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  1. Democratic Republic of the Congo | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Democratic Republic of the Congo

  2. Democratic Republic of Congo: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    D Reegle Clean Energy Datasets The Democratic Republic of the Congo is a country in Africa. External Links Democratic Republic of Congo Renewable Energy Data from IEA...

  3. Democratic Republic of Congo-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the Congo Basin AgencyCompany Organization Environment Canada, International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Sector...

  4. Democratic Republic of Congo-REDD Programme | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    DRC UN-REDD programme aims at putting in place the enabling conditions for a REDD strategy in the Democratic Republic of Congo. It was elaborated through a qualitative dialogue...

  5. Molecular Insights into Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus


    Zivcec, Marko; Scholte, Florine; Spiropoulou, Christina; Spengler, Jessica; Bergeron, Éric


    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne pathogen that causes high morbidity and mortality. Efficacy of vaccines and antivirals to treat human CCHFV infections remains limited and controversial. Research into pathology and underlying molecular mechanisms of CCHFV and other nairoviruses is limited. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of CCHFV replication and pathogenesis in the past decade. Here we review the most recent molecular advances in CCHFV-related research, and provide perspectives on future research.

  6. Background Report on Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Tracy A


    Each month, approximately 45,000 people die from violence, hunger, disease, and other effects of displacement as a result of war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The country is often said to be plagued by a 'resource curse.' During each period in history since its discovery by the West, the DRC has possessed the resources the world craves and the world has sought these without regard for the consequences to the Congolese people. The catastrophic consequences of Congo's history of natural resource exploitation are the direct and indirect death of millions of Congolese people. The current war in Congo is multi-causal in nature but explanations are often reduced to describing it as an ethic conflict based on objective grievance. Objective grievance such as inequality, ethnic tensions, land disputes, and lack of democracy do exist, but they are neither necessary nor sufficient to explain the cause of the violent conflict, and more importantly, they fall short in explaining why this conflict has continued for years. The reality is the conflict is an economic war in which the trade of conflict minerals, gold and the 3Ts (tin, tantalum, tungsten), is directly linked to the financial sustainability of the groups fighting each other in eastern DRC. Objective grievance is a by-product of the conflict, used to create a false but plausible moral justification to continue violence. This paper examines the history of conflict in the DRC and the socio-economic variables contributing to the current war fought over conflict minerals.

  7. Tectonic significance of Synrift sediment packages across the Congo continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, J.P.; Karner, G.D.; Driscoll, N.W. ); Brumbaugh, W.D. ); Cameron, N. )


    The tectonic and stratigraphic development of the Congo continental margin reflects the timing, magnitude, and distribution of lithospheric extension responsible for its formation. Details of the lithospheric extension process are recorded in the stratigraphic successions preserved along and across the margin. By using the stratal relationships (e.g., onlap, downlap, and truncation) and lithofacies determined from seismic reflection and exploratory well data as input into our basin-modeling strategy, we have developed an integrated approach to determine the relationship between the timing, magnitude, and distribution of lithospheric extension across the margin. Two hinge zones, an eastern and Atlantic hinge formed along the Congo margin in response to discrete extensional events occurring from the Berriasian to the Aptian. The eastern hinge zone demarcates the eastern limit of the broadly distributed Berriasian extension. This extension resulted in the formation of deep anoxic, lacustrine systems. In contrast, the Atlantic hinge, located [approximately]90 km west of the eastern hinge, marks the eastern limit of a second phase of extension, which began in the Hauterivian. Consequent footwall uplift and rotation exposed the earlier synrift and prerift stratigraphy to at least wave base causing varying amounts of erosional truncation across the Atlantic hinge zone along much of the Gabon, Congo, and Angola margins. The absence of the Melania Formation across the Congo margin implies that uplift of the Atlantic hinge was relatively minor compared to that across the Angola and Gabon margins. In addition, material eroded from the adjacent and topographically higher hinge zones may in part account for the thick wedge of sediment deposited seaward of the Congo Atlantic hinge. A third phase of extension reactivated both the eastern and Atlantic hinge zones and was responsible for creating the accommodation space for Marnes Noires source rock deposition.

  8. Regulation of business activities of petroleum contractors in Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Ivory Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Frilet, M.; Newman, J.


    Foreign companies engaging in business in Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Ivory Coast are subject to a broad range of regulations. This article deals only with those aspects of the regulations that are most important to petroleum contractors intending to engage in business in these countries. The regulator scheme actually applicable in a given case will depend on the legal structure through which a corporation operates. An American corporation may envisage engaging in business on a long-term basis through a local subsidiary or branch. On the other hand, it may wish only to perform temporary activities pursuant to one or more fixed-duration contracts with petroleum companies operating in one of countries. Each of these situations is dealt with. Common features of each area of regulation were described and the differences in regulations were presented. These topics were included: exchange control regulation, corporate forms of business association, authorization to engage in business, requirement of government or local participation in capital, investment code incentives, labor law requirements, taxation of corporations, taxation of profits, taxation of income from movable capital, taxation of amounts paid abroad as technical assistance fees, royalties and similar compensation, turnover taxes, payroll taxes, taxation of business performed without forming a local company or branch, taxation of employees and Social Security contributions. (DP)

  9. Monomeric [alpha]-Synuclein Binds Congo Red Micelles in a Disordered Manner

    SciTech Connect

    Maltsev, Alexander S.; Grishaev, Alexander; Bax, Ad


    The histological dye Congo Red (CR) previously has been shown to inhibit {alpha}-synuclein (aS) fibrillation, but the mode of this inhibition remained unclear. Because of favorable exchange kinetics, interaction between CR and aS lends itself to a detailed nuclear magnetic resonance study, and relaxation dispersion measurements yield the bound fraction and time scales for the interaction of aS with CR. We find that at pH 6, CR exists as a micelle, and at a CR:aS molar ratio of {approx}1, only a small fraction of aS ({approx}2%) is bound to these micelles. Rapid exchange (k{sub ex} {approx} 3000 s{sup -1}) between the free and CR-bound states broadens and strongly attenuates resonances of aS by two processes: a magnetic field-dependent contribution, caused by the chemical shift difference between the two states, and a nearly field-independent contribution caused by slower tumbling of aS bound to the CR micelle. The salt dependence of the interaction suggests a predominantly electrostatic mechanism for the 60 N-terminal residues, while the weaker interaction between residues 61-100 and CR is mostly hydrophobic. Chemical shift and transferred NOE data indicate that aS becomes slightly more helical but remains largely disordered when bound to CR. Results indicate that inhibition of fibril formation does not result from binding of CR to free aS and, therefore, must result from interaction of aS fibrils or protofibrils with CR micelles.

  10. Organofacies and kerogen tranformation kinetics: Implications for hydrocarbon generation in the Bucomazi Formation, lower Congo coastal basin

    SciTech Connect

    Burwood, R.; Fortems, G.; Mycke, B.; Paulet, J.; De Witte, S.M. )


    Deposited under lacustrine conditions during the rift-phase opening of the southern Atlantic, the lower Congo Bucomazi Formation is a highly productive source rock sequence. Reaching considerable thickness (1.8 km), a heterogeneous organofacies reflects both rapid accumulation and changing conditions during Early Cretaceous Barremian sedimentation. As a component of organofacies, low resolution studies showed kerogen kinetic parameters (Ea/A) varied widely according to the gross paleoenvironmental conditions prevailing during deposition. As a a general trend, refractory (type I, higher Ea) kerogens of the [open quotes]basin fill[close quotes] Organic Rich Zone (ORZ) give way to more labile (type II, lower Ea) assemblages in the up-section [open quotes]sheet drape[close quotes] sediments. At higher resolution, a considerable fine structure in Ea fluctuation, presumably reflecting micropaleoenvironment control, becomes evident. Using Ea values assembled for the Bucomazi type section, subsidence modeling for a Ponta Vermelha depocenter section showed a wide disparity in behavior. Being more representative of the sheet-drape episode, type II assemblages matured earlier, at lesser overburdens, and provided the initial hydrocarbon charge. For the ORZ assemblages, the dominant type I component was of retarded maturation, only becoming productive at commensurately greater overburdens. Cumulatively, these events merge to provide an extended period of hydrocarbon generation with implications for production of aggregate oils of varied emplacement histories. Significantly, the net effect of the observed Ea contrast results in the less prolific (but more labile) uppermost Bucomazi assuming a more important charging role than the ORZ of superior source richness. The latter can only realize its full potential under the greatest overburdens attainable in the most subsident depocenters.

