internal stress in α-Ti embedded in the gradient is smaller than its yield strength.

  6. Copper uptake and regulation in a copper-tolerant decapod Cambarus bartoni (Fabricius)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zia, S.; Alikhan, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Large amounts of acid forming sulfur dioxide, and heavy metals including copper, are continuously being released into the environment by mining and smelting operation at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Consequently, a number of lakes in this region have become acidic and metal stressed. In the current study the uptake and accumulation of copper by various tissues of a copper-tolerant crayfish, Cambarus bartoni, were monitored in the laboratory to ascertain the dynamic nature (i.e., the pattern in time) of responses of crayfish to increased levels of these two metals in the water.

  7. Fractionation of elements during copper smelting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Germani, M.S.; Zoller, W.H.; Small, M.; Moyers, J.L.

    1981-03-01

    A recent study of the elemental composition of particulate material collected from the plumes of five copper smelters in southeastern Arizona indicated that arsenic, lead, selenium, cadmium, zinc, tungsten, indium, and other chalcophilic elements are highly enriched in the plume materials relative to the background aerosol. Enrichments are due to the volatilization of these elements during copper smelting. Significant differences in the elemental compositions of plumes from the various smelters appear to be due to differences in the feed material, smelting conditions, and equipment use by the smelters. (3 graphs, 13 references, 7 tables)

  8. Salt-soda sinter process for recovering aluminum from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.

    A method for recovering aluminum values from fly ash comprises sintering the fly ash with a mixture of NaCl and Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ to a temperature in the range 700/sup 0/ to 900/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to convert greater than 90% of the aluminum content of the fly ash into an acidsoluble fraction and then contacting the thus-treated fraction with an aqueous solution of nitric or sulfuric acid to effect dissolution of aluminum and other metal values in said solution.

  9. Salt-soda sinter process for recovering aluminum from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, William J.; Seeley, Forest G.

    1981-01-01

    A method for recovering aluminum values from fly ash comprises sintering the fly ash with a mixture of NaCl and Na.sub.2 CO.sub.3 to a temperature in the range 700.degree.-900.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to convert greater than 90% of the aluminum content of the fly ash into an acid-soluble fraction and then contacting the thus-treated fraction with an aqueous solution of nitric or sulfuric acid to effect dissolution of aluminum and other metal values in said solution.

  10. Sintering of compacts of UN, (U,Pu)N, and PuN

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tennery, V.J.; Godfrey, T.G.; Bomar, E.S.

    1973-10-16

    >A method is provided for preparing a densified compact of a metal nitride selected from the group consisting of UN, (U,Pu)N, and PuN which comprises heating a green compact of at least one selected nitride in the mononitride single-phase region, as displayed by a phase diagram of the mononitride of said compact, in a nitrogen atmosphere at a pressure of nitrogen less than 760 torr. At a given temperature, this process produces a singlephase structure and a maximal sintered density as measured by mercury displacement. (Official Gazette)

  11. ULTRASONIC STUDIES OF THE FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISMS OF RECRYSTALLIZATION AND SINTERING OF METALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TURNER, JOSEPH A.

    2005-11-30

    The purpose of this project was to develop a fundamental understanding of the interaction of an ultrasonic wave with complex media, with specific emphases on recrystallization and sintering of metals. A combined analytical, numerical, and experimental research program was implemented. Theoretical models of elastic wave propagation through these complex materials were developed using stochastic wave field techniques. The numerical simulations focused on finite element wave propagation solutions through complex media. The experimental efforts were focused on corroboration of the models developed and on the development of new experimental techniques. The analytical and numerical research allows the experimental results to be interpreted quantitatively.

  12. Effect of reinforcement phase on the mechanical property of tungsten nanocomposite synthesized by spark plasma sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Jin -Kyu; Kim, Song -Yi; Ott, Ryan T.; Kim, Jin -Young; Eckert, Jürgen; Lee, Min -Ha

    2015-07-15

    Nanostructured tungsten composites were fabricated by spark plasma sintering of nanostructured composite powders. The composite powders, which were synthesized by mechanical milling of tungsten and Ni-based alloy powders, are comprised of alternating layers of tungsten and metallic glass several hundred nanometers in size. The mechanical behavior of the nanostructured W composite is similar to pure tungsten, however, in contrast to monolithic pure tungsten, some macroscopic compressive plasticity accompanies the enhanced maximum strength up to 2.4 GPa by introducing reinforcement. As a result, we have found that the mechanical properties of the composites strongly depend on the uniformity of the nano-grained tungsten matrix and reinforcement phase distribution.

  13. Liquid-phase detection instrument to record and annunciate procedural deviations in sintering runs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mee, D. K.; Darby, D. M.; Sims, Jr., T. M.

    1981-04-15

    A liquid-phase detection instrument (LPDI) has been developed to aid in making consistently accurate alloy sintering runs. The LPDI displays the furnace temperature, detects the alloy's liquid-phase arrest temperature, calculates the necessary hold temperature from the arrest temperature (i.e., calibrates the system), and provides a digital record for quality assurance purposes. In field tests, the instrument's detected arrest temperature was within +1/sup 0/ to -0/sup 0/C of an operator's assessment of the actual arrest temperature.

  14. Salt-soda sinter process for recovering aluminum from fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcdowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.

    1981-03-03

    A method for recovering aluminum values from fly ash comprises sintering the fly ash with a mixture of NaCl and Na2CO3 to a temperature in the range 700*-900* C for a period of time sufficient to convert greater than 90% of the aluminum content of the fly ash into an acid-soluble fraction and then contacting the thus-treated fraction with an aqueous solution of nitric or sulfuric acid to effect dissolution of aluminum and other metal values in said solution.

  15. Tantalum-copper alloy and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, F.A.; Verhoeven, J.D.; Gibson, E.D.

    1983-06-01

    A tantalum-copper alloy can be made by preparing a consumable electrode consisting of an elongated copper billet containing at least two spaced apart tantalum rods extending longitudinally the length of the billet. The electrode is placed in a dc arc furnace and melted under conditions which co-melt the copper and tantalum to form the alloy.

  16. Tantalum-copper alloy and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Verhoeven, John D.; Gibson, Edwin D.

    1984-11-06

    A tantalum-copper alloy can be made by preparing a consumable electrode consisting of an elongated copper billet containing at least two spaced apart tantalum rods extending longitudinally the length of the billet. The electrode is placed in a dc arc furnace and melted under conditions which co-melt the copper and tantalum to form the alloy.

  17. Formation of conductive copper lines by femtosecond laser irradiation of copper nitride film on plastic substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Xiaodong; Yuan, Ningyi; Qiu, Jianhua; Ding, Jianning

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, we report a simple method to form conductive copper lines by scanning a single-beam femtosecond pulse laser on a plastic substrate covered with copper nitride (Cu{sub 3}N) film. The Cu{sub 3}N films were prepared by DC magnetron sputtering in the presence of an Ar + N{sub 2} atmosphere at 100 °C. The influence of the laser power and scanning speed on the formed copper line width, surface features, and morphology was analyzed by means of optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, non-contact 3D profilometer, and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results demonstrate that low laser power and low scanning speed favor the formation of uniform and flat Cu lines. After process optimization, copper lines with a width less than 5 μm were obtained, which provides an attractive application prospect in the field of flexible electronic devices.

  18. Transparent conducting impurity-doped ZnO thin films prepared using oxide targets sintered by millimeter-wave heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minami, Tadatsugu; Okada, Kenji; Miyata, Toshihiro; Nomoto, Juni-chi; Hara, Youhei; Abe, Hiroshi

    2009-07-15

    The preparation of transparent conducting impurity-doped ZnO thin films by both pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and magnetron sputtering deposition (MSD) using impurity-doped ZnO targets sintered with a newly developed energy saving millimeter-wave (28 GHz) heating technique is described. Al-doped ZnO (AZO) and V-co-doped AZO (AZO:V) targets were prepared by sintering with various impurity contents for 30 min at a temperature of approximately 1250 degree sign C in an air or Ar gas atmosphere using the millimeter-wave heating technique. The resulting resistivity and its thickness dependence obtainable in thin films prepared by PLD using millimeter-wave-sintered AZO targets were comparable to those obtained in thin films prepared by PLD using conventional furnace-sintered AZO targets; a low resistivity on the order of 3x10{sup -4} {Omega} cm was obtained in AZO thin films prepared with an Al content [Al/(Al+Zn) atomic ratio] of 3.2 at. % and a thickness of 100 nm. In addition, the resulting resistivity and its spatial distribution on the substrate surface obtainable in thin films prepared by rf-MSD using a millimeter-wave-sintered AZO target were almost the same as those obtained in thin films prepared by rf-MSD using a conventional powder AZO target. Thin films prepared by PLD using millimeter-wave-sintered AZO:V targets exhibited an improved resistivity stability in a high humidity environment. Thin films deposited with a thickness of approximately 100 nm using an AZO:V target codoped with an Al content of 4 at. % and a V content [V/(V+Zn) atomic ratio] of 0.2 at. % were sufficiently stable when long-term tested in air at 90% relative humidity and 60 degree sign C.

  19. Fluidized bed electrowinning of copper. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-01

    The objectives of the study were to: design and construct a 10,000- amp fluidized bed electrowinning cell for the recovery of copper from acidic sulfate solutions; demonstrate the technical feasibility of continuous particle recirculation from the electrowinning cell with the ultimate goal of continuous particle removal; and measure cell efficiency as a function of operating conditions.

  20. Synthesis and sintering of UN-UO2 fuel composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaques, Brian J.; Watkins, Jennifer; Croteau, Joseph R.; Alanko, Gordon A.; Tyburska-Puschel, Beata; Meyer, Mitch; Xu, Peng; Lahoda, Edward J.; Butt, Darryl P.

    2015-06-17

    In this study, the design and development of an economical, accident tolerant fuel (ATF) for use in the current light water reactor (LWR) fleet is highly desirable for the future of nuclear power. Uranium mononitride has been identified as an alternative fuel with higher uranium density and thermal conductivity when compared to the benchmark, UO2, which could also provide significant economic benefits. However, UN by itself reacts with water at reactor operating temperatures. In order to reduce its reactivity, the addition of UO2 to UN has been suggested. In order to avoid carbon impurities, UN was synthesized from elemental uranium using a hydride-dehydride-nitride thermal synthesis route prior to mixing with up to 10 wt% UO2 in a planetary ball mill. UN and UN – UO2 composite pellets were sintered in Ar – (0–1 at%) N2 to study the effects of nitrogen concentration on the evolved phases and microstructure. UN and UN-UO2 composite pellets were also sintered in Ar – 100 ppm N2 to assess the effects of temperature (1700–2000 °C) on the final grain morphology and phase concentration.

  1. Low temperature synthesis and sintering of d-UO2 nanoparticles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nenoff, Tina Maria; Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Robinson, David B.; Jacobs, Benjamin W.; Provencio, Paula Polyak; Huang, Jian Yu

    2010-12-01

    We report on the novel room temperature method of synthesizing advanced nuclear fuels; a method that virtually eliminates any volatility of components. This process uses radiolysis to form stable nanoparticle (NP) nuclear transuranic (TRU) fuel surrogates and in-situ heated stage TEM to sinter the NPs. The radiolysis is performed at Sandia's Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) 60Co source (3 x 10{sup 6} rad/hr). Using this method, sufficient quantities of fuels for research purposes can be produced for accelerated advanced nuclear fuel development. We are focused on both metallic and oxide alloy nanoparticles of varying compositions, in particular d-U, d-U/La alloys and d-UO2 NPs. We present detailed descriptions of the synthesis procedures, the characterization of the NPs, the sintering of the NPs, and their stability with temperature. We have employed UV-vis, HRTEM, HAADF-STEM imaging, single particle EDX and EFTEM mapping characterization techniques to confirm the composition and alloying of these NPs.

  2. Thoria-based cermet nuclear fuel : sintered microsphere fabrication by spray drying.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, A.A.; McDeavitt, S.M.; Chandrmouli, V.; Anthonysamy, S.; Kuchibhotla, S.; Downar, T.J.

    2002-01-09

    Cermet nuclear fuels have been demonstrated to have significant potential to enhance fuel performance because of low internal fuel temperatures and low stored energy. The combination of these benefits with the inherent proliferation resistance, high burnup capability, and favorable neutronic properties of the thorium fuel cycle produces intriguing options for advanced nuclear fuel cycles. This paper describes aspects of a Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project with two primary goals: (1) Evaluate the feasibility of implementing the thorium fuel cycle in existing or advanced reactors using a zirconium-matrix cermet fuel, and (2) Develop enabling technologies required for the economic application of this new fuel form. Spray drying is a physical process of granulating fine powders that is used widely in the chemical, pharmaceutical, ceramic, and food industries. It is generally used to produce flowable fine powders. Occasionally it is used to fabricate sintered bodies like cemented carbides, but it has not, heretofore, been used to produce sintered microspheres. As a physical process, it can be adapted to many powder types and mixtures and thus, has appeal for nuclear fuels and waste forms of various compositions. It also permits easy recycling of process ''wastes'' and minimal chemical waste streams that can arise in chemical sol/gel processing. On the other hand, for radioactive powders, it presents safety challenges for processing these materials in powder form and in achieving microspheres of high density and perfection.

  3. Two-stage sintering inhibits abnormal grain growth during beta to alpha transformation in SiC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, Aaron M.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2007-09-17

    Free sintering of SiC with Al, B, and C additions in two successive stages, first under nitrogen and then under argon, produced a near full-density ceramic with equiaxed grain structure. The beta to alpha transformation proceeded to completion; however, the grain shape remained equiaxed due to the action of nitrogen present during the first stage of sintering. It is found that the beta to alpha transformation is necessary but not sufficient for producing the microstructure of interlocking plates found in high-toughness SiC.

  4. Moisture measurement for high-level-waste tanks using copper activation probe in cone penetrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeder, P.L.; Stromswold, D.C.; Brodzinski, R.L.; Reeves, J.H.; Wilson, W.E.

    1995-10-01

    Laboratory tests have established the feasibility of using neutron activation of copper as a means for measuring the moisture in Hanford`s high-level radioactive waste tanks. The performance of the neutron activation technique to measure moisture is equivalent to the neutron moisture gauges or neutron logs commonly used in commercial well-logging. The principle difference is that the activation of {sup 64}Cu (t{sub 1/2} = 12.7 h) replaces the neutron counters used in moisture gauges or neutron logs. For application to highly radioactive waste tanks, the Cu activation technique has the advantage that it is insensitive to very strong gamma radiation fields or high temperatures. In addition, this technique can be deployed through tortuous paths or in confined spaces such as within the bore of a cone penetrometer. However, the results are not available in ``real-time``. The copper probe`s sensitivity to moisture was measured using simulated tank waste of known moisture content. This report describes the preparation of the simulated waste mixtures and the experiments performed to demonstrate the capabilities of the neutron activation technique. These experiments included determination of the calibration curve of count rate versus moisture content using a single copper probe, measurement of the calibration curve based on ``near-field `` to ``far-field`` counting ratios using a multiple probe technique, and profiling the activity of the copper probe as a function of the vertical height within a simulated waste barrel.

  5. A case study of energy conservation opportunities in copper refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somers, W.E.; Hughen, M.L.; Kurylko, L.; Stone, J.R.

    1982-07-01

    A study of energy usage and distribution in a copper refinery was conducted in an attempt to determine possible cost savings in operations of the plant. The study covered those processes which were the major users of energy, namely, smelting, anode casting, electrolytic refining, steam generation and distribution, and electricity distribution. The study involved obtaining data of mass and energy flows in the refinery; identifying energy conservation opportunities (ECO's); obtaining price, operating costs, and saving potentials; for each conservation measure; and analyzing the economical viability of each conservation proposal. Potential cost savings were found to be substantial in heat recovery from slag and anode furnace hot gases, modification of the central steam supply system, control, and redistribution of electrical loads, insulation of electrolytic tanks, and changes in the atomization of oil.

  6. Surface phenomena during the early stages of sintering in steels modified with Fe–Mn–Si–C master alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oro, Raquel; Campos, Mónica; Hryha, Eduard; Torralba, José Manuel

    2013-12-15

    The characteristics of the metallic powder surface play a critical role in the development of strong bonds between particles during sintering, especially when introducing elements with a high affinity for oxygen. In this study, Mn and Si have been combined in a Fe–Mn–Si–C master alloy powder in order to reduce their chemical activity and prevent oxidation during the heating stage of the sintering process. However, when this master alloy powder is mixed with an iron base powder, differences in chemical activity between both components can lead to an oxygen transfer from the iron base powder to the surface of the master alloy particles. The present research is focused on studying the evolution of the master alloy particle surface during the early stages of sintering. Surface characterization by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) shows that the master alloy powder surface is mostly covered by a thin easily reducible iron oxide layer (∼ 1 nm). Mn–Si particulate oxides are found as inclusions in specific areas of the surface. Evolution of oxides during sintering was studied on green compacts containing iron powder, graphite and Fe–Mn–Si–C master alloy powder that were heat treated in vacuum (10{sup −6} mbar) at different temperatures (from 400, 600, 800 to 1000 °C) and analyzed by means of XPS. Vacuum sintering provides the necessary conditions to remove manganese and silicon oxides from the powder surface in the range of temperatures between 600 °C and 1000 °C. When sintering in vacuum, since the gaseous products from reduction processes are continuously eliminated, oxidation of master alloy particles due to oxygen transfer through the atmosphere is minimized. - Highlights: • Mn and Si were introduced in sintered steels using a master alloy powder. • Surface of the master alloy is mainly covered by an easily reducible iron oxide. • Temperature ranges for oxidation/reduction are identified. • Vacuum conditions avoid oxygen transfer to

  7. Thermal Properties of Wood-Derived Copper-Silicon Carbide Compsites Fabricated Via Electrodeposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pappacena, Kristen E; Johnson, M. T.; Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace D; Faber, K. T.

    2010-01-01

    Copper-silicon carbide composites were fabricated by electrodeposition of copper into pores of wood-derived silicon carbide, a ceramic with a microstructure that can be tailored via the use of different wood precursors. Thermal conductivity values were determined using flash diffusivity at temperatures from 0 to 900 C. Thermal conductivities of up to 202 W/m K at 0 C and 148 W/mK at 900 C were achieved. Object-oriented finite-element analysis (OOF) modeling was used to understand the heat flux distributions throughout the microstructures. OOF was also used to calculate the effective thermal conductivity, which correlated well with experimentally-determined values for axially-oriented composites. In addition, OOF was used to predict effective conductivity values and heat flux distributions for transversely-oriented composites.

  8. Subneurotoxic copper(II)-induced NF-κB-dependent microglial activation is associated with mitochondrial ROS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Zhuqin; Yu, Fengxiang; Gong, Ping; Qiu, Yu; Zhou, Wei; Cui, Yongyao; Li, Juan Chen, Hongzhuan

    2014-04-15

    Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and the associated neuronal damage play critical roles in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Evidence shows an elevated concentration of extracellular copper(II) in the brains of these disorders, which may contribute to neuronal death through direct neurotoxicity. Here we explored whether extracellular copper(II) triggers microglial activation. Primary rat microglia and murine microglial cell line BV-2 cells were cultured and treated with copper(II). The content of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide in the medium was determined. Extracellular hydrogen peroxide was quantified by a fluorometric assay with Amplex Red. Mitochondrial superoxide was measured by MitoSOX oxidation. At subneurotoxic concentrations, copper(II) treatment induced a dose- and time-dependent release of TNF-α and nitric oxide from microglial cells, and caused an indirect, microglia-mediated neurotoxicity that was blocked by inhibition of TNF-α and nitric oxide production. Copper(II)-initiated microglial activation was accompanied with reduced IkB-α expression as well as phosphorylation and translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and was blocked by NF-κB inhibitors (BAY11-7082 and SC-514). Moreover, copper(II) treatment evoked a rapid release of hydrogen peroxide from microglial cells, an effect that was not affected by NADPH oxidase inhibitors. N-acetyl-cysteine, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), abrogated copper(II)-elicited microglial release of TNF-α and nitric oxide and subsequent neurotoxicity. Importantly, mitochondrial production of superoxide, paralleled to extracellular release of hydrogen peroxide, was induced after copper(II) stimulation. Our findings suggest that extracellular copper(II) at subneurotoxic concentrations could trigger NF-κB-dependent microglial activation and subsequent neurotoxicity. NADPH oxidase-independent, mitochondria-derived ROS may be involved in this activation

  9. Tantalum-Tungsten Oxide Thermite Composite Prepared by Sol-Gel Synthesis and Spark Plasma Sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cervantes, O; Kuntz, J; Gash, A; Munir, Z

    2009-02-13

    Energetic composite powders consisting of sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide were produced with various amounts of micrometer-scale tantalum fuel metal. Such energetic composite powders were ignition tested and results show that the powders are not sensitive to friction, spark and/or impact ignition. Initial consolidation experiments, using the High Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HPSPS) technique, on the sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide produced samples with higher relative density than can be achieved with commercially available tungsten oxide. The sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide with immobilized tantalum fuel metal (Ta - WO{sub 3}) energetic composite was consolidated to a density of 9.17 g.cm{sup -3} or 93% relative density. In addition those parts were consolidated without significant pre-reaction of the constituents, thus the sample retained its stored chemical energy.

  10. Tantalum-tungsten oxide thermite composites prepared by sol-gel synthesis and spark plasma sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuntz, Joshua D.; Gash, Alexander E.; Cervantes, Octavio G.; Munir, Zuhair A.

    2010-08-15

    Energetic composite powders consisting of sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide were produced with various amounts of micrometer-scale tantalum fuel metal. Such energetic composite powders were ignition-tested and the results show that the powders are not sensitive to friction, spark and/or impact ignition. Initial consolidation experiments, using the High-Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HPSPS) technique, on the sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide produced samples with higher relative density than can be achieved with commercially available tungsten oxide. The sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide with immobilized tantalum fuel metal (Ta-WO{sub 3}) energetic composite was consolidated to a density of 9.17 g cm{sup -3} or 93% relative density. In addition, those samples were consolidated without significant pre-reaction of the constituents, thus retaining their stored chemical energy. (author)

  11. Effect of reinforcement phase on the mechanical property of tungsten nanocomposite synthesized by spark plasma sintering

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Lee, Jin -Kyu; Kim, Song -Yi; Ott, Ryan T.; Kim, Jin -Young; Eckert, Jürgen; Lee, Min -Ha

    2015-07-15

    Nanostructured tungsten composites were fabricated by spark plasma sintering of nanostructured composite powders. The composite powders, which were synthesized by mechanical milling of tungsten and Ni-based alloy powders, are comprised of alternating layers of tungsten and metallic glass several hundred nanometers in size. The mechanical behavior of the nanostructured W composite is similar to pure tungsten, however, in contrast to monolithic pure tungsten, some macroscopic compressive plasticity accompanies the enhanced maximum strength up to 2.4 GPa by introducing reinforcement. As a result, we have found that the mechanical properties of the composites strongly depend on the uniformity of the nano-grainedmore » tungsten matrix and reinforcement phase distribution.« less

  12. Colloidal processing and sintering of nano-scale TiN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nab, R.; Albayrak, S.; Aslan, M.; Schmidt, H.

    1995-09-01

    Surface modification of nano-scale TiN powder with guanidine propionic acid was used for the preparation of well dispersed slurries. The starting powder could be completely deagglomerated for modifier concentrations exeeding 7.5 wt.-% at pH = 9. Such slurries ({le} 40 wt.-% solid content) behave like an ideal Netwonian liquid. Green compacts with relative densities around 50 % were prepared by pressure filtration. The specimens are characterized by a homogeneous green microstructure with pore sizes in the range of 3 to 10 mn, which could be sintered to high density (> 96 %) below 1400{degrees}C. Up to densities of 96 % grain coarsening can be neglected, but further densification was accompanied by an exaggregated grain growth.

  13. Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.W.; Ault, E.R.; Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment. 2 figs.

  14. Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, Terry W.; Ault, Earl R.; Moses, Edward I.

    1992-01-01

    A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment.

  15. METHOD OF APPLYING COPPER COATINGS TO URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, A.G.

    1959-07-14

    A method is presented for protecting metallic uranium, which comprises anodic etching of the uranium in an aqueous phosphoric acid solution containing chloride ions, cleaning the etched uranium in aqueous nitric acid solution, promptly electro-plating the cleaned uranium in a copper electro-plating bath, and then electro-plating thereupon lead, tin, zinc, cadmium, chromium or nickel from an aqueous electro-plating bath.

  16. Rotating copper plasmoid in external magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandey, Pramod K.; Thareja, Raj K.

    2013-02-15

    Effect of nonuniform magnetic field on the expanding copper plasmoid in helium and argon gases using optical emission spectroscopy and fast imaging is presented. We report a peculiar oscillatory rotation of plasmoid in magnetic field and argon ambient. The temporal variation and appearance of the dip in the electron temperature show a direct evidence of the threading and expulsion of the magnetic field lines from the plasmoid. Rayleigh Taylor instability produced at the interface separating magnetic field and plasma is discussed.

  17. Final Report: Sintered CZTS Nanoparticle Solar Cells on Metal Foil; July 26, 2011 - July 25, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leidholm, C.; Hotz, C.; Breeze, A.; Sunderland, C.; Ki, W.; Zehnder, D.

    2012-09-01

    This is the final report covering 12 months of this subcontract for research on high-efficiency copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS)-based thin-film solar cells on flexible metal foil. Each of the first three quarters of the subcontract has been detailed in quarterly reports. In this final report highlights of the first three quarters will be provided and details will be given of the final quarter of the subcontract.

  18. Boron-copper neutron absorbing material and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiencek, Thomas C.; Domagala, Robert F.; Thresh, Henry

    1991-01-01

    A composite, copper clad neutron absorbing material is comprised of copper powder and boron powder enriched with boron 10. The boron 10 content can reach over 30 percent by volume, permitting a very high level of neutron absorption. The copper clad product is also capable of being reduced to a thickness of 0.05 to 0.06 inches and curved to a radius of 2 to 3 inches, and can resist temperatures of 900.degree. C. A method of preparing the material includes the steps of compacting a boron-copper powder mixture and placing it in a copper cladding, restraining the clad assembly in a steel frame while it is hot rolled at 900.degree. C. with cross rolling, and removing the steel frame and further rolling the clad assembly at 650.degree. C. An additional sheet of copper can be soldered onto the clad assembly so that the finished sheet can be cold formed into curved shapes.

  19. AMO Director Delivers Keynote at Copper Development Association Spring

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Meeting | Department of Energy Delivers Keynote at Copper Development Association Spring Meeting AMO Director Delivers Keynote at Copper Development Association Spring Meeting June 29, 2016 - 4:40pm Addthis AMO Director Delivers Keynote at Copper Development Association Spring Meeting Industry plays a large role in the work that the Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) undertakes. The relationship between AMO, academia, national labs, and industry partners is symbiotic - we each bring

  20. Modification of surface properties of copper-refractory metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, John D.; Gibson, Edwin D.

    1993-10-12

    The surface properties of copper-refractory metal (CU-RF) alloy bodies are modified by heat treatments which cause the refractory metal to form a coating on the exterior surfaces of the alloy body. The alloys have a copper matrix with particles or dendrites of the refractory metal dispersed therein, which may be niobium, vanadium, tantalum, chromium, molybdenum, or tungsten. The surface properties of the bodies are changed from those of copper to that of the refractory metal.

