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  1. Costa Rica: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Country Profile Name Costa Rica Population 4,586,353 GDP 52,968,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.20 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code CR 3-letter ISO code CRI Numeric ISO...

  2. Costa Rica-UNEP Risoe Technology Needs Assessment Program | Open...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    UNEP Risoe Technology Needs Assessment Program Jump to: navigation, search Name Costa Rica-UNEP Risoe-Technology Needs Assessment Program AgencyCompany Organization UNEP-Risoe...

  3. Costa Rica-Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions through Avoided...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Value Areas AgencyCompany Organization Government of Costa Rica, Peace with Nature Sector Land Focus Area Forestry Topics Co-benefits assessment, Implementation,...

  4. Costa Rica-EU-UNDP Climate Change Capacity Building Program ...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    EU-UNDP Climate Change Capacity Building Program Jump to: navigation, search Name Costa Rica-EU-UNDP Climate Change Capacity Building Program AgencyCompany Organization The...

  5. Holographic Embedding de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.; Dosch...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Baryon Spectrum from Superconformal Quantum Mechanics and its Light-Front Holographic Embedding de Teramond, Guy F.; Costa Rica U.; Dosch, Hans Gunter; U. Heidelberg, ITP;...

  6. Costa Rica-NREL Energy Activities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Costa-Rica NREL Cooperation AgencyCompany Organization National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sector Energy Focus Area Energy Efficiency Topics Background analysis Website http:...

  7. (Findings of the Costa Rica power sector efficiency study)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waddle, D.B.

    1990-10-08

    To present findings of the Costa Rica Power Sector Efficiency Study to the Instituto Costarricense de Electridad, and to the Ministry of Energy, Natural Resources and Mining. To discuss the progress and plans for the Central American Rural Electrification Project with US Agency for International Development (USAID)/Regional Office Central American Program (ROCAP). I traveled to San Jose, Costa Rica to present the findings of the Costa Rica Power Sector Efficiency Study to our counterparts in the utility and the Ministry of Energy. Discussions were held with line level managers at Instituto Costarricensede Electricidad (ICE) and Ministry of Energy Mines and Natural Resources (MIRENEM), as well as a plan of action set for the final stage of the project. Discussions were held for a one day period with both the bilateral Agency for International Development (AID) and the regional AID mission regarding the need for a similar study in Guatemala and matters directly pertaining to the Central American Rural Electrification Study (CARES) project.

  8. Hydro and geothermal electricity as an alternative for industrial petroleum consumption in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendis, M.; Park, W.; Sabadell, A.; Talib, A.

    1982-04-01

    This report assesses the potential for substitution of electricity for petroleum in the industrial/agro-industrial sector of Costa Rica. The study includes a preliminary estimate of the process energy needs in this sector, a survey of the principal petroleum consuming industries in Costa Rica, an assessment of the electrical technologies appropriate for substitution, and an analysis of the cost trade offs of alternative fuels and technologies. The report summarizes the total substitution potential both by technical feasibility and by cost effectiveness under varying fuel price scenarios and identifies major institutional constraints to the introduction of electric based technologies. Recommendations to the Government of Costa Rica are presented. The key to the success of a Costa Rican program for substitution of electricity for petroleum in industry rests in energy pricing policy. The report shows that if Costa Rica Bunker C prices are increased to compare equitably with Caribbean Bunker C prices, and increase at 3 percent per annum relative to a special industrial electricity rate structure, the entire substitution program, including both industrial and national electric investment, would be cost effective. The definition of these pricing structures and their potential impacts need to be assessed in depth.

  9. Synthesis of economic criteria in the design of electric utility industrial conservation programs in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, S.C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper lays out a set of economic criteria to guide the development of electricity conservation programs for industrial customers of the Costa Rican utilities. It puts the problem of utility and other public policy formulation in the industrial conservation field into the context of ongoing economic and trade liberalization in Costa Rica, as well as the financial and political pressures with which the country`s utilities must contend. The need to bolster utility financial performance and the perennial political difficulty of adjusting power rates for inflation and devaluation, not to mention maintaining efficient real levels, puts a premium on controlling the costs of utility conservation programs and increasing the degree of cost recovery over time. Industrial conservation programs in Costa Rica must adopt a certain degree of activation to help overcome serious market failures and imperfections while at the same time avoiding significant distortion of the price signals guiding the ongoing industrial rationalization process and the reactivation of growth.

  10. (Energy efficiency improvement studies for Costa Rica and Guatemala)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waddle, D.B.

    1990-05-30

    I travelled to San Jose, Cost Rica, on May 20, 1990 to report on the progress of the Integrated Power Sector Efficiency Analysis Project to the Instituto Costarrincense de Electricidad, and to USAID/San Jose. I also discussed the progress and plans for the CONELECTRICAS Small Hydroelectric Project supported by ORNL through the Renewable Energy Applications and Training Project. Both projects are proceeding on schedule. ORNL will complete further supply side analysis after comments are submitted by ICE, with respect to the information provided on this visit. The CONELECTRICAS project will require further ORNL input to assist in optimization of equipment selection and to perform the required financial and economic cost analyses. I travelled to Guatemala City on May 22, 1990. I met with Instituto Nacional de Electricacion (INDE) to discuss the findings and recommendations of the Electric Power Utility Efficiency Improvement Study undertaken in February, 1990. I also met with Mario Funes to discuss future ORNL assistance to ROCAP in support of the CARES project as well as other ROCAP energy initiatives.

  11. Economic characteristics of the peat deposits of Costa Rica: preliminary study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, A.D. Malavassi, L.; Raymond, R. Jr.; Mora, S.; Alverado, A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent field and laboratory studies have established the presence of numerous extensive peat deposits in Costa Rica. Three of these were selected for initial investigation: (1) the cloud-forest histosols of the Talamanca Mountain Range; (2) the Rio Medio Queso flood plain deposits near the northern Costa Rican border; and (3) a tropical jungle swamp deposit on the northeastern coastal plain. In the Talamanca area, 29 samples were collected from eight sites. Due to the high moisture and cool temperatures of the cloud forest, the peats in this area form blanket-like deposits (generally <1 meter thick) over a wide area (>150 km/sup 2/). These peats are all highly decomposed (avg. 28% fiber), high in ash (avg. 21%), and extensively bioturbated. Relative to all other sites visited, these peats are lowest in moisture (avg. 84%), pH (avg. 4.4), fixed carbon (avg. 23%), and sulfur (avg. 0.2%). However, they have the highest bulk densities (avg. 0.22 g/cc), volatile matter contents (avg. 55%), and nitrogen. Their heating value averaged 7700 BTUs/lb., dry. In the Rio Medio Queso area, 28 samples were collected, representing one transect of the 70 km/sup 2/ flood plain. The peats here occurred in several layers (each <1-1/2 meters thick), interfingering with river flood plain sediments. These peats have the highest calorific values (avg. 8000 BTUs/lb., dry), fixed carbon (avg. 30%), and ash (avg. 22%) and have an average pH of 5.4 and a bulk density of 0.20 g/cc. These results represent only the first part of a long-term, extensive survey of Costa Rica's peat resources. However, they suggest that large, economically-significant peat deposits may be present in this country. 5 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Build an oven, cook a meal: How solar energy empowered women in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blankenship, J. )

    1990-12-01

    A pilot solar cooking project in the hot, northern province of Guanacaste promises to serve as a model for community groups wanting to build their own solar ovens. An $8,000 (US) grant has been awarded by the Canadian Embassy in Costa Rica to take the Guanacaste project into a second stage in 1990-91. Two construction workshops, with twelve participants in each, are planned in communities near Oriente. Three women from the Oriente group will have paid jobs as organizational facilitators and workshop supervisors. In popular education this is called the multiplier effect - the users of solar cookers construct the ovens themselves, and then instruct others to do the same. 3 refs.

  13. Preliminary reservoir engineering studies of the Miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haukwa, C.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Lippmann, M.J.; Mainieri, A.

    1992-01-01

    The Earth Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in cooperation with the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad is conducting a reservoir engineering study of the Miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica. Using data from eight exploration wells, a two-dimensional areal, natural-state model of Miravalles has been developed. The model was calibrated by fitting the observed temperature and pressure distributions and requires a geothermal upflow zone in the northern part of the field, associated with the Miravalles volcano and an outflow towards the south. The total hot (about 260 C) water recharge is 130 kg/s, corresponding to a thermal input of about 150 MWt. On the basis of the natural-state model a two-dimensional exploitation model was developed. The field has a production area of about 10 km{sup 2}, with temperatures exceeding 220 C. The model indicated that power generation of 55 MWe can be maintained for 30 years, with or without injection of the separated geothermal brine. Generation of 110 MWe could be problematic. Until more information becomes available on the areal extent of the field and the properties of the reservoir rocks, especially their relative permeability characteristics, it is difficult to ascertain if 110 MWe can be sustained during a 30-year period.

  14. Belize Electricity Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Belize Electricity Limited Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Belize Electricity Limited Name: Belize Electricity Limited Abbreviation: BEL Address: PO Box 327 Place: Belize City,...

  15. Conclusions and recommendations of the Latin America and Caribbean Regional Energy Conservation Seminar, Alajuela, Costa Rica, January 14-17, 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-03-29

    Reports were given on active energy-conservation projects in the region (Barbados, Jamaica, Central American region and Panama, Peru, Ecuador, the Dominican Republic, and Costa Rica). In addition, there were presentations on energy auditing, fuel substitution, and financing energy conservation. Although the seminar concentrated on the industrial sector, it also explored opportunities for energy-efficiency improvements in the building and transportation sectors.

  16. International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, 14th, San Jose, Costa Rica, April 23-30, 1980, Proceedings. Volumes 1, 2 and 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Papers are presented on remote sensing applications in resource monitoring and management, data classification and modeling procedures, and the use of remote sensing techniques in developing nations. The subjects of land use/land cover, soil mapping, crop identification, mapping of geological resources, renewable resource analysis, and oceanographic applications are discussed. Papers from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, the Syrian Arab Republic, the People's Republic of China, the Phillipines, Italy, Upper Volta and the United States are included.

  17. Environmental and economic development consequences of forest and agricultural sector policies in Latin America (a synthesis of case studies of Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Bolivia)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, R.; Gibson, D.

    1994-04-15

    This paper draws heavily on the results of case studies in Bolivia, Costa Rica, and Ecuador to explain how sectoral policies have tilted land use decisions against forestry and in favor of agriculture, and to present estimates of the economic development effects of those decisions. The paper summarizes information on forests and forest industries of the three countries, and it describes the framework within which policies are designed. It presents the effects of sectoral policies on land use and forest management, and then quantifies and discusses economic costs of relevant sectoral policies. Conclusions and recommendations for policy reform are offered.

  18. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium sp. Ai1a-2; a microsymbiont of Andira inermis discovered in Costa Rica

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Tian, Rui; Parker, Matthew; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, T. B. K.; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Baeshen, Mohammed; Baeshen, Nabih; et al

    2015-06-14

    Bradyrhizobium sp. Ai1a-2 is is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from an effective nitrogen fixing root nodule of Andira inermis collected from Tres Piedras in Costa Rica. In this report we describe, for the first time, the genome sequence information and annotation of this legume microsymbiont. The 9,029,266 bp genome has a GC content of 62.56% with 247 contigs arranged into 246 scaffolds. The assembled genome contains 8,482 protein-coding genes and 102 RNA-only encoding genes. Lastly, this rhizobial genome was sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Rootmore » Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project proposal.« less

  19. EPA-GHG Inventory Targeted Data Collection Strategies and Software...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    inventorycapacitybuildingswtoo Country: Nicaragua, Panama, Guatemala, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Belize Cost: Free Central America, Central America, Central America,...

  20. Belize-Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Sustainable Energy Roadmap...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Belize-Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Sustainable Energy Roadmap and Strategy Jump to: navigation, search Name Belize-Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Sustainable Energy Roadmap and...

  1. Fuel Tax Incidence in Developing Countries: The Case of Costa...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Conventional Energy Topics Finance, Market analysis, Background analysis Resource Type Lessons learnedbest practices Website http:www.rff.orgRFFDocumen Country Costa Rica...

  2. Belize: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Country Profile Name Belize Population 324,528 GDP 1,554,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.02 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code BZ 3-letter ISO code BLZ Numeric ISO...

  3. Belize: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that government figures show that drilling resumed in 1990 after a two-year hiatus. Two wells totaling 15,696 ft were completed as tight holes, although they are believed to be dry. The Ministry of Natural Resources forecasts one offshore and three onshore wells for this year, but that figure may be too optimistic. Pentagon Petroleum last December acquired 268,00-acre Block V-14 in the 15-million-acre Peten basin of northwest Belize. A month later, Houston-based Vaalco Energy took an 80% farmout from Pentagon and scheduled a 25-mi seismic survey in addition to other work being conducted on its Blocks 6, 7 and 8.

  4. Gladden Pull-Apart Basin, offshore Belize

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrice, S. )

    1993-02-01

    The junction of the American and Caribbean plates in Belize has created a complex structural setting for oil and gas exploration. Recent seismic offshore Belize has been used to identify three structural provinces, from west to east: a shallow thrust zone, a narrow upthrown wrench faulted zone and a deeper extensional basin, named the Gladden Pull-Apart Basin. Hydrocarbon leakage from recent fault movement appears to have depleted the shallow structures to the west, but the pull-apart basin has a thick sequence of low-frequency clay-dominated sealing rocks with the potential to preserve hydrocarbon accumulations in Cretaceous carbonate banks. These buried carbonate are of the same age and depositional environment of Mexico's Golden Lane/Tabasco Reforma carbonate banks which are world class giant fields. The Belize and Mexican carbonate banks are within the same Cretaceous depositional basin, the Peten Basin. Seismic interpretations in offshore Belize have been integrated with gravity and magnetic surveys. This provides additional support for the deep extensional basin. The location of the thick Cretaceous carbonate banks is better interpreted with the integration of these three geophysical tools. Airborne geochemical surveys were used to detect the presence of oil seeps on the east and west basin margins.

  5. USAID Central America and Mexico Regional Climate Program (E...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    analysis Website http:www.usaid.govourwork Country Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Belize, Costa Rica, Panama, Honduras Central America, Central America,...

  6. PART II - CONTRACT CLAUSES

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, British Virgin Islands, Costa Rica, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, St. ...

  7. Belize-OAS Cellulosic Ethanol Market Assessment | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    OAS Cellulosic Ethanol Market Assessment Jump to: navigation, search Name Belize-OAS Cellulosic Ethanol Market Assessment AgencyCompany Organization Organization of American...

  8. Regional geology of nuclear Central America and petroleum prospects of Belize

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, P.R.; Nair, K.M.; Ramanathan, R.

    1989-03-01

    The subsurface stratigraphy and structural evolution of nuclear Central American are reviewed in the light of new data from Belize. The northern Belize Corozal basin is the southern continuation of the Yucatan platform of Mexico and the eastern extension of the Peten basin of Mexico and Guatemala. The southern Belize basin is contiguous with the Chapayal basin of Guatemala.

  9. Costa Rica-Supporting the Zero Emissions Strategy of Costa Rica...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    (GIZ) Partner Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) Sector Energy Focus Area Energy Efficiency Topics Low emission...

  10. Belize model, a carbonate-clastic shelf buildup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shepard, W.

    1987-05-01

    Belize, a small Central American country located on the Caribbean Sea south of the Yucatan Peninsula, offers an excellent modern analog of a mixed carbonate/clastic shelf buildup. Its 175-mi long reef tract, second longest in the world, restricts a shallow shelf depobasin into which terrigenous clastics source from the Maya Mountains to the west and carbonates dominate from the east. Mixed lithologies occur along strandlines, in submarine channels, and in lagoons and river-delta fronts, which are scattered throughout the depobasin. Energy sources from both land and sea influence sedimentation. Heavy summer rains flood the basin with arkosic and quartzose clastics, and periodic sea storms and hurricanes drive carbonate particles from the reef tract landward into the basin. Modern environments include the reef tract, carbonate tidal flats, shallow shelf patch reefs, lagoons, cayes, mainland coast deltas, estuaries, lagoons, and beach/bar barriers. Modern sediments include reef metazoans, algae, coralline algae, lime mud, quartz, and feldspathic sand and clay. The setting for the model has been influenced by Tertiary tectonics and Pleistocene sea level changes. Karstification occurred during the past 10,000 years, partly controlling topography and resulting Holocene sediment patterns. Facies patterns of the Belize Holocene are compared to the Jurassic of Montana. The Middle Jurassic Piper Formation exhibits a nearly 100-mi long carbonate barrier/buildup restricting a clastic-dominated shelf. Other ancient mixed carbonate/clastic terranes may fit this model as well.

  11. Belize-Low-Carbon Energy for Central America: Building a Regional...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Low-Carbon Energy for Central America: Building a Regional Model Jump to: navigation, search Name Belize-Low-Carbon Energy for Central America: Building a Regional Model Agency...

  12. Coral zonation and diagenesis of an emergent Pleistocene patch reef, Belize, Central America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lighty, R.G.; Russell, K.L.

    1985-01-01

    Transect mapping and petrologic studies reveal a new depositional model and limited diagenesis of a well-exposed Pleistocene reef outcrop at Ambergris Cay, northern Belize. This emergent shelf-edge reef forms a rocky wave-washed headland at the northern terminus of the present-day 250 km long flourishing Belize Barrier Reef. Previously, the Belize reef outcrop was thought to extend southward in the subsurface beneath the modern barrier reef as a Pleistocene equivalent. The authors study indicate that this outcrop is a large, coral patch reef and not part of a barrier reef trend. Sixteen transects 12.5 m apart described in continuous cm increments from fore reef to back reef identified: extensive deposits of broken Acropora cervicornis; small thickets of A. palmata with small, oriented branches; and muddy skeletal sediments with few corals or reef rubble. Thin section and SEM studies show three phases of early submarine cementation: syntaxial and rosette aragonite; Mg-calcite rim cement and peloids; and colloidal Mg-calcite geopetal fill. Subaerial exposure in semi-arid northern Belize caused only minor skeletal dissolution, some precipitation of vadose whisker calcite, and no meteoric phreatic diagenesis. Facies geometry, coral assemblages, lack of rubble deposits, coralline algal encrustations and Millepora framework, and recognition of common but discrete submarine cements, all indicate that this Pleistocene reef was an isolated, coral-fringed sediment buildup similar to may large patch reefs existing today in moderate-energy shelf environments behind the modern barrier reef in central and southern Belize.

  13. Resource use in the tropical karstlands of central Belize

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Day, M.

    1993-06-01

    Rural tropical ecosystems are subject to many traditional land uses that employ the indigenous karst resources: rock, water, soil, vegetation, and wildlife. Individual resource pressures often are subtle, but their combined impact can precipitate stability in the tropical karst environment, potentially resulting in disruption of food, water, and fuel supplies. The karst of central Belize was used intensively for some six centuries by Maya farmers, but between the 10th and 19th centuries AD most of it reverted to secondary forest. Commercial logging dominated the 19th and early 20th centuries, followed by the expansion of subsistence and commercial agriculture after 1945. In the 1980s resource use has accelerated as population and other pressures increase. Much karst remains forested, but there is increasing clearance for agricultural uses, particularly for citrus cultivation and small-scale mixed agriculture. Soil depletion has begun to occur, water resources are increasingly taxed, and some wildlife is threatened by habitat destruction and increased hunting. Lime production for the citrus industry has promoted quarrying, water extraction, and fuelwood use. Environmental stresses currently do not exceed the threshold of instability, but the rapidly developing rural economy warrants careful monitoring of resource pressures. 33 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Costa Rica-Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    illustrates the U.S. perspective on LEDS: Integrated development goals and objectives, national greenhouse gas inventory, and economic and resource data Long-term projections of...

  15. Costa Rica-LEDS Tier I Activities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    for GHG inventories and decision making and a general need for raising awareness of climate change activities. References "Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development...

  16. Costa Rica-The Mitigation Action Implementation Network (MAIN...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    of Energy Thailand, Ministry of Industry Thailand, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Thailand, Pollution Control Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and...

  17. Costa Rica-Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    six to eight developing countries to strengthen their national low carbon development strategies and get a "quick start" on NAMAs. The focus will be on reducing emissions of...

  18. Costa Rica-Regional Programme for LAC: Preparation of Sectoral...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    of regional and global partners." Program Focus The program will focus on reducing poverty and inequality, strengthening democratic governance, increasing disaster preparedness...

  19. Physical constraints on dolomite crust formation, Ambergris Cay Belize

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birdwell, B.A.; Bischoff, W.D.; Mazzullo, S.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Dolomitic crusts forming on a peritidal flat on Ambergris Cay, Belize, occur beneath surface sediment adjacent to, but not within, small saline (60-90 ppt) ponds. Upper crusts, 2-12 cm thick forming at or slightly below the water table (approximately equivalent to lagoon water level) are areally restricted by (1) ponds where sediment lies below 20-50 cm of water, (2) high and relatively dry areas where sediment accumulation of more than 15 cm above water level supports diverse vegetation, and (3) low areas affected by mangrove encroachment where preexisting crusts are perforated by roots and displaced. The lower crusts occur immediately above the Pleistocene in lows beneath the Holocene sediment and on exposed Pleistocene surfaces. Estimates from x-ray diffraction analysis indicate 80-100% dolomite content within the upper crusts and 50-60% dolomite content in the lower crusts. Unlithified sediment above and below the upper crust contain up to 80% dolomite. Compositions range from Ca{sub 56}, Mg{sub 44} in the upper crusts to Ca{sub 60} Mg{sub 40} in the lower crusts. There is no correlation between stoichiometry and ordering in the dolomites; all are poorly ordered as indicated by very weak (015) and (021) superstructure peaks. Where crusts are not 100% dolomite, the dolomite is evident as euhedral cements within pores, especially within foraminiferal tests, and as micrite along algal laminations and walls of burrows. However, preliminary examinations with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray mapping show that magnesium enrichment is pervasive within these crusts and may represent Mg-enrichment of calcite as an intermediate stage in dolomite formation.

  20. Taphonomy of coral reefs from Southern Lagoon of Belize

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westphall, M.J.; Ginsburg, R.N.

    1985-02-01

    The Southern Lagoon of the Belize barrier complex, an area of some 600 km/sup 2/, contains a tremendous number of lagoon reefs, which range in size from patches several meters across to rhomboidal-shaped structures several kilometers in their long dimension. These lagoon reefs are remarkable because they have Holocene sediment accumulations in excess of 13 m consisting almost entirely of coral debris and lime mud and sand, and rise up to 30 m above the surrounding lagoon floor with steeply sloping sides (50-80/sup 0/), yet are totally uncemented. The reef-building biota and their corresponding deposits were studied at a representative reef, the rhomboidal complex of Channel Cay. As with many of the reefs in this area, the steeply sloping flanks of Channel Cay are covered mainly by the branched staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis and ribbonlike and platy growth of Agaricia spp. The living corals are not cemented to the substrate, but are merely intergrown. Fragmented pieces of corals accumulate with an open framework below the living community; this open framework is subsequently infilled by lime muds and sands produced mainly from bioerosion. Results from probing and coring suggest that the bafflestone fabric of coral debris and sediment extends at least 13 m into the subsurface. Radiocarbon-age estimates indicate these impressive piles of coral rubble and sediment have accumulated in the past 9000 yr (giving a minimum accumulation rate of 1.4 m/1000 yr) and illustrate the potential for significant carbonate buildups without the need for early lithification.

  1. Holocene coral patch reef ecology and sedimentary architecture, Northern Belize, Central America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazzullo, S.J.; Anderson-Underwood, K.E.; Burke, C.D.; Bischoff, W.D. )

    1992-12-01

    Coral patch reefs are major components of Holocene platform carbonate facies systems in tropical and subtropical areas. The biotic composition, growth and relationship to sea level history, and diagenetic attributes of a representative Holocene patch reef ([open quotes]Elmer Reef[close quotes]) in the Mexico Rocks complex in northern Belize are described and compared to those of Holocene patch reefs in southern Belize. Elmer Reef has accumulated in shallow (2.5 m) water over the last 420 yr, under static sea level conditions. Rate of vertical construction is 0.3-0.5 m/100 yr, comparable to that of patch reefs in southern Belize. A pronounced coral zonation exists across Elmer Reef, with Monastrea annularis dominating on its crest and Acropora cervicornis occurring on its windward and leeward flanks. The dominance of Montastrea on Elmer Reef is unlike that of patch reefs in southern Belize, in which this coral assumes only a subordinate role in reef growth relative to that of Acropora palmata. Elmer Reef locally is extensively biodegraded and marine, fibrous aragonite and some bladed high-magnesium calcite cements occur throughout the reef section, partially occluding corallites and interparticle pores in associated sands. Patch reefs in southern Belize have developed as catch-up and keep-up reefs in a transgressive setting. In contrast, the dominant mode of growth of Elmer Reef, and perhaps other patch reefs in Mexico Rocks, appears to be one of lateral rather than vertical accretion. This style of growth occurs in a static sea level setting where there is only limited accommodation space because of the shallowness of the water, and such reefs are referred to as [open quotes]expansion reefs[close quotes]. 39 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Belize; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Belize, a Central American country bordering Mexico to the north, Guatemala to the west and south, and the Caribbean Sea to the east. Although not an island nation, Belize is included in this energy snapshot series because it is a member of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), an alliance of 15 Caribbean nations in the region.