  11. Structural Analysis of a Viral Ovarian Tumor Domain Protease from the Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Complex with Covalently Bonded Ubiquitin

    SciTech Connect

    Capodagli, Glenn C.; McKercher, Marissa A.; Baker, Erica A.; Masters, Emily M.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Pegan, Scott D.


    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus is a tick-borne, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA [ssRNA(-)] nairovirus that produces fever, prostration, and severe hemorrhages in humans. With fatality rates for CCHF ranging up to 70% based on several factors, CCHF is considered a dangerous emerging disease. Originally identified in the former Soviet Union and the Congo, CCHF has rapidly spread across large sections of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Recent reports have identified a viral homologue of the ovarian tumor protease superfamily (vOTU) within its L protein. This protease has subsequently been implicated in downregulation of the type I interferon immune response through cleavage of posttranslational modifying proteins ubiquitin (Ub) and the Ub-like interferon-simulated gene 15 (ISG15). Additionally, homologues of vOTU have been suggested to perform similar roles in the positive-sense, single-stranded RNA [ssRNA(+)] arteriviruses. By utilizing X-ray crystallographic techniques, the structure of vOTU covalently bound to ubiquitin propylamine, a suicide substrate of the enzyme, was elucidated to 1.7 {angstrom}, revealing unique structural elements that define this new subclass of the OTU superfamily. In addition, kinetic studies were carried out with aminomethylcoumarin (AMC) conjugates of monomeric Ub, ISG15, and NEDD8 (neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 8) substrates in order to provide quantitative insights into vOTU's preference for Ub and Ub-like substrates.

  12. Democratic Republic of Congo-National Adaptation Plan Global...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  13. Democratic Republic of Congo-Low Emission Capacity Building Programme...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    for 2050. The country exported 500,000 tons of copper in 2010, as well as oil, still poverty reduction is one of the main efforts of the government.vii In its Poverty Reduction...

  14. Democratic Republic of Congo-Forest Investment Program (FIP)...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    World Bank, African Development Bank (AfDB) Partner Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Tourism Sector Land Focus Area Biomass, Forestry, Greenhouse Gas,...

  15. Republic of the Congo: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    EIA Natural Gas Reserves Unavailable Cubic Meters (cu m) NA 2010 CIA World Factbook Oil Reserves Unavailable Barrels (bbl) NA 2010 CIA World Factbook Energy Maps featuring...

  16. Democratic Republic of Congo: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    MWhyear NA 2008 NREL Coal Reserves Unavailable Million Short Tons NA 2008 EIA Natural Gas Reserves Unavailable Cubic Meters (cu m) NA 2010 CIA World Factbook Oil Reserves...

  17. Democratic Republic of Congo-Low Emission Capacity Building Programme...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    departments in charge of production and the environment (environment, agriculture, energy, oil, mining, transport, urban planning and housing, land-affairs), the director of...

  18. Democratic Republic of Congo-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE),...

  19. Democratic Republic of Congo-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Organization ClimateWorks, Project Catalyst, McKinsey and Company Sector Energy, Land Focus Area Forestry, Greenhouse Gas Topics Background analysis, Low emission...

  20. Angola-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Angola-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the Congo Basin Jump to: navigation, search Name Angola-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the Congo...

  1. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros Congo (Brazzaville) Congo (Kinshasa) Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote...

  2. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... from the Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Complex with Covalently Bonded ... Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus is a tick-borne, negative-sense, ...

  3. Evangeline Parish, Louisiana: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Basile, Louisiana Chataignier, Louisiana Mamou, Louisiana Pine Prairie, Louisiana Turkey Creek, Louisiana Ville Platte, Louisiana Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  4. BPA-2010-02068-FOIA Correspondence

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    P.O. Box 3621 G 1 Portland, Oregon 97208-362 4TE5 Of PUBLIC AFFAIRS September 14, 2010 In reply refer to: DK-7 Richard Vill Conservation Legal Advocate Friends of f the Columbia...

  5. Forest Carbon Partnership Facility | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Madagascar, Mexico, Moldova, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Republic of the Congo, Suriname, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam...

  6. REDD+ Country Readiness Preparation Proposals | Open Energy Informatio...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    getting-ready Country: Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Guyana, Indonesia, Madagascar, Mexico, Suriname, Panama Middle Africa, Western Africa, South America,...

  7. National Action Programmes on Desertification | Open Energy Informatio...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Lesotho,...

  8. LEDSGP/about | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Democratic Republic of Congo Department of Science, Education, Natural Resources & Environment, Ministry of Planning and Investment of Vietnam European Commission German Agency...

  9. Multiplex Degenerate Primer Design for Targeted Whole Genome...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis, Henipaviruses, Arenaviruses, Filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, and Japanese encephalitis virus. ...

  10. U.S.-Africa Energy Ministerial Co-Chairs' Summary from Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of Djibouti, the Arab Republic of Egypt, the Republic of Equatorial Guinea, the Gabonese Republic, the Republic of the Gambia,...

  11. A Review of the World Bank Forest Carbon Partnership Facility...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    submitted by Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Guyana, Indonesia, Madagascar, Mexico, Panama and Suriname can be accessed online at: http:www.wri.orggfi ." To access...

  12. Central African Republic-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the Congo Basin AgencyCompany Organization Environment Canada, International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Sector...

  13. Burundi-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the Congo Basin AgencyCompany Organization Environment Canada, International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Sector...

  14. Central African Regional Program for the Environment (CARPE)...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    United States Agency for International Development (USAID) initiative aimed at promoting sustainable natural resource management in the Congo Basin." References "Central...

  15. Rwanda-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the Congo Basin AgencyCompany Organization Environment Canada, International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Sector...

  16. Cameroon-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the Congo Basin AgencyCompany Organization Environment Canada, International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Sector...

  17. Total All Countries Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Destination Exports by Destination Destination: Total All Countries Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andora Angola Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Bahama Islands Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma Bermuda Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cayman Islands Chad Chile China Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Congo (Brazzaville) Congo (Kinshasa) Costa Rica Croatia

  18. Chattan

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Ba rn ett - Wo od for d Le wis Hilli ard- Ba xter - Man cos -Nio bra ra Exc e llo- Mul ky Fay ette ville Floyd- Neal Gam m on Cody Hayn esvil le- Boss ier Ma nco s Pie rre- Nio bra ...

  19. 105(scaled land 215%)7-22-05

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cntrl African Rep. Chad Chile China Colombia Dem. Rep. Congo Costa Rica Cote d'Ivoire Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark ...

  20. User:GregZiebold/Developing Country Programs Map | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    of Congo 12 Djibouti 3 Dominica 9 Dominican Republic 12 Ecuador 7 Egypt 14 El Salvador 8 Equatorial Guinea 4 Eritrea 3 Estonia 2 Ethiopia 21 Fiji 1 Gabon 10 ... further...


    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Operating American Refining Bradford PA 10,000 1% Operating Ergon-West Virginia NewellCongo WV 20,000 1% Operating Hess Corp. Port Reading NJ 0* 0% Operating Sunoco Inc....

  2. Biochemical and Structural Insights into the Preference of Nairoviral...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The enzymatic activities of vOTUs originating from the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Erve virus, and Nairobi sheep disease virus were tested against ISG15s from humans, ...

  3. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... The enzymatic activities ofmore vOTUs originating from the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Erve virus, and Nairobi sheep disease virus were tested against ISG15s from ...