  1. NETL Advances Copper-Hybrid Oxygen Carrier for Chemical Looping |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Advances Copper-Hybrid Oxygen Carrier for Chemical Looping NETL Advances Copper-Hybrid Oxygen Carrier for Chemical Looping November 4, 2016 - 12:18pm Addthis NETL’s Chemical Looping Reactor Pilot-Scale Test Facility NETL's Chemical Looping Reactor Pilot-Scale Test Facility Back in February, we shared that DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) researchers were exploring the potential of using copper in a process known as chemical looping to capture

  2. An Updated Assessement of Copper Wire Thefts from Electric Utilities -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    October 2010 | Department of Energy An Updated Assessement of Copper Wire Thefts from Electric Utilities - October 2010 An Updated Assessement of Copper Wire Thefts from Electric Utilities - October 2010 The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability monitors changes, threats, and risks to the energy infrastructure in the United States. This report updates a previously published report on copper wire theft. The combined efforts of electric

  3. Dependence of Band Renormalization Effect on the Number of Copper...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Dependence of Band Renormalization Effect on the Number of Copper-oxide ... Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ...

  4. Method of imaging the heart using copper-64 citrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crook, James E.

    1988-01-01

    A method of imaging the heart to provide a distinct image using positron emission tomography comprises administering copper-64 citrate and a compatible carrier.

  5. An Updated Assessment of Copper Wire Thefts from Electric Utilities...

    Energy Savers

    ... the year due to the recession, the number of reported copper thefts began to drop. ... certain cables used only in high voltage transmission lines, etc. * Training ...

  6. Surface-Modified Copper Current Collector for Lithium Ion Battery...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Copper Current Collector for Lithium Ion Battery Anode Lawrence Berkeley National ... swelling during charge recharge operations and a major cause of shortened battery life. ...

  7. Hot-junction electrode members for copper/silver chalcogenides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hampl, Jr., Edward F.

    1979-12-25

    Tungsten, molybdenum, and alloys thereof are useful as electrode members for thermoelectric legs made from chalcogenides of copper and/or silver.

  8. Copper Canyon, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Copper Canyon, Texas: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 33.0959546, -97.0966777 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappings...

  9. Studies in reduction-roast leaching ion exchange of copper converter slag from an Indian copper complex, Ghatshila

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodas, M.G.; Mathur, S.B.

    1997-12-01

    Large quantities of converter and anode slags are generated in different unit operations for the production of copper in I.C.C. Ghatshila. The converter slag contains about 2.75% copper, 0.9% nickel, 52.0% iron, and 0.6% cobalt and cannot be rejected due to its economic importance. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed the presence of copper in elemental, oxide, and silicate phases and iron in silicate (Feyalite) and oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) phases. From the earlier work on leaching by an acetic acid lixiviant up to 55% copper could be extracted at 250 mL of acetic acid/100 g of slag, 125 C temperature, and 35 atm of oxygen pressure. Low copper recovery was attributed to the presence of copper silicate and sulfide phases which could not be detected by XRD. Therefore, reduction roasting by noncoking coal was done to increase the copper recovery. A coal sample from Talchar which contained 30% fixed carbon, 40% volatile, and 30% ash was used for reduction roasting. Maximum percent extraction of copper and nickel (97% Cu and 20% Ni) could be achieved at the temperature of 720 C for 90 min of roasting with 20% reductant. The acetic acid requirement was 130 mL/100 g of reduced pellets, while leaching at the oxygen pressure of 35 atm for 120 min at 120 C. Iron dissolution was minimum (max 1%) in all the experiments. The ion-exchange technique was employed to separate copper from acetate solution. Zeolite resin was found to be suitable for the separation of copper from leach liquor. About 92% copper was recovered by geolite. 2.5 N H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was found to be most effective for the stripping of the copper from resin.

  10. Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Detoxifying Copper in Soils Copper is essential to life, but also toxic if consumed in ... application, sewage sludge deposition, mining, smelting, and industrial activities. ...

  11. Layered Copper-Based Electrode for High-Dielectric Constant Oxide...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Copper-Based Electrode for High-Dielectric Constant Oxide Thin-Film-Based Devices Technology available for licenisng: A multilayer thin-film device containing copper layers ...

  12. Anomalous expansion of the copper-apical-oxygen distance in supercondu...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Anomalous expansion of the copper-apical-oxygen distance in superconducting cuprate bilayers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Anomalous expansion of the copper-apical-oxy...

  13. Copper vapor laser acoustic thermometry system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galkowski, Joseph J.

    1987-01-01

    A copper vapor laser (CVL) acoustic thermometry system is disclosed. The invention couples an acoustic pulse a predetermined distance into a laser tube by means of a transducer and an alumina rod such that an echo pulse is returned along the alumina rod to the point of entry. The time differential between the point of entry of the acoustic pulse into the laser tube and the exit of the echo pulse is related to the temperature at the predetermined distance within the laser tube. This information is processed and can provide an accurate indication of the average temperature within the laser tube.

  14. Improvement of granulation of raw material by using the high-agitating mixer at Kokura No. 3 sintering plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadano, Yasuhiko; Murai, Tatsunori; Kawaguchi, Yosizumi; Komatsu, Shusaku; Sasakawa, Akira; Kawaguchi, Takazo; Matsumura, Masaru

    1995-12-01

    Recently, there have been experiments aimed at increasing the pulverized coal injection rate of a blast furnace. When increasing the pulverized coal injection rate, the gas permeability resistance in a blast furnace increases. One of the methods to decrease the gas permeability resistance in a blast furnace is to use an iron ore burden with high iron content and low slag volume. However, the problem of resource drain has already occurred in the hematite deposit in West Australia, which is the principal supplier of a good quality lumpy iron ore. As a result, pellet feed iron ore must be selected as its substitute. In this paper, the authors investigated a granulation technique for producing an iron ore sinter with high iron content and low slag volume. In addition, they developed the granulation technique of agitating materials and water at high speed. It was used in Kokura No. 3 Sinter Plant.

  15. Comparison of residual stresses in Inconel 718 simple parts made by electron beam melting and direct laser metal sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolbus, Lindsay M; Payzant, E Andrew; Cornwell, Paris A; Watkins, Thomas R; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Dehoff, Ryan R; Duty, Chad E

    2015-01-01

    Residual stress profiles were mapped using neutron diffraction in two simple prism builds of Inconel 718: one fabricated with electron beam melting and the other with direct laser sintering. Spatially indexed stress-free cubes were obtained by EDM sectioning equivalent prisms of similar shape. The (311) interplanar spacing examined for the EDM sectioned sample was compared to the interplanar spacings calculated to fulfill force and moment balance. We have shown that Applying force and moment balance is a necessary supplement to the measurements for the stress-free cubes with respect to accurate stress calculations in additively manufactured components. In addition, our work has shown that residual stresses in electron beam melting parts are much smaller than that of direct laser metal sintering parts.

  16. Comparison of residual stresses in Inconel 718 simple parts made by electron beam melting and direct laser metal sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolbus, Lindsay M.; Payzant, E. Andrew; Cornwell, Paris A.; Watkins, Thomas R.; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Duty, Chad E.; Lorenz, M.; Ovchinnikova, O. S.

    2015-01-10

    Residual stress profiles were mapped using neutron diffraction in two simple prism builds of Inconel 718: one fabricated with electron beam melting and the other with direct laser sintering. Spatially indexed stress-free cubes were obtained by EDM sectioning equivalent prisms of similar shape. The (311) interplanar spacing examined for the EDM sectioned sample was compared to the interplanar spacings calculated to fulfill force and moment balance. We have shown that Applying force and moment balance is a necessary supplement to the measurements for the stress-free cubes with respect to accurate stress calculations in additively manufactured components. Furthermore, our work has shown that residual stresses in electron beam melting parts are much smaller than that of direct laser metal sintering parts.

  17. Comparison of residual stresses in Inconel 718 simple parts made by electron beam melting and direct laser metal sintering

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Kolbus, Lindsay M.; Payzant, E. Andrew; Cornwell, Paris A.; Watkins, Thomas R.; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Duty, Chad E.; Lorenz, M.; Ovchinnikova, O. S.

    2015-01-10

    Residual stress profiles were mapped using neutron diffraction in two simple prism builds of Inconel 718: one fabricated with electron beam melting and the other with direct laser sintering. Spatially indexed stress-free cubes were obtained by EDM sectioning equivalent prisms of similar shape. The (311) interplanar spacing examined for the EDM sectioned sample was compared to the interplanar spacings calculated to fulfill force and moment balance. We have shown that Applying force and moment balance is a necessary supplement to the measurements for the stress-free cubes with respect to accurate stress calculations in additively manufactured components. Furthermore, our work hasmore » shown that residual stresses in electron beam melting parts are much smaller than that of direct laser metal sintering parts.« less

  18. Recovery of aluminum oxide by the Ames lime-soda sinter process: scale-up using a rotary kiln

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murtha, M.J.; Burnet, G.; Harnby, N.

    1985-01-01

    The Ames Lime-Soda Sinter Process provides a means for recovering aluminum oxide from power plant fly ash while producing a residue that can be used in the manufacture of sulfate resistant (Type V) portland cement. The process has been fully researched and its feasibility is now being demonstrated through pilot plant scale investigation. This paper reports results of the pelletized feed preparation by agglomeration in a rotary pan granulator, continuous feed sintering in an electrically heated rotary kiln, and product recovery from the clinker by aqueous extraction, desilication of the filtrate, and precipitation of a hydrated aluminum oxide. Results from earlier bench-scale research have been found to apply consistently to the pilot plant scale work.

  19. Copper slag thermal storage -- projections of performance and economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curto, P.A.

    1984-02-01

    A solid residual regarded as waste from copper smelters, known as copper slag, offers an excellent medium for the storage of heat energy. Over one billion tons of slag is available at hundreds of smelters around the world. Copper slag is predominantly iron orthosilicate (2FeO.SiO/sub 2/), with sizable amounts of calcium, aluminum, magnesium and copper oxides. Formed in a highly oxidized environment at temperatures in excess of 1400/sup 0/C, copper slag is thermally, mechanically, chemically and physically stable when utilized as a thermal storage medium below 1000/sup 0/C. Conceptual designs for copper slag thermal storage systems have been proposed wherein a packed bed of copper slag is thermally cycled with air or some other gases utilized as transport media. Simply constructed with a metallic sheet liner and buried with an earthen berm, projected costs are literally one order of magnitude less than for molten salt, hot oils or other thermal storage techniques proposed for high-temperature systems. Applications for copper slag thermal storage include heat recovery systems for intermittent or uncontrolled heat sources, or peak-shaving power systems. A specific design for a solar combined cycle system is evaluated.

  20. Tungsten-yttria carbide coating for conveying copper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rothman, Albert J.

    1993-01-01

    A method is provided for providing a carbided-tungsten-yttria coating on the interior surface of a copper vapor laser. The surface serves as a wick for the condensation of liquid copper to return the condensate to the interior of the laser for revolatilization.

  1. Etching of Copper Coated Mylar Tubes With CF-4 Gas

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Ecklund, Karl M.; Hartman, Keith W.; Hebert, Michael J.; Wojcicki, Stanley G.

    1996-04-01

    Using 5 mm diameter copper coated mylar straw tubes at a potential of 2.30 KV relative to a concentric 20 (mu)m diameter gold-plated tungsten anode, it has been observed that with very low flow rates of CF4-based gases the conductive copper cathode material may be removed entirely from the mylar surface.

  2. Metal-Organic Frameworks Incorporating Copper-Complexed Rotaxanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coskun, Ali; Hmadeh, Mohamad; Barin, Gokhan; Gándara, Felipe; Li, Qiaowei; Choi, Eunwoo; Strutt, Nathan L.; Cordes, David B.; Slawin, Alexandra M.Z.; Stoddart, J. Fraser; Sauvage, Jean-Pierre; Yaghi, Omar M.

    2013-07-26

    MOFs on the move: A copper-coordinated [2]pseudorotaxanate which reacts with zinc nitrate to form threefold interpenetrated networks retains most of its solution-state chemistry, including its ability to undergo electronic switching of some of the copper(I) ions under redox control.

  3. Transport properties of zigzag graphene nanoribbon decorated with copper clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berahman, M.; Sheikhi, M. H.

    2014-09-07

    Using non-equilibrium green function with density functional theory, the present study investigates the transport properties of decorated zigzag graphene nanoribbon with a copper cluster. We have represented the decoration of zigzag graphene nanoribbon with single copper atom and cluster containing two and three copper atoms. In all the cases, copper atoms tend to occupy the edge state. In addition, we have shown that copper can alter the current-voltage characteristic of zigzag graphene nanoribbon and create new fluctuations and negative differential resistance. These alternations are made due to discontinuity in the combination of orbitals along the graphene nanoribbon. Decoration alters these discontinuities and creates more visible fluctuations. However, in low bias voltages, the changes are similar in all the cases. The study demonstrates that in the decorated zigzag graphene nanoribbon, the edge states are the main states for transporting electron from one electrode to another.

  4. Factors affecting the failure of copper connectors brazed to copper bus bar segments on a 615-MVA hydroelectric generator at Grand Coulee Dam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atteridge, D.G.; Klein, R.F.; Layne, R.; Anderson, W.E.; Correy, T.B.

    1988-01-01

    On March 21, 1986, the United States Bureau of Reclamation experienced a ground fault in the main parallel ring assembly of Unit G19 - a 615-MVA hydroelectric generator - at Grand Coulee Dam, Washington. Inspection of the unit revealed that the ground fault had been induced by fracture of one or more of the copper connectors used to join adjacent segments of one of the bus bars in the north half of the assembly. Various experimental techniques were used to detect and determine the presence of cracks, crack morphology, corrosion products, and material microstructure and/or embrittlement. The results of these inspections and recommendations are given. 7 refs., 27 figs.

  5. Method for removing copper from molten metal with a molten slag and for recovering the copper from the slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oden, L.L.

    1993-12-31

    The present invention relates generally to a method for removing impurity metal from a molten metal such as iron and steel. It is a method for removing copper from molten iron and steel with a molten slag and thereafter recovering the copper from the slag.

  6. Reactive spark plasma sintering (SPS) of nitride reinforced titanium alloy composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borkar, Tushar; Nag, Soumya; Ren, Yang; Tiley, Jaimie; Banerjee, Rajarshi

    2014-12-25

    Coupled in situ alloying and nitridation of titanium–vanadium alloys, has been achieved by introducing reactive nitrogen gas during the spark plasma sintering (SPS) of blended titanium and vanadium elemental powders, leading to a new class of nitride reinforced titanium alloy composites. The resulting microstructure includes precipitates of the d-TiN phase with the NaCl structure, equiaxed (or globular) precipitates of a nitrogen enriched hcp a(Ti,N) phase with a c/a ratio more than what is expected for pure hcp Ti, and fine scale plate-shaped precipitates of hcp a-Ti, distributed within a bcc b matrix. During SPS processing, the d-TiN phase appears to form at a temperature of 1400 C, while only hcp a(Ti,N) and a-Ti phases form at lower processing temperatures. Consequently, the highest microhardness is exhibited by the composite processed at 1400 C while those processed at 1300 C or below exhibit lower values. Processing at temperatures below 1300 C, resulted in an incomplete alloying of the blend of titanium and vanadium powders. These d-TiN precipitates act as heterogeneous nucleation sites for the a(Ti,N) precipitates that appear to engulf and exhibit an orientation relationship with the nitride phase at the center. Furthermore, fine scale a-Ti plates are precipitated within the nitride precipitates, presumably resulting from the retrograde solubility of nitrogen in titanium.

  7. Behavior of melts during softening and melting down of iron ore sinter under load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Y.H.

    1995-12-01

    In order to achieve effective operation in the blast furnace, the distribution control and quality improvement of burden materials are very important. In spite of the difficulties in obtaining suitable samples and making direct observation, significant progress including the placement of probes into the stack, tuyere drilling and laboratory simulation studies has been made. Investigation of the behavior of melts during softening and melting down was carried out in the temperature range of 800 C to 1,515 C. In this report, emphasis is given to investigating the mineral formation and properties of melts during softening and melting down of the iron ore sinter. Sized coke layers were placed above and below the sample to maintain uniform upward flow of gas and insure a smooth downward flow of melts. When the temperature of the sample reached the set point during the test the power was shut off and the sample was cooled in the furnace air. The weight, the height, porosity and contraction of each sample were measured. Chemical composition, observation of microstructures, SEM analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis were conducted. Results are presented.

  8. Three-dimensional reconstruction and morphologic characteristics of porous metal fiber sintered sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qinghui; Huang, Xiang; Zhou, Wei; Li, Jingrong

    2013-12-15

    This paper presents an approach to achieve morphological characterizing for complex porous materials based on micro X-ray tomography images, with an example of a novel porous metal fiber sheet produced through solid-state sintering method. The geometrical reconstruction was performed after selection of volume of interest and image processing of anisotropic diffusion smooth. The reconstructed gray level images were then transferred into binary images by adjusting binarization threshold according to the actual porosity. Taking into account the tubular structural feature of the fibers, skeleton extraction algorithm based on the distance transform function was applied and further improved by the scale axis transform method. The skeleton was later pruned and segmented according to the contact points to perform morphological characterizing. Compared with actual manufacturing parameters, the style, length, radius, orientation and tortuosity of fiber segments were discussed. The results show that our proposed method can well describe the actual geometrical and morphological characteristics, which will provide a promising method for the structural description of fibrous networks. - Highlights: • Micro-CT technology was used to achieve the 3D geometrical reconstruction. • Skeleton extraction algorithm was modified to get the medial skeleton. • Skeleton filter operation was adopted to deal with the segmented skeleton. • Useful morphological statistics was obtained through skeleton segments. • Relationship between structure and manufacturing processes was discussed.

  9. Authorized limits for Fernald copper ingots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frink, N.; Kamboj, S.; Hensley, J.; Chen, S. Y.

    1997-09-01

    This development document contains data and analysis to support the approval of authorized limits for the unrestricted release of 59 t of copper ingots containing residual radioactive material from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). The analysis presented in this document comply with the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5, {open_quotes}Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment,{close_quotes} as well as the requirements of the proposed promulgation of this order as 10 CFR Part 834. The document was developed following the step-by-step process described in the Draft Handbook for Controlling Release for Reuse or Recycle Property Containing Residual Radioactive Material.

  10. Fracture toughness for copper oxide superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goretta, K.C.; Kullberg, M.L.

    1993-04-13

    An oxide-based strengthening and toughening agent, such as tetragonal ZrO[sub 2] particles, has been added to copper oxide superconductors, such as superconducting YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub x] (123) to improve its fracture toughness (K[sub IC]). A sol-gel coating which is non-reactive with the superconductor, such as Y[sub 2]BaCuO[sub 5] (211) on the ZrO[sub 2] particles minimized the deleterious reactions between the superconductor and the toughening agent dispersed therethrough. Addition of 20 mole percent ZrO[sub 2] coated with 211 yielded a 123 composite with a K[sub IC] of 4.5 MPa(m)[sup 0.5].

  11. Fracture toughness for copper oxide superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goretta, Kenneth C.; Kullberg, Marc L.

    1993-01-01

    An oxide-based strengthening and toughening agent, such as tetragonal Zro.sub.2 particles, has been added to copper oxide superconductors, such as superconducting YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x (123) to improve its fracture toughness (K.sub.IC). A sol-gel coating which is non-reactive with the superconductor, such as Y.sub.2 BaCuO.sub.5 (211) on the ZrO.sub.2 particles minimized the deleterious reactions between the superconductor and the toughening agent dispersed therethrough. Addition of 20 mole percent ZrO.sub.2 coated with 211 yielded a 123 composite with a K.sub.IC of 4.5 MPa(m).sup.0.5.

  12. Inert electrode containing metal oxides, copper and noble metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P.; Woods, Robert W.; Dawless, Robert K.; Hosler, Robert B.

    2001-01-01

    A cermet composite material is made by treating at an elevated temperature a mixture comprising a compound of iron and a compound of at least one other metal, together with an alloy or mixture of copper and a noble metal. The alloy or mixture preferably comprises particles having an interior portion containing more copper than noble metal and an exterior portion containing more noble metal than copper. The noble metal is preferably silver. The cermet composite material preferably includes alloy phase portions and a ceramic phase portion. At least part of the ceramic phase portion preferably has a spinel structure.

  13. Patterned electrochemical deposition of copper using an electron beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heijer, Mark den; Shao, Ingrid; Reuter, Mark C.; Ross, Frances M.; Radisic, Alex

    2014-02-01

    We describe a technique for patterning clusters of metal using electrochemical deposition. By operating an electrochemical cell in the transmission electron microscope, we deposit Cu on Au under potentiostatic conditions. For acidified copper sulphate electrolytes, nucleation occurs uniformly over the electrode. However, when chloride ions are added there is a range of applied potentials over which nucleation occurs only in areas irradiated by the electron beam. By scanning the beam we control nucleation to form patterns of deposited copper. We discuss the mechanism for this effect in terms of electron beam-induced reactions with copper chloride, and consider possible applications.

  14. Inert electrode containing metal oxides, copper and noble metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P.; Woods, Robert W.; Dawless, Robert K.; Hosler, Robert B.

    2000-01-01

    A cermet composite material is made by treating at an elevated temperature a mixture comprising a compound of iron and a compound of at least one other metal, together with an alloy or mixture of copper and a noble metal. The alloy or mixture preferably comprises particles having an interior portion containing more copper than noble metal and an exterior portion containing more noble metal than copper. The noble metal is preferably silver. The cermet composite material preferably includes alloy phase portions and a ceramic phase portion. At least part of the ceramic phase portion preferably has a spinel structure.

  15. Recovery process for complexed copper-bearing rinse waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spearot, R.M.; Peck, J.V.

    1984-05-01

    Conventional chemical treatment methods of removing the copper from metal finishing waste streams prior to discharge generate large quantities of hazardous sludge with associate disposal problem. The advantages and disadvantages of currently available technologies are reviewed. Newer technologies provide economical recovery of the copper, which may be used for other purposes, but not for reuse in the bath. The resulting copper-depleted rinse solutions can then be discharged with other treated metal finishing wastes to publicly owned treatment works (POTW) or to receiving surface waters. Of these newer technologies, selective electrochemical displacement appears to be the best approach in terms of operational efficiency and cost.

  16. Influence of process changes on PCDD/Fs produced in an iron ore sintering plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guerriero, E.; Bianchini, M.; Gigliucci, P.F.; Guarnieri, A.; Mosca, S.; Rossetti, G.; Varde, M.; Rotatori, M.

    2009-01-15

    This study investigated the influence of different charge typologies and additives on the PCDD/Fs amount produced and on the congener profiles in an iron ore sintering plant. Many tests were carried out combining different typologies of charge (iron materials) and solid fuel ('coke breeze' or 'anthracite') with or without the use of urea. The PCDD/Fs produced ranged from 1.2 to 22.7 {mu} g I-TEQ/ton of agglomerate, whereas the PCDD/Fs released to the ambient air ranged from 0.10 to 1.92 ng I-TEQ/Nm{sup 3} because of cleaning in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a Wetfine scrubber (WS). A more homogeneous charge with a higher amount of fine particles charge appeared to produce a lower PCDD/Fs concentration due to a better combustion but this hypothesis needs further investigations on charges having different dimension particles. Only a synergitic action of urea and anthracite was able to reduce the high PCDD/Fs content due to the bad combustion of the more inhomogeneous charge with a lower amount of fine particles. The congener profile was a typical combustion process fingerprint because the PCDFs predominated, the highly chlorinated congeners (HeptaCDD and OctaCDD) prevailed in PCDDs, whereas in PCDFs the profile was more varied; 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HeptaCDF was the main contributor to the total concentration while 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF was the main contributor to the I-TEQ concentration. Whereas all the parameters under scrutiny influenced strongly the amount of PCDD/Fs produced, they affected only slightly the fingerprint of PCDD/Fs. In all cases studied, the reduction obtained using urea, anthracite, or the more homogeneous charge with a higher amount of fine particles was slightly greater on the higher chlorinated congeners in respect to the lower ones.

  17. A New Slant on a Cellular Balancing Act - The Copper-sensing Repressor of

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis New Slant on a Cellular Balancing Act - The Copper-sensing Repressor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Copper is a required micronutrient for all living cells, being an essential component of many metalloenzymes, but free intracellular copper is highly toxic. Because of this copper within cells is very tightly controlled, with specific copper ion pumps (both importers and exporters) located at the cell surface, which are coupled to highly specific metallochaperones

  18. In situ growth of copper nanocrystals from carbonaceous microspheres with electrochemical glucose sensing properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Xiaoliang; Yan, Zhengguang Han, Xiaodong

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: In situ growth of copper nanoparticles from hydrothermal copper-containing carbonaceous microspheres was induced by annealing or electron beam irradiation. Obtained micro-nano carbon/copper composite microspheres show electrochemical glucose sensing properties. - Highlights: • We synthesized carbonaceous microspheres containing non-nanoparicle copper species through a hydrothermal route. • By annealing or electron beam irradiation, copper nanoparticles would form from the carbonaceous microspheres in situ. • By controlling the annealing temperature, particle size of copper could be controlled in the range of 50–500 nm. • The annealed carbon/copper hierarchical composite microspheres were used to fabricate an electrochemical glucose sensor. - Abstract: In situ growth of copper nanocrystals from carbon/copper microspheres was observed in a well-controlled annealing or an electron beam irradiation process. Carbonaceous microspheres containing copper species with a smooth appearance were yielded by a hydrothermal synthesis using copper nitrate and ascorbic acid as reactants. When annealing the carbonaceous microspheres under inert atmosphere, copper nanoparticles were formed on carbon microspheres and the copper particle sizes can be increased to a range of 50–500 nm by altering the heating temperature. Similarly, in situ formation of copper nanocrystals from these carbonaceous microspheres was observed on the hydrothermal product carbonaceous microspheres with electron beam irradiation in a vacuum transmission electron microscopy chamber. The carbon/copper composite microspheres obtained through annealing were used to modify a glassy carbon electrode and tested as an electrochemical glucose sensor.

  19. System requirements specification for a solar central receiver system integrated with a cogeneration facility for copper smelting. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    This specification defines the characteristics, design and environmental requirements, and economic data for a solar central receiver system integrated with a cogeneration facility for copper smelting. The added solar capacity will supply process heat to an existing copper smelting flash furnace of Finnish design as well as providing for the cogeneration of electricity by an added gas turbine system. Heat storage to accommodate periods of low solar insolation is accomplished by the innovative utilization of copper slag in a thermal energy storage system. This specification is limited (1) to those portions of the plant to be added or modified in order to accomplish the proposed solar retrofit, and (2) by the conceptual design nature of the contracted study. Section 1 of this specification describes the proposed modifications to existing site conditions and facilities, and the nomenclature used. Section 2 provides a listing of applicable standards and codes, publications, reference documentation, and regulatory information. Design and performance requirements to be met by this solar cogeneration facility are outlined in Section 3, and the environmental criteria applicable to the plant are addressed in Section 4. The solar cogeneration facility's characteristics and performance data are specified in Section 5, along with the plant cost and economic data. Simulation models are also described. Appendix B presents site facility information; Appendix C covers the determination of the physical and chemical properties of copper smelter slag; Appendix D presents estimating backup sheets.

  20. Researchers Uncover Copper's Potential for Reducing CO2 Emissions...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    When used as a part of a promising coal combustion technology known as chemical looping, copper can help economically remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil fuel emissions. In ...

  1. Copper Aluminate as a potential material for high temperature...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Copper Aluminate as a potential material for high temperature thermoelectric power generation Home Author: D. T. Morelli, E. D. Case, B. D. Hall, S. Wang Year: 2008 Abstract: URL:

  2. Nucleic acid based fluorescent sensor for copper detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Yi; Liu, Juewen

    2013-04-02

    A nucleic acid enzyme responsive to copper, comprising an oligonucleotide comprising a nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO:1, wherein the nucleic acid enzyme is not self-cleaving.