  3. Carbonate facies and Landsat imagery of shelf off Belize, central America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, C.F. Jr.; Pusey, W.C. III; Belcher, R.C.; Borger, R.L.

    1985-02-01

    A reevaluation of Holocene sediments on the Belize shelf is based on (1) a newly constructed composite of 7 Landsat images, enhanced and registered to form a regional base map, and (2) a Holocene facies map based on a rigorous treatment of compositional and textural parameters for approximately 600 bottom samples. The sediments are mapped in terms usually applied to lithified carbonate rocks, allowing direct comparisons with carbonate facies in the subsurface. By combining Landsat imagery with this facies map, it is possible to point out the following geologic features: (1) major tectonic elements, such as the Maya Mountains, the Yucatan Plateau, several offshore bridges, and 3 large atolls, (2) major physiographic features such as the Belize barrier reef with its reef platform and crest, middle-shelf shoal deposits, middle-shelf patch reefs (including lagoon reefs or rhomboid reefs), (3) Holocene facies patterns with potential reservoir facies of foraminifera-grainstone bars, Halimeda grainstones, and branching-coral, encrusting red-algae boundstones, and (4) nearshore clastics and a sharp transition eastward to carbonate sediments. An understanding of Holocene facies patterns on the Belize shelf is important to the explorationist, because these facies patterns are living examples of exploration fairways and invite comparisons with several petroleum provinces: (1) Cretaceous reefs of Texas, (2) upper Paleozoic skeletal-grainstone bars in west Texas, and (3) Devonian reefs of the Alberta basin.

  4. Trace element analysis of obsidian artifacts from a classic Maya residential group at Nohmul, Belize

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammond, N.; Neivens, M.D.; Harbottle, G.

    1984-01-01

    Forty-nine obsidian artifacts from a classic period residential group at Nohmul, northern Belize, have been analyzed by neutron activation analysis. The majority of the samples originated from Ixtepeque, and the remainder from El Chayal. Increasing prominence of the Ixtepeque source from the late Classic into the Terminal Classic (i.e., before and after ca. A.D. 800) suggests greater use of a coastal distribution route known to have originated in the formative and to have remained in use through the colonial period.

  5. Vitamin A and zinc nutriture of children in Belize, Central America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makdani, D.; Rizner, J.; Hegar, A.; Gunter, E.; Sowell, A.; Smith, J.C. Jr. Belize Government Hospital, Bels ofCity Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD )

    1991-03-15

    Earlier studies based on nutritional surveys have indicated inadequate intakes of vitamin A (VA) and zinc (Zn) by a large percentage of children in Belize. The present study involving 508, 2-8 y children in Belize. The present study involving 508, 2-8 y children from 6 ethnic groups, was undertaken to assess VA status as tested by relative dose response (RDR), serum vitamin A and retinol binding protein (RBP). Zn status was based on fasting serum Zn concentrations. Approximately 60% of the children showed inadequate VA liver stores and serum Zn concentrations of < 85 {mu}g/dl. Among different ethnic groups, Garifuna and Kekchi Indian children exhibited the largest percentage with inadequate VA stores. Except for the 2 y age group, age or gender was not a variable related to VA or Zn status. A high correlation was evident VA/RBP, r = 0.79 p < 0.01, confirming numerous previous reports. Other correlations (r) were serum VA/Zn 0.148; RDR/RBP {minus}0.127; RDR/Zn {minus}0.093; RBP/Zn + 0.087. Although all were statistically significant, the biologic relevancy, if any, must await further investigation including functional tests and/or supplementation.

  6. Green utilities for research and eco-tourist communities, Rio Bravo, Belize, Central America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, O.

    1997-12-31

    Programme for Belize (PFB), a non-governmental organization which owns and manages the Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area (RBCMA), a 229,000 acre section of subtropical rainforest in northwestern Belize, is developing a series of research and eco-tourism developments as sustainable development projects. Guided by a comprehensive Sustainable Infrastructure Plan completed by Caribbean Infra-Tech, Inc. (CIT) in 1995, PFB adopted an organizational goal of implementing 100% green renewable energy-based utilities for their two major development sites: La Milpa and Hill Bank stations. To date, PFB has constructed or installed over 20 kW of standalone PV power, sustainable water supply systems, recycling waste treatment systems, and a model sustainable Dormitory and Bath House facility in the RBCMA. In addition, a Resource Conservation and Management Program (RCMP), which is to guide ongoing visitor orientation, staff training, and sustainable systems operations and maintenance, is now being prepared for immediate implementation. In this paper, the design and technical performance of the solar (PV) electric power plants, PV water pumping, solar water heating and other green utility systems will be assessed.

  7. Total All Countries Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Destination Exports by Destination Destination: Total All Countries Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andora Angola Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Bahama Islands Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma Bermuda Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cayman Islands Chad Chile China Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Congo (Brazzaville) Congo (Kinshasa) Costa Rica Croatia

  8. Paleobotanical implications of drifted seeds and fruits from modern mangrove litter, Twin Cays, Belize

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnham, R.J. )

    1990-08-01

    Fruits and seeds were quantitatively sampled from litter at two sites on a mangrove island off the coast of Belize. The collections indicate that a significant number of species are drifted to the island by the prevailing currents and have the potential to record the major elements of the nearby mainland coastal and streamside flora. There is almost no overlap between the drifted fruit and seed flora and the flora growing on the island, whereas the leaf litter reflects the island flora both qualitatively and quantitatively with a reasonable degree of accuracy. These observations indicate that approaches to paleoecological and paleofloristic reconstructions of ancient floras based on accumulation of organic remains can differ substantially depending on the organ type studied. Studies which can take advantage of both vegetative and reproductive fossil remains with an appropriate methodology for sampling and analyzing the data can provide information on ancient environments at more than one spatial scale.

  9. Estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects: A Costa Rican Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busch, Christopher; Sathaye, Jayant; Sanchez Azofeifa, G. Arturo

    2000-09-01

    If the Clean Development Mechanism proposed under the Kyoto Protocol is to serve as an effective means for combating global climate change, it will depend upon reliable estimates of greenhouse gas benefits. This paper sketches the theoretical basis for estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects and suggests lessons learned based on a case study of Costa Rica's Protected Areas Project, which is a 500,000 hectare effort to reduce deforestation and enhance reforestation. The Protected Areas Project in many senses advances the state of the art for Clean Development Mechanism-type forestry projects, as does the third-party verification work of SGS International Certification Services on the project. Nonetheless, sensitivity analysis shows that carbon benefit estimates for the project vary widely based on the imputed deforestation rate in the baseline scenario, e.g. the deforestation rate expected if the project were not implemented. This, along with a newly available national dataset that confirms other research showing a slower rate of deforestation in Costa Rica, suggests that the use of the 1979--1992 forest cover data originally as the basis for estimating carbon savings should be reconsidered. When the newly available data is substituted, carbon savings amount to 8.9 Mt (million tones) of carbon, down from the original estimate of 15.7 Mt. The primary general conclusion is that project developers should give more attention to the forecasting land use and land cover change scenarios underlying estimates of greenhouse gas benefits.

  10. Port Costa, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Port Costa is a census-designated place in Contra Costa County, California.1 References...

  11. Rapid growth rates of syndepositional marine aragonite cements in steep marginal slope deposits, Bahamas and Belize

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grammer, G.M.; Ginsburg, R.N.; Swart, P.K.; McNeill, D.F. . Div. of Marine Geology); Jull, A.J.T. . NSF Accelerator Facility); Prezbindowski, D.R. )

    1993-09-01

    Growth rates of marine botryoidal aragonite cements from steep (35-45[degree]) marginal slope deposits in the Bahamas and Belize have been determined by accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon dating of samples taken at the base and top of individual botryoids. The pore-filling cements, which range from approximately 11,000-13,000 years old, grew at average rates of 8-10mm/100 yr with maximum rates > 25mm/100 yr. Radiocarbon dating of coexisting skeletal components indicates that cementation was syndepositional. Microsampling transects across individual botryoids for stable-isotope analyses show little variation in [delta][sup 31]C and [delta][sup 18]O, supporting the conclusion that cementation was extremely rapid. Although the cements show a progressive depletion in isotopic composition of approximately 1[per thousand]([delta][sup 13]C) and 2[per thousand]([delta][sup 18]O) from 13 ka to 11 ka, the average variation ([delta][sub 1]) within individual pore-filling cements, ranging in size 2 mm to 32 mm (bottom to top), was 0.11[per thousand]([delta][sup 13]C) and 0.14[per thousand]([delta][sup 18]O). Results of this study provide the first quantitative data on growth rates of marine carbonate cements in a marginal slope environment. The data indicate that marginal slope deposits may lithify within several tens of years and suggest that geologically instantaneous cementation may be critical in stabilizing steep carbonate slope deposits at or above angles of repose.

  12. Subaerial meteoric calcitization and lithification of high-magnesian calcite muds, Belize

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazzullo, S.J.; Bischoff, W.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Holocene ({lt}1000-1500 yrs old) high-magnesian calcite-dominated muddy sediments (1 m thick) on subaerially exposed cays in northern Belize are in the process of being converted to low-magnesian calcite micrite. Mineralogic stabilization and attendant lithification result from interaction of the sediments with meteoric fluids believed to be derived from seasonal upward discharge through subjacent Pleistocene limestones. The initial marine-derived sediments, composed of {gt}85% HMC (and minor skeletal aragonite), consist of mud and associated soritid and miliolid foraminifera both with MgCO{sub 3} content of 11-15 mol%, and isotopic compositions of -1.0 to -2.5{per thousand} PDB (O), 0 to +1.5{per thousand} PDB (C). With depth, lithified LMC crusts appear in the section, and the Mg concentration of the sediments and associated crusts decreases rapidly to 3 mol% or less, with a corresponding isotopic depletion to values approaching -7.0{per thousand} (O) and -5.8{per thousand} (C). Concomitantly there is progressive dissolution of skeletal aragonite in the sediments, reduction of porosity due to cementation by LMC, and in the muds, a decrease in Sr and increase in Mn contents. The resultant petrofabric of these lithified LMC deposits, derived from the alteration of HMC-dominated muds, is characterized by micrite with patches of pore-filling micritic and microsparitic LMC cements. Such a fabric is similar to and can be confused easily with calcitized aragonite-dominated precursor muds, except for the relative rarity in the samples examined of aragonite relicts in component microspar and/or pseudospar.

  13. Holocene siliciclastic-carbonate facies mosaics, Northern Belize: Exploration analog to some midcontinent Pennsylvanian (Morrowan) reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowe, D.B.; Mazzullo, S.J.

    1995-09-01

    Midwinter Lagoon is a large, shallow coastal lagoon, bordered on its seaward side by a barrier, along the mainland coast of northern Belize. As much as 19 ft of Holocene sediments, deposited on karsted Tertiary limestones during the Flandrian transgression, consist of a complex mosaic of mixed siliciclastic and carbonate facies. Basal transgressive marine, intra-lagoonal facies are variously siliciclastic-rich carbonates to carbonate-rich siliciclastics, locally with layers of shoreline mangrove peat. These facies shallow-upward to either siliciclastic or carbonate-dominated sands or muds. Lagoonal facies were deposited within a broad topographic low, locally punctuated by bedrock highs, on the underlying limestone. The seaward edge of the barrier bar complex, which was deposited on a linear topographic high, consists mostly of quartz sands, whereas the lagoonal side is a mixture of quartzose and carbonate sediments (sands and muds). The barrier bar appears to have accreted southward in response to southerly longshore drift as a tidal inlet-spit complex; quartz sands are being transported into the lagoon from its seaward side. In terms of geometry, modern and buried, intra-lagoonal carbonate sands occur as lobes deposited proximal to extant and older tidal inlets. Either carbonate or siliciclastic sands variously occur as erratically distributed, anastomosing beach deposits around small mangrove islands and along the irregular mainland coast. In contrast, siliciclastic sands on the seaward side of the barrier define a narrow but areally persistent linear trend. Similar complex facies associations and geometries are typical of many Pennsylvanian (Morrowan) reservoirs in the midcontinent US.

  14. Costa Mesa, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    district.12 Registered Energy Companies in Costa Mesa, California Ceradyne Inc EPS Corp Energy and Power Solutions MGE UPS SYSTEMS Inc Registered Financial Organizations...

  15. Contra Costa County, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Energy Companies in Contra Costa County, California BEW Engineering Banyan Energy Bay Biodiesel LLC Bio Friendly Fuel Partners LLC Cogent Energy EcoNexus Synergy Conscious...

  16. Costa Rica-Low-Carbon Energy for Central America: Building a...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    AgencyCompany Organization World Watch Institute Sector Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy Topics Background analysis, Implementation, Low emission development planning,...

  17. Stanley J.; /SLAC; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.; Dosch...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    lightcone - local versus global features ILight Cone 2013), 20-24 May 2013. Skiathos, Greece Medium: ED; Size: 15 pages OSTI ID: 1098095, Legacy ID: OSTI ID: 1098095...

  18. Costa Rica-The World Bank Partnership for Market Readiness (PMR...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Morocco Implement climate change mitigation policy as part of National Plan against Global Warming. PMR Support: Establish MRV framework. Identify and develop crediting NAMAs...

  19. NREL-Costa Rica-Energy Efficiency Workshop | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Occidental, Inuktitut, Inupiaq, Iranian languages, Irish, Iroquoian languages, Italian, Japanese, Javanese, Judeo-Arabic, Judeo-Persian, Kabardian, Kabyle, Kachin; Jingpho,...

  20. Costa Rica-EC-LEDS in the Agriculture Sector | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Sector Climate, Land Focus Area Agriculture, Economic Development, Greenhouse Gas, Land Use Topics Adaptation, Implementation, Low emission development planning, -LEDS,...

  1. Setting of and mixed carbonate-siliciclastic facies associated with Holocene nearshore sabellid worm reefs, northern Belize

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazzullo, S.J.; Burke, C.D.; Dunn, R.K.; bischoff, W.D. )

    1990-05-01

    Communities of sabellid worms (Polychaeta) in northern Belize (mouth of Northern River Lagoon) occur as areally discontinuous, unlithified patch reefs cresting positive features on an irregular depositional topography of Holocene and older sediments. They are found in nearshore marine, moderate energy, tidally influenced environments (intertidal to 60-cm depths) of normal salinity (36%) adjoining subtidal deposits. These colonies, as much as 30 cm thick, are composed of dense thickets of agglutinating worm tubes (1.0 mm diameter, 3.0 cm long) that trap and bind sand to silt-size bioclastic debris and micrite. Worm population density in these communities averages 30 tubes/cm{sup 2}. The antecedent depositional topography beneath the worm reefs and subjacent to adjoining Holocene deposits is characterized by ridges oriented normal to the present shoreline. These ridges are held up by pre-Holocene (latest Pleistocene ) terrigenous sands of probably fluvial distributary origin, occurring at approximately 2.0 m in the subsurface. The overlying Holocene deposits on these ridges are 2.0 m thick and consist of a general upward-coarsening section of terrigenous sandy, carbonate sandy muds to muddy sands punctuated by mangrove peats and capped by the worm reefs. Low areas on the antecedent topography are presently the sites of deposition of deeper subtidal (1.0 m), muddy carbonate sands with some admixed, reworked terrigenous sand. The Holocene section records drowning due to recent (approximately 6 Ka) transgression of the older, lowstand distributary sands on the northern Belize shelf. This mixed carbonate-siliciclastic section and the worm reefs presently are being reshaped and modified by littoral processes.

  2. South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deal, C.

    1981-10-01

    Summaries of oil and gas drillings, well completions, production, exploratory wells, exploration activity and wildcat drilling were given for South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico. The countries, islands, etc. included Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward and Windward Islands, Mexico, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador, Surinam, Trinidad and Venezuela. 16 figures, 120 tables. (DP)

  3. Tectonics and sedimentology along the Monkey River and Big Creek, southern Belize, Central America: Modern analog of select Morrow sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gries, J.C.; Full, W.E. )

    1991-08-01

    Big Creek is presently a relatively short river draining the flat coastal plain at the southern edge of the North American plate, south-central Belize. The recent sediments in this river consists of very fine-grained silts and clays derived from the local coastal plain. Offshore from the mouth of the Big Creek are shallow sand bars, channels, and eroding islands consisting of well-sorted, coarse sand comprised dominantly of feldspathic minerals. The location and geometry of these sands suggest that Big Creek was the fluvial source for this material. The sedimentology implication is that the nearshore and offshore parts of Big Creek represent a relatively large drowned deltaic complex, a modern analog of some lower Morrow depositional systems. Coarse feldspathic material found in the Cockscomb basin in the Maya Mountains is transported by the Swasey branch of the Monkey River toward the Big Creek drainage to the coast. However, the Swasey branch is abruptly diverted southward to intersect the present-day Monkey River. Drainage analysis suggests that structural features subsidiary to the Chixoy-Polochic fault zone bounding the North American plate may have diverted flow southward, beheading Big Creek. Field observations have not found any major relief changes which would have drainage analysis support tectonic diversion of the head waters of Big Creek into present-day Monkey River. Similar processes are hypothesized to have occurred during Morrow deposition.

  4. Facies and diagenesis of upper Tertiary-Pleistocene platform carbonates in a 300m borehole, southern Ambergris Caye, Belize

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burtnett, C.A.

    1996-12-31

    Well cuttings from an {approx}300 m-deep borehole drilled by the Belize government on Ambergris Caye were examined for inferred depositional environments, mineralogy, and stable oxygen-carbon isotopic compositions. The recovered section composes carbonates of the Barton Creek and (?)Sand Hill Formations, presumably of upper-most Tertiary to Pleistocene age. Location of the wellbore to the west of the exposed Pleistocene and superposed Holocene platform margin reef suggests continuous platform deposition. Comparison to modem facies indicates that the entire section is, in fact, mostly outer-shelf reef and immediate back-reef facies. Four unconformities are recognized in the upper 150 m of section on the basis of microbreccias and calcretes, and they truncate stacked, shallowing-upward cycles within the section. Depleted {delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 13}C compositions of whole-rock samples from the upper 150 m, which are highly porous and LMC-dominated, range from -2.5 to -5 {per_thousand} and -3 to -7 {per_thousand} (PDB), respectively. Unconformities are therefore believed to be subaerial exposure surfaces. Dolomite (replacive and cement) occurs below 150 m within HMC-dominated limestones that also contain aragonite. Dolomite generally increases with depth from 8-28%, its composition varies from Ca{sub 51-57}, and its mean isotopic composition is {delta}{sup 18}O = 3.2 {per_thousand} and {delta}{sup 13}C = 2.5 o/oo. There are no depth-related trends in dolomite stoichiometry or isotopic composition. Although the timing and site of dolomitization are not known, available data suggest formation from circulating marine fluids of near-normal composition.

  5. Facies and diagenesis of upper Tertiary-Pleistocene platform carbonates in a 300m borehole, southern Ambergris Caye, Belize

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burtnett, C.A. )

    1996-01-01

    Well cuttings from an [approx]300 m-deep borehole drilled by the Belize government on Ambergris Caye were examined for inferred depositional environments, mineralogy, and stable oxygen-carbon isotopic compositions. The recovered section composes carbonates of the Barton Creek and ( )Sand Hill Formations, presumably of upper-most Tertiary to Pleistocene age. Location of the wellbore to the west of the exposed Pleistocene and superposed Holocene platform margin reef suggests continuous platform deposition. Comparison to modem facies indicates that the entire section is, in fact, mostly outer-shelf reef and immediate back-reef facies. Four unconformities are recognized in the upper 150 m of section on the basis of microbreccias and calcretes, and they truncate stacked, shallowing-upward cycles within the section. Depleted [delta][sup 18]O and [delta][sup 13]C compositions of whole-rock samples from the upper 150 m, which are highly porous and LMC-dominated, range from -2.5 to -5 [per thousand] and -3 to -7 [per thousand] (PDB), respectively. Unconformities are therefore believed to be subaerial exposure surfaces. Dolomite (replacive and cement) occurs below 150 m within HMC-dominated limestones that also contain aragonite. Dolomite generally increases with depth from 8-28%, its composition varies from Ca[sub 51-57], and its mean isotopic composition is [delta][sup 18]O = 3.2 [per thousand] and [delta][sup 13]C = 2.5 o/oo. There are no depth-related trends in dolomite stoichiometry or isotopic composition. Although the timing and site of dolomitization are not known, available data suggest formation from circulating marine fluids of near-normal composition.

  6. A new species of antipatharian coral (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia: Schizopathidae) from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Opresko, Dennis M; Breedy, Odalisca

    2010-09-01

    A new species of black coral, Aphanipathes colombiana (Cnidaria:Antipatharia) from the Caribbean coast of Colombia is described. The species forms small flabellate colonies with anisomorphic polypar spines. It is morphologically similar to the western Atlantic species A. thyoides (Pourtales) but its hypostomal polypar spines are not reduced in size. The new species also resembles the Indo-Pacific species A. reticulata van Pesch but it has smooth-surfaced polypar spines, whereas in A. reticulata these spines have small tubercles on their surface

  7. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Evalluation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Results Update | Department of Energy Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Evalluation Results Update Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Evalluation Results Update This report is an update to the 2007 preliminary results report on hydrogen fuel cell and diesel buses operating at Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District. 42249.pdf (1.51 MB) More Documents & Publications Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

  8. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Third Evaluation Report- Appendices

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report describes operations at Alameda-Contra Costa Transit district for three protoype fuel cell buses and six diesel buses operating from the same location.

  9. 4 Questions for a Better Buildings Case Competition Judge: Marc Costa of the Energy Coalition

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Meet Marc Costa of The Energy Coalition and find out how the Better Buildings Case Competition can serve as a recruiting tool for energy organizations.

  10. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Third Evaluation Report | Department of Energy Report Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Third Evaluation Report This report describes operations at Alameda-Contra Costa Transit district for three protoype fuel cell buses and six diesel buses operating from the same location. 43545-1.pdf (732.59 KB) More Documents & Publications SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Fifth Evaluation Report SunLine Transit Agency Hydrogen-Powered Transit

  11. Molecular Structure of the Brucella abortus Metalloprotein RicA...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Molecular Structure of the Brucella abortus Metalloprotein RicA, a Rab2-Binding Virulence Effector Authors: Herrou, Julien ; Crosson, Sean 1 + Show Author Affiliations UC ...

  12. Paint Rock and southwest Paint Rock fields, Concho County, Texas: Strawn analogs of modern island carbonate facies of Ambergris Cay, Belize

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, A.M.; Mazzullo, S.J.

    1987-02-01

    Lower Strawn (Desmoinesian Goen Limestone) reservoirs at Paint Rock and Southwest Paint Rock fields are a complex of carbonate and associated facies interpreted as having been deposited in various environments on and around large, emergent islands on shallow carbonate shelves. The origin and geometries of the component lithofacies in these fields, and their reservoir diagenetic histories, are similar to those presently accumulating on Ambergris Cay, a linear island complex on the northern shelf of Belize. Paint Rock field originated as a narrow, elongate Chaetetes reef trend that formed the foundation on which the overlying island facies were deposited. As on Ambergris Cay, these reef limestones developed extensive porosity during postdepositional subaerial exposure due to meteoric leaching. In contrast, Southwest Paint Rock field is cored by older island deposits rather than reef limestones. With ensuing stillstand or subsequent sea level rise, beach grainstones were deposited along the windward and leeward margins of the foundation highs in these fields. Tight lagoonal micrites and coals (peat-swamp facies) comprise the inner island facies, and are locally associated with porous supratidal dolomites. These island complexes are transected locally by tidal channels that are filled with nonporous micrites. Repeated sea level fluctuations during the history of these fields resulted in a characteristic cyclic stratigraphy of stacked island facies and reservoirs. The reservoirs in the field are developed in the bedrock or older island cores, as well as in the overlying beach facies and supratidal dolomites. These fields are mappable as linear stratigraphic traps with low-relief closure, and are readily identified by subsurface geologic and facies analyses. Similar shelf island-type fields analogous to these strawn and Holocene Belizean examples are found throughout the Midland basin and Eastern shelf.

