National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for broadband total irradiance

  1. ARM - Measurement - Net broadband total irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsNet broadband total irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Net broadband total irradiance The difference between upwelling and downwelling, covering longwave and shortwave radiation. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each

  2. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband total net irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    net irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband total net irradiance The difference between upwelling and downwelling broadband shortwave radiation. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available

  3. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband total downwelling irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband total downwelling irradiance The total diffuse and direct radiant energy that comes from some continuous range of directions, at wavelengths between 0.4 and 4 {mu}m, that is being emitted downwards. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following

  4. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband total upwelling irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    upwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband total upwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, at a wavelength between 0.4 and 4 {mu}m, is being emitted upwards into a radiation field and transferred across a surface area (real or imaginary) in a hemisphere of directions. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered

  5. ARM - Measurement - Longwave broadband downwelling irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Longwave broadband downwelling irradiance The total diffuse and direct radiant energy, at wavelengths longer than approximately 4 {mu}m, that is being emitted downwards. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file

  6. ARM: GRAMS: data from the total solar broadband radiometer (TBBR...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solar broadband radiometer (TBBR) Title: ARM: GRAMS: data from the total solar broadband radiometer (TBBR) GRAMS: data from the total solar broadband radiometer (TBBR) Authors: ...

  7. ARM - Measurement - Longwave broadband net irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    net irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Longwave broadband net irradiance The difference between upwelling and downwelling broadband longwave radiation. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available

  8. Final report (Grant No. DOE DE-FG02-97ER62366) [Retrieval of cloud fraction and type using broadband diffuse and total shortwave irradiance measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Clothiaux, Eugene

    2001-05-17

    The primary research effort supported by Grant No. DOE DEFG02-97ER62366 titled ''Retrieval of Cloud Fraction and Type Using Broadband Diffuse and Total Shortwave Irradiance Measurements'' was application of clear-sky identification and cloud fraction estimation algorithms developed by Charles N. Long and Thomas P. Ackerman to the downwelling total, direct and diffuse shortwave irradiance measurements made at all of the central, boundary, and extended facilities of the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Southern Great Plains (SOP) site. Goals of the research were finalization and publication of the two algorithms in the peer-reviewed literature and operational application of them to all of aforementioned data streams from the ARM SGP site. The clear-sky identification algorithm was published as Long and Ackerman (2000) in the Journal of Geophysical Research, while a description of the cloud fraction estimation algorithm made it to the scientific literature as Long et al. (1999) in the Proceedings of the 10th American Meteorological Association Conference on Atmospheric Radiation held in Madison, Wisconsin. The cloud fraction estimation algorithm relies on empirical relationships between the outputs of the clear-sky identification algorithm and cloud fraction; as such, the cloud fraction estimation algorithm requires significant amounts of data both to properly develop the empirical relationships and to thoroughly test them. With this perspective in mind the major focus of our research efforts in the later half of the project became the operational implementation of the clear-sky identification algorithm on DOE ARM SGP data so that we could develop the data set necessary for final tuning of the cloud fraction estimation algorithm in research extending beyond the lifetime of the project.

  9. ARM: GRAMS: calibration information for the total solar broadband...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solar broadband radiometer (TBBR) Title: ARM: GRAMS: calibration information for the total solar broadband radiometer (TBBR) GRAMS: calibration information for the total solar ...

  10. ARM - Measurement - Longwave broadband upwelling irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    upwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Longwave broadband upwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, at a wavelength longer than approximately 4 {mu}m, is being emitted upwards into a radiation field and transferred across a surface area (real or imaginary) in a hemisphere of directions. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered

  11. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband direct downwelling irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    direct downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband direct downwelling irradiance Radiant energy, across the wavelength range of 0.4 and 4 {mu}m, that is transferred directly from the sun to the receiver. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream

  12. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband diffuse downwelling irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    diffuse downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband diffuse downwelling irradiance All of the solar radiation, across the wavelength range of 0.4 and 4 {mu}m, coming directly from the sky except for solar radiation coming directly from the sun and the circumsolar irradiance within approximately three degrees of the sun. Categories Radiometric Instruments

  13. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband direct normal irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    normal irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband direct normal irradiance The rate at which radiant energy in broad bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4{mu}m, that comes directly from the Sun without being scattered or absorbed in the atmosphere, passes through a unit area perpendicular to the direction from the Sun. Categories Radiometric Instruments

  14. ARM: GRAMS: calibration information for the total solar broadband

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    radiometer (TBBR) (Dataset) | Data Explorer solar broadband radiometer (TBBR) Title: ARM: GRAMS: calibration information for the total solar broadband radiometer (TBBR) GRAMS: calibration information for the total solar broadband radiometer (TBBR) Authors: Tooman, Tim Publication Date: 1997-10-15 OSTI Identifier: 1025193 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Dataset Data Type: Numeric Data Research Org: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Archive, Oak Ridge National

  15. Measuring Broadband IR Irradiance in the Direct Solar Beam (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, I.; Konings, J.; Xie, Y.; Dooraghi, M.; Sengupta, M.

    2015-03-01

    Solar and atmospheric science radiometers, e.g. pyranometers, pyrheliometers, and photovoltaic cells are calibrated with traceability to a consensus reference, which is maintained by Absolute Cavity Radiometers (ACRs). The ACR is an open cavity with no window, developed to measure extended broadband direct solar irradiance beyond the ultraviolet and infrared bands below and above 0.2 micrometers and 50 micrometers, respectively. On the other hand, pyranometers and pyrheliometers are developed to measure broadband shortwave irradiance from approximately 0.3 micrometers to 3 micrcometers, while the present photovoltaic cells are limited to approximately 0.3 micrometers to 1 micrometers. The broadband mismatch of ACR versus such radiometers causes discrepancy in radiometers' calibration methods that has not been discussed or addressed in the solar and atmospheric science literature. Pyrgeometers are also used for solar and atmospheric science applications and calibrated with traceability to consensus reference, yet calibrated during nighttime only, because no consensus reference has yet been established for the daytime longwave irradiance. This poster shows a method to measure the broadband IR irradiance in the direct solar beam from 3 micrometers to 50 micrometers, as first step that might be used to help develop calibration methods to address the mismatch between broadband ACR and shortwave radiometers, and the lack of a daytime reference for pyrgeometers. The irradiance was measured from sunrise to sunset for 5 days when the sun disk was cloudless; the irradiance varied from approximately 1 Wm-2 to 16 Wm-2 for solar zenith angle from 80 degres to 16 degrees respectively; estimated uncertainty is 1.5 Wm-2.

  16. Measuring Broadband IR Irradiance in the Direct Solar Beam (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, I.

    2015-03-01

    Solar and atmospheric science radiometers, e.g. pyranometers, pyrheliometers, and photovoltaic cells are calibrated with traceability to a consensus reference, which is maintained by Absolute Cavity Radiometers (ACRs). The ACR is an open cavity with no window, developed to measure extended broadband direct solar irradiance beyond the ultraviolet and infrared bands below and above 0.2 um and 50 um, respectively. On the other hand, pyranometers and pyrheliometers are developed to measure broadband shortwave irradiance from approximately 0.3 um to 3 um, while the present photovoltaic cells are limited to approximately 0.3 um to 1 um. The broadband mismatch of ACR versus such radiometers causes discrepancy in radiometers' calibration methods that has not been discussed or addressed in the solar and atmospheric science literature. Pyrgeometers are also used for solar and atmospheric science applications and are calibrated with traceability to consensus reference, yet are calibrated during nighttime only, because no consensus reference has yet been established for the daytime longwave irradiance. This poster shows a method to measure the broadband IR irradiance in the direct solar beam from 3 um to 50 um, as a first step that might be used to help develop calibration methods to address the mismatch between broadband ACR and shortwave radiometers, and the lack of a daytime reference for pyrgeometers. The irradiance was measured from sunrise to sunset for 5 days when the sun disk was cloudless; the irradiance varied from approximately 1 Wm-2 to 16 Wm-2 for solar zenith angle from 80 degrees to 16 degrees respectively; estimated uncertainty is 1.5 Wm-2.

  17. ARM: GRAMS: data from the total solar broadband radiometer (TBBR) (Dataset)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | Data Explorer solar broadband radiometer (TBBR) Title: ARM: GRAMS: data from the total solar broadband radiometer (TBBR) GRAMS: data from the total solar broadband radiometer (TBBR) Authors: Tooman, Tim Publication Date: 1997-10-15 OSTI Identifier: 1025196 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Dataset Data Type: Numeric Data Research Org: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Archive, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (US) Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of

  18. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband total downwelling irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband total downwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, passes through a horizontal unit area in a downward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following

  19. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband total upwelling irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    upwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband total upwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, passes through a horizontal unit area in an upward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments.

  20. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave spectral total downwelling irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    total downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave spectral total downwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy, at specrally-resolved wavelengths between 0.4 and 4 {mu}m, is being emitted upwards and downwards into a radiation field and transferred across a surface area (real or imaginary) in a hemisphere of directions. Categories Radiometric Instruments

  1. Fractionated total body irradiation for metastatic neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kun, L.E.; Casper, J.T.; Kline, R.W.; Piaskowski, V.D.

    1981-11-01

    Twelve patients over one year old with neuroblastoma (NBL) metastatic to bone and bone marrow entered a study of adjuvant low-dose, fractionated total body irradiation (TBI). Six children who achieved a ''complete clinical response'' following chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide and adriamycin) and surgical resection of the abdominal primary received TBI (10 rad/fraction to totals of 100-120 rad/10-12 fx/12-25 days). Two children received concurrent local irradiation for residual abdominal tumor. The intervals from cessation of chemotherapy to documented progression ranged from 2-16 months, not substatially different from patients receiving similar chemotherapy and surgery without TBI. Three additional children with progressive NBL received similar TBI (80-120 rad/8-12 fx) without objective response.

  2. Total lymphoid irradiation for multiple sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Devereux, C.K.; Vidaver, R.; Hafstein, M.P.; Zito, G.; Troiano, R.; Dowling, P.C.; Cook, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Although chemical immunosuppression has been shown to benefit patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), it appears that chemotherapy has an appreciable oncogenic potential in patients with multiple sclerosis. Accordingly, we developed a modified total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) regimen designed to reduce toxicity and applied it to a randomized double blind trial of TLI or sham irradiation in MS. Standard TLI regimens were modified to reduce dose to 1,980 rad, lowering the superior mantle margin to midway between the thyroid cartilage and angle of the mandible (to avert xerostomia) and the lower margin of the mantle field to the inferior margin of L1 (to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity by dividing abdominal radiation between mantle and inverted Y), limiting spinal cord dose to 1,000 rad by custom-made spine blocks in the mantle and upper 2 cm of inverted Y fields, and also protecting the left kidney even if part of the spleen were shielded. Clinical efficacy was documented by the less frequent functional scale deterioration of 20 TLI treated patients with chronic progressive MS compared to to 20 sham-irradiated progressive MS patients after 12 months (16% versus 55%, p less than 0.03), 18 months (28% versus 63%, p less than 0.03), and 24 months (44% versus 74%, N.S.). Therapeutic benefit during 3 years follow-up was related to the reduction in lymphocyte count 3 months post-irradiation (p less than 0.02). Toxicity was generally mild and transient, with no instance of xerostomia, pericarditis, herpes zoster, or need to terminate treatment in TLI patients. However, menopause was induced in 2 patients and staphylococcal pneumonia in one.

  3. Quantifying Aerosol Direct Effects from Broadband Irradiance and Spectral Aerosol Optical Depth Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Creekmore, Torreon N.; Joseph, Everette; Long, Charles N.; Li, Siwei

    2014-05-16

    We outline a methodology using broadband and spectral irradiances to quantify aerosol direct effects on the surface diffuse shortwave (SW) irradiance. Best Estimate Flux data span a 13 year timeframe at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Screened clear-sky irradiances and aerosol optical depth (AOD), for solar zenith angles ≤ 65°, are used to estimate clear-sky diffuse irradiances. We validate against detected clear-sky observations from SGP’s Basic Radiation System (BRS). BRS diffuse irradiances were in accordance with estimates, producing a root-mean-square error and mean bias errors of 4.0 W/m2 and -1.4 W/m2, respectively. Absolute differences show 99% of estimates within ±10 W/m2 (10%) of the mean BRS observations. Clear-sky diffuse estimates are used to derive quantitative estimates of aerosol radiative effects, represented as the aerosol diffuse irradiance (ADI). ADI is the contribution of diffuse SW to global SW, attributable to scattering of atmospheric transmission by natural plus anthropogenic aerosols. Estimated slope for the ADI as a function of AOD indicates an increase of ~22 W/m2 in diffuse SW for every 0.1 increase in AOD. Such significant increases in the diffuse fraction could possibly increase photosynthesis. Annual mean ADI is 28.2 W/m2, and heavy aerosol loading at SGP provides up to a maximum increase of 120 W/m2 in diffuse SW over background conditions. With regard to seasonal variation, the mean diffuse forcings are 17.2, 33.3, 39.0, and 23.6 W/m2 for winter, spring, summer, and fall, respectively.

  4. Properties of solar gravity mode signals in total irradiance observations

    SciTech Connect

    Kroll, R.J.; Chen, J.; Hill, H.A.

    1988-01-01

    Further evidence has been found that a significant fraction of the gravity mode power density in the total irradiance observations appears in sidebands of classified eigenfrequencies. These sidebands whose amplitudes vary from year to year are interpreted as harmonics of the rotational frequencies of the nonuniform solar surface. These findings are for non axisymmetric modes and corroborate the findings of Kroll, Hill and Chen for axisymmetric modes. It is demonstrated the the generation of the sidebands lifts the usual restriction on the parity of the eigenfunctions for modes detectable in total irradiance observations. 14 refs.

  5. Measurements and modeling of total solar irradiance in X-class solar flares

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Christopher Samuel; Chamberlin, Phillip Clyde; Hock, Rachel

    2014-05-20

    The Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) from NASA's SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment can detect changes in the total solar irradiance (TSI) to a precision of 2 ppm, allowing observations of variations due to the largest X-class solar flares for the first time. Presented here is a robust algorithm for determining the radiative output in the TIM TSI measurements, in both the impulsive and gradual phases, for the four solar flares presented in Woods et al., as well as an additional flare measured on 2006 December 6. The radiative outputs for both phases of these five flares are then compared to the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiance output from the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) in order to derive an empirical relationship between the FISM VUV model and the TIM TSI data output to estimate the TSI radiative output for eight other X-class flares. This model provides the basis for the bolometric energy estimates for the solar flares analyzed in the Emslie et al. study.

  6. Narrowband filter radiometer for ground-based measurements of global ultraviolet solar irradiance and total ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Petkov, Boyan; Vitale, Vito; Tomasi, Claudio; Bonafe, Ubaldo; Scaglione, Salvatore; Flori, Daniele; Santaguida, Riccardo; Gausa, Michael; Hansen, Georg; Colombo, Tiziano

    2006-06-20

    The ultraviolet narrowband filter radiometer (UV-RAD) designed by the authors to take ground-based measurements of UV solar irradiance, total ozone, and biological dose rate is described, together with the main characteristics of the seven blocked filters mounted on it, all of which have full widths at half maxima that range 0.67 to 0.98 nm. We have analyzed the causes of cosine response and calibration errors carefully to define the corresponding correction terms, paying particular attention to those that are due to the spectral displacements of the filter transmittance peaks from the integer wavelength values. The influence of the ozone profile on the retrieved ozone at large solar zenith angles has also been examined by means of field measurements. The opportunity of carrying out nearly monochromatic irradiance measurements offered by the UV-RAD allowed us to improve the procedure usually followed to reconstruct the solar spectrum at the surface by fitting the computed results, using radiative transfer models with field measurements of irradiance. Two long-term comparison campaigns took place, showing that a mean discrepancy of+0.3% exists between the UV-RAD total ozone values and those given by the Brewer no. 63 spectroradiometer and that mean differences of+0.3% and-0.9% exist between the erythemal dose rates determined with the UV-RAD and those obtained with the Brewer no. 63 and the Brewer no. 104 spectroradiometers, respectively.

  7. Monthly average clear-sky broadband irradiance database for worldwide solar heat gain and building cooling load calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Gueymard, Christian A.; Thevenard, Didier

    2009-11-15

    This paper establishes the formulation of a new clear-sky solar radiation model appropriate for algorithms calculating cooling loads in buildings. The aim is to replace the ASHRAE clear-sky model of 1967, whose limitations are well known and are reviewed. The new model is derived in two steps. The first step consists of obtaining a reference irradiance dataset from the REST2 model, which uses a high-performance, validated, two-band clear-sky algorithm. REST2 requires detailed inputs about atmospheric conditions such as aerosols, water vapor, ozone, and ground albedo. The development of global atmospheric datasets used as inputs to REST2 is reviewed. For the most part, these datasets are derived from space observations to guarantee universality and accuracy. In the case of aerosols, point-source terrestrial measurements were also used as ground truthing of the satellite data. The second step of the model consists of fits derived from a REST2-based reference irradiance dataset. These fits enable the derivation of compact, but relatively accurate expressions, for beam and diffuse clear-sky irradiance. The fitted expressions require the tabulation of only two pseudo-optical depths for each month of the year. The resulting model, and its tabulated data, are expected to be incorporated in the 2009 edition of the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals. (author)

  8. WHAT CAUSES THE INTER-SOLAR-CYCLE VARIATION OF TOTAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE?

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, N. B.; Kong, D. F.

    2015-12-15

    The Physikalisch Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos total solar irradiance (TSI), Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitoring TSI, and Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium TSI are three typical TSI composites. Magnetic Plage Strength Index (MPSI) and Mount Wilson Sunspot Index (MWSI) should indicate the weak and strong magnetic field activity on the solar full disk, respectively. Cross-correlation (CC) analysis of MWSI with three TSI composites shows that TSI should be weakly correlated with MWSI, and not be in phase with MWSI at timescales of solar cycles. The wavelet coherence (WTC) and partial wavelet coherence (PWC) of TSI with MWSI indicate that the inter-solar-cycle variation of TSI is also not related to solar strong magnetic field activity, which is represented by MWSI. However, CC analysis of MPSI with three TSI composites indicates that TSI should be moderately correlated and accurately in phase with MPSI at timescales of solar cycles, and that the statistical significance test indicates that the correlation coefficient of three TSI composites with MPSI is statistically significantly higher than that of three TSI composites with MWSI. Furthermore, the cross wavelet transform (XWT) and WTC of TSI with MPSI show that the TSI is highly related and actually in phase with MPSI at a timescale of a solar cycle as well. Consequently, the CC analysis, XWT, and WTC indicate that the solar weak magnetic activity on the full disk, which is represented by MPSI, dominates the inter-solar-cycle variation of TSI.

  9. Dosimetric aspects of inverse-planned modulated-arc total-body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Held, Mareike; Kirby, Neil; Morin, Olivier; Pouliot, Jean

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To develop optimal beam parameters and to verify the dosimetric aspects of the recently developed modulated-arc total-body irradiation (MATBI) technique, which delivers an inverse-planned dose to the entire body using gantry rotation. Methods: The patient is positioned prone and supine underneath the gantry at about 2 m source-to-surface distance (SSD). Then, up to 28 beams irradiate the patient from different gantry angles. Based on full-body computed-tomography (CT) images of the patient, the weight of each beam is optimized, using inverse planning, to create a uniform body dose. This study investigates how to best simulate patients and the ideal beam setup parameters, such as field size, number of beams, and beam geometry, for treatment time and dose homogeneity. In addition, three anthropomorphic water phantoms were constructed and utilized to verify the accuracy of dose delivery, with both diode array and ion chamber measurements. Furthermore, to improve the accuracy of the new technique, a beam model is created specifically for the extended-SSD positioning for MATBI. Results: Low dose CT scans can be utilized for dose calculations without affecting the accuracy. The largest field size of 40 Multiplication-Sign 40 cm{sup 2} was found to deliver the most uniform dose in the least amount of time. Moreover, a higher number of beams improves dose homogeneity. The average dose discrepancy between ion chamber measurements and extended-SSD beam model calculations was 1.2%, with the largest discrepancy being 3.2%. This average dose discrepancy was 1.4% with the standard beam model for delivery at isocenter. Conclusions: The optimum beam setup parameters, regarding dose uniformity and treatment duration, are laid out for modulated-arc TBI. In addition, the presented dose measurements show that these treatments can be delivered accurately. These measurements also indicated that a new beam model did not significantly improve the accuracy of dose calculations

  10. SRRL: Broadband Outdoor Radiometer CALibrations (BORCAL)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibrations Accurate measurements of solar radiation require regular recalibration of the radiometers used to make the irradiance measurement. NREL has developed the Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration (BORCAL) approach for the annual calibration of pyranometers, pyrheliometers, and pyrgeometers used by the Department of Energy. BORCALs are conducted at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) and at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's

  11. Beyond cancer treatment – a review of total lymphoid irradiation for heart and lung transplant recipients

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, Clare Knight, Kellie A; Wright, Caroline

    2014-09-15

    Immunosuppressive drugs used in the management of heart and lung transplants have a large monetary and quality of life cost due to their side effects. Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is one method of minimising the need for or replacing post-operative immunosuppressive drugs. A literature review was conducted on electronic databases using defined search terms. The aim was to establish the indications for the use of TLI, its advantages and disadvantages and the weaknesses associated with the methods used in related research. Eight articles were located that focused on TLI usage in combating organ rejection. These studies identified that the use of TLI resulted in a reduction in early rejection. One study reported a drop in rejection episodes from 0.46 to 0.14 episodes per patient per month once the TLI was complete. While the short-term prognosis is excellent, the long-term outlook is less positive with an increased risk of organ rejection and myelodysplasia 3.5 years post-TLI. This review reminds us that radiation therapy (RT) is not exclusively indicated for cancer treatment. While TLI cannot replace immunosuppressive drug therapy, it can offer a treatment option for people that cannot tolerate immunosuppressive drugs, or when conventional anti-rejection treatment is no longer viable. Reported long-term complications suggest that TLI should be used with caution. However, this modality should not be overlooked in cases of chronic rejection. Further research is required to establish the efficacy of RT in the treatment of transplant patients who are unsuitable for drug-based anti-rejection therapies.

  12. Broadband radiometer

    DOEpatents

    Cannon, Theodore W.

    1994-01-01

    A broadband radiometer including (a) an optical integrating sphere having a enerally spherical integrating chamber and an entry port for receiving light (e.g., having visible and ultraviolet fractions), (b) a first optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to broadband radiation, (c) a second optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to a predetermined wavelength fraction of the broadband radiation, and (d) an output for producing an electrical signal which is proportional to the difference between the two electrical output signals. The radiometer is very useful, for example, in measuring the absolute amount of ultraviolet light present in a given light sample.

  13. Broadband radiometer

    DOEpatents

    Cannon, T.W.

    1994-07-26

    A broadband radiometer is disclosed including (a) an optical integrating sphere having generally spherical integrating chamber and an entry port for receiving light (e.g., having visible and ultraviolet fractions), (b) a first optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to broadband radiation, (c) a second optical radiation detector for receiving light from the sphere and producing an electrical output signal corresponding to a predetermined wavelength fraction of the broadband radiation, and (d) an output for producing an electrical signal which is proportional to the difference between the two electrical output signals. The radiometer is very useful, for example, in measuring the absolute amount of ultraviolet light present in a given light sample. 8 figs.

  14. Peripheral Dose Heterogeneity Due to the Thread Effect in Total Marrow Irradiation With Helical Tomotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Yutaka; Verneris, Michael R.; Dusenbery, Kathryn E.; Wilke, Christopher T.; Storme, Guy; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Hui, Susanta K.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To report potential dose heterogeneity leading to underdosing at different skeletal sites in total marrow irradiation (TMI) with helical tomotherapy due to the thread effect and provide possible solutions to reduce this effect. Methods and Materials: Nine cases were divided into 2 groups based on patient size, defined as maximum left-to-right arm distance (mLRD): small mLRD (≤47 cm) and large mLRD (>47 cm). TMI treatment planning was conducted by varying the pitch and modulation factor while a jaw size (5 cm) was kept fixed. Ripple amplitude, defined as the peak-to-trough dose relative to the average dose due to the thread effect, and the dose–volume histogram (DVH) parameters for 9 cases with various mLRD was analyzed in different skeletal regions at off-axis (eg, bones of the arm or femur), at the central axis (eg, vertebrae), and planning target volume (PTV), defined as the entire skeleton plus 1-cm margin. Results: Average ripple amplitude for a pitch of 0.430, known as one of the magic pitches that reduce thread effect, was 9.2% at 20 cm off-axis. No significant differences in DVH parameters of PTV, vertebrae, or femur were observed between small and large mLRD groups for a pitch of ≤0.287. Conversely, in the bones of the arm, average differences in the volume receiving 95% and 107% dose (V95 and V107, respectively) between large and small mLRD groups were 4.2% (P=.016) and 16% (P=.016), respectively. Strong correlations were found between mLRD and ripple amplitude (rs=.965), mLRD and V95 (rs=−.742), and mLRD and V107 (rs=.870) of bones of the arm. Conclusions: Thread effect significantly influences DVH parameters in the bones of the arm for large mLRD patients. By implementing a favorable pitch value and adjusting arm position, peripheral dose heterogeneity could be reduced.

  15. Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Product: Total Crude Oil Liquefied Petroleum Gases PropanePropylene Normal ButaneButylene Other Liquids Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol MTBE Other Oxygenates Biomass-based Diesel Fuel ...

  16. Total..........................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0.9 Q Q Q Heat Pump......7.7 0.3 Q Q Steam or Hot Water System......Census Division Total West Energy Information Administration ...

  17. Total..........................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0.9 Q Q Q Heat Pump......6.2 3.8 2.4 Steam or Hot Water System......Census Division Total Northeast Energy Information ...

  18. Total............................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Total................................................................... 111.1 2,033 1,618 1,031 791 630 401 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500............................................... 3.2 357 336 113 188 177 59 500 to 999....................................................... 23.8 733 667 308 343 312 144 1,000 to 1,499................................................. 20.8 1,157 1,086 625 435 409 235 1,500 to 1,999................................................. 15.4 1,592

  19. Multicolor flow cytometry analysis of blood cell subsets in patients given total body irradiation before bone marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Clave, E.; Socie, G.; Carosella, E.

    1995-11-01

    Bone marrow transplantation has often been closely linked with accidental or intentional therapeutical irradiation. In both situations, study of the radiosensitivity of human blood cell subsets is of interest. Using one-color flow cytometry analysis of B lymphocytes, T cell subsets, and natural killer cells, we previously reported that lymphocyte subsets exhibit equal radiosensitivity. Taking advantage of recent developments in the knowledge of leukocyte differentiation antigens and flow cytometry technology we undertook a study of blood cell subsets to search for rare populations exhibiting different radiosensitivity. Thirty patients, who were delivered a 12 Gy fractionated total body irradiation as part of their conditioning regimen before transplantation for malignant disorders, were studied using multicolor flow cytometry. T and B lymphocytes showed a sharp, radiation-induced decrease, with the B lymphocytes (cluster of differentiation (CD) 19+) being the most sensitive. When analyzed by multicolor flow cytometry all major lymphocyte subsets appeared equally sensitive to the in vivo irradiation. Therefore, all major lymphocyte subsets sharing the helper phenotype (naive or memory) and the cytotoxic phenotype appeared equally sensitive to in vivo whole body irradiation. In parallel, the CD34+ cell subset remained basically unchanged after whole body irradiation. Finally, the CD3{minus}, 56+, 16+ natural killer cell subset was relatively radioresistant (91 and 74% of its initial value, after 2 and 4 Gy, respectively) as compared to other lymphocyte subsets. Our study provides evidence that T and B cell subsets seem to be highly radiosensitive in vivo. The CD34+ progenitor/stem cells and NK cells seem to be more radioresistant. This latter result might provide clues to the understanding of the pathophysiogeny of radiation-induced aplasia and of the engrafment/rejection process following bone marrow transplantation. 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. ARM - Campaign Instrument - island-guest-instruments

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    broadband diffuse downwelling irradiance Shortwave broadband direct downwelling irradiance Shortwave broadband total downwelling irradiance Radar Doppler Radar reflectivity...

  1. Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Total floor- space 1 Heated floor- space 2 Total floor- space 1 Cooled floor- space 2 Total floor- space 1 Lit floor- space 2 All buildings 87,093 80,078 70,053 79,294 60,998 83,569 68,729 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000 8,041 6,699 5,833 6,124 4,916 7,130 5,590 5,001 to 10,000 8,900 7,590 6,316 7,304 5,327 8,152 6,288 10,001 to 25,000 14,105 12,744 10,540 12,357 8,840 13,250 10,251 25,001 to 50,000 11,917 10,911 9,638 10,813 7,968 11,542 9,329 50,001 to 100,000 13,918 13,114

  2. Total...................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2,033 1,618 1,031 791 630 401 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500............................................... 3.2 357 336 113 188 177 59 500 to 999....................................................... 23.8 733 667 308 343 312 144 1,000 to 1,499................................................. 20.8 1,157 1,086 625 435 409 235 1,500 to 1,999................................................. 15.4 1,592 1,441 906 595 539 339 2,000 to

  3. Total..........................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    . 111.1 20.6 15.1 5.5 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.9 0.5 0.4 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 4.6 3.6 1.1 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 2.8 2.2 0.6 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 1.9 1.4 0.5 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 2.3 1.7 0.5 2,500 to

  4. Total..........................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.5 0.3 Q 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 3.9 2.4 1.5 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 4.4 3.2 1.2 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 3.5 2.4 1.1 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 3.2 2.1 1.1 2,500 to

  5. Total..........................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.9 0.6 Q Q 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 9.0 4.2 1.5 3.2 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 8.6 4.7 1.5 2.5 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 6.0 2.9 1.2 1.9 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 4.1 2.1 0.7

  6. Total..........................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4.2 7.6 16.6 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 1.0 0.2 0.8 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 6.3 1.4 4.9 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 5.0 1.6 3.4 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 4.0 1.4 2.6 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 2.6 0.9 1.7 2,500 to

  7. Total................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    .. 111.1 86.6 2,522 1,970 1,310 1,812 1,475 821 1,055 944 554 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500............................. 3.2 0.9 261 336 162 Q Q Q 334 260 Q 500 to 999.................................... 23.8 9.4 670 683 320 705 666 274 811 721 363 1,000 to 1,499.............................. 20.8 15.0 1,121 1,083 622 1,129 1,052 535 1,228 1,090 676 1,500 to 1,999.............................. 15.4 14.4 1,574 1,450 945 1,628 1,327 629 1,712 1,489 808 2,000 to

  8. Total..........................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    .. 111.1 24.5 1,090 902 341 872 780 441 Total Floorspace (Square Feet) Fewer than 500...................................... 3.1 2.3 403 360 165 366 348 93 500 to 999.............................................. 22.2 14.4 763 660 277 730 646 303 1,000 to 1,499........................................ 19.1 5.8 1,223 1,130 496 1,187 1,086 696 1,500 to 1,999........................................ 14.4 1.0 1,700 1,422 412 1,698 1,544 1,348 2,000 to 2,499........................................ 12.7

  9. Total...................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500............................................ 3.2 0.4 Q 0.6 1.7 0.4 500 to 999................................................... 23.8 4.8 1.4 4.2 10.2 3.2 1,000 to 1,499............................................. 20.8 10.6 1.8 1.8 4.0 2.6 1,500 to 1,999............................................. 15.4 12.4 1.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 2,000 to 2,499............................................. 12.2 10.7 1.0 0.2 Q Q 2,500 to

  10. Total.........................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 2 Fewer than 500.................................................. 3.2 Q 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.5 500 to 999.......................................................... 23.8 1.5 5.4 5.5 6.1 5.3 1,000 to 1,499.................................................... 20.8 1.4 4.0 5.2 5.0 5.2 1,500 to 1,999.................................................... 15.4 1.4 3.1 3.5 3.6 3.8 2,000 to 2,499.................................................... 12.2 1.4 3.2 3.0 2.3 2.3

  11. Total..........................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    25.6 40.7 24.2 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.9 0.5 0.9 1.0 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 4.6 3.9 9.0 6.3 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 2.8 4.4 8.6 5.0 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 1.9 3.5 6.0 4.0 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 2.3 3.2 4.1

  12. Total..........................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.4 Q Q 0.5 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 2.5 1.5 2.1 3.7 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 1.1 2.0 1.5 2.5 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 0.5 1.2 1.2 1.9 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 0.7 0.5 0.8 1.4

  13. Total...........................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5 18.9 18.6 17.3 9.2 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500.................................... 3.2 0.7 Q 0.3 0.3 0.7 0.6 0.3 Q 500 to 999........................................... 23.8 2.7 1.4 2.2 2.8 5.5 5.1 3.0 1.1 1,000 to 1,499..................................... 20.8 2.3 1.4 2.4 2.5 3.5 3.5 3.6 1.6 1,500 to 1,999..................................... 15.4 1.8 1.4 2.2 2.0 2.4 2.4 2.1 1.2 2,000 to 2,499..................................... 12.2 1.4 0.9

  14. Total...........................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................... 3.2 1.9 0.9 Q Q Q 1.3 2.3 500 to 999........................................... 23.8 10.5 7.3 3.3 1.4 1.2 6.6 12.9 1,000 to 1,499..................................... 20.8 5.8 7.0 3.8 2.2 2.0 3.9 8.9 1,500 to 1,999..................................... 15.4 3.1 4.2 3.4 2.0 2.7 1.9 5.0 2,000 to 2,499..................................... 12.2 1.7 2.7 2.9 1.8 3.2 1.1 2.8

  15. ARM - Datastreams - noaaradbrw

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    broadband total downwelling irradiance downshorthemispnearIR Shortwave broadband direct downwelling irradiance shortdirectnormal Shortwave broadband total downwelling...

  16. Evaluation of Arctic Broadband Surface Radiation Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, N.; Long, Charles N.; Augustine, J. A.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, Taneil; Longenecker, D.; Niebergale, J.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

    2012-02-24

    The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure the total, direct and diffuse components of incoming and outgoing broadband shortwave (SW) and broadband thermal infrared, or longwave (LW) radiation. Enhancements can include various sensors for measuring irradiance in various narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that rotate sensors and shading devices that track the sun. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating sensors in a pristine undisturbed location free of artificial blockage (such as buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the instruments and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, a comparison is made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) shortwave measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both shortwave and longwave measurements. Solutions to these operational problems are proposed that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols.

  17. Multi-institutional Feasibility Study of a Fast Patient Localization Method in Total Marrow Irradiation With Helical Tomotherapy: A Global Health Initiative by the International Consortium of Total Marrow Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Yutaka; Vagge, Stefano; Agostinelli, Stefano; Han, Eunyoung; Matulewicz, Lukasz; Schubert, Kai; Chityala, Ravishankar; Ratanatharathorn, Vaneerat; Tournel, Koen; Penagaricano, Jose A.; Florian, Sterzing; Mahe, Marc-Andre; Verneris, Michael R.; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; and others

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop, characterize, and implement a fast patient localization method for total marrow irradiation. Methods and Materials: Topographic images were acquired using megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) detector data by delivering static orthogonal beams while the couch traversed through the gantry. Geometric and detector response corrections were performed to generate a megavoltage topogram (MVtopo). We also generated kilovoltage topograms (kVtopo) from the projection data of 3-dimensional CT images to reproduce the same geometry as helical tomotherapy. The MVtopo imaging dose and the optimal image acquisition parameters were investigated. A multi-institutional phantom study was performed to verify the image registration uncertainty. Forty-five MVtopo images were acquired and analyzed with in-house image registration software. Results: The smallest jaw size (front and backup jaws of 0) provided the best image contrast and longitudinal resolution. Couch velocity did not affect the image quality or geometric accuracy. The MVtopo dose was less than the MVCT dose. The image registration uncertainty from the multi-institutional study was within 2.8 mm. In patient localization, the differences in calculated couch shift between the registration with MVtopo-kVtopo and MVCT-kVCT images in lateral, cranial–caudal, and vertical directions were 2.2 ± 1.7 mm, 2.6 ± 1.4 mm, and 2.7 ± 1.1 mm, respectively. The imaging time in MVtopo acquisition at the couch speed of 3 cm/s was <1 minute, compared with ≥15 minutes in MVCT for all patients. Conclusion: Whole-body MVtopo imaging could be an effective alternative to time-consuming MVCT for total marrow irradiation patient localization.

  18. Impact of total ionizing dose irradiation on electrical property of ferroelectric-gate field-effect transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, S. A.; Tang, M. H. Xiao, Y. G.; Zhang, W. L.; Ding, H.; Chen, J. W.; Zhou, Y. C.; Xiong, Y.; Li, Z.; Zhao, W.; Guo, H. X.

    2014-05-28

    P-type channel metal-ferroelectric-insulator-silicon field-effect transistors (FETs) with a 300?nm thick SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} ferroelectric film and a 10?nm thick HfTaO layer on silicon substrate were fabricated and characterized. The prepared FeFETs were then subjected to {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation in steps of three dose levels. Irradiation-induced degradation on electrical characteristics of the fabricated FeFETs was observed after 1 week annealing at room temperature. The possible irradiation-induced degradation mechanisms were discussed and simulated. All the irradiation experiment results indicated that the stability and reliability of the fabricated FeFETs for nonvolatile memory applications will become uncontrollable under strong irradiation dose and/or long irradiation time.

  19. Stepped-anneal and total helium/hydrogen measurements in high-energy proton-irradiated tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, B.M.; Hamilton, M.L.; Garner, F.A.; Sommer, W.F.; Maloy, S.A.; Ferguson, P.D.