  4. Solar Power




    Le Prof. Broda, Prof. de Biochimie, Physique et Radiochimie à l'Université de Vienne, ville où il est né et où il a étudié, fait une brillante carrière accadémique et nous parle de l'énergie solaire.

  5. The blue helmets. A review of United Nations peace-keeping

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available


    This book discusses the United Nations' peace-keeping operations, reviews the Organization's role in the Arab-Israeli conflict, in India/Pakistan, and other UN observation operations in Lebanon, Yemen, and the Dominican Republic. Also discussed are UN operations in the Congo and in Cyprus and the UN Temporary Executive Authority and the UN Secuirty Force in West New Guinea.

  6. Comparative proteomic analysis of outer membrane vesicles from Shigella flexneri under different culture conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yong; Liu, Liguo; Fu, Hua; Wei, Candong Jin, Qi


    Highlights: • We utilized mTRAQ-based quantification to study protein changes in Congo red-induced OMVs. • A total of 148 proteins were identified in S. flexneri-derived OMVs. • Twenty-eight and five proteins are significantly up- and down-regulated in the CR-induced OMV, respectively. • The result implied that a special sorting mechanism of particular proteins into OMVs may exist. • Key node proteins in the protein interaction network might be important for pathogenicity. - Abstract: The production of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) is a common and regulated process of gram-negative bacteria. Nonetheless, the processes of Shigella flexneri OMV production still remain unclear. S. flexneri is the causative agent of endemic shigellosis in developing countries. The Congo red binding of strains is associated with increased infectivity of S. flexneri. Therefore, understanding the modulation pattern of OMV protein expression induced by Congo red will help to elucidate the bacterial pathogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the proteomic composition of OMVs and the change in OMV protein expression induced by Congo red using mTRAQ-based quantitative comparative proteomics. mTRAQ labelling increased the confidence in protein identification, and 148 total proteins were identified in S. flexneri-derived OMVs. These include a variety of important virulence factors, including Ipa proteins, TolC family, murein hydrolases, and members of the serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) family. Among the identified proteins, 28 and five proteins are significantly up- and down-regulated in the Congo red-induced OMV, respectively. Additionally, by comprehensive comparison with previous studies focused on DH5a-derived OMV, we identified some key node proteins in the protein–protein interaction network that may be involved in OMV biogenesis and are common to all gram-negative bacteria.

  7. Oil and gas developments in central and southern Africa in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, J.B.; Walker, T.L.


    Significant rightholding changes took place in central and southern Africa during 1987. Angola, Benin, Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Mauritania, Seychelles, Somali Republic, Tanzania, Zaire, and Zambia announced awards or acreage open for bidding. Decreases in exploratory rightholdings occurred in Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, and Tanzania. More wells and greater footage were drilled in 1987 than in 1986. Total wells increased by 18% as 254 wells were completed compared to 217 in 1986. Footage drilled during the year increased by 46% as about 1.9 million ft were drilled compared to about 1.3 million ft in 1986. The success rate for exploration wells in 1987 improved slightly to 36% compared to 34% in 1986. Significant discoveries were made in Nigeria, Angola, Congo, and Gabon. Seismic acquisition in 1987 was the major geophysical activity during the year. Total oil production in 1987 was 773 million bbl (about 2.1 million b/d), a decrease of 7%. The decrease is mostly due to a 14% drop in Nigerian production, which comprises 60% of total regional production. The production share of OPEC countries (Nigeria and Gabon) versus non-OPEC countries of 67% remained unchanged from 1986. 24 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Multifunctional gold coated rare-earth hydroxide fluoride nanotubes for simultaneous wastewater purification and quantitative pollutant determination

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Da-Quan; Sun, Tian-Ying; Yu, Xue-Feng; Jia, Yue; Chen, Ming; Wang, Jia-Hong; Huang, Hao; Chu, Paul K.


    Highlights: • The morphology and properties of Ce-doped yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanotubes (YHF:Ce NTs) were investigated. • YHF:Ce NTs were conjugated with Au nanoparticles to produce Au-YHF:Ce nanocomposites. • Au-YHF:Ce NTs showed excellent capability and efficiency in removing Congo red from solutions. • Au-YHF:Ce NTs were utilized to determine the concentration of Congo red based on SERS. - Abstract: Ce-doped yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanotubes (YHF:Ce NTs) with large surface area are synthesized and conjugated with Au nanoparticles (NPs) to produce Au-YHF:Ce nanocomposites. The Au-YHF:Ce NTs have a hollow structure, rough surface, polymer coating, and good surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) properties. They are applied to wastewater treatment to remove Congo red as a typical pollutant. The materials not only remove pollutants rapidly from the wastewater, but also detect trace amounts of the pollutants quantitatively. The multifunctional Au-YHF:Ce NTs have commercial potential as nano-absorbents and nano-detectors in water treatment and environmental monitoring.

  9. Adventures in Infectious Diseases


    Fisher-Hoch, Susan [University of Texas School of Public Health


    Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

  10. Africa: Unrest and restrictive terms limit abundant potential. [Oil and gas exploration and development in Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available


    This paper summarizes the drilling and exploration activity of the oil and gas industries of Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, the Congo, Angola, and South Africa. Information is provided on current and predicted trends in well drilling activities (both onshore and offshore), numbers of new wells, footage information, production statistics and what fields accounted for this production, and planned new exploration activities. The paper also describes the current status of government policies and political problems affecting the oil and gas industry.

  11. Oilfields of the World. Third edition

    SciTech Connect

    Tiratsoo, E.N.


    This third edition (updated to 1984) covers all of the world's major producing areas (both onshore and offshore) on six continents. It offers essential geologic, reserves, and production data on 13 nations that have become commercial oil producers in the last five years: Benin, Cameroon, Congo Republic, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Sudan, Zaire, Greece, The Phillippines, Sharjah, Thailand, Guatemala, and Surinam. Numerous maps display the geologic details of each area. This book also contains full-color maps of the oil and gas fields of the North Sea, Persian Gulf, Mexico, Venezuela, and Brazil.

  12. Non-OPEC oil supply continues to grow

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, D.H.


    Global reserves of crude oil remain at 1 trillion bbl, according to OGJ`s annual survey of producing countries. Significant gains are in Brazil, Colombia, Congo, Egypt, Libya, Nigeria, Oman, and Papua New Guinea. Decreases were reported by Indonesia, Norway, the U.K., Iran, Canada, Mexico, and the US. Natural gas reserves slipped to 4.9 quadrillion cu ft. The major production trend is a lasting surge from outside of OPEC. This year`s Worldwide Production report begins with a detailed analysis of this crucial development by an international authority. This article discusses the OECD outlook by region and the turnaround in production in the former Soviet Union.

  13. Turmoil doesn`t dampen enthusiasm

    SciTech Connect


    The paper discusses the outlook for the African gas and oil industries. Though Africa remains politically and economically volatile, its vast energy potential is becoming increasingly attractive to foreign oil and gas companies. Separate evaluations are given for Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Angola, Libya, Congo, Gabon, Tunisia, Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, and briefly for South Africa, Sudan, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Zaire, Benin, Mozambique, Chad, Namibia, Tanzania, Eritrea, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Morocco, Sao Tome and Principe, Ethiopia, Niger, Madagascar, Rwanda, Mauritania, Seychelles, Uganda, and Liberia.

  14. World frontiers beckon oil finders

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available


    This paper discusses the international aspects of the petroleum industry. Most who work in the industry agree that the possibilities for huge are found largely in international regions. Something that is helping fuel that possibility is the way countries are increasingly opening their doors to US oil industry involvement. Listed in this paper is a partial list of the reported projects now underway around the world involving US companies. It is not intended to be comprehensive, but rather an indication of how work continues despite a general lull atmosphere for the oil industry. These include Albania, Bulgaria, Congo, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Ireland, Malta, Madagascar, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Panama, Paraquay, and Senegal.