  13. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Third Evaluation Report and Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-07-01

    This report describes operations at Alameda-Contra Costa Transit district for three protoype fuel cell buses and six diesel buses operating from the same location.

  14. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Preliminary Evaluation Results | Department of Energy Preliminary Evaluation Results Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses. 41041.pdf (1.37 MB) More Documents & Publications Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell

  15. Costa de Cocos 11-kW wind-diesel hybrid system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbus, D.; Bergey, M.

    1997-12-31

    Costa de Cocos is a small resort located in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. Using the existing diesel generator, the resort`s power system was retrofitted to a wind-hybrid diesel system. The reason for this retrofit was to supply 24-hour power, to reduce diesel fuel by using wind energy, and to reduce diesel air and noise emissions in order to promote ecotourism. The wind system was installed in October 1996 with cost-shared funding from the U.S. Department of Energy/U.S. Agency for International Development renewable energy program in Mexico. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supplied technical assistance to the project. Discussed in this paper are the system design, installation, and initial performance.

  16. Central American geologic map project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dengo, G.

    1986-07-01

    During the Northeast Quadrant Panel meeting of the Circum-Pacific Map Project held in Mexico City, February 1985, Central American panel members proposed and adopted plans for compiling a geologic map of Central America, probably at a scale of 1:500,000. A local group with participants from each country was organized and coordinated by Rolando Castillo, director, Central American School of Geology, University of Costa Rica, for the geologic aspects, and Fernando Rudin, director, Geographic Institute of Costa Rica, for the topographic base. In 1956, the US Geological Survey published a geologic map of the region at a scale of 1:1 million. Subsequent topographic and geologic mapping projects have provided a large amount of new data. The entire area is now covered by topographic maps at a scale of 1:50,000, and these maps have been used in several countries as a base for geologic mapping. Another regional map, the Metallogenic Map of Central America (scale = 1:2 million), was published in 1969 by the Central American Research Institute for Industry (ICAITI) with a generalized but updated geologic base map. Between 1969 and 1980, maps for each country were published by local institutions: Guatemala-Belize at 1:500,000, Honduras at 1:500,000, El Salvador at 1:100,000, Nicaragua at 1:1 million, Costa Rica at 1:200,000, and Panama at 1:1 million. This information, in addition to that of newly mapped areas, served as the base for the Central American part of the Geologic-Tectonic Map of the Caribbean Region (scale = 1:2.5 million), published by the US Geological Survey in 1980, and also fro the Northeast Quadrant Maps of the Circum-Pacific Region. The new project also involves bathymetric and geologic mapping of the Pacific and Caribbean margins of the Central American Isthmus. A substantial amount of new information of the Middle America Trench has been acquired through DSDP Legs 67 and 84.

  17. Observatory of Renewable Energy for Latin America and the Caribbean...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Chile, Costa Rica, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay UN Region Caribbean, Central America, South America References...

  18. Andean Development Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Bolivia Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominican Republic Ecuador Jamaica Mexico Panama Paraguay Peru Spain Trinidad & Tobago Uruguay Venezuela and 14 private banks in the region....

  19. LEDSGP/about/Latin America and Caribbean Regional Platform/LAC...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    and Caribbean Regional Platform Workshop 12-14 November 2012 Alajuela, Costa Rica, INCAE Business School The workshop is an initiative of the LEDS Global Partnership (http:...

  20. Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas Western Hemisphere Clean Energy Initiative

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Ministers of Mexico, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Peru, Panama and the United States announced the creation of a new Western Hemisphere Clean Energy Initiative.

  1. Christopher Smith Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary Office...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jordan, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Panama, Peru, Republic of Korea, and Singapore. There also are two countries - Israel and Costa Rica...

  2. Energy News | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Clean Energy Initiative Energy Ministers of Mexico, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Peru, Panama and the United States announced the creation of a new Western Hemisphere Clean...

  3. IDIQ BS Ex A (Rev. 3.1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); or (3) A ...

  4. Time and Materials Exhibit A General Conditions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); or (3) A ...

  5. DISCLAIMER:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... (Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); or (3) A ...

  6. AES Exhibit A General Conditions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); or (3) A ...

  7. PART II - CONTRACT CLAUSES

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... (Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); (3) A least ...

  8. Section - - SPECIAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR USE IN MOST GRANTS...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... (Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); (3) A ...

  9. M186

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); or (3) A ...

  10. CONST Ex A (Rev. 5.1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); or (3) A ...

  11. Microsoft Word - WTP Contract Section I - Conformed Thru 363...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... (Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); (3) A least ...

  12. CI-OFF Ex A (Rev. 0.2, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); or (3) A ...

  13. EFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); or (3) A ...

  14. CPFFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); or CPFFS Ex ...

  15. CI-ON Ex A (Rev. 0.1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); or (3) A ...

  16. LFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); or (3) A ...

  17. NCIPO Ex A (Rev. 2.1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); or (3) A ...

  18. Microsoft Word - DE-SOL-0006851 FINAL Amended 9-5-14.rtf

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Korea (Republic of), Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Panama, Peru, or ...

  19. downloadForm.asp

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Korea (Republic of), Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Panama, Peru, or ...

  20. R&D Ex A (Rev. 3.1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); or (3) A ...

  1. D-B CONST Ex A (Rev. 4.1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); or (3) A ...

  2. SFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); or (3) A ...

  3. Power to the people: rural electrification sector. Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasserman, G.; Davenport, A.

    1983-12-01

    Results of studies of the impact of rural electrification (RE) programs in Bolivia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, and the Philippines are summarized.

  4. Climate-Smart Agriculture Country Profiles | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    featuredproductscsa-country-profiles Country: Argentina, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Grenada, Mexico, Peru Cost: Free OpenEI Keyword(s): Agriculture, country profiles,...

  5. 52

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    country (Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); (3) A...

  6. Electromechanical Engineering Consulting Group ECG | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Electromechanical Engineering Consulting Group ECG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Electromechanical Engineering Consulting Group (ECG) Place: San Jose, Costa Rica Zip: 1521-1000...

  7. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Baryon Spectrum from Superconformal Quantum Mechanics and its Light Front Holographic Embedding de Teramond Guy F Costa Rica U Dosch Hans Gunter U Heidelberg ITP Brodsky Stanley J...

  8. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Baryon Spectrum from Superconformal Quantum Mechanics and its Light-Front Holographic Embedding","de Teramond, Guy F.; Costa Rica U.; Dosch, Hans Gunter; U. Heidelberg, ITP;...

  9. Fast Start Financing | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    the government of the Netherlands, with support from the governments of Costa Rica, Colombia, Denmark, Germany, Indonesia, the Marshall Islands, Mexico, Norway, the United...

  10. Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    www.ecpamericas.org Program Start 2010 Country Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, United States South...

  11. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros Congo (Brazzaville) Congo (Kinshasa) Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote...

  12. Fermilab Today

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Mr. Castillo-Veremis; Javier Rojas Viquez (Costa Rica); Marcelo Suarez Salvia (Argentina); Lilian Colsant (Brazil). Back row, from left: Juan Estrada (Fermilab); Jose...

  13. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiman, W.D.

    1988-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987 showed significant increases in seismic acquisition in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay, and Peru, and a decrease in Chile and Venezuela. Exploratory drilling increased in most major producing countries but was accompanied by a decline in development drilling. Most of the increase could be attributed to private companies fulfilling obligations under risk contracts; however, state oil companies in Bolivia, Chile, and Colombia showed significant increased activity, with only Mexico showing a decrease. Colombia again had a dramatic increase in production (29% from 1986). Noteworthy discoveries were made in Bolivia (Villamontes-1); Brazil, in the Solimoes basin (1-RUC-1-AM); Chile (Rio Honda-1); Colombia, in the Llanos basin (Austral-1, La Reforma-1, Libertad Norte-1, Cravo Este-1, and Cano Yarumal-1), in the Upper Magdalena basin (Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1); Ecuador (Frontera-1, a joint-exploration venture with Colombia); Mexico, in the Chiapas-Tabasco region (Guacho-1 and Iridi-1), in the Frontera Norte area (Huatempo-1); Peru, in the Madre de Dios basin (Armihuari-4X); Trinidad (West East Queen's Beach-1); and Venezuela (Musipan-1X). Brazil's upper Amazon (Solimoes basin) discovery, Colombia's Upper Magdalena basin discoveries Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1, Mexico's Chiapas-Tabasco discoveries, Peru's confirmation of the giant Cashiriari discovery of 1986, and Venezuela's success in Monagas state were the highlights of 1987. 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Cancer incidence and community exposure to air emissions from petroleum and chemical plants in Contra Costa County, California: A critical epidemiological assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otto Wong ); Bailey, W.J.

    1993-12-01

    The northern part of Contra Costa County, California is heavily industrialized with a number of petroleum refineries, chemical facilities and other small industrial plants. Several epidemiological studies have been conducted in the country to assess cancer risk in relation to estimated air pollution levels. In this paper, the air monitoring data, air pollution modeling and the epidemiologic studies are critically reviewed. The association between cancer risk and estimated emissions is critically evaluated. The role of occupational and lifestyle (such as cigarette smoking and diet) confounding exposures is also assessed. The importance of validating exposure data generated by air pollution models in epidemiologic studies is emphasized. Pollutants of major concern are sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons.

  15. Industry`s turnaround looks real

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    The paper discusses the industry outlook for North American gas and oil industries. In a robust Canada, land sales are setting records, drilling is up, and output is rising beyond last year`s 21% growth. A perception among US operators that wellhead prices will remain stable is translating to increased spending. The USA, Canada, Mexico, Cuba are evaluated separately, with brief evaluations of Greenland, Guatemala, Belize, and Costa Rico. Data are presented on drilling activities.

  16. Central American resource studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Eeckhout, E.; Laughlin, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working with five Central American countries to assist in the development of their energy and mineral resources. Since 1985, mineral resources in Costa Rica, peat resources in Costa Rica and Panama, geothermal energy resources in Honduras and Guatemala, and geothermal field development in El Salvador and Costa Rica have been topics of study. This paper presents an overview of this work -- within these proceedings are papers that deal with specific aspects of each topic, and these will be duly noted. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  17. 105(scaled land 215%)7-22-05

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cntrl African Rep. Chad Chile China Colombia Dem. Rep. Congo Costa Rica Cote d'Ivoire Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark ...

  18. Property:Language | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) System M Miljoforden Website N NREL-Costa Rica-Energy Efficiency Workshop O OLADE-Solar Thermal World Portal OSIRIS-Country-by-Country...

  19. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Modified Anti de Sitter Metric Light Front Quantized QCD and Conformal Quantum Mechanics Dosch Hans Gunter U Heidelberg ITP Brodsky Stanley J SLAC de Teramond Guy F Costa Rica U...

  20. Recent SREL Reprints

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... support for shark conservation among artisanal fishing communities in Costa Rica. ... Conservation Physiology 4(1): 1-7. 3340 Fletcher, D. E., A. H. Lindell, G. K. Stillings, ...

  1. Microsoft PowerPoint - McFarquhar_2007.ppt

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    , is a good test of whether shattering amplified CAS concentrations * During Costa-Rica Aura Validation Experiment (CR-AVE), coincident data with CAS, CIP and CDP also obtained in...

  2. Petroleum geology and resources of southeastern Mexico, northern Guatemala, and Belize

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    Petroleum deposits in southeastern Mexico and Guatemala occur in two main basinal provinces: the Gulf Coast Tertiary basin area, which includes the Reforma and offshore Campeche Mesozoic fields, and the Peten basin of eastern Chiapas State (Mexico) and Guatemala. Major oil production, in order of importance, is from Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Jurassic carbonate reservoirs in the reforma and offshore Campeche area. Several small oil fields have been discovered in Cretaceous carbonate reservoirs in west-central Guatemala. Almost all important production is in salt structure traps or on domes and anticlines that may be related to deep-seated salt movement. Some minor oil production has occurred in Cretaceous carbonate reservoirs in a buried overthrust belt along the west flank of the Veracruz basin. Gas production is mainly from Tertiary sandstone reservoirs.

  3. Forest Cover and Deforestation in Belize: 1980-2010 | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    of Latin America & the Caribbean (CATHALAC), National Aeronautics and Space Administration Sector Land Focus Area Forestry Topics Co-benefits assessment, GHG inventory,...

  4. Complex-mixing dolomitization of supratidal deposits, Ambergris Cay, Belize, Central America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazzullo, S.J.; Reid, A.M.

    1985-02-01

    Extensive dolomitization of Holocene sediments is occurring on humid supratidal flats adjoining lagoons in the interior of Ambergris Cay. One such flat (Tomas Savannah) caps 3 discrete emergent beach-ridge and washover-swale sand and mud systems that prograded over an irregular, karstic surface of Pleistocene limestone. The Scytonema-covered sediments of the flats are dominantly Mg-calcitic peneroplid (foram) sands and micrites, with subordinate amounts of aragonite from cerithids and bivalves. The relict beach ridges stand as much as 30 cm above mean sea level, whereas adjoining swales are nearly perennially bathed in waters of varying salinity. The most-landward swale occupies a bowl on the Pleistocene surface and is the locus of dolomitization on the flats. The sediments of the swale are a 0.7 m thick section of graded sandy muds in which 3 superposed dolomitic crusts (each 10-15 cm thick) are present; the middle and upper crust are dated at 1700 and 905 yr B.P. (+/- 130), respectively. The volume of dolomite on this one flat alone is 17,000 m/sup 3/, which formed at a startling rate of 14 cm/1000 yr. Each crust grades downward to an equal thickness of unconsolidated deposits. The upper crust contains 64-68% protodolomite, the remainder is Mg-calcite micrite and altered peneroplids; most of the skeletal aragonite has been removed by dissolution. The dolomite is microcrystalline and has selectively replaced the host micrite of the sediments. Average porosities and permeabilities of the crusts are 45-52% and 5.9-7.2 darcys, respectively.

  5. Using laboratory flow experiments and reactive chemical transport modeling for designing waterflooding of the Agua Fria Reservoir, Poza Rica-Altamira Field, Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkle, P.; Pruess, K.; Xu, T.; Figueroa, R.A. Hernandez; Lopez, M. Diaz; Lopez, E. Contreras

    2008-10-01

    Waterflooding for enhanced oil recovery requires that injected waters must be chemically compatible with connate reservoir waters, in order to avoid mineral dissolution-and-precipitation cycles that could seriously degrade formation permeability and injectivity. Formation plugging is a concern especially in reservoirs with a large content of carbonates, such as calcite and dolomite, as such minerals typically react rapidly with an aqueous phase, and have strongly temperature-dependent solubility. Clay swelling can also pose problems. During a preliminary waterflooding pilot project, the Poza Rica-Altamira oil field, bordering the Gulf coast in the eastern part of Mexico, experienced injectivity loss after five months of reinjection of formation waters into well AF-847 in 1999. Acidizing with HCl restored injectivity. We report on laboratory experiments and reactive chemistry modeling studies that were undertaken in preparation for long-term waterflooding at Agua Frma. Using analogous core plugs obtained from the same reservoir interval, laboratory coreflood experiments were conducted to examine sensitivity of mineral dissolution and precipitation effects to water composition. Native reservoir water, chemically altered waters, and distilled water were used, and temporal changes in core permeability, mineral abundances and aqueous concentrations of solutes were monitored. The experiments were simulated with the multi-phase, nonisothermal reactive transport code TOUGHREACT, and reasonable to good agreement was obtained for changes in solute concentrations. Clay swelling caused an additional impact on permeability behavior during coreflood experiments, whereas the modeled permeability depends exclusively on chemical processes. TOUGHREACT was then used for reservoir-scale simulation of injecting ambient-temperature water (30 C, 86 F) into a reservoir with initial temperature of 80 C (176 F). Untreated native reservoir water was found to cause serious porosity and

  6. Costa - Introduction to 2015 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costa, James E.

    2015-09-01

    In parallel with Sandia National Laboratories having two major locations (NM and CA), along with a number of smaller facilities across the nation, so too is the distribution of scientific, engineering and computing resources. As a part of Sandia’s Institutional Computing Program, CA site-based Sandia computer scientists and engineers have been providing mission and research staff with local CA resident expertise on computing options while also focusing on two growing high performance computing research problems. The first is how to increase system resilience to failure, as machines grow larger, more complex and heterogeneous. The second is how to ensure that computer hardware and configurations are optimized for specialized data analytical mission needs within the overall Sandia computing environment, including the HPC subenvironment. All of these activities support the larger Sandia effort in accelerating development and integration of high performance computing into national security missions. Sandia continues to both promote national R&D objectives, including the recent Presidential Executive Order establishing the National Strategic Computing Initiative and work to ensure that the full range of computing services and capabilities are available for all mission responsibilities, from national security to energy to homeland defense.

  7. Jayme da Costa | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    energy Product: Electrical goods manufacturer that is developing and building wind, solar and hydro projects in Portugal and wind projects in Spain. Coordinates: 40.875332,...

  8. Geothermal activities in Central America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whetten, J.T.; Hanold, R.J.

    1985-09-11

    The Agency for International Development is funding a new program in energy and minerals for Central America. Geothermal energy is an important component. A country-wide geothermal assessment has started in Honduras, and other assessment activities are in progress or planned for Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Panama. Instrumentation for well logging has been provided to Costa Rica, and a self-contained logging truck will be made available for use throughout Central America. An important objective of this program is to involve the private sector in resource development. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Energy and development in Central America. Volume I: Regional assessment. Final report October 1979-February 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, W.; Neves, C.; Trehan, R.; Ackerman, E.; Gallagher, W.

    1980-02-01

    This report presents an energy assessment of six Central American countries - Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama - to assist these countries in defining, planning, and meeting energy requirements implicit in their economic and social development goals and also to assist the U.S. Agency for International Development and other development organizations in defining energy programs in Central America.

  10. CRC handbook of agricultural energy potential of developing countries. Volume I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duke, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Introduction, Argentina, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Bourkina (Upper Volta), Brazil, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, French Guiana, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Appendix I. Conventional and Energetic Yields, Appendix II, Phytomass Files, and References.

  11. Energy and development in Central America. Volume I: regional assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, W.; Neves, C.; Trehan, R.; Ackerman, E.; Gallagher, W.

    1980-02-01

    This report presents an energy assessment of six Central American countries - Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama - to assist these countries in defining, planning, and meeting energy requirements implicit in their economic and social development goals and also to assist the U.S. Agency for International Development and other development organizations in defining energy programs in Central America.

  12. Energy and development in Central America. Volume II: Country assessments. Final report October 1979-February 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, W.; Neves, C.; Trehan, R.; Ackerman, E.; Gallagher, W.

    1980-03-01

    This report presents an energy assessment of six Central American countries - Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama - to assist these countries in defining, planning, and meeting energy requirements implicit in their economic and social development goals and also to assist the U.S. Agency for International Development and other development organizations in defining energy programs in Central America.

  13. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - San Andres and Providencia (Fact Sheet); NREL(National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Archipelago of San Andres, Providencia, and Santa Catalina (unpopulated), also known as San Andres and Providencia, which is equidistant between Costa Rica and Jamaica and 775 kilometers northwest of Colombia. The archipelago is part of Colombia, though Nicaragua has also laid claim to it.

  14. Soukoulis, Costas M.; Economou, Eleftherios N. Not Available...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Eleftherios N. Not Available American Physical Society None USDOE United States 2015-08-19 English Journal Article Journal Name: Physical Review B; Journal Volume: 92;...

  15. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation Report and Appendices Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Third Evaluation Report and ...

  16. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District Fuel Cell Transit Buses...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    SunLine Transit Agency Hydrogen-Powered Transit Buses: Evaluation Results Update Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation Report and Appendices

  17. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Transit Bus: Fifth Evaluation Report SunLine Transit Agency Hydrogen-Powered Transit Buses: Third Evaluation Report and Appendices SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Bus: ...

  18. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation Report and ... Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Third Evaluation Report and Appendices

  19. San Jose Accord: energy aid or petroleum-marketing strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-09-30

    The San Jose Accord was signed in San Jose, Costa Rica on August 3, 1980 by the Presidents of Venezuela and Mexico, whereby the two countries mutually committed to supply the net imported domestic oil consumption of several Central American and Caribbean countries. Countries initially participating in the program are: Barbados, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, and Panama. Seven eastern Caribbean countries were to meet on October 7 to petition for inclusion in the Accord, namely: Antigua, St. Kitt/Nevis, Montserrat, Dominica, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and Grenada. The official language of the Accord is presented, and the operative status of the Accord two years after signing is discussed. Specific briefs about some of the individual countries in the Accord are included. The fuel price/tax series for the Western Hemisphere countries is updated.

  20. NREL: International Activities - Bilateral Partnerships

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Printable Version Bilateral Partnerships NREL partners with more than 50 countries around the world to advance development and use of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies: Angola Argentina Australia Bangladesh Brazil Canada Chile China Colombia Costa Rica Gabon Haiti India Indonesia Japan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea Mexico North America Philippines Saudi Arabia U.S. Pacific Territories United Arab Emirates Vietnam Asia Bangladesh Under sponsorship from the U.S. Agency for International

  1. London & Paris - Depart on April 12, 2007 for an

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Ambergris Caye, Belize: March 1-11, 2017 Join us for a spring getaway trip: 9 nights at the Corona Del Mar Resort in Belize Prices begin at 1462person (double occupancy) and ...

  2. File:Central America 50m Wind Power.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Date 20041022 Extent International Countries Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua UN Region Central America Coordinates 13.846614265322,...

  3. File:Cammetst 58.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Date 20031210 Extent Central America Countries Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua UN Region Central America Regions Central America Coordinates...

  4. Energy data collection as a necessary activity for developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loebl, A.S.; Cagle, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines the reasons for energy data collection by developing countries and includes an examination of the special requirements of Costa Rica for energy data collection. A primary reason for national data collection is to support the planning function, and this is particularly significant where energy planning and economic development are concerned. Energy data are necessary to support all phases of planning: short-term; mid-term; and long-range and/or strategic planning. These different planning requirements are discussed. Energy data are also necessary to support national management, as well as the economic-development functions. These latter requirements are also discussed briefly.

  5. Middle East sparking increase in world drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    Global drilling outside the United States appears to have bottomed out last year if official numbers and estimates supplied to World oil prove accurate. The 1990:0090 forecast calls for a 7.8% boost to 22,316 wells (excluding the USSR, Eastern Europe and North Korea), and every region expects to see a net increase. Figures provided by governmental agencies, operating companies and other sources indicate Middle Eastern drilling last year hit a new high for the 1980's with 948 wells. These figures are also given for Western Europe, the Far East, Africa, South America, Canada, Mexico, Costa Rica, and Guatemala.

  6. Energy and development in Central America. Volume II. country assesments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, W.; Neves, C.; Trehan, R.; Ackerman, E.; Gallagher, W.

    1980-03-01

    This volume presents a country-by-country energy assessment of six Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. For each country it includes an assessment of geographic, social, and economic aspects of energy development, an assessment of energy resources, current and projected energy use, potential strategies for energy development, and finally recommendations to USAID for the orientation of its energy development programs. Each country assessment is supplemented with a summary of energy R and D activities and a description of each country's energy-related institutions.

  7. The status of energy planning in five Central American countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booth, S.R.; Fonseca, M.G.

    1991-08-01

    This report examines the current status of national energy planning in Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Panama. A framework is provided that divides energy planning activities into two broad categories: the fundamental tasks'' and the bounding conditions.'' The fundamental tasks of energy planning include the gathering and systematizing of data, conducting energy situation analyses and short- or long-term planning for the country, and defining and implementing national energy plans. While the bonding conditions are situations that preclude completion of fundamental tasks, such as level of technical expertise. 20 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Central American update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, S.F.

    1987-07-01

    The Central American Energy Resources Project is designed to help the countries of Honduras, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Panama develop their geothermal resources. Auxiliary project goals are to increase economic development and employment in Central America; to provide a scientific basis for the private sector to develop natural resources; and to provide scientific training to in-country scientists, engineers, and technicians. The energy resources project began in March 1985. The progress being made in El Salvador (production well logging and geophysical operations), Panama (site selection for the first temperature-gradient well), and Honduras (well drilling of temperature-gradient wells) is summarized.