    1998-12-31

    To provide structural material design data for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project, a 1 mA, 800 MeV proton beam at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) was used to irradiate a large number of metal samples, including a tungsten target similar to that being considered as the neutron source for the tritium production. The maximum proton fluence to the tungsten target was {approximately} 10{sup 21} protons/cm{sup 2}. An unavoidable byproduct of spallation reactions is the formation of large amounts of hydrogen and helium. Postulated accident scenarios for APT involving the use of tungsten rods clad with Alloy 718, raise concerns as to the amount and rate of release of these gases due to temperatures increases from afterheat accumulation, with the major concern being pressurizing and possibly failure of the cladding. To address these issues, portions of the LANSCE tungsten rods were subjected to temperature histories calculated as likely to occur, and the time-dependent evolution of helium and hydrogen gases was measured. Stepped-anneal and total helium/hydrogen measurements were conducted on multiple samples of the tungsten material. Helium measurements were conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) using a high-sensitivity magnetic-sector isotope-dilution helium analysis system. Stepped-anneal measurements were conducted at temperatures from {approximately} 25 C to {approximately} 1,600 C in {approximately} 100 C steps. Total helium measurements were conducted by rapid vaporization after completion of the stepped-anneal process, and are compared with Monte Carlo calculations performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) using the LAHET code system. Hydrogen measurements were conducted between {approximately} 750 C and {approximately} 1,200 C using a high-temperature furnace that had been extensively modified for the application. Hydrogen detection was accomplished by periodic sampling of the furnace gas using a separate

  20. SU-E-T-404: Simple Field-In-Field Technique for Total Body Irradiation in Large Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, P; Pinnix, C; Dabaja, B; Wang, C; Aristophanous, M; Tung, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A simple Field-in-Field technique for Total Body Irradiation (TBI) was developed for traditional AP/PA TBI treatments to improve dosimetric uniformity in patients with large separation. Methods: TBI at our institution currently utilizes an AP/PA technique at an extended source-to-surface distance (SSD) of 380cm with patients in left decubitus position during the AP beam and in right decubitus during the PA beam. Patients who have differences in thickness (separation) between the abdomen and head greater than 10cm undergo CT simulation in both left and right decubitus treatment positions. One plan for each CT is generated to evaluate dose to patient midline with both AP and PA fields, but only corresponding AP fields will be exported for treatment for patient left decubitus position and PA fields for patient right decubitus position. Subfields are added by collimating with the x-ray jaws according to separation changes at 5–7% steps to minimize hot regions to less than 10%. Finally, the monitor units (MUs) for the plans are verified with hand calculation and water phantom measurements. Results: Dose uniformity (+/−10%) is achieved with field-in-field using only asymmetric jaws. It is dosimetrically robust with respect to minor setup/patient variations inevitable due to patient conditions. MUs calculated with Pinnacle were verified in 3 clinical cases and only a 2% difference was found compared to homogeneous calculation. In-vivo dosimeters were also used to verify doses received by each patient with and confirmed dose variations less than 10%. Conclusion: We encountered several cases with separation differences that raised uniformity concerns — based on a 1% dose difference per cm separation difference assumption. This could Resultin an unintended hot spot, often in the head/neck, up to 25%. This method allows dose modulation without adding treatment complexity nor introducing radiobiological variations, providing a reasonable solution for this unique

  1. Characterization of unconventional electron fields for the treatment of mycosis fungoides using the total skin irradiation technique

    SciTech Connect

    González, M. A. Pagnan Mitsoura, E.; Oviedo, J.O. Hernández; Vázquez, D. R. Ruesga

    2014-11-07

    Mycosis fungoides is a cutaneous lymphoma that accounts for 2–3% of all lymphomas. Several clinical studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of TSEBT (Total Skin Electron Beam Therapy) in patients with mycosis fungoides. It is important to develop this technique and make it available to a larger number of patients in Mexico. Because large fields for electron TSEBT are required in order to cover the entire body of the patient, beam characterization at conventional treatment distances is not sufficient and a calibration distance of 500cm or higher is required. Materials and methods: Calibration of radiochromic Gafchromic® EBT2 film (RCF) for electrons was performed in a solid water phantom (Scanditronix Wellhöfer) at a depth of 1.4cm and a Source Axis Distance (SAD) of 100cm. A polynomial fit was applied to the calibration curve, in order to obtain the equation relating dose response with optical density. The spatial distribution is obtained in terms of percentage of the dose, placing 3×3cm samples of RCF on the acrylic screen, which is placed in front of the patient in order to obtain maximum absorbed dose on the skin, covering an area of 200×100cm{sup 2}. The Percentage Depth Dose (PDD) curve was obtained placing RCF samples at depths of 0, 1, 1.2, 1.4, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9cm in the solid water phantom, irradiated with an ELEKTA SINERGY Linear Accelerator electron beam, with an energy of 6 MeV, at a Source Skin Distance (SSD) of 500cm, with 1000MU = 100Gy, with a cone of 40×40cm and gantry angle of 90°. The RCFs were scanned on a flatbed scanner (EPSON EXPRESSION 10000 XL) and the images were processed with the ImageJ program using a region of interest (ROI) of 1×1cm{sup 2}. Results: The relative spatial dose distribution and the percentage depth dose for a SSD of 500±0.5cm, over an area of 200×100cm{sup 2} was obtained, resulting to an effective maximum dose depth (Z{sub ref}) for electrons of 1.4±0.05cm. Using the same experimental data

  2. Simvastatin mitigates increases in risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease following 10 Gy total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lenarczyk, Marek; Su, Jidong; Haworth, Steven T.; Komorowski, Richard; Fish, Brian L.; Migrino, Raymond Q.; Harmann, Leanne; Hopewell, John W.; Kronenberg, Amy; Patel, Shailendra; Moulder, John E.; Baker, John E.

    2015-06-01

    The ability of simvastatin to mitigate the increases in risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease after 10 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) was determined. This radiation dose is relevant to conditioning for stem cell transplantation and threats from radiological terrorism. Male rats received single dose TBI of 10 Gy. Age-matched, sham-irradiated rats served as controls. Lipid profile, heart and liver morphology and cardiac mechanical function were determined for up to 120 days after irradiation. TBI resulted in a sustained increase in total- and LDL-cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol), and triglycerides. Simvastatin (10 mg/kg body weight/day) administered continuously from 9 days after irradiation mitigated TBI-induced increases in total- and LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as liver injury. TBI resulted in cellular peri-arterial fibrosis, whereas control hearts had less collagen and fibrosis. Simvastatin mitigated these morphological injuries. TBI resulted in cardiac mechanical dysfunction. Simvastatin mitigated cardiac mechanical dysfunction 20–120 days following TBI. To determine whether simvastatin affects the ability of the heart to withstand stress after TBI, injury from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion was determined in vitro. TBI increased the severity of an induced myocardial infarction at 20 and 80 days after irradiation. Simvastatin mitigated the severity of this myocardial infarction at 20 and 80 days following TBI. It is concluded simvastatin mitigated the increases in risk factors for cardiac disease and the extent of cardiac disease following TBI. This statin may be developed as a medical countermeasure for the mitigation of radiation-induced cardiac disease.

  3. Simvastatin mitigates increases in risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease following 10 Gy total body irradiation

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Lenarczyk, Marek; Su, Jidong; Haworth, Steven T.; Komorowski, Richard; Fish, Brian L.; Migrino, Raymond Q.; Harmann, Leanne; Hopewell, John W.; Kronenberg, Amy; Patel, Shailendra; et al

    2015-06-01

    The ability of simvastatin to mitigate the increases in risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease after 10 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) was determined. This radiation dose is relevant to conditioning for stem cell transplantation and threats from radiological terrorism. Male rats received single dose TBI of 10 Gy. Age-matched, sham-irradiated rats served as controls. Lipid profile, heart and liver morphology and cardiac mechanical function were determined for up to 120 days after irradiation. TBI resulted in a sustained increase in total- and LDL-cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol), and triglycerides. Simvastatin (10 mg/kg body weight/day) administered continuously from 9more » days after irradiation mitigated TBI-induced increases in total- and LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as liver injury. TBI resulted in cellular peri-arterial fibrosis, whereas control hearts had less collagen and fibrosis. Simvastatin mitigated these morphological injuries. TBI resulted in cardiac mechanical dysfunction. Simvastatin mitigated cardiac mechanical dysfunction 20–120 days following TBI. To determine whether simvastatin affects the ability of the heart to withstand stress after TBI, injury from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion was determined in vitro. TBI increased the severity of an induced myocardial infarction at 20 and 80 days after irradiation. Simvastatin mitigated the severity of this myocardial infarction at 20 and 80 days following TBI. It is concluded simvastatin mitigated the increases in risk factors for cardiac disease and the extent of cardiac disease following TBI. This statin may be developed as a medical countermeasure for the mitigation of radiation-induced cardiac disease.« less

  4. The Gottingen Minipig Is a Model of the Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome: G-Colony Stimulating Factor Stimulates Hematopoiesis and Enhances Survival From Lethal Total-Body ?-Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Moroni, Maria; Ngudiankama, Barbara F.; Christensen, Christine; Olsen, Cara H.; Owens, Rossitsa; Lombardini, Eric D.; Holt, Rebecca K.; Whitnall, Mark H.

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: We are characterizing the Gottingen minipig as an additional large animal model for advanced drug testing for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to enhance the discovery and development of novel radiation countermeasures. Among the advantages provided by this model, the similarities to human hematologic parameters and dynamics of cell loss/recovery after irradiation provide a convenient means to compare the efficacy of drugs known to affect bone marrow cellularity and hematopoiesis. Methods and Materials: Male Gottingen minipigs, 4 to 5 months old and weighing 9 to 11 kg, were used for this study. We tested the standard off-label treatment for ARS, rhG-CSF (Neupogen, 10 ?g/kg/day for 17 days), at the estimated LD70/30 total-body ?-irradiation (TBI) radiation dose for the hematopoietic syndrome, starting 24 hours after irradiation. Results: The results indicated that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhanced survival, stimulated recovery from neutropenia, and induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, the administration of G-CSF resulted in maturation of monocytes/macrophages. Conclusions: These results support continuing efforts toward validation of the minipig as a large animal model for advanced testing of radiation countermeasures and characterization of the pathophysiology of ARS, and they suggest that the efficacy of G-CSF in improving survival after total body irradiation may involve mechanisms other than increasing the numbers of circulating granulocytes.

  5. SU-E-T-501: Normal Tissue Toxicities of Pulsed Low Dose Rate Radiotherapy and Conventional Radiotherapy: An in Vivo Total Body Irradiation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Cvetkovic, D; Zhang, P; Wang, B; Chen, L; Ma, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Pulsed low dose rate radiotherapy (PLDR) is a re-irradiation technique for therapy of recurrent cancers. We have previously shown a significant difference in the weight and survival time between the mice treated with conventional radiotherapy (CRT) and PLDR using total body irradiation (TBI). The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vivo effects of PLDR on normal mouse tissues.Materials and Methods: Twenty two male BALB/c nude mice, 4 months of age, were randomly assigned into a PLDR group (n=10), a CRT group (n=10), and a non-irradiated control group (n=2). The Siemens Artiste accelerator with 6 MV photon beams was used. The mice received a total of 18Gy in 3 fractions with a 20day interval. The CRT group received the 6Gy dose continuously at a dose rate of 300 MU/min. The PLDR group was irradiated with 0.2Gyx20 pulses with a 3min interval between the pulses. The mice were weighed thrice weekly and sacrificed 2 weeks after the last treatment. Brain, heart, lung, liver, spleen, gastrointestinal, urinary and reproductive organs, and sternal bone marrow were removed, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded and stained with H and E. Morphological changes were observed under a microscope. Results: Histopathological examination revealed atrophy in several irradiated organs. The degree of atrophy was mild to moderate in the PLDR group, but severe in the CRT group. The most pronounced morphological abnormalities were in the immune and hematopoietic systems, namely spleen and bone marrow. Brain hemorrhage was seen in the CRT group, but not in the PLDR group. Conclusions: Our results showed that PLDR induced less toxicity in the normal mouse tissues than conventional radiotherapy for the same dose and regimen. Considering that PLDR produces equivalent tumor control as conventional radiotherapy, it would be a good modality for treatment of recurrent cancers.

  6. Total Gross Tumor Volume Is an Independent Prognostic Factor in Patients Treated With Selective Nodal Irradiation for Stage I to III Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Reymen, Bart; Van Loon, Judith; Baardwijk, Angela van; Wanders, Rinus; Borger, Jacques; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C.; Bootsma, Gerben; Pitz, Cordula; Lunde, Ragnar; Geraedts, Wiel; Lambin, Philippe; De Ruysscher, Dirk; University Hospital Leuven/ KU Leuven, Leuven

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: In non-small cell lung cancer, gross tumor volume (GTV) influences survival more than other risk factors. This could also apply to small cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Analysis of our prospective database with stage I to III SCLC patients referred for concurrent chemo radiation therapy. Standard treatment was 45 Gy in 1.5-Gy fractions twice daily concurrently with carboplatin-etoposide, followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in case of non-progression. Only fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)-positive or pathologically proven nodal sites were included in the target volume. Total GTV consisted of post chemotherapy tumor volume and pre chemotherapy nodal volume. Survival was calculated from diagnosis (Kaplan-Meier ). Results: A total of 119 patients were included between May 2004 and June 2009. Median total GTV was 93 ± 152 cc (7.5-895 cc). Isolated elective nodal failure occurred in 2 patients (1.7%). Median follow-up was 38 months, median overall survival 20 months (95% confidence interval = 17.8-22.1 months), and 2-year survival 38.4%. In multivariate analysis, only total GTV (P=.026) and performance status (P=.016) significantly influenced survival. Conclusions: In this series of stage I to III small cell lung cancer patients treated with FDG-PET-based selective nodal irradiation total GTV is an independent risk factor for survival.

  7. ARM: Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) broadband shortwave and longwave 1-min radiation data with Dutton correction

    DOE Data Explorer

    Laura Riihimaki

    1993-09-01

    Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) broadband shortwave and longwave 1-min radiation data with Dutton correction

  8. ARM: Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) broadband shortwave and longwave 1-min radiation data with Dutton correction

    DOE Data Explorer

    Laura Riihimaki

    Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) broadband shortwave and longwave 1-min radiation data with Dutton correction

  9. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Comparison of broadband

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    solar irradiances measured on fixed and stabilized platforms Comparison of broadband solar irradiances measured on fixed and stabilized platforms Ellingson, Robert Florida State University Takara, Ezra Florida State University Tooman, Tim Sandia National Laboratories Fixed and stabilized platform CM-22 radiometer observations obtained on long, constant altitude flight legs during the 2002 UAV flight series have been compared to estimate the possible improvements to shortwave absorption

  10. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on functional status in chronic multiple sclerosis: importance of lymphopenia early after treatment--the pros

    SciTech Connect

    Devereux, C.; Troiano, R.; Zito, G.; Devereux, R.B.; Kopecky, K.J.; Friedman, R.; Dowling, P.C.; Hafstein, M.P.; Rohowsky-Kochan, C.; Cook, S.D.

    1988-07-01

    To determine whether immunosuppression by total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) slowed deterioration of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), functional impairment score and blood lymphocyte counts were compared at 6-month intervals through 4 years following treatment of MS patients by either TLI (n = 27) or sham irradiation (n = 21). At each interval, 20 to 30% fewer TLI-treated patients had deteriorated (p less than 0.05 at 6, 12, and 18 months), and the difference in mean functional impairment score between groups became progressively greater (p less than 0.01 at 42 and 48 months). Benefit accrued principally to the 17 TLI-treated patients with absolute blood lymphocyte counts less than 900/mm3 3 months after treatment, whose mean functional impairment score remained within 0.6 units of baseline (p = NS), whereas the ten TLI patients with higher post-treatment lymphocyte counts had progressive deterioration (p less than 0.05 to p less than 0.001 versus TLI-treated patients with lower lymphocyte counts at all intervals except 30 months) and had deteriorated by more than 5 functional scale units by 42 and 48 months. Side effects were minor and complications rare in TLI-treated patients, but one TLI-treated patient developed staphylococcal sepsis. Thus, TLI slows deterioration of chronic progressive MS, with what appears to be enduring benefit through 4 years compartmented to patients with greater induced lymphopenia. Modification of lymphoid irradiation regimens to increase the proportion of MS patients who achieve a favorable degree of lymphopenia and to avert functional hyposplenism may further improve the benefit/risk ratio.

  11. SU-E-T-515: Field-In-Field Compensation Technique Using Multi-Leaf Collimator to Deliver Total Body Irradiation (TBI) Dose

    SciTech Connect

    Lakeman, T; Wang, IZ

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) uses large parallel-opposed radiation fields to suppress the patient's immune system and eradicate the residual cancer cells in preparation of recipient for bone marrow transplant. The manual placement of lead compensators has been used conventionally to compensate for the varying thickness through the entire body in large-field TBI. The goal of this study is to pursue utilizing the modern field-in-field (FIF) technique with the multi-leaf collimator (MLC) to more accurately and efficiently deliver dose to patients in need of TBI. Method: Treatment plans utilizing the FIF technique to deliver a total body dose were created retrospectively for patients for whom CT data had been previously acquired. Treatment fields include one pair of opposed open large fields (collimator=45) with a specific weighting and a succession of smaller fields (collimator=90) each with their own weighting. The smaller fields are shaped by moving MLC to block the sections of the patient which have already received close to 100% of the prescribed dose. The weighting factors for each of these fields were calculated using the attenuation coefficient of the initial lead compensators and the separation of the patient in different positions in the axial plane. Results: Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were calculated for evaluating the FIF compensation technique. The maximum body doses calculated from the DVH were reduced from the non-compensated 179.3% to 148.2% in the FIF plans, indicating a more uniform dose with the FIF compensation. All calculated monitor units were well within clinically acceptable limits and exceeded those of the original lead compensation plan by less than 50 MU (only ~1.1% increase). Conclusion: MLC FIF technique for TBI will not significantly increase the beam on time while it can substantially reduce the compensator setup time and the potential risk of errors in manually placing lead compensators.

  12. Broadband enhancement of infrared absorption in microbolometers using Ag nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Hyun, Jerome K.; Ahn, Chi Won; Kim, Woo Choong; Kim, Tae Hyun; Hyun, Moon Seop; Kim, Hee Yeoun E-mail: jhpark@nnfc.re.kr; Park, Jae Hong E-mail: jhpark@nnfc.re.kr; Lee, Won-Oh

    2015-12-21

    High performance microbolometers are widely sought for thermal imaging applications. In order to increase the performance limits of microbolometers, the responsivity of the device to broadband infrared (IR) radiation needs to be improved. In this work, we report a simple, quick, and cost-effective approach to modestly enhance the broadband IR response of the device by evaporating Ag nanocrystals onto the light entrance surface of the device. When irradiated with IR light, strong fields are built up within the gaps between adjacent Ag nanocrystals. These fields resistively generate heat in the nanocrystals and underlying substrate, which is transduced into an electrical signal via a resistive sensing element in the device. Through this method, we are able to enhance the IR absorption over a broadband spectrum and improve the responsivity of the device by ∼11%.

  13. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Azad, Abul K.; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J. M.; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R.; Luk, Ting S.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-02-01

    Here, we demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Moreover, our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributionsmore » to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure.« less

  14. Similar Survival for Patients Undergoing Reduced-Intensity Total Body Irradiation (TBI) Versus Myeloablative TBI as Conditioning for Allogeneic Transplant in Acute Leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Mikell, John L.; Waller, Edmund K.; Switchenko, Jeffrey M.; Rangaraju, Sravanti; Ali, Zahir; Graiser, Michael; Hall, William A.; Langston, Amelia A.; Esiashvili, Natia; Khoury, H. Jean; Khan, Mohammad K.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the mainstay of treatment for adults with acute leukemia. Total body irradiation (TBI) remains an important part of the conditioning regimen for HCST. For those patients unable to tolerate myeloablative TBI (mTBI), reduced intensity TBI (riTBI) is commonly used. In this study we compared outcomes of patients undergoing mTBI with those of patients undergoing riTBI in our institution. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective review of all patients with acute leukemia who underwent TBI-based conditioning, using a prospectively acquired database of HSCT patients treated at our institution. Patient data including details of the transplantation procedure, disease status, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), response rates, toxicity, survival time, and time to progression were extracted. Patient outcomes for various radiation therapy regimens were examined. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Results: Between June 1985 and July 2012, 226 patients with acute leukemia underwent TBI as conditioning for HSCT. Of those patients, 180 had full radiation therapy data available; 83 had acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 94 had acute myelogenous leukemia; 45 patients received riTBI, and 135 received mTBI. Median overall survival (OS) was 13.7 months. Median relapse-free survival (RFS) for all patients was 10.2 months. Controlling for age, sex, KPS, disease status, and diagnosis, there were no significant differences in OS or RFS between patients who underwent riTBI and those who underwent mTBI (P=.402, P=.499, respectively). Median length of hospital stay was shorter for patients who received riTBI than for those who received mTBI (16 days vs 23 days, respectively; P<.001), and intensive care unit admissions were less frequent following riTBI than mTBI (2.22% vs 12.69%, respectively, P=.043). Nonrelapse survival rates were also similar (P=.186). Conclusions: No differences in OS or RFS were seen between

  15. NSA Broadband Instrument Study: Update

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Broadband Instrument Study: Update PI: Scott Richardson, NSA SST Co-Is: Chuck Long, Tom Stoffel, Ells Dutton, Joe Michalsky, Jeff Zirzow... Background * NSA last site where Diffuse Correction VAP applied * In analyses of results prior to release, an apparent problem surfaced... Typical Corrections: SGP All POSITIVE corrections Typical Corrections: TWP All POSITIVE corrections NSA Corrections Some NEGATIVE Full corrections SGP Winter Corrections All POSITIVE corrections NSA Broadband Operations *

  16. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband radiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    broadband radiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband radiance A measure of the intrinsic radiant energy flux intensity, at wavelengths between 0.4 and 4 {mu}, emitted by a radiator in a given direction, expressed in units of energy per unit time per unit solid angle. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the

  17. ARM: GRAMS: calibration information for the total solar broadband...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI Identifier: 1025193 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Dataset Data Type: Numeric Data Research Org: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Archive, Oak ...

  18. Broadband light-emitting diode

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, Ian J.; Klem, John F.; Hafich, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    A broadband light-emitting diode. The broadband light-emitting diode (LED) comprises a plurality of III-V compound semiconductor layers grown on a semiconductor substrate, with the semiconductor layers including a pair of cladding layers sandwiched about a strained-quantum-well active region having a plurality of different energy bandgaps for generating light in a wavelength range of about 1.3-2 .mu.m. In one embodiment of the present invention, the active region may comprise a first-grown quantum-well layer and a last-grown quantum-well layer that are oppositely strained; whereas in another embodiment of the invention, the active region is formed from a short-period superlattice structure (i.e. a pseudo alloy) comprising alternating thin layers of InGaAs and InGaAlAs. The use a short-period superlattice structure for the active region allows different layers within the active region to be simply and accurately grown by repetitively opening and closing one or more shutters in an MBE growth apparatus to repetitively switch between different growth states therein. The broadband LED may be formed as either a surface-emitting LED or as an edge-emitting LED for use in applications such as chemical sensing, fiber optic gyroscopes, wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) fiber-optic data links, and WDM fiber-optic sensor networks for automobiles and aircraft.

  19. Broadband light-emitting diode

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, I.J.; Klem, J.F.; Hafich, M.J.

    1998-07-14

    A broadband light-emitting diode is disclosed. The broadband light-emitting diode (LED) comprises a plurality of III-V compound semiconductor layers grown on a semiconductor substrate, with the semiconductor layers including a pair of cladding layers sandwiched about a strained-quantum-well active region having a plurality of different energy bandgaps for generating light in a wavelength range of about 1.3--2 {micro}m. In one embodiment of the present invention, the active region may comprise a first-grown quantum-well layer and a last-grown quantum-well layer that are oppositely strained; whereas in another embodiment of the invention, the active region is formed from a short-period superlattice structure (i.e. a pseudo alloy) comprising alternating thin layers of InGaAs and InGaAlAs. The use a short-period superlattice structure for the active region allows different layers within the active region to be simply and accurately grown by repetitively opening and closing one or more shutters in an MBE growth apparatus to repetitively switch between different growth states therein. The broadband LED may be formed as either a surface-emitting LED or as an edge-emitting LED for use in applications such as chemical sensing, fiber optic gyroscopes, wavelength-divisionmultiplexed (WDM) fiber-optic data links, and WDM fiber-optic sensor networks for automobiles and aircraft. 10 figs.

  20. Broad-band beam buncher

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, David A.; Flood, William S.; Arthur, Allan A.; Voelker, Ferdinand

    1986-01-01

    A broad-band beam buncher is disclosed, comprising an evacuated housing, an electron gun therein for producing an electron beam, a buncher cavity having entrance and exit openings through which the beam is directed, grids across such openings, a source providing a positive DC voltage between the cavity and the electron gun, a drift tube through which the electron beam travels in passing through such cavity, grids across the ends of such drift tube, gaps being provided between the drift tube grids and the entrance and exit grids, a modulator for supplying an ultrahigh frequency modulating signal to the drift tube for producing velocity modulation of the electrons in the beam, a drift space in the housing through which the velocity modulated electron beam travels and in which the beam is bunched, and a discharge opening from such drift tube and having a grid across such opening through which the bunched electron beam is discharged into an accelerator or the like. The buncher cavity and the drift tube may be arranged to constitute an extension of a coaxial transmission line which is employed to deliver the modulating signal from a signal source. The extended transmission line may be terminated in its characteristic impedance to afford a broad-band response and the device as a whole designed to effect broad-band beam coupling, so as to minimize variations of the output across the response band.

  1. Measuring Broadband IR Irradiance in the Direct Solar Beam (Poster...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and infrared bands below and above 0.2 micrometers and 50 micrometers, respectively. ... the direct solar beam from 3 micrometers to 50 micrometers, as first step that might be ...

  2. Measuring Broadband IR Irradiance in the Direct Solar Beam (Presentati...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    beyond the ultraviolet and infrared bands below and above 0.2 um and 50 um, respectively. ... in the direct solar beam from 3 um to 50 um, as a first step that might be used to ...

  3. Solids irradiator

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Marvin E.; Pierce, Jim D.; Whitfield, Willis J.

    1979-01-01

    A novel facility for irradiation of solids embodying pathogens wherein solids are conveyed through an irradiation chamber in individual containers of an endless conveyor.

  4. Direct and quantitative broadband absorptance spectroscopy with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Direct and quantitative broadband absorptance spectroscopy with multilayer ... DOE Contract Number: FG02-02ER45977 Resource Type: Patent Research Org: Massachusetts ...

  5. Broadband Energy Networks Inc | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Darby, Pennsylvania Zip: 19082 Product: Provides automated equipment and usage monitoring systems for energy management. References: Broadband Energy Networks Inc1 This article...

  6. A Broadband Tensorial Magnetotelluric Study In The Travale Geothermal...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Broadband Tensorial Magnetotelluric Study In The Travale Geothermal Field Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: A Broadband Tensorial...

  7. Re: National Broadband Plan (NBP) Request for Information: Data...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    National Broadband Plan (NBP) Request for Information: Data Access Re: National Broadband Plan (NBP) Request for Information: Data Access Whirlpool Corporation is honored to have ...

  8. Re: DOE Request for Information - Implementing the National Broadband...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities To ... Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to ...

  9. Re: DOE Request for Information - Implementing the National Broadband...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to ... Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to ...

  10. Broadband Particle Filtering in a Noisy Littoral Ocean (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Broadband Particle Filtering in a Noisy Littoral Ocean Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Broadband Particle Filtering in a Noisy Littoral Ocean You are accessing a ...

  11. Broadband Particle Filtering in a Noisy Littoral Ocean (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Broadband Particle Filtering in a Noisy Littoral Ocean Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Broadband Particle Filtering in a Noisy Littoral Ocean Authors: Candy, J V ...

  12. Nanophotonic Design for Broadband Light Management

    SciTech Connect

    Kosten, Emily; Callahan, Dennis; Horowitz, Kelsey; Pala, Ragip; Atwater, Harry

    2014-10-13

    We describe nanophotonic design approaches for broadband light management including i) crossed-trapezoidal Si structures ii) Si photonic crystal superlattices, and iii) tapered and inhomogeneous diameter III-V/Si nanowire arrays.

  13. ARM - Datastreams - ecmwfsfce

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    irradiance downlr Shortwave broadband total downwelling irradiance downsr Surface skin temperature skintemp Atmospheric moisture spechumidity Horizontal wind windu...

  14. Broad-band beam buncher

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, D.A.; Flood, W.S.; Arthur, A.A.; Voelker, F.

    1984-03-20

    A broad-band beam bunther is disclosed, comprising an evacuated housing, an electron gun therein for producing an electron beam, a buncher cavity having entrance and exit openings through which the beam is directed, grids across such openings, a source providing a positive DC voltage between the cavity and the electron gun, a drift tube through which the electron beam travels in passing through such cavity, grids across the ends of such drift tube, gaps being provided between the drift tube grids and the entrance and exit grids, a modulator for supplying an ultrahigh frequency modulating signal to the drift tube for producing velocity modulation of the electrons in the beam, a drift space in the housing through which the velocity modulated electron beam travels and in which the beam is bunched, and a discharge opening from such drift tube and having a grid across such opening through which the bunched electron beam is discharged into an accelerator or the like. The buncher cavity and the drift tube may be arranged to constitute an extension of a coaxial transmission line which is employed to deliver the modulating signal from a signal source. The extended transmission line may be terminated in its characteristic impedance to afford a broad-

  15. ARM Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR): irradiances

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hodges, Gary

    1993-07-04

    The multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) takes spectral measurements of direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. These measurements are at nominal wavelengths of 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm. The measurements are made at a user-specified time interval, usually about one minute or less. The sampling rate for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility MFRSRs is 20 seconds. From such measurements, one may infer the atmosphere's optical depth at the wavelengths mentioned above. In turn, these optical depths may be used to derive information about the column abundances of ozone and water vapor (Michalsky et al. 1995), as well as aerosol (Michalsky et al. 1994) and other atmospheric constituents. A silicon detector is also part of the MFRSR. This detector provides a measure of the broadband direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. A MFRSR head that is mounted to look vertically downward can measure upwelling spectral irradiances. In the ARM system, this instrument is called a multifilter radiometer (MFR). At the Southern Great Plains (SGP) there are two MFRs; one mounted at the 10-m height and the other at 25 m. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites, the MFRs are mounted at 10 m. MFRSR heads are also used to measure normal incidence radiation by mounting on a solar tracking device. These are referred to as normal incidence multi-filter radiometers (NIMFRs) and are located at the SGP and NSA sites. Another specialized use for the MFRSR is the narrow field of view (NFOV) instrument located at SGP. The NFOV is a ground-based radiometer (MFRSR head) that looks straight up.

  16. ARM Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR): irradiances

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hodges, Gary

    The multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) takes spectral measurements of direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. These measurements are at nominal wavelengths of 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm. The measurements are made at a user-specified time interval, usually about one minute or less. The sampling rate for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility MFRSRs is 20 seconds. From such measurements, one may infer the atmosphere's optical depth at the wavelengths mentioned above. In turn, these optical depths may be used to derive information about the column abundances of ozone and water vapor (Michalsky et al. 1995), as well as aerosol (Michalsky et al. 1994) and other atmospheric constituents. A silicon detector is also part of the MFRSR. This detector provides a measure of the broadband direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. A MFRSR head that is mounted to look vertically downward can measure upwelling spectral irradiances. In the ARM system, this instrument is called a multifilter radiometer (MFR). At the Southern Great Plains (SGP) there are two MFRs; one mounted at the 10-m height and the other at 25 m. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites, the MFRs are mounted at 10 m. MFRSR heads are also used to measure normal incidence radiation by mounting on a solar tracking device. These are referred to as normal incidence multi-filter radiometers (NIMFRs) and are located at the SGP and NSA sites. Another specialized use for the MFRSR is the narrow field of view (NFOV) instrument located at SGP. The NFOV is a ground-based radiometer (MFRSR head) that looks straight up.

  17. Broadband diffractive lens or imaging element

    DOEpatents

    Ceglio, Natale M. (Livermore, CA); Hawryluk, Andrew M. (Modesto, CA); London, Richard A. (Oakland, CA); Seppala, Lynn G. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A broadband diffractive lens or imaging element produces a sharp focus and/or a high resolution image with broad bandwidth illuminating radiation. The diffractive lens is sectored or segmented into regions, each of which focuses or images a distinct narrowband of radiation but all of which have a common focal length. Alternatively, a serial stack of minus filters, each with a diffraction pattern which focuses or images a distinct narrowband of radiation but all of which have a common focal length, is used. The two approaches can be combined. Multifocal broadband diffractive elements can also be formed. Thin film embodiments are described.

  18. Broadband diffractive lens or imaging element

    DOEpatents

    Ceglio, N.M.; Hawryluk, A.M.; London, R.A.; Seppala, L.G.

    1993-10-26

    A broadband diffractive lens or imaging element produces a sharp focus and/or a high resolution image with broad bandwidth illuminating radiation. The diffractive lens is sectored or segmented into regions, each of which focuses or images a distinct narrowband of radiation but all of which have a common focal length. Alternatively, a serial stack of minus filters, each with a diffraction pattern which focuses or images a distinct narrowband of radiation but all of which have a common focal length, is used. The two approaches can be combined. Multifocal broadband diffractive elements can also be formed. Thin film embodiments are described. 21 figures.

  19. Broadband diffractive lens or imaging element

    DOEpatents

    Ceglio, Natale M. (Livermore, CA); Hawryluk, Andrew M. (Modesto, CA); London, Richard A. (Oakland, CA); Seppala, Lynn G. (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A broadband diffractive lens or imaging element produces a sharp focus and/or a high resolution image with broad bandwidth illuminating radiation. The diffractive lens is sectored or segmented into regions, each of which focuses or images a distinct narrowband of radiation but all of which have a common focal length. Alternatively, a serial stack of minus filters, each with a diffraction pattern which focuses or images a distinct narrowband of radiation but all of which have a common focal length, is used. The two approaches can be combined. Multifocal broadband diffractive elements can also be formed.

  20. Tissue irradiator

    DOEpatents

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-12-16

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in- vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood- carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170.

  1. Total Imports

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Data Series: Imports - Total Imports - Crude Oil Imports - Crude Oil, Commercial Imports - by SPR Imports - into SPR by Others Imports - Total Products Imports - Total Motor Gasoline Imports - Finished Motor Gasoline Imports - Reformulated Gasoline Imports - Reformulated Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Imports - Other Reformulated Gasoline Imports - Conventional Gasoline Imports - Conv. Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Imports - Conv. Gasoline Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 & < Imports -

  2. Irradiation subassembly

    DOEpatents

    Seim, O.S.; Filewicz, E.C.; Hutter, E.

    1973-10-23

    An irradiation subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which includes a bundle of slender elongated irradiation -capsules or fuel elements enclosed by a coolant tube and having yieldable retaining liner between the irradiation capsules and the coolant tube. For a hexagonal bundle surrounded by a hexagonal tube the yieldable retaining liner may consist either of six segments corresponding to the six sides of the tube or three angular segments each corresponding in two adjacent sides of the tube. The sides of adjacent segments abut and are so cut that metal-tometal contact is retained when the volume enclosed by the retaining liner is varied and Springs are provided for urging the segments toward the center of the tube to hold the capsules in a closely packed configuration. (Official Gazette)

  3. Calculated secondary yields for proton broadband using DECAY TURTLE

    SciTech Connect

    Sondgeroth, A.

    1995-02-01

    The calculations for the yields were done by Al Sondgeroth and Anthony Malensek. The authors used the DECAY deck called PBSEC{_}E.DAT from the CMS DECKS library. After obtaining the run modes and calibration modes from the liaison physicist, they made individual decay runs, using DECAY TURTLE from the CMS libraries and a production spectrum subroutine which was modified by Anthony, for each particle and decay mode for all particle types coming out of the target box. Results were weighted according to branching ratios for particles with more than one decay mode. The production spectra were produced assuming beryllium as the target. The optional deuterium target available to broadband will produce slightly higher yields. It should be noted that they did not include pion yields from klong decays because they could not simulate three body decays. Pions from klongs would add a very small fraction to the total yield.

  4. ARM - Datastreams - prpfrsr

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ( time ) Shortwave broadband total downwelling irradiance No-shadow record, mean signal from the broadband channel when no shadow is detected mV signalbroadband ( time )...

  5. ARM: Portable Radiation Package: Broadband Radiometers, 1 second resolution

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Dataset) | Data Explorer Broadband Radiometers, 1 second resolution Title: ARM: Portable Radiation Package: Broadband Radiometers, 1 second resolution Portable Radiation Package: Broadband Radiometers, 1 second resolution Authors: Annette Koontz ; R. Reynolds Publication Date: 2012-11-02 OSTI Identifier: 1095574 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Dataset Data Type: Numeric Data Research Org: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Archive, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  6. DOE Request for Information - Implementing the National Broadband...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    DOE Request for Information - Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy Idaho Power Company ...

  7. In the Matter of National Broadband Plan Request for Information...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    The American Public Power Association ("APPA") appreciates ... Information ("RFI") on Implementing the National Broadband ... of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy. ...

  8. ARM: Portable Radiation Package: Broadband Radiometers, 1 second...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Portable Radiation Package: Broadband Radiometers, 1 second resolution Authors: Annette Koontz ; R. Reynolds Publication Date: 2012-11-02 OSTI Identifier: 1095574 DOE Contract ...

  9. Re: DOE Request for Information - Implementing the National Broadband...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities To ... regarding the current and future communications requirements of utilities, including, ...

  10. Re: DOE Request for Information - Implementing the National Broadband...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    regarding the current and future communications requirements of utilities, including, ... Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to ...

  11. Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Privacy Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy The United States Telecom Association ...

  12. Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... FirstNet may enter into Spectrum Manager Lease Agreements ... presented in the terms of power intensity or irradiance. ... 2.1091, 2.1093. (To search for and locate CFR ...

  13. Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer to Measure the Absolute Outdoor Longwave Irradiance with Traceability to International System of Units, SI

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, I.; Zeng, J.; Scheuch, J.; Hanssen, L.; Wilthan, B.; Myers, D.; Stoffel, T.

    2012-03-01

    This article describes a method of measuring the absolute outdoor longwave irradiance using an absolute cavity pyrgeometer (ACP), U.S. Patent application no. 13/049, 275. The ACP consists of domeless thermopile pyrgeometer, gold-plated concentrator, temperature controller, and data acquisition. The dome was removed from the pyrgeometer to remove errors associated with dome transmittance and the dome correction factor. To avoid thermal convection and wind effect errors resulting from using a domeless thermopile, the gold-plated concentrator was placed above the thermopile. The concentrator is a dual compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) with 180{sup o} view angle to measure the outdoor incoming longwave irradiance from the atmosphere. The incoming irradiance is reflected from the specular gold surface of the CPC and concentrated on the 11 mm diameter of the pyrgeometer's blackened thermopile. The CPC's interior surface design and the resulting cavitation result in a throughput value that was characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The ACP was installed horizontally outdoor on an aluminum plate connected to the temperature controller to control the pyrgeometer's case temperature. The responsivity of the pyrgeometer's thermopile detector was determined by lowering the case temperature and calculating the rate of change of the thermopile output voltage versus the changing net irradiance. The responsivity is then used to calculate the absolute atmospheric longwave irradiance with an uncertainty estimate (U{sub 95}) of {+-}3.96 W m{sup 02} with traceability to the International System of Units, SI. The measured irradiance was compared with the irradiance measured by two pyrgeometers calibrated by the World Radiation Center with traceability to the Interim World Infrared Standard Group, WISG. A total of 408 readings were collected over three different nights. The calculated irradiance measured by the ACP was 1.5 W/m{sup 2} lower than that

  14. Uncertainty Analysis for Broadband Solar Radiometric Instrumentation Calibrations and Measurements: An Update; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D. R.; Reda, I. M.; Wilcox, S. M.; Stoffel, T. L.

    2004-04-01

    The measurement of broadband solar radiation has grown in importance since the advent of solar renewable energy technologies in the 1970's, and the concern about the Earth's radiation balance related to climate change in the 1990's. In parallel, standardized methods of uncertainty analysis and reporting have been developed. Historical and updated uncertainties are based on the current international standardized uncertainty analysis method. Despite the fact that new and sometimes overlooked sources of uncertainty have been identified over the period 1988 to 2004, uncertainty in broadband solar radiometric instrumentation remains at 3% to 5% for pyranometers, and 2% to 3% for pyrheliometers. Improvements in characterizing correction functions for radiometer data may reduce total uncertainty. We analyze the theoretical standardized uncertainty sensitivity coefficients for the instrumentation calibration measurement equation and highlight the single parameter (thermal offset voltages), which contributes the most to the observed calibration responsivities.

