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  1. Bahrain National Gas and Oil Authority | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Bahrain National Gas and Oil Authority Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Bahrain National Gas and Oil Authority Name: Bahrain National Gas and Oil Authority Address: 1435...

  2. Status of U.S. Nuclear Outages - U.S. Energy Information Administratio...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Bahamas, The Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma (Myanmar) ...

  3. International - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Bahamas, The Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma (Myanmar) ...

  4. Eia.gov BETA - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) ...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Bahamas, The Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma (Myanmar) ...

  5. Sandia Energy - SNL-ESSC (Sandia National Laboratories - Extreme...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana...

  6. Bahrain: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Country Profile Name Bahrain Population 1,234,571 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption 0.55 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code BH 3-letter ISO code BHR Numeric ISO...

  7. Bahamas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    ), created in order to serve as the primary governing body for electronic communications in the Bahamas. The URCA is to assume responsibility for the electricity...

  8. Bahamas-Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Sustainable Energy Roadmap...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Bahamas-Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Sustainable Energy Roadmap and Strategy Jump to: navigation, search Name Bahamas-Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Sustainable Energy Roadmap and...

  9. Bahamas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Country Profile Name The Bahamas Population 254,685 GDP 8,043,000,000 Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code BS 3-letter ISO code BHS Numeric ISO code...

  10. Electricity savings potentials in the residential sector of Bahrain

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, H.; Morsy, M.G.; Al-Baharna, N.S.

    1996-08-01

    Electricity is the major fuel (over 99%) used in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors in Bahrain. In 1992, the total annual electricity consumption in Bahrain was 3.45 terawatt-hours (TWh), of which 1.95 TWh (56%) was used in the residential sector, 0.89 TWh (26%) in the commercial sector, and 0.59 TWh (17%) in the industrial sector. Agricultural energy consumption was 0.02 TWh (less than 1%) of the total energy use. In Bahrain, most residences are air conditioned with window units. The air-conditioning electricity use is at least 50% of total annual residential use. The contribution of residential AC to the peak power consumption is even more significant, approaching 80% of residential peak power demand. Air-conditioning electricity use in the commercial sector is also significant, about 45% of the annual use and over 60% of peak power demand. This paper presents a cost/benefit analysis of energy-efficient technologies in the residential sector. Technologies studied include: energy-efficient air conditioners, insulating houses, improved infiltration, increasing thermostat settings, efficient refrigerators and freezers, efficient water heaters, efficient clothes washers, and compact fluorescent lights. We conservatively estimate a 32% savings in residential electricity use at an average cost of about 4 fils per kWh. (The subsidized cost of residential electricity is about 12 fils per kWh. 1000 fils = 1 Bahrain Dinar = US$ 2.67). We also discuss major policy options needed for implementation of energy-efficiency technologies.

  11. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Bahamas (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the electricity generation or reduction technologies, including solar hot water heating, available to the Commonwealth of the Bahamas - a country consisting of more than 700 islands, cays, and islets - of which only 30 are actually inhabited. Heating and transportation fuels are not addressed.

  12. Total All Countries Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Destination Exports by Destination Destination: Total All Countries Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andora Angola Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Bahama Islands Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma Bermuda Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cayman Islands Chad Chile China Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Congo (Brazzaville) Congo (Kinshasa) Costa Rica Croatia

  13. Meeting Our Partners in Saudi Arabia and U.S. Military Forces in Bahrain |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Our Partners in Saudi Arabia and U.S. Military Forces in Bahrain Meeting Our Partners in Saudi Arabia and U.S. Military Forces in Bahrain January 26, 2015 - 1:15am Addthis Deputy Secretary of Energy Elizabeth Sherwood-Randall looks out at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, from a helicopter en route to view the Manifa Oil Field. | Photo by Kathryn Grant, Energy Department. Deputy Secretary of Energy Elizabeth Sherwood-Randall looks out at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, from a helicopter en

  14. Bangladesh S M Ullah

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    clock time hourly global radiation from daily values over Bangladesh S M Ullah 1 , S K Khadem, H R Ghosh, R K Mazumder and M Hussain Renewable Energy Research Center, University of...

  15. Study of global daily solar radiation and its relation to sunshine duration in Bahrain

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Sadah, F.H.; Ragab, F.M. )

    1991-01-01

    The regression coefficients a and b of Angstrom type correlation for the monthly daily average global solar radiation have been determined. The two constants a and b have been derived for different months during the period 1983-1987. The clearness index (H/H{sub 0}) based on predicted and measured values of global daily solar radiation is presented for different seasons of the year. The study depicts the various astronomical and meteorological parameters affecting the global radiation in Bahrain.

  16. Total Net Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products into the U.S.

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Net Imports by Country Country: Total All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Gabon Indonesia Iran Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Afghanistan Albania Andora Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cayman

  17. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    We welcome your feedback and insights on this article. Country United States Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Angola Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas, The Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma (Myanmar) Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia

  18. Stump the Scientist Question Form | GE Global Research

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Please Help Us Stump the Scientist Ask Your Question *Required fields Name* Email* School/Company* Twitter Handle Country* Select Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Andorra Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad

  19. Renewable Energy Policy of Bangladesh | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    of Bangladesh Jump to: navigation, search Name Renewable Energy Policy of Bangladesh AgencyCompany Organization Government of Bangladesh Sector Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy...