  3. Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo

    2005-04-01

    Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

  4. Two-Step Reactive Aid Sintering of BaZr0.8Y0.2O3-δ Proton-Conducting Ceramics

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Wang, Siwei; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Lingling; Ren, Cong; Chen, Fanglin; Brinkman, Kyle S.

    2015-10-14

    Ceramic-based proton conductors enable high-temperature hydrogen economy applications such as hydrogen separation membranes, fuel cells, and steam electrolyzers. BaZr0.8Y0.2O3-δ (BZY) proton-conducting oxide possesses the highest level of proton conductivity reported to date, but poor sinterability hinders its widespread utilization. Here, we report a two-step reactive aid sintering (TRAS) method involving the introduction of BaCO3 and B2O3-Li2O for the preparation of dense BZY ceramics sintered at 1500°C. The resulting BZY samples showed a pure perovskite structure with a dramatic increase in the relative density to 91.5%. In addition, the shrinkage during sintering was improved to 19.3% by a TRAS method asmore » compared to 2.6% by the conventional solid date reaction method. Moreover, the bulk conductivity was improved due to enhanced densification, while the grain boundary conductivity decreased due to the blocking behavior of the sintering aid resulting in a decrease in the total conductivity of the samples.« less

  5. An overview of copper-laser development for isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, B.E.

    1987-03-13

    We have developed a copper-laser pumped dye-laser system that addresses all of the requirements for atomic vapor laser isotope separation. The requirement for high average power for the laser system has led to the development of copper-laser chains with injection-locked oscillators and multihundred-watt amplifiers. By continuously operating the Laser Demonstration Facility, we gain valuable data for further upgrade and optimization.

  6. Sodium sulfide slagging for removing copper from scrap steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leis, J.R.; Sanghvi, S.M.; Steinberg, R.M.

    1982-10-01

    Fundamental studies of sodium sulfide slagging for removing copper from scrap steel indicate that the copper distribution coefficient is 10, and that if 30 wt % FeS exists in the slag phase, no iron will be transferred to the slag from the metal phase. This process can be used commercially as an added fluxing step with minimal modifications to current electric-furnace steelmaking operations. Preliminary economic analysis shows an incremental return on investment equal to 100% per year.

  7. Measurement of electron-ion relaxation in warm dense copper

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Cho, B. I.; Ogitsu, T.; Engelhorn, K.; Correa, A. A.; Ping, Y.; Lee, J. W.; Bae, L. J.; Prendergast, D.; Falcone, R. W.; Heimann, P. A.

    2016-01-06

    Experimental investigation of electron-ion coupling and electron heat capacity of copper in warm and dense states are presented. From time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy, the temporal evolution of electron temperature is obtained for non-equilibrium warm dense copper heated by an intense femtosecond laser pulse. Electron heat capacity and electron-ion coupling are inferred from the initial electron temperature and its decrease over 10 ps. As a result, data are compared with various theoretical models.

  8. Production of reactive sintered nickel aluminide. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, February 22, 1993--May 22, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, R.M.

    1993-06-01

    Effort over the past 3 months was directed at increasing manufacturing capacity (ball milling) and improving product quality. Orders for the powder have increased, mainly for plasma spray powders. NiAl is an excellent coat between a metal and a ceramic, and its use instead of cobalt should extending operating range for carbide tools. The feather phase in the sintered Ni{sub 3}Al was identified to be a Ni-rich phase nucleated on the grain boundaries with 10 wt % Al composition. The ductile to brittle temperature of powder extruded NiAl was found to be between 500 and 600 C, and shows a 50% elongation at 600 C.

  9. Hydrostatic Microextrusion of Steel and Copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berti, Guido; Monti, Manuel; D'Angelo, Luciano

    2011-05-04

    The paper presents an experimental investigation based on hydrostatic micro extrusion of billets in low carbon steel and commercially pure copper, and the relevant results. The starting billets have a diameter of 0.3 mm and are 5 mm long; a high pressure generator consisting of a manually operated piston screw pump is used to pressurize the fluid up to 4200 bar, the screw pump is connected through a 3-way distribution block to the extrusion die and to a strain gauge high pressure sensor. The sensor has a full scale of 5000 bar and the extrusion pressure is acquired at a sampling rate of 2 kHz by means of an acquisition program written in the LabVIEW environment. Tests have been conducted at room temperature and a lubricant for wire drawing (Chemetall Gardolube DO 338) acts both as the pressurizing fluid and lubricant too. In addition, billets were graphite coated. Different fluid pressures and process durations have been adopted, resulting in different extrusion lengths. The required extrusion pressure is much higher than in non-micro forming operations (this effect is more evident for steel). On the cross section of the extruded parts, hardness and grain size distribution have been measured, the former through Vickers micro hardness (10 g load) tests. In the case of the extrusion of copper, the material behaves as in microdrawing process. In the case of the extrusion of steel, the hardness increases from the core to the surface as in the drawing process, but with lower values. The analysis evidenced the presence of the external layer, but its thickness is about 1/3 of the external layer in the drawn wire and the grains appear smaller than in the layer of the drawn wire. The extruding force required along the extruding direction is higher (22-24 N) than the drawing force along the same direction (12 N): being the material, the reduction ratio, the die sliding length the same in both cases, the higher extrusion force should be caused by a higher tangential friction

  10. Defect models for sintering and densification of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/:Ti and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/:Zr

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroger, F.A.

    1984-06-01

    A defect model proposed to explain the effect of titanium doping on the rate of sintering of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ is revised to fit the oxidizing conditions of the experiments. The model accounts for the observed change in sintering rate by a change from rate limitation by ions to rate limitation by electrons, but requires the presence of an unusually large concentration of acceptor impurities in the material. Models similar to the ones originally proposed account for the rate of densification of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/:Zr by hot-pressing in vacuo, provided it is extended by including electronics defects.

  11. Copper smelters and atmospheric visibility in the southwest, seasonal analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nochumson, D.H.; Williams, M.D.

    1984-07-01

    Seasonal results from a study which evaluated the effects of sulfur oxides (SO/sub x/) emitted from 11 copper smelters on atmospheric visibility in 14 national parks and wilderness areas are presented. In addition two alternative strategies for controlling SO/sub x/ are compared. They are supplementary control systems (SCS) and continuous emission controls (CEC). The objective of each strategy is not to improve visibility but is to meet the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/). SCS is a strategy that has been used by almost all of the 11 copper smelters. It reduces SO/sub x/ emissions during adverse meteorological conditions through production curtailment. SCS has not been successful at eliminating NAAQS violations. The emissions used for the SCS control alternative are based upon actual copper smelter SO/sub x/ emissions and operating conditions during 1979. The year 1979 was selected because it is fairly representative of production levels, though highly variable, from 1965 to 1978 and copper smelter SO/sub x/ emissions during the latter half of the 1970s. In more recent years, the copper industry has been economically depressed and copper smelter production and SO/sub x/ emissions have been lower. The southwestern states are implementing the CEC strategy to control SO/sub x/ emissions from copper smelters as part of their state implementation plans. For production levels typical of 1979, the CEC regulations would require about a two-thirds reduction in SO/sub x/ emissions from that allowed under SCS. The study estimates the effect of this reduction upon the improvement of visibility in southwestern national parks and wilderness areas.

  12. Adsorption behavior of copper and zinc in soils: Influence of pH on adsorption characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Msaky, J.J. ); Calvet, R. )

    1990-08-01

    The authors studied adsorption of copper and zinc on three different soils: a brown silty soil, an Oxisol, and a Podzol. They determined the amounts adsorbed and the shapes of adsorption isotherms as a function of the pH of the adsorbing medium at a constant ionic strength. The adsorbed amount-pH relationship depended strongly on the natures of the metallic cation and of the soil. The pH greatly influenced the characteristics of adsorption isotherms. They based interpretation on the variations with the pH of both adsorbent affinity for the metal in relation to the surface electric charge and chemical speciation in solution. The adsorption mechanism in the Oxisol probably involves monohydroxylated cations but is more determined by bivalent cations in the brown silty soil and the Podzol. From a general point of view, adsorption of copper and zinc cannot be represented with a single adsorption constant, but should be described by adsorption isotherms obtained at various pH values.

  13. Nanocarbon-copper thin film as transparent electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isaacs, R. A.; Zhu, H.; Preston, Colin; LeMieux, M.; Jaim, H. M. Iftekhar; Hu, L. Salamanca-Riba, L. G.; Mansour, A.; Zavalij, P. Y.; Rabin, O.

    2015-05-11

    Researchers seeking to enhance the properties of metals have long pursued incorporating carbon in the metallic host lattice in order to combine the strongly bonded electrons in the metal lattice that yield high ampacity and the free electrons available in carbon nanostructures that give rise to high conductivity. The incorporation of carbon nanostructures into the copper lattice has the potential to improve the current density of copper to meet the ever-increasing demands of nanoelectronic devices. We report on the structure and properties of carbon incorporated in concentrations up to 5 wt. % (∼22 at. %) into the crystal structure of copper. Carbon nanoparticles of 5 nm–200 nm in diameter in an interconnecting carbon matrix are formed within the bulk Cu samples. The carbon does not phase separate after subsequent melting and re-solidification despite the absence of a predicted solid solution at such concentrations in the C-Cu binary phase diagram. This material, so-called, Cu covetic, makes deposition of Cu films containing carbon with similar microstructure to the metal possible. Copper covetic films exhibit greater transparency, higher conductivity, and resistance to oxidation than pure copper films of the same thickness, making them a suitable choice for transparent conductors.

  14. Solid state consolidation nanocrystalline copper-tungsten using cold spray

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Aaron Christopher; Sarobol, Pylin; Argibay, Nicolas; Clark, Blythe; Diantonio, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    It is well known that nanostructured metals can exhibit significantly improved properties compared to metals with conventional grain size. Unfortunately, nanocrystalline metals typically are not thermodynamically stable and exhibit rapid grain growth at moderate temperatures. This severely limits their processing and use, making them impractical for most engineering applications. Recent work has shown that a number of thermodynamically stable nanocrystalline metal alloys exist. These alloys have been prepared as powders using severe plastic deformation (e.g. ball milling) processes. Consolidation of these powders without compromise of their nanocrystalline microstructure is a critical step to enabling their use as engineering materials. We demonstrate solid-state consolidation of ball milled copper-tantalum nanocrystalline metal powder using cold spray. Unfortunately, the nanocrystalline copper-tantalum powder that was consolidated did not contain the thermodynamically stable copper-tantalum nanostructure. Nevertheless, this does this demonstrates a pathway to preparation of bulk thermodynamically stable nanocrystalline copper-tantalum. Furthermore, it demonstrates a pathway to additive manufacturing (3D printing) of nanocrystalline copper-tantalum. Additive manufacturing of thermodynamically stable nanocrystalline metals is attractive because it enables maximum flexibility and efficiency in the use of these unique materials.

  15. Time-resolved Spectroscopy of Laser-heated Copper Foils | Stanford...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-resolved Spectroscopy of Laser-heated Copper Foils Tuesday, July 16, 2013 - 11:00am ... The volumetric heating of a thin copper target has been studied with time resolved x-ray ...

  16. Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Complete FiberCopper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure Measurement in Supercritical Reservoirs and EGS Wells Complete FiberCopper Cable Solution for Long-Term ...

  17. Local structures of copper-doped ZnO films (Journal Article)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Local structures of copper-doped ZnO films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Local structures of copper-doped ZnO films Authors: Ma, Q. ; Buchholz, D.B. ; Chang, R.P.H. ...

  18. Copper Mountain Expansion I and II Solar Power Plant | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Mountain Expansion I and II Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Copper Mountain Expansion I and II Solar Power Plant Facility Copper Mountain Expansion I and II...

  19. Investigation of the nonlocal nonlinear optical response of copper nanostructured thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmanfarmaei, B; RashidianVaziri, M R; Hajiesmaeilbaigi, F

    2014-11-30

    Nanostructured copper thin films have been prepared using the pulsed laser deposition method. Optical absorption spectra of these films exhibit plasmonic absorption peaks around 619 nm, which suggests the formation of copper nanoparticles on their surfaces. Scanning electron micrographs of the films confirm the nanoparticle formation on the films surfaces. After laser beam passing through the thin films, the observed diffraction rings on a far-field screen have been recorded. Despite the smallness of the maximal axial phase shifts of the films, which have been obtained using the nonlocal z-scan theory, a series of low-intensity rings can be observed on the far field screen for some specific positions of the thin films from the focal point. It is shown that the best approach to determining the sign and magnitude of the nonlinear refractive index of thin samples is the application of the conventional closeaperture z-scan method. (nanostructures)

  20. Interstitial carbon formation in irradiated copper-doped silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarykin, N. A.; Weber, J.

    2015-06-15

    The influence of a copper impurity on the spectrum of defects induced in p-Si crystals containing a low oxygen concentration by irradiation with electrons with an energy of 5 MeV at room temperature is studied by deep-level transient spectroscopy. It is found that interstitial carbon atoms (C{sub i}) which are the dominant defects in irradiated samples free of copper are unobservable immediately after irradiation, if the concentration of mobile interstitial copper atoms (Cu{sub i}) is higher than the concentration of radiation defects. This phenomenon is attributed to the formation of (Cu{sub i}, C{sub i}) complexes, which do not introduce levels into the lower half of the band gap. It is shown that these complexes dissociate upon annealing at temperatures of 300–340 K and, thus, bring about the appearance of interstitial carbon.

  1. Surface plasmon enhanced photoluminescence from copper nanoparticles: Influence of temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeshchenko, Oleg A. Bondarchuk, Illya S.; Losytskyy, Mykhaylo Yu.

    2014-08-07

    Anomalous temperature dependence of surface plasmon enhanced photoluminescence from copper nanoparticles embedded in a silica host matrix has been observed. The quantum yield of photoluminescence increases as the temperature increases. The key role of such an effect is the interplay between the surface plasmon resonance and the interband transitions in the copper nanoparticles occurring at change of the temperature. Namely, the increase of temperature leads to the red shift of the resonance. The shift leads to increase of the spectral overlap of the resonance with photoluminescence band of copper as well as to the decrease of plasmon damping caused by interband transitions. Such mechanisms lead to the increase of surface plasmon enhancement factor and, consequently, to increase of the quantum yield of the photoluminescence.

  2. Reclamation of acidic, denuded copper basin land: Revegetation performance of phosphate rock vs other nutrient sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soileau, J.M.; Sikora, F.J.; Maddox, J.J.; Kelsoe, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    Open pit smelting of Copper ore about 100 years ago resulted in approximately 9,300 ha of severely eroded, very acidic (pH 4.0 to 5.0) soils at Copper Basin, Tennessee. Along with other essential nutrients, phosphorus (P) amendments are critical for long-term productivity and sustainability of vegetation on this depleted soil. A field study was conducted (1992-1995) to compare revegetation from surface-applied North Carolina phosphate rock (PR) and triple superphosphate (TSP) at 20, 59, and 295 kg P ha{sup -1}, and to determine benefits of starter NPK tree tablets. The experimental design consisted of 7.3 x 9.1 m replicated plots, each planted to 20 loblolly pine seedlings and aerially seeded with a mixture of grasses and legumes. Tree survivability was high from all treatments. Through the third year, tree height and diameter increased with increasing P to 59 kg P ha without fertilizer tablets. There were no pine growth differences between PR and TSP. Weeping lovegrass has been the dominant cover crop through 1995, with increased stimulation to tree tablets and surface P. Tall fescue (KY 31), sericea lespedeza, and black locust responded more to PR than to TSP. Surface soil pH increased, and 0.01 M SrCl{sub 2} extractable Al decreased, with increasing rate of PR. For future loblolly pine plantings in the Copper Basin, this study suggests there is no benefit to applying both tree tablets and surface P at rates above 59 kg P ha{sup -1}. For reclaiming land with high acidity and low P fertility, PR has significant benefits. In reclaiming steep, gullied land, there is great potential for aerial application of PR and/or pelletized liming agents.

  3. Steady Deflagration of PBX-9501 Within a Copper Cylinder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pemberton, Steven J.; Herrera, Dennis H.; Herrera, Tommy J.; Arellano, Jesus C.; Sandoval, Thomas D.

    2012-06-26

    A copper cylinder cook-off experiment has been designed to cause steady deflagration in PBX-9501 explosive material. The design is documented and preliminary copper expansion results are presented for steady deflagration with a reaction speed of 1092 +/- 24 m/s. The expansion of reaction products from the detonation of an explosive is something that is well understood, and reasonably simulated using documented equations of state (EOS) for many explosives of interest. These EOS were historically measured using a 'standard' copper cylinder test design; this design comprised an annealed, oxygen-free high conductivity (OFHC) copper tube filled with explosive material and detonated from one end. Expansion of the copper wall was measured as a function of time using either a streak camera (for classic testing), or more recently using laser velocimetry techniques. Expansion data were then used to derive the EOS in various preferred forms - which are not discussed here for the sake of brevity. [Catanach, et. al., 1999] When an explosive deflagrates rather than detonating, simulation becomes more difficult. Reaction products are released on a slower time scale, and the reactions are much more affected by the geometry and local temperature within the reaction environment. It is assumed that the standard, documented EOS will no longer apply. In an effort to establish a first order approximation of deflagration product behavior, a cook-off test has been designed to cause steady deflagration in PBX-9501 explosive material, and to record the copper expansion profile as a function of time during this test. The purpose of the current paper is to document the initial test design and report some preliminary results. A proposal for modification of the design is also presented.

  4. Refining of solid ferrous scrap intermingled with copper by using molten aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwase, M.

    1996-12-31

    A new approach for the removal of copper from solid ferrous scrap has been proposed by the present authors. With this process, solid ferrous scrap intermingled with pure copper is brought into contact with molten aluminum, which dissolved copper preferentially, and is recovered as {l_brace}Al + Cu{r_brace} alloys. After a duration of 30 minutes at temperatures between 963 K and 1,223 K, steel scrap is removed from the bath, resulting in being free of copper contamination.

  5. Utilization of solar cogeneration in conjunction with a copper smelter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prieto, R.; Damsker, P.J.

    1982-08-01

    The results of a study investigating solar cogeneration in conjunction with a flash furnace copper smelting operation in southwest New Mexico are presented. Results include a discussion of the overall system configuration with particular emphasis on system design, operation and control. Preliminary findings of the study indicate the potential for an increase in copper production of up to 90 percent due to the higher oxygen content of ambient air relative to the currently combusted air source. Projected capital costs estimates for the facility coupled with appropriate schedule and economic assumptions indicate that a return on investment in excess of 30 percent is achievable.

  6. High pressure melting curves of silver, gold and copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hieu, Ho Khac

    2013-11-15

    In this work, based on the Lindemann's formula of melting and the pressure-dependent Grüneisen parameter, we have investigated the pressure effect on melting temperature of silver, gold and copper metals. The analytical expression of melting temperature as a function of volume compression has been derived. Our results are compared with available experimental data as well as with previous theoretical studies and the good and reasonable agreements are found. We also proposed the potential of this approach on predicting melting of copper at very high pressure.

  7. Observation of diamond turned OFHC copper using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigg, D.A.; Russell, P.E.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01

    Diamond turned OFHC copper samples have been observed within the past few months using the Scanning Tunneling Microscope. Initial results have shown evidence of artifacts which may be used to better understand the diamond turning process. The STM`s high resolution capability and three dimensional data representation allows observation and study of surface features unobtainable with conventional profilometry systems. Also, the STM offers a better quantitative means by which to analyze surface structures than the SEM. This paper discusses findings on several diamond turned OFHC copper samples having different cutting conditions. Each sample has been cross referenced using STM and SEM.

  8. Final report on the Copper Mountain conference on multigrid methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    The Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid Methods was held on April 6-11, 1997. It took the same format used in the previous Copper Mountain Conferences on Multigrid Method conferences. Over 87 mathematicians from all over the world attended the meeting. 56 half-hour talks on current research topics were presented. Talks with similar content were organized into sessions. Session topics included: fluids; domain decomposition; iterative methods; basics; adaptive methods; non-linear filtering; CFD; applications; transport; algebraic solvers; supercomputing; and student paper winners.

  9. Corrosion of Nuclear Fuel Inside a Failed Copper Nuclear Waste Container

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broczkowski, Michael E.; Goldik, Jonathan S.; Santos, Billy G.; Noel, James J.; Shoesmith, David

    2007-07-01

    Canada's Nuclear Waste Management Organization has recommended to the Canadian federal government an adaptive phased management approach to the long-term management of used nuclear fuel. This approach includes isolation in a deep geologic repository. In such a repository, the fuel would be sealed inside a carbon steel-lined copper container. To assist the development of performance assessment models studies of fuel behaviour inside a failed waste container are underway. Using an iterative modeling and experimental approach, the important features and processes that determine fuel behaviour have been identified and studied. These features and processes are discussed and the results of studies to elucidate specific mechanisms and determine important parameter values summarized. (authors)

  10. Characterization using thermomechanical and differential thermal analysis of the sinterization of Portland clinker doped with CaF{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dominguez, O.; Torres-Castillo, A.; Flores-Velez, L.M.; Torres, R.

    2010-04-15

    In this work, the sintering process of Portland cement was studied by combining thermomechanical analysis (TMA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA), together with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermal analysis results employing both techniques indicted that phase transformations appeared at lower temperatures when CaF{sub 2} was incorporated in the raw materials. Besides, it was observed at high temperature that in some phase transformations TMA conducts to better resolution compared with the DTA measurements. Furthermore, mechanical properties and X-ray diffraction patterns corroborate the TMA and DTA results, corroborating that the final amount of alite (Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5}) is higher when a certain amount of CaF{sub 2} was present during the clinkerization process.

  11. The Manufacturing of High Porosity Iron with an Ultra-Fine Microstructure via Free Pressureless Spark Plasma Sintering

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Cui, Guodong; Wei, Xialu; Olevsky, Eugene; German, Randall; Chen, Junying

    2016-06-01

    High porosity (>40 vol %) iron specimens with micro- and nanoscale isotropic pores were fabricated by carrying out free pressureless spark plasma sintering (FPSPS) of submicron hollow Fe–N powders at 750 °C. Ultra-fine porous microstructures are obtained by imposing high heating rates during the preparation process. This specially designed approach not only avoids the extra procedures of adding and removing space holders during the formation of porous structures, but also triggers the continued phase transitions of the Fe–N system at relatively lower processing temperatures. In conclusion, the compressive strength and energy absorption characteristics of the FPSPS processed specimens are examinedmore » here to be correspondingly improved as a result of the refined microstructure.« less

  12. Gas response properties of citrate gel synthesized nanocrystalline MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}: Effect of sintering temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patil, J.Y.; Mulla, I.S.; Suryavanshi, S.S.

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Synthesis of nanocrystalline MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} by economical citrate gel combustion method. ? Structural, morphological, and gas response properties of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. ? Enhancement in selectivity of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} towards LPG with sintering temperature. ? Use of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} to detect different gases at different operating temperatures. -- Abstract: Spinel type MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} material was synthesized by citrate gel combustion method. The effect of sintering temperature on structural, morphological, and gas response properties was studied. The powder X-ray diffraction pattern and transmission electron microscope study confirms nanocrystalline spinel structure of the synthesized powder. The material was tested for response properties to various reducing gases like liquid petroleum gas (LPG), acetone, ethanol, and ammonia. The results demonstrated n-type semiconducting behavior of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} material. It was revealed that MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sintered at 973 K was most sensitive to LPG at 648 K and to acetone at 498 K. However MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sintered at 1173 K exhibited higher response and selectivity to LPG with marginal increase in the operating temperature. Furthermore, the sensor exhibited a fast response and a good recovery. It was observed that the particles size, porosity, and surface activity of the sensor material is affected by the sintering temperature.

  13. Determination of the fundamental softening and melting characteristics of blast furnace burden materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakker, T.; Heerema, R.H.

    1996-12-31

    An experimental technique to investigate the fundamental mechanisms taking place on a microscale in the softening and melting zone in the blast furnace, is presented. In the present paper, attention is focused on determination of the softening viscosity of porous wustite. The technique may be potentially useful to investigate more complex samples of ironbearing material, as occurring in the blast furnace. In comparison with the results obtained by other researchers the viscosity of porous wustite found in the present work is substantially higher than reported elsewhere for sinter and pellets. This may be an indication that softening is not merely a reflection of the solid state deformation under load of wustite. An important factor may be local melting of some of the phases present within the sinter and pellet structures.

  14. Recovery of iron and copper from copper smelting furnace slags by carbon injection. Report of investigations/1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paige, J.I.; Paulson, D.L.; Hunter, W.

    1982-09-01

    The Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, conducts research on methods to minimize the requirements for mineral raw materials through conservation, substitution, and increased minerals and metals recovery from primary and secondary domestic resources. To further this goal, prior Bureau research had devised a pyrometallurgical technique (RI 8211) to recover metallic iron and copper from molten copper smelting furnace slags by carbothermic reduction. As a continuation of this Bureau research on the carbon injection technique, reverberatory and electric furnace slags were treated in an 800-kva electric arc furnace by simultaneously top feeding the slag and injecting coke breeze into the bottom of the molten bath.

  15. Thermal chemistry of the Cu-KI5 atomic layer deposition precursor on a copper surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Qiang; Zaera, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The thermal chemistry of a Cu(I) ketoiminate complex, Cu-KI5, resulting from the modification of the known Air Products CupraSelect{sup } copper CVD precursor Cu(hfac)(tmvs) designed to tether the two ligands via an isopropoxide linker, was studied under ultrahigh vacuum on a Cu(110) single-crystal surface by using a combination of temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Adsorption at low temperatures was determined to take place via the displacement of the vinyl ligand by the surface. Molecular desorption was seen at 210?K, and the evolution of Cu(II)-KI5{sub 2} was established to take place at 280?K, presumably from a disproportionation reaction that also leads to the deposition of Cu(0). Other sets of desorption products were seen at 150, 250, and 430?K, all containing copper atoms and small organic moieties with molecular masses below 100 amu. The latter TPD peak in particular indicates significant fragmentation of the ligands, likely at the CN bond that holds the vinylsilane-isopropoxide moiety tethered to the ketoimine fragment, and possibly also at the union between the vinylsilane and the alkoxide linker. The 430?K temperature measured for this chemistry may set an upper limit for clean Cu film deposition, but since reactivity on the surface was also found to be inhibited at higher surface coverages, it may be delayed to higher temperatures under atomic layer deposition conditions.

  16. Thermal flux limited electron Kapitza conductance in copper-niobium multilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheaito, Ramez; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Gaskins, John T.; Yadav, Ajay K.; Duda, John C.; Beechem, III, Thomas Edwin; Ihlefeld, Jon; Piekos, Edward S.; Baldwin, Jon K.; Misra, Amit; Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2015-03-05

    The interplay between the contributions of electron thermal flux and interface scattering to the Kapitza conductance across metal-metal interfaces through measurements of thermal conductivity of copper-niobium multilayers was studied. Thermal conductivities of copper-niobium multilayer films of period thicknesses ranging from 5.4 to 96.2 nm and sample thicknesses ranging from 962 to 2677 nm are measured by time-domain thermoreflectance over a range of temperatures from 78 to 500 K. The Kapitza conductances between the Cu and Nb interfaces in multilayer films are determined from the thermal conductivities using a series resistor model and are in good agreement with the electron diffuse mismatch model. The results for the thermal boundary conductance between Cu and Nb are compared to literature values for the thermal boundary conductance across Al-Cu and Pd-Ir interfaces, and demonstrate that the interface conductance in metallic systems is dictated by the temperature derivative of the electron energy flux in the metallic layers, rather than electron mean free path or scattering processes at the interface.