  15. Review Article: The weak interactive characteristic of resonance cells and broadband effect of metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xiaopeng Song, Kun

    2014-10-15

    Metamaterials are artificial media designed to control electromagnetic wave propagation. Due to resonance, most present-day metamaterials inevitably suffer from narrow bandwidth, extremely limiting their practical applications. On the basis of tailored properties, a metamaterial within which each distinct unit cell resonates at its inherent frequency and has almost no coupling effect with the other ones, termed as weak interaction system, can be formulated. The total response of a weak interaction system can be treated as an overlap of the single resonance spectrum of each type of different unit cells. This intriguing feature therefore makes it possible to accomplish multiband or broadband metamaterials in a simple way. By introducing defects into metamaterials to form a weak interaction system, multiband and broadband electromagnetic metamaterials have first been experimentally demonstrated by our group. The similar concept can also be readily extended to acoustic and seismic metamaterials.

  16. A broadband multimedia TeleLearning system

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ruiping; Karmouch, A.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we discuss a broadband multimedia TeleLearning system under development in the Multimedia Information Research Laboratory at the University of Ottawa. The system aims at providing a seamless environment for TeleLearning using the latest telecommunication and multimedia information processing technology. It basically consists of a media production center, a courseware author site, a courseware database, a courseware user site, and an on-line facilitator site. All these components are distributed over an ATM network and work together to offer a multimedia interactive courseware service. An MHEG-based model is exploited in designing the system architecture to achieve the real-time, interactive, and reusable information interchange through heterogeneous platforms. The system architecture, courseware processing strategies, courseware document models are presented.

  17. Gamma irradiation effects in W films

    SciTech Connect

    Claro, Luiz H.; Santos, Ingrid A.; Silva, Cassia F.

    2013-05-06

    Using the van Der Pauw methodology, the surface resistivity of irradiated tungsten films deposited on Silicon substrate was measured. The films were exposed to {gamma} radiation using a isotopic {sup 60}Co source in three irradiation stages attaining 40.35 kGy in total dose. The obtained results for superficial resistivity display a time annealing features and their values are proportional to the total dose.

  18. Direct and quantitative broadband absorptance spectroscopy with multilayer cantilever probes

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Wei-Chun; Tong, Jonathan Kien-Kwok; Liao, Bolin; Chen, Gang

    2015-04-21

    A system for measuring the absorption spectrum of a sample is provided that includes a broadband light source that produces broadband light defined within a range of an absorptance spectrum. An interferometer modulates the intensity of the broadband light source for a range of modulation frequencies. A bi-layer cantilever probe arm is thermally connected to a sample arm having at most two layers of materials. The broadband light modulated by the interferometer is directed towards the sample and absorbed by the sample and converted into heat, which causes a temperature rise and bending of the bi-layer cantilever probe arm. A detector mechanism measures and records the deflection of the probe arm so as to obtain the absorptance spectrum of the sample.

  19. Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    vertical p-n junction (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction Authors: Yuan, Hongtao ; Liu, Xiaoge ; Afshinmanesh, Farzaneh ; Li, Wei ; Xu, Gang ; Sun, Jie ; Lian, Biao ; Curto, Alberto G. Search SciTech Connect for author "Curto, Alberto G."

  20. EIS-0528: Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Programmatic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Environmental Impact Statement for the Western United States | Department of Energy 8: Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Western United States EIS-0528: Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Western United States The First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) in the U.S. Department of Commerce is preparing, with DOE as a cooperating agency, a Programmatic Environmental

  1. EIS-0530: Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Programmatic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Environmental Impact Statement for the Southern United States | Department of Energy 30: Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Southern United States EIS-0530: Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Southern United States The First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) in the U.S. Department of Commerce is preparing, with DOE as a cooperating agency, a Programmatic Environmental

  2. DOE Request for Information - Implementing the National Broadband Plan by

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy | Department of Energy Request for Information - Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy DOE Request for Information - Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy Idaho Power Company ("Idaho Power") hereby submits the following

  3. In the Matter of National Broadband Plan Request for Information:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Communications Requirements | Department of Energy In the Matter of National Broadband Plan Request for Information: Communications Requirements In the Matter of National Broadband Plan Request for Information: Communications Requirements The American Public Power Association ("APPA") appreciates this opportunity to respond to the Department of Energy ("the Department" or "DOE") regarding its Request for Information ("RFI") on Implementing the National

  4. Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) - SGP ripbe1mcfarlane

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Dataset) | Data Explorer SGP ripbe1mcfarlane Title: Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) - SGP ripbe1mcfarlane The objective of the ARM Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) Project is to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Required inputs to BBHRP include surface albedo and profiles of atmospheric state (temperature, humidity), gas concentrations, aerosol properties, and cloud properties.

  5. Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) - SGP ripbe370mcfarlane

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Dataset) | Data Explorer ripbe370mcfarlane Title: Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) - SGP ripbe370mcfarlane The objective of the ARM Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) Project is to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Required inputs to BBHRP include surface albedo and profiles of atmospheric state (temperature, humidity), gas concentrations, aerosol properties, and cloud properties.

  6. Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration Process for the Atmospheric

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiation Measurement Program (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration Process for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration Process for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) maintains a fleet of monitoring stations to aid in the improved scientific understanding of the basic physics related to radiative

  7. System and method for detection of dispersed broadband signals

    DOEpatents

    Qian, Shie; Dunham, Mark E.

    1999-06-08

    A system and method for detecting the presence of dispersed broadband signals in real time. The present invention utilizes a bank of matched filters for detecting the received dispersed broadband signals. Each matched filter uses a respective robust time template that has been designed to approximate the dispersed broadband signals of interest, and each time template varies across a spectrum of possible dispersed broadband signal time templates. The received dispersed broadband signal x(t) is received by each of the matched filters, and if one or more matches occurs, then the received data is determined to have signal data of interest. This signal data can then be analyzed and/or transmitted to Earth for analysis, as desired. The system and method of the present invention will prove extremely useful in many fields, including satellite communications, plasma physics, and interstellar research. The varying time templates used in the bank of matched filters are determined as follows. The robust time domain template is assumed to take the form w(t)=A(t)cos{2.phi.(t)}. Since the instantaneous frequency f(t) is known to be equal to the derivative of the phase .phi.(t), the trajectory of a joint time-frequency representation of x(t) is used as an approximation of .phi.'(t).

  8. System and method for detection of dispersed broadband signals

    DOEpatents

    Qian, S.; Dunham, M.E.

    1999-06-08

    A system and method for detecting the presence of dispersed broadband signals in real time are disclosed. The present invention utilizes a bank of matched filters for detecting the received dispersed broadband signals. Each matched filter uses a respective robust time template that has been designed to approximate the dispersed broadband signals of interest, and each time template varies across a spectrum of possible dispersed broadband signal time templates. The received dispersed broadband signal x(t) is received by each of the matched filters, and if one or more matches occurs, then the received data is determined to have signal data of interest. This signal data can then be analyzed and/or transmitted to Earth for analysis, as desired. The system and method of the present invention will prove extremely useful in many fields, including satellite communications, plasma physics, and interstellar research. The varying time templates used in the bank of matched filters are determined as follows. The robust time domain template is assumed to take the form w(t)=A(t)cos[l brace]2[phi](t)[r brace]. Since the instantaneous frequency f(t) is known to be equal to the derivative of the phase [phi](t), the trajectory of a joint time-frequency representation of x(t) is used as an approximation of [phi][prime](t). 10 figs.

  9. ARM - Measurement - Longwave narrowband upwelling irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    narrowband upwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Longwave narrowband upwelling irradiance The total radiant energy, in a narrow band of wavelengths longer than approximately 4 {mu}m, passing through a horizontal unit area in an upward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments.

  10. High-Voltage Broadband-Over-Powerline (HV-BPL) Field Test Report...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Voltage Broadband-Over-Powerline (HV-BPL) Field Test Report Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: High-Voltage Broadband-Over-Powerline (HV-BPL) Field Test...

  11. Microsoft Word - Broadband Over Power Lines_FINAL.06.01.10.doc

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Broadband over Powerlines Can Accelerate the Transmission Smart Grid May 25, 2010 DOE/NETL-2010/1418 Broadband Over Power Lines Could Accelerate the Transmission Smart Grid Broadband Over Power Lines Could Accelerate the Transmission Smart Grid 1 Prepared by: Booz Allen Hamilton (BAH) Bruce Renz Renz Consulting, LLC DOE Contract number: DE-FE000400 Broadband Over Power Lines Could Accelerate the Transmission Smart Grid 2 Acknowledgements This report was prepared by Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc.

  12. Status of the Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) VAP

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Status of the Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) VAP Mlawer, Eli Atmospheric & Environmental Research, Inc. Clough, Shepard Atmospheric and Environmental Research Delamere, Jennifer Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Miller, Mark Brookhaven National Laboratory Johnson, Karen Brookhaven National Laboratory Troyan, David Brookhaven National Laboratory Jensen, Michael Brookhaven National Laboratory Shippert, Timothy Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Long, Chuck Pacific

  13. Methods and devices for generation of broadband pulsed radiation

    DOEpatents

    Borguet, Eric; Isaienko, Oleksandr

    2013-05-14

    Methods and apparatus for non-collinear optical parametric ampliffication (NOPA) are provided. Broadband phase matching is achieved with a non-collinear geometry and a divergent signal seed to provide bandwidth gain. A chirp may be introduced into the pump pulse such that the white light seed is amplified in a broad spectral region.

  14. Barge Truck Total

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Barge Truck Total delivered cost per short ton Shipments with transportation rates over total shipments Total delivered cost per short ton Shipments with transportation rates over...

  15. MASSIVE LEAKAGE IRRADIATOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Szilard, L.; Christy, R.F.; Friedman, F.L.

    1961-05-30

    An irradiator designed to utilize the neutrons that leak out of a reactor around its periphery is described. It avoids wasting neutron energy and reduces interference with the core flux to a minimum. This is done by surrounding all or most of the core with removable segments of the material to be irradiated within a matrix of reflecting material.

  16. Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel

    DOEpatents

    Bauer, Roger E.; Straalsund, Jerry L.; Chin, Bryan A.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

  17. Irradiation Creep in Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

    2014-03-13

    An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

  18. Metallic stereostructured layer: An approach for broadband polarization state manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Xiang; Hu, Yuan-Sheng; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Hu, Yu-Hui; Fan, Ren-Hao; Ma, Guo-Bin; Shu, Da-Jun; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu

    2014-11-17

    In this letter, we report a full-metallic broadband wave plate assembled by standing metallic L-shaped stereostructures (LSSs). We show that with an array of LSSs, high polarization conversion ratio is achieved within a broad frequency band. Moreover, by rotating the orientation of the array of LSSs, the electric components of the reflection beam in two orthogonal directions and their phase difference can be independently tuned. In this way, all the polarization states on the Poincar sphere can be realized. As examples, the functionalities of a quarter wave plate and a half wave plate are experimentally demonstrated with both reflection spectra and focal-plane-array imaging. Our designing provides a unique approach in realizing the broadband wave plate to manipulate the polarization state of light.

  19. Re: DOE Request for Information - Implementing the National Broadband

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities To Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy | Department of Energy To Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy Re: DOE Request for Information - Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities To Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy The Edison Electric Institute ("EEI"), on behalf of its member companies, hereby submits the following comments in response to the Request for

  20. Re: DOE Request for Information - Implementing the National Broadband

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy | Department of Energy FPL hereby respectfully submits the following comments in response to the request by the Department of Energy for comments to Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities To Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy (Federal Register/Vol.75, No.90/Tuesday May 11, 2010). Re: DOE Request for Information -

  1. Re: DOE Request for Information - Implementing the National Broadband

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy | Department of Energy DTE Energy Company appreciates the opportunity to respond to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Request for Information on the subject of Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy, which was published at 75 Federal Register 26206 on May 11, 2010. Re: DOE Request for

  2. Re: Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy | Department of Energy Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy Re: Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy Exelon Corporation (Exelon) hereby submits the following comments in response to the request by the Department of Energy ("DOE" or "Department") for information on state efforts to

  3. Re: Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy | Department of Energy Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy Re: Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy Alcatel-Lucent ("ALU") appreciates the opportunity to contribute to the Department of Energy's ("Department") Request for Information

  4. Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy | Department of Energy Privacy Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy The United States Telecom Association (USTelecom)1 is pleased to comment on the Request for Information (RFI) of the Department of Energy (DOE) in its proceeding requesting input from the public regarding current and potential practices and policies to empower consumers through

  5. Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy- Request for Information | Department of Energy Privacy- Request for Information Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use, and Privacy- Request for Information The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking comments and information from interested parties to assist DOE in understanding current and potential practices and policies for the states and other entities 1 to

  6. Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Requirements of Electric Utilities To Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy | Department of Energy Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities To Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities To Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking comments and information from interested parties to assist DOE in understanding the communications requirements of

  7. Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    VOLUME 17 - CHAPTERS 19-25 & APPENDICES Colorado Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Michigan Minnesota Missouri Montana Nebraska North Dakota Ohio South Dakota Utah Wisconsin Wyoming Page Intentionally Left Blank. August 2016 First Responder Network Authority Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Central United States VOLUME 17 - CHAPTERS 19-25 & APPENDICES Amanda Goebel Pereira, AICP NEPA Coordinator First Responder Network

  8. Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    A - COOPERATING AGENCIES Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Washington Page Intentionally Left Blank. Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Western United States APPENDIX A - COOPERATING AGENCIES September 2016 First Responder Network Authority Amanda Goebel Pereira, AICP NEPA Coordinator First Responder Network Authority U.S. Department of Commerce 12201 Sunrise Valley Dr. M/S 243 Reston, VA 20192 Cooperating Agencies Federal

  9. Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    B - SCOPING REPORT Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Washington Page Intentionally Left Blank. Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Western United States APPENDIX B - SCOPING REPORT September 2016 First Responder Network Authority Amanda Goebel Pereira, AICP NEPA Coordinator First Responder Network Authority U.S. Department of Commerce 12201 Sunrise Valley Dr. M/S 243 Reston, VA 20192 Cooperating Agencies Federal Communications

  10. Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    C - APPLICABLE LAWS AND REGULATIONS, EXECUTIVE ORDERS, AND GUIDANCE Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Washington Page Intentionally Left Blank. Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Western United States APPENDIX C - APPLICABLE LAWS AND REGULATIONS, EXECUTIVE ORDERS, AND GUIDANCE September 2016 First Responder Network Authority Amanda Goebel Pereira, AICP NEPA Coordinator First Responder Network Authority U.S. Department of

  11. Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    D - ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE METHODOLOGY Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Washington Page Intentionally Left Blank. Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Western United States APPENDIX D - ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE METHODOLOGY September 2016 First Responder Network Authority Amanda Goebel Pereira, AICP NEPA Coordinator First Responder Network Authority U.S. Department of Commerce 12201 Sunrise Valley Dr. M/S 243 Reston, VA 20192

  12. Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    E - AIR QUALITY Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Washington Page Intentionally Left Blank. Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Western United States APPENDIX E - AIR QUALITY September 2016 First Responder Network Authority Amanda Goebel Pereira, AICP NEPA Coordinator First Responder Network Authority U.S. Department of Commerce 12201 Sunrise Valley Dr. M/S 243 Reston, VA 20192 Cooperating Agencies Federal Communications

  13. Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    0 - COMPARISON OF ALTERNATIVES Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Washington Page Intentionally Left Blank. Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Western United States CHAPTER 10 - COMPARISON OF ALTERNATIVES September 2016 First Responder Network Authority Amanda Goebel Pereira, AICP NEPA Coordinator First Responder Network Authority U.S. Department of Commerce 12201 Sunrise Valley Dr. M/S 243 Reston, VA 20192 Cooperating

  14. Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    1 - CUMULATIVE IMPACTS Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Washington Page Intentionally Left Blank. Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Western United States CHAPTER 11 - CUMULATIVE IMPACTS September 2016 First Responder Network Authority Amanda Goebel Pereira, AICP NEPA Coordinator First Responder Network Authority U.S. Department of Commerce 12201 Sunrise Valley Dr. M/S 243 Reston, VA 20192 Cooperating Agencies Federal

  15. Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    2 - OTHER REQUIRED ANALYSES Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Washington Page Intentionally Left Blank. Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Western United States CHAPTER 12 - OTHER REQUIRED ANALYSES September 2016 First Responder Network Authority Amanda Goebel Pereira, AICP NEPA Coordinator First Responder Network Authority U.S. Department of Commerce 12201 Sunrise Valley Dr. M/S 243 Reston, VA 20192 Cooperating Agencies

  16. Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    3 - LIST OF PREPARERS AND CONTRIBUTORS Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Washington Page Intentionally Left Blank. Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Western United States CHAPTER 13 - LIST OF PREPARERS AND CONTRIBUTORS September 2016 First Responder Network Authority Amanda Goebel Pereira, AICP NEPA Coordinator First Responder Network Authority U.S. Department of Commerce 12201 Sunrise Valley Dr. M/S 243 Reston, VA 20192

  17. Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    4 - DISTRIBUTION LIST Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Washington Page Intentionally Left Blank. Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Western United States CHAPTER 14 - DISTRIBUTION LIST September 2016 First Responder Network Authority Amanda Goebel Pereira, AICP NEPA Coordinator First Responder Network Authority U.S. Department of Commerce 12201 Sunrise Valley Dr. M/S 243 Reston, VA 20192 Cooperating Agencies Federal

  18. Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    5 - GLOSSARY Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Washington Page Intentionally Left Blank. Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Western United States CHAPTER 15 - GLOSSARY September 2016 First Responder Network Authority Amanda Goebel Pereira, AICP NEPA Coordinator First Responder Network Authority U.S. Department of Commerce 12201 Sunrise Valley Dr. M/S 243 Reston, VA 20192 Cooperating Agencies Federal Communications Commission

  19. Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Washington Page Intentionally Left Blank. Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Western United States CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION September 2016 First Responder Network Authority Amanda Goebel Pereira, AICP NEPA Coordinator First Responder Network Authority U.S. Department of Commerce 12201 Sunrise Valley Dr. M/S 243 Reston, VA 20192 Cooperating Agencies Federal

  20. Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    9 - BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND MITIGATION MEASURES Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Washington Page Intentionally Left Blank. Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Western United States CHAPTER 9 - BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND MITIGATION MEASURES September 2016 First Responder Network Authority Amanda Goebel Pereira, AICP NEPA Coordinator First Responder Network Authority U.S. Department of Commerce 12201 Sunrise Valley Dr.

  1. Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    B Alabama Arkansas Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Mississippi New Mexico North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Page Intentionally Left Blank. Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Southern United States VOLUME 14 - APPENDIX B October 2016 First Responder Network Authority Amanda Goebel Pereira, AICP NEPA Coordinator First Responder Network Authority U.S. Department of Commerce 12201 Sunrise Valley Dr. M/S 243

  2. Broadband Longwave Radiative Cooling Rates in Inhomogeneous Stratocumulus Clouds

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Broadband Longwave Radiative Cooling Rates in Inhomogeneous Stratocumulus Clouds M. Ovtchinnikov and T. P. Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington D. B. Mechem and Y. L. Kogan Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies University of Oklahoma Norman, Oklahoma R. F. Cahalan National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland A. B. Davis Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, New Mexico R. G. Ellingson and E.

  3. EXAMINING THE BROADBAND EMISSION SPECTRUM OF WASP-19b: A NEW z-BAND ECLIPSE DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, George; Bayliss, Daniel D. R.; Kedziora-Chudczer, Lucyna; Bailey, Jeremy

    2013-09-10

    WASP-19b is one of the most irradiated hot-Jupiters known. Its secondary eclipse is the deepest of all transiting planets and has been measured in multiple optical and infrared bands. We obtained a z-band eclipse observation with a measured depth of 0.080% {+-} 0.029%, using the 2 m Faulkes Telescope South, which is consistent with the results of previous observations. We combined our measurement of the z-band eclipse with previous observations to explore atmosphere models of WASP-19b that are consistent with its broadband spectrum. We use the VSTAR radiative transfer code to examine the effect of varying pressure-temperature profiles and C/O abundance ratios on the emission spectrum of the planet. We find that models with super-solar carbon enrichment best match the observations, which is consistent with previous model retrieval studies. We also include upper atmosphere haze as another dimension in the interpretation of exoplanet emission spectra and find that particles <0.5 {mu}m in size are unlikely to be present in WASP-19b.

  4. Total Crude by Pipeline

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Product: Total Crude by All Transport Methods Domestic Crude by All Transport Methods Foreign Crude by All Transport Methods Total Crude by Pipeline Domestic Crude by Pipeline Foreign Crude by Pipeline Total Crude by Tanker Domestic Crude by Tanker Foreign Crude by Tanker Total Crude by Barge Domestic Crude by Barge Foreign Crude by Barge Total Crude by Tank Cars (Rail) Domestic Crude by Tank Cars (Rail) Foreign Crude by Tank Cars (Rail) Total Crude by Trucks Domestic Crude by Trucks Foreign

  5. Aspects of the quality of data from the Southern Great Plains (SGP) cloud and radiation testbed (CART) site broadband radiation sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Splitt, M.E.; Wesely, M.L.

    1996-04-01

    A systmatic evaluation of the performance of broadband radiometers at the Radiation Testbed (CART) site is needed to estimate the uncertainties of the irradiance observations. Here, net radiation observed with the net radiometer in the enrgy balance Bowen ratio station at the Central facility is compared with the net radiation computed as the sum of component irradiances recorded by nearby pyranameters and pyrgeometers. In addition, data obtained from the central facility pyranometers, pyrgeometers, and pyrheliometers are examined for April 1994, when intensive operations periods were being carried out. The data used in this study are from central facility radiometers in a solar and infrared observation station, and EBBR station, the so-called `BSRN` set of upward pointing radiometers, and a set of radiometers pointed down at the 25-m level of a 60-m tower.

  6. ,"Total Natural Gas Consumption

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Gas Consumption (billion cubic feet)",,,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  7. Broad Band Intra-Cavity Total Reflection Chemical Sensor

    DOEpatents

    Pipino, Andrew C. R.

    1998-11-10

    A broadband, ultrahigh-sensitivity chemical sensor is provided that allows etection through utilization of a small, extremely low-loss, monolithic optical cavity. The cavity is fabricated from highly transparent optical material in the shape of a regular polygon with one or more convex facets to form a stable resonator for ray trajectories sustained by total internal reflection. Optical radiation enters and exits the monolithic cavity by photon tunneling in which two totally reflecting surfaces are brought into close proximity. In the presence of absorbing material, the loss per pass is increased since the evanescent waves that exist exterior to the cavity at points where the circulating pulse is totally reflected, are absorbed. The decay rate of an injected pulse is determined by coupling out an infinitesimal fraction of the pulse to produce an intensity-versus-time decay curve. Since the change in the decay rate resulting from absorption is inversely proportional to the magnitude of absorption, a quantitative sensor of concentration or absorption cross-section with 1 part-per-million/pass or better sensitivity is obtained. The broadband nature of total internal reflection permits a single device to be used over a broad wavelength range. The absorption spectrum of the surrounding medium can thereby be obtained as a measurement of inverse decay time as a function of wavelength.

  8. Acoustic Environment of Admiralty Inlet: Broadband Noise Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jinshan; Deng, Zhiqun; Martinez, Jayson J.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Myers, Joshua R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Jones, Mark E.

    2011-09-30

    Admiralty Inlet has been selected as a potential tidal energy site. It is located near shipping lanes, is a highly variable acoustic environment, and is frequented by the highly endangered southern resident killer whale (SRKW). Resolving environmental impacts is the first step to receiving approval to deploy tidal turbines at Admiralty Inlet. Of particular concern is the potential for blade strike or other negative interactions between the SRKW and the tidal turbine. A variety of technologies including passive and active monitoring systems are being considered as potential tools to determine the presence of SRKW in the vicinity of the turbines. Broadband noise level measurements are critical for the determination of design and operation specifications of all marine and hydrokinetic energy capture technologies. Acoustic environment data at the proposed site was acquired at different depths using a cabled vertical line array (VLA) with four calibrated hydrophones. The sound pressure level (SPL) power spectrum density was estimated based on the fast Fourier transform. This study describes the first broadband SPL measurements for this site at different depths with frequency ranging from 10 kHz to 480 kHz in combination with other information. To understand the SPL caused by this bedload transport, three different pressure sensors with temperature and conductivity were also assembled on the VLA to measure the conditions at the hydrophone deployment depth. The broadband SPL levels at frequency ranges of 3 kHz to 7 kHz as a function of depth were estimated. Only the hydrophone at an average depth of 40 m showed the strong dependence of SPL with distance from the bottom, which was possibly caused by the cobbles shifting on the seabed. Automatic Identification System data were also studied to understand the SPL measurements.

  9. Feasibility study of broadband efficient ''water window'' source

    SciTech Connect

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Yugami, Noboru; Otsuka, Takamitsu; Jiang Weihua; Endo, Akira; Li Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry

    2012-01-02

    We demonstrate a table-top broadband emission water window source based on laser-produced high-Z plasmas. Resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense unresolved transition arrays (UTAs) in the 2-4 nm region, extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). Arrays resulting from n=4-n=4 transitions are overlaid with n=4-n=5 emission and shift to shorter wavelength with increasing atomic number. An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on a bismuth plasma UTA source, coupled to multilayer mirror optics.

  10. Broadband extreme ultraviolet probing of transient gratings in vanadium dioxide

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Sistrunk, Emily; Lawrence Livermore National Lab.; Grilj, Jakob; Ecole Polytechnique Federal de Lausanne; Jeong, Jaewoo; Samant, Mahesh G.; Gray, Alexander X.; Temple Univ. Philadelphia, PA; Drr, Hermann A.; Parkin, Stuart S. P.; et al

    2015-02-11

    Nonlinear spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray spectral range offers the opportunity for element selective probing of ultrafast dynamics using core-valence transitions (Mukamel et al., Acc. Chem. Res. 42, 553 (2009)). We demonstrate a step on this path showing core-valence sensitivity in transient grating spectroscopy with EUV probing. We study the optically induced insulator-to-metal transition (IMT) of a VO? film with EUV diffraction from the optically excited sample. The VO? exhibits a change in the 3p-3d resonance of V accompanied by an acoustic response. Due to the broadband probing we are able to separate the two features.

  11. Design and demonstration of broadband thin planar diffractive acoustic lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wenqi; Xie, Yangbo; Konneker, Adam; Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A.

    2014-09-08

    We present here two diffractive acoustic lenses with subwavelength thickness, planar profile, and broad operation bandwidth. Tapered labyrinthine unit cells with their inherently broadband effective material properties are exploited in our design. Both the measured and the simulated results are showcased to demonstrate the lensing effect over more than 40% of the central frequency. The focusing of a propagating Gaussian modulated sinusoidal pulse is also demonstrated. This work paves the way for designing diffractive acoustic lenses and more generalized phase engineering diffractive elements with labyrinthine acoustic metamaterials.

  12. Sensitivity of ultrasonic nonlinearity to irradiated, annealed, and re-irradiated microstructure changes in RPV steels

    SciTech Connect

    Matlack, Katie; Kim, J-Y.; Wall, J.J.; Jacobs, L.J.; Sokolov, Mikhail A

    2014-05-01

    The planned life extension of nuclear reactors throughout the US and abroad will cause reactor vessel and internals materials to be exposed to more neutron irradiation than was originally intended. A nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method to monitor radiation damage would enable safe and cost-effective continued operation of nuclear reactors. Radiation damage in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels causes microstructural changes that leave the material in an embrittled state. Nonlinear ultrasound is an NDE technique quantified by the measurable acoustic nonlinearity parameter, which is sensitive to microstructural changes in metallic materials such as dislocations, precipitates and their combinations. Recent research has demonstrated the sensitivity of the acoustic nonlinearity parameter to increasing neutron fluence in representative RPV steels. The current work considers nonlinear ultrasonic experiments conducted on similar RPV steel samples that had a combination of irradiation, annealing, re-irradiation, and/or re-annealing to a total neutron fluence of 0.5 5 1019 n/cm2 (E > 1 MeV) at an irradiation temperature of 290 C. The acoustic nonlinearity parameter generally increased with increasing neutron fluence, and consistently decreased from the irradiated to the annealed state over different levels of neutron fluence. Results of the measured acoustic nonlinearity parameter are compared with those from previous measurements on other RPV steel samples. This comprehensive set of results illustrates the dependence of the measured acoustic nonlinearity parameter on neutron fluence, material composition, irradiation temperature and annealing.

  13. Hybrid metasurface for ultra-broadband terahertz modulation

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Heyes, Jane E.; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Grady, Nathaniel K.; Chowdhury, Dibakar Roy; Azad, Abul K.; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2014-11-05

    We demonstrate an ultra-broadband free-space terahertz modulator based on a semiconductor-integrated metasurface. The modulator is made of a planar array of metal cut-wires on a silicon-on-sapphire substrate, where the silicon layer functions as photoconductive switches. Without external excitation, the cut-wire array exhibits a Lorentzian resonant response with a transmission passband spanning dc up to the fundamental dipole resonance above 2 THz. Under photoexcitation with 1.55 eV near-infrared light, the silicon regions in the cut-wire gaps become highly conductive, causing a transition of the resonant metasurface to a wire grating with a Drude response. In effect, the low-frequency passband below 2more » THz evolves into a stopband for the incident terahertz waves. Experimental validations confirm a bandwidth of at least 100%, spanning 0.5 to 1.5 THz with -10 dB modulation depth. This modulation depth is far superior to -5 dB achievable from a plain silicon-on-sapphire substrate with effectively 25 times higher pumping energy. The proposed concept of ultra-broadband metasurface modulator can be readily extended to electrically controlled terahertz wave modulation.« less

  14. Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) - SGP ripbe1mcfarlane

    DOE Data Explorer

    Riihimaki, Laura; Shippert, Timothy

    2014-11-05

    The objective of the ARM Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) Project is to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Required inputs to BBHRP include surface albedo and profiles of atmospheric state (temperature, humidity), gas concentrations, aerosol properties, and cloud properties. In the past year, the Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) VAP was developed to combine all of the input properties needed for BBHRP into a single gridded input file. Additionally, an interface between the RIPBE input file and the RRTM was developed using the new ARM integrated software development environment (ISDE) and effort was put into developing quality control (qc) flags and provenance information on the BBHRP output files so that analysis of the output would be more straightforward. This new version of BBHRP, sgp1bbhrpripbeC1.c1, uses the RIPBE files as input to RRTM, and calculates broadband SW and LW fluxes and heating rates at 1-min resolution using the independent column approximation. The vertical resolution is 45 m in the lower and middle troposphere to match the input cloud properties, but is at coarser resolution in the upper atmosphere. Unlike previous versions, the vertical grid is the same for both clear-sky and cloudy-sky calculations.

  15. Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) - SGP ripbe370mcfarlane

    DOE Data Explorer

    Riihimaki, Laura; Shippert, Timothy

    2014-11-05

    The objective of the ARM Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) Project is to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Required inputs to BBHRP include surface albedo and profiles of atmospheric state (temperature, humidity), gas concentrations, aerosol properties, and cloud properties. In the past year, the Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) VAP was developed to combine all of the input properties needed for BBHRP into a single gridded input file. Additionally, an interface between the RIPBE input file and the RRTM was developed using the new ARM integrated software development environment (ISDE) and effort was put into developing quality control (qc) flags and provenance information on the BBHRP output files so that analysis of the output would be more straightforward. This new version of BBHRP, sgp1bbhrpripbeC1.c1, uses the RIPBE files as input to RRTM, and calculates broadband SW and LW fluxes and heating rates at 1-min resolution using the independent column approximation. The vertical resolution is 45 m in the lower and middle troposphere to match the input cloud properties, but is at coarser resolution in the upper atmosphere. Unlike previous versions, the vertical grid is the same for both clear-sky and cloudy-sky calculations.

  16. FOOD IRRADIATION REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Leyse, C.F.; Putnam, G.E.

    1961-05-01

    An irradiation apparatus is described. It comprises a pressure vessel, a neutronic reactor active portion having a substantially greater height than diameter in the pressure vessel, an annular tank surrounding and spaced from the pressure vessel containing an aqueous indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution of approximately 600 grams per liter concentration, means for circulating separate coolants through the active portion and the space between the annular tank and the pressure vessel, radiator means adapted to receive the materials to be irradiated, and means for flowing the indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution through the radiator means.

  17. Fuel or irradiation subassembly

    DOEpatents

    Seim, O.S.; Hutter, E.

    1975-12-23

    A subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which incorporates a loose bundle of fuel or irradiation pins enclosed within an inner tube which in turn is enclosed within an outer coolant tube and includes a locking comb consisting of a head extending through one side of the inner sleeve and a plurality of teeth which extend through the other side of the inner sleeve while engaging annular undercut portions in the bottom portion of the fuel or irradiation pins to prevent movement of the pins.

  18. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    . Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per...

  19. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  20. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region, 1999" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per Square Foot"...

  1. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration...

  2. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    A. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per...

  3. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  4. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Revised: December, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings...

  5. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other All Buildings*...

  6. Parallel Total Energy

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    2004-10-21

    This is a total energy electronic structure code using Local Density Approximation (LDA) of the density funtional theory. It uses the plane wave as the wave function basis set. It can sue both the norm conserving pseudopotentials and the ultra soft pseudopotentials. It can relax the atomic positions according to the total energy. It is a parallel code using MP1.

  7. NSUF Irradiated Materials Library

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, James Irvin

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Science User Facilities has been in the process of establishing an innovative Irradiated Materials Library concept for maximizing the value of previous and on-going materials and nuclear fuels irradiation test campaigns, including utilization of real-world components retrieved from current and decommissioned reactors. When the ATR national scientific user facility was established in 2007 one of the goals of the program was to establish a library of irradiated samples for users to access and conduct research through competitively reviewed proposal process. As part of the initial effort, staff at the user facility identified legacy materials from previous programs that are still being stored in laboratories and hot-cell facilities at the INL. In addition other materials of interest were identified that are being stored outside the INL that the current owners have volunteered to enter into the library. Finally, over the course of the last several years, the ATR NSUF has irradiated more than 3500 specimens as part of NSUF competitively awarded research projects. The Logistics of managing this large inventory of highly radioactive poses unique challenges. This document will describe materials in the library, outline the policy for accessing these materials and put forth a strategy for making new additions to the library as well as establishing guidelines for minimum pedigree needed to be included in the library to limit the amount of material stored indefinitely without identified value.

  8. Broadband-antireflective hybrid nanopillar array for photovoltaic application

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Keiji Yamamoto, Jiro; Tsuchiya, Ryuta

    2015-08-28

    Subwavelength structures such as nanopillars, nanoholes, and nanodomes have recently attracted considerable attention as antireflective structures for solar cells. Recent studies on the optical property of nanopillar array revealed that the reflection minimum is related to the diameter, the pitch, and the height of nanopillars. Here, we investigate the “hybrid” nanopillar array, which is composed of different diameters of nanopillars. Finite differential time domain simulations revealed that the photogeneration in a hybrid nanopillar array is spatially heterogeneous: carriers are generated mainly in the narrower pillars for short-wavelength incident light and in the thicker pillars for long-wavelength light, respectively. Hybrid silicon nanopillar arrays fabricated by using electron beam lithography and dry etching show excellent broadband antireflection property. Hybrid nanopillar array is thus highly promising for next-generation antireflection for photovoltaic applications.

  9. Broad-band characteristics of circular button pickups

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, W.C.

    1992-10-01

    A broad-band.theory of the circular button pickup is presented. Expressions for the longitudinal and transverse transfer impedance of a pair of such pickups are derived in the frequency domain. The broad-band expressions are shown to reduce to the standard electrostatic transfer functions for wavelengths large compared to the button diameter. The theory is shown to be in reasonable agreement with measurements performed on standard LEP button electrodes. In particular, the theory explains a resonance in the response of the LEP buttons which made them unsuitable, in standard form, for their intended application as pickups in the LBL Advanced Light Source feedback system. The buttons were modified to suppress the resonance and subsequently incorporated into the feedback system.

  10. Simulation of free-electron lasers seeded with broadband radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bajlekov, Svetoslav; Fawley, William; Schroeder, Carl; Bartolini, Riccardo; Hooker, Simon

    2011-03-10

    The longitudinal coherence of free-electron laser (FEL) radiation can be enhanced by seeding the FEL with high harmonics of an optical laser pulse. The radiation produced by high-harmonic generation (HHG), however, has a fast-varying temporal profile that can violate the slowly varying envelope approximation and limited frequency window that is employed in conventional free-electron laser simulation codes. Here we investigate the implications of violating this approximation on the accuracy of simulations. On the basis of both analytical considerations and 1D numerical studies, it is concluded that, for most realistic scenarios, conventional FEL codes are capable of accurately simulating the FEL process even when the seed radiation violates the slowly varying envelope approximation. We additionally discuss the significance of filtering the harmonic content of broadband HHG seeds.

  11. On-demand hypermedia/multimedia service over broadband networks

    SciTech Connect

    Bouras, C.; Kapoulas, V.; Spirakis, P.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we present a unified approach for delivering hypermedia/multimedia objects over broadband networks. Documents are stored in various multimedia servers, while the inline data may reside in their own media servers, attached to the multimedia servers. The described service consists of several multimedia servers and a set of functions that intend to present to the end user interactive information in real-time. Users interact with the service requesting multimedia documents on demand. Various media streams are transmitted over different parallel connections according lo their transmission requirements. The hypermedia documents are structured using a hypermedia markup language that keeps information of the spatiotemporal relationships among document`s media components. In order to deal with the variant network behavior, buffering manipulation mechanisms and grading of the transmitted media quality techniques are proposed to smooth presentation and synchronization anomalies.

  12. Summary Max Total Units

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Summary Max Total Units *If All Splits, No Rack Units **If Only FW, AC Splits 1000 52 28 28 2000 87 59 35 3000 61 33 15 4000 61 33 15 Totals 261 153 93 ***Costs $1,957,500.00 $1,147,500.00 $697,500.00 Notes: added several refrigerants removed bins from analysis removed R-22 from list 1000lb, no Glycol, CO2 or ammonia Seawater R-404A only * includes seawater units ** no seawater units included *** Costs = (total units) X (estimate of $7500 per unit) 1000lb, air cooled split systems, fresh water

  13. Evaluation of Clear Sky Models for Satellite-Based Irradiance Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, M.; Gotseff, P.

    2013-12-01

    This report describes an intercomparison of three popular broadband clear sky solar irradiance model results with measured data, as well as satellite-based model clear sky results compared to measured clear sky data. The authors conclude that one of the popular clear sky models (the Bird clear sky model developed by Richard Bird and Roland Hulstrom) could serve as a more accurate replacement for current satellite-model clear sky estimations. Additionally, the analysis of the model results with respect to model input parameters indicates that rather than climatological, annual, or monthly mean input data, higher-time-resolution input parameters improve the general clear sky model performance.

  14. PowerPoint Presentation

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    to find visible c ; lots of computation total broadband downwelling irradiance Simple empirical method (look right) Simple empirical method: From Barnard and Long...