  20. Bangladesh-USAID Climate Program | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    ourwork Country Bangladesh Southern Asia References Bangladesh1 "USAID's climate change activities in Bangladesh seek to improve energy sector performance through...

  1. Assessment of lead contamination in Bahrain environment. I. Analysis of household paint

    SciTech Connect

    Madany, I.M.; Ali, S.M.; Akhter, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis of lead in household paint collected from various old buildings in Bahrain is reported. The atomic absorption spectrophotometric method, both flame and flameless (graphite furnace) techniques, were used for the analysis. The concentrations of lead in paint were found in the range 200 to 5700 mg/kg, which are low compared to the limit of 0.5% in UK and 0.06% in USA. Nevertheless, these are hazardous. Recommendations are reported in order to avoid paint containing lead. 17 references, 1 table.

  2. Global warming implications of facade parameters: A life cycle assessment of residential buildings in Bahrain

    SciTech Connect

    Radhi, Hassan; Sharples, Stephen

    2013-01-15

    On a global scale, the Gulf Corporation Council Countries (GCCC), including Bahrain, are amongst the top countries in terms of carbon dioxide emissions per capita. Building authority in Bahrain has set a target of 40% reduction of electricity consumption and associated CO{sub 2} emissions to be achieved by using facade parameters. This work evaluates how the life cycle CO{sub 2} emissions of buildings are affected by facade parameters. The main focus is placed on direct and indirect CO{sub 2} emissions from three contributors, namely, chemical reactions during production processes (Pco{sub 2}), embodied energy (Eco{sub 2}) and operational energy (OPco{sub 2}). By means of the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, it has been possible to show that the greatest environmental impact occurs during the operational phase (80-90%). However, embodied CO{sub 2} emissions are an important factor that needs to be brought into the systems used for appraisal of projects, and hence into the design decisions made in developing projects. The assessment shows that masonry blocks are responsible for 70-90% of the total CO{sub 2} emissions of facade construction, mainly due to their physical characteristics. The highest Pco{sub 2} emissions factors are those of window elements, particularly aluminium frames. However, their contribution of CO{sub 2} emissions depends largely on the number and size of windows. Each square metre of glazing is able to increase the total CO{sub 2} emissions by almost 30% when compared with the same areas of opaque walls. The use of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) walls reduces the total life cycle CO{sub 2} emissions by almost 5.2% when compared with ordinary walls, while the use of thermal insulation with concrete wall reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 1.2%. The outcome of this work offers to the building industry a reliable indicator of the environmental impact of residential facade parameters. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Life cycle

  3. Bangladesh-UNEP Risoe Technology Needs Assessment Program | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Bangladesh-UNEP Risoe Technology Needs Assessment Program Jump to: navigation, search Name Bangladesh-UNEP Risoe-Technology Needs Assessment Program AgencyCompany Organization...

  4. A Synthesis of Agricultural Policies in Bangladesh | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    of Agricultural Policies in Bangladesh1 Overview "There is a plethora of policy strategy documents relevant to broad agriculture and rural development in Bangladesh. These...

  5. Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan AgencyCompany...

  6. Policy Agenda for Addressing Climate Change in Bangladesh: Copenhagen...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Agenda for Addressing Climate Change in Bangladesh: Copenhagen and Beyond Jump to: navigation, search Name Policy Agenda for Addressing Climate Change in Bangladesh: Copenhagen and...

  7. Bangladesh-GTZ Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Programme...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    GTZ Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Programme Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Bangladesh-GTZ Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Programme Name Bangladesh-GTZ Renewable...

  8. Low-Carbon Society Development: Towards 2025 in Bangladesh |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    2025 in Bangladesh Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Low-Carbon Society Development: Towards 2025 in Bangladesh AgencyCompany Organization: Kyoto...

  9. Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) Program - Bangladesh ...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) Program - Bangladesh Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) Program Retrieved from...

  10. Total Crude Oil and Products Imports from All Countries

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Argentina Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burma Cameroon Canada Chad ...

  11. Bangladesh: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Country Profile Name Bangladesh Population 156,594,962 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption 0.87 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code BD 3-letter ISO code BGD Numeric ISO...