  17. Thermal flux limited electron Kapitza conductance in copper-niobium multilayers

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Cheaito, Ramez; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Gaskins, John T.; Yadav, Ajay K.; Duda, John C.; Beechem, III, Thomas Edwin; Ihlefeld, Jon; Piekos, Edward S.; Baldwin, Jon K.; Misra, Amit; et al

    2015-03-05

    The interplay between the contributions of electron thermal flux and interface scattering to the Kapitza conductance across metal-metal interfaces through measurements of thermal conductivity of copper-niobium multilayers was studied. Thermal conductivities of copper-niobium multilayer films of period thicknesses ranging from 5.4 to 96.2 nm and sample thicknesses ranging from 962 to 2677 nm are measured by time-domain thermoreflectance over a range of temperatures from 78 to 500 K. The Kapitza conductances between the Cu and Nb interfaces in multilayer films are determined from the thermal conductivities using a series resistor model and are in good agreement with the electron diffusemore » mismatch model. The results for the thermal boundary conductance between Cu and Nb are compared to literature values for the thermal boundary conductance across Al-Cu and Pd-Ir interfaces, and demonstrate that the interface conductance in metallic systems is dictated by the temperature derivative of the electron energy flux in the metallic layers, rather than electron mean free path or scattering processes at the interface.« less

  18. Coagulation of quartz particles in aqueous solutions of copper(II)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, I.; Pugh, R.J.

    1998-12-15

    The colloidal stability of quartz suspension was determined over a wide range of pH in aqueous copper nitrate where the state of Cu(II) is changed from mainly aqua ions and monohydroxyl complexes in the acid and neutral pH to polynuclear hydroxo complexes and colloidal precipitated copper hydroxide at higher pH. Two regions of instability were observed and in both cases the particles were shown to have low electrophoretic mobility. In the neutral pH region, the uptake of Cu(II) was sufficient to reduce the mobility of the particles to zero, while in the high-pH region evidence suggested coagulation between precipitated Cu(OH){sub 2} and the quartz particles. It was shown that in all cases the coagulation was reversible and that the uptake of Cu(II) was dependent on the uncharged surface hydroxyl density. Studies of the coagulation kinetics showed that extended time scales were involved (several minutes in the neutral pH region to tens of minutes at high pH).

  19. The E1 copper binding domain of full-length amyloid precursor protein mitigates copper-induced growth inhibition in brain metastatic prostate cancer DU145 cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gough, Mallory Blanthorn-Hazell, Sophee Delury, Craig Parkin, Edward

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • Copper levels are elevated in the tumour microenvironment. • APP mitigates copper-induced growth inhibition of DU145 prostate cancer (PCa) cells. • The APP intracellular domain is a prerequisite; soluble forms have no effect. • The E1 CuBD of APP is also a prerequisite. • APP copper binding potentially mitigates copper-induced PCa cell growth inhibition. - Abstract: Copper plays an important role in the aetiology and growth of tumours and levels of the metal are increased in the serum and tumour tissue of patients affected by a range of cancers including prostate cancer (PCa). The molecular mechanisms that enable cancer cells to proliferate in the presence of elevated copper levels are, therefore, of key importance in our understanding of tumour growth progression. In the current study, we have examined the role played by the amyloid precursor protein (APP) in mitigating copper-induced growth inhibition of the PCa cell line, DU145. A range of APP molecular constructs were stably over-expressed in DU145 cells and their effects on cell proliferation in the presence of copper were monitored. Our results show that endogenous APP expression was induced by sub-toxic copper concentrations in DU145 cells and over-expression of the wild-type protein was able to mitigate copper-induced growth inhibition via a mechanism involving the cytosolic and E1 copper binding domains of the full-length protein. APP likely represents one of a range of copper binding proteins that PCa cells employ in order to ensure efficient proliferation despite elevated concentrations of the metal within the tumour microenvironment. Targeting the expression of such proteins may contribute to therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cancers.

  20. Copper oxide/N-silicon heterojunction photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Tom; Ghosh, Amal K.

    1982-01-01

    A photovoltaic device having characteristics of a high efficiency solar cell comprising a Cu.sub.x O/n-Si heterojunction. The Cu.sub.x O layer is formed by heating a deposited copper layer in an oxygen containing ambient.

  1. Method for extracting copper, silver and related metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, Bruce A.; McDowell, W. J.

    1990-01-01

    A process for selectively extracting precious metals such as silver and gold concurrent with copper extraction from aqueous solutions containing the same. The process utilizes tetrathiamacrocycles and high molecular weight organic acids that exhibit a synergistic relationship when complexing with certain metal ions thereby removing them from ore leach solutions.

  2. Cryogenic properties of dispersion strengthened copper for high magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toplosky, V. J.; Han, K.; Walsh, R. P.; Swenson, C. A.

    2014-01-27

    Cold deformed copper matrix composite conductors, developed for use in the 100 tesla multi-shot pulsed magnet at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL), have been characterized. The conductors are alumina strengthened copper which is fabricated by cold drawing that introduces high dislocation densities and high internal stresses. Both alumina particles and high density of dislocations provide us with high tensile strength and fatigue endurance. The conductors also have high electrical conductivities because alumina has limited solubility in Cu and dislocations have little scattering effect on conduction electrons. Such a combination of high strength and high conductivity makes it an excellent candidate over other resistive magnet materials. Thus, characterization is carried out by tensile testing and fully reversible fatigue testing. In tensile tests, the material exceeds the design criteria parameters. In the fatigue tests, both the load and displacement were measured and used to control the amplitude of the tests to simulate the various loading conditions in the pulsed magnet which is operated at 77 K in a non-destructive mode. In order to properly simulate the pulsed magnet operation, strain-controlled tests were more suitable than load controlled tests. For the dispersion strengthened coppers, the strengthening mechanism of the aluminum oxide provided better tensile and fatigue properties over convention copper.

  3. Industrial applications of high-power copper vapor lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, B.E.; Boley, C.D.; Chang, J.J.; Dragon, E.P.; Havstad, M.A.; Martinez, M.; McLean, W. II

    1995-08-01

    A growing appreciation has developed in the last several years for the copper vapor laser because of its utility in ablating difficult materials at high rates. Laser ablation at high rates shows promise for numerous industrial applications such as thin film deposition, precision hole drilling, and machining of ceramics and other refractories.

  4. Method for extracting copper, silver and related metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, B.A.; McDowell, W.J.

    1987-10-23

    A process for selectively extracting precious metals such as silver and gold concurrent with copper extraction from aqueous solutions containing the same. The process utilizes tetrathiamacrocycles and high molecular weight organic acids that exhibit a synergistic relationship when complexing with certain metal ions thereby removing them from ore leach solutions.

  5. CX-100048: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    48: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-100048: Categorical Exclusion Determination Rapid Development of Hybrid Perovskites and Novel Tandem Architectures CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6, B3.15 Date: 09/09/2014 Location(s): Washington Offices(s): Golden Field Office Technology Office: Solar Energy Technologies Award Number: DE-EE0006710 DOE is proposing to provide funding to University of Washington to develop novel architecture solar cells utilizing hybrid perovskites and a Copper-Indium-Gallium

  6. Electroreduction of carbon monoxide over a copper nanocube catalyst: Surface structure and pH dependence on selectivity

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Roberts, F. Sloan; Kuhl, Kendra P.; Nilsson, Anders

    2016-02-16

    The activity and selectivity for CO2/CO reduction over copper electrodes is strongly dependent on the local surface structure of the catalyst and the pH of the electrolyte. Here we investigate a unique, copper nanocube surface (CuCube) as a CO reduction electrode under neutral and basic pH, using online electrochemical mass spectroscopy (OLEMS) to determine the onset potentials and relative intensities of methane and ethylene production. To relate the unique selectivity to the surface structure, the CuCube surface reactivity is compared to polycrystalline copper and three single crystals under the same reaction conditions. Here, we find that the high selectivity formore » ethylene over the CuCube surface is most comparable to the Cu(100) surface, which has the cubic unit cell. However, the suppression of methane production over CuCube is unique to that particular surface. Basic pH is also shown to enhance ethylene selectivity on all surfaces, again with the CuCube surface being unique.« less

  7. Process for removing copper in a recoverable form from solid scrap metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartman, Alan D.; Oden, Laurance L.; White, Jack C.

    1995-01-01

    A process for removing copper in a recoverable form from a copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix is disclosed. The process begins by placing a copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix into a reactor vessel. The atmosphere within the reactor vessel is purged with an inert gas or oxidizing while the reactor vessel is heated in the area of the copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix to raise the temperature within the reactor vessel to a selected elevated temperature. Air is introduced into the reactor vessel and thereafter hydrogen chloride is introduced into the reactor vessel to obtain a desired air-hydrogen chloride mix. The air-hydrogen chloride mix is operable to form an oxidizing and chloridizing atmosphere which provides a protective oxide coating on the surface of the solid ferrous scrap metal in the mix and simultaneously oxidizes/chloridizes the copper in the mix to convert the copper to a copper monochloride gas for transport away from the solid ferrous scrap metal. After the copper is completely removed from the copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix, the flows of air and hydrogen chloride are stopped and the copper monochloride gas is collected for conversion to a recoverable copper species.

  8. Copper contamination effects on hydrogen-air combustion under SCRAMJET (supersonic combustion ramjet) testing conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Berry, G.F.

    1990-01-01

    Two forms of copper catalytic reactions (homogeneous and heterogeneous) in hydrogen flames were found in a literature survey. Hydrogen atoms in flames recombine into hydrogen molecules through catalytic reactions, and these reactions which affect the timing of the combustion process. Simulations of hydrogen flames with copper contamination were conducted by using a modified general chemical kinetics program (GCKP). Results show that reaction times of hydrogen flames are shortened by copper catalytic reactions, but ignition times are relatively insensitive to the reactions. The reduction of reaction time depends on the copper concentration, copper phase, particle size (if copper is in the condensed phase), and initial temperature and pressure. The higher the copper concentration of the smaller the particle, the larger the reduction in reaction time. For a supersonic hydrogen flame (Mach number = 4.4) contaminated with 200 ppm of gaseous copper species, the calculated reaction times are reduced by about 9%. Similar reductions in reaction time are also computed for heterogeneous copper contamination. Under scramjet testing conditions, the change of combustion timing appears to be tolerable (less than 5%) if the Mach number is lower than 3 or the copper contamination is less than 100 ppm. The higher rate the Mach number, the longer the reaction time and the larger the copper catalytic effects. 7 tabs., 8 figs., 34 refs.

  9. Experimental evidence on removing copper and light-induced degradation from silicon by negative charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boulfrad, Yacine Lindroos, Jeanette; Yli-Koski, Marko; Savin, Hele; Wagner, Matthias; Wolny, Franziska

    2014-11-03

    In addition to boron and oxygen, copper is also known to cause light-induced degradation (LID) in silicon. We have demonstrated previously that LID can be prevented by depositing negative corona charge onto the wafer surfaces. Positively charged interstitial copper ions are proposed to diffuse to the negatively charged surface and consequently empty the bulk of copper. In this study, copper out-diffusion was confirmed by chemical analysis of the near surface region of negatively/positively charged silicon wafer. Furthermore, LID was permanently removed by etching the copper-rich surface layer after negative charge deposition. These results demonstrate that (i) copper can be effectively removed from the bulk by negative charge, (ii) under illumination copper forms a recombination active defect in the bulk of the wafer causing severe light induced degradation.

  10. Effect of roasting with ammonium sulfate and sulfuric acid on the extraction of copper and cobalt from copper converter slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamamci, C.; Ziyadanogullari, B. )

    1991-08-01

    Copper converter slag, provided by Ergani Copper Co. of Etibank and containing 2.56% copper and 0.22% cobalt, was roasted with ammonium sulfate. The effects of such parameters as temperature (200-600C), duration of roasting (15-120 min), and amount of ammonium sulfate (0.5-2.5 times stoichiometric) have been studied. Under optimum conditions (slag size, {minus}100 mesh; stoichiometric requirement of ammonium sulfate; roasting temperature of 400 C for 60 min), the authors obtained 88% Cu and 67% Co by extraction. Similar studies were carried out with concentrated sulfuric acid. The influence of experimental variables such as roasting temperature (25-300C), roasting period (30-120 min), and amount of sulfuric acid (0.5-2 times stoichiometric) has been studied. Under atmospheric conditions, i.e., at 200C and a roasting period of 60 min with 1.5 times the stoichiometric amount of sulfuric acid, recoveries of copper and cobalt were 82 and 96% respectively.

  11. SU-C-213-05: Evaluation of a Composite Copper-Plastic Material for a 3D Printed Radiation Therapy Bolus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitzthum, L; Ehler, E; Sterling, D; Reynolds, T; Higgins, P; Dusenbery, K

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate a novel 3D printed bolus fabricated from a copper-plastic composite as a thin flexible, custom fitting device that can replicate doses achieved with conventional bolus techniques. Methods: Two models of bolus were created on a 3D printer using a composite copper-PLA/PHA. Firstly, boluses were constructed at thicknesses of 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mm. Relative dose measurements were performed under the bolus with an Attix Chamber as well as with radiochromic film. Results were compared to superficial Attix Chamber measurements in a water equivalent material to determine the dosimetric water equivalence of the copper-PLA/PHA plastic. Secondly, CT images of a RANDO phantom were used to create a custom fitting bolus across the anterolateral scalp. Surface dose with the bolus placed on the RANDO phantom was measured with radiochromic film at tangential angles with 6, 10, 10 flattening filter free (FFF) and 18 MV photon beams. Results: Mean surface doses for 6, 10, 10FFF and 18 MV were measured as a percent of Dmax for the flat bolus devices of each thickness. The 0.4 mm thickness bolus was determined to be near equivalent to 2.5 mm depth in water for all four energies. Surface doses ranged from 59–63% without bolus and 85–90% with the custom 0.4 mm copper-plastic bolus relative to the prescribed dose for an oblique tangential beam arrangement on the RANDO phantom. Conclusion: Sub-millimeter thickness, 3D printed composite copper-PLA/PHA bolus can provide a build-up effect equivalent to conventional bolus. At this thickness, the 3D printed bolus allows a level of flexure that may provide more patient comfort than current 3D printing materials used in bolus fabrication while still retaining the CT based custom patient shape. Funding provided by an intra-department grant of the University of Minnesota Department of Radiation Oncology.

  12. Mineralization and optical characterization of copper oxide nanoparticles using a high aspect ratio bio-template

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaman, Mohammed Shahriar; Haberer, Elaine D.

    2014-10-21

    Organized chains of copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized, without palladium (Pd) activation, using the M13 filamentous virus as a biological template. The interaction of Cu precursor ions with the negatively charged viral coat proteins were studied with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Discrete nanoparticles with an average diameter of 4.5 nm and narrow size distribution were closely spaced along the length of the high aspect ratio templates. The synthesized material was identified as a mixture of cubic Cu₂O and monoclinic CuO. UV/Vis absorption measurements were completed and a direct optical band gap of 2.87 eV was determined using Tauc's method. This value was slightly larger than bulk, signaling quantum confinement effects within the templated materials.

  13. Copper substrate as a catalyst for the oxidation of chemical vapor deposition-grown graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhiting; Zhou, Feng; Parobek, David; Shenoy, Ganesh J.; Muldoon, Patrick; Liu, Haitao

    2015-04-15

    We report the catalytic effect of copper substrate on graphene–oxygen reaction at high temperature. Previous studies showed that graphene grown on copper are mostly defect-free with strong oxidation resistance. We found that a freshly prepared copper-supported graphene sample can be completely oxidized in trace amount of oxygen (<3 ppm) at 600 °C within 2 h. Both X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) suggest that upon ambient air exposure, oxygen molecules diffuse into the space between graphene and copper, resulting in the formation of copper oxide which acts as catalytic sites for the graphene-oxygen reaction. This result has important implications for the characterization, processing, and storage of copper-supported graphene samples. - Graphical abstract: The copper substrate enhances the thermel oxidation of single-layer graphene. - Highlights: • A copper-supported graphene can be oxidized in Ar (O{sub 2}<3 ppm, 600 °C, 2 h). • O{sub 2} intercalates between graphene and copper upon exposure to air. • The copper foil should not be considered as an inert substrate.

  14. Methods of making copper selenium precursor compositions with a targeted copper selenide content and precursor compositions and thin films resulting therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Ginley, David S.; Leisch, Jennifer; Taylor, Matthew; Stanbery, Billy J.

    2011-09-20

    Precursor compositions containing copper and selenium suitable for deposition on a substrate to form thin films suitable for semi-conductor applications. Methods of forming the precursor compositions using primary amine solvents and methods of forming the thin films wherein the selection of temperature and duration of heating controls the formation of a targeted species of copper selenide.

  15. Inhibitory effect of Disulfiram/copper complex on non-small cell lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, Lincan; Shen, Hongmei; Zhao, Guangqiang; Yang, Runxiang; Cai, Xinyi; Zhang, Lijuan; Jin, Congguo; Huang, Yunchao

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Disulfiram and copper synergistically inhibit lung cancer cell proliferation. • Lung cancer cell colony formation ability is inhibited by Disulfiram/copper. • Disulfiram/copper increases the sensitivity of cisplatin to lung cancer cells. • Lung cancer stem cells are specifically targeted by Disulfiram/copper complex. - Abstract: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cause of cancer-related death in both men and women worldwide. Recently, Disulfiram has been reported to be able to inhibit glioblastoma, prostate, or breast cancer cell proliferation. In this study, the synergistic effect of Disulfiram and copper on NSCLC cell growth was investigated. Inhibition of cancer cell proliferation was detected by 1-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenylformazan (MTT) assay and cell cycle analysis. Liquid colony formation and tumor spheroid formation assays were used to evaluate their effect on cancer cell clonogenicity. Real-time PCR was performed to test the mRNA level of cancer stem cell related genes. We found that Disulfiram or copper alone did not potently inhibit NSCLC cell proliferation in vitro. However, the presence of copper significantly enhanced inhibitory effect of Disulfiram on NSCLC cell growth, indicating a synergistic effect between Disulfiram and copper. Cell cycle analysis showed that Disulfiram/copper complex caused NSCLC cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. Furthermore, Disulfiram/copper significantly increased the sensitivity of cisplatin in NSCLC cells tested by MTT assay. Liquid colony formation assay revealed that copper dramatically increased the inhibitory effect of Disulfiram on NSCLC cell colony forming ability. Disulfiram combined with copper significantly attenuated NSCLC cell spheroid formation and recuded the mRNA expression of lung cancer stem cell related genes. Our data suggest that Disulfiram/copper complex alone or combined with other chemotherapy is a potential therapeutic strategy for NSCLC patients.

  16. Determining whether metals nucleate homogeneously on graphite: A case study with copper

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Appy, David; Lei, Huaping; Han, Yong; Wang, Cai -Zhuang; Tringides, Michael C.; Shao, Dahai; Kwolek, Emma J.; Evans, J. W.; Thiel, P. A.

    2014-11-05

    In this study, we observe that Cu clusters grow on surface terraces of graphite as a result of physical vapor deposition in ultrahigh vacuum. We show that the observation is incompatible with a variety of models incorporating homogeneous nucleation and calculations of atomic-scale energetics. An alternative explanation, ion-mediated heterogeneous nucleation, is proposed and validated, both with theory and experiment. This serves as a case study in identifying when and whether the simple, common observation of metal clusters on carbon-rich surfaces can be interpreted in terms of homogeneous nucleation. We describe a general approach for making system-specific and laboratory-specific predictions.

  17. Zinc, iron, manganese, and magnesium accumulation in crayfish populations near copper-nickel smelters at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagatto, G.; Alikhan, M.A.

    1987-06-01

    The Sudbury basin has been subjected to extreme ecological disturbances from logging, mining and smelting activities. Elevated concentrations of copper, cadmium, and nickel have been reported in crayfish populations close to the Sudbury smelting works. The present study compares concentrations of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and magnesium (Mg) in freshwater crayfish at selected distances of the habitat from the emission source. These metals were selected since they are known to be emitted in moderately high quantities into the Sudbury environment as byproduct of the smelting process. Various tissue concentrations in crayfish were also examined to determined specific tissue sites for these accumulations.

  18. Grain refinement in heavy rare earth element-free sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets by addition of a small amount of molybdenum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jin Woo; Lee, Won Suk; Byun, Jong Min; Kim, Young Do; Kim, Se Hoon

    2015-05-07

    We employed a modified refractory-metal-addition method to achieve higher coercivity and remanence in heavy rare earth element (HREE)-free Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets. This process involved inducing the formation of a homogeneous secondary phase at the grain boundaries during sintering, making it possible to control the intergrain diffusion by adding small amounts of Mo, a refractory metal. To control the microstructure of the secondary phase effectively, a metal organic compound of the refractory metal was coated on the surfaces of the particles of an HREE-free Nd–Fe–B powder. The average grain size after this process was 5.60 μm, which was approximately 1.8 μm smaller than that of the HREE-free sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets (7.4 μm). The coercivity of the magnets prepared through this process could be increased from 11.88 kOe to 13.91 kOe without decreasing their remanence.

  19. Effect of sintering in ball-milled K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13} thermoelectric nano-composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatzikraniotis, E.; Ioannou, M.; Chrissafis, K.; Chung, D.Y.; Paraskevopoulos, K.M.; Kyratsi, Th.

    2012-09-15

    K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13} has many attractive features for thermoelectric applications. Recently, K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based nanocomposite materials, consisting of nano-crystalline, micro-crystalline and amorphous phases, have been fabricated based on powder technology techniques. The Seebeck coefficient has been enhanced while the thermal conductivity has been decreased presenting, thus, interesting behavior. The behavior of the materials under heat treatment conditions is now of interest, as the application of sintering process is necessary for the development of thermoelectric modules. In this work, the crystallization of the K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based nano-composites is studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The results show that crystallization follows a multiple-step process with different activation energies. The thermoelectric properties are also discussed in the range that crystallization occurs. - Graphical Abstract: {beta}-K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based nanocomposites follow a multiple-step crystallization process. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based composites consisting of nanocrystalline and amorphous phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sintering results multiple-step crystallization with variable activation energies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermoelectric properties follow a step-like behavior during sintering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Properties are attributed to the strain relaxation, nucleation and grain growth.

  20. Amorphous copper tungsten oxide with tunable band gaps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Le; Shet, Sudhakar; Tang Houwen; Wang Heli; Yan Yanfa; Turner, John; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; Ahn, Kwang-soon

    2010-08-15

    We report on the synthesis of amorphous copper tungsten oxide thin films with tunable band gaps. The thin films are synthesized by the magnetron cosputtering method. We find that due to the amorphous nature, the Cu-to-W ratio in the films can be varied without the limit of the solubility (or phase separation) under appropriate conditions. As a result, the band gap and conductivity type of the films can be tuned by controlling the film composition. Unfortunately, the amorphous copper tungsten oxides are not stable in aqueous solution and are not suitable for the application of photoelectrochemical splitting of water. Nonetheless, it provides an alternative approach to search for transition metal oxides with tunable band gaps.

  1. Solvothermal synthesis of copper sulfide semiconductor micro/nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)] [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Xue, Dongfeng, E-mail: dfxue@chem.dlut.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)] [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)

    2010-03-15

    Covellite copper sulfide (CuS) micro/nanometer crystals in the shape of hierarchical doughnut-shaped, superstructured spheric-shaped and flowerlike architectures congregated from those nanoplates with the thickness of 20-100 nm have been prepared by a solvothermal method. The as-obtained CuS products were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). A systematic investigation has been carried out to understand the factors influencing the evolution of CuS particle morphology which found to be predominant by solvent, surfactant, sulfur resource and copper salt. The possible formation mechanism for the nanostructure formation was also discussed. These CuS products show potential applications in solar cell, photothermal conversion and chemical sensor.

  2. Copper-assisted, anti-reflection etching of silicon surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toor, Fatima; Branz, Howard

    2014-08-26

    A method (300) for etching a silicon surface (116) to reduce reflectivity. The method (300) includes electroless deposition of copper nanoparticles about 20 nanometers in size on the silicon surface (116), with a particle-to-particle spacing of 3 to 8 nanometers. The method (300) includes positioning (310) the substrate (112) with a silicon surface (116) into a vessel (122). The vessel (122) is filled (340) with a volume of an etching solution (124) so as to cover the silicon surface (116). The etching solution (124) includes an oxidant-etchant solution (146), e.g., an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The silicon surface (116) is etched (350) by agitating the etching solution (124) with, for example, ultrasonic agitation, and the etching may include heating (360) the etching solution (124) and directing light (365) onto the silicon surface (116). During the etching, copper nanoparticles enhance or drive the etching process.

  3. Preparation Of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Films For Solar Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.; Contreras, Miguel A.; Keane, James; Tennant, Andrew L. , Tuttle, John R.; Ramanathan, Kannan; Noufi, Rommel

    1998-08-08

    High quality thin films of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide useful in the production of solar cells are prepared by electrodepositing at least one of the constituent metals onto a glass/Mo substrate, followed by physical vapor deposition of copper and selenium or indium and selenium to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film to approximately Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2. Using an AC voltage of 1-100 KHz in combination with a DC voltage for electrodeposition improves the morphology and growth rate of the deposited thin film. An electrodeposition solution comprising at least in part an organic solvent may be used in conjunction with an increased cathodic potential to increase the gallium content of the electrodeposited thin film.

  4. Simulations for Tracking Cosmogenic Activation in Germanium and Copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.

    2011-11-01

    High-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors housed in copper cryostats and shielding materials are used in measurements of the extraordinarily rare nuclear decay process, neutrinoless double-beta decay (0???), and for dark matter searches. Cosmogenic production of 68Ge and 60Co in the germanium and copper represent an irreducible background to these experiments as the subsequent decays of these isotopes can mimic the signals of interest. These radioactive isotopes can be removed by chemical and/or isotopic separation, but begin to grow-in to the material after separation until the material is moved deep underground. This work is motivated by the need to have a reliable, experimentally benchmarked simulation tool for evaluating shielding materials used during transportation and near-surface manufacturing of experiment components. The resulting simulations tool has been used to enhance the effectiveness of an existing transport shield used to ship enriched germanium from the separations facility to the detector manufacturing facility.

  5. Nitrogen molecule activation by excited states of copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez-Zamora, M.; Novaro, O.; Ruiz, M.E. )

    1990-04-05

    Ab initio molecular orbital studies that include variational (with a multiconfiguration reference state of 200 states) and perturbational (including over 3 million configurations) configuration interaction calculations were addressed to the interaction of nitrogen molecules with copper. The Cu ground state {sup 2}S and first two excited states {sup 2}P and {sup 2}D were studied as they interact in different geometrical approaches (including side-on and end-on geometries) with ground-state N{sub 2} molecules.

  6. Arsenic distribution in soils surrounding the Utah copper smelter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ball, A.L.; Rom, W.N.; Glenne, B.

    1983-05-01

    We investigated the extent of arsenic contamination from a Utah copper smelter as reflected by arsenic residue accumulated in the surface soil. The highest arsenic concentrations occurred within 3 km of the smelter. Arsenic soil contamination was evident up to 10 km from the smelter, with the major transport direction being ESE. Data from the subsurface soil samples indicated that arsenic has also leached through the soil.

  7. Methods for making a supported iron-copper catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, Paul N.; Pierantozzi, Ronald

    1986-01-01

    A catalyst is described for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from CO+H.sub.2 utilizing a porous Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 support impregnated with iron and copper and optionally promoted with an alkali metal. The use of an Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 support results in the suppression of heavy waxes (C.sub.26 + hydrocarbons), particularly in slurry phase operation, when compared to unsupported or co-precipitated catalysts.

  8. Microtextural characterization of copper shaped charge jet fragments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, S.I.; Bingert, J.F.; Zernow, L.