  9. U.S. Fuel Ethanol (Renewable) Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    2 3 1 250 314 255 1993-2016 Ecuador 2007-2007 Non OPEC* 2 3 1 250 314 255 2004-2016 Argentina 2006-2006 Belgium 2012-2012 Brazil 250 314 255 2004-2016 Canada 2 3 1 2004-2016 China 2006-2006 Congo (Brazzaville) 2006-2006 Costa Rica 2004-2013 El Salvador 2004-2013 Guatemala 2012-2014 Jamaica 2004-2013 Netherlands 2006-2014 Nicaragua 2012-2014 Pakistan 2006-2006 Singapore 2014-2014 Trinidad and Tobago 2005-2011 Virgin Islands (U.S.) 2007-2009

  10. In-Situ Data for Microphysical Retrievals: TC4, 2007 (Dataset) | Data

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Explorer In-Situ Data for Microphysical Retrievals: TC4, 2007 Title: In-Situ Data for Microphysical Retrievals: TC4, 2007 This data set is derived from measurements collected in situ by the NASA DC8 during the Tropical Cloud Climate Composition Coupling Experiment (TC4) that was conducted during July and August, 2007 (Toon et al., 2010). During this experiment the DC8 was based in San Jose, Costa Rica and sampled clouds in the maritime region of the Eastern Pacific and adjoining continental

  11. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2007-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

  12. Geothermal initiatives in Central America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanold, R.J.; Loose, V.W.; Laughlin, A.W.; Wade, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    The US Agency for International Development is supporting a new project in energy and resources exploitation for Central America. One of the largest components of the project involves exploration and reservoir development investigations directed at enhancing the production of electricity from the region's geothermal resources. An assessment of the geothermal resources of Honduras is in progress, and interesting geothermal regions in the Guanacaste Province of Costa Rica are being explored. Well-logging activities are in progress in the production wells at the Miravalles geothermal field in Costa Rica, and preparations are being made for logging critical wells at Ahuachapan in El Salvador. A self-contained logging truck, complete with high-temperature logging cable and logging tools designed for geothermal service, is being fabricated and will be made available for dedicated use throughout Central America. Geochemical and isotopic analyses of water samples collected in Panama are being evaluated to select a high-priority geothermal site in that country. Application of low- and medium-enthalpy geothermal fluids for industrial and agricultural processes is being investigated in Guatemala.

  13. Third special price report. [Latin American countries, USA, and Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-06-06

    Energy Detente's latest international price survey at midyear 1982 showed the average price of premium gasoline had fallen US $0.27 in the 11-month period since their first special report in July 1981. The biggest price drop occurred in Costa Rica, where prices in local currency increased slightly but in US dollars declined US $1.91 - due to the fall of the Colon against the US dollar. The case of Costa Rica exemplifies how the rise of the US dollar influenced the survey findings. Generally, the price drops showed that in several countries fuel prices haven't kept up with inflation and this shows up when prices are expressed in dollars. However, analysis of US prices, and prices in Guatemala where currency is at par with the dollar, shows prices fell (modestly) there too. Prices in Mexico and Venezuela doubled. Ecuador listed the lowest prices in the survey. Also included in this issue are brief energy notes from Mexico and other Latin American countries.

  14. (Monitoring and evaluation of the Central American Rural Electrification Program)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, A. III )

    1990-03-20

    CARES has been successful in leveraging its effort with similar programs in other countries. NRECA has done an exceptional job of coordinating the related activities of other AID contracts. The informal lines of communication appear to work well with a relaxed and productive environment evident. ROCAP has expressed confidence in the ability of NRECA to carry out the Workplan successfully. Recent initiatives by Mr. Funes in the area of indicators are seen by the review team as a positive and mutual step to articulate specific goals and accomplishments. Communication and coordination among the ROCAP staff and the local AID Mission appears to have improved since last mentioned in the Engineering Standards Review. This is especially true in Guatemala and Costa Rica. Better reporting procedures would facilitate NRECA-ROCAP-AID Mission communication. Impressive progress has been made in the way local officials approach rural electrification. This is very evident in the areas of engineering design and the productive uses campaign. The Planning and Engineering sections of INDE and CEL rapidly adopted the new mechanical strength based standards as reasonable design solutions. Similarly, productive uses has received much greater attention by all of the various divisions of the utilities in El Salvador, Guatemala and Costa Rica. This was not the case previous to the CARES Project. The final report specifically addresses several areas that should be de-emphasized or given more attention. 26 refs.

  15. Status of U.S. Nuclear Outages - U.S. Energy Information Administratio...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Bahamas, The Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma (Myanmar) ...

  16. International - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Bahamas, The Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma (Myanmar) ...

  17. Eia.gov BETA - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) ...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Bahamas, The Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma (Myanmar) ...

  18. Sandia Energy - SNL-ESSC (Sandia National Laboratories - Extreme...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana...

  19. File:NREL-camdirjune.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Creation Date 2003-12-10 Extent International Countries Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua UN Region Central America File history Click on a datetime to...

  20. File:NREL-camdirsept.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Creation Date 2003-12-10 Extent International Countries Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua UN Region Central America File history Click on a datetime to...

  1. File:NREL-camdirapr.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Creation Date 2003-12-10 Extent International Countries Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua UN Region Central America File history Click on a datetime to...

  2. File:NREL-camdiraug.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Creation Date 2003-12-10 Extent International Countries Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua UN Region Central America File history Click on a datetime to...

  3. File:NREL-camdirmay.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Creation Date 2003-12-10 Extent International Countries Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua UN Region Central America File history Click on a datetime to...

  4. File:NREL-camdirjan.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Creation Date 2003-12-10 Extent International Countries Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua UN Region Central America File history Click on a datetime to...

  5. File:NREL-camdiroct.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Creation Date 2003-12-10 Extent International Countries Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua UN Region Central America File history Click on a datetime to...

  6. File:NREL-camdirmar.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Creation Date 2003-12-10 Extent International Countries Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua UN Region Central America File history Click on a datetime to...

  7. File:NREL-camdirdec.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Creation Date 2003-12-10 Extent International Countries Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua UN Region Central America File history Click on a datetime to...

  8. File:NREL-camgloann.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Creation Date 2003-12-10 Extent International Countries Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua UN Region Central America File history Click on a datetime to...

  9. File:NREL-camdirfeb.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Creation Date 2003-12-10 Extent International Countries Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua UN Region Central America File history Click on a datetime to...

  10. File:NREL-camdirann.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Creation Date 2003-12-10 Extent International Countries Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua UN Region Central America File history Click on a datetime to...

  11. File:NREL-camdirnov.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Creation Date 2003-12-10 Extent International Countries Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua UN Region Central America File history Click on a datetime to...

  12. File:NREL-camdirjuly.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Creation Date 2003-12-10 Extent International Countries Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua UN Region Central America File history Click on a datetime to...

  13. Total Crude Oil and Products Imports from All Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Argentina Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burma Cameroon Canada Chad ...

  14. Past High School National Science Bowl Winners (1991 - 2014)...

    Office of Science (SC) [DOE]

    Team Members: Chistian Johnson, Akhil Jariwala, Bryce Taylor, Alexander Yoo, Leslie Brinson (Coach) Prize: Trip to Belize Other Participants - 2010 .pdf file (64KB) 2009 thumb ...

  15. Solicitations (Issue 210) 3/27/11

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The place of performance will be Belize, Panama, and possibly Mexico. Contract objectives include providing: Support for Renewable Energy Generation: Uniform Procurement Processes; ...

  16. Land use change and carbon exchange in the tropics. I. Detailed estimates for Costa Rice, Panama, Peru, and Bolivia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, C.A.S.; Detwiler, R.P.; Bogdonoff, P.; Underhill, S.

    1985-01-01

    This group, composed of modelers working in conjunction with tropical ecologists, has produced a simulation model that quantifies the net carbon exchange between tropical vegetation and the atmosphere due to land use change. The model calculates this net exchange by combining estimates of land use change with several estimates of the carbon stored in tropical vegetation and general assumptions about the fate of cleared vegetation. In this report, the authors use estimates of land use and carbon of land use and carbon storage organized into six life zone (sensu Holdridge) categories to calculate the exchange between the atmosphere and the vegetation of four tropical countries. Their analyses of these countries indicate that this life zone approach has several advantages because (a) the carbon content of vegetation varies significantly among life zones, (b) much of the land use change occurs in life zones of only moderate carbon storage, and (c) the fate of cleared vegetation varies among life zones. Their analyses also emphasize the importance of distinguishing between temporary and permanent land use change, as the recovery of vegetation on abandoned areas decreases the net release of carbon due to clearing. They include sensitivity analysis of those factors that they found to be important but are difficult to quantify at present.

  17. National Fuel Cell Bus Program: Accelerated Testing Evaluation Report and Appendices, Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2009-01-01

    This is an evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell transit buses operating at AC Transit in revenue service since March 20, 2006 compared to similar diesel buses operating from the same depot. This evaluation report includes results from November 2007 through October 2008. Evaluation results include implementation experience, fueling station operation, fuel cell bus operations at Golden Gate Transit, and evaluation results at AC Transit (bus usage, availability, fuel economy, maintenance costs, and roadcalls).

  18. National Fuel Cell Bus Program: Accelerated Testing Evaluation Report #2, Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) and Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2010-06-01

    This is an evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell transit buses operating at AC Transit in revenue service since March 20, 2006, comparing similar diesel buses operating from the same depot. It covers November 2007 through February 2010. Results include implementation experience, fueling station operation, evaluation results at AC Transit (bus usage, availability, fuel economy, maintenance costs, and road calls), and a summary of achievements and challenges encountered during the demonstration.

  19. Final report on the Groundwater Isotope Project in the Brentwood Region of East Contra Costa County, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davisson, M.L.; Campbell, K.R.

    1995-05-01

    Groundwater in the Brentwood region has been characterized using isotope hydrology techniques and have addressed resource issues regarding the future sustainability of groundwater, maintenance of existing supplies, and exploration of new supplies. The stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen indicate that groundwater is derived from two sources: ancient rain recharge, and recharge of agricultural irrigation water. Rain derived groundwater ages range from <1000 to {approximately}12,000 years old. Agricultural recharge groundwater is <80 years and has recharged much of the basin on average to {approximately}125 fbs. The agricultural water recharges >10 times faster than natural rain water and hence, represents the principal recharge component. The agricultural recharge at the present time provides groundwater quantities to the basin that exceed the yearly water supply demand. With increasing urban development and retiring agricultural land, the availability of groundwater will decrease. Safe yield projections for the groundwater have been modeled to show that safe groundwater yields range between 30 to 120 acre-ft/mi{sup 2} per year for a population of 70,000 people. This will only account for {approximately}3 to 11 % of the total water demand. Furthermore, much of this groundwater may need well head treatment for water quality problems.

  20. An energy atlas of five Central American countries. Un atlas energetico de cinco paises Centroamericanos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trocki, L.; Newman, C.K.; Gurule, F.; Aragon, P.C.; Peck, C.

    1988-08-01

    In a series of maps and figures, this atlas summarizes what is known about the energy resources and how these resources and oil imports supply the energy needs of five Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Panama. The main exploited energy resources are firewood, hydroelectric energy, bagasse from sugar cane residues, and geothermal energy. Limited oil exploration in the region has uncovered modest oil resources only in Guatemala. Peat and small coal deposits are also known to exist but are not presently being exploited. After the description of energy resources, this atlas describes energy supply and demand patterns in each country. It concludes with a description of socioeconomic data that strongly affect energy demand. 4 refs.

  1. The energy situation in five Central American countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trocki, L.; Booth, S.R.; Umana Q, A.

    1987-06-01

    This study describes the energy resources and the changes that have taken place in energy supply and demand in five Central American countries between 1970 and 1984. Economic changes are also reviewed because they influence and are affected by changes in the energy sector. The work was performed under the auspices of the US Agency for International Development. The Central American countries of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Panama are highly dependent on fuel wood as a source of energy, particularly in the residential sector. They also rely upon imported oil products to supply a growing modern sector. Most countries have significant hydroelectric and geothermal resources, and most countries produce a large portion of their electricity from hydroelectric projects. Demand for electricity has grown rapidly. Relative shares of primary versus secondary energy in the five countries vary significantly and strongly correlate with average per capita income. Consumption of secondary energy has declined during the recent economic recession suffered by the region.

  2. (Power sector integrated efficiency program): Foreign trip report, August 1--11, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waddle, D.B.

    1989-08-18

    I traveled to Guatemala City to discuss host country and US Agency for International Development (USAID) Mission interest in an AID/Washington sponsored integrated utility efficiency initiative and to participate in a cogeneration conference. Discussions were held with USAID/Regional Office for Central America Panama (ROCAP), USAID/Guatemala City, the Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEM), the Empresa Electrica de Guatemala, and several members of the private sector regarding interest and the appropriateness of the proposed efficiency initiative. I then traveled to San Jose, Costa Rica to participate in a small scale hydro assessment study with a National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) engineer for a newly formed generation and transmission consortium. Data were gathered both on member cooperative annual, seasonal and diurnal energy demand, as well as engineering data for the site analyses. Meetings were held with the cooperative members; USAID/San Jose; and the Ministry of Natural Resources, Energy and Mines to inform them of our progress.

  3. Geothermal power development: 1984 overview and update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiPippo, R.

    1984-10-01

    The status of geothermal power plants as of mid-1984 is given. There are 15 countries with active plants, and France (Guadeloupe) is expected to join the roster in the near future. The total number of operating units (defined as individual turbo-generator sets) is 145; the total installed capacity is somewhat less than 3770 MW. If plans for additional plants are met, the total could jump by more than 200 MW over the next two years. Recent growth is presented and the worldwide installed capacity is traced. A graphic portrayal of the growth pattern is presented. The countries that will be most responsible for sustaining this growth are the US, the Philippines, Mexico, and Indonesia. Other countries that will contribute significantly include Italy, Japan, Kenya, Nicaragua, and Turkey. The following countries do not now have any geothermal plants but may bring some online by 1990: Guatemala, Costa Rica, Greece, St. Lucia, Thailand, and Ethiopia.

  4. In-Situ Data for Microphysical Retrievals: TC4, 2007

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    2016-04-01

    This data set is derived from measurements collected in situ by the NASA DC8 during the Tropical Cloud Climate Composition Coupling Experiment (TC4) that was conducted during July and August, 2007 (Toon et al., 2010). During this experiment the DC8 was based in San Jose, Costa Rica and sampled clouds in the maritime region of the Eastern Pacific and adjoining continental areas. The primary objective of the DC8 during this deployment was to sample ice clouds associated with convective activity. While the vast majority of the data are from ice-phase clouds that have recent association with convection, other types of clouds such as boundary layer clouds and active convection were also sampled and are represented in this data set. The derived data set, as compiled in this delivery, includes approximately 15,000 5-second averaged measurements collected by the NASA DC8.

  5. Bioenergy systems report: The AID (Agency for International Development) approach. Using agricultural and forestry wastes for the production of energy in support of rural development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    The Biomass Energy Systems and Technology project (BEST) seeks to integrate natural resources, private sector expertise, and financial support in order to convert biomass into marketable energy products at existing agro-processing facilities. This report documents BEST's approach to biomass promotion and includes sections on: the rationale for the project's commodity focus (sugar cane, rice, and wood); the relevant U.S. biomass experience with rice, cane, and wood residues, etc., which BEST draws upon; A.I.D.'s experience in the field application of rice, wood, and cane residue bioenergy systems; economic analyses of biomass systems (using examples from Indonesia and Costa Rica); research initiatives to develop off-season fuels for sugar mills, advanced biomass conversion systems, and energy efficiency in sugar factories; and the environmental aspects of biomass (including its ability to be used without increasing global warming).

  6. FILE NAME

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... And we worked with Southern Mexico and Belize and Guatemala in sort of a regional body, ... in working with, for example, in Guatemala where their climate change plan now does ...

  7. NREL: Dynamic Maps, GIS Data, and Analysis Tools - International...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Bhutan.htm Central America Wind 50m Resolution (includes Belize, Cayman Islands, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua (Zip 2.4 MB) 02192009 Central America.htm Chile...

  8. Women @ Energy: Shannon Goodwin | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... jungles, mountains and beaches of Borneo, spent weeks camping on an island off the coast of Belize, trekked the Inca Trail in Peru, and adventure travel in Iceland and Greenland. ...

  9. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... Products (Thousand Barrels)","Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Imports by PADD of Processing from Belize of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products (Thousand Barrels)","Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Imports ...

  10. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products (Thousand Barrels per Day)","U.S. Net Imports from Belize of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products (Thousand Barrels per Day)","U.S. Net Imports from ...

  11. North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics from Durham...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The high school national champion will receive an all-expense-paid science research trip to study the ecosystems of Belize in Central America. "Congratulations to the two winning ...

  12. Energy Savings Performance Contract ENABLE Awarded Projects ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    lighting 182,575 12,138* NA2 364 MMBtuyr (67% reduction) U.S. Embassy, Belmopan (Belize) U.S. Department of State 61215 ABM Government Services Exterior and interior ...

  13. Department of Energy Announces 20th Annual National Science Bowl...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    all-expense-paid research trip for the high school champion to study the ecosystems of Belize in Central America. "America and the world need the best scientists and engineers to ...

  14. SREL Reprint #3273

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Loci were screened for 24 specimens from a total of seven sites in south Florida, Mexico, Belize and Honduras. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 21, observed ...

  15. Mark Bowers

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Exploring Grenada or coastal Belize by boat, for example, has provided them with a unique perspective on a new place and culture. Sailing also feeds Mark's love of learning, as he ...

  16. ,"U.S. Total Crude Oil and Products Imports"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... Belgium of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Imports from Belize of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Imports from Benin of ...

  17. 2014_Q3.indd

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... She earned her master's degree and PhD at University of Florida. She is from the beautiful country of Belize. Terry Petrosky - Terry joined LM on August 25 as a physical ...

  18. The Y-12 Times, June 2009, Employee Newsletter

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... A condo may be roomier, have kitchen facilities and be cheaper than a hotel. D.H. At right, Dale Hensley of Budgets and her husband, Ron, bask in Belize while on vacation in 2006. ...

  19. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... Products (Thousand Barrels)","West Coast (PADD 5) Imports by PADD of Processing from Belize of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products (Thousand Barrels)","West Coast (PADD 5) Imports ...

  20. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... to Belgium of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Exports to Belize of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Exports to Benin of ...

  1. CX-006565: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    California-City-Costa MesaCX(s) Applied: B2.5, B5.1Date: 08/18/2011Location(s): Costa Mesa, CaliforniaOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

  2. CX-000165: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    California County Contra CostaCX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B5.1Date: 10/27/2009Location(s): Contra Costa County, CaliforniaOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

  3. Mineral formation and redox-sensitive trace elements in a near-surface hydrothermal alteration system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gehring, A.U.; Schosseler, P.M.; Weidler, P.G.

    1999-07-01

    A recent hydrothermal mudpool at the southwestern slope of the Rincon de la Vieja volcano in Northwest Costa Rica exhibits an argillic alteration system formed by intense interaction of sulfuric acidic fluids with wall rock materials. Detailed mineralogical analysis revealed an assemblage with kaolinite, alunite, and opal-C as the major mineral phases. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) showed 3 different redox-sensitive cations associated with the mineral phases, Cu{sup +} is structure-bound in opal-C, whereas VO{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} are located in the kaolinite structure. The location of the redox-sensitive cations in different minerals of the assemblage is indicative of different chemical conditions. The formation of the alteration products can be described schematically as a 2-step process. In a first step alunite and opal-C were precipitated in a fluid with slightly reducing conditions and a low chloride availability. The second step is characterized by a decrease in K{sup +} activity and subsequent formation of kaolinite under weakly oxidizing to oxidizing redox conditions as indicated by structure-bound VO{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}. The detection of paramagnetic trace elements structure-bound in mineral phases by EPR provide direct information about the prevailing redox conditions during alteration and can, therefore, be used as additional insight into the genesis of the hydrothermal, near-surface system.

  4. Electric motor systems in developing countries: Opportunities for efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyers, S.; Monahan, P.; Lewis, P.; Greenberg, S.; Nadel, S.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents an overview of the current status and efficiency improvement potential of industrial motor systems in developing countries. Better management of electric motor systems is of particular relevance in developing countries, where improved efficiency can lead to increased productivity and slower growth in electricity demand. Motor systems currently consume some 65--80% of the industrial electricity in developing countries. Drawing on studies from Thailand, India, Brazil, China, Pakistan, and Costa Rica, we describe potential efficiency gains in various parts of the motor system, from the electricity delivery system through the motor to the point where useful work is performed. We report evidence of a significant electricity conservation potential. Most of the efficiency improvement methods we examine are very cost-effective from a societal viewpoint, but are generally not implemented due to various barriers that deter their adoption. Drawing on experiences in North America, we discuss a range of policies to overcome these barriers, including education, training, minimum efficiency standards, motor efficiency testing protocols, technical assistance programs, and financial incentives.

  5. Fiscal Year 1998 Annual Report, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, World Data Center -- A for Atmospheric Trace Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M.; Boden, T.A.; Hook, L.A.; Jones, S.B.; Kaiser, D.P.; Nelson, T.R.

    1999-03-01

    Once again, the most recent fiscal year was a productive one for the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), as well as a year for change. The FY 1998 in Review section in this report summarizes quite a few new and updated data and information products, and the ''What's Coming in FY 1999'' section describes our plans for this new fiscal year. During FY 1998, CDIAC began a data-management system for AmeriFlux, a long-term study of carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere of the Western Hemisphere and the atmosphere. The specific objectives of AmeriFlux are to establish an infrastructure for guiding, collecting, synthesizing, and disseminating long-term measurements of CO{sub 2}, water, and energy exchange from a variety of ecosystems; collect critical new information to help define the current global CO{sub 2} budget; enable improved predictions of future concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2}; and enhance understanding of carbon fluxes. Net Ecosystem Production (NEP), and carbon sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere. The data-management system, available from CDIAC'S AmeriFlux home page (http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/programs/ameriflux/ ) is intended to provide consistent, quality-assured, and documented data across all AmeriFlux sites in the US, Canada, Costa Rica, and Brazil. It is being developed by Antoinette Brenkert and Tom Boden, with assistance from Susan Holladay (who joined CDIAC specifically to support the AmeriFlux data-management effort).

  6. Feasibility studies of a power interconnection system for Central American countries: SIEPAC project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez, T.; Enamorado, J.C. . Inst. de Investigacion Tecnologica); Vela, A. )

    1994-06-01

    The electrical systems of the Central American countries are linked by 230 kV ac weak border interconnections forming two separated subsystems. The first one includes Guatemala and El Salvador, and the other one comprises the systems of Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. As a consequence, unrestricted energy exchanges among all countries are not possible. This article describes the SIEPAC project which consists of a 1,678 km long 500 kV ac power transmission line that would link the six electrical systems of the region through seven power substations (one for each country and two in Panama), installed close to the highest demand national centers and six control centers of energy (one for each country) to allow coordinated operation of the interconnection.This project also considers a set of complementary assets (230 ac power transmission lines into some countries and the border transmission line between El Salvador and Honduras, and various other equipment). The power transmission line will greatly reinforce the actual border interconnections, which have a reduced capacity of exchange and technical problems associated with the stability of a weak longitudinal system. On the other hand, economic savings for the region would be achieved, coming from a higher coordination level in the operation and planning of their systems.

  7. Tidal constituent database. West Coast of the United States and Eastern North pacific ocean. Technical note

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-01

    This technical note describes a database of tidal elevation boundary condition information generated in support of the `Long-Term Fate of Dredged Material Disposed in Open Water` research of the Dredging Research Program (DRP), being conducted at the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. The database, described in detail by Hench and others (1994), allows the user to manually generate time series of tidal elevations or to use a program to access the full database to generate time series of both tidal elevations and currents for any location along the West Coast of the United States and Eastern North Pacific Ocean, extending from Seal Cape on Unimak Island, Alaska, in the North to Punta Parada, Peru, in the South. The land boundary includes the Pacific shorelines of Alaska, Canada, mainland United States, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Columbia, and Northern Peru. Although the capability to generate these time series was developed to provide input to the Long-Term Fate and Stability Model (LTFATE), the generated time series can be used for any application requiring tidal forcing data.