  15. Combined Retrieval, Microphysical Retrievals and Heating Rates...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Shortwave broadband total upwelling irradiance; Liquid water content; Liquid water path; Radiative heating rate Dataset File size NAView Dataset View Dataset DOI: 10.5439116949

  16. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heat- ing Cool- ing Venti- lation Water Heat- ing Light- ing Cook- ing Refrig- eration Office Equip- ment Com- puters Other...

  17. ARM - Measurement - Total carbon

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Total carbon The total concentration of carbon in all its organic and non-organic forms. Categories Atmospheric Carbon, Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including

  18. ELECTRON IRRADIATION OF SOLIDS

    DOEpatents

    Damask, A.C.

    1959-11-01

    A method is presented for altering physical properties of certain solids, such as enhancing the usefulness of solids, in which atomic interchange occurs through a vacancy mechanism, electron irradiation, and temperature control. In a centain class of metals, alloys, and semiconductors, diffusion or displacement of atoms occurs through a vacancy mechanism, i.e., an atom can only move when there exists a vacant atomic or lattice site in an adjacent position. In the process of the invention highenergy electron irradiation produces additional vacancies in a solid over those normally occurring at a given temperature and allows diffusion of the component atoms of the solid to proceed at temperatures at which it would not occur under thermal means alone in any reasonable length of time. The invention offers a precise way to increase the number of vacancies and thereby, to a controlled degree, change the physical properties of some materials, such as resistivity or hardness.

  19. BIOLOGICAL IRRADIATION FACILITY

    DOEpatents

    McCorkle, W.H.; Cern, H.S.

    1962-04-24

    A facility for irradiating biological specimens with neutrons is described. It includes a reactor wherein the core is off center in a reflector. A high-exposure room is located outside the reactor on the side nearest the core while a low-exposure room is located on the opposite side. Means for converting thermal neutrons to fast neutrons are movably disposed between the reactor core and the high and low-exposure rooms. (AEC)

  20. Total DOE/NNSA

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    8 Actuals 2009 Actuals 2010 Actuals 2011 Actuals 2012 Actuals 2013 Actuals 2014 Actuals 2015 Actuals Total DOE/NNSA 4,385 4,151 4,240 4,862 5,154 5,476 7,170 7,593 Total non-NNSA 3,925 4,017 4,005 3,821 3,875 3,974 3,826 3765 Total Facility 8,310 8,168 8,245 8,683 9,029 9,450 10,996 11,358 non-NNSA includes DOE offices and Strategic Parternship Projects (SPP) employees NNSA M&O Employee Reporting

  1. Neutron irradiation induced amorphization of silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, L.L.; Hay, J.C.

    1998-09-01

    This paper provides the first known observation of silicon carbide fully amorphized under neutron irradiation. Both high purity single crystal hcp and high purity, highly faulted (cubic) chemically vapor deposited (CVD) SiC were irradiated at approximately 60 C to a total fast neutron fluence of 2.6 {times} 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2}. Amorphization was seen in both materials, as evidenced by TEM, electron diffraction, and x-ray diffraction techniques. Physical properties for the amorphized single crystal material are reported including large changes in density ({minus}10.8%), elastic modulus as measured using a nanoindentation technique ({minus}45%), hardness as measured by nanoindentation ({minus}45%), and standard Vickers hardness ({minus}24%). Similar property changes are observed for the critical temperature for amorphization at this neutron dose and flux, above which amorphization is not possible, is estimated to be greater than 130 C.

  2. Identification of periods of clear sky irradiance in time series of GHI measurements

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Reno, Matthew J.; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2016-01-18

    In this study, we present a simple algorithm for identifying periods of time with broadband global horizontal irradiance (GHI) similar to that occurring during clear sky conditions from a time series of GHI measurements. Other available methods to identify these periods do so by identifying periods with clear sky conditions using additional measurements, such as direct or diffuse irradiance. Our algorithm compares characteristics of the time series of measured GHI with the output of a clear sky model without requiring additional measurements. We validate our algorithm using data from several locations by comparing our results with those obtained from amore » clear sky detection algorithm, and with satellite and ground-based sky imagery.« less

  3. Development of a TIM-based, flexible, broadband two-crystal spectromet...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Development of a TIM-based, flexible, broadband two-crystal spectrometer Authors: Steel, A B ; Dunn, J ; Emig, J ; Beiersdorfer, P ; Brown, G V ; Shepherd, R ; Marley, E V ; ...

  4. Ultra-broadband and compact polarization splitter based on gold filled dual-core photonic crystal fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Khaleque, Abdul Hattori, Haroldo T.

    2015-10-14

    A polarization splitter based on gold filled dual-core photonic crystal fiber (DC-PCF) that can work from 1420 nm to 1980 nm (560 nm bandwidth) is proposed in this work. The splitter has an extinction ratio lower than −20 dB over a large bandwidth with a total length of 254.6 μm. The key principle of operation of the splitter is the induced change in the refractive index of the y-odd mode when it is coupled to the second order plasmonic mode, while other supermodes are weakly affected by the plasmonic mode. The proposed broadband and compact polarization splitter may find applications in communications and sensing, being capable of working in the infrared and mid-infrared wavelength ranges.

  5. Astigmatism-corrected Czerny-Turner imaging spectrometer for broadband spectral simultaneity

    SciTech Connect

    Xue Qingsheng

    2011-04-01

    A low-cost, broadband, astigmatism-corrected Czerny-Turner arrangement with a fixed plane grating is proposed. A wedge cylindrical lens is used to correct astigmatism over a broadband spectral range. The principle and method of astigmatism correction are described in detail. We compare the performance of this modified Czerny-Turner arrangement with that of the traditional Czerny-Turner arrangement by using a practical Czerny-Turner imaging spectrometer example.

  6. Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) - SGP 1bbhrpripbe1mcfarlane

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Dataset) | Data Explorer SGP 1bbhrpripbe1mcfarlane Title: Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) - SGP 1bbhrpripbe1mcfarlane The objective of the ARM Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) Project is to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Required inputs to BBHRP include surface albedo and profiles of atmospheric state (temperature, humidity), gas concentrations, aerosol properties, and cloud

  7. Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) - SGP 1bbhrpripbe1mcfarlane

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Dataset) | Data Explorer 1bbhrpripbe1mcfarlane Title: Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) - SGP 1bbhrpripbe1mcfarlane The objective of the ARM Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) Project is to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Required inputs to BBHRP include surface albedo and profiles of atmospheric state (temperature, humidity), gas concentrations, aerosol properties, and cloud

  8. 21 briefing pages total

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    briefing pages total p. 1 Reservist Differential Briefing U.S. Office of Personnel Management December 11, 2009 p. 2 Agenda - Introduction of Speakers - Background - References/Tools - Overview of Reservist Differential Authority - Qualifying Active Duty Service and Military Orders - Understanding Military Leave and Earnings Statements p. 3 Background 5 U.S.C. 5538 (Section 751 of the Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009, March 11, 2009) (Public Law 111-8) Law requires OPM to consult with DOD Law

  9. Craniospinal irradiation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Scarlatescu, Ioana Avram, Calin N.; Virag, Vasile

    2015-12-07

    In this paper we present one treatment plan for irradiation cases which involve a complex technique with multiple beams, using the 3D conformational technique. As the main purpose of radiotherapy is to administrate a precise dose into the tumor volume and protect as much as possible all the healthy tissues around it, for a case diagnosed with a primitive neuro ectoderm tumor, we have developed a new treatment plan, by controlling one of the two adjacent fields used at spinal field, in a way that avoids the fields superposition. Therefore, the risk of overdose is reduced by eliminating the field divergence.

  10. Irradiation effect on deuterium behaviour in low-dose HFIR neutron-irradiated tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, Masashi; Cao, G.; Otsuka, T.; Hara, M.; Kobayashi, M.; Oya, Y.; Hatano, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Tungsten samples were irradiated by neutrons in the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Oak Ridge National Laboratory at reactor coolant temperatures of 50-70C to low displacement damage of 0.025 and 0.3 dpa under the framework of the US-Japan TITAN program (2007-2013). After cooling down, the HFIR neutron-irradiated tungsten samples were exposed to deuterium plasmas in the Tritium Plasma Experiment, Idaho National Laboratory at 100, 200 and 500 C twice at the ion fluence of 510? m? to reach a total ion fluence of 110? m? in order to investigate the near surface deuterium retention and saturation via nuclear reaction analysis. Final thermal desorption spectroscopy was performed to elucidate irradiation effect on total deuterium retention. Nuclear reaction analysis results showed that the maximum near surface (<5 m depth) deuterium concentration increased from 0.5 at % D/W in 0.025 dpa samples to 0.8 at. % D/W in 0.3 dpa samples. The large discrepancy between the total retention via thermal desorption spectroscopy and the near surface retention via nuclear reaction analysis indicated the deuterium was migrated and trapped in bulk (at least 50 m depth for 0.025 dpa and 35 m depth for 0.025 dpa) at 500 C case even in the relatively low ion fluence of 10? m?.

  11. Broadband turbulent spectra in gamma-ray burst light curves

    SciTech Connect

    Van Putten, Maurice H. P. M.; Guidorzi, Cristiano; Frontera, Filippo

    2014-05-10

    Broadband power density spectra offer a window to understanding turbulent behavior in the emission mechanism and, at the highest frequencies, in the putative inner engines powering long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We describe a chirp search method alongside Fourier analysis for signal detection in the Poisson noise-dominated, 2 kHz sampled, BeppoSAX light curves. An efficient numerical implementation is described in O(Nnlog n) operations, where N is the number of chirp templates and n is the length of the light-curve time series, suited for embarrassingly parallel processing. For the detection of individual chirps over a 1 s duration, the method is one order of magnitude more sensitive in signal-to-noise ratio than Fourier analysis. The Fourier-chirp spectra of GRB 010408 and GRB 970816 show a continuation of the spectral slope with up to 1 kHz of turbulence identified in low-frequency Fourier analysis. The same continuation is observed in an average spectrum of 42 bright, long GRBs. An outlook on a similar analysis of upcoming gravitational wave data is included.

  12. Proton irradiation effects on the thermoelectric properties in single-crystalline Bi nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Taehoo; Kim, Jeongmin; Song, Min-Jung; Lee, Wooyoung

    2015-05-15

    The effects of proton irradiation on the thermoelectric properties of Bi nanowires (Bi-NWs) were investigated. Single crystalline Bi-NWs were grown by the on-film formation of nanowires method. The devices based on individual Bi-NWs were irradiated with protons at different energies. The total number of displaced atoms was estimated using the Kinchin-Pease displacement model. The electric conductivity and Seebeck coefficient in the Bi-NW devices were investigated before and after proton irradiation at different temperatures. Although the Seebeck coefficient remained stable at various irradiation energies, the electrical conductivity significantly declined with increasing proton energy up to 40 MeV.

  13. Soft X-ray irradiation of methanol ice: Formation of products as a function of photon energy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.-J.; Juang, K.-J.; Yih, T.-S.; Ciaravella, A.; Cecchi-Pestellini, C.; Muoz Caro, G. M.; Jimnez-Escobar, A.

    2013-12-01

    Pure methanol ices have been irradiated with monochromatic soft X-rays of 300 and 550 eV close to the 1s resonance edges of C and O, respectively, and with a broadband spectrum (250-1200 eV). The infrared (IR) spectra of the irradiated ices show several new products of astrophysical interest such as CH{sub 2}OH, H{sub 2}CO, CH{sub 4}, HCOOH, HCOCH{sub 2}OH, CH{sub 3}COOH, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}, HCOOCH{sub 3}, and (CH{sub 2}OH){sub 2}, as well as HCO, CO, and CO{sub 2}. The effect of X-rays is the result of the combined interactions of photons and electrons with the ice. A significant contribution to the formation and growth of new species in the CH{sub 3}OH ice irradiated with X-rays is given by secondary electrons, whose energy distribution depends on the energy of X-ray photons. Within a single experiment, the abundances of the new products increase with the absorbed energy. Monochromatic experiments show that product abundances also increase with the photon energy. However, the abundances per unit energy of newly formed species show a marked decrease in the broadband experiment as compared to irradiations with monochromatic photons, suggesting a possible regulatory role of the energy deposition rate. The number of new molecules produced per absorbed eV in the X-ray experiments has been compared to those obtained with electron and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation experiments.

  14. Irradiation Programs and Test Plans to Assess High-Fluence Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility.

    SciTech Connect

    Teysseyre, Sebastien

    2015-03-01

    . Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is a known issue in current reactors. In a 60 year lifetime, reactor core internals may experience fluence levels up to 15 dpa for boiling water reactors (BWR) and 100+ dpa for pressurized water reactors (PWR). To support a safe operation of our fleet of reactors and maintain their economic viability it is important to be able to predict any evolution of material behaviors as reactors age and therefore fluence accumulated by reactor core component increases. For PWR reactors, the difficulty to predict high fluence behavior comes from the fact that there is not a consensus of the mechanism of IASCC and that little data is available. It is however possible to use the current state of knowledge on the evolution of irradiated microstructure and on the processes that influences IASCC to emit hypotheses. This report identifies several potential changes in microstructure and proposes to identify their potential impact of IASCC. The susceptibility of a component to high fluence IASCC is considered to not only depends on the intrinsic IASCC susceptibility of the component due to radiation effects on the material but to also be related to the evolution of the loading history of the material and interaction with the environment as total fluence increases. Single variation type experiments are proposed to be performed with materials that are representative of PWR condition and with materials irradiated in other conditions. To address the lack of IASCC propagation and initiation data generated with material irradiated in PWR condition, it is proposed to investigate the effect of spectrum and flux rate on the evolution of microstructure. A long term irradiation, aimed to generate a well-controlled irradiation history on a set on selected materials is also proposed for consideration. For BWR, the study of available data permitted to identify an area of concern for long term performance of component. The efficiency of

  15. Calibration of erythemally weighted broadband instruments: A comparison between PMOD/WRC and MSL

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, Neil; Nield, Kathryn; Hamlin, John; Huelsen, Gregor; Groebner, Julian

    2013-05-10

    A Yankee Environmental Systems (YES) UVB-1 ultraviolet pyranometer, designed to measure erythemally weighted total solar irradiance, was calibrated by the Measurement Standards Laboratory (MSL) in Lower Hutt, New Zealand during August 2010. The calibration was then repeated during July and August 2011 by the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Obervatorium Davos, World Radiation Center (PMOD/WRC) located in Davos, Switzerland. Calibration results show that measurements of the relative spectral and angular response functions at the two institutes are in excellent agreement, thus providing a good degree of confidence in these measurement facilities. However, measurements to convert the relative spectral response into an absolute calibration disagree significantly depending on whether an FEL lamp or solar spectra are used to perform this scaling. This is the first serious comparison of these scaling methods to formally explore the potential systematic errors which could explain the discrepancy.

  16. Method and means of transmitting and receiving broad-band unipolar, ultrasonic pulses for ultrasonic inspection

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Donald O.; Hsu, David K.

    1993-12-14

    The invention includes a means and method for transmitting and receiving broadband, unipolar, ultrasonic pulses for ultrasonic inspection. The method comprises generating a generally unipolar ultrasonic stress pulse from a low impedance voltage pulse transmitter along a low impedance electrical pathway to an ultrasonic transducer, and receiving the reflected echo of the pulse by the transducer, converting it to a voltage signal, and passing it through a high impedance electrical pathway to an output. The means utilizes electrical components according to the method. The means and method allow a single transducer to be used in a pulse/echo mode, and facilitates alternatingly transmitting and receiving the broadband, unipolar, ultrasonic pulses.

  17. Method and means of transmitting and receiving broad-band unipolar, ultrasonic pulses for ultrasonic inspection

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, D.O.; Hsu, D.K.

    1993-12-14

    The invention includes a means and method for transmitting and receiving broadband, unipolar, ultrasonic pulses for ultrasonic inspection. The method comprises generating a generally unipolar ultrasonic stress pulse from a low impedance voltage pulse transmitter along a low impedance electrical pathway to an ultrasonic transducer, and receiving the reflected echo of the pulse by the transducer, converting it to a voltage signal, and passing it through a high impedance electrical pathway to an output. The means utilizes electrical components according to the method. The means and method allow a single transducer to be used in a pulse/echo mode, and facilitates alternatingly transmitting and receiving the broadband, unipolar, ultrasonic pulses. 25 figures.

  18. Determination of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) Using Total Carbon Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    2002-05-10

    Several methods have been proposed to replace the Freon(TM)-extraction method to determine total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content. For reasons of cost, sensitivity, precision, or simplicity, none of the replacement methods are feasible for analysis of radioactive samples at our facility. We have developed a method to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon content in aqueous sample matrixes using total organic carbon (total carbon) determination. The total carbon content (TC1) of the sample is measured using a total organic carbon analyzer. The sample is then contacted with a small volume of non-pokar solvent to extract the total petroleum hydrocarbons. The total carbon content of the resultant aqueous phase of the extracted sample (TC2) is measured. Total petroleum hydrocarbon content is calculated (TPH = TC1-TC2). The resultant data are consistent with results obtained using Freon(TM) extraction followed by infrared absorbance.

  19. Slag recycling of irradiated vanadium

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, P.K.

    1995-04-05

    An experimental inductoslag apparatus to recycle irradiated vanadium was fabricated and tested. An experimental electroslag apparatus was also used to test possible slags. The testing was carried out with slag materials that were fabricated along with impurity bearing vanadium samples. Results obtained include computer simulated thermochemical calculations and experimentally determined removal efficiencies of the transmutation impurities. Analyses of the samples before and after testing were carried out to determine if the slag did indeed remove the transmutation impurities from the irradiated vanadium.

  20. U.S. Total Exports

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Total To Barbados Total To Brazil Freeport, TX Sabine Pass, LA Total to Canada Eastport, ID Calais, ME Detroit, MI Marysville, MI Port Huron, MI Crosby, ND Portal, ND Sault St. Marie, MI St. Clair, MI Noyes, MN Warroad, MN Babb, MT Havre, MT Port of Morgan, MT Sherwood, ND Pittsburg, NH Buffalo, NY Grand Island, NY Massena, NY Niagara Falls, NY Waddington, NY Sumas, WA Sweetgrass, MT Total to Chile Sabine Pass, LA Total to China Kenai, AK Sabine Pass, LA Total to Egypt Freeport, TX Total to

  1. U.S. Total Exports

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Sabine Pass, LA Total To Barbados Miami, FL Total To Brazil Freeport, TX Sabine Pass, LA Total to Canada Eastport, ID Calais, ME Detroit, MI Marysville, MI Port Huron, MI Portal, ND Sault St. Marie, MI St. Clair, MI Noyes, MN Babb, MT Havre, MT Port of Morgan, MT Sherwood, ND Pittsburg, NH Grand Island, NY Massena, NY Niagara Falls, NY Waddington, NY Sumas, WA Sweetgrass, MT Total to Chile Sabine Pass, LA Total to China Kenai, AK Sabine Pass, LA Total to Dominican Republic Sabine Pass, LA Total

  2. The Broad-band X-ray Spectrum of IC 4329A from a Joint NuSTAR...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Broad-band X-ray Spectrum of IC 4329A from a Joint NuSTARSuzaku Observation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Broad-band X-ray Spectrum of IC 4329A from a Joint ...

  3. Neutron and gamma irradiation damage to organic materials.

    SciTech Connect

    White, Gregory Von, II; Bernstein, Robert

    2012-04-01

    This document discusses open literature reports which investigate the damage effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on polymers and/or epoxies - damage refers to reduced physical chemical, and electrical properties. Based on the literature, correlations are made for an SNL developed epoxy (Epon 828-1031/DDS) with an expected total fast-neutron fluence of {approx}10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} and a {gamma} dosage of {approx}500 Gy received over {approx}30 years at < 200 C. In short, there are no gamma and neutron irradiation concerns for Epon 828-1031/DDS. To enhance the fidelity of our hypotheses, in regards to radiation damage, we propose future work consisting of simultaneous thermal/irradiation (neutron and gamma) experiments that will help elucidate any damage concerns at these specified environmental conditions.

  4. Irradiation effect on deuterium behaviour in low-dose HFIR neutron-irradiated tungsten

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Shimada, Masashi; Cao, G.; Otsuka, T.; Hara, M.; Kobayashi, M.; Oya, Y.; Hatano, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Tungsten samples were irradiated by neutrons in the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Oak Ridge National Laboratory at reactor coolant temperatures of 50-70°C to low displacement damage of 0.025 and 0.3 dpa under the framework of the US-Japan TITAN program (2007-2013). After cooling down, the HFIR neutron-irradiated tungsten samples were exposed to deuterium plasmas in the Tritium Plasma Experiment, Idaho National Laboratory at 100, 200 and 500 °C twice at the ion fluence of 5×10²⁵ m⁻² to reach a total ion fluence of 1×10²⁶ m⁻² in order to investigate the near surface deuterium retention and saturation via nuclear reaction analysis. Finalmore » thermal desorption spectroscopy was performed to elucidate irradiation effect on total deuterium retention. Nuclear reaction analysis results showed that the maximum near surface (<5 µm depth) deuterium concentration increased from 0.5 at % D/W in 0.025 dpa samples to 0.8 at. % D/W in 0.3 dpa samples. The large discrepancy between the total retention via thermal desorption spectroscopy and the near surface retention via nuclear reaction analysis indicated the deuterium was migrated and trapped in bulk (at least 50 µm depth for 0.025 dpa and 35 µm depth for 0.025 dpa) at 500 °C case even in the relatively low ion fluence of 10²⁶ m⁻².« less

  5. EFFECTS OF GAMMA IRRADIATION ON EPDM ELASTOMERS (REVISION 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.

    2013-09-13

    Two formulations of EPDM elastomer, one substituting a UV stabilizer for the normal antioxidant in this polymer, and the other the normal formulation, were synthesized and samples of each were exposed to gamma irradiation in initially pure deuterium gas to compare their radiation stability. Stainless steel containers having rupture disks were designed for this task. After 130 MRad dose of cobalt-60 radiation in the SRNL Gamma Irradiation Facility, a significant amount of gas was created by radiolysis; however the composition indicated by mass spectroscopy indicated an unexpected increase in the total amount deuterium in both formulations. The irradiated samples retained their ductility in a bend test. No change of sample weight, dimensions, or density was observed. No change of the glass transition temperature as measured by dynamic mechanical analysis was observed, and most of the other dynamic mechanical properties remained unchanged. There appeared to be an increase in the storage modulus of the irradiated samples containing the UV stabilizer above the glass transition, which may indicate hardening of the material by radiation damage. Revision 1 adds a comparison with results of a study of tritium exposed EPDM. The amount of gas produced by the gamma irradiation was found to be equivalent to about 280 days exposure to initially pure tritium gas at one atmosphere. The glass transition temperature of the tritium exposed EPDM rose about 10 ?C. over 280 days, while no glass transition temperature change was observed for gamma irradiated EPDM. This means that gamma irradiation in deuterium cannot be used as a surrogate for tritium exposure.

  6. Irradiation hardening of pure tungsten exposed to neutron irradiation

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Hu, Xunxiang; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Fukuda, Makoto; Kumar, N. A. P. Kiran; Snead, Lance L.; Wirth, Brian D.; Katoh, Yutai

    2016-08-26

    In this paper, pure tungsten samples have been neutron irradiated in HFIR at 90–850 °C to 0.03–2.2 dpa. A dispersed barrier hardening model informed by the available microstructure data has been used to predict the hardness. Comparison of the model predictions and the measured Vickers hardness reveals the dominant hardening contribution at various irradiation conditions. For tungsten samples irradiated in HFIR, the results indicate that voids and dislocation loops contributed to the hardness increase in the low dose region (<0.3 dpa), while the formation of intermetallic second phase precipitation, resulting from transmutation, dominates the radiation-induced strengthening beginning with a relativelymore » modest dose (>0.6 dpa). Finally, the precipitate contribution is most pronounced for the HFIR irradiations, whereas the radiation-induced defect cluster microstructure can rationalize the entirety of the hardness increase observed in tungsten irradiated in the fast neutron spectrum of Joyo and the mixed neutron spectrum of JMTR.« less

  7. Preparation of metallic nanoparticles by irradiation in starch aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Nemţanu, Monica R. Braşoveanu, Mirela Iacob, Nicuşor

    2014-11-24

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in a single step by electron beam irradiation reduction of silver ions in aqueous solution containing starch. The nanoparticles were characterized by spectrophotocolorimetry and compared with those obtained by chemical (thermal) reduction method. The results showed that the smaller sizes of AgNPs were prepared with higher yields as the irradiation dose increased. The broadening of particle size distribution occurred by increasing of irradiation dose and dose rate. Chromatic parameters such as b* (yellow-blue coordinate), C* (chroma) and ΔE{sub ab} (total color difference) could characterize the nanoparticles with respect of their concentration. Hue angle h{sup o} was correlated to the particle size distribution. Experimental data of the irradiated samples were also subjected to factor analysis using principal component extraction and varimax rotation in order to reveal the relation between dependent variables and independent variables and to reduce their number. The radiation-based method provided silver nanoparticles with higher concentration and narrower size distribution than those produced by chemical reduction method. Therefore, the electron beam irradiation is effective for preparation of silver nanoparticles using starch aqueous solution as dispersion medium.

  8. Broadband Processing in a Noisy Shallow Ocean Environment: A Particle Filtering Approach

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Candy, J. V.

    2016-04-14

    Here we report that when a broadband source propagates sound in a shallow ocean the received data can become quite complicated due to temperature-related sound-speed variations and therefore a highly dispersive environment. Noise and uncertainties disrupt this already chaotic environment even further because disturbances propagate through the same inherent acoustic channel. The broadband (signal) estimation/detection problem can be decomposed into a set of narrowband solutions that are processed separately and then combined to achieve more enhancement of signal levels than that available from a single frequency, thereby allowing more information to be extracted leading to a more reliable source detection.more » A Bayesian solution to the broadband modal function tracking, pressure-field enhancement, and source detection problem is developed that leads to nonparametric estimates of desired posterior distributions enabling the estimation of useful statistics and an improved processor/detector. In conclusion, to investigate the processor capabilities, we synthesize an ensemble of noisy, broadband, shallow-ocean measurements to evaluate its overall performance using an information theoretical metric for the preprocessor and the receiver operating characteristic curve for the detector.« less

  9. Total Eolica | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Eolica Jump to: navigation, search Name: Total Eolica Place: Spain Product: Project developer References: Total Eolica1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding...

  10. Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    1,001 to 5,000 2,777 8,041 10,232 2.9 786 56 5,001 to 10,000 1,229 8,900 9,225 7.2 965 62 10,001 to 25,000 884 14,105 14,189 16.0 994 65 25,001 to 50,000 332 11,917 11,327 35.9 1,052 72 50,001 to 100,000 199 13,918 12,345 69.9 1,127 80 100,001 to 200,000 90 12,415 11,310 137.9 1,098 89 200,001 to 500,000 38 10,724 10,356 284.2 1,035 99 Over 500,000 8 7,074 9,196 885.0 769 117 Principal building activity Education 389 12,239 10,885 31.5 1,124 53 Food sales 177 1,252 1,172 7.1 1,067 121 Food

  11. Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    1,001 to 5,000 2,777 8,041 10,232 2.9 786 56 5,001 to 10,000 1,229 8,900 9,225 7.2 965 62 10,001 to 25,000 884 14,105 14,189 16.0 994 65 25,001 to 50,000 332 11,917 11,327 35.9 1,052 72 50,001 to 100,000 199 13,918 12,345 69.9 1,127 80 100,001 to 200,000 90 12,415 11,310 137.9 1,098 89 200,001 to 500,000 38 10,724 10,356 284.2 1,035 99 Over 500,000 8 7,074 9,196 885.0 769 117 Principal building activity Education 389 12,239 10,885 31.5 1,124 53 Food sales 177 1,252 1,172 7.1 1,067 121 Food

  12. Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Median square feet per building (thousand) Median square feet per worker Median operating hours per week Median age of buildings (years) All buildings 5,557 87,093 88,182 5.0 1,029 50 32 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000 2,777 8,041 10,232 2.8 821 49 37 5,001 to 10,000 1,229 8,900 9,225 7.0 1,167 50 31 10,001 to 25,000 884 14,105 14,189 15.0 1,444 56 32 25,001 to 50,000 332 11,917 11,327 35.0 1,461 60 29 50,001 to 100,000 199 13,918 12,345 67.0 1,442 60 26 100,001 to 200,000 90

  13. Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Fuel Oil, Greater than 500 ppm Sulfur Residual Fuel Oil Lubricants Asphalt and Road Oil Other Products Period: Annual (as of January 1) Download Series History Download ...

  14. Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    of photovoltaic module shipments, 2015 (peak kilowatts) Source Disposition Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic CellModule ...

  15. Total..........................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... Housing Units (millions) UrbanRural Location (as Self-Reported) Living Space ... Housing Units (millions) UrbanRural Location (as Self-Reported) Living Space ...

  16. Total..........................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... Housing Units (millions) UrbanRural Location (as Self-Reported) City Town Suburbs Rural ... Housing Units (millions) UrbanRural Location (as Self-Reported) City Town Suburbs Rural ...

  17. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Living Space Characteristics Detached Attached Energy Information Administration 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Table HC3.2 ...

  18. Total..........................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... 111.1 20.6 15.1 5.5 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment...... 17.8 4.0 2.4 1.7 Have Cooling Equipment...... 93.3 ...

  19. Total..........................................................

    Annual Energy Outlook

    ... Average Square Feet per Apartment in a -- Apartments (millions) Major Outside Wall Construction Siding (Aluminum, Vinyl, Steel)...... 35.3 3.5 1,286 1,090 325 852 786 461 ...

  20. Total

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    ... District heat 48 5,964 8,230 124.9 725 87 District chilled water 54 4,608 5,742 85.4 803 ... Natural gas 12 732 1,048 61.5 699 67 District chilled water 54 4,608 5,742 85.4 803 87 ...

  1. Total..............................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    111.1 86.6 2,720 1,970 1,310 1,941 1,475 821 1,059 944 554 Census Region and Division Northeast.................................... 20.6 13.9 3,224 2,173 836 2,219 1,619 583 903 830 Q New England.......................... 5.5 3.6 3,365 2,154 313 2,634 1,826 Q 951 940 Q Middle Atlantic........................ 15.1 10.3 3,167 2,181 1,049 2,188 1,603 582 Q Q Q Midwest...................................... 25.6 21.0 2,823 2,239 1,624 2,356 1,669 1,336 1,081 961 778 East North

  2. Total...........................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Q Million U.S. Housing Units Renter- Occupied Housing Units (millions) Type of Renter-Occupied Housing Unit U.S. Housing Units (millions Single-Family Units Apartments in Buildings With-- Living Space Characteristics Detached Attached Table HC4.2 Living Space Characteristics by Renter-Occupied Housing Units, 2005 2 to 4 Units 5 or More Units Mobile Homes Energy Information Administration 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Preliminary Housing Characteristics Tables Million U.S. Housing

  3. Total............................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

  4. Total.............................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer........... 35.5 17.1 10.8 4.2 1.8 1.6 10.3 20.6 Use a Personal Computer....................... 75.6 9.6 18.0 16.4 11.3 20.3 6.4 17.9 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model.................................. 58.6 7.6 14.2 13.1 9.2 14.6 5.0 14.5 Laptop Model...................................... 16.9 2.0 3.8 3.3 2.1 5.7 1.3 3.5 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2 Hours..............................

  5. Total..............................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ,171 1,618 1,031 845 630 401 Census Region and Division Northeast................................................... 20.6 2,334 1,664 562 911 649 220 New England.......................................... 5.5 2,472 1,680 265 1,057 719 113 Middle Atlantic........................................ 15.1 2,284 1,658 670 864 627 254 Midwest...................................................... 25.6 2,421 1,927 1,360 981 781 551 East North Central.................................. 17.7 2,483 1,926 1,269

  6. Total..............................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................ 17.8 5.3 4.7 2.8 1.9 3.1 3.6 7.5 Have Cooling Equipment............................. 93.3 21.5 24.1 17.8 11.2 18.8 13.0 31.1 Use Cooling Equipment.............................. 91.4 21.0 23.5 17.4 11.0 18.6 12.6 30.3 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............. 1.9 0.5 0.6 0.4 Q Q 0.5 0.8 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System.......................................... 65.9 11.0 16.5 13.5 8.7 16.1 6.4 17.2 Without a Heat

  7. Total...............................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    20.6 25.6 40.7 24.2 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ........... 35.5 6.9 8.1 14.2 6.4 Use a Personal Computer......................... 75.6 13.7 17.5 26.6 17.8 Number of Desktop PCs 1.......................................................... 50.3 9.3 11.9 18.2 11.0 2.......................................................... 16.2 2.9 3.5 5.5 4.4 3 or More............................................. 9.0 1.5 2.1 2.9 2.5 Number of Laptop PCs

  8. Total...............................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ........... 35.5 14.2 7.2 2.8 4.2 Use a Personal Computer......................... 75.6 26.6 14.5 4.1 7.9 Number of Desktop PCs 1.......................................................... 50.3 18.2 10.0 2.9 5.3 2.......................................................... 16.2 5.5 3.0 0.7 1.8 3 or More............................................. 9.0 2.9 1.5 0.5 0.8 Number of Laptop PCs

  9. Total...............................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ........... 35.5 17.1 10.8 4.2 1.8 1.6 10.3 20.6 Use a Personal Computer......................... 75.6 9.6 18.0 16.4 11.3 20.3 6.4 17.9 Number of Desktop PCs 1.......................................................... 50.3 8.3 14.2 11.4 7.2 9.2 5.3 14.2 2.......................................................... 16.2 0.9 2.6 3.7 2.9 6.2 0.8 2.6 3 or More............................................. 9.0 0.4 1.2

  10. Total...............................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................. 17.8 5.3 4.7 2.8 1.9 3.1 3.6 7.5 Have Cooling Equipment.............................. 93.3 21.5 24.1 17.8 11.2 18.8 13.0 31.1 Use Cooling Equipment............................... 91.4 21.0 23.5 17.4 11.0 18.6 12.6 30.3 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............. 1.9 0.5 0.6 0.4 Q Q 0.5 0.8 Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System............................................ 65.9 11.0 16.5 13.5 8.7 16.1 6.4 17.2 Without a Heat

  11. Total...............................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    47.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ........... 35.5 16.9 6.5 4.6 7.6 Use a Personal Computer......................... 75.6 30.3 12.5 18.1 14.7 Number of Desktop PCs 1.......................................................... 50.3 21.1 8.3 10.7 10.1 2.......................................................... 16.2 6.2 2.8 4.1 3.0 3 or More............................................. 9.0 2.9 1.4 3.2 1.6 Number of Laptop PCs

  12. Total................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    111.1 26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment....... 1.2 0.5 0.3 0.2 Q 0.2 0.3 0.6 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.......... 109.8 26.2 28.5 20.4 13.0 21.8 16.3 37.9 Use Main Space Heating Equipment............ 109.1 25.9 28.1 20.3 12.9 21.8 16.0 37.3 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It.............. 0.8 0.3 0.3 Q Q N 0.4 0.6 Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.................................................. 58.2 12.2 14.4 11.3 7.1 13.2 7.6 18.3 Central

  13. Total.................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    49.2 15.1 15.6 11.1 7.0 5.2 8.0 Have Cooling Equipment............................... 93.3 31.3 15.1 15.6 11.1 7.0 5.2 8.0 Use Cooling Equipment................................ 91.4 30.4 14.6 15.4 11.1 6.9 5.2 7.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............... 1.9 1.0 0.5 Q Q Q Q Q Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................... 17.8 17.8 N N N N N N Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System............................................. 65.9 3.9 15.1 15.6 11.1 7.0 5.2 8.0 Without a Heat

  14. Total.................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5 18.9 18.6 17.3 9.2 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment........ 1.2 N Q Q 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.2 Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment........... 109.8 14.7 7.4 12.4 12.2 18.5 18.3 17.1 9.2 Use Main Space Heating Equipment............. 109.1 14.6 7.3 12.4 12.2 18.2 18.2 17.1 9.1 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It............... 0.8 Q Q Q Q 0.3 Q N Q Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas................................................... 58.2 9.2 4.9 7.8 7.1 8.8 8.4 7.8 4.2 Central

  15. Total.................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    26.7 28.8 20.6 13.1 22.0 16.6 38.6 Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day.............................. 8.2 2.9 2.5 1.3 0.5 1.0 2.4 4.6 2 Times A Day........................................... 24.6 6.5 7.0 4.3 3.2 3.6 4.8 10.3 Once a Day................................................ 42.3 8.8 9.8 8.7 5.1 10.0 5.0 12.9 A Few Times Each Week........................... 27.2 5.6 7.2 4.7 3.3 6.3 3.2 7.5 About Once a Week................................... 3.9 1.1 1.1

  16. Total..................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    78.1 64.1 4.2 1.8 2.3 5.7 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment..................... 17.8 11.3 9.3 0.6 Q 0.4 0.9 Have Cooling Equipment................................. 93.3 66.8 54.7 3.6 1.7 1.9 4.8 Use Cooling Equipment.................................. 91.4 65.8 54.0 3.6 1.7 1.9 4.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it................. 1.9 1.1 0.8 Q N Q Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System.............................................. 65.9 51.7 43.9 2.5 0.7 1.6 3.1 Without a Heat

  17. Total..................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    33.0 8.0 3.4 5.9 14.4 1.2 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment..................... 17.8 6.5 1.6 0.9 1.3 2.4 0.2 Have Cooling Equipment................................. 93.3 26.5 6.5 2.5 4.6 12.0 1.0 Use Cooling Equipment.................................. 91.4 25.7 6.3 2.5 4.4 11.7 0.8 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it................. 1.9 0.8 Q Q 0.2 0.3 Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System.............................................. 65.9 14.1 3.6 1.5 2.1 6.4 0.6 Without a Heat

  18. Total..................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    . 111.1 14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5 18.9 18.6 17.3 9.2 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment..................... 17.8 3.9 1.8 2.2 2.1 3.1 2.6 1.7 0.4 Have Cooling Equipment................................. 93.3 10.8 5.6 10.3 10.4 15.8 16.0 15.6 8.8 Use Cooling Equipment.................................. 91.4 10.6 5.5 10.3 10.3 15.3 15.7 15.3 8.6 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it................. 1.9 Q Q Q Q 0.6 0.4 0.3 Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central

  19. Total...................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    15.2 7.8 1.0 1.2 3.3 1.9 For Two Housing Units............................. 0.9 Q N Q 0.6 N Heat Pump.................................................. 9.2 7.4 0.3 Q 0.7 0.5 Portable Electric Heater............................... 1.6 0.8 Q Q Q 0.3 Other Equipment......................................... 1.9 0.7 Q Q 0.7 Q Fuel Oil........................................................... 7.7 5.5 0.4 0.8 0.9 0.2 Steam or Hot Water System........................ 4.7 2.9 Q 0.7 0.8 N For One Housing

  20. Total...................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System............................................... 65.9 47.5 4.0 2.8 7.9 3.7 Without a Heat Pump.................................. 53.5 37.8 3.4 2.2 7.0 3.1 With a Heat Pump....................................... 12.3 9.7 0.6 0.5 1.0 0.6 Window/Wall Units.......................................... 28.9 14.9 2.3 3.5 6.0 2.1 1 Unit........................................................... 14.5 6.6 1.0 1.6 4.2 1.2 2