  12. Rapid growth rates of syndepositional marine aragonite cements in steep marginal slope deposits, Bahamas and Belize

    SciTech Connect

    Grammer, G.M.; Ginsburg, R.N.; Swart, P.K.; McNeill, D.F. . Div. of Marine Geology); Jull, A.J.T. . NSF Accelerator Facility); Prezbindowski, D.R. )

    1993-09-01

    Growth rates of marine botryoidal aragonite cements from steep (35-45[degree]) marginal slope deposits in the Bahamas and Belize have been determined by accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon dating of samples taken at the base and top of individual botryoids. The pore-filling cements, which range from approximately 11,000-13,000 years old, grew at average rates of 8-10mm/100 yr with maximum rates > 25mm/100 yr. Radiocarbon dating of coexisting skeletal components indicates that cementation was syndepositional. Microsampling transects across individual botryoids for stable-isotope analyses show little variation in [delta][sup 31]C and [delta][sup 18]O, supporting the conclusion that cementation was extremely rapid. Although the cements show a progressive depletion in isotopic composition of approximately 1[per thousand]([delta][sup 13]C) and 2[per thousand]([delta][sup 18]O) from 13 ka to 11 ka, the average variation ([delta][sub 1]) within individual pore-filling cements, ranging in size 2 mm to 32 mm (bottom to top), was 0.11[per thousand]([delta][sup 13]C) and 0.14[per thousand]([delta][sup 18]O). Results of this study provide the first quantitative data on growth rates of marine carbonate cements in a marginal slope environment. The data indicate that marginal slope deposits may lithify within several tens of years and suggest that geologically instantaneous cementation may be critical in stabilizing steep carbonate slope deposits at or above angles of repose.

  13. Deposition of carbonate mud beds within high-energy subtidal sand Dunes, Bahamas

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, R.F.; Steinen, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    Laminated, carbonate mud beds are being deposited in the interisland channels of the Exuma Cays in the Bahamas. They are associated with stromatolites and interbedded with ooid sands that form large migrating subtidal dunes on flood tidal deltas and bars. Currents up to 3 knots sweep in and out of the 4-8 m deep channels 3 hours out of every 6 hours, creating a high-energy bank margin environment not usually considered to be the site of mud-sized particle deposition. Mud deposits reach thicknesses of 1 m and have individual beds 2-5 cm thick. When exposed to flowing seawater, bed surfaces become encrusted with carbonate cement and algal mats. The white interior of mud beds between the crusts appears homogeneous, is soft, and has the consistency of ''tooth paste.'' Loose uncemented ooid sand is found above and below the mud beds, showing that both are occupying the same depositional environment. Rip-up clasts of the crusted mud beds, formed by scour of underlying sands, are carried throughout the channels and accumulate as a lag deposit within the troughs of migrating dunes. Some clasts are colonized by algal mats that trap ooid and skeletal sands forming stromatolite structures that can grow up to 2 m high.

  14. Transport Policy Note-Bangladesh | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    of Bangladesh Sector Energy Focus Area Transportation Topics Implementation, GHG inventory, Policiesdeployment programs, Background analysis Website http:...

  15. Bangladesh-DLR Resource Assessments | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    to 2004 the German Aerospace Center (DLR) worked with Bangladesh on solar resource and GIS analysis as part of UNEP's Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) Programme....

  16. Land Transport Sector in Bangladesh: An Analysis Toward Motivating...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Toward Motivating GHG Emission Reduction Strategies Jump to: navigation, search Name Land Transport Sector in Bangladesh: An Analysis Toward Motivating GHG Emission Reduction...

  17. Bangladesh-Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR) | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR) Jump to: navigation, search Name Bangladesh-Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR) AgencyCompany Organization World Bank Sector...

  18. Labor, nationalism, and imperialism in eastern Arabia: Britain, the Shaikhs, and the Gulf oil workers in Bahrain, Kuwait and Qatar, 1932-1956

    SciTech Connect

    Saleh, H.M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the lack of a noticeable indigenous labor movement in the contemporary Gulf Arab countries of Bahrain, Kuwait and Qatar; it focuses on the emergence, after the discovery of oil, of an industrial Gulf labor force, and on the evolution of the British policy towards oil and Gulf oil workers. The period examined begins with the discovery of oil in Bahrain in 1932 (the first such discovery on the Arab side of the Gulf), and ends with the Suez Crisis of 1956. The latter is a watershed event in Gulf history. It is argued that the Suez Crisis was in large part responsible for the long-term defeat of the indigenous labor movement in the Gulf. Attention is given to the parts played by the British Government of India, the Foreign Office, the local Shaikhs, the Gulf nationalists, and by the workers themselves. Policies towards workers passed through two different periods. In the first, 1932-1945, the Government of India had no direct interest in the Gulf labor situation; in the second, 1946-1956, the Foreign Office took increased interest in the welfare of local oil workers, primarily because of the importance of oil to reconstruction of the British economy after the war. However, the Suez Crisis in 1956 convinced the British to withdraw their support for the workers.