  15. U.S. Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    2 3 1 250 314 255 1993-2016 Ecuador 2007-2007 Non OPEC* 2 3 1 250 314 255 2004-2016 Argentina 2006-2006 Belgium 2012-2012 Brazil 250 314 255 2004-2016 Canada 2 3 1 2004-2016 China 2006-2006 Congo (Brazzaville) 2006-2006 Costa Rica 2004-2013 El Salvador 2004-2013 Guatemala 2012-2014 Jamaica 2004-2013 Netherlands 2006-2014 Nicaragua 2012-2014 Pakistan 2006-2006 Singapore 2014-2014 Trinidad and Tobago 2005-2011 Virgin Islands (U.S.) 2007-2009

  16. Archive Preserves At-Risk Samples | Y-12 National Security Complex

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Archive Preserves At-Risk ... Archive Preserves At-Risk Samples Posted: July 22, 2013 - 3:21pm | Y-12 Report | Volume 10, Issue 1 | 2013 A sample of the 1940s material from the Shinkolobwe Mine in the Katanga province of the Belgian Congo. As uranium's usefulness became apparent leading up to World War II, the demand for uranium ore supplies for research and development escalated. The U.S. sought to acquire uranium in North America during the early 1940s, but the amount, and quality, of ores was

  17. High efficient ZnO nanowalnuts photocatalyst: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Feng; Zhang, Siwen; Liu, Yang; Liu, Hongfeng; Qu, Fengyu; Cai, Xue; Wu, Xiang


    Highlights: • Walnut-like ZnO nanostructures are synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method. • Morphologies and microstructures of the as-obtained ZnO products were investigated. • The photocatalytic results demonstrate that methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution can be degraded over 97% after 45 min under UV light irradiation. - Abstract: Walnut-like ZnO nanostructures are successfully synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The photocatalytic properties of ZnO nanowalnuts are investigated by photodegradating several organic dyes, such as Congo red (CR), methyl orange (MO) and eosin red aqueous solutions under UV irradiation, respectively. The results demonstrate that methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution can be degraded over 97% after 45 min under UV light irradiation. In addition, eosin red and Congo red (CR) aqueous solution degradation experiments are also conducted in the same condition, respectively. It showed that ZnO nanowalnuts represent high photocatalytic activities with a degradation efficiency of 87% for CR with 115 min of irradiation and 97% for eosin red with 55 min of irradiation. The reported ZnO products may be promising candidates as the photocatalysts in waste water treatment.

  18. Latest status of the Rheinbraun High-Temperature Winkler (HTW) process

    SciTech Connect

    Teggers, H.; Theis, K.A.; Tonnesmann, A.; Fabianek, G.


    In 1981, the Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke AG (Rheinbraun) started constructing the first commercial-scale plant applying the High-Temperature Winkler (HTW) Process in the Federal Republic of Germany, at the site of Rheinbraun's Ville plant (Hurth-Berrenrath). This demonstration plant represents the consequent continuation of the company's R and D efforts regarding development and testing of new lignite gasification and liquefaction processes up to industrial-scale operational maturity. Rhenish lignite is particularly suited for conversion purposes due to its favourable mining conditions and high reactivity. In addition to further developing the Winkler process, up to the so-called High-Temperature Winkler (HTW) process for the production of synthesis gases rich in CO and H/sub 2/, a second gassification process based on the fluidized-bed principle, the lignite hydrogasification process (HUV) for the production of SNG is being developed. Operational result of a small-scale test plant are presented and the HTW process of SNG production for methanol production is described.

  19. Interim Report on Multiple Sequence Alignments and TaqMan Signature Mapping to Phylogenetic Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, S; Jaing, C


    The goal of this project is to develop forensic genotyping assays for select agent viruses, addressing a significant capability gap for the viral bioforensics and law enforcement community. We used a multipronged approach combining bioinformatics analysis, PCR-enriched samples, microarrays and TaqMan assays to develop high resolution and cost effective genotyping methods for strain level forensic discrimination of viruses. We have leveraged substantial experience and efficiency gained through year 1 on software development, SNP discovery, TaqMan signature design and phylogenetic signature mapping to scale up the development of forensics signatures in year 2. In this report, we have summarized the Taqman signature development for South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis viruses and henipaviruses, Old World Arenaviruses, filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus and Japanese encephalitis virus.

  20. Chrysolcolla Redefined as Spertiniite

    SciTech Connect

    Farges, Francois; Benzerara, Karim; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.; /Stanford U., Geo. Environ. Sci. /SLAC, SSRL


    XAFS and {mu}-XAFS spectra were collected at the Cu K-edge for seven chrysocolla samples (Peru, USA, and Congo). The results suggest that the local structure around Cu is similar to that in Cu(OH){sub 2} (spertiniite). Cu-L{sub 3} STXM imaging and spectroscopy confirm that the chrysocolla samples examined here consist of mesoscopic Cu(II)-rich domains surrounded by Si-rich domains (in agreement with results from infra-red spectroscopy). Hence, we suggest that chrysocolla, which is generally considered to be orthorhombic with composition (Cu,Al){sub 2}H{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4} {center_dot} nH{sub 2}O, is in actually a mesoscopic assemblage composed dominantly of spertiniite (Cu(OH){sub 2}), water and amorphous silica (SiO{sub 2}).

  1. Angola: a great future

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available


    The companies represented in Angola and their concessions by area are tabulated, including offshore leases. The government of this only recently independent country puts great emphasis on petroleum development and welcomes foreign companies. The major portion of the production comes from the fields in the Cabinda area. In the future, the reserves in the Congo basin will become more important. Exploration activity is intense and concentrated on the near offshore area of the country. The gas reserves are still not entirely known; present production serves only the needs of petroleum production, including a gas injection project in the Cabinda area and the production of LPG. A map of the offshore concession blocks also is shown.

  2. Emissions Scenarios, Costs, and Implementation Considerations of REDD Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, Jayant; Andrasko, Ken; Chan, Peter


    Greenhouse gas emissions from the forestry sector are estimated to be 8.4 GtCO2-eq./year or about 17percent of the global emissions. We estimate that the cost forreducing deforestation is low in Africa and several times higher in Latin America and Southeast Asia. These cost estimates are sensitive to the uncertainties of how muchunsustainable high-revenue logging occurs, little understood transaction and program implementation costs, and barriers to implementation including governance issues. Due to lack of capacity in the affected countries, achieving reduction or avoidance of carbon emissions will require extensive REDD-plus programs. Preliminary REDD-plus Readiness cost estimates and program descriptions for Indonesia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Guyana and Mexico show that roughly one-third of potential REDD-plus mitigation benefits might come from avoided deforestation and the rest from avoided forest degradation and other REDD-plus activities.

  3. Africa: the emphasis is exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available


    Individual country reports on drilling, oil and gas production, and petroleum exploration and reserves are given for Africa. Nigeria was the continent's largest oil producer in 1979, averaging 2.3 million bpd, followed closely by Libya with 2.07 million bpd. Algeria cut production of crude oil in 1979 to a level of 1,194,350 bpd, and increased gas production to 2031 mmcfd. In Egypt, the return of Israeli-occupied oil fields and a surge in productive capacity enabled production averaging 524,000 bpd. Brief country reports are included for Gabon, Angola, Republic of the Congo, Cameroun, Tunisia, Morocco, Zaire, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Niger, Chad, Republic of South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Equatorial Guinea, Seychelles Islands, Mauritania, Republic of Mali, Benin, Kenya, Madagascar, Botswana, Gambia, Mozambique, and Senegal.