  1. Total...................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System.............................................. 65.9 47.5 4.0 2.8 7.9 3.7 Without a Heat Pump.................................. 53.5 37.8 3.4 2.2 7.0 3.1 With a Heat Pump....................................... 12.3 9.7 0.6 0.5 1.0 0.6 Window/Wall Units........................................ 28.9 14.9 2.3 3.5 6.0 2.1 1 Unit........................................................... 14.5 6.6 1.0 1.6 4.2 1.2 2

  2. Total....................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    14.7 7.4 12.5 12.5 18.9 18.6 17.3 9.2 Household Size 1 Person.......................................................... 30.0 4.6 2.5 3.7 3.2 5.4 5.5 3.7 1.6 2 Persons......................................................... 34.8 4.3 1.9 4.4 4.1 5.9 5.3 5.5 3.4 3 Persons......................................................... 18.4 2.5 1.3 1.7 1.9 2.9 3.5 2.8 1.6 4 Persons......................................................... 15.9 1.9 0.8 1.5 1.6 3.0 2.5 3.1 1.4 5

  3. Total.......................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0.6 15.1 5.5 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ................... 35.5 6.9 5.3 1.6 Use a Personal Computer................................ 75.6 13.7 9.8 3.9 Number of Desktop PCs 1.................................................................. 50.3 9.3 6.8 2.5 2.................................................................. 16.2 2.9 1.9 1.0 3 or More..................................................... 9.0 1.5 1.1 0.4 Number of Laptop PCs

  4. Total.......................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ................... 35.5 8.1 5.6 2.5 Use a Personal Computer................................ 75.6 17.5 12.1 5.4 Number of Desktop PCs 1.................................................................. 50.3 11.9 8.4 3.4 2.................................................................. 16.2 3.5 2.2 1.3 3 or More..................................................... 9.0 2.1 1.5 0.6 Number of Laptop PCs

  5. Total.......................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4.2 7.6 16.6 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer ................... 35.5 6.4 2.2 4.2 Use a Personal Computer................................ 75.6 17.8 5.3 12.5 Number of Desktop PCs 1.................................................................. 50.3 11.0 3.4 7.6 2.................................................................. 16.2 4.4 1.3 3.1 3 or More..................................................... 9.0 2.5 0.7 1.8 Number of Laptop PCs

  6. Total........................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    25.6 40.7 24.2 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q Q 0.7 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 20.5 25.6 40.3 23.4 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 20.5 25.6 40.1 22.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N N Q 0.6 Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 11.4 18.4 13.6 14.7 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 6.1

  7. Total........................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q N Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 25.6 17.7 7.9 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 25.6 17.7 7.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N N N Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 18.4 13.1 5.3 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 16.2 11.6 4.7 For One Housing

  8. Total........................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q N Q Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 40.3 21.4 6.9 12.0 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 40.1 21.2 6.9 12.0 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 Q Q N N Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 13.6 5.6 2.3 5.7 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 11.0 4.4

  9. Total........................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment............... 1.2 Q Q Q 0.2 Have Main Space Heating Equipment.................. 109.8 7.1 6.8 7.9 11.9 Use Main Space Heating Equipment.................... 109.1 7.1 6.6 7.9 11.4 Have Equipment But Do Not Use It...................... 0.8 N Q N 0.5 Main Heating Fuel and Equipment Natural Gas.......................................................... 58.2 3.8 0.4 3.8 8.4 Central Warm-Air Furnace................................ 44.7 1.8 Q 3.1 6.0

  10. Total...........................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0.6 15.1 5.5 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................. 17.8 4.0 2.4 1.7 Have Cooling Equipment.......................................... 93.3 16.5 12.8 3.8 Use Cooling Equipment........................................... 91.4 16.3 12.6 3.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it.......................... 1.9 0.3 Q Q Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 6.0 5.2 0.8 Without a Heat

  11. Total...........................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................. 17.8 2.1 1.8 0.3 Have Cooling Equipment.......................................... 93.3 23.5 16.0 7.5 Use Cooling Equipment........................................... 91.4 23.4 15.9 7.5 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it.......................... 1.9 Q Q Q Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 17.3 11.3 6.0 Without a Heat

  12. Total...........................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4.2 7.6 16.6 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................. 17.8 10.3 3.1 7.3 Have Cooling Equipment.......................................... 93.3 13.9 4.5 9.4 Use Cooling Equipment........................................... 91.4 12.9 4.3 8.5 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it.......................... 1.9 1.0 Q 0.8 Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 10.5 3.9 6.5 Without a Heat

  13. Total.............................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 4.0 2.1 1.4 10.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 16.5 23.5 39.3 13.9 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 16.3 23.4 38.9 12.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 0.3 Q 0.5 1.0 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 6.0 17.3 32.1 10.5 Without a Heat

  14. Total.............................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day......................................... 8.2 1.2 1.0 0.2 2 Times A Day...................................................... 24.6 4.0 2.7 1.2 Once a Day........................................................... 42.3 7.9 5.4 2.5 A Few Times Each Week...................................... 27.2 6.0 4.8 1.2 About Once a Week.............................................. 3.9 0.6 0.5 Q Less Than Once a

  15. Total.............................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day......................................... 8.2 1.4 1.0 0.4 2 Times A Day...................................................... 24.6 5.8 3.5 2.3 Once a Day........................................................... 42.3 10.7 7.8 2.9 A Few Times Each Week...................................... 27.2 5.6 4.0 1.6 About Once a Week.............................................. 3.9 0.9 0.6 0.3 Less Than Once a

  16. Total.............................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 2.1 1.8 0.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 23.5 16.0 7.5 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 23.4 15.9 7.5 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 Q Q Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 17.3 11.3 6.0 Without a Heat

  17. Total.............................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 1.4 0.8 0.2 0.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 39.3 20.9 6.7 11.8 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 38.9 20.7 6.6 11.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 0.5 Q Q Q Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 32.1 17.6 5.2 9.3 Without a Heat

  18. Total.............................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day......................................... 8.2 2.6 0.7 1.9 2 Times A Day...................................................... 24.6 6.6 2.0 4.6 Once a Day........................................................... 42.3 8.8 2.9 5.8 A Few Times Each Week...................................... 27.2 4.7 1.5 3.1 About Once a Week.............................................. 3.9 0.7 Q 0.6 Less Than Once a

  19. Total.............................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 10.3 3.1 7.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 13.9 4.5 9.4 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 12.9 4.3 8.5 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 1.0 Q 0.8 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 10.5 3.9 6.5 Without a Heat

  20. Total.............................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Do Not Have Cooling Equipment............................... 17.8 8.5 2.7 2.6 4.0 Have Cooling Equipment............................................ 93.3 38.6 16.2 20.1 18.4 Use Cooling Equipment............................................. 91.4 37.8 15.9 19.8 18.0 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................ 1.9 0.9 0.3 0.3 0.4 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................ 65.9 25.8 10.9 16.6 12.5 Without a Heat

  1. Total..............................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    20.6 25.6 40.7 24.2 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................................ 17.8 4.0 2.1 1.4 10.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................. 93.3 16.5 23.5 39.3 13.9 Use Cooling Equipment.............................................. 91.4 16.3 23.4 38.9 12.9 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................. 1.9 0.3 Q 0.5 1.0 Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................... 65.9 6.0 17.3 32.1 10.5

  2. Total..............................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................................ 17.8 1.4 0.8 0.2 0.3 Have Cooling Equipment............................................. 93.3 39.3 20.9 6.7 11.8 Use Cooling Equipment.............................................. 91.4 38.9 20.7 6.6 11.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................. 1.9 0.5 Q Q Q Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................... 65.9 32.1 17.6 5.2 9.3 Without a

  3. Total..............................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    111.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer .......................... 35.5 3.0 2.0 2.7 3.1 Use a Personal Computer....................................... 75.6 4.2 5.0 5.3 9.0 Number of Desktop PCs 1......................................................................... 50.3 3.1 3.4 3.4 5.4 2......................................................................... 16.2 0.7 1.1 1.2 2.2 3 or More............................................................ 9.0 0.3

  4. Total..............................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    7.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................................ 17.8 8.5 2.7 2.6 4.0 Have Cooling Equipment............................................. 93.3 38.6 16.2 20.1 18.4 Use Cooling Equipment.............................................. 91.4 37.8 15.9 19.8 18.0 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................. 1.9 0.9 0.3 0.3 0.4 Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System........................................................... 65.9 25.8 10.9 16.6 12.5

  5. Total.................................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment................................... 17.8 1.8 Q Q 4.9 Have Cooling Equipment................................................ 93.3 5.3 7.0 7.8 7.2 Use Cooling Equipment................................................. 91.4 5.3 7.0 7.7 6.6 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it............................... 1.9 Q N Q 0.6 Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System.............................................................. 65.9 1.1 6.4 6.4 5.4 Without a

  6. Total....................................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    25.6 40.7 24.2 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 6.9 8.1 14.2 6.4 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 13.7 17.5 26.6 17.8 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 10.4 14.1 20.5 13.7 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 3.3 3.4 6.1 4.1 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2

  7. Total....................................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 8.1 5.6 2.5 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 17.5 12.1 5.4 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 14.1 10.0 4.0 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 3.4 2.1 1.3 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2

  8. Total....................................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day................................................. 8.2 3.0 1.6 0.3 1.1 2 Times A Day.............................................................. 24.6 8.3 4.2 1.3 2.7 Once a Day................................................................... 42.3 15.0 8.1 2.7 4.2 A Few Times Each Week............................................. 27.2 10.9 6.0 1.8 3.1 About Once a Week..................................................... 3.9

  9. Total....................................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 14.2 7.2 2.8 4.2 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 26.6 14.5 4.1 7.9 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 20.5 11.0 3.4 6.1 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 6.1 3.5 0.7 1.9 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2

  10. Total....................................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4.2 7.6 16.6 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 6.4 2.2 4.2 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 17.8 5.3 12.5 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 13.7 4.2 9.5 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 4.1 1.1 3.0 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2

  11. Total....................................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day................................................. 8.2 3.7 1.6 1.4 1.5 2 Times A Day.............................................................. 24.6 10.8 4.1 4.3 5.5 Once a Day................................................................... 42.3 17.0 7.2 8.7 9.3 A Few Times Each Week............................................. 27.2 11.4 4.7 6.4 4.8 About Once a Week.....................................................

  12. Total....................................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    111.1 47.1 19.0 22.7 22.3 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer.................................. 35.5 16.9 6.5 4.6 7.6 Use a Personal Computer.............................................. 75.6 30.3 12.5 18.1 14.7 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model......................................................... 58.6 22.9 9.8 14.1 11.9 Laptop Model............................................................. 16.9 7.4 2.7 4.0 2.9 Hours Turned on Per Week Less than 2

  13. Total.........................................................................................

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ..... 111.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Personal Computers Do Not Use a Personal Computer...................................... 35.5 3.0 2.0 2.7 3.1 Use a Personal Computer.................................................. 75.6 4.2 5.0 5.3 9.0 Most-Used Personal Computer Type of PC Desk-top Model............................................................. 58.6 3.2 3.9 4.0 6.7 Laptop Model................................................................. 16.9 1.0 1.1 1.3 2.4 Hours Turned on Per Week Less

  14. Effect of long duration UV irradiation on diamondlike carbon surfaces in the presence of a hydrocarbon gaseous atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Riedo, A.; Wahlstroem, P.; Scheer, J. A.; Wurz, P.; Tulej, M.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of the effect of long duration UV irradiation (up to 2905 min) of flight quality diamondlike carbon charge state conversion surfaces for application in space research in the presence of a hydrocarbon atmosphere were done. An isopropanol atmosphere was used for simulating the hydrocarbon gaseous environment for an instrument on a satellite in space. Charge state conversion surfaces are used in neutral particle sensing instruments where neutral atoms have to be ionized prior to the analysis. A narrow-band (126{+-}5 nm) discharge lamp and a broad-band deuterium lamp (112-370 nm) were used as sources of UV radiation. The UV irradiation of a surface results in the desorption of some volatiles present on the surface and the decomposition of others. Desorption of volatiles, mostly water, is observed for both UV sources. The decomposition of the hydrocarbons and the subsequent build-up of a hydrocarbonaceous layer is only observed for the broad-band UV lamp, which is more representative for the space environment. Unfortunately, the hydrocarbonaceous layer cannot be removed thermally, i.e., it is permanent, and causes a degradation of the performance of the charge state conversion surfaces. With the present measurements we can quantify the UV influence at which the degradation of the conversion surfaces becomes noticeable.

  15. Tritium Related Material Research -Irradiation Effect on Isotropic...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Related Material Research -Irradiation Effect on Isotropic Graphite Utilizing Heavy Ion-Irradiation- Tritium Related Material Research -Irradiation Effect on Isotropic Graphite...

  16. Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    (HFIR). Irradiation of the capsules was conducted for post-irradiation examination (PIE) metallography. PDF icon Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR...

  17. Irradiated Microsphere Gamma Analyzer for Examination of Particle Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Demkowicz; Various

    2014-06-01

    Fabrication of the first series of fuel compacts for the current US tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel development and qualification effort was completed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 2006. In November of 2009, after almost 3 years and 620 effective full power days of irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), the first Advanced Gas Reactor irradiation test (AGR-1) was concluded. Compacts were irradiated at a calculated timeaveraged, volume-averaged temperature of 9551136C to a burnup ranging from 11.219.5% fissions per initial metal atom and a total fast fluence of 2.24.31025 n/m2 [1]. No indication of fission product release from TRISO coating failure was observed during the irradiation test, based on real-time monitoring of gaseous fission products. Post-irradiation examination (PIE) and hightemperature safety testing of the compacts has been in progress at both ORNL and INL since 2010, and have revealed small releases of a limited subset of fission products (such as silver, cesium, and europium). Past experience has shown that some elements can be released from TRISO particles when a defect forms in the SiC layer, even when one or more pyrocarbon layers remain intact and retain the gaseous fission products. Some volatile elements can also be released by diffusion through an intact SiC layer during safety testing if temperatures are high enough and the duration is long enough. In order to understand and quantify the release of certain radioactive fission products, it is sometimes necessary to individually examine each of the more than 4000 coated particles in a given compact. The Advanced Irradiated Microsphere Gamma Analyzer (Advanced- IMGA) was designed to perform this task in a remote hot cell environment. This paper describes the Advanced- IMGA equipment and examination process and gives results for a typical full compact evaluation.

  18. AGR-2 IRRADIATION TEST FINAL AS-RUN REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Blaise, Collin

    2014-07-01

    This document presents the as-run analysis of the AGR-2 irradiation experiment. AGR-2 is the second of the planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. Funding for this program is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technical Development Office (TDO) program. The objectives of the AGR-2 experiment are to: (a) Irradiate UCO (uranium oxycarbide) and UO2 (uranium dioxide) fuel produced in a large coater. Fuel attributes are based on results obtained from the AGR-1 test and other project activities. (b) Provide irradiated fuel samples for post-irradiation experiment (PIE) and safety testing. (c) Support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. The primary objective of the test was to irradiate both UCO and UO2 TRISO (tri-structural isotropic) fuel produced from prototypic scale equipment to obtain normal operation and accident condition fuel performance data. The UCO compacts were subjected to a range of burnups and temperatures typical of anticipated prismatic reactor service conditions in three capsules. The test train also includes compacts containing UO2 particles produced independently by the United States, South Africa, and France in three separate capsules. The range of burnups and temperatures in these capsules were typical of anticipated pebble bed reactor service conditions. The results discussed in this report pertain only to U.S. produced fuel. In order to achieve the test objectives, the AGR-2 experiment was irradiated in the B-12 position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for a total irradiation duration of 559.2 effective full power days (EFPD). Irradiation began on June 22, 2010, and ended on October 16, 2013, spanning 12 ATR power cycles and approximately three and a half calendar years. The test

  19. Statistical criteria for characterizing irradiance time series.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Ellis, Abraham; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2010-10-01

    We propose and examine several statistical criteria for characterizing time series of solar irradiance. Time series of irradiance are used in analyses that seek to quantify the performance of photovoltaic (PV) power systems over time. Time series of irradiance are either measured or are simulated using models. Simulations of irradiance are often calibrated to or generated from statistics for observed irradiance and simulations are validated by comparing the simulation output to the observed irradiance. Criteria used in this comparison should derive from the context of the analyses in which the simulated irradiance is to be used. We examine three statistics that characterize time series and their use as criteria for comparing time series. We demonstrate these statistics using observed irradiance data recorded in August 2007 in Las Vegas, Nevada, and in June 2009 in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  20. Ultrasonic Transducer Irradiation Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, Joshua; Palmer, Joe; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Keller, Paul; Montgomery, Robert; Chien, Hual-Te; Kohse, Gordon; Tittmann, Bernhard; Reinhardt, Brian; Rempe, Joy

    2015-02-01

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high-accuracy and -resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. Other ongoing efforts include an ultrasonic technique to detect morphology changes (such as crack initiation and growth) and acoustic techniques to evaluate fission gas composition and pressure. These efforts are limited by the lack of identified ultrasonic transducer materials capable of long term performance under irradiation test conditions. For this reason, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an ATR NSUF project to evaluate the performance of promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducers in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 1021 n/cm2. The goal of this research is to characterize and demonstrate magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer operation during irradiation, enabling the development of novel radiation-tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material Testing Reactors (MTRs). As such, this test is an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data is collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. The current work bridges the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers. To date, one piezoelectric

  1. Country Total Percent of U.S. Total Canada

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Taiwan 60,155 1% Vietnam 361,184 4% All others 1,861,971 19% Total 9,755,831 100% Table 7 . Photovoltaic module import shipments by country, 2015 Note: All Others includes Czech ...

  2. Determination of Total Solids in Biomass and Total Dissolved...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The published moisture loss on drying for sodium tartrate is 15.62% (84.38% total solids). 14.6 Sample size: Determined by sample matrix. 14.7 Sample storage: Samples should be ...

  3. Re: NBP RFI-Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use and Privacy | Department of Energy Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use and Privacy Re: NBP RFI-Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Empowering Consumers and the Smart Grid: Data Access, Third Party Use and Privacy Smart grid provides consumers with unprecedented access and control of their electricity usage, and it provides utilities with the ability to manage the electric grid with

  4. Re: NBP RFI-Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy | Department of Energy Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy Re: NBP RFI-Implementing the National Broadband Plan by Studying the Communications Requirements of Electric Utilities to Inform Federal Smart Grid Policy The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) is pleased to provide comments on the communications requirements of electric

  5. EIS-0525: Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Eastern United States

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) in the U.S. Department of Commerce is preparing, with DOE as a cooperating agency, a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) that will analyze the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to design, deploy and operate the Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network. This PEIS covers the Eastern United States. More information about FirstNet and the PEIS is available at: http://www.firstnet.gov/.

  6. Room temperature broadband terahertz gains in graphene heterostructures based on inter-layer radiative transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Linlong; Du, Jinglei; Shi, Haofei Wei, Dongshan; Du, Chunlei

    2014-10-15

    We exploit inter-layer radiative transitions to provide gains to amplify terahertz waves in graphene heterostructures. This is achieved by properly doping graphene sheets and aligning their energy bands so that the processes of stimulated emissions can overwhelm absorptions. We derive an expression for the gain estimation and show the gain is insensitive to temperature variation. Moreover, the gain is broadband and can be strong enough to compensate the free carrier loss, indicating graphene based room temperature terahertz lasers are feasible.

  7. A Simple Empirical Equation to Calculate Cloud Optical Thickness from Shortwave Broadband Measurements

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Simple Empirical Equation to Calculate Cloud Optical Thickness from Shortwave Broadband Measurements J. C. Barnard and C. N. Long Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction Observational studies of shortwave cloud optical thickness, c , play an important role in determining how clouds affect climate. Accordingly, considerable effort has been, and continues to be expended to characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of c over the globe. This effort involves

  8. Recent Developments on the Broadband Heating Rate Profile Value-Added Product

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Recent Developments on the Broadband Heating Rate Profile Value-Added Product E. J. Mlawer, J. S. Delamere, and S. A. Clough Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Cambridge, Massachusetts M. A. Miller and K. L. Johnson Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York T. R. Shippert and C. N. Long Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington R. G. Ellingson Florida State University Tallahassee, Florida M. H. Zhang State University of New York - Stony Brook Albany, New York R.

  9. AGR-1 Irradiation Test Final As-Run Report

    SciTech Connect

    Blaise P. Collin

    2012-06-01

    This document presents the as-run analysis of the AGR-1 irradiation experiment. AGR-1 is the first of eight planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. Funding for this program is provided by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project. The objectives of the AGR-1 experiment are: 1. To gain experience with multi-capsule test train design, fabrication, and operation with the intent to reduce the probability of capsule or test train failure in subsequent irradiation tests. 2. To irradiate fuel produced in conjunction with the AGR fuel process development effort. 3. To provide data that will support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. In order to achieve the test objectives, the AGR-1 experiment was irradiated in the B-10 position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for a total duration of 620 effective full power days of irradiation. Irradiation began on December 24, 2006 and ended on November 6, 2009 spanning 13 ATR cycles and approximately three calendar years. The test contained six independently controlled and monitored capsules. Each capsule contained 12 compacts of a single type, or variant, of the AGR coated fuel. No fuel particles failed during the AGR-1 irradiation. Final burnup values on a per compact basis ranged from 11.5 to 19.6 %FIMA, while fast fluence values ranged from 2.21 to 4.39 ?1025 n/m2 (E >0.18 MeV). Well say something here about temperatures once thermal recalc is done. Thermocouples performed well, failing at a lower rate than expected. At the end of the irradiation, nine of the originally-planned 19 TCs were considered functional. Fission product release-to-birth (R/B) ratios were quite low. In most capsules, R/B values at the end of the irradiation were at or below 10-7 with only one

  10. Broadband optical absorption by tunable Mie resonances in silicon nanocone arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z. Y.; Zhang, R. J.; Wang, S. Y.; Lu, M.; Chen, X.; Zheng, Y. X.; Chen, L. Y.; Ye, Z.; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.

    2015-01-15

    Nanostructure arrays such as nanowire, nanopillar, and nanocone arrays have been proposed to be promising antireflection structures for photovoltaic applications due to their great light trapping ability. In this paper, the optical properties of Si nanopillar and nanocone arrays in visible and infrared region were studied by both theoretical calculations and experiments. The results show that the Mie resonance can be continuously tuned across a wide range of wavelength by varying the diameter of the nanopillars. However, Si nanopillar array with uniform diameter exhibits only discrete resonance mode, thus can't achieve a high broadband absorption. On the other hand, the Mie resonance wavelength in a Si nanocone array can vary continuously as the diameters of the cross sections increase from the apex to the base. Therefore Si nanocone arrays can strongly interact with the incident light in the broadband spectrum and the absorbance by Si nanocone arrays is higher than 95% over the wavelength from 300 to 2000 nm. In addition to the Mie resonance, the broadband optical absorption of Si nanocone arrays is also affected by Wood-Rayleigh anomaly effect and metal impurities introduced in the fabrication process.

  11. Broadband optical absorption by tunable Mie resonances in silicon nanocone arrays

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Wang, Z. Y.; Zhang, R. J.; Wang, S. Y.; Lu, M.; Chen, X.; Zheng, Y. X.; Chen, L. Y.; Ye, Z.; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.

    2015-01-15

    Nanostructure arrays such as nanowire, nanopillar, and nanocone arrays have been proposed to be promising antireflection structures for photovoltaic applications due to their great light trapping ability. In this paper, the optical properties of Si nanopillar and nanocone arrays in visible and infrared region were studied by both theoretical calculations and experiments. The results show that the Mie resonance can be continuously tuned across a wide range of wavelength by varying the diameter of the nanopillars. However, Si nanopillar array with uniform diameter exhibits only discrete resonance mode, thus can't achieve a high broadband absorption. On the other hand, themore » Mie resonance wavelength in a Si nanocone array can vary continuously as the diameters of the cross sections increase from the apex to the base. Therefore Si nanocone arrays can strongly interact with the incident light in the broadband spectrum and the absorbance by Si nanocone arrays is higher than 95% over the wavelength from 300 to 2000 nm. In addition to the Mie resonance, the broadband optical absorption of Si nanocone arrays is also affected by Wood-Rayleigh anomaly effect and metal impurities introduced in the fabrication process.« less

  12. TotalView Training 2015

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    TotalView Training 2015 TotalView Training 2015 NERSC will host an in-depth training course on TotalView, a graphical parallel debugger developed by Rogue Wave Software, on Thursday, March 26, 2015. This will be provided by Rogue Wave Software staff members. The training will include a lecture and demo sessions in the morning, followed by a hands-on parallel debugging session in the afternoon. Location This event will be presented online using WebEx technology and in person at NERSC Oakland

  13. Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    and 1994 Vehicle Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total 1993 Family Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral Assist- ance 1 RSE Row Factor: Less than 5,000 5,000...

  14. ARM - Measurement - Total cloud water

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    cloud water ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Total cloud water The total concentration (mass/vol) of ice and liquid water particles in a cloud; this includes condensed water content (CWC). Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a

  15. RERTR-13 Irradiation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; D. M. Wachs; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme

    2012-09-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-13 was designed to assess performance of different types of neutron absorbers that can be potentially used as burnable poisons in the low enriched uranium-molybdenum based dispersion and monolithic fuels.1 The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-13 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

  16. Irradiation Alters MMP-2/TIMP-2 System and Collagen Type IV Degradation in Brain

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Won Hee; Warrington, Junie P.; Sonntag, William E.; Lee, Yong Woo

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is one of the major consequences of radiation-induced normal tissue injury in the central nervous system. We examined the effects of whole-brain irradiation on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)/tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation in the brain. Methods and Materials: Animals received either whole-brain irradiation (a single dose of 10 Gy {gamma}-rays or a fractionated dose of 40 Gy {gamma}-rays, total) or sham-irradiation and were maintained for 4, 8, and 24 h following irradiation. mRNA expression levels of MMPs and TIMPs in the brain were analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The functional activity of MMPs was measured by in situ zymography, and degradation of ECM was visualized by collagen type IV immunofluorescent staining. Results: A significant increase in mRNA expression levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 was observed in irradiated brains compared to that in sham-irradiated controls. In situ zymography revealed a strong gelatinolytic activity in the brain 24 h postirradiation, and the enhanced gelatinolytic activity mediated by irradiation was significantly attenuated in the presence of anti-MMP-2 antibody. A significant reduction in collagen type IV immunoreactivity was also detected in the brain at 24 h after irradiation. In contrast, the levels of collagen type IV were not significantly changed at 4 and 8 h after irradiation compared with the sham-irradiated controls. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates for the first time that radiation induces an imbalance between MMP-2 and TIMP-2 levels and suggests that degradation of collagen type IV, a major ECM component of BBB basement membrane, may have a role in the pathogenesis of brain injury.

  17. Microscopic analysis of irradiated AGR-1 coated particle fuel compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Scott A. Ploger; Paul A. Demkowicz; John D. Hunn; Jay S. Kehn

    2014-05-01

    The AGR-1 experiment involved irradiation of 72 TRISO-coated particle fuel compacts to a peak compact-average burnup of 19.5% FIMA with no in-pile failures observed out of 3 x 105 total particles. Irradiated AGR-1 fuel compacts have been cross-sectioned and analyzed with optical microscopy to characterize kernel, buffer, and coating behavior. Six compacts have been examined, spanning a range of irradiation conditions (burnup, fast fluence, and irradiation temperature) and including all four TRISO coating variations irradiated in the AGR-1 experiment. The cylindrical specimens were sectioned both transversely and longitudinally, then polished to expose from 36 to 79 individual particles near midplane on each mount. The analysis focused primarily on kernel swelling and porosity, buffer densification and fracturing, buffer–IPyC debonding, and fractures in the IPyC and SiC layers. Characteristic morphologies have been identified, 981 particles have been classified, and spatial distributions of particle types have been mapped. No significant spatial patterns were discovered in these cross sections. However, some trends were found between morphological types and certain behavioral aspects. Buffer fractures were found in 23% of the particles, and these fractures often resulted in unconstrained kernel protrusion into the open cavities. Fractured buffers and buffers that stayed bonded to IPyC layers appear related to larger pore size in kernels. Buffer–IPyC interface integrity evidently factored into initiation of rare IPyC fractures. Fractures through part of the SiC layer were found in only four classified particles, all in conjunction with IPyC–SiC debonding. Compiled results suggest that the deliberate coating fabrication variations influenced the frequencies of IPyC fractures and IPyC–SiC debonds.

  18. Microscopic analysis of irradiated AGR-1 coated particle fuel compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Ploger; Paul Demkowicz; John Hunn; Robert Morris

    2012-10-01

    The AGR-1 experiment involved irradiation of 72 TRISO-coated particle fuel compacts to a peak burnup of 19.5% FIMA with no in-pile failures observed out of 3105 total particles. Irradiated AGR-1 fuel compacts have been cross-sectioned and analyzed with optical microscopy to characterize kernel, buffer, and coating behavior. Five compacts have been examined so far, spanning a range of irradiation conditions (burnup, fast fluence, and irradiation temperature) and including all four TRISO coating variations irradiated in the AGR-1 experiment. The cylindrical specimens were sectioned both transversely and longitudinally, then polished to expose between approximately 40-80 individual particles on each mount. The analysis focused primarily on kernel swelling and porosity, buffer densification and fracturing, buffer-IPyC debonding, and fractures in the IPyC and SiC layers. Characteristic morphologies have been identified, over 800 particles have been classified, and spatial distributions of particle types have been mapped. No significant spatial patterns were discovered in these cross sections. However, some trends were found between morphological types and certain behavioral aspects. Buffer fractures were found in approximately 23% of the particles, and these fractures often resulted in unconstrained kernel swelling into the open cavities. Fractured buffers and buffers that stayed bonded to IPyC layers appear related to larger pore size in kernels. Buffer-IPyC interface integrity evidently factored into initiation of rare IPyC fractures. Fractures through part of the SiC layer were found in only three particles, all in conjunction with IPyC-SiC debonding. Compiled results suggest that the deliberate coating fabrication variations influenced the frequencies of IPyC fractures, IPyC-SiC debonds, and SiC fractures.

  19. Introducing an Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer for Improving the Atmospheric Longwave Irradiance Measurement (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, I.; Hansen, L.; Zeng, J.

    2012-08-01

    Advancing climate change research requires accurate and traceable measurement of the atmospheric longwave irradiance. Current measurement capabilities are limited to an estimated uncertainty of larger than +/- 4 W/m2 using the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG). WISG is traceable to the Systeme international d'unites (SI) through blackbody calibrations. An Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) is being developed to measure absolute outdoor longwave irradiance with traceability to SI using the temperature scale (ITS-90) and the sky as the reference source, instead of a blackbody. The ACP was designed by NREL and optically characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Under clear-sky and stable conditions, the responsivity of the ACP is determined by lowering the temperature of the cavity and calculating the rate of change of the thermopile output voltage versus the changing net irradiance. The absolute atmospheric longwave irradiance is then calculated with an uncertainty of +/- 3.96 W/m2 with traceability to SI. The measured irradiance by the ACP was compared with the irradiance measured by two pyrgeometers calibrated by the World Radiation Center with traceability to the WISG. A total of 408 readings was collected over three different clear nights. The calculated irradiance measured by the ACP was 1.5 W/m2 lower than that measured by the two pyrgeometers that are traceable to WISG. Further development and characterization of the ACP might contribute to the effort of improving the uncertainty and traceability of WISG to SI.

  20. AGC-2 Irradiation Data Qualification Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence C. Hull

    2012-07-01

    The Graphite Technology Development Program will run a series of six experiments to quantify the effects of irradiation on nuclear grade graphite. The second Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment (AGC-2) began with Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 149A on April 12, 2011, and ended with ATR Cycle 151B on May 5, 2012. The purpose of this report is to qualify AGC-2 irradiation monitoring data following INL Management and Control Procedure 2691, Data Qualification. Data that are Qualified meet the requirements for data collection and use as described in the experiment planning and quality assurance documents. Data that do not meet the requirements are Failed. Some data may not quite meet the requirements, but may still provide some useable information. These data are labeled as Trend. No Trend data were identified for the AGC-2 experiment. All thermocouples functioned throughout the AGC-2 experiment. There was one instance where spurious signals or instrument power interruption resulted in a recorded temperature value being well outside physical reality. This value was identified and labeled as Failed data. All other temperature data are Qualified. All helium and argon gas flow data are within expected ranges. Total gas flow was approximately 50 sccm through the capsule. Helium gas flow was briefly increased to 100 sccm during reactor shutdown. All gas flow data are Qualified. At the start of the experiment, moisture in the outflow gas line increased to 200 ppmv then declined to less than 10 ppmv over a period of 5 days. This increase in moisture coincides with the initial heating of the experiment and drying of the system. Moisture slightly exceeded 10 ppmv three other times during the experiment. While these moisture values exceed the 10 ppmv threshold value, the reported measurements are considered accurate and to reflect moisture conditions in the capsule. All moisture data are Qualified. Graphite creep specimens are subjected to one of three loads, 393 lbf

  1. Optimal measurement of surface shortwave irradiance using current instrumentation -- the ARM experience

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, J.; Rubes, M.; Stoffel, T.; Wesley, M.; Splitt, M.; DeLuisi, J.

    1997-03-01

    Shortwave (solar) measurements of surface irradiance for clear sky conditions disagree with a number of different models. Betts used the European Center for Medium-range Forecasts (ECMWF) shortwave model to calculate surface irradiance that were 5-10 percent higher than measurements. Wild used a different formulation of the ECMWF shortwave model, but found that the model overpredicted clear-sky shortwave and average of 3 percent. Ding and Wang used data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program and found that the GENESIS GCM shortwave model, likewise, overpredicted clear-sky irradiance by about 4 percent. To help resolve the measurement dilemma, reference instruments were deployed in April 1996 at the Southern Great Plains ARM site central facility very near the shortwave measurements. The rest of the paper describes the experiment undertaken to ascertain total horizontal shortwave irradiance at the surface, including a separation of the direct normal and diffuse horizontal components. Results and a discussion of same concludes the paper.

  2. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer. One minute averages of 3-second data for 12 months from the test instrument measurements were compared with the computed reference data set. Combined uncertainty in the computed reference irradiance is 1.8% {+-} 0.5%. Total uncertainty in the pyranometer comparisons is {+-}2.5%. We show mean percent difference between reference global irradiance and test pyranometer 1 minute data as a function of zenith angle, and percent differences between daily totals for the reference and test irradiances as a function of day number. We offer no explicit conclusion about the performance of instrument models, as a general array of applications with a wide range of instrumentation and accuracy requirements could be addressed with any of the radiometers.

  3. CATEGORY Total Procurement Total Small Business Small Disadvantaged

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    CATEGORY Total Procurement Total Small Business Small Disadvantaged Business Woman Owned Small Business HubZone Small Business Veteran-Owned Small Business Service Disabled Veteran Owned Small Business FY 2013 Dollars Accomplished $1,049,087,940 $562,676,028 $136,485,766 $106,515,229 $12,080,258 $63,473,852 $28,080,960 FY 2013 % Accomplishment 54.40% 13.00% 10.20% 1.20% 6.60% 2.70% FY 2014 Dollars Accomplished $868,961,755 $443,711,175 $92,478,522 $88,633,031 $29,867,820 $43,719,452 $26,826,374

  4. Irradiation preservation of seafood: Literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Molton, P.M.

    1987-10-01

    The application of gamma-irradiation for extending the shelf life of seafood has been of interest for many years. This report reviews a number of studies on seafood irradiation conducted over the past several years. Topics covered include seafood irradiation techniques and dosages, species applicability and differences, the effects of packaging on seafood preservation, and changes in organoleptic acceptability as a result of irradiation. Particular attention is given to radiation effects (likely and unlikely) of concern to the public. These include the potential for generation of toxic chemical products, botulinum toxin production, and other health concerns. No scientifically defensible evidence of any kind was found for any harmful effect of irradiation of seafoods at the doses being considered (less than 300 krad), and all indications are that irradiation is an acceptable and needed additional tool for seafood preservation. 49 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.

  5. (Irradiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels)

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, W.R.

    1990-09-24

    The traveler served as a member of the two-man US Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsored team who visited the Prometey Complex in Leningrad to assess the potential for expanded cooperative research concerning integrity of the primary pressure boundary in commercial light-water reactors. The emphasis was on irradiation embrittlement, structural analysis, and fracture mechanics research for reactor pressure vessels. At the irradiation seminar in Cologne, presentations were made by German, French, Finnish, Russian, and US delegations concerning many aspects of irradiation of pressure vessel steels. The traveler made presentations on mechanisms of irradiation embrittlement and on important aspects of the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program results of irradiated fracture mechanics tests.

  6. Characterization of the neutron irradiation system for use in the Low-Dose-Rate Irradiation Facility at Sandia National Laboratories.

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, Manuel,

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize the neutron irradiation system consisting of americium-241 beryllium (241AmBe) neutron sources placed in a polyethylene shielding for use at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Low Dose Rate Irradiation Facility (LDRIF). With a total activity of 0.3 TBq (9 Ci), the source consisted of three recycled 241AmBe sources of different activities that had been combined into a single source. The source in its polyethylene shielding will be used in neutron irradiation testing of components. The characterization of the source-shielding system was necessary to evaluate the radiation environment for future experiments. Characterization of the source was also necessary because the documentation for the three component sources and their relative alignment within the Special Form Capsule (SFC) was inadequate. The system consisting of the source and shielding was modeled using Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP). The model was validated by benchmarking it against measurements using multiple techniques. To characterize the radiation fields over the full spatial geometry of the irradiation system, it was necessary to use a number of instruments of varying sensitivities. First, the computed photon radiography assisted in determining orientation of the component sources. With the capsule properly oriented inside the shielding, the neutron spectra were measured using a variety of techniques. A N-probe Microspec and a neutron Bubble Dosimeter Spectrometer (BDS) set were used to characterize the neutron spectra/field in several locations. In the third technique, neutron foil activation was used to ascertain the neutron spectra. A high purity germanium (HPGe) detector was used to characterize the photon spectrum. The experimentally measured spectra and the MCNP results compared well. Once the MCNP model was validated to an adequate level of confidence, parametric analyses was performed on the model to optimize for potential

  7. Irradiation Testing of Ultrasonic Transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, Joshua; Tittmann, Bernhard; Reinhardt, Brian; Kohse, Gordon E.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Montgomery, Robert O.; Chien, Hual-Te; Villard, Jean-Francois; Palmer, Joe; Rempe, Joy

    2013-12-01

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high accuracy and resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of single, small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. Other efforts include an ultrasonic technique to detect morphology changes (such as crack initiation and growth) and acoustic techniques to evaluate fission gas composition and pressure. These efforts are limited by the lack of existing knowledge of ultrasonic transducer material survivability under irradiation conditions. For this reason, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to evaluate promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer performance in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 1021 n/cm2 (E> 0.1 MeV). The goal of this research is to characterize magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer survivability during irradiation, enabling the development of novel radiation tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material and Test Reactors (MTRs). As such, this test will be an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data will be collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. The current work bridges the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers.