  19. Electrochemical arsenic remediation for rural Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Addy, Susan Amrose

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is a major public health problem threatening the lives of over 140 million people worldwide. In Bangladesh alone, up to 57 million people drink arsenic-laden water from shallow wells. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation(ECAR) overcomes many of the obstacles that plague current technologies and can be used affordably and on a small-scale, allowing for rapid dissemination into Bangladesh to address this arsenic crisis. In this work, ECAR was shown to effectively reduce 550 - 580 μg=L arsenic (including both As[III]and As[V]in a 1:1 ratio) to below the WHO recommended maximum limit of 10 μg=L in synthetic Bangladesh groundwater containing relevant concentrations of competitive ions such as phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate. Arsenic removal capacity was found to be approximately constant within certain ranges of current density, but was found to change substantially between ranges. In order of decreasing arsenic removal capacity, the pattern was: 0.02 mA=cm2> 0.07 mA=cm2> 0.30 - 1.1 mA=cm2> 5.0 - 100 mA=cm2. Current processing time was found to effect arsenic removal capacity independent of either charge density or current density. Electrode polarization studies showed no passivation of the electrode in the tested range (up to current density 10 mA=cm2) and ruled out oxygen evolution as the cause of decreasing removal capacity with current density. Simple settling and decantation required approximately 3 days to achieve arsenic removal comparable to filtration with a 0.1 mu m membrane. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) showed that (1) there is no significant difference in the arsenic removal mechanism of ECAR during operation at different current densities and (2) the arsenic removal mechanism in ECAR is consistent with arsenate adsorption onto a homogenous Fe(III)oxyhydroxide similar in structure to 2-line ferrihydrite. ECAR effectively reduced high arsenic concentrations (100

  20. Temporal and spatial variability of ooid sand shoals: Comparison of Mississippian of Kentucky and Quaternary of Bahamas

    SciTech Connect

    Boardman, M.R. (Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (USA))

    1989-08-01

    An examination of the lithology and topography of Andros Island, Bahamas, reveals it is a Pleistocene ooid sand shoal. A comparison with Joulters Cays (a modern ooid sand shoal directly to the north) shows that much of the original depositional topography is preserved through at least one cycle of sea level highstand and lowstand. Both the Pleistocene and the Holocene ooid sand bodies are a few kilometers to tens of kilometers wide. The total vertical relief of a single episode of Quaternary ooid sand deposition is more than 10 m and includes accumulation in tidal channels, shallow flat areas, and eolian dunes. Today, much of Andros Island is within 2 m of present sea level and is the site of a belt several kilometers wide consisting of muddy tidal flat sediments overlying an exposure surface. The site of ooid sand deposition and shoal complex formation is not continuous along shorelines, especially windward margins, but shifts abruptly along the margins of platforms as a result of minor fluctuations of sea level. Thus, it should be expected that ooid sand shoals (ancient and modern) should be in direct lateral and vertical contact with lagoons, tidal flats, and reefs. The Mississippian Slade Formation contains many of the features of Quaternary ooid sand accumulation: abrupt vertical and lateral gradations between oolitic grainstones, packstones, and lime mudstones, vertical relief of individual oolitic sedimentary packages up to 30 m (perhaps with eolian dunes) and numerous exposure surfaces of varying intensities. These characteristics suggest that this formation represents a time of rapid fluctuations of relative sea level and abrupt shifts in the sites of ooid sand shoal complexes.

  1. Issues in developing a mitigation strategy for Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Asaduzzaman, M.

    1996-12-31

    Bangladesh, it is by now well-known, is at the receiving end, in the literal sense of the term, of the global climate change and its potential impacts. She contributes very little to the current global emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The Emission Inventory under the present umbrella project, Bangladesh Climate Change Study (BCCS), has found that her annual emission of carbon has been only 3.99 mn metric tons per year. An earlier study arrived at exactly the same figure. The figures for estimated release of methane is far less firm. The estimated methane emission in 1990 could be anywhere between 1 million and 6 million metric tons. In any case the total emission is unlikely to be more than one-half of one percent of the global total. On the other hand, however, she faces specter of widespread and more frequent floods, more frequent droughts, cyclones and above all sea-level rise (SLR) which may inundate a substantial part of the country all of these bringing in immeasurable misery and destitution and loss of income, employment and growth. One would expect that in such a situation, Bangladesh`s basic concern should be to prepare an appropriate adaptation strategy. This is already a major policy concern of the Government. There is, however, an increasing realization that Bangladesh should as well emphasize an appropriate mitigation strategy (MS). There may be at least three reasons why this should be so. The first is that she is a signatory of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The second is that in the medium, if not short term she expects major growth due to a developing economy. Third is that Bangladesh depends primarily on fossil fuel imports for energy, and will become a larger source with further development.

  2. Renewable energy and rural development activities experience in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Barua, D.C.

    1997-12-01

    The per capita per year fuel consumption in Bangladesh is only 56 kg oil equivalent. The supply of electricity by Bangladesh power development board (BPDB) and Dhaka electricity supply authority (DESA) is mainly confined to cities and towns. Rural Electrification Board (REB) distributes electricity to the rural people through cooperatives. The rural cooperatives cover only 10% of the total population. Only about 15% of the total population is directly connected to the electricity. In order to meet the increasing energy demand for development of agriculture and industry and for the generation of better employment opportunities, it will be necessary to harness all the available alternative sources of energy immediately.