  4. Photocatalytic and magnetic behaviors observed in nanostructured BiFeO{sub 3} particles

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shun; Lin Yuanhua; Nan Cewen; Wang Yao; Zhang Boping


    Nanostructured BiFeO{sub 3} particles have been synthesized by a hydrothermal method, and the effects of particle size on photocatalytic activity and magnetic property of BiFeO{sub 3} were investigated. The optical absorption spectra indicate that the band-gap energy increases with decreasing crystalline size due to the quantum-size effect. The enhancement of room-temperature weak ferromagnetism can be observed in nanoscale BiFeO{sub 3} particles, which should be attributed to the size-confinement effect on the magnetic ordering. In addition, BiFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles with diameter about 5 nm show good photocatalytic performance by photodegradation of Congo red under visible-light ({lambda}>400 nm) irradiation.

  5. Photocatalytic and magnetic behaviors of BiFeO{sub 3} thin films deposited on different substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Hao-Min; Wang, Huan-Chun; Shen, Yang; Lin, Yuan-Hua Nan, Ce-Wen


    Single phase polycrystalline BiFeO{sub 3} thin films were grown on three different substrates via chemical solution deposition. Our results indicate that the band gap of as-prepared BiFeO{sub 3} films can be tuned (2.02–2.67 eV) by the grain size effects caused by the substrates. These BiFeO{sub 3} films show good photocatalytic properties by the degradation of Congo red solution under visible-light irradiation (λ{sub  }> 400 nm). Additionally, weak ferromagnetic behaviors can be observed at room temperature in all the films, which should be correlated to the destruction of the incommensurate cycloid spin structure of BiFeO{sub 3} phase and the coexistence of Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+} as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  6. Oil and gas developments in central and southern Africa in 1983

    SciTech Connect

    McGrew, H.J.


    All exploratory activity in central and southern Africa decreased in 1983, reflecting world economic conditions and excess productive capacity. Seismic activity has declined sharply from its peak year of 1981. Land operations suffered the greatest drop in 1983, whereas party-months of marine work increased slightly. 3-D recording continued to be used but at a reduced rate compared with 1982. Large aeromagnetic surveys were made in several countries; however, the coverage was less than in 1982. Gravity continues to be used to supplement other geophysical work, but other exploratory techniques are being used infrequently. Total wells drilled dropped from 464 in 1982 to 387 in 1983. Most of the decline was in exploratory drilling, which dropped from 132 to 86 wells. This was reflected in the number of discoveries, which decreased from 48 to 27 while the success rate continued about the same. Development drilling continued at a high level in Cameroon and Congo, whereas in Nigeria the emphasis shifted to the drilling of appraisal wells. In all, 2,937,708 ft (895,643 m) of hole was drilled, a decrease of about 20% from 1982. Oil production of 673,075,667 bbl in 1983 was an increase of 1.7% over 1982's production, bringing cumulative production to over 12 billion bbl. Marked increases in production were recorded in Cabinda, Ivory Coast, and Congo. Production from Nigerian fields continued to dominate this part of the world as they contributed about 67% of the annual production and 75% of the cumulative production. 44 figures, 15 tables.

  7. Central and southern Africa

    SciTech Connect

    McGrew, H.J.


    Exploration in central and southern Africa continued to expand during 1980. The greatest concentration of activity was in Nigeria. However, there was considerable increase in the level of exploratory work in Cameroon and Congo. Significant new finds have been made in Ivory Coast. Geological and geophysical activity was carried out in 18 of the countries, with those in the western part having the largest share. Seismic work involved 225 party months of operation. Most of this time was spent on land, but marine operations accounted for 73,389 km of new control. Gravity and magnetic data were recorded during the marine surveys, and several large aeromagnetic projects were undertaken to obtain a total of 164,498 line km of data. Exploratory and development drilling accounted for a total of 304 wells and 2,605,044 ft (794,212 m) of hole. The 92 exploratory wells that were drilled resulted in 47 oil and gas discoveries. In development drilling 89% of the 212 wells were successful. At the end of the year, 27 exploratory wells were underway, and 34 development wells were being drilled for a total of 61. Oil production from the countries that this review covers was 918,747,009 bbl in 1980, a drop of about 9% from the previous year. Countries showing a decline in production were Nigeria, Gabon, Cabinda, and Zaire. Increases were recorded in Cameroon, Congo, and Ghana. A new country was added to the list of producers when production from the Belier field in Ivory Coast came on stream. 33 figures, 15 tables.

  8. Synthesis of WO{sub 3} nanoparticles by citric acid-assisted precipitation and evaluation of their photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Snchez-Martnez, D.; Martnez-de la Cruz, A.; Lpez-Cullar, E.


    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? WO{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple citric acid-assisted precipitation. ? WO{sub 3} photocatalyst was able to the partial mineralization of rhB, IC and MO. ? WO{sub 3} can be considered as a photocatalyst active under visible light irradiation. -- Abstract: WO{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized by citric acid-assisted precipitation method using a 1:1.5 molar ratio of ammonium paratungstate hydrate (H{sub 42}N{sub 10}O{sub 42}W{sub 12}xH{sub 2}O):citric acid (C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 7}). The formation of monoclinic crystal structure of WO{sub 3} at different temperatures was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The characterization of the samples synthesized was complemented by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), BrunauerEmmittTeller surface area (BET) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). According to the thermal treatment followed during the synthesis of WO{sub 3}, the morphology of the nanoparticles formed was characterized by rectangular and ovoid shapes. The photocatalytic activity of WO{sub 3} obtained under different experimental conditions was evaluated in the degradation of rhodamine B (rhB), indigo carmine (IC), methyl orange (MO), and Congo red (CR) in aqueous solution under UV and UVvis radiation. The highest photocatalytic activity was observed in the sample obtained by thermal treatment at 700 C. In general, the sequence of degradation of the organic dyes was: indigo carmine (IC) > rhodamine B (rhB) > methyl orange (MO) > Congo red (CR). The mineralization degree of organic dyes by WO{sub 3} photocatalysts was determined by total organic carbon analysis (TOC) reaching percentages of mineralization of 82% (rhB), 85% (IC), 28% (MO), and 7% (CR) for 96 h of lamp irradiation.

  9. Facile and template-free preparation of {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} nanostructures and their enhanced adsorbability

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Hongwei; Shen, Jianfeng; Shi, Min; Yan, Bo; Li, Na; Ye, Mingxin


    Graphical abstract: . The as-obtained ({alpha}-MnO{sub 2}) nanomaterials could act as an adsorbent to remove Conge red. More significantly, the nanomaterials are nontoxic and environmentally friendly though a biological MTT assay experiment. Plots of the capacity to remove Conge red with time by the commercial and new-prepared {alpha}-MnO{sub 2}. Inset shows absorption of Congo Red with time by new-prepared rod-clusters {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} (0, 10, 20, 40 and 60 min, respectively). Highlights: {yields} Nanostructured {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} was prepared through a template-free hydrothermal method. {yields} The obtained {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} could act as effective adsorbents to remove organic dyes. {yields} The obtained adsorbents are environmentally friendly. -- Abstract: In this paper, nanostructured MnO{sub 2} materials were successfully prepared through a simple and template-free hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction pattern indicates that the as-prepared nanomaterials are {alpha}-MnO{sub 2}. Transmission Electron Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy images demonstrate that nanostructured rod-clusters {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} could be evolved from the nanorods. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurement was employed to characterize the surface property. Moreover, the as-obtained ({alpha}-MnO{sub 2}) nanomaterials could act as an efficient adsorbent to remove Congo Red and Methlylene Blue. More significantly, the nanomaterials are nontoxic and environmentally friendly via biological methylthiazolyldiphenyltetrazoliumbromide assay experiments. Its nontoxic and enhanced adsorbability properties guarantee their safe applications in environmental protection and industrial aspects.

  10. Heterologous expression of xylanase enzymes in lipogenic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica


    Wang, Wei; Wei, Hui; Alahuhta, Markus; Chen, Xiaowen; Hyman, Deborah; Johnson, David K.; Zhang, Min; Himmel, Michael E.