  8. Irradiation Testing of Ultrasonic Transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, Joshua; Tittmann, Bernhard; Reinhardt, Brian; Kohse, Gordon E.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Montgomery, Robert O.; Chien, Hual-Te; Villard, Jean-Francois; Palmer, Joe; Rempe, Joy

    2014-07-30

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high accuracy and resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of single, small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. Other efforts include an ultrasonic technique to detect morphology changes (such as crack initiation and growth) and acoustic techniques to evaluate fission gas composition and pressure. These efforts are limited by the lack of existing knowledge of ultrasonic transducer material survivability under irradiation conditions. For this reason, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to evaluate promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer performance in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 1021 n/cm2 (E> 0.1 MeV). The goal of this research is to characterize magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer survivability during irradiation, enabling the development of novel radiation tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material and Test Reactors (MTRs). As such, this test will be an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data will be collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. The current work bridges the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers.

  9. A New Solar Irradiance Reference Spectrum

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Solar Irradiance Reference Spectrum Pilewskie, Peter University of Colorado ... We describe the development of a new solar reference spectrum for radiation and climate ...

  10. Enterprise Assessments, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Irradiated...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fuels Examination Laboratory - April 2015 April 2015 Review of the Safety-Significant Ventilation Systems at the Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory Operated by UT-Battelle...

  11. Comparative study of broadband electrodynamic properties of single-crystal and thin-film strontium titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Findikoglu, A. T.; Jia, Q. X.; Kwon, C.; Reagor, D. W.; Kaduchak, G.; Rasmussen, K. Oe.; Bishop, A. R.

    1999-12-27

    We have used a coplanar waveguide structure to study broadband electrodynamic properties of single-crystal and thin-film strontium titanate. We have incorporated both time- and frequency-domain measurements to determine small-signal effective refractive index and loss tangent as functions of frequency (up to 4 GHz), dc bias (up to 10{sup 6} V/m), and cryogenic temperature (17 and 60 K). The large-signal impulse response of the devices and the associated phenomenological nonlinear wave equation illustrate how dissipation and nonlinearity combine to produce the overall response in the large-signal regime. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  12. All-dielectric three-dimensional broadband Eaton lens with large refractive index range

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Ming; Yong Tian, Xiao, E-mail: leoxyt@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Ling Wu, Ling; Chen Li, Di [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

    2014-03-03

    We proposed a method to realize three-dimensional (3D) gradient index (GRIN) devices requiring large refractive index (RI) range with broadband performance. By combining non-resonant GRIN woodpile photonic crystals structure in the metamaterial regime with a compound liquid medium, a wide RI range (16.32) was fulfilled flexibly. As a proof-of-principle for the low-loss and non-dispersive method, a 3D Eaton lens was designed and fabricated based on 3D printing process. Full-wave simulation and experiment validated its omnidirectional wave bending effects in a broad bandwidth covering Ku band (12?GHz18?GHz)

  13. Comparison of irradiation creep and swelling of an austenitic alloy irradiated in FFTF and PFR

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, F.A.; Toloczko, M.B.; Munro, B.; Adaway, S.; Standring, J.

    1999-10-01

    comparative irradiation of identically constructed creep tubes in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and the Prototypic Fast Reactor (PFR) shows that differences in irradiation conditions arising from both reactor operation and the design of the irradiation vehicle can have a significant impact on the void swelling and irradiation creep of austenitic stainless steels. In spite of these differences, the derived creep coefficients fall within the range of previously observed values for 316 SS.

  14. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: ...

  15. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0 New Hampshire - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle ...

  16. Total Number of Operable Refineries

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Data Series: Total Number of Operable Refineries Number of Operating Refineries Number of Idle Refineries Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/SD) Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge

  17. A survey of irradiated pillars, globules, and jets in the Carina nebula

    SciTech Connect

    Hartigan, P.; Reiter, M.; Smith, N.; Bally, J.

    2015-03-01

    We present wide-field, deep narrowband H{sub 2}, Brγ, Hα, [S ii], [O iii], and broadband I- and K-band images of the Carina star formation region. The new images provide a large-scale overview of all the H{sub 2} and Brγ emission present in over a square degree centered on this signature star-forming complex. By comparing these images with archival Hubble Space Telescope and Spitzer images we observe how intense UV radiation from O and B stars affects star formation in molecular clouds. We use the images to locate new candidate outflows and identify the principal shock waves and irradiated interfaces within dozens of distinct areas of star-forming activity. Shocked molecular gas in jets traces the parts of the flow that are most shielded from the intense UV radiation. Combining the H{sub 2} and optical images gives a more complete view of the jets, which are sometimes only visible in H{sub 2}. The Carina region hosts several compact young clusters, and the gas within these clusters is affected by radiation from both the cluster stars and the massive stars nearby. The Carina Nebula is ideal for studying the physics of young H ii regions and photodissociation region (PDR), as it contains multiple examples of walls and irradiated pillars at various stages of development. Some of the pillars have detached from their host molecular clouds to form proplyds. Fluorescent H{sub 2} outlines the interfaces between the ionized and molecular gas, and after removing continuum, we detect spatial offsets between the Brγ and H{sub 2} emission along the irradiated interfaces. These spatial offsets can be used to test current models of PDRs once synthetic maps of these lines become available.

  18. A Method of Correcting for Tilt From Horizontal in Downwelling Shortwave Irradiance Measurements on Moving Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Charles N.; Bucholtz, Anthony; Jonsson, Haf; Schmid, Beat; Vogelmann, A. M.; Wood, John

    2010-04-14

    Significant errors occur in downwelling shortwave irradiance measurements made on moving platforms due to tilt from horizontal because, when the sun is not completely blocked by overhead cloud, the downwelling shortwave irradiance has a prominent directional component from the direct sun. A-priori knowledge of the partitioning between the direct and diffuse components of the total shortwave irradiance is needed to properly apply a correction for tilt. This partitioning information can be adequately provided using a newly available commercial radiometer that produces reasonable measurements of the total and diffuse shortwave irradiance, and by subtraction the direct shortwave irradiance, with no moving parts and regardless of azimuthal orientation. We have developed methodologies for determining the constant pitch and roll offsets of the radiometers for aircraft applications, and for applying a tilt correction to the total shortwave irradiance data. Results suggest that the methodology is for tilt up to +/-10°, with 90% of the data corrected to within 10 Wm-2 at least for clear-sky data. Without a proper tilt correction, even data limited to 5° of tilt as is typical current practice still exhibits large errors, greater than 100 Wm-2 in some cases. Given the low cost, low weight, and low power consumption of the SPN1 total and diffuse radiometer, opportunities previously excluded for moving platform measurements such as small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and solar powered buoys now become feasible using our methodology. The increase in measurement accuracy is important, given current concerns over long-term climate variability and change especially over the 70% of the Earth’s surface covered by ocean where long-term records of these measurements are sorely needed and must be made on ships and buoys.

  19. Design Storm for Total Retention.pdf

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Title: Design Storm for "Total Retention" under Individual Permit, Poster, Individual ... International. Environmental Programs Design Storm for "Total Retention" under ...

  20. U.S. Total Imports

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    St. Clair, MI International Falls, MN Noyes, MN Warroad, MN Babb, MT Havre, MT Port of Del Bonita, MT Port of Morgan, MT Sweetgrass, MT Whitlash, MT Portal, ND Sherwood, ND Pittsburg, NH Champlain, NY Grand Island, NY Massena, NY Niagara Falls, NY Waddington, NY Sumas, WA Highgate Springs, VT North Troy, VT U.S. Pipeline Total from Mexico Ogilby, CA Otay Mesa, CA Alamo, TX El Paso, TX Galvan Ranch, TX Hidalgo, TX McAllen, TX Penitas, TX LNG Imports from Algeria Cove Point, MD Everett, MA Lake

  1. Hyperbolic-metamaterial antennas for broadband enhancement of dipole emission to free space

    SciTech Connect

    Valagiannopoulos, C. A.; Mirmoosa, M. S.; Nefedov, I. S.; Tretyakov, S. A.; Simovski, C. R.

    2014-10-28

    Dipole emitters used in nano optics and nanophotonics (e.g., fluorescent molecules or quantum dots) are weak radiators and thus detecting the radiation of a single emitter gets possible only if it is significantly enhanced. For this enhancement, one often utilizes resonant nanoantennas (Purcell's effect); this method, however, requires the exact knowledge of source location and radiation frequency which constitute a significant drawback. One known possibility for broadband location-insensitive radiation enhancement is to use a layer of the so-called hyperbolic metamaterial. However, the enhanced radiated energy is mainly directed into the volume of the lossy medium, where it is lost to heating. In this work, we suggest specific shapes of macroscopic hyperbolic metamaterial samples to open radiation windows for enhanced radiation to free space. We show that hyperbolic media slabs with properly shaped macroscopic grooves convert the evanescent waves produced by a dipole into waves traveling in free space, which results in the enhancement of useful radiation by one to two orders of magnitude. That level of enhancement of radiation into free-space which is also wideband and of non-resonant nature has not been reported up to now. These results may open possibilities for realization of broadband and directive antennas, where the primary radiators are randomly positioned fluorescent molecules or quantum dots.

  2. Graphene based tunable fractal Hilbert curve array broadband radar absorbing screen for radar cross section reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xianjun; Hu, Zhirun; Liu, Peiguo

    2014-11-15

    This paper proposes a new type of graphene based tunable radar absorbing screen. The absorbing screen consists of Hilbert curve metal strip array and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) graphene sheet. The graphene based screen is not only tunable when the chemical potential of the graphene changes, but also has broadband effective absorption. The absorption bandwidth is from 8.9GHz to 18.1GHz, ie., relative bandwidth of more than 68%, at chemical potential of 0eV, which is significantly wider than that if the graphene sheet had not been employed. As the chemical potential varies from 0 to 0.4eV, the central frequency of the screen can be tuned from 13.5GHz to 19.0GHz. In the proposed structure, Hilbert curve metal strip array was designed to provide multiple narrow band resonances, whereas the graphene sheet directly underneath the metal strip array provides tunability and averagely required surface resistance so to significantly extend the screen operation bandwidth by providing broadband impedance matching and absorption. In addition, the thickness of the screen has been optimized to achieve nearly the minimum thickness limitation for a nonmagnetic absorber. The working principle of this absorbing screen is studied in details, and performance under various incident angles is presented. This work extends applications of graphene into tunable microwave radar cross section (RCS) reduction applications.

  3. BRIGHT BROADBAND AFTERGLOWS OF GRAVITATIONAL WAVE BURSTS FROM MERGERS OF BINARY NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Gao He; Ding Xuan; Wu Xuefeng; Zhang Bing; Dai Zigao E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu

    2013-07-10

    If double neutron star mergers leave behind a massive magnetar rather than a black hole, then a bright early afterglow can follow the gravitational wave burst (GWB) even if there is no short gamma-ray burst (SGRB)-GWB association or if there is an association but the SGRB does not beam toward Earth. Besides directly dissipating the proto-magnetar wind, as suggested by Zhang, here we suggest that the magnetar wind could push the ejecta launched during the merger process and, under certain conditions, would reach a relativistic speed. Such a magnetar-powered ejecta, when interacting with the ambient medium, would develop a bright broadband afterglow due to synchrotron radiation. We study this physical scenario in detail and present the predicted X-ray, optical, and radio light curves for a range of magnetar and ejecta parameters. We show that the X-ray and optical light curves usually peak around the magnetar spin-down timescale ({approx}10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} s), reaching brightnesses readily detectable by wide-field X-ray and optical telescopes, and remain detectable for an extended period. The radio afterglow peaks later, but is much brighter than the case without a magnetar energy injection. Therefore, such bright broadband afterglows, if detected and combined with GWBs in the future, would be a probe of massive millisecond magnetars and stiff equations of state for nuclear matter.

  4. Broadband wide-angle dispersion measurements: Instrumental setup, alignment, and pitfalls

    SciTech Connect

    Farhang, A.; Abasahl, B.; Dutta-Gupta, S.; Lovera, A.; Martin, O. J. F.; Mandracci, P.; Descrovi, E.

    2013-03-15

    The construction, alignment, and performance of a setup for broadband wide-angle dispersion measurements, with emphasis on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements, are presented in comprehensive detail. In contrast with most SPR instruments working with a monochromatic source, this setup takes advantage of a broadband/white light source and has full capability for automated angle vs. wavelength dispersion measurements for any arbitrary nanostructure array. A cylindrical prism is used rather than a triangular one in order to mitigate refraction induced effects and allow for such measurements. Although seemingly simple, this instrument requires use of many non-trivial methods in order to achieve proper alignment over all angles of incidence. Here we describe the alignment procedure for such a setup, the pitfalls introduced from the finite beam width incident onto the cylindrical prism, and deviations in the reflected/transmitted beam resulting from the finite thickness of the sample substrate. We address every one of these issues and provide experimental evidences on the success of this instrument and the alignment procedure used.

  5. Broadband Heating Rate Profile Project (BBHRP) - SGP 1bbhrpripbe1mcfarlane

    DOE Data Explorer

    Riihimaki, Laura; Shippert, Timothy

    2014-11-05

    The objective of the ARM Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) Project is to provide a structure for the comprehensive assessment of our ability to model atmospheric radiative transfer for all conditions. Required inputs to BBHRP include surface albedo and profiles of atmospheric state (temperature, humidity), gas concentrations, aerosol properties, and cloud properties. In the past year, the Radiatively Important Parameters Best Estimate (RIPBE) VAP was developed to combine all of the input properties needed for BBHRP into a single gridded input file. Additionally, an interface between the RIPBE input file and the RRTM was developed using the new ARM integrated software development environment (ISDE) and effort was put into developing quality control (qc) flags and provenance information on the BBHRP output files so that analysis of the output would be more straightforward. This new version of BBHRP, sgp1bbhrpripbeC1.c1, uses the RIPBE files as input to RRTM, and calculates broadband SW and LW fluxes and heating rates at 1-min resolution using the independent column approximation. The vertical resolution is 45 m in the lower and middle troposphere to match the input cloud properties, but is at coarser resolution in the upper atmosphere. Unlike previous versions, the vertical grid is the same for both clear-sky and cloudy-sky calculations.

  6. Schedule and status of irradiation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Rowcliffe, A.F.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Robertson, J.P.

    1998-09-01

    The current status of reactor irradiation experiments is presented in tables summarizing the experimental objectives, conditions, and schedule. Currently, the program has one irradiation experiment in reactor and five experiments in the design or construction stages. Postirradiation examination and testing is in progress on ten experiments.

  7. AGR-1 Post Irradiation Examination Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Demkowicz, Paul Andrew

    2015-08-01

    The post-irradiation examination (PIE) of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR)-1 experiment was a multi-year, collaborative effort between Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to study the performance of UCO (uranium carbide, uranium oxide) tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel fabricated in the U.S. and irradiated at the Advanced Test Reactor at INL to a peak burnup of 19.6% fissions per initial metal atom. This work involved a broad array of experiments and analyses to evaluate the level of fission product retention by the fuel particles and compacts (both during irradiation and during post-irradiation heating tests to simulate reactor accident conditions), investigate the kernel and coating layer morphology evolution and the causes of coating failure, and explore the migration of fission products through the coating layers. The results have generally confirmed the excellent performance of the AGR-1 fuel, first indicated during the irradiation by the observation of zero TRISO coated particle failures out of 298,000 particles in the experiment. Overall release of fission products was determined by PIE to have been relatively low during the irradiation. A significant finding was the extremely low levels of cesium released through intact coatings. This was true both during the irradiation and during post-irradiation heating tests to temperatures as high as 1800°C. Post-irradiation safety test fuel performance was generally excellent. Silver release from the particles and compacts during irradiation was often very high. Extensive microanalysis of fuel particles was performed after irradiation and after high-temperature safety testing. The results of particle microanalysis indicate that the UCO fuel is effective at controlling the oxygen partial pressure within the particle and limiting kernel migration. Post-irradiation examination has provided the final body of data that speaks to the quality of the AGR-1 fuel, building

  8. Solar total energy project Shenandoah

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-10

    This document presents the description of the final design for the Solar Total Energy System (STES) to be installed at the Shenandoah, Georgia, site for utilization by the Bleyle knitwear plant. The system is a fully cascaded total energy system design featuring high temperature paraboloidal dish solar collectors with a 235 concentration ratio, a steam Rankine cycle power conversion system capable of supplying 100 to 400 kW(e) output with an intermediate process steam take-off point, and a back pressure condenser for heating and cooling. The design also includes an integrated control system employing the supervisory control concept to allow maximum experimental flexibility. The system design criteria and requirements are presented including the performance criteria and operating requirements, environmental conditions of operation; interface requirements with the Bleyle plant and the Georgia Power Company lines; maintenance, reliability, and testing requirements; health and safety requirements; and other applicable ordinances and codes. The major subsystems of the STES are described including the Solar Collection Subysystem (SCS), the Power Conversion Subsystem (PCS), the Thermal Utilization Subsystem (TUS), the Control and Instrumentation Subsystem (CAIS), and the Electrical Subsystem (ES). Each of these sections include design criteria and operational requirements specific to the subsystem, including interface requirements with the other subsystems, maintenance and reliability requirements, and testing and acceptance criteria. (WHK)

  9. Ceramographic Examinations of Irradiated AGR-1 Fuel Compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Demkowicz; Scott Ploger; John Hunn; Jay S. Kehn

    2012-09-01

    The AGR 1 experiment involved irradiating 72 cylindrical fuel compacts containing tri-structural isotropic (TRISO)-coated particles to a peak burnup of 19.5% fissions per initial metal atom with no in-pile failures observed out of almost 300,000 particles. Six irradiated AGR 1 fuel compacts were selected for microscopy that span a range of irradiation conditions (temperature, burnup, and fast fluence). These six compacts also included all four TRISO coating variations irradiated in the AGR experiment. The six compacts were cross-sectioned both transversely and longitudinally, mounted, ground, and polished after development of careful techniques for preserving particle structures against preparation damage. From 36 to 79 particles within each cross section were exposed near enough to midplane for optical microscopy of kernel, buffer, and coating behavior. The microstructural analysis focused on kernel swelling and porosity, buffer densification and fracture, debonding between the buffer and inner pyrolytic carbon (IPyC) layers, and fractures in the IPyC and SiC layers. Three basic particle morphologies were established according to the extent of bonding between the buffer and IPyC layers: complete debonding along the interface (Type A), no debonding along the interface (Type B), and partial debonding (Type AB). These basic morphologies were subdivided according to whether the buffer stayed intact or fractured. The resulting six characteristic morphologies were used to classify particles within each cross section, but no spatial patterns were clearly observed in any of the cross-sectional morphology maps. Although positions of particle types appeared random within compacts, examining a total of 931 classified particles allowed other relationships among morphological types to be established.

  10. RERTR-7 Irradiation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

    2011-12-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-7A, was designed to test several modified fuel designs to target fission densities representative of a peak low enriched uranium (LEU) burnup in excess of 90% U-235 at peak experiment power sufficient to generate a peak surface heat flux of approximately 300 W/cm2. The RERTR-7B experiment was designed as a high power test of 'second generation' dispersion fuels at peak experiment power sufficient to generate a surface heat flux on the order of 230 W/cm2.1 The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-7A and RERTR-7B experiments through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analyses, thermal analyses and hydraulic testing results.

  11. RERTR-10 Irradiation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Perez

    2011-05-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-10 was designed to further test the effectiveness of modified fuel/clad interfaces in monolithic fuel plates. The experiment was conducted in two campaigns: RERTR-10A and RERTR-10B. The fuel plates tested in RERTR-10A were all fabricated by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) and were designed to evaluate the effect of various Si levels in the interlayer and the thickness of the Zr interlayer (0.001”) using 0.010” and 0.020” nominal foil thicknesses. The fuel plates in RERTR-10B were fabricated by Friction Bonding (FB) with two different thickness Si layers and Nb and Zr diffusion barriers.1 The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-10A/B experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

  12. AFIP-3 Irradiation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Danielle M Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

    2011-05-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-3 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic fuels at a prototypic scale of 2.25 inches x 21.5 inches x 0.050 inches (5.75 cm x 54.6 cm x 0.13cm). The AFIP-3 experiment was fabricated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and consists of two plates, one with a zirconium (Zr) diffusion barrier and one with a silicon (Si) enhanced fuel/clad interface1,2. The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-3 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results.

  13. AFIP-3 Irradiation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Danielle M Perez

    2011-04-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-3 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic fuels at a prototypic scale of 2.25 inches x 21.5 inches x 0.050 inches (5.75 cm x 54.6 cm x 0.13cm). The AFIP-3 experiment was fabricated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and consists of two plates, one with a zirconium (Zr) diffusion barrier and one with a silicon (Si) enhanced fuel/clad interface1,2. The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-3 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results.

  14. AFIP-3 Irradiation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Danielle M Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

    2012-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-3 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic fuels at a prototypic scale of 2.25 inches x 21.5 inches x 0.050 inches (5.75 cm x 54.6 cm x 0.13cm). The AFIP-3 experiment was fabricated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and consists of two plates, one with a zirconium (Zr) diffusion barrier and one with a silicon (Si) enhanced fuel/clad interface1,2. The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-3 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results.

  15. Broadband surface plasmon jets: direct observation of plasmon propagation for application to sensors and optical communications in microscale and nanoscale circuitry

    DOEpatents

    Bouhelier, Alexandre; Wiederrecht, Gary P.

    2008-02-19

    A system and method for generating and using broadband surface plasmons in a metal film for characterization of analyte on or near the metal film. The surface plasmons interact with the analyte and generate leakage radiation which has spectral features which can be used to inspect, identify and characterize the analyte. The broadband plasmon excitation enables high-bandwidth photonic applications.

  16. Lung Irradiation Increases Mortality After Influenza A Virus Challenge Occurring Late After Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, Casey M.; Johnston, Carl J.; Reed, Christina K.; Lawrence, B. Paige; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Finkelstein, Jacob N.

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: To address whether irradiation-induced changes in the lung environment alter responses to a viral challenge delivered late after exposure but before the appearance of late lung radiation injury. Methods and Materials: C57BL/6J mice received either lung alone or combined lung and whole-body irradiation (0-15 Gy). At 10 weeks after irradiation, animals were infected with 120 HAU influenza virus strain A/HKx31. Innate and adaptive immune cell recruitment was determined using flow cytometry. Cytokine and chemokine production and protein leakage into the lung after infection were assessed. Results: Prior irradiation led to a dose-dependent failure to regain body weight after infection and exacerbated mortality, but it did not affect virus-specific immune responses or virus clearance. Surviving irradiated animals displayed a persistent increase in total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and edema. Conclusions: Lung irradiation increased susceptibility to death after infection with influenza virus and impaired the ability to complete recovery. This altered response does not seem to be due to a radiation effect on the immune response, but it may possibly be an effect on epithelial repair.

  17. Total quality management implementation guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    These Guidelines were designed by the Energy Quality Council to help managers and supervisors in the Department of Energy Complex bring Total Quality Management to their organizations. Because the Department is composed of a rich mixture of diverse organizations, each with its own distinctive culture and quality history, these Guidelines are intended to be adapted by users to meet the particular needs of their organizations. For example, for organizations that are well along on their quality journeys and may already have achieved quality results, these Guidelines will provide a consistent methodology and terminology reference to foster their alignment with the overall Energy quality initiative. For organizations that are just beginning their quality journeys, these Guidelines will serve as a startup manual on quality principles applied in the Energy context.

  18. Total Imports of Residual Fuel

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History U.S. Total 133,646 119,888 93,672 82,173 63,294 69,914 1936-2015 PAD District 1 88,999 79,188 59,594 33,566 30,944 34,524 1981-2015 Connecticut 220 129 1995-2015 Delaware 748 1,704 510 1,604 2,479 1995-2015 Florida 15,713 11,654 10,589 8,331 5,055 7,198 1995-2015 Georgia 5,648 7,668 6,370 4,038 2,037 1,629 1995-2015 Maine 1,304 651 419 75 317 135 1995-2015 Maryland 3,638 1,779 1,238 433 938 589 1995-2015 Massachusetts 123 50 78 542 88 1995-2015 New

  19. Total Imports of Residual Fuel

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History U.S. Total 8,596 6,340 4,707 8,092 8,512 8,017 1936-2016 PAD District 1 2,694 1,250 1,327 2,980 2,074 3,566 1981-2016 Connecticut 1995-2015 Delaware 280 231 385 1995-2016 Florida 800 200 531 499 765 1995-2016 Georgia 149 106 1995-2016 Maine 1995-2015 Maryland 84 66 1995-2016 Massachusetts 1995-2015 New Hampshire 1995-2015 New Jersey 1,073 734 355 1,984 399 1,501 1995-2016 New York 210 196 175 1,223 653 1995-2016 North Carolina 1995-2011

  20. Total quality management program planning

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, P.T.; Spence, K.

    1994-05-01

    As government funding grows scarce, competition between the national laboratories is increasing dramatically. In this era of tougher competition, there is no for resistance to change. There must instead be a uniform commitment to improving the overall quality of our products (research and technology) and an increased focus on our customers` needs. There has been an ongoing effort to bring the principles of total quality management (TQM) to all Energy Systems employees to help them better prepare for future changes while responding to the pressures on federal budgets. The need exists for instituting a vigorous program of education and training to an understanding of the techniques needed to improve and initiate a change in organizational culture. The TQM facilitator is responsible for educating the work force on the benefits of self-managed work teams, designing a program of instruction for implementation, and thus getting TQM off the ground at the worker and first-line supervisory levels so that the benefits can flow back up. This program plan presents a conceptual model for TQM in the form of a hot air balloon. In this model, there are numerous factors which can individually and collectively impede the progress of TQM within the division and the Laboratory. When these factors are addressed and corrected, the benefits of TQM become more visible. As this occurs, it is hoped that workers and management alike will grasp the ``total quality`` concept as an acceptable agent for change and continual improvement. TQM can then rise to the occasion and take its rightful place as an integral and valid step in the Laboratory`s formula for survival.

  1. Radiochemistry Results from the IER-163 COMET Irradiation (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Radiochemistry Results from the IER-163 COMET Irradiation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Radiochemistry Results from the IER-163 COMET Irradiation The ...

  2. Working with SRNL - Our Facilities- Gamma Irradiation Facility

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    for irradiating solid and liquid samples, allowing a wide range of tests to determine the effects of radiation on materials. Typically, the Gamma Irradiation Facility is used to...

  3. Spatial correlation of energy deposition events in irradiated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    events in irradiated liquid water Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spatial correlation of energy deposition events in irradiated liquid water You are accessing a ...

  4. Spatial correlation of energy deposition events in irradiated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    events in irradiated liquid water Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spatial correlation of energy deposition events in irradiated liquid water Monte Carlo electron ...

  5. PLUTONIUM-238 RECOVERY FROM IRRADIATED NEPTUNIUM TARGETS USING...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PLUTONIUM-238 RECOVERY FROM IRRADIATED ... and purifying 238Pu and unconverted 237Np post irradiation is by anion exchange (IX). ...

  6. Post Irradiation Examination of Stainless Steel Cladding from...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Post Irradiation Examination of Stainless Steel Cladding from In-Reactor Permeation Experiment Post Irradiation Examination of Stainless Steel Cladding from In-Reactor Permeation ...

  7. Design of a Compact Fatigue Tester for Testing Irradiated Materials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a hot cell for characterization of irradiated materials is beneficial to help determine relative fatigue performance differences between new and irradiated material. Hot cell use ...

  8. Production of high Resoulution Irradiance Data for Central America...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    irradiance (GHI) and direct irradiance (DNI) data sets for the countries of Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. Much of our initial effort focused on building up...

  9. ARM: Multi-Filter Radiometer (MFR): upwelling irradiance at 3...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multi-Filter Radiometer (MFR): upwelling irradiance at 3-meter height Title: ARM: Multi-Filter Radiometer (MFR): upwelling irradiance at 3-meter height Multi-Filter Radiometer ...

  10. ARM: Baseline Solar Radiation Network (BSRN): solar irradiances...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Baseline Solar Radiation Network (BSRN): solar irradiances Title: ARM: Baseline Solar Radiation Network (BSRN): solar irradiances Baseline Solar Radiation Network (BSRN): solar ...

  11. Methods for Post Irradiation Examination of Tritium Producing...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Methods for Post Irradiation Examination of Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods Methods for Post Irradiation Examination of Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods...

  12. Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Wednesday, 28 July 2010 00:00 Human bone is strong ...

  13. EIS-0523: Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Non-Contiguous United States

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) in the U.S. Department of Commerce is preparing, with DOE as a cooperating agency, a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) that will analyze the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to design, deploy and operate the Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network. This PEIS covers the non-contiguous United States.

  14. EIS-0523: Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Non-Contiguous United States

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) in the U.S. Department of Commerce is preparing, with DOE as a cooperating agency, a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) that will analyze the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to design, deploy and operate the Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network. This PEIS covers the non-contiguous United States.

  15. Total-derivative supersymmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Haba, Naoyuki; Uekusa, Nobuhiro

    2010-05-15

    On an interval compactification in supersymmetric theory, boundary conditions for bulk fields must be treated carefully. If they are taken arbitrarily following the requirement that a theory is supersymmetric, the conditions could give redundant constraints on the theory. We construct a supersymmetric action integral on an interval by introducing brane interactions with which total-derivative terms under the supersymmetry transformation become zero due to a cancellation. The variational principle leads equations of motion and also boundary conditions for bulk fields, which determine boundary values of bulk fields. By estimating mass spectrum, spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in this simple setup can be realized in a new framework. This supersymmetry breaking does not induce a massless R axion, which is favorable for phenomenology. It is worth noting that fermions in hyper-multiplet, gauge bosons, and the fifth-dimensional component of gauge bosons can have zero-modes (while the other components are all massive as Kaluza-Klein modes), which fits the gauge-Higgs unification scenarios.

  16. Infrared spectroscopy study of irradiated PVDF

    SciTech Connect

    Chappa, Veronica; Grosso, Mariela del; Garcia Bermudez, Gerardo; Behar, Moni

    2007-10-26

    The effects induced by 1 MeV/amu ion irradiations were compared to those induced by 4-12 MeV/amu irradiations. Structural analysis with infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was carried out on PVDF irradiated using C and He beams with different fluences. From these spectra it was observed, as a function of fluence, an overall destruction of the polymer, amorphization of the crystalline regions and the creation of in-chain unsaturations. The track dimensions were determined using a previously developed Monte Carlo simulation code and these results were compared to a semiempirical model.

  17. Measuring Degradation Rates Without Irradiance Data

    SciTech Connect

    Pulver, S.; Cormode, D.; Cronin, A.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Smith, R.

    2011-02-01

    A method to report PV system degradation rates without using irradiance data is demonstrated. First, a set of relative degradation rates are determined by comparing daily AC final yields from a group of PV systems relative to the average final yield of all the PV systems. Then, the difference between relative and absolute degradation rates is found from a statistical analysis. This approach is verified by comparing to methods that utilize irradiance data. This approach is significant because PV systems are often deployed without irradiance sensors, so the analysis method described here may enable measurements of degradation using data that were previously thought to be unsuitable for degradation studies.

  18. Gamma-ray irradiated polymer optical waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, C.-C.; Wei, T.-Y.; Chang, C.-Y.; Wang, W.-S.; Wei, Y.-Y.

    2008-01-14

    Optical waveguides fabricated by gamma-ray irradiation on polymer through a gold mask are presented. The gamma-ray induced index change is found almost linearly dependent on the dose of the irradiation. And the measured propagation losses are low enough for practical application. Due to the high penetrability of gamma ray, uniform refractive index change in depth can be easily achieved. Moreover, due to large-area printing, the uniformity of waveguide made by gamma-ray irradiation is much better than that by e-beam direct writing.

  19. Note: High-efficiency broadband acoustic energy harvesting using Helmholtz resonator and dual piezoelectric cantilever beams

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Aichao; Li, Ping Wen, Yumei; Lu, Caijiang; Peng, Xiao; He, Wei; Zhang, Jitao; Wang, Decai; Yang, Feng

    2014-06-15

    A high-efficiency broadband acoustic energy harvester consisting of a compliant-top-plate Helmholtz resonator (HR) and dual piezoelectric cantilever beams is proposed. Due to the high mechanical quality factor of beams and the strong multimode coupling of HR cavity, top plate and beams, the high efficiency in a broad bandwidth is obtained. Experiment exhibits that the proposed harvester at 170–206 Hz has 28–188 times higher efficiency than the conventional harvester using a HR with a piezoelectric composite diaphragm. For input acoustic pressure of 2.0 Pa, the proposed harvester exhibits 0.137–1.43 mW output power corresponding to 0.035–0.36 μW cm{sup −3} volume power density at 170–206 Hz.

  20. Simulation of a cascaded longitudinal space charge amplifier for broadband radiation production using a superconducting linac

    SciTech Connect

    Halavanau, A.; Piot, P.

    2015-10-02

    Longitudinal space charge (LSC) effects are generally considered as harmful in free-electron lasers as they can seed unfavorable energy modulations that can result in density modulations with associated emittance dilution. It was pointed out, however, that such \\micro-bunching instabilities" could be potentially useful to support the generation of broadband coherent radiation. Therefore there has been an increasing interest in devising accelerator beam lines capable of controlling LSC induced density modulations. In the present paper we augment these previous investigations by combining a grid-less space charge algorithm with the popular particle-tracking program elegant. This high-fidelity model of the space charge is used to benchmark conventional LSC models. We then employ the developed model to optimize the performance of a cascaded longitudinal space charge amplifier using beam parameters comparable to the ones achievable at Fermilab Accelerator Science & Technology (FAST) facility currently under commissioning at Fermilab

  1. Cascading metallic gratings for broadband absorption enhancement in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Long; Sun, Fuhe; Chen, Qin

    2014-04-14

    The incorporation of plasmonic nanostructures in the thin-film solar cells (TFSCs) is a promising route to harvest light into the nanoscale active layer. However, the light trapping scheme based on the plasmonic effects intrinsically presents narrow-band resonant enhancement of light absorption. Here we demonstrate that by cascading metal nanogratings with different sizes atop the TFSCs, broadband absorption enhancement can be realized by simultaneously exciting multiple localized surface plasmon resonances and inducing strong coupling between the plasmonic modes and photonic modes. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate of 66.5% in the photocurrent in an ultrathin amorphous silicon TFSC with two-dimensional cascaded gratings over the reference cell without gratings.

  2. High performance anti-reflection coatings for broadband multi-junction solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    AIKEN,DANIEL J.

    2000-02-23

    The success of bandgap engineering has made high efficiency broadband multi-junction solar cells possible with photo-response out to the band edge of Ge. Modeling has been conducted which suggests that current double layer anti-reflection coating technology is not adequate for these devices in certain cases. Approaches for the development of higher performance anti-reflection coatings are examined. A new AR coating structure based on the use of Herpin equivalent layers is presented. Optical modeling suggests a decrease in the solar weighted reflectance of over 2.5{percent} absolute as a result. This structure requires no additional optical material development and characterization because no new optical materials are necessary. Experimental results and a sensitivity analysis are presented.

  3. Development of a ten inch manipulators-based, flexible, broadband two-crystal spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Steel, A. B. Dunn, J.; Emig, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V.; Shepherd, R.; Marley, E. V.; Hoarty, D. J.

    2014-11-15

    We have developed and implemented a broadband X-ray spectrometer with a variable energy range for use at the Atomic Weapons Establishment's Orion Laser. The spectrometer covers an energy bandwidth of ∼1–2 keV using two independently mounted, movable Bragg diffraction crystals. Using combinations of cesium hydrogen pthlate, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, and pentaerythritol crystals, spectra covering the 1.4–2.5, 1.85–3.15, or 3.55–5.1 keV energy bands have been measured. Image plate is used for detection owing to its high dynamic range. Background signals caused by high energy X-rays and particles commonly produced in high energy laser experiments are reduced by a series of tantalum baffles and filters installed between the source and crystal and also between the crystals and detector.

  4. Broadband enhancement of local density of states using silicon-compatible hyperbolic metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yu; Inampudi, Sandeep; Capretti, Antonio; Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Fujii, Minoru; Dal Negro, Luca

    2015-06-15

    Light emitting silicon quantum dots by colloidal synthesis were uniformly spin-coated into a 20 nm-thick film and deposited atop a hyperbolic metamaterial of alternating TiN and SiO{sub 2} sub-wavelength layers. Using steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy as a function of the emission wavelength in partnership with rigorous electromagnetic modeling of dipolar emission, we demonstrate enhanced Local Density of States and coupling to high-k modes in a broad spectral range. These findings provide an alternative approach for the engineering of novel Si-compatible broadband sources that leverage the control of radiative transitions in hyperbolic metamaterials and the flexibility of the widespread Si platform.

  5. Broadband asymmetric acoustic transmission by a plate with quasi-periodic surface ridges

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chunhui; Ke, Manzhu Ye, Yangtao; Xu, Shengjun; Qiu, Chunyin; Liu, Zhengyou

    2014-07-14

    In this paper, an acoustic system with broadband asymmetric transmission is designed and fabricated, which consists of a water-immersed aluminum plate engraved with quasi-periodically-patterned ridges on single surface. It demonstrates that when the acoustic waves are launched into the system from the structured side, they can couple into the Lamb modes in the plate efficiently and attain a high transmission; on the contrary, when the waves are incident from the opposite flat side, the coupling is weak, and the transmission is low. Superior to systems with periodic patterning, this quasi-periodically-patterned system has a broad working frequency range due to the collective contributions from the multiple diffractions specific to the structure.

  6. Generation of broadband terahertz radiation using a backward wave oscillator and pseudospark-sourced electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    He, W.; Zhang, L.; Bowes, D.; Yin, H.; Ronald, K.; Phelps, A. D. R.; Cross, A. W.

    2015-09-28

    This paper presents for the generation of a small size high current density pseudospark (PS) electron beam for a high frequency (0.2 THz) Backward Wave Oscillator (BWO) through a Doppler up-shift of the plasma frequency. An electron beam ∼1 mm diameter carrying a current of up to 10 A and current density of 10{sup 8} A m{sup −2}, with a sweeping voltage of 42 to 25 kV and pulse duration of 25 ns, was generated from the PS discharge. This beam propagated through the rippled-wall slow wave structure of a BWO beam-wave interaction region in a plasma environment without the need for a guiding magnetic field. Plasma wave assisted beam-wave interaction resulted in broadband output over a frequency range of 186–202 GHz with a maximum power of 20 W.

  7. BROADBAND STUDY OF GRB 091127: A SUB-ENERGETIC BURST AT HIGHER REDSHIFT?

    SciTech Connect

    Troja, E.; Sakamoto, T.; Brown, J. C.; Gehrels, N.; Marshall, F. E.; Racusin, J. L.; Guidorzi, C.; Norris, J. P.; Panaitescu, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Mawson, N.; Melandri, A.; Mundell, C. G.; Steele, I. A.; Omodei, N.; Burrows, D. N.; Evans, P. A.; Oates, S. R.; Pal'shin, V.; Preece, R. D.; and others

    2012-12-10

    GRB 091127 is a bright gamma-ray burst (GRB) detected by Swift at a redshift z = 0.49 and associated with SN 2009nz. We present the broadband analysis of the GRB prompt and afterglow emission and study its high-energy properties in the context of the GRB/SN association. While the high luminosity of the prompt emission and standard afterglow behavior are typical of cosmological long GRBs, its low-energy release (E{sub {gamma}} < 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 49} erg), soft spectrum, and unusual spectral lag connect this GRB to the class of sub-energetic bursts. We discuss the suppression of high-energy emission in this burst, and investigate whether this behavior could be connected with the sub-energetic nature of the explosion.