  3. Pfutzner_1987.pdf

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    163,868 182,222 184,167 191,219 197,491 196,482 1981-2015 Albania 165 220 467 267 2012-2015 Algeria 0 0 0 2001-2012 Angola 0 2001-2011 Argentina 0 412 1 1 201 3 1993-2015 Aruba 0 2014-2014 Australia 3,167 3,229 2,841 2,715 2,560 2,466 1993-2015 Austria 1995-2007 Azerbaijan 0 5 2 2010-2015 Bangladesh 0 2014-2014 Bahama Islands 0 2000-2010 Bahrain 116 713 299 563 0 1993-2014 Barbados 33 169 179 121 163 158 2007-2015 Belarus 2004-2004 Belgium 3,295 3,337 2,463 2,098 2,572 1,957 1993-2015 Belize 4 2

  4. Petroleum Coke Exports by Destination

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    163,868 182,222 184,167 191,219 197,491 196,482 1981-2015 Albania 165 220 467 267 2012-2015 Algeria 0 0 0 2001-2012 Angola 0 2001-2011 Argentina 0 412 1 1 201 3 1993-2015 Aruba 0 2014-2014 Australia 3,167 3,229 2,841 2,715 2,560 2,466 1993-2015 Austria 1995-2007 Azerbaijan 0 5 2 2010-2015 Bangladesh 0 2014-2014 Bahama Islands 0 2000-2010 Bahrain 116 713 299 563 0 1993-2014 Barbados 33 169 179 121 163 158 2007-2015 Belarus 2004-2004 Belgium 3,295 3,337 2,463 2,098 2,572 1,957 1993-2015 Belize 4 2

  5. Bangladesh-NIES Low-Carbon Society Scenarios 2050 | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    NIES Low-Carbon Society Scenarios 2050 Jump to: navigation, search Name Bangladesh-NIES Low-Carbon Society Scenarios 2050 AgencyCompany Organization National Institute for...

  6. Climate-Resilient Low Emission Development in Bangladesh (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.; Sandor, D.; Butheau, M.

    2013-11-01

    Bangladesh is widely considered to be one of the nations most threatened by climate change. With two-thirds of the country less than 20 feet above sea level, the intrusion of salt into freshwater wells, frequent flooding, and the displacement of people from their homes is an ongoing threat. At the same time, the country's cities are rapidly growing, and the demand for energy is increasing at a corresponding rate.

  7. Regulations, Policies and Strategies for LLRW Management in Bangladesh - 12368

    SciTech Connect

    Mollah, A.S.

    2012-07-01

    Low level radioactive waste (LLW) is generated from various nuclear applications in Bangladesh. The major sources of radioactive waste in the country are at present: (a) the 3 MW TRIGA Mark-II research reactor; (b) the radioisotope production facility; (c) the medical, industrial and research facilities that use radionuclides; and (d) the industrial facility for processing monazite sands. Radioactive waste needs to be safely managed because it is potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. According to Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control Act-93, the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) is the governmental body responsible for the receipt and final disposal of radioactive wastes in the whole country. Waste management policy has become an important environmental, social, and economical issue for LLW in Bangladesh. Policy and strategies will serve as a basic guide for radioactive waste management in Bangladesh. The waste generator is responsible for on-site collection, conditioning and temporary storage of the waste arising from his practice. The Central Waste Processing and Storage Unit (CWPSU) of BAEC is the designated national facility with the requisite facility for the treatment, conditioning and storage of radioactive waste until a final disposal facility is established and becomes operational. The Regulatory Authority is responsible for the enforcement of compliance with provisions of the waste management regulation and other relevant requirements by the waste generator and the CWPSU. The objective of this paper is to present, in a concise form, basic information about the radioactive waste management infrastructure, regulations, policies and strategies including the total inventory of low level radioactive waste in the country. For improvement and strengthening in terms of operational capability, safety and security of RW including spent radioactive sources and overall security of the facility (CWPSF), the facility is expected to serve

  8. Stromatolites, ooid dunes, hardgrounds, and crusted mud beds, all products of marine cementation and microbial mats in subtidal oceanic mixing zone on eastern margin of Great Bahama Bank

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, R.F.; Kendall, C.S.C.G.; Steinen, R.P.

    1989-03-01

    The interisland channels along the eastern margin of the Great Bahamas Bank contain lithified structures that owe their origin to recent marine cementation. This cementation appears to be commonly associated with a complex microbial community of plants and microorganisms living within a bank-margin oceanographic mixing zone. In this region, reversing tidal and wind-driven currents flow up to 3 knots (150 cm/sec) three hours out of each six-hour tidal period. Here, marine-cement crusted, carbonate mud beds are found interbedded within migrating ooid sand bars and dunes and are associated with growing, lithified stromatolites up to 2 m in height. These laminated mud beds are found with thicknesses of up to 1 m in subtidal depths of 4 to 8 m (12 to 25 ft). The muds appear to be homogeneous, but closer examination by SEM and under a microscope reveals they are composed of pelletoid aggregates of needle-shaped aragonite crystals with diameters of up to 50 ..mu... The size of these soft pellets is similar to the smaller grains of ooid sands that are abundant in the area. This size similarity could explain why both the mud beds are found in similar high-energy hydraulic regimes as the ooid sands, but does not suggest how or why the aggregates of pure aragonite needles form. A high production of ooid sand within this bank margin environment permits the formation of natural levees along the margins of tidal channels. The back sides of these levees are being lithified by marine cements to form hardgrounds. Skeletal and ooid sand dunes stabilized by Thallasia in channel bottoms also are becoming lithified. Grapestones form at the distributaries of flood tidal deltas of ooid sand. All of these features have a common attribute: they are continually in contact with the turbulent mixing-zone waters.