    In order to develop a direct microbial sugar conversion platform for the production of lipids, drop-in fuels and chemicals from cellulosic biomass substrate, we chose Yarrowia lipolytica as a viable demonstration strain. Y. lipolytica is known to accumulate lipids intracellularly and is capable of metabolizing sugars to produce lipids; however, it lacks the lignocellulose-degrading enzymes needed to break down biomass directly. While research is continuing on the development of a Y. lipolytica strain able to degrade cellulose, in this study, we present successful expression of several xylanases in Y. lipolytica. The XynII and XlnD expressing Yarrowia strains exhibited an abilitymore » to grow on xylan mineral plates. This was shown by Congo Red staining of halo zones on xylan mineral plates. Enzymatic activity tests further demonstrated active expression of XynII and XlnD in Y. lipolytica. Furthermore, synergistic action in converting xylan to xylose was observed when XlnD acted in concert with XynII. Finally, the successful expression of these xylanases in Yarrowia further advances us toward our goal to develop a direct microbial conversion process using this organism.« less

  11. Multiplex Degenerate Primer Design for Targeted Whole Genome Amplification of Many Viral Genomes


    Gardner, Shea N.; Jaing, Crystal J.; Elsheikh, Maher M.; Peña, José; Hysom, David A.; Borucki, Monica K.


    Background . Targeted enrichment improves coverage of highly mutable viruses at low concentration in complex samples. Degenerate primers that anneal to conserved regions can facilitate amplification of divergent, low concentration variants, even when the strain present is unknown. Results . A tool for designing multiplex sets of degenerate sequencing primers to tile overlapping amplicons across multiple whole genomes is described. The new script, run_tiled_primers, is part of the PriMux software. Primers were designed for each segment of South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis, Henipaviruses, Arenaviruses, Filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, and Japanese encephalitis virus.more » Each group is highly diverse with as little as 5% genome consensus. Primer sets were computationally checked for nontarget cross reactions against the NCBI nucleotide sequence database. Primers for murine hepatitis virus were demonstrated in the lab to specifically amplify selected genes from a laboratory cultured strain that had undergone extensive passage in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions . This software should help researchers design multiplex sets of primers for targeted whole genome enrichment prior to sequencing to obtain better coverage of low titer, divergent viruses. Applications include viral discovery from a complex background and improved sensitivity and coverage of rapidly evolving strains or variants in a gene family.« less

  12. Tropical Africa: Land Use, Biomass, and Carbon Estimates for 1980 (NDP-055)

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.


    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980. The biomass data and carbon estimates are associated with woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with estimating historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth's land surface and is comprised of countries that are located in tropical Africa (Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Benin, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Burkina Faso (Upper Volta), Zaire, and Zambia). The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{trademark} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  13. Interannual variation of the surface temperature of tropical forests from satellite observations

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Huilin; Zhang, Shuai; Fu, Rong; Li, Wenhong; Dickinson, Robert E.


    Land surface temperatures (LSTs) within tropical forests contribute to climate variations. However, observational data are very limited in such regions. This study used passive microwave remote sensing data from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS), providing observations under all weather conditions, to investigate the LST over the Amazon and Congo rainforests. The SSM/I and SSMIS data were collected from 1996 to 2012. The morning and afternoon observations from passive microwave remote sensing facilitate the investigation of the interannual changes of LST anomalies on a diurnal basis. As a result of the variability of cloud cover and the corresponding reduction of solar radiation, the afternoon LST anomalies tend to vary more than the morning LST anomalies. The dominant spatial and temporal patterns for interseasonal variations of the LST anomalies over the tropical rainforest were analyzed. The impacts of droughts and El Niños on this LST were also investigated. Lastly, the differences between early morning and late afternoon LST anomalies were identified by the remote sensing product, with the morning LST anomalies controlled by humidity (according to comparisons with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data).

  14. Interannual variation of the surface temperature of tropical forests from satellite observations


    Gao, Huilin; Zhang, Shuai; Fu, Rong; Li, Wenhong; Dickinson, Robert E.


    Land surface temperatures (LSTs) within tropical forests contribute to climate variations. However, observational data are very limited in such regions. This study used passive microwave remote sensing data from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS), providing observations under all weather conditions, to investigate the LST over the Amazon and Congo rainforests. The SSM/I and SSMIS data were collected from 1996 to 2012. The morning and afternoon observations from passive microwave remote sensing facilitate the investigation of the interannual changes of LST anomalies on a diurnal basis. As a result of the variability ofmore » cloud cover and the corresponding reduction of solar radiation, the afternoon LST anomalies tend to vary more than the morning LST anomalies. The dominant spatial and temporal patterns for interseasonal variations of the LST anomalies over the tropical rainforest were analyzed. The impacts of droughts and El Niños on this LST were also investigated. Lastly, the differences between early morning and late afternoon LST anomalies were identified by the remote sensing product, with the morning LST anomalies controlled by humidity (according to comparisons with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data).« less

  15. Lithospheric Thickness Modeled from Long Period Surface Wave Dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M E


    The behavior of surface waves at long periods is indicative of subcrustal velocity structure. Using recently published dispersion models, we invert surface wave group velocities for lithospheric structure, including lithospheric thickness, over much of the Eastern Hemisphere, encompassing Eurasia, Africa, and the Indian Ocean. Thicker lithosphere under Precambrian shields and platforms are clearly observed, not only under the large cratons (West Africa, Congo, Baltic, Russia, Siberia, India), but also under smaller blocks like the Tarim Basin and Yangtze craton. In contrast, it is found that remobilized Precambrian structures like the Saharan Shield and Sino-Korean Paraplatform do not have well-established lithospheric keels. The thinnest lithospheric thickness is found under oceanic and continental rifts, as well as along convergence zones. We compare our results to thermal models of continental lithosphere, lithospheric cooling models of oceanic lithosphere, lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) estimates from S-wave receiver functions, and velocity variations of global tomography models. In addition to comparing results for the broad region, we examine in detail the regions of Central Africa, Siberia, and Tibet. While there are clear differences in the various estimates, overall the results are generally consistent. Inconsistencies between the estimates may be due to a variety of reasons including lateral and depth resolution differences and the comparison of what may be different lithospheric features.

  16. A Top to Bottom Lithospheric Study of Africa and Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M


    We study the lithospheric structure of Africa, Arabia and adjacent oceanic regions with fundamental-mode surface waves over a wide period range. Including short period group velocities allows us to examine shallower features than previous studies of the whole continent. In the process, we have developed a crustal thickness map of Africa. Main features include crustal thickness increases under the West African, Congo, and Kalahari cratons. We find crustal thinning under Mesozoic and Cenozoic rifts, including the Benue Trough, Red Sea, and East, Central, and West African rift systems. Crustal shear wave velocities are generally faster in oceanic regions and cratons, and slower in more recent crust and in active and formerly active orogenic regions. Deeper structure, related to the thickness of cratons and modern rifting, is generally consistent with previous work. Under cratons we find thick lithosphere and fast upper mantle velocities, while under rifts we find thinned lithosphere and slower upper mantle velocities. There are no consistent effects in areas classified as hotspots, indicating that there seem to be numerous origins for these features. Finally, it appears that the African Superswell has had a significantly different impact in the north and the south, indicating specifics of the feature (temperature, time of influence, etc.) to be dissimilar between the two regions. Factoring in other information, it is likely that the southern portion has been active in the past, but that shallow activity is currently limited to the northern portion of the superswell.

  17. Renewable Energy Zones for the Africa Clean Energy Corridor

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Grace C.; Deshmukh, Ranjit; Ndhlukula, Kudakwashe; Radojicic, Tijana; Reilly, Jessica


    Multi-criteria Analysis for Planning Renewable Energy (MapRE) is a study approach developed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with the support of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). The approach combines geospatial, statistical, energy engineering, and economic methods to comprehensively identify and value high-quality wind, solar PV, and solar CSP resources for grid integration based on techno-economic criteria, generation profiles (for wind), and socio-environmental impacts. The Renewable Energy Zones for the Africa Clean Energy Corridor study sought to identify and comprehensively value high-quality wind, solar photovoltaic (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) resources in 21 countries in the East and Southern Africa Power Pools to support the prioritization of areas for development through a multi-criteria planning process. These countries include Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Djibouti, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Libya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The study includes the methodology and the key results including renewable energy potential for each region.