    1995-09-01

    The microstructures of two soft-caught copper shaped charge jet particles were investigated. In particular, the spatial distributions of crystallographic texture within the particles were characterized using point specific measurements of crystallographic orientation. Significant variations in preferred orientation were observed. These results are discussed in fight of previous computer simulations of the jetting process which showed significant radial gradients in both strain and strain rate.

  9. Deposition of copper coatings in a magnetron with liquid target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tumarkin, A. V. Kaziev, A. V.; Kolodko, D. V.; Pisarev, A. A.; Kharkov, M. M.; Khodachenko, G. V.

    2015-12-15

    Copper coatings were deposited on monocrystalline Si substrates using a magnetron discharge with a liquid cathode in the metal vapour plasma. During the deposition, the bias voltage in the range from 0 V to–400 V was applied to the substrate. The prepared films were investigated by a scanning electron microscope, and their adhesive properties were studied using a scratch tester. It was demonstrated that the adhesion of the deposited films strongly depends on the bias voltage and varies in a wide range.

  10. Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Solar Cells | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Cells The National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) at NREL has significant capabilities in copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin-film photovoltaic research and device development. CIGS-based thin-film solar cell modules represent the highest-efficiency alternative for large-scale, commercial thin-film solar cells. Record small-area single-junction efficiency now tops 22% and several companies have confirmed module efficiencies exceeding 16%. PV Research Other Materials & Devices

  11. Achievement of high coercivity in sintered R-Fe-B magnets based on misch-metal by dual alloy method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niu, E Wang, Zhen-Xi; Chen, Zhi-An; Rao, Xiao-Lei; Hu, Bo-Ping; Chen, Guo-An; Zhao, Yu-Gang; Zhang, Jin

    2014-03-21

    The R-Fe-B (R, rare earth) sintered magnets prepared with different ratio of alloys of MM-Fe-B (MM, misch-metal) and Nd-Fe-B by dual alloy method were investigated. As expected, the high ratio of MM-Fe-B alloy degrades the hard magnetic properties heavily with intrinsic coercivity lower than 5 kOe. When the atomic ratio MM/R???21.5% the magnetic properties can reach a practical level of B{sub r}???12.1 kGs, H{sub cj}???10.7 kOe, and (BH){sub max}???34.0 MGOe. And the effect of H{sub cj} enhancement by the grain boundary diffusion process is obvious when MM/R???21.5%. It is revealed that the decrement of intrinsic magnetic properties of R{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B matrix phase is not the main reason of the degradation of the magnets with high MM ratio. The change of deteriorated microstructure together with phase component plays fundamental roles in low H{sub cj}. In high MM ratio magnets, (a) after annealing, Ce atoms inside main phase are inclined to be segregated in the outer layer of the main phase grains; (b) there is no thin layer of Ce-rich phase as an analogue of Nd-rich phase to separate main phase grains; (c) excessive Ce tends to form CeFe{sub 2} grains.

  12. Shape changes by [100] lithium fluoride ridge-channel arrays and of lithium fluoride particles at sintering temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullard, J.; Glaeser, A.M.; Searcy, A.W. . Materials Sciences Division Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA . Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering)

    1994-09-01

    Lithium fluoride was chosen for experimental study of shape changes by faceted and nonfaceted surface features of a ceramic because Wang et al. have shown that isolated pores in single-crystal LiF can form with either faceted or rounded shapes. Parallel channels of rectangular cross section were etched into an LiF [100] single-crystals surface, by a photolithography technique, to produced ridge-channel arrays of controlled size and shape. The shape changes undergone by these arrays and by LiF isolated particles and plower beds at sintering temperatures were studied by SEM. The ridge-channel arrays and particles developed either faceted or rounded shapes, depending on temperature and atmosphere. Adsorption of an impurity, presumably H[sub 2]O or O[sub 2], although it causes faceting, increases the rate of mass transport from the ridges to channels. The influence of array geometry on mass transport rates is compared to models to show that the rate-limiting mass transfer step is probably a surface step when the surfaces remain faceted and many be a surface step when the surfaces are rounded.

  13. Fabrication of Tungsten-Rhenium Cladding materials via Spark Plasma Sintering for Ultra High Temperature Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charit, Indrajit; Butt, Darryl; Frary, Megan; Carroll, Mark

    2012-11-05

    This research will develop an optimized, cost-effective method for producing high-purity tungsten-rhenium alloyed fuel clad forms that are crucial for the development of a very high-temperature nuclear reactor. The study will provide critical insight into the fundamental behavior (processing-microstructure- property correlations) of W-Re alloys made using this new fabrication process comprising high-energy ball milling (HEBM) and spark plasma sintering (SPS). A broader goal is to re-establish the U.S. lead in the research field of refractory alloys, such as W-Re systems, with potential applications in very high-temperature nuclear reactors. An essential long-term goal for nuclear power is to develop the capability of operating nuclear reactors at temperatures in excess of 1,000K. This capability has applications in space exploration and some special terrestrial uses where high temperatures are needed in certain chemical or reforming processes. Refractory alloys have been identified as being capable of withstanding temperatures in excess of 1,000K and are considered critical for the development of ultra hightemperature reactors. Tungsten alloys are known to possess extraordinary properties, such as excellent high-temperature capability, including the ability to resist leakage of fissile materials when used as a fuel clad. However, there are difficulties with the development of refractory alloys: 1) lack of basic experimental data on thermodynamics and mechanical and physical properties, and 2) challenges associated with processing these alloys.

  14. Thermal characterization and properties of a copper-diamond composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Pin; Chavez, Thomas P.; DiAntonio, Christopher Brian; Coker, Eric Nicholas

    2014-09-01

    The thermal properties of a commercial copper-diamond composite were measured from below -50°C to above 200°C. The results of thermal expansion, heat capacity, and thermal diffusivity were reported. These data were used to calculate the thermal conductivity of the composite as a function of temperature in the thickness direction. These results are compared with estimated values based on a simple mixing rule and the temperature dependence of these physical properties is represented by curve fitting equations. These fitting equations can be used for thermal modeling of practical devices/systems at their operation temperatures. The results of the mixing rule showed a consistent correlation between the amount of copper and diamond in the composite, based on density, thermal expansion, and heat capacity measurements. However, there was a disparity between measured and estimated thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity. These discrepancies can be caused by many intrinsic material issues such as lattice defects and impurities, but the dominant factor is attributed to the large uncertainty of the interfacial thermal conductance between diamond and copper.

  15. Behavior and removal of associated metals in the secondary metallurgy of copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanusch, K.; Bussmann, H.

    1995-12-31

    Copper in recycling material is accompanied by various groups of metals: (1) Metals which are much more negative than copper, such as Fe, Al, Si, P, Be. They are mainly removed by fire refining during the recovery of copper and leave the process in form of slag. (2) Metals which are more positive than copper or difficult to separate by fire refining and which are partly reduced together with the copper. These metals are for example As, Sb, Ni, Ag, Pb, Zn, Sn. They are enriched in intermediate products and recovered from these or remain for their major part in the fire-refined copper and can be separated by electrolytic refining and recovered from the electrolyte or anode slime. This report describes the process of Huettenwerke Kayser AG in Germany and illustrates how considerable returns of material are partly required to separate or recover associated metals. They are finally removed in saleable products.

  16. Layered Copper-Based Electrode for High-Dielectric Constant Oxide

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Thin-Film-Based Devices | Argonne National Laboratory Copper-Based Electrode for High-Dielectric Constant Oxide Thin-Film-Based Devices Technology available for licenisng: A multilayer thin-film device containing copper layers protected by amorphous TiAl oxide and devices incorporating TiAl. Offers high conductivity and protection against oxidation Low-cost process PDF icon copper_based_electrode

  17. Method for aqueous gold thiosulfate extraction using copper-cyanide pretreated carbon adsorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Courtney; Melashvili, Mariam; Gow, Nicholas V

    2013-08-06

    A gold thiosulfate leaching process uses carbon to remove gold from the leach liquor. The activated carbon is pretreated with copper cyanide. A copper (on the carbon) to gold (in solution) ratio of at least 1.5 optimizes gold recovery from solution. To recover the gold from the carbon, conventional elution technology works but is dependent on the copper to gold ratio on the carbon.

  18. Time-resolved Spectroscopy of Laser-heated Copper Foils | Stanford

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Time-resolved Spectroscopy of Laser-heated Copper Foils Tuesday, July 16, 2013 - 11:00am SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Presented by Kelly Cone, PhD Engineering, Dept. of Applied Science, University of California, Davis The volumetric heating of a thin copper target has been studied with time resolved x-ray spectroscopy. The copper target was heated by a plasma produced using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Compact Multipulse Terawatt (COMET)

  19. Copper-silicon-magnesium alloys for latent heat storage (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE PAGES Copper-silicon-magnesium alloys for latent heat storage This content will become publicly available on June 21, 2017 Title: Copper-silicon-magnesium alloys for latent heat storage The systematic development of microstructure, solidification characteristics, and heat of solidification with composition in copper-silicon-magnesium alloys for thermal energy storage is presented. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to relate the thermal characteristics to microstructural

  20. Isentropic expansion of copper plasma in Mbar pressure range at “Luch” laser facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bel'kov, S. A.; Derkach, V. N.; Garanin, S. G.; Mitrofanov, E. I.; Voronich, I. N.; Fortov, V. E.; Levashov, P. R.; Minakov, D. V.

    2014-01-21

    We present experimental results on thermodynamic properties of dense copper plasma in Mbar pressure range. The laser facility “Luch” with laser intensity 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} is used to compress copper up to ∼8 Mbar by a strong shock wave; subsequent expansion of copper plasma into Al, Ti, Sn allows us to obtain release isentropes of copper by the impedance–matching method. A theoretical analysis and quantum simulations show that in our experiments strongly coupled quantum plasma is generated.

  1. Formation kinetics of copper-related light-induced degradation in crystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindroos, J. Savin, H.

    2014-12-21

    Light-induced degradation (LID) is a deleterious effect in crystalline silicon, which is considered to originate from recombination-active boron-oxygen complexes and/or copper-related defects. Although LID in both cases appears as a fast initial decay followed by a second slower degradation, we show that the time constant of copper-related degradation increases with increasing boron concentration in contrast to boron-oxygen LID. Temperature-dependent analysis reveals that the defect formation is limited by copper diffusion. Finally, interface defect density measurements confirm that copper-related LID is dominated by recombination in the wafer bulk.

  2. Method and apparatus for storing hydrogen isotopes. [stored as uranium hydride in a block of copper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McMullen, J.W.; Wheeler, M.G.; Cullingford, H.S.; Sherman, R.H.

    1982-08-10

    An improved method and apparatus for storing isotopes of hydrogen (especially tritium) are provided. The hydrogen gas is stored as hydrides of material (for example uranium) within boreholes in a block of copper. The mass of the block is critically important to the operation, as is the selection of copper, because no cooling pipes are used. Because no cooling pipes are used, there can be no failure due to cooling pipes. And because copper is used instead of stainless steel, a significantly higher temperature can be reached before the eutectic formation of uranium with copper occurs, (the eutectic of uranium with the iron in stainless steel forms at a significantly lower temperature).

  3. Routine production of copper-64 using 11.7MeV protons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffery, C. M.; Smith, S. V.; Asad, A. H.; Chan, S.; Price, R. I.

    2012-12-19

    Reliable production of copper-64 ({sup 64}Cu) was achieved by irradiating enriched nickel-64 ({sup 64}Ni, >94.8%) in an IBA 18/9 cyclotron. Nickel-64 (19.1 {+-} 3.0 mg) was electroplated onto an Au disc (125{mu}m Multiplication-Sign 15mm). Targets were irradiated with 11.7 MeV protons for 2 hours at 40{mu}A. Copper isotopes ({sup 60,61,62,64}Cu) were separated from target nickel and cobalt isotopes ({sup 55,57,61}Co) using a single ion exchange column, eluted with varying concentration of low HCl alcohol solutions. The {sup 64}Ni target material was recovered and reused. The {sup 64}Cu production rate was 1.46{+-}0.3MBq/{mu}A.hr/mg{sup 64}Ni(n = 10) (with a maximum of 2.6GBq of {sup 64}Cu isolated after 2hr irradiation at 40uA. Radionuclidic purity of the {sup 64}Cu was 98.7 {+-} 1.6 % at end of separation. Cu content was < 6mg/L (n = 21). The specific activity of {sup 64}Cu was determined by ICP-MS and by titration with Diamsar to be 28.9{+-}13.0GBq/{mu}mol[0.70{+-}0.35Ci/{mu}mol]/({mu}A.hr/mg{sup 64}Ni)(n = 10) and 13.1{+-}12.0GBq/{mu}mol[0.35{+-}0.32Ci/{mu}mol]/({mu}A.hr/mg{sup 64}Ni)(n 9), respectively; which are in agreement, however, further work is required.

  4. Gallium composition dependence of crystallographic and thermoelectric properties in polycrystalline type-I Ba{sub 8}Ga{sub x}Si{sub 46-x} (nominal x=14-18) clathrates prepared by combining arc melting and spark plasma sintering methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anno, Hiroaki; Yamada, Hiroki; Nakabayashi, Takahiro; Hokazono, Masahiro; Shirataki, Ritsuko

    2012-09-15

    The gallium composition dependence of crystallographic and thermoelectric properties in polycrystalline n-type Ba{sub 8}Ga{sub x}Si{sub 46-x} (nominal x=14-18) compounds with the type-I clathrate structure is presented. Samples were prepared by combining arc melting and spark plasma sintering methods. Powder x-ray diffraction, Rietveld analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy show that the solubility limit of gallium in the type-I clathrate phase is close to x=15, which is slightly higher than that for a single crystal. The carrier concentration at room temperature decreases from 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3} to 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} as the Ga content x increases. The Seebeck coefficient, the electrical conductivity, and the thermal conductivity vary systematically with the carrier concentration when the Ga content x varies. The effective mass (2.0m{sub 0}), the carrier mobility (10 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}), and the lattice thermal conductivity (1.1 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}) are determined for the Ga content x=14.51. The dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit ZT is about 0.55 at 900 K for the Ga content x=14.51. The calculation of ZT using the experimentally determined material parameters predicts ZT=0.8 (900 K) at the optimum carrier concentration of about 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. - Graphical abstract: The gallium composition dependence of crystallographic and thermoelectric properties is presented on polycrystalline n-type Ba{sub 8}Ga{sub x}Si{sub 46-x} with the type-I clathrate structure prepared by combining arc melting and spark plasma sintering methods. The thermoelectric figure of merit ZT reaches 0.55 at 900 K due to the increase in the Ga content (close to x=15), and a calculation predicts further improvement of ZT at the optimized carrier concentration. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystallographic properties of Ba{sub 8}Ga{sub x}Si{sub 46

  5. Synthesis, crystal and electronic structure, and physical properties of the new lanthanum copper telluride La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5}Te{sub 7}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zelinska, Mariya; Assoud, Abdeljalil [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Kleinke, Holger, E-mail: kleinke@uwaterloo.c [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    The new lanthanum copper telluride La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5-x}Te{sub 7} has been obtained by annealing the elements at 1073 K. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the title compound crystallizes in a new structure type, space group Pnma (no. 62) with lattice dimensions of a=8.2326(3) A, b=25.9466(9) A, c=7.3402(3) A, V=1567.9(1) A{sup 3}, Z=4 for La{sub 3}Cu{sub 4.86(4)}Te{sub 7}. The structure of La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5-x}Te{sub 7} is remarkably complex. The Cu and Te atoms build up a three-dimensional covalent network. The coordination polyhedra include trigonal LaTe{sub 6} prisms, capped trigonal LaTe{sub 7} prisms, CuTe{sub 4} tetrahedra, and CuTe{sub 3} pyramids. All Cu sites exhibit deficiencies of various extents. Electrical property measurements on a sintered pellet of La{sub 3}Cu{sub 4.86}Te{sub 7} indicate that it is a p-type semiconductor in accordance with the electronic structure calculations. -- Graphical abstract: Oligomeric unit comprising interconnected CuTe{sub 3} pyramids and CuTe{sub 4} tetrahedra. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5-x}Te{sub 7} adopts a new structure type. {yields} All Cu sites exhibit deficiencies of various extents. {yields} The coordination polyhedra include trigonal LaTe{sub 6} prisms, capped trigonal LaTe{sub 7} prisms, CuTe{sub 4} tetrahedra and CuTe{sub 3} pyramids. {yields} La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5-x}Te{sub 7} is a p-type semiconductor.

  6. Peculiarities of plastic deformation nucleation in copper under nanoindentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kryzhevich, Dmitrij S. Korchuganov, Aleksandr V.; Zolnikov, Konstantin P.; Psakhie, Sergey G.

    2015-10-27

    The computer simulation results on the atomic structure of the copper crystallite and its behavior in nanoindentation demonstrate the key role of local structural transformations in nucleation of plasticity. The generation of local structural transformations can be considered as an elementary event during the formation of higher scale defects, including partial dislocations and stacking faults. The cause for local structural transformations, both direct fcc-hcp and reverse hcp-fcc, is an abrupt local increase in atomic volume. A characteristic feature is that the values of local volume jumps in direct and reverse structural transformations are comparable with that in melting and lie in the range 5–7%.

  7. Synthesis, characterisation, electrical and optical properties of copper borate compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kipcak, Azmi Seyhun; Senberber, Fatma Tugce; Aydin Yuksel, Sureyya; Derun, Emek Moroydor; Piskin, Sabriye

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Cu(BO{sub 2}){sub 2} was synthesized at the form of with pdf number of “00-001-0472”. • Particle sizes were found between 162.72 and 56.44 nm and 195.76 and 75.73 nm at CuSNaH. • Reaction yields were 90.4 ± 0.84, 96.9 ± 0.78 and 78.9 ± 0.76% for CuST, CuSB and CuSNaH. • The resistivity of CuST, CuSB and CuSNaH are 1.10 × 10{sup 7}, 7.02 × 10{sup 6} and 8.62 × 10{sup 5} Ωm. • The optical energy gap was 3.76 eV. - Abstract: The hydrothermal synthesis of copper borate compounds [Cu(BO{sub 2}){sub 2}] was studied, and several parameters were found to affect the synthesis. Raw materials, including CuSO{sub 4}·5H{sub 2}O, Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}·5H{sub 2}O, Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}·10H{sub 2}O, NaOH and H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}, were used. Reaction temperatures and reaction times between 40 °C and 100 °C and 15 and 240 min, respectively, were used. The as-synthesised copper borate was analysed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The yields of the reactions were also calculated. Single-phase, nanoparticulate copper borate compounds (Cu(BO{sub 2}){sub 2}) possessing high XRD crystal scores were obtained; the reactions used to obtain these materials were highly efficient. Electrical resistivity and optical absorbance measurements were carried out on the compounds obtained from the highest yielding reactions. The results of this study showed that even using a reaction time of 15 min, copper borate formation was successfully achieved.

  8. Copper-silicon-magnesium alloys for latent heat storage

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Gibbs, P. J.; Withey, E. A.; Coker, E. N.; Kruizenga, A. M.; Andraka, C. E.

    2016-06-21

    The systematic development of microstructure, solidification characteristics, and heat of solidification with composition in copper-silicon-magnesium alloys for thermal energy storage is presented. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to relate the thermal characteristics to microstructural development in the investigated alloys and clarifies the location of one of the terminal three-phase eutectics. Repeated thermal cycling highlights the thermal storage stability of the transformation through multiple melting events. In conclusion, two near-terminal eutectic alloys display high enthalpies of solidification, relatively narrow melting ranges, and stable transformation hysteresis behaviors suited to thermal energy storage.

  9. Two-Step Reactive Aid Sintering of BaZr0.8Y0.2O3-δ Proton-Conducting Ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Siwei; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Lingling; Ren, Cong; Chen, Fanglin; Brinkman, Kyle S.

    2015-10-14

    Ceramic-based proton conductors enable high-temperature hydrogen economy applications such as hydrogen separation membranes, fuel cells, and steam electrolyzers. BaZr0.8Y0.2O3-δ (BZY) proton-conducting oxide possesses the highest level of proton conductivity reported to date, but poor sinterability hinders its widespread utilization. Here, we report a two-step reactive aid sintering (TRAS) method involving the introduction of BaCO3 and B2O3-Li2O for the preparation of dense BZY ceramics sintered at 1500°C. The resulting BZY samples showed a pure perovskite structure with a dramatic increase in the relative density to 91.5%. In addition, the shrinkage during sintering was improved to 19.3% by a TRAS method as compared to 2.6% by the conventional solid date reaction method. Moreover, the bulk conductivity was improved due to enhanced densification, while the grain boundary conductivity decreased due to the blocking behavior of the sintering aid resulting in a decrease in the total conductivity of the samples.

  10. Nanocrystallization in spark plasma sintered Fe{sub 48}Cr{sub 15}Mo{sub 14}Y{sub 2}C{sub 15}B{sub 6} bulk amorphous alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Ashish; Harimkar, Sandip P.; Katakam, Shravana; Dahotre, Narendra B.; Ilavsky, Jan

    2013-08-07

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is evolving as an attractive process for the processing of multi-component Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys and their in-situ nanocomposites with controlled primary nanocrystallization. Extended Q-range small angle neutron scattering (EQ-SANS) analysis, complemented by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, was performed to characterize nanocrystallization behavior of SPS sintered Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys. The SANS experiments show significant scattering for the samples sintered in the supercooled region indicating local structural/compositional changes associated with the profuse nucleation of nanoclusters (∼4 nm). For the samples spark plasma sintered near and above crystallization temperature (>653 °C), the SANS data show the formation of interference maximum indicating the formation and growth of (Fe,Cr){sub 23}C{sub 6} crystallites. The SANS data also indicate the evolution of bimodal crystallite distribution at higher sintering temperatures (above T{sub x1}). The growth of primary nanocrystallites results in impingement of concentration gradient fields (soft impingement effect), leading to non-random nucleation of crystallites near the primary crystallization.

  11. Assessment of energy requirements in proven and new copper processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitt, C.H.; Wadsworth, M.E.

    1980-12-31

    Energy requirements are presented for thirteen pyrometallurgical and eight hydrometallurgical processes for the production of copper. Front end processing, mining, mineral processing, gas cleaning, and acid plant as well as mass balances are included. Conventional reverberatory smelting is used as a basis for comparison. Recommendations for needed process research in copper production are presented.

  12. Rapid sintering of TiO{sub 2} photoelectrodes using intense pulsed white light for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Hwa-Young; Kim, Jae-Yup; Ah Lee, Jin; Lee, Kwangsoo; Yoo, Kicheon; Lee, Doh-Kwon; Kim, BongSoo; Young Kim, Jin; Kim, Honggon; Jung Son, Hae; Kim, Jihyun; Ah Lim, Jung E-mail: mjko@kist.re.kr; Jae Ko, Min E-mail: mjko@kist.re.kr

    2014-04-07

    Intense pulsed white light (IPWL) sintering was carried out at room temperature, which is suitable dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabrication process on plastic substrates for the mass production. Five seconds irradiation of IPWL on TiO{sub 2} electrode significantly improves the photocurrent density and power conversion efficiency of DSSCs by more than 110% and 115%, respectively, compared to the DSSCs without IPWL treatment. These improvements were mainly attributed to the enhanced interconnection between the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles induced by IPWL illumination, which is confirmed by the impedance spectra analysis.

  13. Fundamental studies of the mechanisms of slag deposit formation: Studies on initiation, growth and sintering in the formation of utility boiler deposits: Topical technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tangsathitkulchai, M.; Austin, L.G.

    1986-03-01

    Three laboratory-scale devices were utilized to investigate the mechanisms of the initiation, growth and sintering process involved in the formation of boiler deposits. Sticking apparatus investigations were conducted to study deposit initiation by comparing the adhesion behavior of the ash drops on four types of steel-based heat exchanger materials under the conditions found in a utility boiler and an entrained slagging gasifier. In addition, the adhesion behavior of the ash drops on a reduced steel surface were investigated. All the ash drops studied in this investigation were produced from bituminous coals.

  14. Fabrication of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-20 vol.% Al nanocomposite powders using high energy milling and their sinterability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zawrah, M.F.; Abdel-kader, H.; Elbaly, N.E.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al nanocomposite powders were prepared via high energy ball milling. After 20 h milling, the size of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-20 vol.% Al nanocomposite particles was in the range of 23-29 nm. A uniform distribution of nanosized Al reinforcement throughout the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix, coating the particles was successfully obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There was no any sign of phase changes during the milling. A competition between the cold welding mechanism and the fracturing mechanism were found during milling and finally the above two mechanisms reached an equilibrium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The highest value of relative density was obtained for the sintered bodies at 1500 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The harness of the sintered composite was decreased while the fracture toughness was improved after addition Al into alumina. -- Abstract: In this study, alumina-based matrix nanocomposite powders reinforced with Al particles were fabricated and investigated. The sinterability of the prepared nanocomposite powder at different firing temperature was also conducted. Their mechanical properties in terms of hardness and toughness were tested. Alumina and aluminum powder mixtures were milled in a planetary ball mill for various times up to 30 h in order to produce Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-20% Al nanocomposite. The phase composition, morphological and microstructural changes during mechanical milling of the nanocomposite particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques, respectively. The crystallite size and internal strain were evaluated by XRD patterns using Scherrer methods. A uniform distribution of the Al reinforcement in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix was successfully obtained after milling the powders. The results revealed that there was no any sign of phase changes during the milling. The crystal

  15. Control of copper smelter fugitive emissions. Final report Mar 76-Oct 79

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devitt, T.W.

    1980-05-01

    This report deals with fugitive emissions from copper smelting and with related emission control measures. The study involved evaluation of the controls now used in the copper smelting industry and development of suggestions for alternative control devices and practices. A brief overview of copper smelting processes is followed by a more detailed analysis of the conventional processes identifying portions of the operating cycle that produce fugitive emissions. Emphasis is placed on Pierce-Smith Converting which is one of the major emission sources in copper smelting. Some alternate processes now in limited use in the U.S. are described including estimations of fugitive emissions from these conventional and alternative copper smelting processes. A specific report on the utilization of the Hoboken Converter is being prepared at the time of this report. The USEPA should be contacted if a copy of this report is desired.

  16. Full elastic strain and stress tensor measurements from individual dislocation cells in copper through-Si vias

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, Lyle E.; Okoro, Chukwudi A.; Xu, Ruqing

    2015-09-30

    We report non-destructive measurements of the full elastic strain and stress tensors from individual dislocation cells distributed along the full extent of a 50 mm-long polycrystalline copper via in Si is reported. Determining all of the components of these tensors from sub-micrometre regions within deformed metals presents considerable challenges. The primary issues are ensuring that different diffraction peaks originate from the same sample volume and that accurate determination is made of the peak positions from plastically deformed samples. For these measurements, three widely separated reflections were examined from selected, individual grains along the via. The lattice spacings and peak positions were measured for multiple dislocation cell interiors within each grain and the cell-interior peaks were sorted out using the measured included angles. A comprehensive uncertainty analysis using a Monte Carlo uncertainty algorithm provided uncertainties for the elastic strain tensor and stress tensor components.

  17. Full elastic strain and stress tensor measurements from individual dislocation cells in copper through-Si vias

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Levine, Lyle E.; Okoro, Chukwudi A.; Xu, Ruqing

    2015-09-30

    We report non-destructive measurements of the full elastic strain and stress tensors from individual dislocation cells distributed along the full extent of a 50 mm-long polycrystalline copper via in Si is reported. Determining all of the components of these tensors from sub-micrometre regions within deformed metals presents considerable challenges. The primary issues are ensuring that different diffraction peaks originate from the same sample volume and that accurate determination is made of the peak positions from plastically deformed samples. For these measurements, three widely separated reflections were examined from selected, individual grains along the via. The lattice spacings and peak positionsmore » were measured for multiple dislocation cell interiors within each grain and the cell-interior peaks were sorted out using the measured included angles. A comprehensive uncertainty analysis using a Monte Carlo uncertainty algorithm provided uncertainties for the elastic strain tensor and stress tensor components.« less

  18. High average power magnetic modulator for copper lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, E.G.; Ball, D.G.; Birx, D.L.; Branum, J.D.; Peluso, S.E.; Langford, M.D.; Speer, R.D.; Sullivan, J.R.; Woods, P.G.