  8. Gas hydrates at two sites of an active continental margin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1985-03-01

    Sediment containing gas hydrates from two distant Deep Sea Drilling Project sites (565 and 568), located about 670 km apart or the landward flank of the Middle America Trench, was studied to determine the geochemical conditions that characterize the occurrence of gas hydrates. Site 565 was located in the Pacific Ocean offshore the Nicoya Peninsula of Costa Rica in 3,111 m of water. The depth of the hole at this site was 328 m, and gas hydrates were recovered from 285 and 319 m. Site 568 was located about 670 km to the northwest offshore Guatemala in 2,031 m of water. At this site the hole penetrated to 418 m, and gas hydrates were encountered at 404 m. Both sites are characterized by rates of sedimentation exceeding about 30 m/m.y. and organic carbon contents exceeding about 0.5%. The magnitudes and trends of gas compositions, residual gas concentrations and chlorinity variations are generally similar at both sites. The carbon isotopic compositions are significantly heavier at Site 568 than at Site 565. The isotopic compositions and trends at Site 565 are typical of biogenic methane generation. At Site 568, the isotopic compositions are very heavy. In spite of its heavy carbon isotopic composition, this methane is believed to have a biogenic source.

  9. Central America and the Caribbean: No place for the unwary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodwin, L.M.

    1994-11-15

    Central America and the Caribbean have not enjoyed the same high profile as more prominent independent power markets like India and China. Indeed, only one country in the region appeared in a recent survey of the 20 most promising markets: Panama, with a projected demand for 2,040 megawatts (MW) of new capacity, was ranked twentieth. Nevertheless, taken as a whole, Central America and the Caribbean offer significant opportunities for new development. Projected incremental capacity needs in some of the larger markets in the region include: Costa Rica (700-1,000 MW), Dominican Republic (1,100 MW), Guatemala (450 MW), Honduras (225 MW), Jamaica (729 MW), Panama (2,040 MW), and Trinidad & Tobago (200 MW). These markets represent an aggregate potential demand of 5,750 MW - more than the projected demand in Colombia, one of South America`s most active markets. Yet although its need for capacity is significant, the region presents developers with unique challenges because it comprises so many relatively small countries, each with its own special needs and characteristics.

  10. Energy-conservation-investment decision making in developing countries: A review of project implementation in industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    Despite recent efforts in a number of developing countries to promote energy conservation (EC) and efficiency, only a fraction of EC potential has been captured, especially for projects that require significant investments. The document analyzes EC efforts in 11 countries where energy audit and/or feasibility study programs have been carried out (Bangladesh, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jordan, Pakistan, Panama, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka), covering some 1,500 EC projects involving 242 industrial companies. Cost and length of payback seem to be the determining factors for companies considering EC measures; no-cost or low-cost projects with paybacks of less than a year (such as power factor improvement projects) had the highest rate of implementation, while expensive, complicated projects (e.g., cogeneration or fuel substitution projects) were most often rejected. The document concludes, however, that the rate of implementation of EC programs has been quite high, and recommends that inexpensive, short-term projects be featured in future EC programs and increased levels of TA and financial assistance be made available to companies implementing long-term EC measures.

  11. Biomonitoring of heavy metals in the Pacific Basin using avian feathers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M.

    1995-07-01

    The authors used avian feathers to biomonitor heavy-metal distribution in several areas in the Pacific Basin including Papua New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, China, Johnston Atoll, Hawaii, and Costa Rica. This paper is a preliminary synthesis of data gathered by the Pacific Basin Biomonitoring Project. They examined levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, selenium, chromium, and manganese. For sooty terns (Sterna fuscata) and brown noddy (Anous stolidus) mercury levels were lower in the Pacific than in Puerto Rico in the Atlantic, but his was reversed for lead and cadmium. Adult birds had higher metal levels in their feathers than did young birds of the same species from the same area. Cadmium levels were higher in terrestrial species; lead, chromium, and manganese were highest in coastal species; and mercury and selenium were highest in marine species. Mercury levels were lowest in forest species, intermediate in species that eat insects and small vertebrates, and highest in species that eat intermediate to large fish. Lead levels were highest in species feeding in industrialized estuaries of Hong Kong.

  12. Current and Future Carbon Budgets of Tropical Rain Forest: A Cross Scale Analysis. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oberbauer, S. F.

    2004-01-16

    The goal of this project was to make a first assessment of the major carbon stocks and fluxes and their climatic determinants in a lowland neotropical rain forest, the La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Our research design was based on the concurrent use of several of the best available approaches, so that data could be cross-validated. A major focus of our effort was to combine meteorological studies of whole-forest carbon exchange (eddy flux), with parallel independent measurements of key components of the forest carbon budget. The eddy flux system operated from February 1998 to February 2001. To obtain field data that could be scaled up to the landscape level, we monitored carbon stocks, net primary productivity components including tree growth and mortality, litterfall, woody debris production, root biomass, and soil respiration in a series of replicated plots stratified across the major environmental gradients of the forest. A second major focus of this project was on the stocks and changes of carbon in the soil. We used isotope studies and intensive monitoring to investigate soil organic stocks and the climate-driven variation of soil respiration down the soil profile, in a set of six 4m deep soil shafts stratified across the landscape. We measured short term tree growth, climate responses of sap flow, and phenology in a suite of ten canopy trees to develop individual models of tree growth to daytime weather variables.

  13. The Essene Way renewable energy system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bath, D.

    1997-05-01

    This article describes the large photovoltaic system which powers the Essene Way Resort on Ambergris Caye off the coast of Belize. Included in the article are descriptions of the collaborative efforts needed to develop the system, the system itself, how it was installed, and how it now operates. Project partners were Solar Design Associates, Inc. and Advanced Energy Systems.

  14. Facies dimensions within carbonate reservoirs - guidelines from satellite images of modern analogs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, P.M.; Kowalik, W.S.

    1995-08-01

    Modern analogs illustrate the distribution of carbonate facies within an overall depositional setting and can be an integral part of a subsurface geologic model in indicating the dimensions, trend, and interrelationships of facies that might be related to reservoir and non-reservoir distribution. Satellite images from several modern carbonate areas depict the geologic characteristics that can be expected in ancient shallow-water settings. Isolated carbonate platforms- the Bahamas, Caicos Platform in the British West Indies, Chinchorro Bank offshore of Yucatan, and portions of the Belize area; Ramp-style shelf-to-basin transitions - Abu Dhabi and northern Yucatan; Rimmed shelf margins - South Florida, portions of Belize, and the Great Barrier Reef of Australia; Broad, deep shelf lagoons - the Great Barrier Reef and Belize; Reef variability - South Florida, the Bahamas, Caicos, Northern Yucatan, and Abu Dhabi; Shallow lagoon/tidal flat settings - South Florida, the Bahamas, Caicos, Northern Yucatan, Shark Bay in Western Australia, Abu Dhabi; Mixed carbonate and siliciclastic depostion - South Florida, Belize, the Great Barrier Reef, Shark Bay and Abu Dhabi. The geologic framework as illustrated by these areas is important at the development scale where lateral variation of porosity and permeability, i.e. reservoir quality, is commonly tied to facies changes and facies dimensions are required as input to reservoir models. The geologic framework is essential at the exploration scale for reservoir facies prediction and stratigraphic play concepts which are related directly to depositional facies patterns.

  15. Emerging Latin American air quality regulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosmer, A.W.; Vitale, E.M.; Guerrero, C.R.; Solorzano-Vincent, L.

    1998-12-31

    Latin America is the most urbanized region in the developing world. In recent years, significant economic growth has resulted in population migration from rural areas to urban centers, as well as in a substantial rise in the standard of living within the Region. These changes have impacted the air quality of Latin American countries as increased numbers of industrial facilities and motor vehicles release pollutants into the air. With the advent of new free trade agreements such as MERCOSUR and NAFTA, economic activity and associated pollutant levels can only be expected to continue to expand in the future. In order to address growing air pollution problems, many Latin America countries including Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, and Mexico have passed, or will soon pass, new legislation to develop and strengthen their environmental frameworks with respect to air quality. As a first step toward understanding the impacts that this increased environmental regulation will have, this paper will examine the regulatory systems in six Latin American countries with respect to ambient air quality and for each of these countries: review a short history of the air quality problems within the country; outline the legal and institutional framework including key laws and implementing institutions; summarize in brief the current status of the country in terms of program development and implementation; and identify projected future trends. In addition, the paper will briefly review the international treaties that have bearing on Latin American air quality. Finally, the paper will conclude by identifying and exploring emerging trends in individual countries and the region as a whole.

  16. Twenty-first workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-26

    PREFACE The Twenty-First Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at the Holiday Inn, Palo Alto on January 22-24, 1996. There were one-hundred fifty-five registered participants. Participants came from twenty foreign countries: Argentina, Austria, Canada, Costa Rica, El Salvador, France, Iceland, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, the Philippines, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey and the UK. The performance of many geothermal reservoirs outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Professor Roland N. Horne opened the meeting and welcomed visitors. The key note speaker was Marshall Reed, who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. Sixty-six papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into twenty sessions concerning: reservoir assessment, modeling, geology/geochemistry, fracture modeling hot dry rock, geoscience, low enthalpy, injection, well testing, drilling, adsorption and stimulation. Session chairmen were major contributors to the workshop, and we thank: Ben Barker, Bobbie Bishop-Gollan, Tom Box, Jim Combs, John Counsil, Sabodh Garg, Malcolm Grant, Marcel0 Lippmann, Jim Lovekin, John Pritchett, Marshall Reed, Joel Renner, Subir Sanyal, Mike Shook, Alfred Truesdell and Ken Williamson. Jim Lovekin gave the post-dinner speech at the banquet and highlighted the exciting developments in the geothermal field which are taking place worldwide. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank our students who operated the audiovisual equipment. Shaun D. Fitzgerald Program Manager.

  17. Prospects for international trade in environmental services: An analysis of international carbon emission off-sets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swisher, J.N.

    1991-01-01

    This dissertation presents a case study analysis in which the costs to a US electric utility of reducing its carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions are compared with the costs of carbon-saving forestry projects in Costa Rica and Guatemala. The results show that a large electric utility in the south-central US would find it relatively inexpensive, even profitable given a conducive regulatory treatment, to reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions by a few percent over the next ten years, through direct investment in energy end-use efficiency improvements. In comparison, the costs of the forestry projects studied in Central America range from $1/TC to a worst-case value of about $55/TC, with most project costs between $5 and $13/TC, depending on the type of project, the climate, and the opportunity cost of land. The total amount of CO{sub 2} storage potential is significant, about 100 million tons per country, but not enough to suggest that forestry can offset more than a few percent of global CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel use. These case studies suggest that international trade in the environmental service of reducing global CO{sub 2} accumulation could have significant economic and ecological benefits. A transaction in which a utility pays for forestry projects in exchange for credit against an emission reduction policy is an example of an international carbon emission offset (ICEO). ICEO's could provide a currency for funding carbon-saving services as a way to comply with national policies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, as long as compliance is allowed through investments in other countries. This type of North-South transfer is necessary to reconcile economic efficiency and international equity, because of the disparity between the national allocations of responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions and opportunities for emission reductions.

  18. Petroleum geology of Pacific margin of Central America and northern South America, from Guatemala to Ecuador

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scrutton, M.E.; Escalante, G.F.

    1986-07-01

    Exploration for hydrocarbons along the Pacific margin of Central America and northern South America has been limited and spasmodic. Less than 100 exploration wells have been drilled, with nearly 50 of these being in the Santa Elena, Progreso, and Guayas basins in Ecuador. Shows have been reported in some wells, and a few oil seeps are known. The only commercial production established to date has been from the Santa Elena Peninsula in Ecuador in the extreme south of the study area. Understanding of the geology in this part of the continental margin is incomplete at best. This paper reviews present-day knowledge in an attempt to define the sedimentary basins better, to characterize their structure and stratigraphy, and to assess their petroleum prospects. The area of continental margin reviewed is to the north, located northwest of the trench system where oceanic crust of the Cocos plate subducts under the Caribbean plate, and to the south, where the northern part of the Nazca plate collides with the South American plate. This plate tectonic setting forms the framework on which local structural and sedimentary events have created a series of relatively small trench-slope and forearc basins in what is now the coastal plain and adjacent offshore area of Central and South America, south or west of a line of mountain ranges with active volcanism. Sedimentary fill is generally of Tertiary age. The basins and subbasins recognized and described include: in Ecuador - Guayas, Santa Elena, Progreso, Valdivia, Bajo Grande, Manta, Muisne-Esmeraldas, and Borbon; in Colombia - Choco-Pacific; in Panama - Gulf of Panama basin complex (Santiago, Tonosi, Sambu), and Burica-Chiriqui; in Costa Rica - Terraba and Coronado/Tempisque; in Nicaragua - San Juan del Sur; and in the Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala - the Pacific coastal basin.

  19. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gikakis, C.

    2008-12-01

    This report provides results from fuel cell bus evaluations at Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District, SunLine Transit Agency, and Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority.

  20. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... to convert a normal initiated cell into a cancer cell. less August 2005 Dietary chromium ... ; Kluz, Thomas ; Costa, Max The skin cancer enhancing effect of chromium (in male ...

  1. EIS-0323: EPA Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Sacramento Area Voltage Support Project, System Reliability and Voltage Support Improvements, Sierra Nevada Region, Alameda, Contra Costa, Placer, Sacramento, San Joaquin and Sutter Counties, CA

  2. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

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    ... Influence of Radioactivity on Surface Charging and Aggregation Kinetics of Particles in ... ; Tsouris, Costas Radioactivity can induce charge accumulation on radioactive particles. ...

  3. Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Zhou, Jiangfeng ; Chowdhury, Dibakar Roy ; Zhao, Rongkuo ; Azad, Abul K. ; Chen, Hou-Tong ; Soukoulis, Costas M. ; Taylor, Antoinette J. ; O'Hara, John F. Publication ...

  4. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2008

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report provides results from fuel cell bus evaluations at Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District, SunLine Transit Agency, and Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority.

  5. Slide 1

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    America LNG Import Terminals Status: Existing Source: Various Public Sources Everett Cove ... - non U.S. Northeast Gateway Freeport LNG Sabine Pass Energia Costa Azul Cameron ...

  6. Las Pailas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    General Information Name Las Pailas Facility Geothermal Power Plant Sector Geothermal energy Location Information Location Guanacaste, Costa Rice Coordinates 10.7869295,...

  7. EA-1602: Finding of No Significant Impact | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers

    Alternative Intake Project Transmission Line and Interconnection, California This notice ... an electric transmission line and interconnection to Contra Costa Water District's ...

  8. EA-1697: Finding of No Significant Impact | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    area includes portions of San Joaquin, Contra Costa, Alameda, Calaveras, Tuolumne, Santa Clara, and Merced counties. Proposed O&M activities include, but are not limited to,...

  9. shem

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    ... Corpus Christi, TXGS-04. Kemp Ridley and Green turtle nesting surveys. Trained co- ... Research Assistant Grupo Ecologico de la Costa Verde. Nayarit, Mexico. Sea turtle research ...

  10. Ceradyne Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Inc Place: Costa Mesa, California Zip: 92626 Product: Developer of advanced technical ceramic products; produces ceramic crucibles used in pulling polysilicon ingots. References:...

  11. SREL Reprint #3359

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    9 Evaluating support for shark conservation among artisanal fishing communities in Costa ... As fisheries managers, conservation biologists, and other invested groups move to develop ...

  12. Viscoelasticity of Glass-Forming Materials: What about inorganic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Viscoelasticity of Glass-Forming Materials: What about inorganic sealing glasses?. ... Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics held June 8-11, 2015 in Costa Mesa, CA

  13. Total Net Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products into the U.S.

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Net Imports by Country Country: Total All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Gabon Indonesia Iran Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Afghanistan Albania Andora Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cayman

  14. U.S. Imports from All Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Imports by Country of Origin Import Area: U.S. Period/Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Country: All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Gabon Indonesia Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Albania Argentina Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria

  15. Caribbean basin framework, 2: Northern Central America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyburski, S.A.; Gordon, M.B.; Mann, P. )

    1991-03-01

    There are four Jurassic to Recent basin-forming periods in northern Central America (honduras, Honduran Borderlands, Belize, Guatemala, northern Nicaragua): (1) Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous rifting and subsidence along normal faults in Honduras and Guatemala; rifts are suggested but are not well defined in Honduras by the distribution of clastic sediments and associated volcanic rocks. Rifting is attributed to the separation of Central America from the southern margin of the North American plate; (2) Cretaceous subsidence recorded by the development of a Cretaceous carbonate platform in Honduras, Guatemala, and Belize; subsidence is attributed to thermal subsidence of the rifted margins of the various blocks; (3) Late Cretaceous-Recent development of a volcanic arc along the western margin of Middle America and the northern margin of Honduras; (4) Late Cretaceous large-scale folding in Honduras, ophiolite obduction, and formation of a foredeep basin in Guatemala (Sepur trough); deformation is attributed to the collision between a north-facing arc in northern Honduras and the Nicaraguan Rise and the passive margin of Guatemala and Belize; and (5) Eocene to Recent strike-slip faulting along the present-day North American-Caribbean plate boundary in Guatemala, northern Honduras, and Belize. Strike-slip faults and basins form a California-type borderlands characterized by elongate basins that appear as half-grabens in profile. Counterclockwise rotation of the central honduras plateau, a thicker and topographically higher-than-average block within the plate boundary zone, is accommodated by rifting or strike-slip faults at its edges.

  16. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    We welcome your feedback and insights on this article. Country United States Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Angola Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas, The Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma (Myanmar) Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia

  17. Stump the Scientist Question Form | GE Global Research

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    Please Help Us Stump the Scientist Ask Your Question *Required fields Name* Email* School/Company* Twitter Handle Country* Select Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Andorra Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad

  18. PART II - CONTRACT CLAUSES

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    ... Bahrain, Canada, Chile, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, ... Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, ...

  19. Thirteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Miller, F.G.; Cook, J.W.

    1988-01-21

    PREFACE The Thirteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 19-21, 1988. Although 1987 continued to be difficult for the domestic geothermal industry, world-wide activities continued to expand. Two invited presentations on mature geothermal systems were a keynote of the meeting. Malcolm Grant presented a detailed review of Wairakei, New Zealand and highlighted plans for new development. G. Neri summarized experience on flow rate decline and well test analysis in Larderello, Italy. Attendance continued to be high with 128 registered participants. Eight foreign countries were represented: England, France, Iceland, Italy, New Zealand, Japan, Mexico and The Philippines. A discussion of future workshops produced a strong recommendation that the Stanford Workshop program continue for the future. There were forty-one technical presentations at the Workshop. All of these are published as papers in this Proceedings volume. Four technical papers not presented at the Workshop are also published. In addition to these forty five technical presentations or papers, the introductory address was given by Henry J. Ramey, Jr. from the Stanford Geothermal Program. The Workshop Banquet speaker was Gustavo Calderon from the Inter-American Development Bank. We thank him for sharing with the Workshop participants a description of the Bank???s operations in Costa Rica developing alternative energy resources, specifically Geothermal, to improve the country???s economic basis. His talk appears as a paper in the back of this volume. The chairmen of the technical sessions made an important contribution to the workshop. Other than Stanford faculty members they included: J. Combs, G. T. Cole, J. Counsil, A. Drenick, H. Dykstra, K. Goyal, P. Muffler, K. Pruess, and S. K. Sanyal. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff and students. We would like to thank Marilyn King, Pat Oto, Terri Ramey, Bronwyn Jones

  20. Nineteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Horne, R.J.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1994-01-20

    PREFACE The Nineteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 18-20, 1994. This workshop opened on a sad note because of the death of Prof. Henry J. Ramey, Jr. on November 19, 1993. Hank had been fighting leukemia for a long time and finally lost the battle. Many of the workshop participants were present for the celebration of his life on January 21 at Stanford's Memorial Church. Hank was one of the founders of the Stanford Geothermal Program and the Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Workshop. His energy, kindness, quick wit, and knowledge will long be missed at future workshops. Following the Preface we have included a copy of the Memorial Resolution passed by the Stanford University Senate. There were one hundred and four registered participants. Participants were from ten foreign countries: Costa Rica, England, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines and Turkey. Workshop papers described the performance of fourteen geothermal fields outside the United States. Roland N. Home opened the meeting and welcomed the visitors to the campus. The key note speaker was J.E. ''Ted'' Mock who gave a presentation about the future of geothermal development. The banquet speaker was Jesus Rivera and he spoke about Energy Sources of Central American Countries. Forty two papers were presented at the Workshop. Technical papers were organized in twelve sessions concerning: sciences, injection, production, modeling, and adsorption. Session chairmen are an important part of the workshop and our thanks go to: John Counsil, Mark Walters, Dave Duchane, David Faulder, Gudmundur Bodvarsson, Jim Lovekin, Joel Renner, and Iraj Ershaghi. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank Pat Ota, Ted Sumida, and Terri A. Ramey who also produces the Proceedings Volumes for publication. We owe a great deal of thanks to our students who operate audiovisual

  1. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Sustainable ForestManagement: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye , Jayant; Makundi , Willy; Goldberg ,Beth; Andrasko , Ken; Sanchez , Arturo

    1997-07-01

    The International Workshop on Sustainable Forest Management: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases was held in San Jose, Costa Rica, July 29-31, 1996. The main objectives of the workshop were to: (1) assemble key practitioners of forestry greenhouse gas (GHG) or carbon offset projects, remote sensing of land cover change, guidelines development, and the forest products certification movement, to offer presentations and small group discussions on findings relevant to the crucial need for the development of guidelines for monitoring and verifying offset projects, and (2) disseminate the findings to interested carbon offset project developers and forestry and climate change policy makers, who need guidance and consistency of methods to reduce project transaction costs and increase probable reliability of carbon benefits, at appropriate venues. The workshop brought together about 45 participants from developed, developing, and transition countries. The participants included researchers, government officials, project developers, and staff from regional and international agencies. Each shared his or her perspectives based on experience in the development and use of methods for monitoring and verifying carbon flows from forest areas and projects. A shared sense among the participants was that methods for monitoring forestry projects are well established, and the techniques are known and used extensively, particularly in production forestry. Introducing climate change with its long-term perspective is often in conflict with the shorter-term perspective of most forestry projects and standard accounting principles. The resolution of these conflicts may require national and international agreements among the affected parties. The establishment of guidelines and protocols for better methods that are sensitive to regional issues will be an important first step to increase the credibility of forestry projects as viable mitigation options. The workshop deliberations led

  2. A Bayesian Modeling Approach for Estimation of a Shape-Free Groundwater Age Distribution using Multiple Tracers

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Massoudieh, Arash; Visser, Ate; Sharifi, Soroosh; Broers, Hans Peter

    2013-10-15

    The mixing of groundwaters with different ages in aquifers, groundwater age is more appropriately represented by a distribution rather than a scalar number. To infer a groundwater age distribution from environmental tracers, a mathematical form is often assumed for the shape of the distribution and the parameters of the mathematical distribution are estimated using deterministic or stochastic inverse methods. We found that the prescription of the mathematical form limits the exploration of the age distribution to the shapes that can be described by the selected distribution. In this paper, the use of freeform histograms as groundwater age distributions is evaluated.more » A Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach is used to estimate the fraction of groundwater in each histogram bin. This method was able to capture the shape of a hypothetical gamma distribution from the concentrations of four age tracers. The number of bins that can be considered in this approach is limited based on the number of tracers available. The histogram method was also tested on tracer data sets from Holten (The Netherlands; 3H, 3He, 85Kr, 39Ar) and the La Selva Biological Station (Costa-Rica; SF 6, CFCs, 3H, 4He and 14C), and compared to a number of mathematical forms. According to standard Bayesian measures of model goodness, the best mathematical distribution performs better than the histogram distributions in terms of the ability to capture the observed tracer data relative to their complexity. Among the histogram distributions, the four bin histogram performs better in most of the cases. The Monte Carlo simulations showed strong correlations in the posterior estimates of bin contributions, indicating that these bins cannot be well constrained using the available age tracers. The fact that mathematical forms overall perform better than the freeform histogram does not undermine the benefit of the freeform approach, especially for the cases where a larger amount of observed data is

  3. A Bayesian Modeling Approach for Estimation of a Shape-Free Groundwater Age Distribution using Multiple Tracers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massoudieh, Arash; Visser, Ate; Sharifi, Soroosh; Broers, Hans Peter

    2013-10-15

    The mixing of groundwaters with different ages in aquifers, groundwater age is more appropriately represented by a distribution rather than a scalar number. To infer a groundwater age distribution from environmental tracers, a mathematical form is often assumed for the shape of the distribution and the parameters of the mathematical distribution are estimated using deterministic or stochastic inverse methods. We found that the prescription of the mathematical form limits the exploration of the age distribution to the shapes that can be described by the selected distribution. In this paper, the use of freeform histograms as groundwater age distributions is evaluated. A Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach is used to estimate the fraction of groundwater in each histogram bin. This method was able to capture the shape of a hypothetical gamma distribution from the concentrations of four age tracers. The number of bins that can be considered in this approach is limited based on the number of tracers available. The histogram method was also tested on tracer data sets from Holten (The Netherlands; 3H, 3He, 85Kr, 39Ar) and the La Selva Biological Station (Costa-Rica; SF 6, CFCs, 3H, 4He and 14C), and compared to a number of mathematical forms. According to standard Bayesian measures of model goodness, the best mathematical distribution performs better than the histogram distributions in terms of the ability to capture the observed tracer data relative to their complexity. Among the histogram distributions, the four bin histogram performs better in most of the cases. The Monte Carlo simulations showed strong correlations in the posterior estimates of bin contributions, indicating that these bins cannot be well constrained using the available age tracers. The fact that mathematical forms overall perform better than the freeform histogram does not undermine the benefit of the

  4. Pro Sol Energia SA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Sol Energia SA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Pro Sol Energia SA Place: Algarrobo-Costa (Malaga), Spain Zip: E-29750 Sector: Solar Product: Develops and builds solar power...