  18. BiFeO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} core-shell structured nanocomposites as visible-active photocatalysts and their optical response mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shun; Lin Yuanhua; Li Jingfeng; Nan Cewen; Zhang Boping


    Anatase titania-coated bismuth ferrite nanocomposites (BiFeO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}) have been fabricated via a hydrothermal approach combined with a hydrolysis precipitation processing. Analysis of the microstructure and phase composition reveals that a core-shell BiFeO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} structure can be formed, which results in a significant redshift in the UV-vis absorption spectra as compared to a simple mechanical mixture of BiFeO{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2} nanopowders. The core-shell structured BiFeO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites exhibit higher photocatalytic activity for photodegradation of Congo red under visible-light ({lambda}>400 nm) irradiation, which should be attributed to the enhancement of the quantum efficiency by separating the electrons and holes effectively. The obtained BiFeO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites can be used as potential visible-light driven photocatalysts.

  19. A New F-18 Labeled PET Agent For Imaging Alzheimer's Plaques

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, Padmakar V.; Hao Guiyang; Arora, Veera; Long, Michael; Slavine, Nikolai; Chiguru, Srinivas; Qu Baoxi; Sun Xiankai; Bennett, Michael; Antich, Peter P.; Bonte, Frederick J.; Vasdev, Neil


    Amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Advances in development of imaging agents have focused on targeting amyloid plaques. Notable success has been the development of C-11 labeled PIB (Pittsburgh Compound) and a number of studies have demonstrated the utility of this agent. However, the short half life of C-11 (t1/2: 20 min), is a limitation, thus has prompted the development of F-18 labeled agents. Most of these agents are derivatives of amyloid binding dyes; Congo red and Thioflavin. Some of these agents are in clinical trials with encouraging results. We have been exploring new class of agents based on 8-hydroxy quinoline, a weak metal chelator, targeting elevated levels of metals in plaques. Iodine-123 labeled clioquinol showed affinity for amyloid plaques however, it had limited brain uptake and was not successful in imaging in intact animals and humans. We have been successful in synthesizing F-18 labeled 8-hydroxy quinoline. Small animal PET/CT imaging studies with this agent showed high (7-10% ID/g), rapid brain uptake and fast washout of the agent from normal mice brains and delayed washout from transgenic Alzheimer's mice. These promising results encouraged us in further evaluation of this class of compounds for imaging AD plaques.

  20. Intermediate conformation between native β-sheet and non-native α-helix is a precursor of trifluoroethanol-induced aggregation of Human Carbonic Anhydrase-II

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Preeti; Deep, Shashank


    Highlights: • HCAII forms amyloid-like aggregates at moderate concentration of trifluoroethanol. • Protein adopts a state between β-sheet and α-helix at moderate % of TFE. • Hydrophobic surface(s) of partially structured conformation forms amyloid. • High % of TFE induces stable α-helical state preventing aggregation. - Abstract: In the present work, we examined the correlation between 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE)-induced conformational transitions of human carbonic anhydrase II (HCAII) and its aggregation propensity. Circular dichroism data indicates that protein undergoes a transition from β-sheet to α-helix on addition of TFE. The protein was found to aggregate maximally at moderate concentration of TFE at which it exists somewhere between β-sheet and α-helix, probably in extended non-native β-sheet conformation. Thioflavin-T (ThT) and Congo-Red (CR) assays along with fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) data suggest that the protein aggregates induced by TFE possess amyloid-like features. Anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS) binding studies reveal that the exposure of hydrophobic surface(s) was maximum in intermediate conformation. Our study suggests that the exposed hydrophobic surface and/or the disruption of the structural features protecting a β-sheet protein might be the major reason(s) for the high aggregation propensity of non-native intermediate conformation of HCAII.

  1. Enhanced accumulation and visible light-assisted degradation of azo dyes in poly(allylamine hydrochloride)-modified mesoporous silica spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Tao Xia Liu Bing; Hou Qian; Xu Hui; Chen Jianfeng


    A new route for the economic and efficient treatment of azo dye pollutants is reported, in which surface-modified organic-inorganic hybrid mesoporous silica (MS) spheres were chosen as microreactors for the accumulation and subsequent photodegradation of pollutants in defined regions. The surface-modified silica materials were prepared by anchoring the polycationic species such as poly(allylamine hydrochloride) on MS spheres via a simple wet impregnation method. The as-synthesized spheres with well-defined porous structures exhibited 15 times of accumulating capacity for orange II and Congo red compared to that of the pure MS spheres. Diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that the accumulated orange II and CR in defined MS spheres were rapidly degraded in the presence of Fenton reagent under visible radiation. Kinetics analysis in recycling degradation showed that the as-synthesized materials might be utilized as environment-friendly preconcentrators/microreactors for the remediation of dye wastewater.

  2. Ocean FUSRAP: feasibility of ocean disposal of materials from the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Progam (FUSRAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Kupferman, S.L.; Anderson, D.R.; Brush, L.H.; Gomez, L.S.; Laul, J.C.; Shephard, L.E.


    The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the Department of Energy is designed to identify and evaluate the radiological conditions at sites formerly used by the Corps of Engineers Manhattan Engineer District and the US Atomic Energy Commission. Where required, remedial action will be instituted to remove potential restrictions on the use of the sites due to residual low-level radioactive contamination. A total of 31 sites that may require remedial action has been identified. The purpose of the Ocean FUSRAP Program, which began in March 1981, is to assess the technical, environmental, and institutional feasibility of disposing, in the ocean and on the ocean floor, of FUSRAP soil and rubble which contains traces of natural radioactive materials. The initial focus has been on the Middlesex, New Jersey, Sampling Plant site and surrounding properties, which contain on the order of 100,000 metric tons of material. The Belgian Congo uranium ore and other uranium ores used by the United States were handled at the sampling plant site. In studying the feasibility of ocean disposal of FUSRAP material from Middlesex, New Jersey, we have begun to examine institutional requirements to be met, the composition of the source material with regard to its inventory of toxic chemical and radiochemical components and the impact of the source material in the marine environment. To date we have found nothing that would preclude safe and inexpensive disposal of this material in the ocean.

  3. Geological and environmental remote sensing for international petroleum operations

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, J.M.


    Remote sensing allows the petroleum industry to make better and quicker interpretations of geological and environmental conditions in areas of present and future operations. Often remote sensing (including aerial photographs) is required because existing maps are out-of-date, too small of scale, or provide only limited information. Implementing remote sensing can lead to lower project costs and reduced risk. The same satellite and airborne data can be used effectively for both geological and environmental applications. For example, earth scientists can interpret new lithologic, structural, and geomorphic information from near-infrared and radar imagery in terrains as diverse as barren desert and tropical jungle. Environmental applications with these and other imagery include establishing baselines, assessing impact by documenting changes through time, and mapping land-use, habitat, and vegetation. Higher resolution sensors provide an up-to-date overview of onshore and offshore petroleum facilities, whereas sensors capable of oblique viewing can be used to generate topographic maps. Geological application in Yemen involved merging Landsat TM and SPOT imagery to obtain exceptional lithologic discrimination. In the Congo, a topographic map to plan field operations was interpreted from the overlapping radar strips. Landsat MSS and TM, SPOT, and Russian satellite images with new aerial photographs are being used in the Tengiz supergiant oil field of Kazakhstan to help establish an environmental baseline, generate a base map, locate wells, plan facilities, and support a geographical information system (GIS). In the Niger delta, Landsat TM and SPOT are being used to plan pipeline routes and seismic lines, and to monitor rapid shoreline changes and population growth. Accurate coastlines, facility locations, and shoreline types are being extracted from satellite images for use in oil spill models.

  4. Oil and gas developments in central and southern Africa in 1981

    SciTech Connect

    McGrew, H.J.