    1991-06-14

    Magnetic compression circuits show the promise of long life for operation at high average powers and high repetition rates. When the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory needed new modulators to drive their higher power copper lasers in the Laser Demonstration Facility (LDF), existing technology using thyratron switched capacitor inversion circuits did not meet the goal for long lifetimes at the required power levels. We have demonstrated that magnetic compression circuits can achieve this goal. Improving thyratron lifetime is achieved by increasing the thyratron conduction time, thereby reducing the effect of cathode depletion. This paper describes a three stage magnetic modulator designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper laser at a 4. 5 kHz repetition rate. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power and has exhibited MTBF of {approx}1000 hours when using thyratrons and even longer MTBFs with a series of stack of SCRs for the main switch. Within this paper, the electrical and mechanical designs for the magnetic compression circuits are discussed as are the important performance parameters of lifetime and jitter. Ancillary circuits such as the charge circuit and reset circuit are shown. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Solar swimming pool heating -- A copper collector after 26 years

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winter, F. de

    1999-07-01

    This paper is a progress report and a technology overview for a do-it-yourself solar swimming pool heater built by the author. Since March 1973 the heater has operated successfully day in day out for over 26 years, as a simple component in the pool circulation system, for three successive homeowners. The heater project was sponsored by the Copper Development Association (CDA), and used a copper flat plate collector design mounted on a small building, which provided both the roofing and the solar collection function. The heater was built in Pasadena, California, at 34.2 degrees north latitude and 118.2 degrees west longitude. A do-it-yourself manual was written so others could build such heaters, and about 100,000 copies of this manual have been distributed. The manual has helped many to get a better understanding of solar energy, has allowed many around the world to build similar swimming pool heater, and caused this author to get into the solar energy field.

  20. Irradiation effects in tungsten-copper laminate composite

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Garrison, L. M.; Katoh, Yutai; Snead, Lance L.; Byun, Thak Sang; Reiser, Jens; Rieth, Michael

    2016-09-19

    Tungsten-copper laminate composite has shown promise as a structural plasma-facing component as compared to tungsten rod or plate. The present study evaluated the tungsten-copper composite after irradiation in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at temperatures of 410–780 °C and fast neutron fluences of 0.02–9.0 × 1025 n/m2, E > 0.1 MeV, 0.0039–1.76 displacements per atom (dpa) in tungsten. Tensile tests were performed on the composites, and the fracture surfaces were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. Before irradiation, the tungsten layers had brittle cleavage failure, but the overall composite had 15.5% elongation at 22 °C. After only 0.0039 dpa thismore » was reduced to 7.7% elongation, and no ductility was observed after 0.2 dpa at all irradiation temperatures when tensile tested at 22 °C. In conclusion, tor elevated temperature tensile tests after irradiation, the composite only had ductile failure at temperatures where the tungsten was delaminating or ductile.« less

  1. The effect of copper deficiency on fetal growth and liver anti-oxidant capacity in the Cohen diabetic rat model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ergaz, Zivanit; Shoshani-Dror, Dana; Guillemin, Claire; Neeman-azulay, Meytal; Fudim, Liza; Weksler-Zangen, Sarah; Stodgell, Christopher J.; Miller, Richard K.; Ornoy, Asher

    2012-12-01

    High sucrose low copper diet induces fetal growth restriction in the three strains of the Cohen diabetic rats: an inbred copper deficient resistant (CDr), an inbred copper deficient sensitive (CDs that become diabetic on high sucrose low copper diet -HSD) and an outbred Wistar derived Sabra rats. Although those growth restricted fetuses also exhibit increased oxidative stress, antioxidants do not restore normal growth. In the present study, we evaluated the role of copper deficiency in the HSD induced fetal growth restriction by adding to the drinking water of the rats 1 ppm or 2 ppm of copper throughout their pregnancy. Fetal and placental growth in correlation with fetal liver copper content and anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated on day 21 of pregnancy. HSD compared to regular chow induced fetal growth restriction, which was most significant in the Cohen diabetic sensitive animals. The addition of 1 ppm and 2 ppm copper to the drinking water normalized fetal growth in a dose dependent manner and reduced the degree of hyperglycemia in the diabetes sensitive rats. The CDs fetuses responded to the HSD with lower catalase like activity, and less reduced superoxide dismutase levels compared to the Sabra strain, and had high malondialdehyde levels even when fed regular chow. Immunostaining was higher for nitrotyrosine among the CDr and higher for hypoxia factor 1 α among the CDs. We conclude that in our model of dietary-induced fetal growth restriction, copper deficiency plays a major etiologic role in the decrease of fetal growth and anti-oxidant capacity. -- Highlights: ► High sucrose low copper diet restricted fetal growth in the Cohen diabetic rat model ► Maternal copper blood levels directly correlated with fetal liver copper content ► Copper supplementation decreased embryonic resorption in the inbred strains ► Copper supplementation reduced hyperglycemia in the sucrose sensitive inbred strain ► Copper supplementation alleviated growth restriction and

  2. EFFECT OF THERMAL PROCESSES ON COPPER-TIN ALLOYS FOR ZINC GETTERING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.; Golyski, M.

    2013-11-01

    A contamination mitigation plan was initiated to address the discovery of radioactive zinc‐65 in a glovebox. A near term solution was developed, installation of heated filters in the glovebox piping. This solution is effective at retaining the zinc in the currently contaminated area, but the gamma emitting contaminant is still present in a system designed for tritium beta. A project was initiated to develop a solution to contain the {sup 65}Zn in the furnace module. Copper and bronze (a Cu/Sn alloy) were found to be candidate materials to combine with zinc‐65 vapor, using thermodynamic calculations. A series of binary Cu/Sn alloys were developed (after determining that commercial alloys were unacceptable), that were found to be effective traps of zinc vapor. The task described in this report was undertaken to determine if the bronze substrates would retain their zinc gettering capability after being exposed to simulated extraction conditions with oxidizing and reducing gases. Pure copper and three bronze alloys were prepared, exposed to varying oxidation conditions from 250 to 450{degree}C, then exposed to varying reduction conditions in He-H{sub 2} from 250-450{degree}C, and finally exposed to zinc vapor at 350{degree}C for four hours. The samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, mass change, and visual observation. It was observed that the as fabricated samples and the reduced samples all retained their zinc gettering capacity while samples in the "as-oxidized" condition exhibited losses in zinc gettering capacity. Over the range of conditions tested, i.e., composition, oxidation temperature, and reduction temperature, no particular sample composition appeared better. Samples reduced at 350{degree}C exhibited the greatest zinc capacity, although there were some testing anomalies associated with these samples. This work clearly demonstrated that the zinc gettering was not adversely

  3. A new copper borophosphate with novel polymeric chains and its structural correlation with raw materials in molten hydrated flux synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, Ruijing; Liu, Wei Cao, Lixin; Su, Ge; Xu, Hongmei; Zhao, Chenggong

    2014-02-15

    A novel copper borophosphate, Cu{sub 3}[B{sub 2}P{sub 3}O{sub 12}(OH){sub 3}] has been prepared by the molten hydrated flux method. Its crystal structure was determined by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction (monoclinic, Cc, a=6.1895 Å, b=13.6209 Å, c=11.9373 Å, β=97.62°, V=997.5 Å{sup 3}, Z=4). The three-dimensional framework of the titled compound, is composed by two kinds of polymeric chains and isolated PO{sub 4} tetrahedral. One novel 4-membered tetrahedral rings has been observed in borophosphates. Magnetic measurements indicate that the title compound exits antiferromagnetic interactions. Due to the special reaction medium created by the molten hydrated flux method, a possible structural correlation between the final solids and the raw materials has been noted. - Graphical abstract: The 3D structure consists of a framework composed of CuO{sub x} polyhedra, BO{sub 4} and PO{sub 4} tetrahedra. A intersection angle between the metal chains and borophosphate chains can be noted. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A novel copper borophosphate has been prepared by the molten hydrated flux method. • One novel 4-membered tetrahedral ring has been observed firstly in borophosphates. • A possible structural correlation between the final solids and the raw materials has been noted.

  4. The preparation of a novel polymer film based on salicylaldoxime and its influence on aqueous copper electrochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, J.; Vaughan, D.H.; Cardosi, M.F.

    1994-07-01

    The metal complexing ligand salicylaldoxime was electropolymerized onto platinum electrodes and the resulting film characterized by reflectance FT-IR spectroscopy. The modified electrode response to aqueous iron, copper, cobalt and lead ions was investigated with the iron(III) and copper (II) ions showing significantly altered electrochemistry. The response of the modified electrode towards aqueous copper ion was found to be directly proportional to copper concentration with little interference from lead ions. The retention of copper ions, film stability and the nature of the film action are discussed along with its potential use in sensor construction.

  5. Copper fine-structure K-shell electron impact ionization cross sections for fast-electron diagnostic in laser-solid experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P.; Batani, D.

    2015-03-15

    The K-shell electron impact ionization (EII) cross section, along with the K-shell fluorescence yield, is one of the key atomic parameters for fast-electron diagnostic in laser-solid experiments through the K-shell emission cross section. In addition, copper is a material that has been often used in those experiments because it has a maximum total K-shell emission yield. Furthermore, in a campaign dedicated to the modeling of the K lines of astrophysical interest (Palmeri et al., 2012), the K-shell fluorescence yields for the K-vacancy fine-structure atomic levels of all the copper isonuclear ions have been calculated. In this study, the K-shell EII cross sections connecting the ground and the metastable levels of the parent copper ions to the daughter ions K-vacancy levels considered in Palmeri et al. (2012) have been determined. The relativistic distorted-wave (DW) approximation implemented in the FAC atomic code has been used for the incident electron kinetic energies up to 10 times the K-shell threshold energies. Moreover, the resulting DW cross sections have been extrapolated at higher energies using the asymptotic form proposed by Davies et al. (2013)

  6. CX-007646: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    82: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-007082: Categorical Exclusion Determination Provide Telecommunications Cable to Buildings 6750 and 6753 CX(s) Applied: B1.7 Date: 06/09/2011 Location(s): Albuquerque, New Mexico Office(s): NNSA-Headquarters, Sandia Site Office Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) proposes to install fiber-optic and copper cable at Buildings 6750 and 6753 for communication and security resources. Approximately 5,400 feet (ft) of 24-pair fiber-optic cable,

  7. CX-008685: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers

    82: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-007082: Categorical Exclusion Determination Provide Telecommunications Cable to Buildings 6750 and 6753 CX(s) Applied: B1.7 Date: 06/09/2011 Location(s): Albuquerque, New Mexico Office(s): NNSA-Headquarters, Sandia Site Office Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) proposes to install fiber-optic and copper cable at Buildings 6750 and 6753 for communication and security resources. Approximately 5,400 feet (ft) of 24-pair fiber-optic cable,

  8. CX-007082: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    82: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-007082: Categorical Exclusion Determination Provide Telecommunications Cable to Buildings 6750 and 6753 CX(s) Applied: B1.7 Date: 06/09/2011 Location(s): Albuquerque, New Mexico Office(s): NNSA-Headquarters, Sandia Site Office Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) proposes to install fiber-optic and copper cable at Buildings 6750 and 6753 for communication and security resources. Approximately 5,400 feet (ft) of 24-pair fiber-optic cable,

  9. Sonochemical preparation of copper sulfides with different phases in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristl, Matjaž; Hojnik, Nuša; Gyergyek, Sašo; Drofenik, Miha

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Sonochemical preparation of copper sulfides in aqueous solutions is reported. ► CuS and Cu{sub 2}S nanoparticles with crystallite sizes between 7 and 18 nm were obtained. ► Crystallite size can be changed using different complexing agents. ► Thermal behavior was studied by TG and XRD measurements. - Abstract: There is a growing interest in the synthesis of nanostructured copper sulfides due to their ability to form compounds with various stoichiometries. We report a sonochemical route for the preparation of copper sulfides with different compositions in aqueous solutions, using different, general and convenient copper sources such as copper acetate, copper hydroxide or basic copper carbonate and thiourea or thioacetamide as sulfur precursors under ambient air. Phase analysis, purity and morphology of the products were studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results revealed that nanoparticles of covellite, CuS, with crystallite sizes between 7 and 18 nm can be obtained by using different precursors and complexing agents and that chalcocite, Cu{sub 2}S, can also be prepared sonochemically.

  10. Interfacial microstructure and properties of copper clad steel produced using friction stir welding versus gas metal arc welding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Z.; Chen, Y.; Haghshenas, M.; Nguyen, T.; Galloway, J.; Gerlich, A.P.

    2015-06-15

    A preliminary study compares the feasibility and microstructures of pure copper claddings produced on a pressure vessel A516 Gr. 70 steel plate, using friction stir welding versus gas metal arc welding. A combination of optical and scanning electron microscopy is used to characterize the grain structures in both the copper cladding and heat affected zone in the steel near the fusion line. The friction stir welding technique produces copper cladding with a grain size of around 25 μm, and no evidence of liquid copper penetration into the steel. The gas metal arc welding of copper cladding exhibits grain sizes over 1 mm, and with surface microcracks as well as penetration of liquid copper up to 50 μm into the steel substrate. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that metallurgical bonding is produced in both processes. Increased diffusion of Mn and Si into the copper cladding occurs when using gas metal arc welding, although some nano-pores were detected in the FSW joint interface. - Highlights: • Cladding of steel with pure copper is possible using either FSW or GMAW. • The FSW yielded a finer grain structure in the copper, with no evidence of cracking. • The FSW joint contains some evidence of nano-pores at the interface of the steel/copper. • Copper cladding by GMAW contained surface cracks attributed to high thermal stresses. • The steel adjacent to the fusion line maintained a hardness value below 248 HV.

  11. Multi-dimensional modeling of atmospheric copper-sulfidation corrosion on non-planar substrates.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Ken Shuang

    2004-11-01

    This report documents the author's efforts in the deterministic modeling of copper-sulfidation corrosion on non-planar substrates such as diodes and electrical connectors. A new framework based on Goma was developed for multi-dimensional modeling of atmospheric copper-sulfidation corrosion on non-planar substrates. In this framework, the moving sulfidation front is explicitly tracked by treating the finite-element mesh as a pseudo solid with an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation and repeatedly performing re-meshing using CUBIT and re-mapping using MAPVAR. Three one-dimensional studies were performed for verifying the framework in asymptotic regimes. Limited model validation was also carried out by comparing computed copper-sulfide thickness with experimental data. The framework was first demonstrated in modeling one-dimensional copper sulfidation with charge separation. It was found that both the thickness of the space-charge layers and the electrical potential at the sulfidation surface decrease rapidly as the Cu{sub 2}S layer thickens initially but eventually reach equilibrium values as Cu{sub 2}S layer becomes sufficiently thick; it was also found that electroneutrality is a reasonable approximation and that the electro-migration flux may be estimated by using the equilibrium potential difference between the sulfidation and annihilation surfaces when the Cu{sub 2}S layer is sufficiently thick. The framework was then employed to model copper sulfidation in the solid-state-diffusion controlled regime (i.e. stage II sulfidation) on a prototypical diode until a continuous Cu{sub 2}S film was formed on the diode surface. The framework was also applied to model copper sulfidation on an intermittent electrical contact between a gold-plated copper pin and gold-plated copper pad; the presence of Cu{sub 2}S was found to raise the effective electrical resistance drastically. Lastly, future research needs in modeling atmospheric copper sulfidation are discussed.

  12. Effect of a copper filler metal on the microstructure and mechanical properties of electron beam welded titanium-stainless steel joint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Ting, E-mail: fgwangting@163.com [Key Laboratory of Special Welding in Shandong Province, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai, 264209 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Special Welding in Shandong Province, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai, 264209 (China); Zhang, Binggang, E-mail: zhang_bg@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Feng, Jicai, E-mail: fengjc@hit.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Special Welding in Shandong Province, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai, 264209 (China) [Key Laboratory of Special Welding in Shandong Province, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai, 264209 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Tang, Qi, E-mail: tangqi@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Cracking in an electron beam weld of titanium to stainless steel occurred during the cooling process because of internal thermal stress. Using a copper filler metal, a crack free joint was obtained, which had a tensile strength of 310 MPa. To determine the reasons for cracking in the Ti/Fe joint and the function of the copper filler metal on the improvement of the cracking resistance of the Ti/Cu/Fe joint, the microstructures of the joints were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The cracking susceptibilities of the joints were evaluated with microhardness tests on the cross-sections. In addition, microindentation tests were used to compare the brittleness of the intermetallics in the welds. The results showed that the Ti/Fe joint was characterized by continuously distributed brittle intermetallics such as TiFe and TiFe(Cr){sub 2} with high hardness ({approx} 1200 HV). For the Ti/Cu/Fe joint, most of the weld consisted of a soft solid solution of copper with dispersed TiFe intermetallics. The transition region between the weld and the titanium alloy was made up of a relatively soft Ti-Cu intermetallic layer with a lower hardness ({approx} 500 HV). The formation of soft phases reduced the cracking susceptibility of the joint. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron beam welded Ti/Fe joint cracked for the brittleness and residual stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron beam welded Ti/Cu/Fe joint with tensile strength of 310 MPa was obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cu diluted Ti and Fe contents in weld and separated the TiFe{sub 2} into individual blocks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interfacial hard Ti-Fe compounds were replaced by soft Ti-Cu compounds in the weld. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A large amount of solid solution of copper formed in the weld.

  13. Failures of nickel/copper bolts in subsea application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, L.H.; Joosten, M.W.

    1988-08-01

    Slow-strain-rate tests in ASTM seawater using specimens prepared from a failed nickel/copper-alloy bolt have shown that precipitation-hardened UNS N05500 (Monel K-500) is embrittled by cathodic protection with sacrificial aluminum anodes. Some loss of ductility also occurred when annealed UNS N05500 was coupled to aluminum anodes and when the hardened alloy was coupled to steel. Brittle fractures produced by slow-strain-rate tests were intergranular and were very similar in appearance to the field fractures. While the slow-strain-rate tests were conducted on an alloy from only one source, there is no reason to assume that UNS N05500 alloy from other sources would resist hydrogen embrittlement from standard cathodic protection systems.

  14. Characterization of Recompressed Spall in Copper Gas Gun Targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, R; Cazamias, J; LeBlanc, M

    2006-08-28

    Complementary experiments and simulations are conducted to characterize the microstructure and mechanisms involved in recompression of spalled ductile metals. Soft capture experiments performed on copper targets in a gas gun include a dense secondary plate spaced behind the customary flyer to recompress the voids in the wake of the spall induced by the flyer. Control experiments are run without the secondary plate to obtain spall damage without recompression. The simulations feature explicit representation of void nucleating particles in a narrow strip of material spanning the flyer package and target. Analysis of the spall closure in the simulations reveals the void collapse mechanisms and the origin of features observed experimentally. The experiments and simulations show little trace of the prior voids, and a thin ribbon of highly strained material is the only readily observable remnant of the spall surface.

  15. Silicon-embedded copper nanostructure network for high energy storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Tianyue

    2016-03-15

    Provided herein are nanostructure networks having high energy storage, electrochemically active electrode materials including nanostructure networks having high energy storage, as well as electrodes and batteries including the nanostructure networks having high energy storage. According to various implementations, the nanostructure networks have high energy density as well as long cycle life. In some implementations, the nanostructure networks include a conductive network embedded with electrochemically active material. In some implementations, silicon is used as the electrochemically active material. The conductive network may be a metal network such as a copper nanostructure network. Methods of manufacturing the nanostructure networks and electrodes are provided. In some implementations, metal nanostructures can be synthesized in a solution that contains silicon powder to make a composite network structure that contains both. The metal nanostructure growth can nucleate in solution and on silicon nanostructure surfaces.

  16. Copper-tin Electrodes Improve Capacity and Cycle Life for Lithium Batteries

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    - Energy Innovation Portal Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Copper-tin Electrodes Improve Capacity and Cycle Life for Lithium Batteries Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology TEM and XRD of a Copper-Tin Material Used in Li Batteries (left), and cycling performance (right)<br /> <br type="_moz" /> TEM and XRD of a Copper-Tin Material Used in Li Batteries (left), and cycling

  17. Patterned procedure for template-synthesis and microstructural characterization of copper nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Guojun; Li Xiaoru; Wang Yiqian; Peng Zhi; Yu Yongming; Li Peidong

    2010-03-15

    Highly ordered circular patterns of copper nanowire arrays were successfully deposited into designed anodic aluminum oxide templates. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to study the microstructure of these Cu nanostructures. The results showed that the growth orientation of the copper nanowires was along [220] direction, and the broken orientation were along [202] and [022] directions, respectively. Regular cones were formed at the broken end of nanowires. Bent nanowires were also observed, this means that the copper nanowires have good mechanical properties when applied external force. Chemical analysis has been performed on Cu nanowires using electron energy-loss spectroscopy.

  18. The effect of copper slag on the hydration and mechanical properties of cementitious mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tixier, R.; Devaguptapu, R.; Mobasher, B.

    1997-10-01

    The effect of copper slag on the hydration of cement-based materials is studied. Up to 15% by weight of copper slag was used as a portland cement replacement. Hydration reactions were studied through semiquantitative X-ray diffraction and TGA/DTA. Samples of copper slag and hydrated lime (ASTM type S) were used to test the pozzolanic properties of the slag. The porosity was examined using mercury intrusion porosimetry. A decrease in capillary porosity was observed while the gel porosity was increased. A significant increase in the compressive strength for up to 1 year is observed.

  19. Effect of copper on the recombination activity of extended defects in silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feklisova, O. V. Yakimov, E. B.

    2015-06-15

    The effect of copper atoms introduced by high-temperature diffusion on the recombination properties of dislocations and dislocation trails in p-type single-crystal silicon is studied by the electron-beam-induced current technique. It is shown that, in contrast to dislocations, dislocation trails exhibit an increase in recombination activity after the introduction of copper. Bright contrast appearance in the vicinity of dislocation trails is detected after the diffusion of copper and quenching of the samples. The contrast depends on the defect density in these trails.

  20. Thermal conductance measurements of bolted copper joints for SuperCDMS

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Schmitt, R. L.; Tatkowski, G.; Ruschman, M.; Golwala, S.; Kellaris, N.; Daal, M.; Hall, J.; Hoppe, E. W.

    2015-04-28

    Joint thermal conductance testing has been undertaken for bolted copper to copper connections from 60 mK to 26 K. This testing was performed to validate an initial design basis for the SuperCDMS experiment, where a dilution refrigerator will be coupled to a cryostat via multiple bolted connections. Copper used during testing was either gold plated or passivated with citric acid to prevent surface oxidation. Finally, the results we obtained are well fit by a power law regression of joint thermal conductance to temperature and match well with data collected during a literature review.

  1. Thermal conductance measurements of bolted copper joints for SuperCDMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitt, R.; Tatkowski, Greg; Ruschman, M.; Golwala, S. R.; Kellaris, N.; Daal, M.; Hall, Jeter C.; Hoppe, Eric W.

    2015-09-01

    Joint thermal conductance testing has been undertaken for bolted copper to copper connections from 60 mK to 26 K. This testing was performed to validate an initial design basis for the SuperCDMS experiment, where a dilution refrigerator will be coupled to a cryostat via multiple bolted connections. Copper used during testing was either gold plated or passivated with citric acid to prevent surface oxidation. Results obtained are well fit by a power law regression of joint thermal conductance to temperature and match well with data collected during a literature review.

  2. Thermal conductance measurements of bolted copper joints for SuperCDMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitt, R. L.; Tatkowski, G; Ruschman, M.; Golwala, S.; Kellaris, N.; Daal, M.; Hall, J.; Hoppe, E. W.

    2015-05-22

    Joint thermal conductance testing has been undertaken for bolted copper to copper connections from 60 mK to 26 K. This testing was performed to validate an initial design basis for the SuperCDMS experiment, where a dilution refrigerator will be coupled to a cryostat via multiple bolted connections. Copper used during testing was either gold plated or passivated with citric acid to prevent surface oxidation. Results obtained are well fit by a power law regression of joint thermal conductance to temperature and match well with data collected during a literature review.

  3. Chemical Structure of Copper in Incineration Dry Scrubber and Bag Filter Ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsiao, M. C.; Wang, H. Paul; Peng, C. Y.; Huang, C. H.; Wei Yuling

    2007-02-02

    Speciation of copper in waste incineration fly ashes (dry scrubber (DS) and bag filter (BF)) has been studied by X-ray absorption near edge structural (XANES) spectroscopy in the present work. Copper species such as metallic Cu, CuO, Cu(OH)2, and a small amount of CuCO3 in the fly ashes could be distinguished by semi-quantitative analysis of the edge spectra. Interestingly, nano CuO (37%) were found in the BF fly ash, that might account for its relatively high leachability of copper.

  4. Photoconductivity in reactively evaporated copper indium selenide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urmila, K. S. Asokan, T. Namitha Pradeep, B.; Jacob, Rajani; Philip, Rachel Reena

    2014-01-28

    Copper indium selenide thin films of composition CuInSe{sub 2} with thickness of the order of 130 nm are deposited on glass substrate at a temperature of 423 ±5 K and pressure of 10{sup −5} mbar using reactive evaporation, a variant of Gunther's three temperature method with high purity Copper (99.999%), Indium (99.999%) and Selenium (99.99%) as the elemental starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies shows that the films are polycrystalline in nature having preferred orientation of grains along the (112) plane. The structural type of the film is found to be tetragonal with particle size of the order of 32 nm. The structural parameters such as lattice constant, particle size, dislocation density, number of crystallites per unit area and strain in the film are also evaluated. The surface morphology of CuInSe{sub 2} films are studied using 2D and 3D atomic force microscopy to estimate the grain size and surface roughness respectively. Analysis of the absorption spectrum of the film recorded using UV-Vis-NIR Spectrophotometer in the wavelength range from 2500 nm to cutoff revealed that the film possess a direct allowed transition with a band gap of 1.05 eV and a high value of absorption coefficient (α) of 10{sup 6} cm{sup −1} at 570 nm. Photoconductivity at room temperature is measured after illuminating the film with an FSH lamp (82 V, 300 W). Optical absorption studies in conjunction with the good photoconductivity of the prepared p-type CuInSe{sub 2} thin films indicate its suitability in photovoltaic applications.

  5. Modeling pore corrosion in normally open gold- plated copper connectors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Moffat, Harry K.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Enos, David George; Serna, Lysle M.; Sorensen, Neil Robert

    2008-09-01

    The goal of this study is to model the electrical response of gold plated copper electrical contacts exposed to a mixed flowing gas stream consisting of air containing 10 ppb H{sub 2}S at 30 C and a relative humidity of 70%. This environment accelerates the attack normally observed in a light industrial environment (essentially a simplified version of the Battelle Class 2 environment). Corrosion rates were quantified by measuring the corrosion site density, size distribution, and the macroscopic electrical resistance of the aged surface as a function of exposure time. A pore corrosion numerical model was used to predict both the growth of copper sulfide corrosion product which blooms through defects in the gold layer and the resulting electrical contact resistance of the aged surface. Assumptions about the distribution of defects in the noble metal plating and the mechanism for how corrosion blooms affect electrical contact resistance were needed to complete the numerical model. Comparisons are made to the experimentally observed number density of corrosion sites, the size distribution of corrosion product blooms, and the cumulative probability distribution of the electrical contact resistance. Experimentally, the bloom site density increases as a function of time, whereas the bloom size distribution remains relatively independent of time. These two effects are included in the numerical model by adding a corrosion initiation probability proportional to the surface area along with a probability for bloom-growth extinction proportional to the corrosion product bloom volume. The cumulative probability distribution of electrical resistance becomes skewed as exposure time increases. While the electrical contact resistance increases as a function of time for a fraction of the bloom population, the median value remains relatively unchanged. In order to model this behavior, the resistance calculated for large blooms has been weighted more heavily.