  5. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... material (MS3A), and Kr and Xe capture on metal-organic framework (MOF) materials. ... Is Carbon Capture and Storage Really Needed? Tsouris, Costas ; Williams, Kent Alan ; Aaron, D ...

  6. El Cerrito, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. El Cerrito is a city in Contra Costa County, California. It falls under California's 10th...

  7. El Sobrante, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. El Sobrante is a census-designated place in Contra Costa County, California.1 References...

  8. EIA-814, Monthly Imports Report Page 1 U. S. ENERGY INFORMATION...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    AK 2829 OLEUM CA 3103 SKAG WAY AK 2506 OTAY MESA STATION CA 3181 ST PAUL AIRPORT AK 2828 PITTSBURG CA 3196 UPS, ANCHORAGE AK 2830 PORT COSTA CA 3107 VALDEZ AK 2713 PORT HUENEME CA...

  9. Pleasant Hill, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Pleasant Hill is a city in Contra Costa County, California. It falls under California's 10th...

  10. Search for: All records | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dien, Bruce S. (1) Kurtzman, Cletus P. (1) Shea-Andersh, Maureen A. (1) Slininger, Patricia J. (1) Thompson, Stephanie R. (1) Uppugundla, Nirmal (1) da Costa Sousa, Leonardo (1) ...

  11. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Chambliss, Charles (1) Cheng, Gang (1) Chundawat, Shishir P. (1) Chundawat, Shishir P. S. (1) Clum, Alicia (1) Cotta, Michael A (1) Da Costa Sousa, Leonardo (1) Dale, Bruce (1) ...

  12. ALSNews Vol. 350

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Visitors included students from Contra Costa College seeing the ALS up close, members of the Oakland Chamber of Commerce, film makers from SPIE, and others; see Visitors for photos ...

  13. Approaches to Safe Nanotechnology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... Conhaim RL, Eaton A, Staub NC, Heath TD 1988. Equivalent pore estimate for the alveolar-airway barrier in isolated dog lung. J Appl Physiol 64(3):1134-1142. Driscoll KE, Costa ...

  14. The European Physical Journal C CrossMark

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil W. Carvalho, J. Chinellato6, A. Custodio, E. M. Da Costa, D. De Jesus Damiao, C. De Oliveira Martins, S. Fonseca De Souza, H. Malbouisson, D....

  15. CX-000390: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Transportation Route Survey in CaliforniaCX(s) Applied: A1, A9, B3.1Date: 11/13/2009Location(s): Contra Costa County, CA Office(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  16. CX-013774: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Contra Costa Soil Testing and Equipment Upgrades CX(s) Applied: B4.6, B4.11Date: 03/27/2015 Location(s): OtherOffices(s): Western Area Power Administration-Sierra Nevada Region

  17. CX-006759: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    International Colloquium on Environmentally-Preferred Advanced Power Generation - ICEPAG 2012CX(s) Applied: A9Date: 09/14/2011Location(s): Costa Mesa, CaliforniaOffice(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  18. CX-000384: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Carbon Dioxide Capture Site Survey in CaliforniaCX(s) Applied: A1, A9, B3.1Date: 11/13/2009Location(s): Contra Costa County, CaliforniaOffice(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  19. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook

    city of Ensenada, allowing the company to start planning the construction of its Costa Azul LNG receiving terminal along the Pacific Coast of North Baja, Mexico. The 600 million...

  20. AC Transit | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Technology Validation » AC Transit AC Transit AC Transit logo AC Transit (or the Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District) is based in Oakland, California, and provides transportation services to the East Bay of San Francisco. The 360-square-mile service area includes 13 cities and adjacent unincorporated areas in Alameda and Contra Costa counties. AC Transit's approximately 638 vehicles serve more than 65 million annual passengers. Photo of zero emission hydrogen fuel cell bus at AC Transit.

  1. (Mid-term evaluation of the Central America Rural Electrification Support program)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perlack, R.D.

    1990-03-30

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was requested by Regional Office for Central America and Panama (ROCAP) to conduct a mid-term evaluation of the CARES project. Numerous meetings were held with National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) staff, ROCAP staff, and local officials in Guatemala, Honduras, and Belize. In general, the CARES project has been quite successful in a number of key areas as well as in soliciting support from utilities and US Agency for International Development (USAID) Missions. Changes were recommended in the area of report writing and some management activities. It was also recommended that any new activities be considered in the light of the availability of local personnel.

  2. North America: A better second half for drilling--Maybe. [Oil and gas exploration and development in North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This paper provides data on the exploration, production, and drilling activity of the oil and gas industry in Canada, the US, and Central America. The section on the US discusses trends in drilling activity in both the first and second half of 1993. Statistical information on all oil and gas producing states if provided in a tabular format. Information on exploration and development expenditures is also discussed. Data is also provided drilling and production information for Canada, Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Nicaragua, and other minor production areas.

  3. The University of Texas Maya Muon Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwitters, Roy

    2007-05-09

    Plans to explore the ruin of a Maya Pyramid in Belize using cosmic ray muon tomography will be described. Muon tomography was pioneered by Luis Alvarez in the 1960's to explore the Second Pyramid of Chephren in Egypt. Improvements in detector technology since the Alvarez experiment suggest that muon tomography may be a practical method for exploring and monitoring relatively large underground volumes when exposure times of order months are acceptable. A prototype detector based on Fermilab/MINOS scintillator strip/WLS fiber technology has been built and is being tested at UT Austin. Initial results using the detector will be discussed.

  4. Prediction of reservoir geometries in the Morrow of southeastern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazzullo, L.J.

    1991-08-01

    The Morrow Formation of southeastern New Mexico is comprised of facies that were deposited in a complex of mixed siliciclastic and carbonate depositional environments. Reservoir geometries in gas-bearing sandstones are highly variable and identify a number of different depositional environments. In particular, environments identified within marginal marine facies tracts in the Morrow indicate that the shoreline was constantly shifting in response to relative sea level changes. Depositional processes were sensitive to varying sediment discharge rates as well sheltering by offshore carbonate mounds. Sandstone/carbonate sequences also indicate periodic reworking or drowning of marginal marine sediment throughout the Morrowan, which was especially prevalent in middle Morrowan time. The southern shelf of Belize, Central America, offers an excellent analog to depositional process that were operative during the Morrowan in southeastern New Mexico. Modern facies tracts along the Belizean shoreline respond to varying discharge rates of sediment from the Maya Mountains source area to the west and to sheltering from the Maya Mountains source area to the west and to sheltering from the offshore barrier reed and other carbonate mounds. Carbonates are actively developing upon drowned beach ridges and channel mouth bars, and there is evidence of drowned fluvial channels several miles from present-day shoreline. Depositional patterns in Belize are identical in scale to those believed to the operative in the Morrow and offer analogs that are useful as predictive tools for exploration and development.

  5. EIS-0404: Los Vaqueros Reservoir Expansion Project, California

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS/Environmental Impact Report was prepared by the Department of the Interior (Bureau of Reclamation, Mid-Pacific Region) and the Contra Costa Water District to evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to enlarge the existing Los Vaqueros Reservoir in Contra Costa County, California. DOE’s Western Area Power Administration (Western) was a cooperating agency because it has jurisdiction over transmission facilities that were expected to be relocated under the proposed action. Based on project changes, however, Western has no action and therefore will not adopt the EIS or issue a ROD.

  6. Monitoring biomass burning and aerosol loading and transport from a geostationary satellite perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prins, E.M.; Menzel, W.P.

    1996-12-31

    The topic of this paper is the use of geostationary operational environmental satellites (GOES) to monitor trends in biomass burning and aerosol production and transport in South America and through the Western Hemisphere. The GOES Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (ABBA) was developed to provide diurnal information concerning fires in South America; applications demonstrating the ability to document long-term trends in fire activity are described. Analyses of imagery collected by GOES-8 is described; six biomass burning seasons in South America revealed many examples of large-scale smoke transport extending over several million square kilometers. Four major transport regimes were identified. Case studies throughout South America, Canada, the United States, Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala have successfully demonstrated the improved capability of GOES-8 for fire and smoke monitoring in various ecosystems. Global geostationary fire monitoring will be possible with the launch of new satellites. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Pfutzner_1987.pdf

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    163,868 182,222 184,167 191,219 197,491 196,482 1981-2015 Albania 165 220 467 267 2012-2015 Algeria 0 0 0 2001-2012 Angola 0 2001-2011 Argentina 0 412 1 1 201 3 1993-2015 Aruba 0 2014-2014 Australia 3,167 3,229 2,841 2,715 2,560 2,466 1993-2015 Austria 1995-2007 Azerbaijan 0 5 2 2010-2015 Bangladesh 0 2014-2014 Bahama Islands 0 2000-2010 Bahrain 116 713 299 563 0 1993-2014 Barbados 33 169 179 121 163 158 2007-2015 Belarus 2004-2004 Belgium 3,295 3,337 2,463 2,098 2,572 1,957 1993-2015 Belize 4 2

  8. Petroleum Coke Exports by Destination

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    163,868 182,222 184,167 191,219 197,491 196,482 1981-2015 Albania 165 220 467 267 2012-2015 Algeria 0 0 0 2001-2012 Angola 0 2001-2011 Argentina 0 412 1 1 201 3 1993-2015 Aruba 0 2014-2014 Australia 3,167 3,229 2,841 2,715 2,560 2,466 1993-2015 Austria 1995-2007 Azerbaijan 0 5 2 2010-2015 Bangladesh 0 2014-2014 Bahama Islands 0 2000-2010 Bahrain 116 713 299 563 0 1993-2014 Barbados 33 169 179 121 163 158 2007-2015 Belarus 2004-2004 Belgium 3,295 3,337 2,463 2,098 2,572 1,957 1993-2015 Belize 4 2

  9. Well log and seismic character of tertiary terumbu carbonate, South China Sea, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, J.A.

    1985-09-01

    The Esso Exploration and Production Inc. Natuna DAlpha block lies approximately 125 mi (200 km) northeast of Natuna Island in the Indonesian portion of the South China Sea. The block contains a large Miocene platform carbonate complex called the L-structure. The Terumbu Formation L-structure, situated in front of and isolated from a much larger carbonate shelf, is similar to the carbonate atolls developed in front of the barrier-reef complex offshore of Belize. The lower platform and upper platform have a similar log character. The detrital facies is composed of fore-reef talus, pelagic, and hemipelagic carbonates. By mapping the Terumbu carbonate facies, the growth history of the L-structure is revealed.

  10. Petroleum in the Caribbean Basin: Further exploration justified?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, E.

    1996-08-01

    After more than half a century of exploration for petroleum in that part of the Caribbean Basin covered by this review, the prospects for substantial discoveries remain low. Only Barbados has had modest but sustained production of oil and gas. In Hispaniola minor production from small prospects lasted briefly. Exploration in the northeast Caribbean has not resulted in discoveries. Similar exploration in Puerto Rico and, on a more extensive scale, in Jamaica, has also failed to show positive results. On the Nicaragua Rise (Mosquitia, Tela Basins) drilling has produced shows but no production, a situation also evident in Belize. Nevertheless, examination of these results, in the context of the regional geology of the Caribbean Basin, suggests there are areas where further exploration is justified.

  11. The AES advanced 60kW PV-diesel hybrid inverter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wills, R.H.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the advances made in hybrid PV-Diesel power conversion under AES`s PVMaT 4A research contract. Assembly and servicing were simplified by combining advances in power electronics (higher power IGBTs, bonded fin heat sinks and a new proprietary IGBT driver board) into a single power block. The newly US manufactured inverter features locally designed magnetics, a 70% smaller floor space requirement and a flexible, expandable software control scheme based on a Visual Basic-based Windows interface and industry standard MODBUS SCADA communications. The prototype unit has been tested at Sandia National Labs and is about to be tested at NREL`s Rocky Flats Wind Test Site. Operating results for an AES hybrid inverter site in Belize are also presented.

  12. Early Campanian coastal progradational systems and their coal-forming environments, Wyoming to New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marley, W.E.; Flores, R.M.; Ethridge, F.G.; Cavaroc, V.V.

    1985-05-01

    Ammonite zones (Baculites obtusus-Scaphites hippocrepis) in the marine facies associated with the Mesaverde Formation in the Bighorn basin, Wyoming, Star Point Sandstone and Blackhawk Formation in the Wasatch Plateau, Utah, and the Point Lookout Sandstone, Menefee Formation, and Crevasse Canyon Formation in the Gallup coalfield, New Mexico, indicate that these formations were deposited during early Campanian time (80-84 Ma). The coal-forming environments of these early Campanian formations were located landward of wave-reworked coastal sand complexes of progradational systems along the western margin of the Cretaceous seaway from Wyoming to New Mexico. The Mesaverde coals accumulated in swamps of the lower delta plain and coeval interdeltaic strandplain environments. The Star Point-Blackhawk coals accumulated in swamps of the lower delta plains of laterally shifting, prograding deltas and associated barrier ridge plains. The Point Lookout, Menefee, and Crevasse canyon coals formed in swamps of the lower delta plain and infilled lagoons behind barrier islands. Although the common coal-forming environments of these progradational systems are back barrier and delta plain, the former setting was the more conducive for accumulation of thick, laterally extensive coals. Economic coal deposits formed in swamps built on abandoned back-barrier platforms that were free of detrital influx and marine influence. Delta-plain coals tend to be lenticular and laterally discontinuous and thus uneconomic. The early Campanian coal-forming coastal-plain environments are analogous to modern peat-forming environments along the coast of Belize, Central America. Deltaic sediments deposited along the Belize coast by short-headed streams are reworked by waves into coastal barrier systems.

  13. On the radiocarbon record in banded corals: exchange parameters and net transport of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ between atmosphere and surface ocean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Druffel, E.M.; Suess, H.E.

    1983-02-20

    We have made radiocarbon measurements of banded hermatypic corals from Florida, Belize, and the Galapagos Islands. Interpretation is presented here of these previously reported results. These measurements represent the /sup 14/C//sup 12/C ratios in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIOC) in the surface ocean waters of the Gulf Stream and the Peru Current at the time of coral ring formation. A depletion in radiocarbon concentration was observed incoral rings that grew from A.D. 1900--1952. It was caused by dilution of existing /sup 14/C levels with dead CO/sub 2/ from fossil fuel burning (the Suess effect, or S/sub e/). A similar trend was observed in the distribution of bomb-produced /sup 14/C in corals that had grown during the years following A.D. 1952. The concentration of bomb-produced radiocarbon was much higher in corals from temperate regions (Florida, Belize, Hawaiian Islands) than in corals from tropical regions (Galapagos Islands and Canton Island). The apparent radiocarbon ages of the surface waters in temperate and tropical oceans during the preanthropogenic period range from about 280 to 520 years B.P. (-40 to -69%). At all investigated locations, it is likely that waters at subsurface depths have the same apparent radiocarbon age of about 670 years B.P. From the change of oceanic ..delta../sup 14/C in the surface during post-bomb times, the approximate annual rate of net input of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ to the ocean waters is calculated to be about 8% of the prevailing /sup 14/C difference between atmosphere and ocean. From this input and from preanthropogenic ..delta../sup 14/C values found at each location, it can be seen that vertical mixing of water in the Peru Current is about 3 times greater than that in the Gulf Stream.

  14. CX-002198: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rock Slough Pole ReplacementCX(s) Applied: B1.20, B4.6, B4.13Date: 03/25/2010Location(s): Contra Costa Canal, CaliforniaOffice(s): Western Area Power Administration-Sierra Nevada Region

  15. CX-004880: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Routine Maintenance Along TRY-CC 10/4-11/1CX(s) Applied: B1.3, B1.13Date: 06/01/2010Location(s): Contra Costa County, CaliforniaOffice(s): Western Area Power Administration-Sierra Nevada Region

  16. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Third Evaluation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Report and Appendices | Department of Energy 2.pdf (1.02 MB) More Documents & Publications Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation Report and Appendices Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Third Evaluation Report - Appendices Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

  17. CMaranas.ppt

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis and Redesign of Proteins and Biological Networks Costas Maranas / The Pennsylvania State University * - Biological Networks * Development of computational workflows for reconstructing the complete metabolic repertoire of microbial and plant systems (i.e., Mycoplasma genitalium, Methanosarcina acetivorans, etc.) * Automated testing/curation of metabolic models for completeness and correctness by using multiple types of data (i.e., network connectivity, gene essentiality experiments,

  18. Technical Report on Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Zoe Kant; Patrick Gonzalez

    2009-01-07

    benefits. In the first phase we worked in the U.S., Brazil, Belize, Bolivia, Peru, and Chile to develop and refine specific carbon inventory methods, pioneering a new remote-sensing method for cost-effectively measuring and monitoring terrestrial carbon sequestration and system for developing carbon baselines for both avoided deforestation and afforestation/reforestation projects. We evaluated the costs and carbon benefits of a number of specific terrestrial carbon sequestration activities throughout the U.S., including reforestation of abandoned mined lands in southwest Virginia, grassland restoration in Arizona and Indiana, and reforestation in the Mississippi Alluvial Delta. The most cost-effective U.S. terrestrial sequestration opportunity we found through these studies was reforestation in the Mississippi Alluvial Delta. In Phase II we conducted a more systematic assessment and comparison of several different measurement and monitoring approaches in the Northern Cascades of California, and a broad 11-state Northeast regional assessment, rather than pre-selected and targeted, analysis of terrestrial sequestration costs and benefits. Work was carried out in Brazil, Belize, Chile, Peru and the USA. Partners include the Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, The Sampson Group, Programme for Belize, Society for Wildlife Conservation (SPVS), Universidad Austral de Chile, Michael Lefsky, Colorado State University, UC Berkeley, the Carnegie Institution of Washington, ProNaturaleza, Ohio State University, Stephen F. Austin University, Geographical Modeling Services, Inc., WestWater, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Century Ecosystem Services, Mirant Corporation, General Motors, American Electric Power, Salt River Project, Applied Energy Systems, KeySpan, NiSource, and PSEG. This project, 'Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration', has resulted in over 50 presentations and reports, available

  19. Characterization of Mesoamerican jade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bishop, R.L.; Sayre, E.V.; van Zelst, L.

    1983-11-23

    Jadeite occurring in the Motague River Valley of Guatemala has been characterized by neutron activation analysis and forms two district, phase-related groups. Comparison of the compositional profiles of Mayan jadeite artifacts reveals many specimens having profiles matching those of the Montagua source. Of particular interest are the large number of jadeite artifacts which show internal similarity yet have compositional patterns which are significantly different from the Montagua samples and Montagua-related artifacts. A few of the analyzed Costa Rican artifacts show patterns similar to those of the Motagua yet the vast majority fall within one of the two Costa Rican compositional groups. When considering the non-Motagua related Mayan artifacts, the analytical approach appears to be sufficiently sensitive so as to distinguish differences between the Chrome-green and Chichen-green material. Even two Honduran site specific groups of albite - cultural jade - form distinct groups.

  20. Demonstration with Energy and Daylighting Assessment of Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic (SRT) Window Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broekhuis, Michael; Liposcak, Curtis; Witte, Michael; Henninger, Robert; Zhou, Xiaohui; Petzen, George; Buchanan, Michael; Kumar, Sneh

    2012-03-31

    Pleotint, LLC was able to successfully extrude thermochromic interlayer for use in the fenestration industry. Pleotint has developed a thermochromic sytem that requires two thermochromic colors to make a neutral color when in the tinted state. These two colors were assembled into a single interlayer called a tri-layer prelam by Crown Operations for use in the glass lamination industry. Various locations, orientations, and constructions of thermochromic windows were studied with funds from this contract. Locations included Australia, California, Costa Rica, Indiana, Iowa, Mexico. Installed orientations included vertical and skylight glazing applications. Various constructions included monolithic, double pane, triple pane constructions. A daylighting study was conducted at LinEl Signature. LinEl Signature has a conference room with a sylight roof system that has a west orientation. The existing LinEl Signature conference room had constant tint 40% VLT transparent skylights. Irradiance meters were installed on the interior and exterior sides of a constant tint skylight. After a month and a half of data collection, the irradiance meters were removed and the constant tint skylights were replaced with Pleotint thermochromic skylight windows. The irradiance meters were reinstalled in the same locations and irradiance data was collected. Both data sets were compared. The data showed that there was a linear relationship with exterior and interior irradiance for the existing constant tint skylights. The thermochromic skylights have a non-linear relationship. The thermochromic skylights were able to limit the amount of irradiance that passed through the thermochromic skylight. A second study of the LinEl Signature conference was performed using EnergyPlus to calculate the amount of Illuminance that passed through constant tint skylights as compared to thermochromic skylights. The constant tint skylights transmitted Illuminance is 2.8 times higher than the thermochromic

  1. Rad Source Term Estimates for WIPP Release (SRNL).pdf

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    RSL-2007-12 December 27, 2007 MEMORANDUM TO ASSISTANT REGIONAL ADMINISTRATORS, PBS REGIONAL REALTY SERVICES OFFICERS THRU: ANTHONY E. COSTA (signed) DEPUTY COMMISSIONER - PD FROM: SAMUEL J. MORRIS, III (signed Wendy Liebl for) ACTING ASSISTANT COMMISSIONER FOR OFFICE OF REAL ESTATE ACQUISITION - PQC SAM HUNTER (signed) ASSISTANT COMMISSIONER FOR OFFICE OF APPLIED SCIENCE - PL SUBJECT: Green Lease Policies and Procedures for Lease Acquisition 1. Purpose. To issue energy and environmental business

  2. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Schneider Electric | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Schneider Electric Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Schneider Electric Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Schneider Electric Joined the Challenge: March 2013 Headquarters: Palatine, IL Charging Locations: Cedar Rapids, IA; Palatine, IL; O'Fallon, MO; Des Plaines, IL; Knightdale, NC; West Kingston, RI; North Andover, MA; Billerica, MA; Nashville, TN; LaVergne, TN; Smryna, TN; Clovis, CA; Costa Mesa, CA; Carrollton, TX; Seneca, SC; Lexington, KY; Detroit, MI Domestic Employees:

  3. Sandia National Laboratories: Locations: Livermore, California: Life in

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Livermore: Education Education California and Bay Area schools California's strong commitment to supporting public education is shown in the state's constitution, which requires 40% of state revenues to be spent on education. About one-fifth of California's school districts are located in the San Francisco Bay Area, and most Bay Area students attend public school. The majority of Sandia employees live within the boundaries of the Alameda, Contra Costa, and San Joaquin County Offices of

  4. C O M P U T I N G SANDIA MISSION 2015 HPC ANNUAL REPORT TABLE OF CONTENTS

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    I N G SANDIA MISSION 2015 HPC ANNUAL REPORT TABLE OF CONTENTS MISSION EXCELLENCE David White, Director Computing and Network Services Bruce Hendrickson, Director Center for Computing Research James Costa, Senior Manager Computational Science and Analysis 2 3 4 DEFENSE SYSTEMS & ASSESSMENTS Simulation of Blast and Behind-Armor Blunt Trauma to Life-Critical Organs Optimal Imaging for Treaty Verification Characterizing Quantum Devices Using Model Selection 8 10 12 ENERGY & CLIMATE Modeling

  5. Slide 1

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    America LNG Import Terminals Status: Existing Source: Various Public Sources Everett Cove Point Lake Charles Elba Island Gulf Gateway (*Decommissioning) Altamira Existing Terminals - U.S. Existing Terminals - non U.S. Northeast Gateway Freeport LNG Sabine Pass Energia Costa Azul Cameron Canaport Neptune LNG Golden Pass Gulf LNG Energy Manzanillo North America LNG Import Terminals Status: Approved, Under Construction* Source: Various Public Sources Approved Terminals, Under Construction - non

  6. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    da Costa Sousa, Leonardo" Name Name ORCID Product Type: All Book/Monograph Conference/Event Journal Article Miscellaneous Patent Program Document Software Manual Technical Report Thesis/Dissertation Subject: Identifier Numbers: Site: All Alaska Power Administration, Juneau, Alaska (United States) Albany Research Center (ARC), Albany, OR (United States) Albuquerque Complex - NNSA Albuquerque Operations Office, Albuquerque, NM (United States) Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium,

  7. Intro

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    PATRICIA HOFFMAN ACTING ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR ELECTRICITY DELIVERY AND ENERGY RELIABILITY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY BEFORE THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON ENERGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES AND SUBCOMMITTEE ON WATER AND POWER COMMITTEE ON NATURAL RESOURCES U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES November 5, 2009 Chairman Costa, Chairwoman Napolitano and members of the subcommittees, thank you for the opportunity to testify today regarding the Department of Energy's efforts to facilitate modernization of the Nation's

  8. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy locus in chromosome 6p21.2-p11: Linkage to convulsions and electroencephalography trait

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, A.W.; Delgado-Escueta, A.V.; Serratosa, J.M.