  9. Design Strategies and Preliminary Prototype for a Low-Cost Arsenic Removal System for Rural Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Mathieu, Johanna L.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Kowolik, Kristin; Qazi, Shefah; Agogino, Alice M.

    2009-09-14

    Researchers have invented a material called ARUBA -- Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash -- that effectively and affordably removes arsenic from Bangladesh groundwater. Through analysis of studies across a range of disciplines, observations, and informal interviews conducted over three trips to Bangladesh, we have applied mechanical engineering design methodology to develop eight key design strategies, which were used in the development of a low-cost, community-scale water treatment system that uses ARUBA to removearsenic from drinking water. We have constructed, tested, and analysed a scale version of the system. Experiments have shown that the system is capable of reducing high levels of arsenic (nearly 600 ppb) to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb, while remaining affordable to people living on less than US$2/day. The system could be sustainably implemented as a public-private partnership in rural Bangladesh.

  10. Scenario of solid waste reuse in Khulna city of Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, Quazi H.; Mahbub Hassan, K.; Haque, R.

    2012-12-15

    The reuse and recycling of waste materials are now sincerely considered to be an integral part of solid waste management in many parts of the world. In this context, a vast number of options ranging from small scale decentralized to larger scale centralized plants have been adopted. This study aimed at investigating the waste reuse schemes in Khulna city located in the southern part of Bangladesh and ranked third largest city in the country. The shops for reusable material (SRM) were mostly situated around railway, waterway, and truck station markets which provided easy transportation to further locations. For the reuses of waste materials and products, a chain system was found to collect reusable wastes under a total number of 310 identified SRM with 859 persons directly or indirectly involved in the scheme. This was a decentralized waste management system with self sufficient (autonomous) management. According to mass balance, about 38.52 tons d{sup -1} solid wastes were reused in Khulna city area, accounting for 7.65% of the total generated wastes. This study revealed that apparently a silent, systematic, smooth, and clean reuse chain has been established in Khulna city area under private initiatives, whose sustainability was confirmed over the years in the country without any official or formal funds. However, proper adjustment between the higher and lower chain in the materials flow path, as well as personal hygiene training for the workers, would further improve the achievements of the established reuse scheme.

  11. Design of a rural water provision system to decrease arsenic exposure in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Mathieu, Johanna

    2009-01-09

    Researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have invented ARUBA (Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash) a material that effectively and affordably removes high concentrations of arsenic from contaminated groundwater. The technology is cost-effective because the substrate-bottom ash from coal fired power plants-is a waste material readily available in South Asia. During fieldwork in four sub-districts of Bangladesh, ARUBA reduced groundwater arsenic concentrations as high as 680 ppb to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. Key results from three trips in Bangladesh and one trip to Cambodia include (1) ARUBA removes more than half of the arsenic from contaminated water within the first five minutes of contact, and continues removing arsenic for 2-3 days; (2) ARUBA's arsenic removal efficiency can be improved through fractionated dosing (adding a given amount of ARUBA in fractions versus all at once); (3) allowing water to first stand for two to three days followed by treatment with ARUBA produced final arsenic concentrations ten times lower than treating water directly out of the well; and (4) the amount of arsenic removed per gram of ARUBA is linearly related to the initial arsenic concentration of the water. Through analysis of existing studies, observations, and informal interviews in Bangladesh, eight design strategies have been developed and used in the design of a low-cost, community-scale water treatment system that uses ARUBA to remove arsenic from drinking water. We have constructed, tested, and analyzed a scale version of the system. Experiments have shown that the system is capable of reducing high levels of arsenic (nearly 600 ppb) to below 50 ppb, while remaining affordable to people living on less than $2 per day. The system could be sustainably implemented as a public-private partnership in rural Bangladesh.

  12. TABLE28.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    8. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Destination, (Thousand Barrels) Destination Liquefied Finished Crude Pentanes Petroleum Motor Distillate Fuel Residual Oil a Plus Gases Gasoline Jet Fuel Kerosene Oil Fuel Oil January 1998 Argentina .............................................. 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 Australia ............................................... 0 0 (s) (s) 0 0 1 0 Bahama Islands ................................... 0 0 21 1 1 (s) 54 (s) Bahrain

  13. ElectroChemical Arsenic Removal (ECAR) for Rural Bangladesh--Merging Technology with Sustainable Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Addy, Susan E.A.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Kowolik, Kristin; Kostecki, Robert

    2009-12-01

    Today, 35-77 million Bangladeshis drink arsenic-contaminated groundwater from shallow tube wells. Arsenic remediation efforts have focused on the development and dissemination of household filters that frequently fall into disuse due to the amount of attention and maintenance that they require. A community scale clean water center has many advantages over household filters and allows for both chemical and electricity-based technologies to be beneficial to rural areas. Full cost recovery would enable the treatment center to be sustainable over time. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation (ECAR) is compatible with community scale water treatment for rural Bangladesh. We demonstrate the ability of ECAR to reduce arsenic levels> 500 ppb to less than 10 ppb in synthetic and real Bangladesh groundwater samples and examine the influence of several operating parameters on arsenic removal effectiveness. Operating cost and waste estimates are provided. Policy implication recommendations that encourage sustainable community treatment centers are discussed.