  6. Reclamation of acidic copper mine tailings using municipal biosolids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, M.T.; Thompson, T.L.; Bengson, S.A.

    1998-12-31

    Reclamation of copper mine tailings in a cost effective, successful, and sustainable manner is an ongoing area of evaluation in the arid southwest. A study was initiated in September, 1996 near Hayden, Arizona to evaluate the use of municipal biosolids for reclaiming acidic copper mine tailings (pH of 2.5 to 4.0). The main objectives of the study were to (1) define an appropriate level of biosolids application for optimum plant growth, and (2) evaluate the effects of green waste and lime amendments. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with four biosolid rates of 20, 70, 100 and 135 dry tons/acre, three amendment treatments (none, green waste, and green waste plus lime); with three replications. Non-replicated controls (no treatment, green waste only and lime only) were included for comparison. Shortly after biosolids incorporation to a depth of 10--12 inches, composite soil samples (0--12 inches) of each plot were taken. Biosolids incorporation increased the pH of the tailings (>5.75) and additional increases in pH were noted with lime application. In January 1997, the plots were seeded and sprinkler irrigation was commenced. A total of 4.47 inches of rainfall and 3.8 inches of irrigation were applied until harvest in May 1997. Data from the first growing season indicates optimum growth (>66 lbs/acre) at biosolids rates of 70--100 dry tons/acre. There was a significant positive effect on growth of green waste and lime amendments. Surface NO{sub 3}-N concentrations in biosolids amended plots were greatly reduced (from 23 to 6 mg/kg) by addition of green waste. There was no evidence for NO{sub 3}N leaching below 12 inches.

  7. CX-009801: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Copper Mountain to Boysen 34.5 Kilovolt Transmission Line Structure Replacement CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 01/11/2013 Location(s): Wyoming Offices(s): Western Area Power Administration-Rocky Mountain Region

  8. CX-011470: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Digestion analysis of copper foil and silicon carbide samples CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 11/26/2013 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  9. CX-007624: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Copper Catalyzed Peroxide Destruction of Tank 48H Tetraphenylborate Wastes CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 01/24/2012 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  10. CX-007644: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Copper Catalyzed peroxide Destruction of Tank 48H Tetraphenylborate Wastes CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 01/17/2012 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  11. Structures of nitrato-(2-hydroxybenzaldehydo) (2,2 Prime -bipyridyl)copper and nitrato-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzaldehydo)(2,2 Prime -bipyridyl)copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chumakov, Yu. M.; Paladi, L. G.; Antosyak, B. Ya.; Simonov, Yu. A.; Tsapkov, V. I.; Bocelli, G.; Gulea, A. P.; Ginju, D.; Palomares-Sanchez, S. A.

    2011-03-15

    Nitrato-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzaldehydo)(2,2 Prime -bipyridyl)copper (I) and nitrato-(2-hydroxybenzaldehydo)(2,2 Prime -bipyridyl)copper (II) were synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction. The coordination polyhedron of the central copper atom in complex I can be described as a distorted tetragonal pyramid whose base is formed by the phenol and carbonyl oxygen atoms of the monodeprotonated 2-hydroxy-5nitrobenzaldehyde molecule and the nitrogen atoms of the 2,2 Prime -bipyridyl ligand and whose apex is occupied by the oxygen atom of the nitrato group. In the crystal structure, complexes I are linked by the acido ligands and the NO{sub 2} groups of the aldehyde molecule into infinite chains. In complex II, the central copper atom is coordinated by 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 2,2 Prime -bipyridyl, and the nitrato group, resulting in the formation of centrosymmetric dimers. The coordination polyhedron of the central copper atom can be described as a bipyramid (4 + 1 + 1) with the same base as in complex I. The axial vertices of the bipyramid are occupied by the oxygen atom of the nitrato group and the bridging phenol oxygen atom of the adjacent complex related to the initial complex by a center of symmetry. In the crystal structure, complexes II are hydrogen bonded into infinite chains.

  12. Image quality improvement in megavoltage cone beam CT using an imaging beam line and a sintered pixelated array system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breitbach, Elizabeth K.; Maltz, Jonathan S.; Gangadharan, Bijumon; Bani-Hashemi, Ali; Anderson, Carryn M.; Bhatia, Sudershan K.; Stiles, Jared; Edwards, Drake S.; Flynn, Ryan T.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To quantify the improvement in megavoltage cone beam computed tomography (MVCBCT) image quality enabled by the combination of a 4.2 MV imaging beam line (IBL) with a carbon electron target and a detector system equipped with a novel sintered pixelated array (SPA) of translucent Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S ceramic scintillator. Clinical MVCBCT images are traditionally acquired with the same 6 MV treatment beam line (TBL) that is used for cancer treatment, a standard amorphous Si (a-Si) flat panel imager, and the Kodak Lanex Fast-B (LFB) scintillator. The IBL produces a greater fluence of keV-range photons than the TBL, to which the detector response is more optimal, and the SPA is a more efficient scintillator than the LFB. Methods: A prototype IBL + SPA system was installed on a Siemens Oncor linear accelerator equipped with the MVision{sup TM} image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system. A SPA strip consisting of four neighboring tiles and measuring 40 cm by 10.96 cm in the crossplane and inplane directions, respectively, was installed in the flat panel imager. Head- and pelvis-sized phantom images were acquired at doses ranging from 3 to 60 cGy with three MVCBCT configurations: TBL + LFB, IBL + LFB, and IBL + SPA. Phantom image quality at each dose was quantified using the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and modulation transfer function (MTF) metrics. Head and neck, thoracic, and pelvic (prostate) cancer patients were imaged with the three imaging system configurations at multiple doses ranging from 3 to 15 cGy. The systems were assessed qualitatively from the patient image data. Results: For head and neck and pelvis-sized phantom images, imaging doses of 3 cGy or greater, and relative electron densities of 1.09 and 1.48, the CNR average improvement factors for imaging system change of TBL + LFB to IBL + LFB, IBL + LFB to IBL + SPA, and TBL + LFB to IBL + SPA were 1.63 (p < 10{sup -8}), 1.64 (p < 10{sup -13}), 2.66 (p < 10{sup -9}), respectively. For all imaging

  13. High-speed photography of energetic materials and components with a copper vapor laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dosser, L.R.; Reed, J.W.; Stark, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The evaluation of the properties of energetic materials, such as burn rate and ignition energy, is of primary importance in understanding their reactions and the functioning of devices containing them. One method for recording such information is high-speed photography at rates of up to 20,000 images per second. When a copper vapor laser is synchronized with the camera, laser-illuminated images can be recorded that detail the performance of a material and/or component in a manner never before possible. The laser can also be used for ignition of the energetic material, thus eliminating the need for bridgewires or electric squibs that can interfere with photography. Details of such ignitions are readily observable, and the burn rate of a material can be determined directly from the film. There are indications that information useful for the modeling of pyrotechnic reactions will become available as well. Recent results from high-speed photography of several pyrotechnic materials and devices will be presented. 9 figs.

  14. Results Of Copper Catalyzed Peroxide Oxidation (CCPO) Of Tank 48H Simulants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T. B.; Pareizs, J. M.; Newell, J. D.; Fondeur, F. F.; Nash, C. A.; White, T. L.; Fink, S. D.

    2012-12-13

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed a series of laboratory-scale experiments that examined copper-catalyzed hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) aided destruction of organic components, most notably tetraphenylborate (TPB), in Tank 48H simulant slurries. The experiments were designed with an expectation of conducting the process within existing vessels of Building 241-96H with minimal modifications to the existing equipment. Results of the experiments indicate that TPB destruction levels exceeding 99.9% are achievable, dependent on the reaction conditions. A lower reaction pH provides faster reaction rates (pH 7 > pH 9 > pH 11); however, pH 9 reactions provide the least quantity of organic residual compounds within the limits of species analyzed. Higher temperatures lead to faster reaction rates and smaller quantities of organic residual compounds. A processing temperature of 50 ?C as part of an overall set of conditions appears to provide a viable TPB destruction time on the order of 4 days. Higher concentrations of the copper catalyst provide faster reaction rates, but the highest copper concentration (500 mg/L) also resulted in the second highest quantity of organic residual compounds. The data in this report suggests 100-250 mg/L as a minimum. Faster rates of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} addition lead to faster reaction rates and lower quantities of organic residual compounds. An addition rate of 0.4 mL/hour, scaled to the full vessel, is suggested for the process. SRNL recommends that for pH adjustment, an acid addition rate 42 mL/hour, scaled to the full vessel, is used. This is the same addition rate used in the testing. Even though the TPB and phenylborates can be destroyed in a relative short time period, the residual organics will take longer to degrade to <10 mg/L. Low level leaching on titanium occurred, however, the typical concentrations of released titanium are very low (~40 mg/L or less). A small amount of leaching under these conditions is not

  15. Synthesis and Structural Flexibility of a Series of Copper(II...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Synthesis and Structural Flexibility of a Series of Copper(II) Azolate-Based Metal-Organic ... solvent molecules in the expanded framework 2 induced no change in the pore size, ...

  16. Metallicity of Ca2Cu6P5 with single and double copper-pnictide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Metallicity of Ca2Cu6P5 with single and double copper-pnictide layers Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on February 16, 2017 Title: ...

  17. Electrodeposited copper front metallization for silicon heterojunction solar cells: materials and processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geissbühler, J.; Martin de Nicolas, S.; Faes, A.; Lachowicz, A.; Tomasi, A.; Paviet-Salomon, B.; Lachenal, D.; Papet, P.; Badel, N.; Barraud, L.; Descoeudres, A.; Despeisse, M.; De Wolf, S.; Ballif, C.

    2014-10-20

    Even though screen-printing of low-temperature silver paste remains the state-of-the-art technique for the front-metallization of SHJ solar cells, recent studies have demonstrated large efficiency improvements when copper-electroplated contacts are used instead of screen-printed ones. However, due to the new materials and the new processes introduced by this technique, it is crucial to individually investigate their compatibility with the SHJ cell structure. In this study, we present a detailed analysis of how the performances of SHJ devices may be modified by these new materials and processes. First, effects on the amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) passivation have been studied for various processes such as DI water rinsing, dips in a copper removal solution and direct evaporation of copper on the a-Si:H. Finally, copper electroplating technique has been adapted in order to be applied to more complex cell structures such as high-efficiency IBC-SHJ.

  18. DWPF coupled feed flowsheet material balance with batch one sludge and copper nitrate catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, A.S.

    1993-09-28

    The SRTC has formally transmitted a recommendation to DWPF to replace copper formate with copper nitrate as the catalyst form during precipitate hydrolysis [1]. The SRTC was subsequently requested to formally document the technical bases for the recommendation. A memorandum was issued on August 23, 1993 detailing the activities (and responsible individuals) necessary to address the impact of this change in catalyst form on process compatibility, safety, processibility environmental impact and product glass quality [2]. One of the activities identified was the preparation of a material balance in which copper nitrate is substituted for copper formate and the identification of key comparisons between this material balance and the current Batch 1 sludge -- Late Wash material balance [3].

  19. Role of copper promotion in precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Brien, R.J.; Xu, L.; Davis, B.H.

    1996-10-01

    Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was conducted on precipitated iron-silicon catalysts. The affect of copper promotion on the activity and selectivity of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and syngas activated catalysts is presented. High activity and stability have been obtained for potassium promoted catalysts when operating at 270{degrees}C; however, it has been found that promotion with potassium and copper is essential to obtaining good activity in a wax producing mode at 230{degrees}C. Promotion with copper is critical to achieving good activity when pretreating catalysts with hydrogen or with syngas at high pressure. XRD and Mossbauer data indicate that copper facilitates the reduction of iron oxide to metallic iron and iron carbides during hydrogen and syngas pretreatments.

  20. Copper recycling project in Japan: Super smelter and super dust concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maeda, Masafumi; Nakamura, Takashi; Nishimura, Yuuji

    1995-12-31

    The aim in this project was to develop a new copper refining technology utilizing pyrometallurgical treatment and a raw materials preparation technique. In the recycling process, raw material is not an idealized concentrate of copper sulfide but is composed of various types of scrap, industrial wastes such as sludge, ash and slag, and municipal wastes. Since the authors cannot expect oxidation heat in this process as in sulfide smelting, organic materials are viewed as an alternative energy source. Quality of the copper produced is targeted as 99.99% and an intermediate grade will also be marketable. To benefit the plant, rare metals and other nonferrous metals will also be recovered. The overall system is described in this paper, specific topics outlined and preliminary research presented. Current Japanese technology for recycling copper based materials is briefly reviewed.

  1. Energy savings by recovered materials used in the copper industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    An overview of the copper industry is presented. Process descriptions and energy consumption are given for both primary and secondary zinc production. Energy savings due to recycling are discussed. (MHR)

  2. Sulfur dioxide emissions from primary copper smelters in the western US

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangeng, C.A.; Mead, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The body of information presented is directed to environmental scientists and policy makers without chemical or metallurgical engineering backgrounds. This paper addresses the problems of reducing sulfur dioxide emissions from primary copper smelters in the western United States and projects the future impact of emissions within a framework of legal, technological, and economic considerations. Methodology used to calculate historical sulfur dioxide emissions is described. Sulfur dioxide emission regulations are outlined as they apply to primary copper smelters. A discussion of available sulfur dioxide control technology and copper smelting processes summarizes the technological and economic problems of reducing copper smelter emissions. Based upon these technological and economic considerations, projections of smelter emissions indicate that compliance with existing legislative requirements will be achieved by 1990. Three smelters are projected to close by 1985.

  3. Spectral studies of copper(II) complexes of 6-(3-thienyl) pyridine-2-thiosemicarbazone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahjoub, Omima Abdalla; Farina, Yang

    2014-09-03

    Two novel copper(II) complexes [Cu(HL)Cl]Cl.H{sub 2}O (1) and [Cu(L)NO{sub 3}]Ðœ‡H{sub 2}O (2) of the three NNS donor thiosemicarbazone ligand 6-(3-thienyl) pyridine-2-thiosemicarbazone have been synthesized. The ligand and its copper(II) complexes were characterized by elemental analysis (C, H, N, and S), FT-IR, UV-visible, magnetic susceptibility and molar conductance. The thiosemicarbazone is present either as the thione form in complex 1 or as thiol form in complex 2 and is coordinated to copper(II) atom via the pyridine nitrogen atom, the azomethine nitrogen atom and the sulfur atom. The physicochemical and spectral data suggest square planar geometry for copper(II) atoms.

  4. Liquid precursor for deposition of copper selenide and method of preparing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Franciscus Antonius Maria Van Hest, Marinus; Ginley, David S.; Hersh, Peter A.; Eldada, Louay; Stanbery, Billy J.

    2015-09-08

    Liquid precursors containing copper and selenium suitable for deposition on a substrate to form thin films suitable for semiconductor applications are disclosed. Methods of preparing such liquid precursors and methods of depositing a precursor on a substrate are also disclosed.

  5. Fabricating Dielectric Ceramic Films on Copper Foils (IN-09-006...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    on a copper foil being tested on a probe station

    Ceramic film capacitors ... Electronics Patents and Patent Applications ID Number Title and Abstract Primary Lab Date ...

  6. Progress report on the influence of test temperature and grain boundary chemistry on the fracture behavior of ITER copper alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, M.; Stubbins, J.F.; Edwards, D.J.

    1998-09-01

    This collaborative study was initiated to determine mechanical properties at elevated temperatures of various copper alloys by University of Illinois and Pacific Northwestern National Lab (PNNL) with support of OMG Americas, Inc. and Brush Wellman, Inc. This report includes current experimental results on notch tensile tests and pre-cracked bend bar tests on these materials at room temperature, 200 and 300 C. The elevated temperature tests were performed in vacuum and indicate that a decrease in fracture resistance with increasing temperature, as seen in previous investigations. While the causes for the decreases in fracture resistance are still not clear, the current results indicate that environmental effects are likely less important in the process than formerly assumed.

  7. Coordination of Copper to the Membrane-Bound Form of α-Synuclein

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudzik, Christopher G.; Walter, Eric D.; Abrams, Benjamin S.; Jurica, Melissa S.; Millhauser, Glenn L.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregation of the 140 amino acid protein α-synuclein (α-syn) is linked to the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). α-Syn is a copper binding protein with potential function as a regulator of metal dependent redox activity. Epidemiological studies suggest that human exposure to excess copper increases the incidence of PD. α-Syn exists in both solution and membrane bound forms. Previous work evaluated the Cu2+ uptake for α-syn in solution and identified Met1-Asp2 and His50 as primary contributors to the coordination shell, with a dissociation constant of approximately 0.1 nM. When bound to the membrane bilayer, α-syn takes on a predominantly helical conformation, which spatially separates His50 from the protein N-terminus and is therefore incompatible with the copper coordination geometry of the solution state. Here we use circular dichroism and electron paramagnetic resonance (continuous wave and pulsed) to evaluate copper coordination to the membrane bound form of α-syn. In this molecular environment, Cu2+ binds exclusively to the protein N-terminus (Met1-Asp2) with no participation from His50. Copper does not alter the membrane bound α-syn conformation, or enhance the protein's release from the bilayer. The Cu2+ affinity is similar to that identified for solution α-syn suggesting that copper coordination is retained in the membrane. Consideration of these results suggests that copper exerts its greatest conformational affect on the solution form of α-syn and this species may therefore be precursor to PD arising from environmental copper exposure.

  8. Priority research areas to accelerate the development of practical ultraconductive copper conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Dominic F.; Burwell, Malcolm; Stillman, H.

    2015-09-01

    This report documents the findings at an Ultraconductive Copper Strategy Meeting held on March 11, 2015 in Washington DC. The aim of this meeting was to bring together researchers of ultraconductive copper in the U.S. to identify and prioritize critical non-proprietary research activities that will enhance the understanding in the material and accelerate its development into practical conductors. Every effort has been made to ensure that the discussion and findings are accurately reported in this document.

  9. Determination of Elastic Properties and Characterization of Thermal Barrier Coatings using Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shyam, Amit; Lara-Curzio, Edgar

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical properties of plasma sprayed ceramic coatings are extremely important to engine design. However, the determination of these properties is often difficult because of the unique and complicated microstructure of the coatings. In this presentation the determination of the elastic constants of plasma sprayed Yttria stabilized Zirconia thermal barrier coatings using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy will be described along with an analysis that enables the determination of the elastic constants as a function of temperature and coating direction. In this work, results on the following issues will be discussed: 1) the elastic anisotropy of thermal barrier coatings, which is associated with coating failure modes; 2) sintering effects on coating compliance comparing with thermal behavior, which is important to coating performance on engineering structures, such as turbine engines; 3) coating elastic modulus at high temperatures close to the service condition, which provides insights of coating mechanical behavior in both fundamental and practical studies.

  10. Accelerated light-induced degradation for detecting copper contamination in p-type silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inglese, Alessandro Savin, Hele; Lindroos, Jeanette

    2015-08-03

    Copper is a harmful metal impurity that significantly impacts the performance of silicon-based devices if present in active regions. In this contribution, we propose a fast method consisting of simultaneous illumination and annealing for the detection of copper contamination in p-type silicon. Our results show that, within minutes, such method is capable of producing a significant reduction of the minority carrier lifetime. A spatial distribution map of copper contamination can then be obtained through the lifetime values measured before and after degradation. In order to separate the effect of the light-activated copper defects from the other metastable complexes in low resistivity Cz-silicon, we carried out a dark anneal at 200 °C, which is known to fully recover the boron-oxygen defect. Similar to the boron-oxygen behavior, we show that the dark anneal also recovers the copper defects. However, the recovery is only partial and it can be used to identify the possible presence of copper contamination.

  11. Interface driven magnetic interactions in nanostructured thin films of iron nanocrystallites embedded in a copper matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desautels, R. D. Lierop, J. van; Shueh, C.; Lin, K.-W.; Freeland, J. W.

    2015-05-07

    We have fabricated thin films of iron nanocrystallites embedded in a copper matrix using a dual ion beam assisted deposition technique. A secondary End-Hall ion beam bombarded the iron atoms during deposition altering significantly the morphology of the films and allowing for control of the intermixing between iron and copper components. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and x-ray reflectometry experiments indicated that the morphology of the films was that of iron nanocrystallites embedded in a copper matrix. Rietveld refinements of the diffraction pattern identified fcc-copper and amorphous iron. An increased amount of disorder was observed with a reduction in the amount of deposited iron from a 1:1 Fe:Cu ratio to 0.25:0.75 Fe:Cu ratio. Interfacial copper-iron alloys were identified by DC susceptibility experiments through their reduced T{sub C,Alloy} (370, 310, and 280 K) compared with that of bulk iron (∼1000 K). Element specific x-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism experiments were performed to identify the contributions to the magnetism from the iron and the copper-iron alloy.

  12. Feasibility of using alginate to absorb dissolved copper from aqueous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jang, L.K.; Brand, W.; Resong, M.; Mainieri, W.; Geesey, G.G. )

    1990-11-01

    Alginate (a biopolymer from kelp and some bacterial strains) is known to absorb copper favorably in the presence of other cations. In this work, the feasibility of using a 2-liter batch three-phase (air/liquid/alginate gel) loop fluidized bed reactor to polish water containing 10-150 ppm dissolved copper was investigated. Three methods were tested: (1) calcium alginate spheres, prepared by dispensing sodium alginate (3.2 wt. % in water) into a 0.05 M calcium nitrate solution, were used as the absorbent, (2) the alginate spheres were formed in situ by dispensing the sodium alginate solution directly into the reactor fluid, and (3) same as (2) except that a trace amount of EDTA was added to the alginate solution. Batch absorption data showed that Method 3 yielded the best result; the concentration of dissolved copper was successfully reduced from 140 ppm to 10 ppm with 3.2 g sodium alginate and 0.2 g EDTA used. However, when the initial concentration was below 40 ppm, both Method 2 and Method 3 are not recommended because the concentration of dissolved copper was too low to allow in situ formation of alginate spheres. Method 1 was found to be useful for treating water containing 10 ppm dissolved copper. But the competition from calcium seriously affected the effective capacity of the alginate for copper. The application of the classical shell progressive model to describe the absorption kinetics was discussed.

  13. Investigation of chemical composition and crystal structure in sintered Ce{sub 15}Nd{sub 15}Fe{sub bal}B{sub 1} magnet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Shu-lin; Feng, Hai-bo; Zhu, Ming-gang; Li, An-hua; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yue

    2014-10-15

    The substitution of cerium, a more abundant rare-earth element, for sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets has drawn intense interest. In the present work, nominal composition of Ce{sub 15}Nd{sub 15}Fe{sub bal}B{sub 1} (wt. %), with cerium constitutes increased to 50% of the total rare-earth content, was used. And Ce-free Nd{sub 30}Fe{sub bal}B{sub 1} (wt. %) was prepared by the same preparation process as comparison. The microstructure of the sintered magnets has been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope. The results show that there are three kinds of RE-rich phases in the same magnet, i.e., fcc-(Ce,Nd)O{sub x} (a=0.547nm), hcp-(Ce,Nd){sub 2}O{sub 3} (a=0.386nm, c=0.604nm) and bcc-(Ce,Nd){sub 2}O{sub 3} (a=1.113nm). Ors of (140)(Ce,Nd){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B// (1-21)bcc-(Ce,Nd){sub 2}O{sub 3}(∼3°), [001](Ce,Nd){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B// [-214]bcc-(Ce,Nd){sub 2}O{sub 3}; (01-1)(Ce,Nd){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B// (101)fcc- (Ce,Nd)O{sub x}(∼2°), [101](Ce,Nd){sub 2}Fe14B// [12-1]fcc-(Ce,Nd)O{sub x} were found through selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis. According to the analysis, it can be concluded that cerium has partly substituted for neodymium by occupying the corresponding atom sites in the Ce{sub 15}Nd{sub 15}Fe{sub bal}B{sub 1} magnet, without changing the crystal configuration.

  14. Nd{sup 3+}:Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} laser ceramics: Influence of the size of yttrium oxide particles on sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosyanov, D. Yu. Baumer, V. N.; Yavetskiy, R. P.; Voznyy, V. L.; Kravchenko, V. B.; Kopylov, Yu. L.; Tolmachev, A. V.

    2015-03-15

    The influence of the size of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder particles on the structure formation and densification of Nd{sup 3+}:Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} laser ceramics has been studied. It is shown that the use of 50- and 100-nm yttrium oxide particles makes it possible to synthesize single-phase yttrium aluminum garnet at temperatures of 1200 and 1500°C, respectively, whereas in the case of 5000-nm yttrium oxide particles 2-h exposure at a temperature of 1500°C yields only 80 wt % of the Nd{sup 3+}:Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} phase. Bulk swelling of pressed samples during sintering of 2.94Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-0.06Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-5Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders with the size ratio of the initial particles R(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) ∼ 5 is observed. The application of different-sized powders (R ∼ 2.5) provides quantitative ratios between phases in the 3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-5Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} system at which shrinkage in a temperature range of 20–1500°C is dominant. Laser ceramics 0–2 at % Nd{sup 3+}:Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} have been obtained by the solid-phase sintering of oxide powders (R ∼ 2.5). The slope efficiency for 1 at % Nd{sup 3+}:Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} laser ceramics is found to be 33%.

  15. Neutral atomic jet generation by laser ablation of copper targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matos, J. B. de; Rodrigues, N. A. S.

    2014-08-15

    This work aimed the obtainment of a neutral atomic jet departing from a plume generated by laser ablation of copper targets. A pair of electrodes together with a transducer pressure sensor was used to study the ablated plume charge composition and also to measure the ion extraction from the plasma plume. The neutral beam was produced with this setup and the relative abundance of neutrals in the plasma was measured, it decreases from 30% to 8% when the laser fluence is varied from 20 J/cm{sup 2} to 32 J/cm{sup 2}. The necessary voltage to completely remove the ions from the plume varied from 10 V to 230 V in the same fluence range. TOF analysis resulted in center of mass velocities between 3.4 and 4.6 km/s, longitudinal temperature in the range from 1 10{sup 4} K to 2.4 10{sup 4} K and a Mach number of M = 2.36, calculated using purely hydrodynamic expansion approximation.

  16. Buffer layers on rolled nickel or copper as superconductor substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paranthaman, Mariappan; Lee, Dominic F.; Kroeger, Donald M.; Goyal, Amit

    2000-01-01

    Buffer layer architectures are epitaxially deposited on biaxially-textured rolled substrates of nickel and/or copper and their alloys for high current conductors, and more particularly buffer layer architectures such as Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, YSZ/Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /CeO.sub.2 /Ni, RE.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni (RE=Rare Earth), and Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /YSZ/CeO.sub.2 /Ni, Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, YSZ/Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /CeO.sub.2 /Cu, RE.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, and Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /YSZ/CeO.sub.2 /Cu. Deposition methods include physical vapor deposition techniques which include electron-beam evaporation, rf magnetron sputtering, pulsed laser deposition, thermal evaporation, and solution precursor approach, which includes chemical vapor deposition, combustion CVD, metal-organic decomposition, sol-gel processing, and plasma spray.