  8. A broadband single-chip transceiver for multi-nuclear NMR probes

    SciTech Connect

    Grisi, Marco Gualco, Gabriele; Boero, Giovanni

    2015-04-15

    In this article, we present an integrated broadband complementary metal-oxide semiconductor single-chip transceiver suitable for the realization of multi-nuclear pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probes. The realized single-chip transceiver can be interfaced with on-chip integrated microcoils or external LC resonators operating in the range from 1 MHz to 1 GHz. The dimension of the chip is about 1 mm{sup 2}. It consists of a radio-frequency (RF) power amplifier, a low-noise RF preamplifier, a frequency mixer, an audio-frequency amplifier, and fully integrated transmit-receive switches. As specific example, we show its use for multi-nuclear NMR spectroscopy. With an integrated coil of about 150 μm external diameter, a {sup 1}H spin sensitivity of about 1.5 × 10{sup 13} spins/Hz{sup 1/2} is achieved at 7 T.

  9. Invited article: Broadband highly-efficient dielectric metadevices for polarization control

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Kruk, Sergey; Hopkins, Ben; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Miroshnichenko, Andrey; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2016-06-06

    Metadevices based on dielectric nanostructured surfaces with both electric and magnetic Mie-type resonances have resulted in the best efficiency to date for functional flat optics with only one disadvantage: a narrow operational bandwidth. Here we experimentally demonstrate broadband transparent all-dielectric metasurfaces for highly efficient polarization manipulation. We utilize the generalized Huygens principle, with a superposition of the scattering contributions from several electric and magnetic multipolar modes of the constituent meta-atoms, to achieve destructive interference in reflection over a large spectral bandwidth. Furthermore, by employing this novel concept, we demonstrate reflectionless (~90% transmission) half-wave plates, quarter-wave plates, and vector beam q-platesmore » that can operate across multiple telecom bands with ~99% polarization conversion efficiency.« less

  10. Investigating Broadband Variability of the TeV Blazar 1ES 1959+650

    SciTech Connect

    Aliu, E.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Barnacka, A.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Berger, K.; Bird, R.; Bouvier, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dumm, J.; Eisch, J. D.; Falcone, A.; Federici, S.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fleischhack, H.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Hughes, G.; Hughes, Z.; Humensky, T. B.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kertzman, M.; Khassen, Y.; Kieda, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Madhavan, A. S.; Majumdar, P.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Meagher, K.; Millis, J.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nelson, T.; Nieto, D.; O'Faolain de Bhroithe, A.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Prokoph, H.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Rajotte, J.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Sadun, A.; Santander, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Sheidaei, F.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Theiling, M.; Tyler, J.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Wakeley, S. P.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Welsing, R.; Wilhelm, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.; Boettcher, M.; Fumagalli, M.

    2014-12-03

    We summarize broadband observations of the TeV-emitting blazar 1ES 1959 650, including optical R-band observations by the robotic telescopes Super-LOTIS and iTelescope, UV observations by Swift Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope, X-ray observations by the Swift X-ray Telescope, high-energy gamma-ray observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope, and very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray observations by VERITAS above 315 GeV, all taken between 2012 April 17 and 2012 June 1 (MJD 56034 and 56079). The contemporaneous variability of the broadband spectral energy distribution is explored in the context of a simple synchrotron self Compton (SSC) model. In the SSC emission scenario, we find that the parameters required to represent the high state are significantly different than those in the low state. Motivated by possible evidence of gas in the vicinity of the blazar, we also investigate a reflected emission model to describe the observed variability pattern. This model assumes that the non-thermal emission from the jet is reflected by a nearby cloud of gas, allowing the reflected emission to re-enter the blob and produce an elevated gamma-ray state with no simultaneous elevated synchrotron flux. The model applied here, although not required to explain the observed variability pattern, represents one possible scenario which can describe the observations. As applied to an elevated VHE state of 66% of the Crab Nebula flux, observed on a single night during the observation period, the reflected emission scenario does not support a purely leptonic non-thermal emission mechanism. The reflected model does, however, predict a reflected photon field with sufficient energy to enable elevated gamma-ray emission via pion production with protons of energies between 10 and 100 TeV.

  11. Investigating broadband variability of the TeV blazar 1ES 1959+650

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Aliu, E.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Barnacka, A.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Berger, K.; Bird, R.; Bouvier, A.; et al

    2014-12-03

    We summarize broadband observations of the TeV-emitting blazar 1ES 1959 650, including optical R-band observations by the robotic telescopes Super-LOTIS and iTelescope, UV observations by Swift UVOT, X-ray observations by the Swift X-ray Telescope, high-energy gamma-ray observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope, and very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray observations by VERITAS above 315 GeV, all taken between 2012 April 17 and 2012 June 1 (MJD 56034 and 56079). The contemporaneous variability of the broadband spectral energy distribution is explored in the context of a simple synchrotron self Compton (SSC) model. In the SSC emission scenario, we find that the parameters requiredmore » to represent the high state are significantly different than those in the low state. Motivated by possible evidence of gas in the vicinity of the blazar, we also investigate a reflected emission model to describe the observed variability pattern. This model assumes that the non-thermal emission from the jet is reflected by a nearby cloud of gas, allowing the reflected emission to re-enter the blob and produce an elevated gamma-ray state with no simultaneous elevated synchrotron flux. The model applied here, although not required to explain the observed variability pattern, represents one possible scenario which can describe the observations. As applied to an elevated VHE state of 66% of the Crab Nebula flux, observed on a single night during the observation period, the reflected emission scenario does not support a purely leptonic non-thermal emission mechanism. The reflected model does, however, predict a reflected photon field with sufficient energy to enable elevated gamma-ray emission via pion production with protons of energies between 10 and 100 TeV.« less

  12. Investigating broadband variability of the TeV blazar 1ES 1959+650

    SciTech Connect

    Aliu, E.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Barnacka, A.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Berger, K.; Bird, R.; Bouvier, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dumm, J.; Eisch, J. D.; Falcone, A.; Federici, S.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fleischhack, H.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gillanders, G. H.; Griffin, S.; Griffiths, S. T.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Håkansson, N.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Hughes, G.; Hughes, Z.; Humensky, T. B.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kertzman, M.; Khassen, Y.; Kieda, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Madhavan, A. S.; Majumdar, P.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Meagher, K.; Millis, J.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nelson, T.; Nieto, D.; de Bhróithe, A. O'Faoláin; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Prokoph, H.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Rajotte, J.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Sadun, A.; Santander, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Sheidaei, F.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Theiling, M.; Tyler, J.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Welsing, R.; Wilhelm, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, and B.; Böttcher, M.; Fumagalli, M.

    2014-12-03

    We summarize broadband observations of the TeV-emitting blazar 1ES 1959 650, including optical R-band observations by the robotic telescopes Super-LOTIS and iTelescope, UV observations by Swift UVOT, X-ray observations by the Swift X-ray Telescope, high-energy gamma-ray observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope, and very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray observations by VERITAS above 315 GeV, all taken between 2012 April 17 and 2012 June 1 (MJD 56034 and 56079). The contemporaneous variability of the broadband spectral energy distribution is explored in the context of a simple synchrotron self Compton (SSC) model. In the SSC emission scenario, we find that the parameters required to represent the high state are significantly different than those in the low state. Motivated by possible evidence of gas in the vicinity of the blazar, we also investigate a reflected emission model to describe the observed variability pattern. This model assumes that the non-thermal emission from the jet is reflected by a nearby cloud of gas, allowing the reflected emission to re-enter the blob and produce an elevated gamma-ray state with no simultaneous elevated synchrotron flux. The model applied here, although not required to explain the observed variability pattern, represents one possible scenario which can describe the observations. As applied to an elevated VHE state of 66% of the Crab Nebula flux, observed on a single night during the observation period, the reflected emission scenario does not support a purely leptonic non-thermal emission mechanism. The reflected model does, however, predict a reflected photon field with sufficient energy to enable elevated gamma-ray emission via pion production with protons of energies between 10 and 100 TeV.

  13. Tensile properties of irradiated nuclear grade pressure vessel welds for the third HSST irradiation series

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, J.J.

    1985-03-01

    The Heavy Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program conducted a series of experiments to investigate the effect of neutron irradiation on the fracture toughness of nuclear pressure vessel materials. Four welds of A 508 class 2 steel were examined in this Third HSST Irradiation Series. The welds were fabricated according to ''early'' (pre-1972) light-water reactor weld practice (i.e., copper-coated electrodes). As part of this study, tensile properties were measured after irradiation to 2 to 10 x 10/sup 22/ neutrons/m/sup 2/ (E > 1 MeV) at temperatures between 250 and 290/sup 0/C. Strength properties of all four welds increased with exposure to irradiation. Yield strength was more sensitive to irradiation than was ultimate strength. Tensile ductility was not affected significantly by exposure to irradiation.

  14. ,"West Virginia Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Data for" ,"Data 1","West Virginia Natural Gas Total Consumption ... AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: West Virginia Natural Gas Total Consumption (MMcf)" ...

  15. ,"Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Exports"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products ... "Back to Contents","Data 1: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Exports" ...

  16. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing...

  17. Total Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Total Working Gas Capacity Total Number of Existing Fields Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources ...

  18. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

  19. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  20. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

  1. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

  2. Sandia National Laboratories: Research: Facilities: Gamma Irradiation...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    second. The neutron irradiation system consisting of the AmBe source and a large polyethylene chamber provides neutron dose rates from 10-6 radsecond to 10-5 radsecond....

  3. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband diffuse downwelling irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband diffuse downwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, that has been scattered in the atmosphere at least once, passes through a horizontal unit area in a downward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is

  4. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband diffuse upwelling irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    upwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband diffuse upwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, that has been scattered in the atmosphere at least once, passes through a horizontal unit area in an upward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is

  5. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband direct downwelling irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband direct downwelling irradiance The direct unscattered radiant energy from the Sun, in a narrow band of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, passing through a horizontal unit area in a downward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for

  6. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave spectral diffuse downwelling irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    diffuse downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave spectral diffuse downwelling irradiance The rate at which spectrally resolved radiant energy at wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, that has been scattered in the atmosphere at least once, passes through a horizontal unit area in a downward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above

  7. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave spectral direct normal irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    direct normal irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave spectral direct normal irradiance The narrow spectral range of measurements coming directly from the sun whose wavelength falls within the solar range of 0.4 and 4 {mu}m. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream

  8. Neutron Irradiation Resistance of RAFM Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Gaganidze, Ermile; Dafferner, Bernhard; Aktaa, Jarir

    2008-07-01

    The neutron irradiation resistance of the reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel EUROFER97 and international reference steels (F82H-mod, OPTIFER-Ia, GA3X and MANET-I) have been investigated after irradiation in the Petten High Flux Reactor up to 16.3 dpa at different irradiation temperatures (250-450 deg. C). The embrittlement behavior and hardening are investigated by instrumented Charpy-V tests with sub-size specimens. Neutron irradiation-induced embrittlement and hardening of EUROFER97 was studied under different heat treatment conditions. Embrittlement and hardening of as-delivered EUROFER97 steel are comparable to those of reference steels. Heat treatment of EUROFER97 at a higher austenitizing temperature substantially improves the embrittlement behaviour at low irradiation temperatures. Analysis of embrittlement vs. hardening behavior of RAFM steels within a proper model in terms of the parameter C={delta}DBTT/{delta}{sigma} indicates hardening-dominated embrittlement at irradiation temperatures below 350 deg. C with 0.17 {<=} C {<=} 0.53 deg. C/MPa. Scattering of C at irradiation temperatures above 400 deg. C indicates non hardening embrittlement. A role of He in a process of embrittlement is investigated in EUROFER97 based steels, that are doped with different contents of natural B and the separated {sup 10}B-isotope (0.008-0.112 wt.%). Testing on small scale fracture mechanical specimens for determination of quasi-static fracture toughness will be also presented in a view of future irradiation campaigns. (authors)

  9. The Role of Electron Transport and Trapping in MOS Total-Dose Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Fleetwood, D.M.; Winokur, P.S.; Riewe, L.C.; Flament, O.; Paillet, P.; Leray, J.L.

    1999-07-19

    Radiation-induced hole and electron transport and trapping are fundamental to MOS total-dose models. Here we separate the effects of electron-hole annihilation and electron trapping on the neutralization of radiation-induced charge during switched-bias irradiation for hard and soft oxides, via combined thermally stimulated current (TSC) and capacitance-voltage measurements. We also show that present total-dose models cannot account for the thermal stability of deeply trapped electrons near the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface, or the inability of electrons in deep or shallow traps to contribute to TSC at positive bias following (1) room-temperature, (2) high-temperature, or (3) switched-bias irradiation. These results require revisions of modeling parameters and boundary conditions for hole and electron transport in SiO{sub 2}. The nature of deep and shallow electron traps in the near-interfacial SiO{sub 2} is discussed.

  10. Pyrolysis of Municipal Solid Waste for Syngas Production by Microwave Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gedam, Vidyadhar V.; Regupathi, Iyyaswami

    2012-03-15

    In the present study, we discuss the application of microwave-irradiated pyrolysis of municipal solid waste (MSW) for total recovery of useful gases and energy. The MSW pyrolysis under microwave irradiation highly depends on the process parameters, like microwave power, microwave absorbers, and time of irradiation. The thoroughness of pyrolysis and product recovery were studied by changing the abovesaid variables. Pyrolysis of MSW occurs in the power rating range of 450-850 W-outside this power rating range, pyrolysis is not possible. Experiments were carried out using various microwave absorbers (i.e., graphite, charcoal, and iron) to enhance the pyrolysis even at lower power rating. The results show that the pyrolysis of MSW was possible even at low power ratings. The major composition of the pyrolysis gaseous product were analyzed with GC-MS which includes CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, etc.

  11. Manipulation of transport hysteresis on graphene field effect transistors with Ga ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Quan, E-mail: wangq@mail.ujs.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Liu, Shuai; Ren, Naifei [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2014-09-29

    We have studied the effect of Ga ion irradiation on the controllable hysteretic behavior of graphene field effect transistors fabricated on Si/SO{sub 2} substrates. The various densities of defects in graphene were monitored by Raman spectrum. It was found that the Dirac point shifted to the positive gate voltage constantly, while the hysteretic behavior was enhanced first and then weakened, with the dose of ion irradiation increasing. By contrasting the trap charges density induced by dopant and the total density of effective trap charges, it demonstrated that adsorbate doping was not the decisive factor that induced the hysteretic behavior. The tunneling between the defect sites induced by ion irradiation was also an important cause for the hysteresis.

  12. Spatial Variability of Surface Irradiance Measurements at the Manus ARM Site

    SciTech Connect

    Riihimaki, Laura D.; Long, Charles N.

    2014-05-16

    The location of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site on Manus island in Papua New Guinea was chosen because it is very close the coast, in a geographically at, near-sea level area of the island, minimizing the impact of local island effects on the meteorology of the measurements [Ackerman et al., 1999]. In this study, we confirm that the Manus site is in deed less impacted by the island meteorology than slightly inland by comparing over a year of broadband surface irradiance and ceilometer measurements and derived quantities at the standard Manus site and a second location 7 km away as part of the AMIE-Manus campaign. The two sites show statistically similar distributions of irradiance and other derived quantities for all wind directions except easterly winds, when the inland site is down wind from the standard Manus site. Under easterly wind conditions, which occur 17% of the time, there is a higher occurrence of cloudiness at the down wind site likely do to land heating and orographic effects. This increased cloudiness is caused by shallow, broken clouds often with bases around 700 m in altitude. While the central Manus site consistently measures a frequency of occurrence of low clouds (cloud base height less than 1200 m) about 25+4% regardless of wind direction, the AMIE site has higher frequencies of low clouds (38%) when winds are from the east. This increase in low, locally produced clouds causes an additional -20 W/m2 shortwave surface cloud radiative effect at the AMIE site in easterly conditions than in other meteorological conditions that exhibit better agreement between the two sites.

  13. Review of recent irradiation-creep results

    SciTech Connect

    Coghlan, W.A.

    1982-05-01

    Materials deform faster under stress in the presence of irradiation by a process known as irradiation creep. This phenomenon is important to reactor design and has been the subject of a large number of experimental and theoretical investigations. The purpose of this work is to review the recent experimental results to obtain a summary of these results and to determine those research areas that require additional information. The investigations have been classified into four subgroups based on the different experimental methods used. These four are: (1) irradiation creep using stress relaxation methods, (2) creep measurements using pressurized tubes, (3) irradiation creep from constant applied load, and (4) irradiation creep experiments using accelerated particles. The similarity and the differences of the results from these methods are discussed and a summary of important results and suggested areas for research is presented. In brief, the important results relate to the dependence of creep on swelling, temperature, stress state and alloying additions. In each of these areas new results have been presented and new questions have arisen which require further research to answer. 65 references.

  14. Measurement of Diameter Changes during Irradiation Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, K. L.; Knudson, D. L.; Crepeau, J. C.; Solstad, S.

    2015-03-01

    New materials are being considered for fuel, cladding, and structures in advanced and existing nuclear reactors. Such materials can experience significant dimensional and physical changes during irradiation. Currently in the US, such changes are measured by repeatedly irradiating a specimen for a specified period of time and then removing it from the reactor for evaluation. The time and labor to remove, examine, and return irradiated samples for each measurement makes this approach very expensive. In addition, such techniques provide limited data and handling may disturb the phenomena of interest. In-pile detection of changes in geometry is sorely needed to understand real-time behavior during irradiation testing of fuels and materials in high flux US Material and Test Reactors (MTRs). This paper presents development results of an advanced Linear Variable Differential Transformer-based test rig capable of detecting real-time changes in diameter of fuel rods or material samples during irradiation in US MTRs. This test rig is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory and will provide experimenters with a unique capability to measure diameter changes associated with fuel and cladding swelling, pellet-clad interaction, and crud buildup.

  15. Janus Experiments: Data from Mouse Irradiation Experiments 1972 - 1989

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Janus Experiments, carried out at Argonne National Laboratory from 1972 to 1989 and supported by grants from the US Department of Energy, investigated the effects of neutron and gamma radiation on mouse tissues primarily from B6CF1 mice. 49,000 mice were irradiated: Death records were recorded for 42,000 mice; gross pathologies were recorded for 39,000 mice; and paraffin embedded tissues were preserved for most mice. Mouse record details type and source of radiation [gamma, neutrons]; dose and dose rate [including life span irradiation]; type and presence/absence of radioprotector treatment; tissue/animal morphology and pathology. Protracted low dose rate treatments, short term higher dose rate treatments, variable dose rates with a same total dose, etc. in some cases in conjunction with radioprotectors, were administered. Normal tissues, tumors, metastases were preserved. Standard tissues saved were : lung, liver, spleen, kidney, heart, any with gross lesions (including mammary glands, Harderian gland with eye, adrenal gland, gut, ovaries or testes, brain and pituitary, bone). Data are searchable and specimens can be obtained by request.

  16. Global horizontal irradiance clear sky models : implementation and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Hansen, Clifford W.; Reno, Matthew J.

    2012-03-01

    Clear sky models estimate the terrestrial solar radiation under a cloudless sky as a function of the solar elevation angle, site altitude, aerosol concentration, water vapor, and various atmospheric conditions. This report provides an overview of a number of global horizontal irradiance (GHI) clear sky models from very simple to complex. Validation of clear-sky models requires comparison of model results to measured irradiance during clear-sky periods. To facilitate validation, we present a new algorithm for automatically identifying clear-sky periods in a time series of GHI measurements. We evaluate the performance of selected clear-sky models using measured data from 30 different sites, totaling about 300 site-years of data. We analyze the variation of these errors across time and location. In terms of error averaged over all locations and times, we found that complex models that correctly account for all the atmospheric parameters are slightly more accurate than other models, but, primarily at low elevations, comparable accuracy can be obtained from some simpler models. However, simpler models often exhibit errors that vary with time of day and season, whereas the errors for complex models vary less over time.

  17. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 634 578 46 1 Q 116.4 106.3...

  18. Laboratory for Characterization of Irradiated Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Karen A. Moore

    2010-03-01

    The newly completed Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Carbon Characterization Laboratory (CCL) is located in Labs C19 and C20 of the Idaho National Laboratory Research Center (IRC). The CCL was established under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project to support graphite and ceramic composite research and development activities. The research is in support of the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment — a major material irradiation experiment within the NGNP Graphite program. The CCL is designed to characterize and test low activated irradiated materials such as high purity graphite, carbon-carbon composites, and silicon-carbide composite materials. The laboratory is fully capable of characterizing material properties for both irradiated and nonirradiated materials.

  19. Horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Larry E.; McInnes, Ian D.; Massey, John V.

    1988-01-01

    A horizontal, modular, dry, irradiated fuel storage system (10) includes a thin-walled canister (12) for containing irradiated fuel assemblies (20), which canister (12) can be positioned in a transfer cask (14) and transported in a horizontal manner from a fuel storage pool (18), to an intermediate-term storage facility. The storage system (10) includes a plurality of dry storage modules (26) which accept the canister (12) from the transfer cask (14) and provide for appropriate shielding about the canister (12). Each module (26) also provides for air cooling of the canister (12) to remove the decay heat of the irradiated fuel assemblies (20). The modules (26) can be interlocked so that each module (26) gains additional shielding from the next adjacent module (26). Hydraulic rams (30) are provided for inserting and removing the canisters (12) from the modules (26).

  20. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4 Delaware - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S8. Summary statistics for natural gas - Delaware, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals

  1. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4 Massachusetts - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S23. Summary statistics for natural gas - Massachusetts, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross

  2. Total System Performance Assessment Peer Review Panel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Peer Review Panel for predicting the performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain.

  3. Low Temperature Irradiation Embrittlement of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John

    2015-08-01

    The embrittlement trend curve development project for HFIR reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels was carried out with three major tasks. Which are (1) data collection to match that used in HFIR steel embrittlement trend published in 1994 Journal Nuclear Material by Remec et. al, (2) new embrittlement data of A212B steel that are not included in earlier HFIR RPV trend curve, and (3) the adjustment of nil-ductility-transition temperature (NDTT) shift data with the consideration of the irradiation temperature effect. An updated HFIR RPV steel embrittlement trend curve was developed, as described below. NDTT( C) = 23.85 log(x) + 203.3 log (x) + 434.7, with 2- uncertainty of 34.6 C, where parameter x is referred to total dpa. The developed update HFIR RPV embrittlement trend curve has higher embrittlement rate compared to that of the trend curve developed in 1994.

  4. Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yingwei; Huang, Guanghui; Chen, Jiazhang; Xiao, Si He, Jun; Mu, Haoran; Bao, Qiaoliang; Lin, Shenghuang

    2015-08-31

    As a new type of two-dimensional crystal material, black phosphorus (BP) exhibits excellent electronics and optical performance. Herein, we focus on carrier relaxation dynamics and nonlinear optical properties of BP suspension. Atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and optical transmission spectrum are employed to characterize the structure and linear optical properties of the BP. Additionally, pump-probe experiments at wavelength of 1550 nm were carried out to study the carrier dynamics in BP suspension, and ultrafast recovery time was observed (τ{sub s} = 24 ± 2 fs). Furthermore, we demonstrate the saturable absorption signals by open aperture Z-scan experiments at wavelengths of 1550 nm, 532 nm, and 680 nm. The results indicate that BP has broadband saturable absorption properties and the nonlinear absorption coefficients were determined to be β{sub 2} = −0.20 ± 0.08 × 10{sup −3 }cm/GW (532 nm), β{sub 2} = −0.12 ± 0.05 × 10{sup −3 }cm/GW (680 nm), and β{sub 2} = −0.15 ± 0.09 × 10{sup −3 }cm/GW (1550 nm)

  5. Development of a broadband reflectivity diagnostic for laser driven shock compression experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S. J.; Bolme, C. A.; Collins, G. W.; Jeanloz, R.

    2015-04-01

    A normal - incidence visible and near - infrared Shock Wave Optical Reflectivity Diagnostic (SWORD) was constructed to investigate changes in the optical properties of materials under dynamic laser compression . Documenting wavelength - and time - dependent changes in the optical properties of laser - shock compressed samples has been difficult, primarily due to the small sample sizes and short time scales involved , but we succeeded in doing so by broadening a series of time delayed 800 - nm pulses from an ultra fast Ti: sapphire laser to generate high - intensity broadband light at nanosecond time scales . This diagnostic was demonstrated over the wavelength range 450 to 1150 nm with up to 16 time displaced spectra during a single shock experiment. Simultaneous off - normal incidence velocity interferometry (VISAR) characterize d the sample under laser - compression , and also provide d a n independent reflectivity measurement at 532 nm wavelength . Lastly, the shock - driven semiconductor - to - metallic transition in germanium was documented by way of reflectivity measurements with 0.5 ns time resolution and a wavelength resolution of 10 nm .

  6. Vibrational dynamics of aqueous hydroxide solutions probed using broadband 2DIR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mandal, Aritra; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2015-11-21

    We employed ultrafast transient absorption and broadband 2DIR spectroscopy to study the vibrational dynamics of aqueous hydroxide solutions by exciting the O–H stretch vibrations of the strongly hydrogen-bonded hydroxide solvation shell water and probing the continuum absorption of the solvated ion between 1500 and 3800 cm{sup −1}. We observe rapid vibrational relaxation processes on 150–250 fs time scales across the entire probed spectral region as well as slower vibrational dynamics on 1–2 ps time scales. Furthermore, the O–H stretch excitation loses its frequency memory in 180 fs, and vibrational energy exchange between bulk-like water vibrations and hydroxide-associated water vibrations occurs in ∼200 fs. The fast dynamics in this system originate in strong nonlinear coupling between intra- and intermolecular vibrations and are explained in terms of non-adiabatic vibrational relaxation. These measurements indicate that the vibrational dynamics of the aqueous hydroxide complex are faster than the time scales reported for long-range transport of protons in aqueous hydroxide solutions.

  7. EXTREME EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES IN CANDELS: BROADBAND-SELECTED, STARBURSTING DWARF GALAXIES AT z > 1

    SciTech Connect

    Van der Wel, A.; Rix, H.-W.; Jahnke, K.; Straughn, A. N.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Salmon, B. W.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Ferguson, H. C.; Weiner, B. J.; Wuyts, S.; Bell, E. F.; Faber, S. M.; Trump, J. R.; Koo, D. C.; Hathi, N. P.; Dunlop, J. S.; Newman, J. A.; Dickinson, M.; De Mello, D. F.; and others

    2011-12-01

    We identify an abundant population of extreme emission-line galaxies (EELGs) at redshift z {approx} 1.7 in the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey imaging from Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3). Sixty-nine EELG candidates are selected by the large contribution of exceptionally bright emission lines to their near-infrared broadband magnitudes. Supported by spectroscopic confirmation of strong [O III] emission lines-with rest-frame equivalent widths {approx}1000 A-in the four candidates that have HST/WFC3 grism observations, we conclude that these objects are galaxies with {approx}10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} in stellar mass, undergoing an enormous starburst phase with M{sub *}/ M-dot{sub *} of only {approx}15 Myr. These bursts may cause outflows that are strong enough to produce cored dark matter profiles in low-mass galaxies. The individual star formation rates and the comoving number density (3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} Mpc{sup -3}) can produce in {approx}4 Gyr much of the stellar mass density that is presently contained in 10{sup 8}-10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} dwarf galaxies. Therefore, our observations provide a strong indication that many or even most of the stars in present-day dwarf galaxies formed in strong, short-lived bursts, mostly at z > 1.

  8. A broadband gyrotron backward-wave oscillator with tapered interaction structure and magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Li, G. D.; Chang, P. C.; Chiang, W. Y.; Lin, P. N.; Kao, S. H.; Lin, Y. N.; Huang, Y. J.; Barnett, L. R.; Chu, K. R.; Chen, H. Y.; Fan, C. T.

    2015-11-15

    The gyro-monotron and gyrotron backward-wave oscillator (gyro-BWO) are the two oscillator versions of gyrotrons. While serving different functions, they are also radically different in the RF field formation mechanisms. The gyro-monotron RF field profile is essentially fixed by the resonant interaction structure, while the gyro-BWO possesses an extra degree of freedom in that the axial RF field profile is self-determined by the beam-wave interaction in a waveguide structure. The present study examines ways to utilize the latter feature for bandwidth broadening with a tapered magnetic field, while also employing a tapered waveguide to enhance the interaction efficiency. We begin with a mode competition analysis, which suggests the theoretical feasibility of broadband frequency tuning in single-mode operation. It is then shown in theory that, by controlling the RF field profile with an up- or down-tapered magnetic field, the gyro-BWO is capable of efficient operation with a much improved tunable bandwidth.

  9. Localization and broadband follow-up of the gravitational-wave transient GW150914

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Abbott, B. P.

    2016-07-20

    A gravitational-wave (GW) transient was identified in data recorded by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors on 2015 September 14. The event, initially designated G184098 and later given the name GW150914, is described in detail elsewhere. By prior arrangement, preliminary estimates of the time, significance, and sky location of the event were shared with 63 teams of observers covering radio, optical, near-infrared, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths with ground- and space-based facilities. In this Letter we describe the low-latency analysis of the GW data and present the sky localization of the first observed compact binary merger. We summarize themore » follow-up observations reported by 25 teams via private Gamma-ray Coordinates Network circulars, giving an overview of the participating facilities, the GW sky localization coverage, the timeline and depth of the observations. As this event turned out to be a binary black hole merger, there is little expectation of a detectable electromagnetic (EM) signature. Nevertheless, this first broadband campaign to search for a counterpart of an Advanced LIGO source represents a milestone and highlights the broad capabilities of the transient astronomy community and the observing strategies that have been developed to pursue neutron star binary merger events. Furthermore, detailed investigations of the EM data and results of the EM follow-up campaign are being disseminated in papers by the individual teams.« less

  10. Subwavelength silicon through-hole arrays as an all-dielectric broadband terahertz gradient index metamaterial

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sang-Gil; Jeong, Ki-Hun; Lee, Kanghee; Han, Daehoon; Ahn, Jaewook

    2014-09-01

    Structuring at subwavelength scales brings out artificial media with anomalous optical features called metamaterials. All-dielectric metamaterials have high potential for practical applications over the whole electromagnetic spectrum owing to low loss and optical isotropy. Here, we report subwavelength silicon through-hole arrays as an all-dielectric gradient index metamaterial with broadband THz operation. The unit cell consists of a single subwavelength through-hole on highly resistive monocrystalline silicon. Depending on the fill-factor and period, the effective index was linearly modulated at 0.3–1.6 THz. The experimental results also demonstrate silicon gradient refractive index (Si-GRIN) lenses with parabolic index profiles through the spatial modification of a single unit cell along the radial direction. Si-GRIN lenses either focus 0.4–1.6 THz beam to the diffraction-limit or serve as a flat and thin solid immersion lens on the backside of THz photoconductive antenna for highly efficient pulse extraction. This all-dielectric gradient index metamaterial opens up opportunities for integrated THz GRIN optics.

  11. Development of a broadband reflectivity diagnostic for laser driven shock compression experiments

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Ali, S. J.; Bolme, C. A.; Collins, G. W.; Jeanloz, R.

    2015-04-01

    A normal - incidence visible and near - infrared Shock Wave Optical Reflectivity Diagnostic (SWORD) was constructed to investigate changes in the optical properties of materials under dynamic laser compression . Documenting wavelength - and time - dependent changes in the optical properties of laser - shock compressed samples has been difficult, primarily due to the small sample sizes and short time scales involved , but we succeeded in doing so by broadening a series of time delayed 800 - nm pulses from an ultra fast Ti: sapphire laser to generate high - intensity broadband light at nanosecond time scalesmore » . This diagnostic was demonstrated over the wavelength range 450 to 1150 nm with up to 16 time displaced spectra during a single shock experiment. Simultaneous off - normal incidence velocity interferometry (VISAR) characterize d the sample under laser - compression , and also provide d a n independent reflectivity measurement at 532 nm wavelength . Lastly, the shock - driven semiconductor - to - metallic transition in germanium was documented by way of reflectivity measurements with 0.5 ns time resolution and a wavelength resolution of 10 nm .« less

  12. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband direct normal irradiance

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    normal irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband direct normal irradiance The rate at which radiant energy in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4{mu}m, that comes directly from the Sun without being scattered or absorbed in the atmosphere, passes through a unit area perpendicular to the direction from the Sun. Categories Radiometric Instruments

  13. Separation of sodium-22 from irradiated targets

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Wayne A.; Jamriska, David

    1996-01-01

    A process for selective separation of sodium-22 from an irradiated target including dissolving an irradiated target to form a first solution, contacting the first solution with hydrated antimony pentoxide to selectively separate sodium-22 from the first solution, separating the hydrated antimony pentoxide including the separated sodium-22 from the first solution, dissolving the hydrated antimony pentoxide including the separated sodium-22 in a mineral acid to form a second solution, and, separating the antimony from the sodium-22 in the second solution.

  14. Fission gas retention in irradiated metallic fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Fenske, G.R.; Gruber, E.E.; Kramer, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical calculations and experimental measurements of the quantity of retained fission gas in irradiated metallic fuel (U-5Fs) are presented. The calculations utilize the Booth method to model the steady-state release of gases from fuel grains and a simplified grain-boundary gas model to predict the gas release from intergranular regions. The quantity of gas retained in as-irradiated fuel was determined by collecting the gases released from short segments of EBR-II driver fuel that were melted in a gas-tight furnace. Comparison of the calculations to the measurements shows quantitative agreement with both the magnitude and the axial variation of the retained gas content.

  15. Neutron Spectrum Measurements from Irradiations at NCERC

    SciTech Connect

    Jackman, Kevin Richard; Mosby, Michelle A.; Bredeweg, Todd Allen; Hutchens, Gregory Joe; White, Morgan Curtis

    2015-04-15

    Several irradiations have been conducted on assemblies (COMET/ZEUS and Flattop) at the National Criticality Experiments Research Center (NCERC) located at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Configurations of the assemblies and irradiated materials changed between experiments. Different metallic foils were analyzed using the radioactivation method by gamma-ray spectrometry to understand/characterize the neutron spectra. Results of MCNP calculations are shown. It was concluded that MCNP simulated spectra agree with experimental measurements, with the caveats that some data are limited by statistics at low-energies and some activation foils have low activities.

  16. Vanadium irradiation at ATR - neutronics aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.

    1995-04-01

    Calculations were performed to estimate damage and transmutation rates in vanadium irradiated in the ATR (Advanced Test Reactor) located in Idaho. The main focuses of the study are to evaluate the transmutation of vanadium to chromium and to explore ways to design the irradiation experiment to avoid excessive transmutation. It was found that the A-hole of ATR produces damage rate of {approximately} 0.2%/dpa of vanadium to chromium. A thermal neutron filter can be incorporated into the design to reduce the vanadium-to-chromium transmutation rate to low levels. A filter 1-2 mm thick of gadolinium or hafnium can be used.

  17. Supratentorial Ependymoma: Disease Control, Complications, and Functional Outcomes After Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Landau, Efrat; Boop, Frederick A.; Conklin, Heather M.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Ependymoma is less commonly found in the supratentorial brain and has known clinical and molecular features that are unique. Our single-institution series provides valuable information about disease control for supratentorial ependymoma and the complications of supratentorial irradiation in children. Methods and Materials: A total of 50 children with newly diagnosed supratentorial ependymoma were treated with adjuvant radiation therapy (RT); conformal methods were used in 36 after 1996. The median age at RT was 6.5 years (range, 1-18.9 years). The entire group was characterized according to sex (girls 27), race (white 43), extent of resection (gross-total 46), and tumor grade (anaplastic 28). The conformal RT group was prospectively evaluated for neurologic, endocrine, and cognitive effects. Results: With a median follow-up time of 9.1 years from the start of RT for survivors (range, 0.2-23.2 years), the 10-year progression-free and overall survival were 73% + 7% and 76% + 6%, respectively. None of the evaluated factors was prognostic for disease control. Local and distant failures were evenly divided among the 16 patients who experienced progression. Eleven patients died of disease, and 1 of central nervous system necrosis. Seizure disorders were present in 17 patients, and 4 were considered to be clinically disabled. Clinically significant cognitive effects were limited to children with difficult-to-control seizures. The average values for intelligence quotient and academic achievement (reading, spelling, and math) were within the range of normal through 10 years of follow-up. Central hypothyroidism was the most commonly treated endocrinopathy. Conclusion: RT may be administered with acceptable risks for complications in children with supratentorial ependymoma. These results suggest that outcomes for these children are improving and that complications may be limited by use of focal irradiation methods.

  18. AGC-3 Experiment Irradiation Monitoring Data Qualification Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence Hull

    2014-10-01

    The Graphite Technology Development Program will run a series of six experiments to quantify the effects of irradiation on nuclear grade graphite. The third experiment, Advanced Graphite Creep 3 (AGC 3), began with Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 152B on November 27, 2012, and ended with ATR Cycle 155B on April 23, 2014. This report documents qualification of AGC 3 experiment irradiation monitoring data for use by the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) Program for research and development activities required to design and license the first VHTR nuclear plant. Qualified data meet the requirements for data collection and use as described in the experiment planning and quality assurance documents. Failed data do not meet the requirements. Trend data may not meet the requirements, but may still provide some useable information. All thermocouples (TCs) functioned throughout the AGC 3 experiment. There was one interval between December 18, 2012, and December 20, 2012, where 10 NULL values were reported for various TCs. These NULL values were deleted from the Nuclear Data Management and Analysis System database. All temperature data are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program. Argon, helium, and total gas flow data were within expected ranges and are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program. Total gas flow was approximately 50 sccm through the AGC 3 experiment capsule. Helium gas flow was briefly increased to 100 sccm during ATR shutdowns. At the start of the AGC 3 experiment, moisture in the outflow gas line was stuck at a constant value of 335.6174 ppmv for the first cycle (Cycle 152B). When the AGC 3 experiment capsule was reinstalled in ATR for Cycle 154B, a new moisture filter was installed. Moisture data from Cycle 152B are Failed. All moisture data from the final three cycles (Cycles 154B, 155A, and 155B) are Qualified for use by the VHTR TDO Program.

  19. Neutron dosimetry and damage calculations for the ATR-A1 irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, L.R.; Ratner, R.T.

    1998-09-01

    Neutron fluence measurements and radiation damage calculations are reported for the collaborative US/Japan ATR-A1 irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The maximum total neutron fluence at midplane was 9.4 {times} 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} (5.5 {times} 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} above 0.1 MeV), resulting in about 4.6 dpa in vanadium.