    Exploratory activity in central and southern Africa continued to grow during 1981. Geophysical operations reached nearly record levels and the number of wells increased markedly. Oil production suffered from the adverse conditions that existed throughout the world and dropped by a significant amount. New Concession acquisitions occurred in several of the countries in northeast Africa. Elsewhere, the operating companies negotiated new concessions and renewed those that were expiring. In several countries where production has been proven, the operators were assigned exploitation concessions. Seismic crews and marine geophysical vessels were active throughout the countries in this area. A total of 365 party-months of work was done to yield 98,035 km of new lines. A moderate amount of 3-D recording was carried out in connection with field development. Some aeromagnetic work was done, principally in northeast Africa and in Mozambique. Forty-four new fields or pools were discovered by drilling 115 new-field wildcat and exploratory wells. These wells accounted for 1,060,254 ft (323,248 m) of hole. Appraisal and development drilling resulted in 321 wells with a total of 2,533,305 ft (772,349 m) of hole drilled. At year end, 25 exploratory wells were under way or resting, and 49 rigs were active in development drilling. Oil production for the year was 691,995,939 bbl, a decrease of nearly 25% from 1980. Nigeria suffered the greatest drop in production; however, increases were achieved in Cameroon, Congo, and Zaire. The cumulative production from this part of Africa passed the 10 billion bbl mark.

  5. Molecular Level Insights into Thermally Induced [alpha]-Chymotrypsinogen A Amyloid Aggregation Mechanism and Semiflexible Protofibril Morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Aming; Jordan, Jacob L.; Ivanova, Magdalena I.; Weiss, IV., William F.; Roberts, Christopher J.; Fernandez, Erik J.


    Understanding nonnative protein aggregation is critical not only to a number of amyloidosis disorders but also for the development of effective and safe biopharmaceuticals. In a series of previous studies [Weiss et al. (2007) Biophys. J. 93, 4392-4403; Andrews et al. (2007) Biochemistry 46, 7558-7571; Andrews et al. (2008) Biochemistry 47, 2397-2403], {alpha}-chymotrypsinogen A (aCgn) and bovine granulocyte colony stimulating factor (bG-CSF) have been shown to exhibit the kinetic and morphological features of other nonnative aggregating proteins at low pH and ionic strength. In this study, we investigated the structural mechanism of aCgn aggregation. The resultant aCgn aggregates were found to be soluble and exhibited semiflexible filamentous aggregate morphology under transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the filamentous aggregates were demonstrated to possess amyloid characteristics by both Congo red binding and X-ray diffraction. Peptide level hydrogen exchange (HX) analysis suggested that a buried native {beta}-sheet comprised of three peptide segments (39-46, 51-64, and 106-114) reorganizes into the cross-{beta} amyloid core of aCgn aggregates and that at least 50% of the sequence adopts a disordered structure in the aggregates. Furthermore, the equimolar, bimodal HX labeling distribution observed for three reported peptides (65-102, 160-180, and 229-245) suggested a heterogeneous assembly of two molecular conformations in aCgn aggregates. This demonstrates that extended {beta}-sheet interactions typical of the amyloid are sufficiently strong that a relatively small fraction of polypeptide sequence can drive formation of filamentous aggregates even under conditions favoring colloidal stability.

  6. Quantifying the impacts of land surface schemes and dynamic vegetation on the model dependency of projected changes in surface energy and water budgets


    Yu, Miao; Wang, Guiling; Chen, Haishan


    be seen in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes. Including representation of vegetation dynamics is expected to further amplify the model-related uncertainties in projected future changes in surface water and heat fluxes as well as soil moisture content. This is especially the case in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere (e.g., northwestern North America and central North Asia) where the projected vegetation changes are uncertain and in the Tropics (e.g., the Amazon and Congo Basins) where dense vegetation exists. Finally, findings from this study highlight the importance of improving land surface model parameterizations related to soil and snow processes, as well as the importance of improving the accuracy of dynamic vegetation models.« less

  7. Structure of the Crust beneath Cameroon, West Africa, from the Joint Inversion of Rayleigh Wave Group Velocities and Receiver Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Tokam, A K; Tabod, C T; Nyblade, A A; Julia, J; Wiens, D A; Pasyanos, M E


    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is a major geologic feature that cuts across Cameroon from the south west to the north east. It is a unique volcanic lineament which has both an oceanic and a continental sector and consists of a chain of Tertiary to Recent, generally alkaline volcanoes stretching from the Atlantic island of Pagalu to the interior of the African continent. The oceanic sector includes the islands of Bioko (formerly Fernando Po) and Sao Tome and Principe while the continental sector includes the Etinde, Cameroon, Manengouba, Bamboutos, Oku and Mandara mountains, as well as the Adamawa and Biu Plateaus. In addition to the CVL, three other major tectonic features characterize the region: the Benue Trough located northwest of the CVL, the Central African Shear Zone (CASZ), trending N70 degrees E, roughly parallel to the CVL, and the Congo Craton in southern Cameroon. The origin of the CVL is still the subject of considerable debate, with both plume and non-plume models invoked by many authors (e.g., Deruelle et al., 2007; Ngako et al, 2006; Ritsema and Allen, 2003; Burke, 2001; Ebinger and Sleep, 1998; Lee et al, 1994; Dorbath et al., 1986; Fairhead and Binks, 1991; King and Ritsema, 2000; Reusch et al., 2010). Crustal structure beneath Cameroon has been investigated previously using active (Stuart et al, 1985) and passive (Dorbath et al., 1986; Tabod, 1991; Tabod et al, 1992; Plomerova et al, 1993) source seismic data, revealing a crust about 33 km thick at the south-western end of the continental portion of the CVL (Tabod, 1991) and the Adamawa Plateau, and thinner crust (23 km thick) beneath the Garoua Rift in the north (Stuart et al, 1985) (Figure 1). Estimates of crustal thickness obtained using gravity data show similar variations between the Garoua rift, Adamawa Plateau, and southern part of the CVL (Poudjom et al., 1995; Nnange et al., 2000). In this study, we investigate further crustal structure beneath the CVL and the adjacent regions in

  8. Key residues for the oligomerization of A{beta}42 protein in Alzheimer's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Ngo, Sam; Guo, Zhefeng


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta} oligomers are neurotoxins and likely the causing agents for Alzheimer's disease. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta}42 fusion protein form globular oligomers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta}42 fusion protein oligomers contain SDS-resistant tetramers and hexamers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cysteine substitutions at residues 31, 32, 34, 39-41 disrupt A{beta}42 oligomerization. -- Abstract: Deposition of amyloid fibrils consisting of amyloid {beta} (A{beta}) protein as senile plaques in the brain is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. However, a growing body of evidence shows that soluble A{beta} oligomers correlate better with dementia than fibrils, suggesting that A{beta} oligomers may be the primary toxic species. The structure and oligomerization mechanism of these A{beta} oligomers are crucial for developing effective therapeutics. Here we investigated the oligomerization of A{beta}42 in the context of a fusion protein containing GroES and ubiquitin fused to the N-terminus of A{beta} sequence. The presence of fusion protein partners, in combination with a denaturing buffer containing 8 M urea at pH 10, is unfavorable for A{beta}42 aggregation, thus allowing only the most stable structures to be observed. Transmission electron microscopy showed that A{beta}42 fusion protein formed globular oligomers, which bound weakly to thioflavin T and Congo red. SDS-PAGE shows that A{beta}42 fusion protein formed SDS-resistant hexamers and tetramers. In contrast, A{beta}40 fusion protein remained as monomers on SDS gel, suggesting that the oligomerization of A{beta}42 fusion protein is not due to the fusion protein partners. Cysteine scanning mutagenesis at 22 residue positions further revealed that single cysteine substitutions of the C-terminal hydrophobic residues (I31, I32, L34, V39, V40, and I41) led to disruption of hexamer and tetramer formation, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions between these