  17. Stability and migration of small copper clusters in amorphous dielectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guzman, David M.; Onofrio, Nicolas; Strachan, Alejandro

    2015-05-21

    We use density functional theory (DFT) to study the thermodynamic stability and migration of copper ions and small clusters embedded in amorphous silicon dioxide. We perform the calculations over an ensemble of statistically independent structures to quantify the role of the intrinsic atomic-level variability in the amorphous matrix affect the properties. The predicted formation energy of a Cu ion in the silica matrix is 2.7 ± 2.4 eV, significantly lower the value for crystalline SiO{sub 2}. Interestingly, we find that Cu clusters of any size are energetically favorable as compared to isolated ions; showing that the formation of metallic clusters does not require overcoming a nucleation barrier as is often assumed. We also find a broad distribution of activation energies for Cu migration, from 0.4 to 1.1 eV. This study provides insights into the stability of nanoscale metallic clusters in silica of interest in electrochemical metallization cell memories and optoelectronics.

  18. Dissociation of dilute immiscible copper alloy thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barmak, K.; Lucadamo, G. A.; Cabral, C. Jr.; Lavoie, C.; Harper, J. M. E.

    2000-03-01

    The dissociation behavior of dilute, immiscible Cu-alloy thin films is found to fall into three broad categories that correlate most closely with the form of the Cu-rich end of the binary alloy phase diagrams. Available thermodynamic and tracer diffusion data shed further light on alloy behavior. Eight alloying elements were selected for these studies, with five elements from groups 5 and 6, two from group 8, and one from group 11 of the periodic table. They are respectively V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, Fe, Ru, and Ag. The progress of precipitation in approximately 500-nm-thick alloy films, containing 2.5-3.8 at. % solute, was followed with in situ resistance and stress measurements as well as with in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction. In addition, texture analysis and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate the evolution of microstructure and texture of Cu(Ta) and Cu(Ag). For all eight alloys, dissociation occurred upon heating, with the rejection of solute and evolution of microstructure often occurring in multiple steps that range over several hundred degrees between approximately 100 and 900 degree sign C. However, in most cases, substantial reductions in resistivity of the films took place below 400 degree sign C, at temperatures of interest to copper metallization schemes for silicon chip technology. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis of two copper helical coordination polymers with acentric three-dimensional framework constructing from mixed pyridine carboxylates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Shuai; Cao Yanning; Zhang Hanhui Chai Xiaochuan; Chen Yiping

    2008-03-15

    Two copper helical coordination polymers, [Cu(2-pc)(3-pc)]{sub n}1 and [Cu(2-pc)(4-pc)]{sub n}2 (2-pc=2-pyridine carboxylate, 3-pc=3-pyridine carboxylate, 4-pc=4-pyridine carboxylate) have been hydrothermally synthesized directly from pyridine carboxylic acids and copper nitrate. The crystal structure were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction with the following data: compound 1, orthorhombic, P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, a=6.591(3) A, b=8.692(5) A, c=20.548(9) A, V=1177.2(9) A{sup 3}, Z=4; compound 2, orthorhombic, Pna2{sub 1}, a=21.160(10) A, b=9.095(5) A, c=6.401(3) A, V=1231.9(11) A{sup 3}, Z=4. The acentric three-dimensional (3D) framework of 1 is constructed from right-handed helical Cu(2-pc) chains and left-handed Cu(3-pc) helices. As for 2, Cu(2-pc) helical chains, in which left- and right-handed helices are coexisting, and Cu(4-pc) zigzag chains combined together to form acentric 3D architecture of 2 as well. Additionally, besides general spectral characterization, we first introduce generalized 2D correlation spectroscopy to explore the coordination polymers and ascertain the stretching vibration location of carboxylate groups of compounds 1 and 2. -- Abstract: Two copper helical coordination polymers, [Cu(2-pc)(3-pc)]{sub n}1 and [Cu(2-pc)(4-pc)]{sub n}2 have been obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. Both two compounds crystallized in non-centrosymmetric space groups, P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and Pna2{sub 1}, respectively. The 3D framework of 1 is constructed from right-handed helical Cu(2-pc) chains and left-handed Cu(3-pc) helices. As for 2, Cu(2-pc) helical chains, in which left- and right-handed helices are coexisting, and Cu(4-pc) zigzag chains combined together to form 3D architecture of 2 as well.

  20. Structure-Activity Relationship in Nanostructured Copper-Ceria-Based Preferential CO Oxidation Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamarra,D.; Munuera, G.; Hungria, A.; Fernandez-Garcia, M.; Conesa, J.; Midgley, P.; Wang, X.; Hanson, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Martinez-Arias, A.

    2007-01-01

    Two series of nanostructured oxidized copper-cerium catalysts with varying copper loadings, and prepared, respectively, by impregnation of ceria and by coprecipitation of the two components within reverse microemulsions, have been characterized in detail at structural and electronic levels by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) (including Ar{sup +}-sputtering), and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). These results have been correlated with analysis of their catalytic properties for preferential oxidation of CO in a H{sub 2}-rich stream (CO-PROX), complemented by Operando-DRIFTS. A relevant difference between the two series of catalysts concerns the nature of the support for the surface-dispersed copper oxide entities, which is essentially ceria for the samples prepared by impregnation and a Ce-Cu mixed oxide for those prepared by microemulsion-coprecipitation. The existence of copper segregation in the form of copper oxide or copper-enriched Cu-Ce mixed oxides for the latter type of samples is uniquely revealed by nanoprobe XEDS and XPS Ar{sup +}-sputtering experiments. The CO oxidation activity under CO-PROX conditions is correlated to the degree of support-promoted reduction achieved by the dispersed copper oxide particles under reaction conditions. Nevertheless, catalysts which display higher CO oxidation activity are generally more efficient also for the undesired H{sub 2} oxidation reaction. The balance between both reactions results in differences in the CO-PROX activity between the two series of catalysts which are examined on the basis of the structural differences found.

  1. Determination of Desorbed Species During Heating of AgI-Mordenite Provided by ORNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croes, Kenneth James; Garino, Terry J.; Mowry, Curtis D.; Nenoff, Tina M.

    2015-12-15

    This study is focused on describing the desorbed off gases due to heating of the AgIMordenite (MOR) produced at ORNL for iodine (I2) gas capture from nuclear fuel aqueous reprocessing. In particular, the interest is for the incorporation of the AgI-MOR into a waste form, which might be the Sandia developed, low temperature sintering, Bi-Si oxide based, Glass Composite Material (GCM). The GCM has been developed as a waste form for the incorporation any oxide based getter material. In the case where iodine may be released during the sintering process of the GCM, additional Ag flake is added as further insurance in total iodine capture and retention. This has been the case for the incorporated ORNL developed AgIMOR. Thermal analysis studies were carried out to determine off gasing processes of ORNL AgIMOR. Independent of sample size, ~7wt% of total water is desorbed by 225°C. This includes both bulk surface and occluded water, and are monitored as H2O and OH. Of that total, ~5.5wt% is surface water which is removed by 125°C, and 1.5wt% is occluded (in zeolite pore) water. Less than ~1 wt% total water continues to desorb, but is completely removed by 500°C. Above 300°C, the detectable remaining desorbing species observed are iodine containing compounds, including I and I2.

  2. Theoretical and experimental determination of mechanical properties...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; COPPER; ELASTICITY; NIOBIUM ALLOYS; ...

  3. Involvement of purinergic system in inflammation and toxicity induced by copper in zebrafish larvae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leite, Carlos Eduardo; Maboni, Lucas de Oliveira; Cruz, Fernanda Fernandes; Rosemberg, Denis Broock; and others

    2013-11-01

    The use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) is increasing as an intermediate preclinical model, to prioritize drug candidates for mammalian testing. As the immune system of the zebrafish is quite similar to that of mammals, models of inflammation are being developed for the screening of new drugs. The characterization of these models is crucial for studies that seek for mechanisms of action and specific pharmacological targets. It is well known that copper is a metal that induces damage and cell migration to hair cells of lateral line of zebrafish. Extracellular nucleotides/nucleosides, as ATP and adenosine (ADO), act as endogenous signaling molecules during tissue damage by exerting effects on inflammatory and immune responses. The present study aimed to characterize the inflammatory status, and to investigate the involvement of the purinergic system in copper-induced inflammation in zebrafish larvae. Fishes of 7 days post-fertilization were exposed to 10 μM of copper for a period of 24 h. The grade of oxidative stress, inflammatory status, copper uptake, the activity and the gene expression of the enzymes responsible for controlling the levels of nucleotides and adenosine were evaluated. Due to the copper accumulation in zebrafish larvae tissues, the damage and oxidative stress were exacerbated over time, resulting in an inflammatory process involving IL-1β, TNF-α, COX-2 and PGE{sub 2}. Within the purinergic system, the mechanisms that control the ADO levels were the most involved, mainly the reactions performed by the isoenzyme ADA 2. In conclusion, our data shed new lights on the mechanisms related to copper-induced inflammation in zebrafish larvae. - Graphical abstract: This scheme provides a chronological proposition for the biochemical events induced by copper in zebrafish larvae. The dashed line shows the absorption of copper over the exposure time. After 1 h of exposure to copper, the release of PGE{sub 2} occurs, followed by an increase of MPO (as a consequence

  4. Cleaning and passivation of copper surfaces to remove surface radioactivity and prevent oxide formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Eric W.; Seifert, Allen; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bachelor, Paula P.; Day, Anthony R.; Edwards, Danny J.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Litke, Kevin E.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Schulte, Shannon M.; Smart, John E.; Warren, Glen A.

    2007-08-21

    High-purity copper is an attractive material for constructing ultra-low-background radiation measurement devices. Many low-background experiments using high-purity copper have indicated surface contamination emerges as the dominant background. Radon daughters plate out on exposed surfaces, leaving a residual 210Pb background that is difficult to avoid. Dust is also a problem; even under cleanroom conditions, the amount of U and Th deposited on surfaces can represent the largest remaining background. To control these backgrounds, a copper cleaning chemistry has been developed. Designed to replace an effective, but overly aggressive concentrated nitric acid etch, this peroxide-based solution allows for a more controlled cleaning of surfaces. The acidified hydrogen peroxide solution will generally target the Cu+/Cu2+ species which are the predominant surface participants, leaving the bulk of copper metal intact. This preserves the critical tolerances of parts and eliminates significant waste disposal issues. Accompanying passivation chemistry has also been developed that protects copper surfaces from oxidation. Using a high-activity polonium surface spike, the most difficult-to-remove daughter isotope of radon, the performance of these methods are quantified. © 2001 Elsevier Science. All rights reserved

  5. Recovery of aluminium, nickel-copper alloys and salts from spent fluorescent lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabah, Mahmoud A

    2004-07-01

    This study explores a combined pyro-hydrometallurgical method to recover pure aluminium, nickel-copper alloy(s), and some valuable salts from spent fluorescent lamps (SFLs). It also examines the safe recycling of clean glass tubes for the fluorescent lamp industry. Spent lamps were decapped under water containing 35% acetone to achieve safe capture of mercury vapour. Cleaned glass tubes, if broken, were cut using a rotating diamond disc to a standard shorter length. Aluminium and copper-nickel alloys in the separated metallic parts were recovered using suitable flux to decrease metal losses going to slag. Operation variables affecting the quality of the products and the extent of recovery with the suggested method were investigated. Results revealed that total loss in the glass tube recycling operation was 2% of the SFLs. Pure aluminium meeting standard specification DIN 1712 was recovered by melting at 800 deg. C under sodium chloride/carbon flux for 20 min. Standard nickel-copper alloys with less than 0.1% tin were prepared by melting at 1250 deg. C using a sodium borate/carbon flux. De-tinning of the molten nickel-copper alloy was carried out using oxygen gas. Tin in the slag as oxide was recovered by reduction using carbon or hydrogen gas at 650-700 deg. C. Different valuable chloride salts were also obtained in good quality. Further research is recommended on the thermodynamics of nickel-copper recovery, yttrium and europium recovery, and process economics.

  6. Thermodynamic modeling of lead distribution among matte, slag, and liquid copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Degterov, S.A.; Pelton, A.D.

    1999-12-01

    Recently, a thermodynamic database was developed for the calculation of equilibria involved in the production of copper. The present study is concerned with the further development of the thermodynamic models and the database of model parameters for the matte, slag, and blister copper phases with a view to including Pb in the database and phase equilibrium data available in the literature are reviewed, critically assessed, and optimized with the modified quasi-chemical model. When used with the Gibbs energy minimization software and other databases of the FACT thermodynamic computing system, the database developed in the present study can be used for the calculation of matte-slag-copper-gas phase equilibria during copper smelting and converting. The distribution of lead among these phases can be computed. For example, the distribution of lead among matte, silica-saturated slag, and copper has been calculated at metal saturation, or under fixed partial pressure of SO{sub 2}, and has been compared with the available experimental data. The Pb distributions among the equilibrium phases have been calculated under various conditions, which are difficult to study experimentally, such as at magnetite saturation or under various oxygen partial pressures and iron to silica ratios in the slag.

  7. The effect of magnetic field on copper in various corrosive medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ang, L. Y.; Othman, N. K.; Jalar, A.; Ismail, I.

    2014-09-03

    The effect of applied magnetic field on the corrosion behaviour of copper within various corrosive medium is investigated. The copper coupon is immersed in 0.5 M HCl, 0.5 M NaCl and 0.5 M NaOH with or without applying up to 40 mT magnetic fields for 24 hours. The weight loss of copper coupon in HCl increased up to 96.56% with applied magnetic fields. However, in NaOH medium, only 33.33% more weight loss was observed and no difference were observed for coupons in NaCl when magnetic field is applied. This observation indicates that corrosion behaviour in HCl and NaOH is controlled by mass transport that can be influenced by the induced magneto hydrodynamics effect when magnetic field is applied. There was no change in weight loss of copper in NaCl when magnetic field is applied because the corrosion mechanism of copper in NaCl is governed by electron charge transfer.

  8. Reduction of fluoranthene of copper and lead accumulation in Triticum aestivum L

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetzel, A.; Alexander, T.; Brandt, S.; Haas, R.; Werner, D. )

    1994-12-01

    Fluoranthene is one of the most important representatives of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Coaltar production alone yields about 30000 t of fluoranthene per year. In spite of its abundance, however, very little is known about its effects on the environment. Groenewegen and Stolp investigated the half-life of this substance in soil and found values between 44 and 182 days, depending on the soil matrix. PAHs may migrate into soil organic matter, representing less accessible sites within the soil matrix. Such sorbed PAHs are suggested to be non-bioavailable and thus non-biodegradable. Fluoranthene has long been classified as non-carcinogenic and largely non-hazardous. The oral toxicity rating is indeed low, being only 2000 mg [center dot] kg[sup [minus]1] for rats and mice (LD[sub 50]), but there are also reports of mutagenic and toxic effects of fluoranthene on animals and plants. Fluoranthene has been reported to be synthesized by spermatophytes. However, accumulation of fluoranthene and other PAHs in plants is generally attributed to contamination by airborne particulate matter. Lettuce, soya, rye and tobacco plants grown in air-filtered chambers failed to synthesize PAHs, but accumulation of such substances was observed in a normal greenhouse. Transfer of fluoranthene from polluted soil via roots to shoots is probably limited due to the high n-octanol/water partition coefficient log P[sub OW] of fluoranthene: 5.33. However, there seems to be a stimulation of PAH uptake by mosses and spermatophytes in heavy metal-stressed soils. The aim of the present study was to determine toxic effects of fluoranthene on wheat and whether there were any interactions between toxicity and uptake of fluoranthene, lead and copper in hydroponic culture systems. 21 refs., 4 tabs.

  9. Chemical sensing of copper phthalocyanine sol-gel glass through organic vapors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridhi, R.; Gawri, Isha; Abbas, Saeed J.; Saini, G. S. S.; Tripathi, S. K.

    2015-05-15

    The sensitivities of metallophthalocyanine to vapor phase electron donors has gained significance in many areas and disciplines due to their sensing properties and ease of operation. In the present study the interaction mechanism of organic vapors in Copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc) sol-gel glass has been studied. The interaction mechanism is affected by many factors like morphology, electrical or optical properties of film. CuPc sol-gel glass has been synthesized using chemical route sol-gel method. Its structural characterization was conducted using XRD and the amorphous nature of the silicate glass was observed with characteristic α polymorph phase of CuPc at around 6.64° with 13.30Å interplanar spacing. The size of the particle as determined using Debbye Scherre’s formula comes out around 15.5 nm. The presence of α phase of CuPc was confirmed using FTIR with the appearance of crystal parameter marker band at 787 cm-1. Apart from this A2u and Eu symmetry bands of CuPc have also been observed. The UV absorption spectrum of CuPc exhibits absorption peaks owing to π→ π* and n→ π* transitions. A blue shift in the prepared CuPc glass has been observed as compared to the dopant CuPc salt indicating increase of band gap. A split in B (Soret) band and Q band appears as observed with the help of Lorentzian fitting. CuPc sol gel glass has been exposed with chemical vapors of Methanol, Benzene and Bromine individually and the electrical measurements have been carried out. These measurements show the variation in conductivity and the interaction mechanism has been analyzed.

  10. Comparison of availability of copper(II) complexes with organic ligands to bacterial cells and to chitin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasconcelos, M.T.S.D.; Azenha, M.A.O.; Cabral, J.P.S.

    1997-10-01

    Bacterial cells or chitin were exposed to solutions with 100 {micro}M total but only 5 {micro}M free copper, due to the presence of a proper concentration of proline, lysine, cysteine, or ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA). The influence of the nature and concentration of the particles and soluble ligands, on the sorption and on the desorption of the copper, at pH 6.50 and 25.0 C, was investigated. The metal sorbed by the particles and that left in the solution were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry, after different periods of contact between particles and solution. The interpretation of the results was based on the copper(II) speciation calculated through equilibrium approaches applied to homogeneous or heterogeneous systems. A significant fraction of copper bound to the organic ligands was displaced to the bacteria or chitin, and the extent of chemical reaction depended on the nature of both the soluble (or leaving) ligands and sites on the particle surface (or entering ligands), as expected by the equilibrium theory. But with chitin, the uptake of copper in the presence of cysteine or EDTA was higher than expected, which may be due to the adsorption of the soluble copper complexes on the particle surface. In consequence of a competition between soluble and particulate ligands (cells or chitin), the free copper(II) concentration decreased in the solution, even in the presence of very strong chelators. The results indicate that copper availability is not a simple function of the initial free copper concentration in the solution. Desorption of the previously fixed copper, originated by free soluble ligands indicated that the sorption of copper was quasireversible for both particles, though a larger dismissal of the equilibrium position occurred for the cells, probably due to their biological activity.

  11. Remote Stabilization of Copper Paddlewheel Based Molecular Building Blocks in Metal-Organic Frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Wen-Yang; Cai, Rong; Pham, Tony; Forrest, Katherine A.; Hogan, Adam; Nugent, Patrick; Williams, Kia; Wojtas, Lukasz; Luebke, Ryan; Weseliinski, Lukasz J.; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Space, Brian; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Shi, Xiaodong; Ma, Shengqian

    2015-08-21

    Copper paddlewheel based molecular building blocks (MBBs) are ubiquitous and have been widely employed for the construction of highly porous metal–organic frameworks (MOFs). However, most copper paddlewheel based MOFs fail to retain their structural integrity in the presence of water. This instability is directly correlated to the plausible displacement of coordinating carboxylates in the copper paddlewheel MBB, [Cu₂(O₂C-)₄], by the strongly coordinating water molecules. In this comprehensive study, we illustrate the chemical stability control in the rht-MOF platform via strengthening the coordinating bonds within the triangular inorganic MBB, [Cu₃O(N4–x(CH)xC-)₃] (x = 0, 1, or 2). Remotely, the chemical stabilization propagated into the paddlewheel MBB to afford isoreticular rht-MOFs with remarkably enhanced water/chemical stabilities compared to the prototypal rht-MOF-1.

  12. Quantitative analysis of oxygen content in copper oxide films using ultra microbalance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu, Yonghua; Wang, Lianhong; Liu, Chong; Fan, Jing

    2014-12-09

    Copper oxide films were prepared on quartz substrates through electron beam physical vapor deposition in a vacuum chamber, and the films were observed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The oxygen content of the films were analyzed using an ultra microbalance. Results indicated that when the substrate was heated to 600°C and the oxygen flow rate was 5 sccm, the film was composed of 47% Cu and 53% Cu2O (mass percent), and the oxidation ratio of copper was 25%. After the deposition process at the same condition, i.e. the substrate at temperature of 600°C and blowed by oxygen flowrate of 5 sccm, then in-stu annealed at 600°C in low oxygen pressure of 10 Pa for 30 minutes, the film composition became 22% Cu2O and 78% CuO (mass percent), and the oxidation ratio of copper greatly increased to about 88%.

  13. Fabrication and characterization of silver- and copper-coated Nylon 6 forcespun nanofibers by thermal evaporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihut, Dorina M. Lozano, Karen; Foltz, Heinrich

    2014-11-01

    Silver and copper nanoparticles were deposited as thin films onto substrates consisting of Nylon 6 nanofibers manufactured using forcespinning{sup ®} equipment. Different rotational speeds were used to obtain continuous nanofibers of various diameters arranged as nonwoven mats. The Nylon 6 nanofibers were collected as successive layers on frames, and a high-vacuum thermal evaporation method was used to deposit the silver and copper thin films on the nanofibers. The structures were investigated using scanning electron microscopy–scanning transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and electrical resistance measurements. The results indicate that evaporated silver and copper nanoparticles were successfully deposited on Nylon 6 nanofibers as thin films that adhered well to the polymer substrate while the native morphology of the nanofibers were preserved, and electrically conductive nanostructures were achieved.

  14. Method For Creating Corrosion Resistant Surface On An Aluminum Copper Alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansfeld, Florian B.; Wang, You; Lin, Simon H.

    1997-06-03

    A method for treating the surface of aluminum alloys hang a relatively high copper content is provided which includes the steps of removing substantially all of the copper from the surface, contacting the surface with a first solution containing cerium, electrically charging the surface while contacting the surface in an aqueous molybdate solution, and contacting the surface with a second solution containing cerium. The copper is substantially removed from the surface in the first step either by (i) contacting the surface with an acidic chromate solution or by (ii) contacting the surface with an acidic nitrate solution while subjecting the surface to an electric potential. The corrosion-resistant surface resulting from the invention is excellent, consistent and uniform throughout the surface. Surfaces treated by the invention may often be certified for use in salt-water services.

  15. Comparison of defect cluster accumulation and pattern formation in irradiated copper and nickel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Snead, L.L.; Edwards, D.J.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the contrasting behavior of defect cluster formation in neutron-irradiated copper and nickel specimens. Transmission electron microscopy was used to examine the density and spatial distribution of defect clusters produced in copper and nickel as the result of fission neutron irradiation to damage levels of 0.01 to 0.25 displacements per atom (dpa) at irradiation temperature between 50 and 230{degrees}C. A comparison with published results in the literature indicates that defect cluster wall formation occurs in nickel irradiated at 0.2 to 0.4 T{sub M} in a wide variety of irradiation spectra. Defect cluster wall formation apparently only occurs in copper during low temperature irradiation with electrons and light ions. These results are discussed in terms of the thermal spike model for energetic displacement cascades.

  16. The copper-pumped dye laser system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hackel, R.P.; Warner, B.E.

    1993-01-12

    The Atomic Vapor Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program has developed a high-average-power, pulsed, tunable, visible laser system. Testing of this hardware is in progress at industrial scales. The copper-dye Laser system is prototypical of a basic module of a uranium-AVLIS plant The laser demonstration facility (LDF) system consists of copper vapor lasers arranged in oscillator-amplifier chains providing optical pump power to dye-laser master-oscillator-power-amplifier chains. This system is capable of thousands of watts (average) tunable between 550 and 650 mm. The copper laser system consists of 12 chains operating continuously. The copper lasers operate at nominally 4.4 kHz, with 50 ns pulse widths and produce 20 W at near the diffraction limit from oscillators and >250 W from each amplifier. Chains consist of an oscillator and three amplifiers and produce >750 W average, with availabilities >95% (i.e., >8300 h/y). The total copper laser system power averages {approximately}9000 W and has operated at over 10,000 W for extended intervals. The 12 copper laser beams are multiplexed and delivered to the dye laser system where they pump multiple dye laser chains. Each dye chain consists of a master oscillator and three or four power amplifiers. The master oscillator operates at nominally 100 mW with a 50 MHz single mode bandwidth. Sustained dye chain powers are up to 1400 W with dye conversion efficiency >50%, ASE content <5%, and wavefront quality correctable to <{lambda}/10 RMS, using deformable mirrors. The dye laser system is capable of repetition rates which are multiples of 4.4 kHz, up to 26 kHz.

  17. The copper-pumped dye laser system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hackel, R.P.; Warner, B.E.

    1993-01-12

    The Atomic Vapor Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program has developed a high-average-power, pulsed, tunable, visible laser system. Testing of this hardware is in progress at industrial scales. The copper-dye Laser system is prototypical of a basic module of a uranium-AVLIS plant The laser demonstration facility (LDF) system consists of copper vapor lasers arranged in oscillator-amplifier chains providing optical pump power to dye-laser master-oscillator-power-amplifier chains. This system is capable of thousands of watts (average) tunable between 550 and 650 mm. The copper laser system consists of 12 chains operating continuously. The copper lasers operate at nominally 4.4 kHz, with 50 ns pulse widths and produce 20 W at near the diffraction limit from oscillators and >250 W from each amplifier. Chains consist of an oscillator and three amplifiers and produce >750 W average, with availabilities >95% (i.e., >8300 h/y). The total copper laser system power averages [approximately]9000 W and has operated at over 10,000 W for extended intervals. The 12 copper laser beams are multiplexed and delivered to the dye laser system where they pump multiple dye laser chains. Each dye chain consists of a master oscillator and three or four power amplifiers. The master oscillator operates at nominally 100 mW with a 50 MHz single mode bandwidth. Sustained dye chain powers are up to 1400 W with dye conversion efficiency >50%, ASE content <5%, and wavefront quality correctable to <[lambda]/10 RMS, using deformable mirrors. The dye laser system is capable of repetition rates which are multiples of 4.4 kHz, up to 26 kHz.

  18. Electrode for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iacovangelo, Charles D.; Zarnoch, Kenneth P.

    1983-01-01

    A sintered porous electrode useful for a molten carbonate fuel cell is produced which is composed of a plurality of 5 wt. % to 95 wt. % nickel balance copper alloy encapsulated ceramic particles sintered together by the alloy.

  19. Application of copper vapour lasers for controlling activity of uranium isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barmina, E V; Sukhov, I A; Lepekhin, N M; Priseko, Yu S; Filippov, V G; Simakin, Aleksandr V; Shafeev, Georgii A

    2013-06-30

    Beryllium nanoparticles are generated upon ablation of a beryllium target in water by a copper vapour laser. The average size of single crystalline nanoparticles is 12 nm. Ablation of a beryllium target in aqueous solutions of uranyl chloride leads to a significant (up to 50 %) decrease in the gamma activity of radionuclides of the uranium-238 and uranium-235 series. Data on the recovery of the gamma activity of these nuclides to new steady-state values after laser irradiation are obtained. The possibility of application of copper vapour lasers for radioactive waste deactivation is discussed. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  20. Lower-pH Copper Flotation Reagent System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Lower-pH Copper Flotation Reagent System Lower-pH Copper Flotation Reagent System New Reagent System Improves Recovery, Reducing Energy Use and Air Emissions in the Mining Industry In the mining industry, flotation is a process that concentrates minerals from their ores prior to metal recovery. Current practice uses slurry pHs in excess of 10, achieved by adding burnt lime (CaO). However, lime production is an energy-intensive process that releases large quantities of carbon dioxide into the