  20. Understanding the Irradiation Behavior of Zirconium Carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Motta, Arthur; Sridharan, Kumar; Morgan, Dane; Szlufarska, Izabela

    2013-10-11

    Zirconium carbide (ZrC) is being considered for utilization in high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuels in deep-burn TRISO fuel. Zirconium carbide possesses a cubic B1-type crystal structure with a high melting point, exceptional hardness, and good thermal and electrical conductivities. The use of ZrC as part of the TRISO fuel requires a thorough understanding of its irradiation response. However, the radiation effects on ZrC are still poorly understood. The majority of the existing research is focused on the radiation damage phenomena at higher temperatures (>450{degree}C) where many fundamental aspects of defect production and kinetics cannot be easily distinguished. Little is known about basic defect formation, clustering, and evolution of ZrC under irradiation, although some atomistic simulation and phenomenological studies have been performed. Such detailed information is needed to construct a model describing the microstructural evolution in fast-neutron irradiated materials that will be of great technological importance for the development of ZrC- based fuel. The goal of the proposed project is to gain fundamental understanding of the radiation-induced defect formation in zirconium carbide and irradiation response (ZrC) by using a combination of state-of-the-art experimental methods and atomistic modeling. This project will combine (1) in situ ion irradiation at a specialized facility at a national laboratory, (2) controlled temperature proton irradiation on bulk samples, and (3) atomistic modeling to gain a fundamental understanding of defect formation in ZrC. The proposed project will cover the irradiation temperatures from cryogenic temperature to as high as 800{degree}C, and dose ranges from 0.1 to 100 dpa. The examination of this wide range of temperatures and doses allows us to obtain an experimental data set that can be effectively used to exercise and benchmark the computer calculations of defect properties. Combining the examination of radiation

  1. Factors Associated With the Development of Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema After Whole-Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Chirag; Wilkinson, John Ben; Baschnagel, Andrew; Ghilezan, Mihai; Riutta, Justin; Dekhne, Nayana; Balaraman, Savitha; Mitchell, Christina; Wallace, Michelle; Vicini, Frank

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the rates of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) in patients undergoing whole-breast irradiation as part of breast-conserving therapy (BCT) and to identify clinical, pathologic, and treatment factors associated with its development. Methods and Materials: A total of 1,861 patients with breast cancer were treated at William Beaumont Hospital with whole-breast irradiation as part of their BCT from January 1980 to February 2006, with 1,497 patients available for analysis. Determination of BCRL was based on clinical assessment. Differences in clinical, pathologic, and treatment characteristics between patients with BCRL and those without BCRL were evaluated, and the actuarial rates of BCRL by regional irradiation technique were determined. Results: The actuarial rate of any BCRL was 7.4% for the entire cohort and 9.9%, 14.7%, and 8.3% for patients receiving a supraclavicular field, posterior axillary boost, and internal mammary irradiation, respectively. BCRL was more likely to develop in patients with advanced nodal status (11.4% vs. 6.3%, p = 0.001), those who had a greater number of lymph nodes removed (14 nodes) (9.5% vs. 6.0%, p = 0.01), those who had extracapsular extension (13.4% vs. 6.9%, p = 0.009), those with Grade II/III disease (10.8% vs. 2.9%, p < 0.001), and those who received adjuvant chemotherapy (10.5% vs. 6.7%, p = 0.02). Regional irradiation showed small increases in the rates of BCRL (p = not significant). Conclusions: These results suggest that clinically detectable BCRL will develop after traditional BCT in up to 10% of patients. High-risk subgroups include patients with advanced nodal status, those with more nodes removed, and those who receive chemotherapy, with patients receiving regional irradiation showing a trend toward increased rates.

  2. Relapse Analysis of Irradiated Patients Within the HD15 Trial of the German Hodgkin Study Group

    SciTech Connect

    Kriz, Jan; Reinartz, Gabriele; Dietlein, Markus; Kobe, Carsten; Kuhnert, Georg; Haverkamp, Heinz; Haverkamp, Uwe; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Herfarth, Klaus; Lukas, Peter; Schmidberger, Heinz; Staar, Susanne; Hegerfeld, Kira; Baues, Christian; Engert, Andreas; Eich, Hans Theodor

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: To determine, in the setting of advanced-stage of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), whether relapses occur in the irradiated planning target volume and whether the definition of local radiation therapy (RT) used by the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) is adequate, because there is no harmonization of field and volume definitions among the large cooperative groups in the treatment of advanced-stage HL. Methods and Materials: All patients with residual disease of ≥2.5 cm after multiagent chemotherapy (CTX) were evaluated using additional positron emission tomography (PET), and those with a PET-positive result were irradiated with 30 Gy to the site of residual disease. We re-evaluated all sites of disease before and after CTX, as well as the PET-positive residual tumor that was treated in all relapsed patients. Documentation of radiation therapy (RT), treatment planning procedures, and portal images were carefully analyzed and compared with the centrally recommended RT prescription. The irradiated sites were compared with sites of relapse using follow-up computed tomography scans. Results: A total of 2126 patients were enrolled, and 225 patients (11%) received RT. Radiation therapy documents of 152 irradiated patients (68%) were analyzed, with 28 irradiated patients (11%) relapsing subsequently. Eleven patients (39%) had an in-field relapse, 7 patients (25%) relapsed outside the irradiated volume, and an additional 10 patients (36%) showed mixed in- and out-field relapses. Of 123 patients, 20 (16%) with adequately performed RT relapsed, compared with 7 of 29 patients (24%) with inadequate RT. Conclusions: The frequency and pattern of relapses suggest that local RT to PET-positive residual disease is sufficient for patients in advanced-stage HL. Insufficient safety margins of local RT may contribute to in-field relapses.

  3. AGR-2 irradiation test final as-run report, Rev. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Collin, Blaise

    2014-08-01

    This document presents the as-run analysis of the AGR-2 irradiation experiment. AGR-2 is the second of the planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. Funding for this program is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technical Development Office (TDO) program. The objectives of the AGR-2 experiment are to: (a) Irradiate UCO (uranium oxycarbide) and UO2 (uranium dioxide) fuel produced in a large coater. Fuel attributes are based on results obtained from the AGR-1 test and other project activities; (b) Provide irradiated fuel samples for post-irradiation experiment (PIE) and safety testing; and, (c) Support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. The primary objective of the test was to irradiate both UCO and UO2 TRISO (tri-structural isotropic) fuel produced from prototypic scale equipment to obtain normal operation and accident condition fuel performance data. The UCO compacts were subjected to a range of burnups and temperatures typical of anticipated prismatic reactor service conditions in three capsules. The test train also includes compacts containing UO2 particles produced independently by the United States, South Africa, and France in three separate capsules. The range of burnups and temperatures in these capsules were typical of anticipated pebble bed reactor service conditions. The results discussed in this report pertain only to U.S. produced fuel. In order to achieve the test objectives, the AGR-2 experiment was irradiated in the B-12 position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for a total irradiation duration of 559.2 effective full power days (EFPD). Irradiation began on June 22, 2010, and ended on October 16, 2013, spanning 12 ATR power cycles and approximately three and a half calendar years. The test

  4. AGR-2 Irradiation Test Final As-Run Report, Rev 2

    SciTech Connect

    Blaise Collin

    2014-08-01

    This document presents the as-run analysis of the AGR-2 irradiation experiment. AGR-2 is the second of the planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. Funding for this program is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technical Development Office (TDO) program. The objectives of the AGR-2 experiment are to: (a) Irradiate UCO (uranium oxycarbide) and UO2 (uranium dioxide) fuel produced in a large coater. Fuel attributes are based on results obtained from the AGR-1 test and other project activities. (b) Provide irradiated fuel samples for post-irradiation experiment (PIE) and safety testing. (c) Support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. The primary objective of the test was to irradiate both UCO and UO2 TRISO (tri-structural isotropic) fuel produced from prototypic scale equipment to obtain normal operation and accident condition fuel performance data. The UCO compacts were subjected to a range of burnups and temperatures typical of anticipated prismatic reactor service conditions in three capsules. The test train also includes compacts containing UO2 particles produced independently by the United States, South Africa, and France in three separate capsules. The range of burnups and temperatures in these capsules were typical of anticipated pebble bed reactor service conditions. The results discussed in this report pertain only to U.S. produced fuel. In order to achieve the test objectives, the AGR-2 experiment was irradiated in the B-12 position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for a total irradiation duration of 559.2 effective full power days (EFPD). Irradiation began on June 22, 2010, and ended on October 16, 2013, spanning 12 ATR power cycles and approximately three and a half calendar years. The test

  5. Analyzing the Contribution of Aerosols to an Observed Increase in Direct Normal Irradiance in Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Riihimaki, Laura D.; Vignola, F.; Long, Charles N.

    2009-01-22

    Annual average total irradiance increases by 1-2% per decade at three mon- itoring stations in Oregon over the period from 1980 to 2007. Direct normal irradiance measurements increase by 5% per decade over the same time pe- riod. The measurements show no sign of a dimming before 1990. The impact of high concentrations of stratospheric aerosols following the volcanic erup- tions of El Chichon and Mt. Pinatubo are clearly seen in the measurements. Removing these years from the annual average all-sky time series reduces the trends in both total and direct normal irradiance. Clear-sky periods from this long direct normal time series are used in conjunction with radiative trans- fer calculations to test whether part of the increase could be caused by an- thropogenic aerosols. All three sites show relatively low clear-sky measure- ments before the eruption of El Chichon in 1982, suggesting higher aerosol loads during this period. After removing the periods most strongly impacted by volcanic eruptions, two of the sites show statistically signicant increases in clear-sky direct normal irradiance from 1987 to 2007. Radiative transfer calculations of the impact of volcanic aerosols and tropospheric water vapor indicate that only about 20% of that clear-sky increase between background aerosol periods before and after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo can be explained by these two factors. Thus, a statistically signicant clear-sky trend remains between 1987 and 2007 that is consistent with the hypothesis that at least some of the increase in surface irradiance could be caused by a reduction of anthropogenic aerosols. D

  6. Strain engineering in graphene by laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Papasimakis, N.; Mailis, S.; Huang, C. C.; Al-Saab, F.; Hewak, D. W.; Luo, Z.; Shen, Z. X.

    2015-02-09

    We demonstrate that the Raman spectrum of graphene on lithium niobate can be controlled locally by continuous exposure to laser irradiation. We interpret our results in terms of changes to doping and mechanical strain and show that our observations are consistent with light-induced gradual strain relaxation in the graphene layer.

  7. Continuous wave laser irradiation of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    McGrane, Shawn D.; Moore, David S.

    2010-12-01

    Quantitative measurements of the levels of continuous wave (CW) laser light that can be safely applied to bare explosives during contact operations were obtained at 532 nm, 785 nm, and 1550 nm wavelengths. A thermal camera was used to record the temperature of explosive pressed pellets and single crystals while they were irradiated using a measured laser power and laser spot size. A visible light image of the sample surface was obtained before and after the laser irradiation. Laser irradiation thresholds were obtained for the onset of any visible change to the explosive sample and for the onset of any visible chemical reaction. Deflagration to detonation transitions were not observed using any of these CW laser wavelengths on single crystals or pressed pellets in the unconfined geometry tested. Except for the photochemistry of DAAF, TATB and PBX 9502, all reactions appeared to be thermal using a 532 nm wavelength laser. For a 1550 nm wavelength laser, no photochemistry was evident, but the laser power thresholds for thermal damage in some of the materials were significantly lower than for the 532 nm laser wavelength. No reactions were observed in any of the studied explosives using the available 300 mW laser at 785 nm wavelength. Tables of laser irradiance damage and reaction thresholds are presented for pressed pellets of PBX9501, PBX9502, Composition B, HMX, TATB, RDX, DAAF, PETN, and TNT and single crystals of RDX, HMX, and PETN for each of the laser wavelengths.

  8. Microstructure chemistry and mechanical properties of Ni-based superalloy Rene N4 under irradiation at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, C.; Kirk, M.; Li, M.; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Wang, Y.; Anderoglu, O.; Valdez, J.; Uberuaga, B. P.; Dickerson, R.; Maloy, S. A.

    2015-06-14

    Nickel superalloys with cubic L12 structured γ' (Ni3(Al, Ti)) precipitates exhibit high strength at high temperatures and excellent corrosion resistance when exposed to water. Unlike prior studies on irradiation damage of other Ni-based superalloys, our study on Rene N4 involves much larger γ' precipitates, ~450 nm in size, a size regime where the irradiation-induced disordering and dissolution kinetics and the corresponding mechanical property evolution are unknown. Under heavy ion irradiation at room temperature, the submicron-sized γ' precipitates were fully disordered at ~0.3 dpa and only later partially dissolved after 75 dpa irradiation. Nanoindentation experiments indicate that the mechanical properties of the alloy change significantly, with a dramatic decrease in hardness, with irradiation dose. Three contributions to the change in hardness were examined: defect clusters, disordering and dissolution. Moreover, the generation of defect clusters in the matrix and precipitates slightly increased the indentation hardness, while disordering of the submicron-sized γ' precipitates resulted in a dramatic decrease in the total hardness, which decreased further during the early stages of the intermixing between γ' precipitates and matrix (<18 dpa). As a result, controlling the long-range-ordering and chemical intermixing can be used to tailor the mechanical properties of Ni-based superalloys under irradiation.

  9. Microstructure chemistry and mechanical properties of Ni-based superalloy Rene N4 under irradiation at room temperature

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Sun, C.; Kirk, M.; Li, M.; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Wang, Y.; Anderoglu, O.; Valdez, J.; Uberuaga, B. P.; Dickerson, R.; Maloy, S. A.

    2015-06-14

    Nickel superalloys with cubic L12 structured γ' (Ni3(Al, Ti)) precipitates exhibit high strength at high temperatures and excellent corrosion resistance when exposed to water. Unlike prior studies on irradiation damage of other Ni-based superalloys, our study on Rene N4 involves much larger γ' precipitates, ~450 nm in size, a size regime where the irradiation-induced disordering and dissolution kinetics and the corresponding mechanical property evolution are unknown. Under heavy ion irradiation at room temperature, the submicron-sized γ' precipitates were fully disordered at ~0.3 dpa and only later partially dissolved after 75 dpa irradiation. Nanoindentation experiments indicate that the mechanical properties ofmore » the alloy change significantly, with a dramatic decrease in hardness, with irradiation dose. Three contributions to the change in hardness were examined: defect clusters, disordering and dissolution. Moreover, the generation of defect clusters in the matrix and precipitates slightly increased the indentation hardness, while disordering of the submicron-sized γ' precipitates resulted in a dramatic decrease in the total hardness, which decreased further during the early stages of the intermixing between γ' precipitates and matrix (<18 dpa). As a result, controlling the long-range-ordering and chemical intermixing can be used to tailor the mechanical properties of Ni-based superalloys under irradiation.« less

  10. Lanai high-density irradiance sensor network for characterizing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    deployment of an autonomous irradiance monitoring system based on wireless mesh ... SYSTEMS; DESIGN; FORECASTING; HAWAII; MONITORING; PERFORMANCE; PYRANOMETERS; RADIANT ...

  11. Low Dose Irradiation Facility | Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Dose Irradiation Facility (LoDIF) The LoDIF is a unique facility designed to evaluate the impact of chronic, low-level radiation exposure on aquatic organisms. The facility is an array of 40 outdoor mesocosms equipped with cesium-137 irradiation sources or unexposed controls. Irradiation sources provide three biologically relevant levels of exposure: 2, 20, and 200 mGy/d mean exposure. Mesocosms are arranged into eight blocks, with five mesocosms per block (three levels of irradiation and

  12. EFFECT OF FAST NEUTRON IRRADIATION ON SINTERED ALUMINA AND MAGNESIA...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    IRRADIATION; LATTICES; MAGNESIUM OXIDES; MONOCRYSTALS; NEUTRON FLUX; RADIATION DOSES; RADIATION EFFECTS; SINTERED MATERIALS; TEMPERATURE; THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY ALUMINUM OXIDES

  13. Implementation Plan for the Irradiated Materials Characterization Laboratory (IMCL)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2013-04-01

    This document contains details regarding the planned implementation of the Irradiated Materials Characterization Laboratory at the INL.

  14. TOKIO: Total Knowledge of I/O

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    TOKIO: Total Knowledge of I/O TOKIO: Total Knowledge of I/O The Total Knowledge of I/O (TOKIO) project is developing algorithms and a software framework that collects and correlates I/O workload data from production HPC resources at multiple system levels to provide a dramatically clearer view of system behavior, and the causes of behavior, to application scientists, facility operators and computer science researchers in the field. TOKIO is a collaboration between the Lawrence Berkeley and

  15. Broadband Acoustic Environment at a Tidal Energy Site in Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jinshan; Deng, Zhiqun; Martinez, Jayson J.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Myers, Joshua R.; Weiland, Mark A.

    2012-04-04

    Admiralty Inlet has been selected as a potential tidal energy site. It is located near shipping lanes, is a highly variable acoustic environment, and is frequented by the endangered southern resident killer whale (SRKW). Resolving environmental impacts is the first step to receiving approval to deploy tidal turbines. Several monitoring technologies are being considered to determine the presence of SRKW near the turbines. Broadband noise level measurements are critical for determining design and operational specifications of these technologies. Acoustic environment data at the proposed site was acquired at different depths using a cabled vertical line array from three different cruises during high tidal period in February, May, and June 2011. The ambient noise level decreases approximately 25 dB re 1 μPa per octave from frequency ranges of 1 kHz to 70 kHz, and increases approximately 20 dB re 1 μPa per octave for the frequency from 70 kHz to 200 kHz. The difference of noise pressure levels in different months varies from 10 to 30 dB re 1 μPa for the frequency range below 70 kHz. Commercial shipping and ferry vessel traffic were found to be the most significant contributors to sound pressure levels for the frequency range from 100 Hz to 70 kHz, and the variation could be as high as 30 dB re 1 μPa. These noise level measurements provide the basic information for designing and evaluating both active and passive monitoring systems proposed for deploying and operating for tidal power generation alert system.

  16. Total Adjusted Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Oil Company Farm Electric Power Railroad Vessel Bunkering On-Highway Military Off-Highway All Other Period: Annual Download Series ...

  17. Total Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Oil Company Farm Electric Power Railroad Vessel Bunkering On-Highway Military Off-Highway All Other Period: Annual Download Series ...

  18. Total Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Capacity Salt Caverns Storage Capacity Aquifers Storage Capacity Depleted Fields Storage Capacity Total Working Gas Capacity Working Gas Capacity of Salt Caverns Working...

  19. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0 Alabama - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S1. Summary statistics for natural gas - Alabama, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 346 367 402 436 414 Gas Wells R 6,243 R 6,203 R 6,174 R 6,117 6,044 Production

  20. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2 Alaska - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S2. Summary statistics for natural gas - Alaska, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 2,040 1,981 2,006 2,042 2,096 Gas Wells R 274 R 281 R 300 R 338 329 Production

  1. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0 Colorado - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S6. Summary statistics for natural gas - Colorado, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 5,963 6,456 6,799 7,771 7,733 Gas Wells R 43,792 R 46,141 R 46,883 R 46,876

  2. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    6 District of Columbia - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S9. Summary statistics for natural gas - District of Columbia, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic

  3. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4 Hawaii - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S13. Summary statistics for natural gas - Hawaii, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From

  4. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    6 Idaho - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S14. Summary statistics for natural gas - Idaho, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From

  5. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    20 Maine - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S21. Summary statistics for natural gas - Maine, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From

  6. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0 Mississippi - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S26. Summary statistics for natural gas - Mississippi, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 561 618 581 540 501 Gas Wells R 1,703 R 1,666 R 1,632 R 1,594 1,560

  7. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4 Montana - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S28. Summary statistics for natural gas - Montana, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 1,956 2,147 2,268 2,377 2,277 Gas Wells R 6,615 R 6,366 R 5,870 R 5,682 5,655

  8. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4 New Mexico - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S33. Summary statistics for natural gas - New Mexico, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 12,887 13,791 14,171 14,814 14,580 Gas Wells R 40,231 R 40,441 R 40,119 R

  9. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    6 New York - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S34. Summary statistics for natural gas - New York, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 988 1,170 1,589 1,731 1,697 Gas Wells R 7,372 R 7,731 R 7,553 R 7,619 7,605

  10. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0 North Dakota - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S36. Summary statistics for natural gas - North Dakota, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 5,561 7,379 9,363 11,532 12,799 Gas Wells R 526 R 451 R 423 R 398 462

  11. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2 Ohio - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S37. Summary statistics for natural gas - Ohio, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 6,775 6,745 7,038 7,257 5,941 Gas Wells R 31,966 R 31,647 R 30,804 R 31,060 26,599

  12. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4 Oklahoma - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S38. Summary statistics for natural gas - Oklahoma, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 6,723 7,360 8,744 7,105 8,368 Gas Wells R 51,712 R 51,472 R 50,606 R 50,044

  13. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    6 Oregon - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S39. Summary statistics for natural gas - Oregon, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 0 0 0 0 0 Gas Wells R 28 R 24 R 24 R 12 14 Production (million cubic feet) Gross

  14. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    8 Pennsylvania - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S40. Summary statistics for natural gas - Pennsylvania, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 7,046 7,627 7,164 8,481 7,557 Gas Wells R 61,815 R 62,922 R 61,838 R

  15. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    6 Tennessee - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S44. Summary statistics for natural gas - Tennessee, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 52 75 NA NA NA Gas Wells R 1,027 R 1,027 1,089 NA NA Production (million cubic

  16. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    8 Texas - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S45. Summary statistics for natural gas - Texas, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 85,030 94,203 96,949 104,205 105,159 Gas Wells R 139,368 R 140,087 R 140,964 R 142,292

  17. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0 Utah - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S46. Summary statistics for natural gas - Utah, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 3,119 3,520 3,946 4,249 3,966 Gas Wells R 7,603 R 8,121 R 8,300 R 8,537 8,739 Production

  18. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4 Virginia - Natural Gas 2015 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S48. Summary statistics for natural gas - Virginia, 2011-2015 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Number of Wells Producing Natural Gas at End of Year Oil Wells 2 1 1 2 2 Gas Wells R 7,781 R 7,874 7,956 R 8,061 8,111 Production (million

  19. Near-resonance enhanced O2 detection for dual-broadband pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering with an ultraviolet-visible setup at 266 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Schenk, Martin; Seeger, Thomas; Leipertz, Alfred

    2005-07-01

    Broadband and dual-broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) are widely established tools for nonintrusive gas diagnostics. Up to now the investigations have been mainly performed for electronic nonresonant conditions of the gas species of interest. We report on the enhancement of the O2-N2 detection limit of dual-broadband pure rotational CARS by shifting the wavelength of the narrowband pump laser from the commonly used 532-266 nm. This enhancement is caused when the Schumann-Runge absorption band is approached near 176 nm. The principal concept of this experiment, i.e., covering the Raman resonance with a single- or dual-broadband combination of lasers in the visible range and moving only the narrowband probe laser near or directly into electronic resonant conditions in the UV range, should also be applicable to broadband CARS experiments to directly exploit electronic resonance effects for the purpose of single-shot concentration measurements of minority species. To quantify the enhancement in O2 sensitivity, comparative measurements at both a 266 and a 532 nm narrowband pump laser wavelength are presented, employing a 4-dicyanomethylene-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyram (DCM) dye laser as a broadband laser source at 635 nm. An increase of approximately 13% in the ratio of the rotational CARS cross sections of O2 and N2 was obtained. The broad spectral width of the CARS excitation profile was approximately equal for both setups. Further enhancement should be achievable by shifting the narrowband pump laser closer toward 176 nm, for example, with a frequency-doubled optical parametric oscillator or an excimer laser. The principal concept of this experiment should also be applicable to broadband CARS experiments to directly exploit electronic resonance effects of the narrowband pump laser with electronic transitions of minority species for the purpose of single-shot concentration measurements of those species.

  20. Irradiation creep of various ferritic alloys irradiated {approximately}400 C in the PFR and FFTF reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Toloczko, M.B.; Garner, F.A.; Eiholzer, C.R.

    1998-03-01

    Three ferritic alloys were irradiated in two fast reactors to doses of 50 dpa or more at temperatures near 400 C. One martensitic alloy, HT9, was irradiated in both the FFTF and PFR reactors. PFR is the Prototype Fast Reactor in Dourneay, Scotland, and FFTF is the Fast Flux Test Facility in Richland, WA. D57 is a developmental alloy that was irradiated in PFR only, and MA957 is a Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersion-hardened ferritic alloy that was irradiated only in FFTF. These alloys exhibited little or no void swelling at {approximately}400 C. Depending on the alloy starting condition, these steels develop a variety of non-creep strains early in the irradiation that are associated with phase changes. Each of these alloys creeps at a rate that is significantly lower than that of austenitic steels irradiated in the same experiments. The creep compliance for ferritic alloys in general appears to be {approximately}0.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} MPa{sup {minus}1} dpa{sup {minus}1}, independent of both composition and starting state. The addition of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a dispersoid does not appear to change the creep behavior.

  1. Ablation and cone formation mechanism on CR-39 by ArF laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Shakeri Jooybari, B. E-mail: hafarideh@aut.ac.ir; Afarideh, H. E-mail: hafarideh@aut.ac.ir; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Ghergherehchi, M.

    2015-03-07

    In this work, chemical properties, surface modification, and micro structures formation on ablated polyallyl di-glycol carbonate (CR-39) polymer by ArF laser irradiation (λ = 193 nm) at various fluences and pulse number were investigated. CR-39 samples have been irradiated with an ArF laser (193 nm) at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. Threshold fluence of ablation and effective absorption coefficient of CR-39 were determined. Conical microstructures (Taylor cone) formed on laser-ablated CR-39 exhibit: smooth, Taylor cone shape walls and sharp tips together with interference and well defined fringe-structure with a period of 230 nm, around cone base. Mechanism of cone formation and cone evolution of CR-39 ablated surface were investigated by change of fluences (at a given pulse number) and pulse number (at a given fluence). Cone height, cone base, and region of interface were increased in micrometer steps by increasing the total fluence. Depression on the base of the cone and the circular fringe were simulated. FTIR spectra were measured and energy dispersive x-ray analysis of irradiated and un-irradiated samples was performed.

  2. AGR-1 Irradiation Test Final As-Run Report, Rev. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Collin, Blaise P.

    2015-01-01

    This document presents the as-run analysis of the AGR-1 irradiation experiment. AGR-1 is the first of eight planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. Funding for this program is provided by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project. The objectives of the AGR-1 experiment are: 1. To gain experience with multi-capsule test train design, fabrication, and operation with the intent to reduce the probability of capsule or test train failure in subsequent irradiation tests. 2. To irradiate fuel produced in conjunction with the AGR fuel process development effort. 3. To provide data that will support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. In order to achieve the test objectives, the AGR-1 experiment was irradiated in the B-10 position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for a total duration of 620 effective full power days of irradiation. Irradiation began on December 24, 2006 and ended on November 6, 2009 spanning 13 ATR cycles and approximately three calendar years. The test contained six independently controlled and monitored capsules. Each capsule contained 12 compacts of a single type, or variant, of the AGR coated fuel. No fuel particles failed during the AGR-1 irradiation. Final burnup values on a per compact basis ranged from 11.5 to 19.6 %FIMA, while fast fluence values ranged from 2.21 to 4.39 x 1025 n/m2 (E >0.18 MeV). Well say something here about temperatures once thermal recalc is done. Thermocouples performed well, failing at a lower rate than expected. At the end of the irradiation, nine of the originally-planned 19 TCs were considered functional. Fission product release-to-birth (R/B) ratios were quite low. In most capsules, R/B values at the end of the irradiation were at or below

  3. Advanced Numerical Model for Irradiated Concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Giorla, Alain B.

    2015-03-01

    In this report, we establish a numerical model for concrete exposed to irradiation to address these three critical points. The model accounts for creep in the cement paste and its coupling with damage, temperature and relative humidity. The shift in failure mode with the loading rate is also properly represented. The numerical model for creep has been validated and calibrated against different experiments in the literature [Wittmann, 1970, Le Roy, 1995]. Results from a simplified model are shown to showcase the ability of numerical homogenization to simulate irradiation effects in concrete. In future works, the complete model will be applied to the analysis of the irradiation experiments of Elleuch et al. [1972] and Kelly et al. [1969]. This requires a careful examination of the experimental environmental conditions as in both cases certain critical information are missing, including the relative humidity history. A sensitivity analysis will be conducted to provide lower and upper bounds of the concrete expansion under irradiation, and check if the scatter in the simulated results matches the one found in experiments. The numerical and experimental results will be compared in terms of expansion and loss of mechanical stiffness and strength. Both effects should be captured accordingly by the model to validate it. Once the model has been validated on these two experiments, it can be applied to simulate concrete from nuclear power plants. To do so, the materials used in these concrete must be as well characterized as possible. The main parameters required are the mechanical properties of each constituent in the concrete (aggregates, cement paste), namely the elastic modulus, the creep properties, the tensile and compressive strength, the thermal expansion coefficient, and the drying shrinkage. These can be either measured experimentally, estimated from the initial composition in the case of cement paste, or back-calculated from mechanical tests on concrete. If some

  4. Ion Irradiation of Carbon Nanotubes: a STM Study

    SciTech Connect

    Osvath, Z.; Vertesy, G.; Horvath, Z. E.; Gyulai, J.; Biro, L. P.

    2009-03-10

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes irradiated with Ar{sup +} ions of low (5x10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2}) and high (10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}) fluences were investigated by STM. Contrary to the case of low fluence irradiation, the defects produced during the high fluence irradiation could not be observed individually, and the surface of nanotubes became rough. Irradiated nanotubes could be easily bent by the STM tip. However, some nanotubes parts could not be moved, which suggest that these parts were bound to the substrate during irradiation.

  5. Broadband anti-reflective and water-repellent coatings on glass substrates for self-cleaning photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaoyu; He, Junhui; Liu, Weiyi

    2013-07-15

    Graphical abstract: High performance broadband antireflective and water-repellent coatings were fabricated on glass substrates, which can improve the short-circuit current of solar cells as much as 6.6% in comparison with glass substrates without the coatings. - Highlights: • Broadband anti-reflective and water-repellent coatings were fabricated. • Transmittance increased to 99.0%, significantly higher than that of commercial solar glasses. • The performance of standard solar cells with the AR coating was enhanced as much as 6.6%. - Abstract: High performance broadband antireflective (AR) and water-repellent coatings were fabricated on glass substrates by assembly of silica nanoparticles and polyelectrolytes via the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique, followed by calcination and hydrophobic modification. A porous poly(diallyladimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)/20 nm SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (S-20) multilayer coating with AR property was prepared first. The maximum transmittance is as high as 99.0%, while that of the glass substrate is only 91.3%. After calcination and hydrophobic modification, the coating became water-repellent while maintaining the good AR property. Such water-repellent AR coatings can improve the short-circuit current of solar cells as much as 6.6% in comparison with glass substrates without the coatings. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology and thickness of coatings. Transmission spectra and reflection spectra were characterized by UV–vis spectrophotometer. The surface wettability was studied by a contact angle/interface system.

  6. Forward and reverse characteristics of irradiated MOSFETs

    SciTech Connect

    Paccagnella, A.; Ceschia, M.; Verzellesi, G.; Dalla Betta, G.F.; Soncini, G.; Bellutti, P.; Fuochi, P.G.

    1996-06-01

    pMOSFETs biased with V{sub gs} < V{sub gd} during Co{sup 60} {gamma} irradiation have shown substantial differences between the forward and reverse subthreshold characteristics, induced by a non-uniform charge distribution in the gate oxide. Correspondingly, modest differences have been observed in the over-threshold I-V characteristics. After irradiation, the forward subthreshold curves can shift at higher or lower gate voltages than the reverse ones. The former behavior has been observed in long-channel devices, in agreement with the classical MOS theory and numerical simulations. The latter result has been obtained in short-channel devices, and it has been correlated to a parasitic punch-through conduction mechanism.

  7. Nanodot formation induced by femtosecond laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Abere, M. J.; Kang, M.; Goldman, R. S.; Yalisove, S. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Chen, C. [Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Rittman, D. R. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Phillips, J. D. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Torralva, B. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    The femtosecond laser generation of ZnSe nanoscale features on ZnSe surfaces was studied. Irradiation with multiple exposures produces 10100?nm agglomerations of nanocrystalline ZnSe while retaining the original single crystal structure of the underlying material. The structure of these nanodots was verified using a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The nanodots continue to grow hours after irradiation through a combination of bulk and surface diffusion. We suggest that in nanodot formation the result of ultrafast laser induced point defect formation is more than an order of magnitude below the ZnSe ultrafast melt threshold fluence. This unique mechanism of point defect injection will be discussed.

  8. Infrared response of YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7-. delta. films to pulsed, broadband synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, G.L.; Quijada, M.; Tanner, D.B. . Dept. of Physics); Hirschmugl, C.J.; Williams, G.P. ); Etemad, S.; DeRosa, F.; Venkatesan, T. ); Dutta, B.; Hemmick, D.; Xi, X. . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-01-01

    We report studies of a thin high {Tc} film operating as a fast bolometric detector of infrared radiation. The film has a response of infrared radiation. The film has a response of several mV when exposed to a 1 W, 1 ns duration broadband infrared pulse. The decay after the pulse was about 4 ns. The temperature dependence of the response accurately tracked dR/dT. A thermal model, in which the film's temperature varies relative to the substrate, provides a good description of the response. We find no evidence for other (non-bolometric) response mechanisms for temperatures near or well below {Tc}. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Broadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of ferroelectric LiTaO{sub 3}: Phonon-polariton dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, Seiji Mori, Tatsuya

    2014-11-05

    The lowest frequency IR active A{sub 1}(z) and E(x) modes of a ferroelectric congruent lithium tantalate crystal were studied by the broadband polarized Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy using the coherent THz radiation from 0.2 to 6.5 THz. The dispersion relations of the real and imaginary parts of a polariton wave vector were determined from the complex extraordinary and ordinary refractive indices for the A{sub 1}(z) and E(x) symmetry phonon-polaritons, respectively. The observed complex dispersion relations of two symmetries are in agreement within the experimental uncertainty with the calculated dispersion curves by the damped harmonic oscillator model.

  10. Comparison of Diffuse Shortwave Irradiance Measurements

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Diffuse Shortwave Irradiance Measurements J. J. Michalsky and J. Schlemmer Atmospheric Sciences Research Center State University of New York Albany, New York B. C. Bush, S. Leitner, D. Marsden, and F. P. J. Valero Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California, San Diego La Jolla, California R. Dolce and A. Los Kipp & Zonen, Inc. Bohemia, New York and Delft The Netherlands E. G. Dutton Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

  11. Climatic change due to solar irradiance changes

    SciTech Connect

    Wigley, T.M.L.; Raper, S.C.B. )

    1990-11-01

    Solar irradiance reconstructions back to 1874 are used to estimate the effect of the Sun on global-mean temperature. The importance of the history effect of the Sun on global-mean temperature. The importance of the history effect, whereby recent temperature changes may be influenced significantly by past forcing changes, is evaluated. Modelled temperature changes are shown to be relatively insensitive to model uncertainties. The overall range of modelled temperature variations is extremely small, 0.05C.

  12. 2009 Total Energy Production by State | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Total Energy Production by State 2009 Total Energy Production by State 2009 Total Energy Production by State...

  13. Irradiation Environment of the Materials Test Station

    SciTech Connect

    Pitcher, Eric John

    2012-06-21

    Conceptual design of the proposed Materials Test Station (MTS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is now complete. The principal mission is the irradiation testing of advanced fuels and materials for fast-spectrum nuclear reactor applications. The neutron spectrum in the fuel irradiation region of MTS is sufficiently close to that of fast reactor that MTS can match the fast reactor fuel centerline temperature and temperature profile across a fuel pellet. This is an important characteristic since temperature and temperature gradients drive many phenomena related to fuel performance, such as phase stability, stoichiometry, and fission product transport. The MTS irradiation environment is also suitable in many respects for fusion materials testing. In particular, the rate of helium production relative to atomic displacements at the peak flux position in MTS matches well that of fusion reactor first wall. Nuclear transmutation of the elemental composition of the fusion alloy EUROFER97 in MTS is similar to that expected in the first wall of a fusion reactor.

  14. TotalView Parallel Debugger at NERSC

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    The performance of the GUI can be greatly improved if used in conjunction with free NX software. The TotalView documentation web page is a good resource for learning more...

  15. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    -3,826 Total Supply 854,673 908,380 892,923 R 900,232 828,785 See footnotes at end of ... Gas Annual 165 Table S43. Summary statistics for natural gas - South Dakota, ...

  16. EQUUS Total Return Inc | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: EQUUS Total Return Inc Place: Houston, Texas Product: A business development company and VC investor that trades as a closed-end fund. EQUUS is...

  17. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Annual Energy Outlook

    as known volumes of natural gas that were the result of leaks, damage, accidents, migration, andor blow down. Notes: Totals may not add due to independent rounding. Prices are...

  18. Total Ore Processing Integration and Management

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie Gertsch; Richard Gertsch

    2004-06-30

    This report outlines the technical progress achieved for project DE-FC26-03NT41785 (Total Ore Processing Integration and Management) during the period 01 April through 30 June of 2004.

  19. The spectral irradiance traceability chain at PTB

    SciTech Connect

    Sperfeld, P.; Pape, S.; Nevas, S.

    2013-05-10

    Spectral irradiance is a fundamental radiometric unit. Its application to measurement results requires qualified traceability to basic units of the international system of units (Systeme international d'unites, SI). The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is amongst other national metrological institutes (NMIs) responsible for the realization, maintenance and dissemination of various radiometric and photometric units based on and traceable to national standards. The unit of spectral irradiance is realized and represented by a blackbody-radiator as the national primary standard of the PTB. Based on Planck's radiation law, the irradiance is calculated and realized for any wavelength taking into account the exact knowledge of the radiation temperature and the geometrical parameters. Using a double-monochromator-based spectroradiometer system, secondary standard lamps can be calibrated by direct comparison to the blackbody-radiator (substitution method). These secondary standard lamps are then used at the PTB to calibrate standard lamps of customers. The customers themselves use these so-called transfer standards to calibrate their working standard lamps. These working standards are then used to calibrate own spectroradiometers or sources. This rather complex calibration chain is a common procedural method that for the customers generally leads to satisfying measurement results on site. Nevertheless, the standard lamps in use have to fulfill highest requirements concerning stability and reproducibility. Only this allows achieving comparably low transfer measurement uncertainties, which occur at each calibration step. Thus, the PTB is constantly investigating the improvement and further development of transfer standards and measurement methods for various spectral regions. The realization and dissemination of the spectral irradiance using the blackbody-radiator at the PTB is accomplished with worldwide approved minimized measurement uncertainties confirmed by

  20. Michalsky-JJ

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Accuracy of Broadband Shortwave Irradiance Measurements Using the Open Silicon Channel of the MFRSR J. J. Michalsky State University of New York Albany, New York Introduction The best routine Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program measurement of downwelling irradiance in the total shortwave band is a sum of diffuse horizontal irradiance and the direct normal irradiance component that is incident horizontally (diffuse horizontal). The latter is obtained by multiplying the direct normal