    1995-08-01

    Despite affecting 4 million Americans and 100-200 million persons worldwide, the precise molecular mechanisms of human epilepsies remain unknown. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is the most frequent and, hence, most important form of hereditary grand mal epilepsy. In this epilepsy, electroencephalographic (EEG) 15-30 Hz multispikes produce myoclonic and tonic-clonic convulsions beginning at 8-20 years of age. Moreover, EEG 3.5-6 Hz multispike wave complexes appear in clinically asymptomatic family members. We first studied 38 members of a four-generation LA-Belize family with classical JME but with no pyknoleptic absences. Five living members had JME; four clinically asymptomatic members had EEG multispike wave complexes. Pairwise analysis tightly linked microsatellites centromeric to HLA, namely D6S272 (peak lod score [Z{sub max}]=3.564-3.560 at male-female recombination [{theta}{sub m=f}]=0-0.001) and D6S257 (Z{sub max}=3.672-3.6667 at {theta}{sub m=f}=0-0.001), spanning 7 cM, to convulsive seizures and EEG multispike wave complexes. A recombination between D6S276 and D6S273 in one affected member placed the JME locus within or below HLA. Pairwise, multipoint, and recombination analyses in this large family independently proved that a JME gene is located in chromsome 6p, centromeric to HLA. We next screened, with the same chromosome 6p21.2-p11 short tandem-repeat polymorphic markers, seven multiplex pedigrees with classic JME. When lod scores for small multiplex families are added to lod scores of the LA-Belize pedigree, Z{sub max} values for D6S294 and D6S257 are >7 ({theta}{sub m=f}=0.000). Our results prove that in chromosome 6p21.2-p11 an epilepsy locus exists whose phenotype consists of classic JME with convulsions and/or EEG rapid multispike wave complexes. 31 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. (Engineering standards in the CARES (Central American Rural Electrification Support) project)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, A. III.

    1989-10-27

    Given the short time that the staff has been in place the overall progress has been exceptional. No doubt the professionalism and high level of technical competence of the staff are some of the primary reasons. Documentation of the projects is adequate to reconstruct events and information that result in key decisions. The current Annual Workplan, however, is cumbersome due to its organization and excess of redundant reporting. It needs to be re-organized based on the original goals of the Phase I Study and not the 35 components. The progress to date has been impressive. The NRECS Staff has made a significant impact on policy and engineering decisions in Belize, Guatemala and El Salvador, all with some proven cost savings. The demonstration projects and alternative designs have resulted in a high degree of credibility for the NRECA Staff. The proposed new engineering standards have gained acceptance in all of the countries as experience grows. They are well planned and carefully thought out. Professional training will be needed in the coming years to overcome the natural momentum of the status quo.

  10. WhaleNet/environet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williamson, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    WhaleNet has established a network where students, educators, and scientists can interact and share data for use in interdisciplinary curricular and student research activities in classrooms around the world by utilizing telecommunication. This program enables students to participate in marine/whale research programs in real-time with WhaleNet data and supplementary curriculum materials regardless of their geographic location. Systems have been established with research organizations and whale watch companies whereby research data is posted by scientists and students participating in whale watches on the WhaleNet bulletin board and shared with participating classrooms. WhaleNet presently has contacts with classrooms across the nation, and with research groups, whale watch organizations, science museums, and universities from Alaska to North Carolina, Hawaii to Maine, and Belize to Norway. WhaleNet has plans to make existing whale and fisheries research databases available for classroom use and to have research data from satellite tagging programs on various species of whales available for classroom access in real-time.

  11. Technical Progress Report on Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Ben Poulter; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Gilberto Tiepolo

    2006-06-30

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st and July 30th 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool. Work is being carried out in Brazil, Belize, Chile, Peru and the USA.

  12. Peloids: a bacterially-induced origin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chafetz, H.S.

    1985-01-01

    The origin of peloids within modern reef accumulations has been a controversial subject for almost 20 years. Freshly broken and slabbed splits of samples from Holocene-Pleistocene reef tracts from Jamaica, Belize and Florida, were observed with an SEM; the majority of the specimens had been etched in dilute HC1 prior to coating. Peloids commonly occur within borings in corals and other reef constituents. The peloids are spherical bodies, generally 20-60u in diameter, composed of high-magnesian calcite. They have a fine-grained center of anhedral grains and a dentate exterior of clear euhedral spar. In thin section, the centers commonly are light brown indicating the presence of organic matter. Spherical to elliptical bacterial clumps, approximately 15u in diameter, are evident in SEM views of etched samples from all three locales, whereas no bacteria were observed in non-etched samples. Their apparent absence in non-etched samples is because they occur encased in calcite. The reefal peloids are similar to bacterially-induced precipitates that occur in some travertine deposits. The similarities include: diameter (20-60u), structure, composition, and occurrence in a restricted or harsh environment (borings within corals or in hot H/sub 2/S-rich waters). Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that bacteria can induce carbonate precipitation. Therefore, it is my contention that peloids in modern reefs are bacterially-induced precipitated grains.

  13. Localization of a locus for juvenile myoclonic epilepsy on chromosome 6p11-21.2 and evidence for genetic heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, A.W.; Delgado-Escueta, A.V. |; Alonso, V.M.E.

    1994-09-01

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a common form of primary idiopathic generalized epilepsy characterized by myoclonias, tonic-clonic or clonic tonic-clonic convulsions and absences. Ictal electroencephalograms (EEGs) show high amplitude multispikes folowed by slow waves and interictal EEGs manifest 3.5-6 Hz diffuse multispike wave complexes. JME affected about 7-10% of patients with epilepsies and its onset peaks between 13-15 years of age. We recently mapped a JME locus on chromosome 6p21.1-6p11 by linkage analysis of one relatively large JME family from Los Angeles and Belize. Assuming autosomal dominant inheritance with 70% penetrance, pairwise analyses tightly linked JME to D6S257 (Z = 3.67), D6S428 (Z = 3.08) and D6S272 (Z = 3.56) at {theta} = 0, m = f. Recombination and multipoints linkage analysis also suggested a locus is between markers D6S257 and D6S272. We then screened three relatively larger Mexican JME pedigrees with D6S257, D6S272, D6S282, TNF, D6S276, D6S273, D6S105 and F13A1 on chromosome 6p. Assuming autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance, linkage to chromosome 6p DNA markers are excluded. Our findings underline the genetic heterogeneity of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

  14. Late Paleozoic paleolatitude and paleogeography of the Midland basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, D.A. ); Golonka, J. ); Reid, A.M.; Reid, S.T. )

    1992-04-01

    During the Late Pennsylvanian through Early Permian, the Midland basin was located in the low latitudes. In the Desmoinesian (Strawn), the basin was astride the equator; during the Missourian (Canyon), the center of the basin had migrated northward so it was located at 1-2N latitude. In the Virgilian (Cisco), the basin center was located around 2-4N latitude, and by the Wolfcampian, it was positioned at around 4-6N latitude. From the Desmoinesian (312 Ma) through the Missourian (306 Ma), the relative motion of the basin was 63NE. Later during the Virgilian (298 Ma) to Wolfcampian (280 Ma), the direction of motion was 24NE. This change in motion reflects a major tectonic event, occurring between the Missourian and Virgilian, that greatly modifed the movement of the Laurentian (North American) plate. At that time, Laurentia had collided with Gondwana and become part of the supercontinent Pangea. Throughout the late Paleozoic, Laurentia was rotated so the Midland basin was oriented 43{degree} northeast from its current setting. Late Paleozoic paleogeography and paleolatitude controlled the direction of prevailing winds and ocean currents, thereby influencing the distribution of carbonate facies in the Midland basin. Present prevailing winds and ocean currents have been shown to have a major impact on modern carbonate sedimentation and facies distribution in Belize, the Bahamas and Turks, and Caicos. A clearer understanding of how late Paleozoic latitude and geography affected sedimentation helps explain and predict the distribution of carbonates throughout the Midland basin.

  15. Radiocarbon in annual coral rings from the eastern tropical Pacific ocean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Druffel, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    Sixty radiocarbon measurements were performed on aragonite from annually banded corals collected from three sites in the Galapagos Islands. Preanthropogenic ..delta../sup 14/C values of coral that grew around A.D. 1930 averaged -70%/sub 0/. This is substantially lower than average values previously reported (-51%/sub 0/) for corals from Florida and Belize in the western North Atlantic Ocean. A decrease of 6% was noticed in coral that grew from 1930 to 1954. This decrease could be interpreted as a Suess effect in surface ocean water. The 100%/sub 0/ increase in ..delta../sup 14/C for coral that grew from 1954 to 1973 is the result of bomb-produced /sup 14/C that was introduced to the surface ocean waters. The /sup 14/C levels in corals that grew during El Nino years were considerably higher than those for normal years. These higher values are attributed to the absence of upwelling at the equator during El Nino events.

  16. Solar cooking trends--A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blum, B.L.

    1992-12-31

    This report discusses early results of research on trends in solar cooking worldwide and the key factors in those trends. It is based on household interviews in Belize, Honduras and Nicaragua and mail surveys from scattered individuals and promotion projects worldwide. Household interviews from six more countries will be included in future reports. Early data indicate that where solar cooking has been introduced an immediate, rapid increase in awareness and interest in solar cooking is followed by slow, sustained growth in actual solar cooking two or three years later, after an incubation period. Access to information and affordable materials for the cookers are important. Individual users and promoters both identify similar key elements for effective promotion projects, but in current projects many are often missing. Even so, successes of these small-scale efforts verify the benefits and acceptability of solar cooking to families in many regions, and should encourage much broader promotion efforts. Future reports will explore various economic, technical, cultural and environmental factors in solar cooking use as guides for larger efforts.

  17. Diagenesis and catagenesis of marine kerogen precursors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rafalska-Bloch, J.

    1987-01-01

    The approaches used were (1) investigations of marine kerogen precursors in a natural environment, e.g., in reefal carbonate sediments (in Puerto Rico and Belize) and (2) laboratory modeling of the condensation of marine kerogen precursors, i.e., amino acids and sugars and subsequent formation and reactions of melanoidin polymers. The organic facies model of a reef environment was developed from the analysis of (1) total organic carbon, (2) visual protokerogen types, (3) Rock-Eval indices and (4) sedimentological considerations. Rates of melanoidin formation, incorporation of amino acid and glucose into the melanoidin polymers and their attendant decrease in the melanoidin solutions were evaluated. The observed pattern was that of initially rapid loss of biomonomers from the melanoidin solutions and concomitant formation of melanoidin polymers. The rate of incorporation of amino acids into the polymers is related partly to glucose concentration and partly to the type of amino acid. The racemization rates of amino acids were also investigated. During the course of melanoidin formation the original amino acid abundances and stereochemistry are redistributed during simulated diagenesis. This may have implications for natural environments where diagenesis may obscure the original depositional signal and complicate geochronological studies. Catagenetic evolution of both synthetic geopolymer (lysine, histidine, arginine, glucose - melanoidin) and natural geopolymers (Belizian organic matter) was simulated using hydrous pyrolysis.

  18. Joint implementation: Biodiversity and greenhouse gas offsets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutright, N.J.

    1996-11-01

    One of the most pressing environmental issues today is the possibility that projected increases in global emissions of greenhouse gases form increased deforestation, development, and fossil-fuel combustion could significantly alter global climate patterns. Under the terms of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed in Rio de janeiro during the June 19923 Earth Summit, the United States and other industrialized countries committed to balancing greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels in the year 2000. Included in the treaty is a provision titled {open_quotes}Joint Implementation,{close_quotes} whereby industrialized countries assist developing countries in jointly modifying long-term emission trends, either through emission reductions or by protecting and enhancing greenhouse gas sinks (carbon sequestration). The US Climate Action Plan, signed by President Clinton in 1993, calls for voluntary climate change mitigation measures by various sectors, and the action plan included a new program, the US Initiative on Joint Implementation. Wisconsin Electric decided to invest in a JI project because its concept encourages creative, cost-effective solutions to environmental problems through partnering, international cooperation, and innovation. The project chosen, a forest preservation and management effort in Belize, will sequester more than five million tons of carbon dioxide over a 40-year period, will become economically self-sustaining after ten years, and will have substantial biodiversity benefits. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Regional

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    3 AÇORIANO ORIENTAL SEGUNDA-FEIRA, 5 DE MARÇO DE 2012 PUB Da Graciosa para a Índia graças à estação atmosférica Carlos está atualmente a trabalhar na estação atmosférica móvel instalada na Índia, a dois mil metros de altitude Estar no lugar certo na hora cer- ta pode mudar radicalmente a vida de uma pessoa. Foi isso que aconteceu ao graciosense Carlos Sousa, de 41 anos, que começou por ser trabalhador daconstrução civil antes de emigrar para os Es- tados Unidos da América. No

  20. SREL Reprint #3372

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Forensic species identification of elasmobranch products sold in Costa Rican markets Jason R. O'Bryhim1,2, E.C.M. Parsons1, and Stacey L. Lance2 1Department of Environmental Science & Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA 2Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, Aiken, SC 29802, USA Abstract: One barrier to establishing catch limits to help protect shark populations is a lack of accurate species-specific extraction rates. This is due to many species

  1. Ener-Gee Whiz Answers Your Questions: Wind vs. Solar | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers

    Wind vs. Solar Ener-Gee Whiz Answers Your Questions: Wind vs. Solar August 11, 2009 - 12:48pm Addthis Amy Foster Parish Costa writes: Do you think using wind is better than using solar to generate electricity? Ener-Gee Whiz: If you're considering installing a renewable energy system and are having a hard time deciding between the wind turbines and solar panels, you might find that the right renewable energy system for you depends on a number of factors. The first and most obvious consideration

  2. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results. Fourth Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eudy, Leslie; Post, Matthew

    2015-07-02

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 12 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The FCEBs in service at AC Transit are 40-foot, low-floor buses built by Van Hool with a hybrid electric propulsion system that includes a US Hybrid fuel cell power system and EnerDel lithium-based energy storage system. The buses began revenue service in May 2010.

  3. Workshop Presentations

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis and Redesign of Proteins and Biological Networks May 7, 2009 | Author(s): Costas Maranas | BER Overview May 7, 2009 | Author(s): David Thomassen | Boundary Layer Flow / Vegetation Air Exchanges May 7, 2009 | Author(s): Ned Patton | CCSM and Earth System Model May 7, 2009 | Author(s): Lawrence Buja, John Drake, Michael Wehner | Coupled High-Resolution Modeling of the Earth System May 7, 2009 | Author(s): Christopher Kerr | Global Cloud Resolving Model May 7, 2009 | Author(s): David

  4. Scotts Valley Band of Pomo Indians 2012 Program Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Program Review Renaissance Hotel - Denver, Colorado November 13-16, 2012 Ye-Ma-Bax (Scotts Valley Tribe) ✤ Eastern Pomo Tribe with 239 tribal members ✤ Offices located in Lake & Contra Costa Counties ✤ No land in trust, 35 acres fee land. Ye Ma Bax Energy ✤Key objectives ✤Human Capacity Building ✤Continuing Operations ✤Primary goal of this project is to develop a Scotts Valley Energy Development Office (SVEDO) Tribal Energy Program ✤ Promote: energy, education, savings,

  5. How important is subsidence in evaluating high frequency cycles in the interior of isolated carbonate platforms?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomando, A.J.; Ginsburg, R.

    1995-08-01

    Differential regional subsidence can play a strong role in determining facies composition of adjacent isolated platforms. In the majority of platform oil & gas fields, reservoir architecture is dominated by the composition and stratial geometries in the platform interiors rather than the platform rims. Most work to develop analogues from modern reef-rimmed isolated platforms has focused on the platform margins where reef growths rates are capable of keeping pace with the Holocene sea level rise plus tectonic subsidence. We have focused on platform interiors where accumulation rate and style may be more sensitive to accommodation space generated by regional passive margin subsidence. The Belize platforms are located on a series of parallel ridges which extend progressively eastward, farther from the regional subsidence hingeline near the coast. Greater regional subsidence is reflected in the open, deeper, patch reef and sand rich platform interiors in the outermost platform (Lighthouse and Glovers Platform) in comparison to the mud-dominated interior within the innermost platform (Turneffe), which has filled up due to lesser subsidence rate. The facies response to a portion of a single eustatic cycle produces a {open_quotes}keep-up{close_quotes} transgressive systems tract appearance at Lighthouse and Glovers but a {open_quotes}choked-up{close_quotes} high stand or regressive systems tract appearance within Turneffe. Chinchorro Bank, offshore Yucatan, is a special case where subsidence changes along the length of the platforms. The entire windward margin has a well developed reef system which has uniformly kept pace with the Holocene transgression. The northern platform interior contains a patch reef/sand rich character similar to Lighthouse Platform whereas the southern platform interior is {open_quotes}drowning{close_quotes} due to subsidence along a series of northwest trending faults which downstep southward.

  6. Exploration strategy in Keg River carbonates of northwestern Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majid, A.H.

    1987-05-01

    The analysis of reservoir quality and seal capacity of the Middle Devonian Keg River carbonate reservoirs in northwestern Alberta requires facies studies of rock units of the Keg River Formation and of the overlying Muskeg and Sulphur Point formations. Using lithologic criteria, faunal type, and stratigraphic positions, the entire sequence is subdivided into ten major facies. The system used is that of standard facies belts with second-order modification to Wilson's terminology. These facies are (from basin to land): basin, open sea shelf, toe of slope, foreslope, organic buildup, shoal lime sand, open lagoon, restricted lagoon, tidal flats, and sabkha evaporites. The upper member of the Keg River Formation is the main hydrocarbon reservoir in the study area. It consists of floatstone, rudstone, and boundstone with wackestone, packstone, and grainstone matrix. The principal faunal constituents are crinoids, brachiopods, stromatoporoids, corals, and stachyodes. The reservoir porosity is of primary intergranular and intragranular and secondary vugular textures. The upper Keg River member is composed of two major facies: patch reefs and banks. Both facies are formed in an open lagoon environment fronted by Presqu'ile barrier to the west-northwest. Water depth was the main factor in controlling the distribution of the bank and patch reef facies. Patch reefs were developed in areas of deeper water, whereas banks were formed in shallower areas of the open lagoon. Recent analogs of the Keg River buildups are found on the Bermuda Platform and Belize Shelf. A direct relationship exists between the thickness of overlying anhydrites of the Muskeg Formation and hydrocarbon occurrences in the Keg River Formation. Generally in areas where patch reefs are developed, the thickness of the anhydrite is more than 30 ft. However, areas of bank are covered by less than 30 ft of anhydrite.

  7. Early diagenesis of a phylloid algal-mound complex, Laborcita Formation, southeastern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, W.B.; Meyers, W.J.; Goldstein, R.

    1985-02-01

    Marine carbonate cementation was the initial stage in the paragenesis of phylloid algal mounds in the Laborcita Formation (Wolfcampian), Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico, and the cements are almost identical to those in Holocene coral reefs of Belize. These cements include relics of botryoids and crusts of needle crystals, in part defined by inclusion patterns and luminescent ghosts in mosaic calcite. Individual needle crystals are pseudohexagonal in cross section and range from less than 1 to 30 ..mu..m wide. These nonluminescent early cements line cavity walls, coat phylloid-algal blades and stromatolites, and are interlayered with marine sediment. Early cements also include bladed, fibrous, and rare radiaxial fibrous calcites, which are microdolomite-rich. They have a proximal nonluminescent zone, a central bright-luminescent zone, and a distal blotchy, moderate-luminescent zone. The bright zone may be time equivalent to bright-luminescent micritic coatings on botryoids and grains. Botryoids are encrusted by isopachous bladed cement, some of which has prismatic overgrowths containing an early inclusion-rich zone. This initial cementation was followed closely by: (1) dissolution of algal blades and mollusks, (2) in-situ brecciation, and (3) cementation by blocky calcite. Botryoidal and acicular cements are interpreted as originally marine aragonite precipitates, based on morphology, occurrence, susceptibility to diagenesis, and similarity to Holocene reef cements. The same criteria, plus the microdolomite inclusions, indicate that the bladed, fibrous, and radiaxial cements had a marine Mg-calcite precursor. This assemblage followed by prismatic overgrowths, dissolution, and blocky-calcite cementation indicates an evolution from marine to freshwater diagenesis.

  8. Radar remote sensing of forest and wetland ecosystems in the Central American tropics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pope, K.O.; Rey-Benayas, J.M. ); Paris, J.F. . Dept. of Biology)

    1994-05-01

    The authors analyzed airborne synthetic aperture radar (AIRSAR) imagery of forest, wetland, and agricultural ecosystems in northern Belize, Central America. The analyses are based upon four biophysical Indices derived from the fully polarimetric SAR data: the volume scattering index (VSI), canopy structure index (CSI), biomass index (BMI), calculated from the backscatter magnitude data, and the interaction type index (ITI), calculated from the backscatter phase data. The authors developed a four-level landscape hierarchy based upon clustering analyses of the 12 index parameters from two test site images. Statistical analyses were used to examine the relative importance of the 12 parameters for discriminating ecosystem characteristics at various landscape scales. The authors found that ITI was the most important index (primarily C band = CITI) for level, vegetated terrain at all levels of the hierarchy. BMI was most important for differentiating between vegetated and nonvegetated areas and between sloping and level terrain. These findings indicate that upper canopy spatial characteristics and flooding in marshlands are more important than biomass in differentiating many tropical ecosystems with radar data. The relative importance of the indices varied with vegetation type; for example, PVSI was the most important for distinguishing between upland forests and regrowth, and PCSI was the most important for differentiating swamp forest types. Finally, the authors evaluated the potential of present and future spaceborne SARs for tropical ecosystem studies based on the results. Most of these SARs are single channel system and will provide limited capability for characterizing biomass and structure of tropical vegetation. The SIR-C/X-SAR and proposed EOS SAR are future spaceborne multifrequency fully polarimetric SAR systems, and they will provide a significant contribution to tropical ecosystem studies.

  9. Structural and tectonic evolution of the eastern Cayman Trough (Caribbean Sea) from seismic reflection data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leroy, S.; Mauffret, A.; Pubellier, M.

    1996-02-01

    The eastern Cayman Trough preserves a record of the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene Caribbean history that is largely affected by Neogene strike-slip tectonics of the current plate boundary. We conducted an analysis of seismic data within the eastern Cayman Trough, based upon single and multi-channel seismic reflection profiles collected during the Seacarib II cruise in 1987 and the Casis cruise in 1992. These data show that the basement of the eastern Cayman Trough can be divided into four domains from east to west, with distinct morphologic and sedimentary character and inferred older to younger ages: (1) a province of rifted Mesozoic continental crust exhibiting seven parallel horst blocks striking northeast-southwest; (2) a continent-ocean transition between provinces 1 and 3 that exhibits seamounts, small hills, and sedimentary basins; (3) an Eocene oceanic crust with rough basement but smoother relief than the rifted crust; basement trends are roughly north-south and oblique to the northwest trend in domain 1, and (4) the northern Jamaica slope, which forms an east-west-trending slope, with northward-dipping strata that flank the three deeper water domains of the Cayman Trough. The domains are interpreted to be the product of the Eocene east-west opening of the Cayman Trough as a pull-apart basin in a left-lateral strike-slip setting. Closure of the 1100 km of Eocene and younger oceanic crust of the Cayman Trough places the fault-block province adjacent to the Belize margin of Central America. A Neogene phase of transpression has reactivated structures in the four domains, along with on-land structures described by previous authors in Jamaica. The proximity of the eastern margin of the Cayman Trough to petroliferous, continental rocks in Central America suggests an improved possibility of hydrocarbon potential. Unfortunately, sediment thicknesses of less than 1 km probably are not conducive to hydrocarbon formation.

  10. Intrashelf basins: A geologic model for source-bed and reservoir facies deposition within carbonate shelves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grover, G. Jr. )

    1993-09-01

    Intrashelf basins (moats, inshore basins, shelf basins, differentiated shelf, and deep-water lagoons of others) are depressions of varying sizes and shapes that occur within tectonically passive and regionally extensive carbonate shelves. Intrashelf basins grade laterally and downdip (seaward) into shallow-water carbonates of the regional shelf, are separated from the open marine basin by the shelf margin, and are largely filled by fine-grained subtidal sediments having attributes of shallow- and deeper water sedimentation. These basins are commonly fringed or overlain by carbonate sands, reefs, or buildups. These facies may mimic those that occur along the regional shelf margin, and they can have trends that are at a high angle to that of the regional shelf. Intrashelf basins are not intracratonic basins. The history of most intrashelf basins is a few million to a few tens of million of years. Examples of intrashelf basins are known throughout the Phanerozoic; the southern portion of the Holocene Belize shelf is a modern example of an intrashelf basin. Two types of intrashelf basins are recognized. Coastal basins pass updip into coastal clastics of the craton with the basin primarily filled by fine clastics. Shelf basins occur on the outer part of the shelf, are surrounded by shallow-water carbonate facies, and are filled by peloidal lime mud, pelagics, and argillaceous carbonates. Intrashelf basins are commonly the site of organic-rich, source-bed deposition, resulting in the close proximity of source beds and reservoir facies that may fringe or overlie the basin. Examples of hydrocarbon-charged reservoirs that were sourced by an intrashelf basin include the Miocene Bombay High field, offshore India; the giant Jurassic (Arab-D) and Cretaceous (Shuaiba) reservoirs of the Arabian Shelf; the Lower Cretaceous Sunniland trend, South Florida basin; and the Permian-Pennsylvanian reservoirs surrounding the Tatum basin in southeastern New Mexico.

  11. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy in chromosome 6p12-p11: Locus heterogeneity and recombinations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, A.W.; Delgado-Escueta, A.V.; Serratosa, J.M.

    1996-06-14

    We recently analyzed under homogeneity a large pedigree from Belize with classic juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). After a genome-wide search with 146 microsatellites, we obtained significant linkage between chromosome 6p markers, D6S257 and D6S272, and both convulsive and EEG traits of JME. Recombinations in two affected members defined a 40 cM JME region flanked by D6S313 and D6S258. In the present communication, we explored if the same chromosome 6p11 microsatellites also have a role in JME mixed with pyknoleptic absences. We allowed for heterogeneity during linkage analyses. We tested for heterogeneity by the admixture test and looked for more recombinations. D6S272, D6S466, D6S294, and D6S257 were significantly linked (Z{sub max} > 3.5) to the clinical and EEG traits of 22 families, assuming autosomal dominant inheritance with 70% penetrance. Pairwise Z{sub max} were 4.230 for D6S294 ({theta}{sub m=f} at 0.133) and 4.442 for D6S466 ({theta}{sub m=f} at 0.111). Admixture test (H{sub 2} vs. H{sub 1}) was significant (P = 0.0234 for D6S294 and 0.0128 for D6S272) supporting the hypotheses of linkage with heterogeneity. Estimated proportion of linked families, {alpha}, was 0.50 (95% confidence interval 0.05-0.99) for D6S294 and D6S272. Multipoint analyses and recombinations in three new families narrowed the JME locus to a 7 cM interval flanked by D6S272 and D6S257. 44 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Final report : impacts analysis for cyber attack on electric power systems (National SCADA Test Bed FY08).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Laurence R.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Stamp, Jason Edwin; LaViolette, Randall A.

    2009-02-01

    To analyze the risks due to cyber attack against control systems used in the United States electrical infrastructure, new algorithms are needed to determine the possible impacts. This research is studying the Reliability Impact of Cyber ttack (RICA) in a two-pronged approach. First, malevolent cyber actions are analyzed in terms of reduced grid reliability. Second, power system impacts are investigated using an abstraction of the grid's dynamic model. This second year of esearch extends the work done during the first year.

  13. Solar For Schools: A Case Study in Identifying and Implementing Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Projects in Three California School Districts: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kandt, A.

    2011-04-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar America Showcase program seeks to accelerate demand for solar technologies among key end use market sectors. As part of this activity the DOE provides Technical Assistance through its national laboratories to large-scale, high-visibility solar installation projects. The Solar Schools Assessment and Implementation Project (SSAIP) in the San Francisco Bay area was selected for a 2009 DOE Solar American Showcase award. SSAIP was formed through the efforts of the nonprofit Sequoia Foundation and includes three school districts: Berkeley, West Contra Costa, and Oakland Unified School Districts. This paper summarizes the technical assistance efforts that resulted from this technical assistance support. It serves as a case study and reference document detailing the steps and processes that could be used to successfully identify, fund, and implement solar PV projects in school districts across the country.

  14. Availability and abundance of prey for the red-cockaded woodpecker.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanula, James, L.; Horn, Scott.

    2004-12-31

    Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 11. Prey, Fire, and Community Ecology. Pp 633-645. Abstract: Over a 10-year period we investigated red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) prey use, sources of prey, prey distribution within trees and stands, and how forest management decisions affect prey abundance in South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia and Florida. Cameras were operated at 31 nest cavities to record nest visits with prey in 4 locations that ranged in foraging habitat from pine stands established in old fields to an old-growth stand in South Georgia. Examination of nearly 12,000 photographs recorded over 5 years revealed that, although red-cockaded woodpeckers used over 40 arthropods for food, the majority of the nestling diet is comprised of a relatively small number of common arthropods.

  15. Combined-cycle cogeneration to power oil refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broeker, R.J.

    1986-11-01

    A cogeneration plant now under construction at an oil refinery in Martinez, California, is an example of how the energy industry has been responding to the fundamental economic and technological challenges it has been facing over the past ten years. The industry is re-examining cogeneration as one way of meeting the requirements of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act. The new plant is located at Tosco Corporation's Avon Oil Refinery, 45 miles northeast of San Francisco. It was designed by Foster Wheeler to supply process steam for the refinery as well as for a water-treatment installation that will benefit the Contra Costa Water District. Electric power produced will be used primarily by the refinery, with the balance purchased by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company.

  16. Limite Marinha A Estrutura de Pesquisa Climática do Programa Atmospheric

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuvens, Aerossóis e Precipitação na Camada Limite Marinha A Estrutura de Pesquisa Climática do Programa Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM), do Departamento de Ener- gia dos E.U. da América, patrocina, durante 20 meses, uma campanha científica que se realiza na Ilha Graciosa, arquipélago dos Açores. Os cientistas envolvidos na campanha de estudo das Nuvens, Aerossóis e Precipitação da Camada Limite Marinha, utilizam um dispositivo móvel do ARM (ARM Mobile Facility - AMF) para o

  17. Los lideres de energia en EEUU toman medidas para desarrollar la Alianza de

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energia y Clima de las Americas | Department of Energy lideres de energia en EEUU toman medidas para desarrollar la Alianza de Energia y Clima de las Americas Los lideres de energia en EEUU toman medidas para desarrollar la Alianza de Energia y Clima de las Americas June 16, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis In English LIMA, PERÚ - Ministros de energía y otros líderes de energía de gobiernos de a través de las Américas se reunieron con corporaciones de energía y otros expertos en Lima, el 15 y

  18. Baselines For Land-Use Change In The Tropics: Application ToAvoided Deforestation Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Sandra; Hall, Myrna; Andrasko, Ken; Ruiz, Fernando; Marzoli, Walter; Guerrero, Gabriela; Masera, Omar; Dushku, Aaron; Dejong,Ben; Cornell, Joseph

    2007-06-01

    Although forest conservation activities particularly in thetropics offer significant potential for mitigating carbon emissions,these types of activities have faced obstacles in the policy arena causedby the difficulty in determining key elements of the project cycle,particularly the baseline. A baseline for forest conservation has twomain components: the projected land-use change and the correspondingcarbon stocks in the applicable pools such as vegetation, detritus,products and soil, with land-use change being the most difficult toaddress analytically. In this paper we focus on developing and comparingthree models, ranging from relatively simple extrapolations of pasttrends in land use based on simple drivers such as population growth tomore complex extrapolations of past trends using spatially explicitmodels of land-use change driven by biophysical and socioeconomicfactors. The three models of the latter category used in the analysis atregional scale are The Forest Area Change (FAC) model, the Land Use andCarbon Sequestration (LUCS) model, and the Geographical Modeling (GEOMOD)model. The models were used to project deforestation in six tropicalregions that featured different ecological and socioeconomic conditions,population dynamics, and uses of the land: (1) northern Belize; (2) SantaCruz State, Bolivia; (3) Parana State in Brazil; (4) Campeche, Mexico;(5) Chiapas, Mexico; and (6) Michoacan, Mexico. A comparison of all modeloutputs across all six regions shows that each model produced quitedifferent deforestation baseline. In general, the simplest FAC model,applied at the national administrative-unit scale, projected the highestamount of forest loss (four out of six) and the LUCS model the leastamount of loss (four out of five). Based on simulations of GEOMOD, wefound that readily observable physical and biological factors as well asdistance to areas of past disturbance were each about twice as importantas either sociological/demographic or economic

  19. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eudy, Leslie; Post, Matthew; Gikakis, Christina

    2015-12-11

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. Various stakeholders, including FCEB developers, transit agencies, and system integrators, have expressed the value of this annual status report, which provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The annual status report tracks the progress of the FCEB industry toward meeting technical targets, documents the lessons learned, and discusses the path forward for commercial viability of fuel cell technology for transit buses. The 2015 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2014 through July 2015. The results for these buses account for more than 1,045,000 miles traveled and 83,000 hours of fuel cell power system operation. The primary results presented in the report are from two demonstrations of fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: the Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California and the American Fuel Cell Bus Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California.

  20. Health effects of fine particulate air pollution: lines that connect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judith C. Chow; John G. Watson; Joe L. Mauderly; Daniel L. Costa; Ronald E. Wyzga; Sverre Vedal; George M. Hidy; Sam L. Altshuler; David Marrack; Jon M. Heuss; George T. Wolff; C. Aden Pope III; Douglas W. Dockery

    2006-10-15

    In the 2006 A&WMA Critical Review on 'Health Effects of fine particulate air pollution: lines that connect' Drs. C. Arden Pope III and Douglas Dockery addressed the epidemiological evidence for the effects of particulate matter (PM) on human health indicators. The review documents substantial progress since the 1997 Critical Review in the areas of: (1) short-term exposure and mortality; (2) long-term exposure and mortality; (3) time scales of exposure; (4) the shape of the concentration-response function; (5) cardiovascular disease; and (6) biological plausibility. This critical review discussion was compiled from written submissions and presentation transcripts, which were revised for conciseness and to minimize redundancy. The invited discussants were as follows were: Dr. Joe L. Mauderly, Dr. Daniel L. Costa, Dr. Ronald E. Wyzga, and Dr. Sverre Vedal. The contributing discussants were: Dr. George M. Hidy, Sam L. Altshuler, Dr. David Marrack, Jon M. Heuss, and Dr. George T. Wolff. See Coal Abstracts entry Sep 2006 00390 for the Critical Review. 80 refs.

  1. Hydrogen Technology and Energy Curriculum (HyTEC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagle, Barbara

    2013-02-28

    The Lawrence Hall of Science of the University of California, Berkeley has collaborated with scientists and engineers, a local transit agency, school districts, and a commercial curriculum publisher to develop, field-test nationally, and publish a two-week curriculum module on hydrogen and fuel cells for high school science. Key partners in this project are the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) of Humboldt State University, the Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit), FilmSight Productions, Lab-Aids, Inc., and 32 teachers and 2,370 students in field-test classrooms in California, Connecticut, Ohio, New York, South Carolina, and Washington. Field-test teachers received two to three days of professional development before teaching the curriculum and providing feedback used for revision of the curriculum. The curriculum, titled Investigating Alternative Energy: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells and published by Lab-Aids, Inc., includes a teachers guide (with lesson plans, resources, and student handout pages), two interactive computer animations, a video, a website, and a laboratory materials kit. The project has been disseminated to over 950 teachers through awareness workshops at state, regional, and national science teacher conferences.

  2. Standard metrics and methods for conducting Avian/wind energy interaction studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R.L.; Davis, H.; Kendall, W.

    1997-12-31

    The awareness of the problem of avian fatalities at large scale wind energy developments first emerged in the late 1980`s at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (WRA) in Central California. Observations of dead raptors at the Altamont Pass WRA triggered concern on the part of regulatory agencies, environmental/conservation groups, resource agencies, and wind and electric utility industries. This led the California Energy Commission staff, along with the planning departments of Alameda, Contra Costa, and Solano counties, to commission a study of bird mortality at the Altamont Pass WRA. In addition to the Altamont Pass WRA, other studies and observations have established that windplants kill birds. Depending upon the specific factors, this may or may not be a serious problem. The current level of scrutiny and caution exhibited during the permitting of a new windplant development in the United States results in costly delays and studies. This is occurring during a highly competitive period for electrical production companies in the USA. Clarification of the bird fatality issue is needed to bring it into perspective. This means standardizing metrics, defining terms, and recommending methods to be used in addressing or studying wind energy/bird interactions.

  3. Petroleum system of the Barua and Motatan fields and the San Pedro-Machango area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Navarro, A.; Diaz, F.; Rodriguez, I.

    1996-08-01

    The study area is located in the Costa Bolivar (onshore) in the Maracaibo Basin, being framed by Ceuta (offshore) and Tomoporo fields to its west and the Valera fault zone to the east, Mene Grande field to the north and La Ceiba to the south. Eocene oil accumulations are the most important for the study area. Probably this oil was generated and migrated during Miocene-Holocene time. Heavy oil accumulations occur in Miocene intervals, although they have not been considered commercial. It is possible that this oil was generated during early to late Eocene and suffered later biodegradation and remigration. Structurally, it is characterized by different and highly complex tectonic events. Normal faulting occurred during Cretaceous and Eocene times. During the latter, periods of inversion were present that created structural highs where oil generated from La Luna Formation (Cretaceous) accumulated. Major structural deformation occurred during upper Eocene and lower Miocene (Andes uplift). This deformation shows an increase from west (Barua) to east where the Valera fault zone is present. The study area shows a regional dip towards the south, while during the Eocene it dipped towards the north, due to the foredeep condition of the area, when up to 15,000 ft of sediments were deposited, based on seismic data. Porosities vary from 8% to 18% within the area. Fractures are present and they enhance oil production.

  4. The red-cockaded woodpecker on the Savannah River Site: Aspects of reproductive success.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, Peter A.; Imm, Donald, W.; Jarvis, William L.

    2004-12-31

    Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 5. Status and Trends of Populations. Pp 224-229. Abstract: The red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) population on the Savannah River Site has been closely monitored and studied over the last 17 years. In 1985, the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station was given responsibility to study and manage this population in an effort to prevent its extirpation. In December 1985, there were only 4 individuals on the site: 1 pair and 2 solitary males. The population had increased to a total of 175 individuals in 42 active clusters in 2002. Although this represents a very successful recovery effort, there has been substantial annual variation in nesting survival from banding to fledging. Data were analyzed to more completely understand the factors affecting reproduction. No significant effects of age of the breeding male and female, years paired, number of helpers, habitat quality, number of nestings, and time of nest initiation were found when comparing reproductive success in 117 nesting attempts from 1999 to 2002. However, the number of neighboring groups had a direct effect on mortality rates, possibly demonstrating the importance of cluster spacing.

  5. untitled

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    7 AÇORIANO ORIENTAL QUINTA-FEIRA, 1 DE MARÇO DE 2012 Graciosa é um importante local para estudar a atmosfera A estação para Medição da Radiação At- mosférica que funcionou temporariamen- te nos anos de 2009 e 2010 na ilha Gracio- sa vai voltar, desta feita em definitivo, em meados de 2013, num investimento esti- mado em 14 milhões de dólares, que fará com que os Açores deem um importante contributo parao estudo das alterações cli- máticas. "O departamento de Energia dos

  6. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tappmeyer, D.M.

    1984-10-01

    Petroleum exploration in the region was generally less in 1983 than in 1982. Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Barbados increased crude production, whereas Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, and Trinidad-Tobago reported increases in gas production. Although drilling activities remained low compared to past years, significant oil discoveries were reported in Colombia, Mexico, and Brazil. In Colombia, Cano Limon field is reported to be the largest field found in the Llanos region. In Brazil, important oil discoveries were made offshore in the Para, Potiquas, and Ampos basins. In Mexico, discoveries were reported in the Cerro Azul, Poza Rica (Chicontepec, Villahermosa, and Tabasco) areas onshore and in the Bay of Campeche offshore. In Argentina, discoveries were made in the San Jorge basin and the Noreste Tarija basin. 10 figures, 11 tables.

  7. Climatic change and the planktonic foraminiferal species - coincidences in some Late Neogene clades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malmgren, B.A.; Berggren, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Planktonic foraminifera adjust their position in the water column through modifications in size, shape, and external ornamention (keel, costae, etc.); this is useful in exploiting new ecologic niches. Evolutionary change may be triggered by paleoceanographic change, for example, low sea level, often associated with cool climate, may result in enhanced vertical mixing in the upper water column, decrease in density stratification and available niches. Phyletic evolution is well documented in several clades of Late Neogene planktonic foraminifera. Accelerated or decelerated evolutionary rates in these clades may be due to change in selection pressure in response to changing paleoceanographic conditions. The latest Miocene was marked by low sea level and cool climate; the earliest Pliocene by higher sea level and warmer, more stable climate. In response, size (cross-sectional area) in the Globorotalia tumida clade trebled, test acquired thicker encrustation, ventral/dorsal height proportions changed; the keel was lost in the Globorotalia inflata clade, and chambers became rounded rather than conical; and supplementary apertures appeared in the Sphaeroidinellopsis-Sphaeroidinella clade. The beginning of gradually increasing conicality in the G. inflata clade, which continued to the Miocene-Pliocene boundary, coincided with falling sea level and depletion of delta/sup 13/C in sea water at about 6 ma. Lowered sea level and cooler climate in the middle Pliocene (3.2 Ma) may be responsible for a relatively rapid increase in frequency of supplementary apertures (from 20 to 100 %) in the Sphaeroidinellopsis-Sphaeroidinella clade. This event also coincided with a stepwise increase in benthonic delta/sup 18/O and a brief interval of increased planktonic delta/sup 18/O.

  8. Streaked x-ray spectrometer having a discrete selection of Bragg geometries for Omega

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Millecchia, M.; Regan, S. P.; Bahr, R. E.; Romanofsky, M.; Sorce, C.

    2012-10-15

    The streaked x-ray spectrometer (SXS) is used with streak cameras [D. H. Kalantar, P. M. Bell, R. L. Costa, B. A. Hammel, O. L. Landen, T. J. Orzechowski, J. D. Hares, and A. K. L. Dymoke-Bradshaw, in 22nd International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, edited by D. L. Paisley and A. M. Frank (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 1997), Vol. 2869, p. 680] positioned with a ten-inch manipulator on OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] and OMEGA EP [L. J. Waxer et al., Presented at CLEO/QELS 2008, San Jose, CA, 4-9 May 2008 (Paper JThB1)] for time-resolved, x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas in the 1.4- to 20-keV photon-energy range. These experiments require measuring a portion of this photon-energy range to monitor a particular emission or absorption feature of interest. The SXS relies on a pinned mechanical reference system to create a discrete set of Bragg reflection geometries for a variety of crystals. A wide selection of spectral windows is achieved accurately and efficiently using this technique. It replaces the previous spectrometer designs that had a continuous Bragg angle adjustment and required a tedious alignment calibration procedure. The number of spectral windows needed for the SXS was determined by studying the spectral ranges selected by OMEGA users over the last decade. These selections are easily configured in the SXS using one of the 25 discrete Bragg reflection geometries and one of the six types of Bragg crystals, including two curved crystals.

  9. THE PROPER MOTION OF THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS. II. NEW RESULTS FOR FIVE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD FIELDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costa, Edgardo; Mendez, Rene A.; Moyano, Maximiliano; Pedreros, Mario H.; Gallart, Carme; Noel, Noelia E-mail: rmendez@das.uchile.cl E-mail: mmoyano@mpia-hd.mpg.de E-mail: carme@iac.es

    2011-04-15

    We present new results from a ground-based program to determine the proper motion of the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) relative to background quasars (QSOs), being carried out with the Irenee du Pont 2.5 m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. The data were secured over a time base of seven years and with eight epochs of observation 'As measured' (field) proper motions were obtained for five QSO fields in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC): QJ0033-7028, QJ0035-7201, QJ0047-7530, QJ0102-7546, and QJ0111-7249. Assuming that the SMC has a disklike central structure, but that it does not rotate, we determined a center-of-mass (CM) proper motion for the SMC from two of these fields, QJ0033-7028 and QJ0035-7201, located to the northwest and west of the main body of the SMC, respectively. Combining these latter proper motions with the CM proper motion presented by Costa et al. (hereafter CMP09) for the SMC (from the field QJ0036-7227, located to the west of the main body of the SMC), we obtain a weighted mean of {mu}{sub {alpha}} cos {delta} = +0.93 {+-} 0.14 mas yr{sup -1} and {mu}{sub {delta}} = -1.25 {+-} 0.11 mas yr{sup -1}. This CM proper motion is in good agreement with recent results by Piatek et al. and Vieira et al., and we are confident that it is a good representation of the 'bulk' transverse motion of the SMC. On the contrary, the results we obtain from the fields QJ0047-7530 and QJ0102-7546, located to the south of the main body of the SMC, and the field QJ0111-7249, located to the east of its main body, seem to be affected by streaming motions. For this reason, we have not used the latter to determine the SMC CM proper motion. These streaming motions could be evidence that the SMC was tidally disrupted in a close encounter with the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Complementing the SMC CM proper motions given here and in CMP09, with the currently accepted radial velocity of its center, we have derived its galactocentric (gc) velocity components, obtaining a

  10. Northern California CO2 Reduction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hymes, Edward

    2010-06-16

    C6 Resources LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Shell Oil Company, worked with the US Department of Energy (DOE) under a Cooperative Agreement to develop the Northern California CO2 Reduction Project. The objective of the Project is to demonstrate the viability of using Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) to reduce existing greenhouse gas emissions from industrial sources on a large-scale. The Project will capture more than 700,000 metric tonnes of CO2 per year, which is currently being vented to the atmosphere from the Shell Martinez Refinery in Contra Costa County. The CO2 will be compressed and dehydrated at the refinery and then transported via pipeline to a sequestration site in a rural area in neighboring Solano County. The CO2 will be sequestered into a deep saline formation (more than two miles underground) and will be monitored to assure secure, long-term containment. The pipeline will be designed to carry as much as 1,400,000 metric tonnes of CO2 per year, so additional capacity will be available to accommodate CO2 captured from other industrial sources. The Project is expected to begin operation in 2015. The Project has two distinct phases. The overall objective of Phase 1 was to develop a fully definitive design basis for the Project. The Cooperative Agreement with the DOE provided cost sharing for Phase 1 and the opportunity to apply for additional DOE cost sharing for Phase 2, comprising the design, construction and operation of the Project. Phase 1 has been completed. DOE co-funding is provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. As prescribed by ARRA, the Project will stimulate the local economy by creating manufacturing, transportation, construction, operations, and management jobs while addressing the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at an accelerated pace. The Project, which will also assist in meeting the CO2 reduction requirements set