  14. Removing Arsenic from Contaminated Drinking Water in Rural Bangladesh: Recent Fieldwork Results and Policy Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Mathieu, Johanna L.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Kowolik, Kristin; Addy, Susan E.A.

    2009-09-17

    ARUBA (Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash) has proven effective at removing high concentrations of arsenic from drinking water in Bangladesh. During fieldwork in four sub-districts of the country, ARUBA reduced arsenic levels ranging from 200 to 900 ppb to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. The technology is cost-effective because the substrate--bottom ash from coal fired power plants--is a waste material readily available in South Asia. In comparison to similar technologies, ARUBA uses less media for arsenic removal due to its high surface area to volume ratio. Hence, less waste is produced. A number of experiments were conducted in Bangladesh to determine the effectiveness of various water treatment protocols. It was found that (1) ARUBA removes more than half of the arsenic from water within five minutes of treatment, (2) ARUBA, that has settled at the bottom of a treatment vessel, continues to remove arsenic for 2-3 days, (3) ARUBA's arsenic removal efficiency can be improved through sequential partial dosing (adding a given amount of ARUBA in fractions versus all at once), and (4) allowing water to first stand for two to three days followed by treatment with ARUBA produced final arsenic levels ten times lower than treating water directly out of the well. Our findings imply a number of tradeoffs between ARUBA's effective arsenic removal capacity, treatment system costs, and waste output. These tradeoffs, some a function of arsenic-related policies in Bangladesh (e.g., waste disposal regulations), must be considered when designing an arsenic removal system. We propose that the most attractive option is to use ARUBA in communityscale water treatment centers, installed as public-private partnerships, in Bangladeshi villages.

  15. Feasibility study for thermal treatment of solid tire wastes in Bangladesh by using pyrolysis technology

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, M.R.; Joardder, M.U.H.; Hasan, S.M.; Takai, K.; Haniu, H.

    2011-09-15

    In this study on the basis of lab data and available resources in Bangladesh, feasibility study has been carried out for pyrolysis process converting solid tire wastes into pyrolysis oils, solid char and gases. The process considered for detailed analysis was fixed-bed fire-tube heating pyrolysis reactor system. The comparative techno-economic assessment was carried out in US$ for three different sizes plants: medium commercial scale (144 tons/day), small commercial scale (36 tons/day), pilot scale (3.6 tons/day). The assessment showed that medium commercial scale plant was economically feasible, with the lowest unit production cost than small commercial and pilot scale plants for the production of crude pyrolysis oil that could be used as boiler fuel oil and for the production of upgraded liquid-products.

  16. Impacts of policy and market incentives for solid waste recycling in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Matter, Anne; Ahsan, Mehedi; Zurbrügg, Christian

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Bangladesh’s industry and population are growing rapidly, producing more urban waste. • Recycling reduces the solid waste management burden of Municipalities. • A wide array of informal and formal actors is involved in collection and recycling. • Demand for recycled materials and renewable energy creates market incentives. • Policy incentives exist, but they only reach the formal industry. - Abstract: Solid waste mismanagement in Dhaka, Bangladesh, illustrates a well-known market failure which can be summarized as: waste is a resource in the wrong place. Inorganic materials such as plastic or paper can be used to feed the demand for recycled materials in the industrial sector. Organic materials can be converted and used in the nutrient-starved agricultural sector which is currently heavily depending on chemical fertilizers. They are also a feedstock to generate renewable energy in the form of biogas for this energy-starved country relying on diminishing natural gas reserves and increasing import of coal. Reality however does not capitalize on this potential; instead the waste is a burden for municipal authorities who spend large portions of their budgets attempting to transport it out of the city for discharge into landfills. The major part of these materials still remains uncollected in the residential areas and is discarded indiscriminately in open spaces, polluting the residents’ living environment including water, soil and air resources, in the city and beyond. Bangladeshi authorities have, to some extent, recognized this market failure and have developed policies to encourage the development of waste recycling activities. It is also important to note that this market failure is only partial: a large, mostly informal recycling sector has developed in Bangladesh, focusing on inorganic recyclables of market value. The fact that this sector remains largely informal means that these actors perceive significant barriers to formalization

  17. U.S. Imports from All Countries

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Imports by Country of Origin Import Area: U.S. Period/Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Country: All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Gabon Indonesia Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Albania Argentina Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria

  18. Laboratory Enrichment of Radioactive Assemblages and Estimation of Thorium and Uranium Radioactivity in Fractions Separated from Placer Sands in Southeast Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Takayuki; Rajib, Mohammad; Akiyoshi, Masafumi; Kobayashi, Taishi; Takagi, Ikuji; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Zaman, Md. Mashrur

    2015-06-15

    The present study reports the likely first attempt of separating radioactive minerals for estimation of activity concentration in the beach placer sands of Bangladesh. Several sand samples from heavy mineral deposits located at the south-eastern coastal belt of Bangladesh were processed to physically upgrade their radioactivity concentrations using plant and laboratory equipment. Following some modified flow procedure, individual fractions were separated and investigated using gamma-ray spectrometry and powder-XRD analysis. The radioactivity measurements indicated contributions of the thorium and uranium radioactive series and of {sup 40}K. The maximum values of {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U, estimated from the radioactivity of {sup 208}Tl and {sup 234}Th in secular equilibrium, were found to be 152,000 and 63,300 Bq/kg, respectively. The fraction of the moderately conductive part in electric separation contained thorium predominantly, while that of the non-conductive part was found to be uranium rich. The present arrangement of the pilot plant cascade and the fine tuning of setting parameters were found to be effective and economic separation process of the radioactive minerals from placer sands in Bangladesh. Probable radiological impacts and extraction potentiality of such radioactive materials are also discussed.

  19. Interaction between arsenic exposure from drinking water and genetic susceptibility in carotid intima–media thickness in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Fen; Jasmine, Farzana; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Liu, Mengling; Cheng, Xin; Parvez, Faruque; Paul-Brutus, Rachelle; Islam, Tariqul; Paul, Rina Rani; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin; Jiang, Jieying; Islam, Tariqul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Rundek, Tatjana; Demmer, Ryan T.; Desvarieux, Moise; and others

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiologic studies that evaluated genetic susceptibility for the effects of arsenic exposure from drinking water on subclinical atherosclerosis are limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1078 participants randomly selected from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh to evaluate whether the association between arsenic exposure and carotid artery intima–media thickness (cIMT) differs by 207 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 18 genes related to arsenic metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Although not statistically significant after correcting for multiple testing, nine SNPs in APOE, AS3MT, PNP, and TNF genes had a nominally statistically significant interaction with well-water arsenic in cIMT. For instance, the joint presence of a higher level of well-water arsenic (≥ 40.4 μg/L) and the GG genotype of AS3MT rs3740392 was associated with a difference of 40.9 μm (95% CI = 14.4, 67.5) in cIMT, much greater than the difference of cIMT associated with the genotype alone (β = − 5.1 μm, 95% CI = − 31.6, 21.3) or arsenic exposure alone (β = 7.2 μm, 95% CI = − 3.1, 17.5). The pattern and magnitude of the interactions were similar when urinary arsenic was used as the exposure variable. Additionally, the at-risk genotypes of the AS3MT SNPs were positively related to the proportion of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) in urine, which is indicative of arsenic methylation capacity. The findings provide novel evidence that genetic variants related to arsenic metabolism may play an important role in arsenic-induced subclinical atherosclerosis. Future replication studies in diverse populations are needed to confirm the findings. - Highlights: • Nine SNPs had a nominally significant interaction with well-water arsenic in cIMT. • Three SNPs in AS3MT showed nominally significant interactions with urinary arsenic. • cIMT was much higher among subjects with higher arsenic exposure and AS3MT

  20. Bangladesh: Case Studies Bangladesh: Case Studies Renewable Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    one health center and one bazaar mosque. The responsibility of operation and maintenance has been entrusted with a local NGO, Shubashati. The private entrepreneur, Mr Azam...

  1. Gulf Powerbeat | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Powerbeat Place: Bahrain Product: Bahrain-based Gulf Powerbeat manufactures long life batteries and was acquired by Time Technoplast, through Time's subsidiary NED Energy....

  2. Bangladesh-NAMA Concepts | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    for Sustainable Development (IISD) Sector Climate, Energy, Land Focus Area Non-renewable Energy, Agriculture, Buildings, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Greenhouse Gas, Industry,...

  3. Department of Energy, Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... country (Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, or Singapore); 61 November 2012 ...

  4. PART II - CONTRACT CLAUSES

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bahrain, Canada, Chile, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, ... Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, ...

  5. Bangladesh-Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    illustrates the U.S. perspective on LEDS: Integrated development goals and objectives, national greenhouse gas inventory, and economic and resource data Long-term projections of...

  6. Bangladesh-Feed the Future | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    year of the Global Hunger and Food Security Initiative. These plans represent a transition towards the development of multiyear strategies and are targeted at investments that...

  7. Bangladesh-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  8. Bangladesh-Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) Program | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    the growth of greenhouse gas emissions. The LEAD program supports and enhances country-led development programs, plans, and policies, and complements efforts of other...

  9. Bangladesh-World Bank Climate Projects | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    socioeconomic impact, monitoring and evaluation, environmental safeguards, and poverty reduction aspects of electricity provision; ) implementation of a free-for-service...

  10. Bangladesh-Reducing the GHG Impacts of Sustainable Intensification...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    can benefit poor farmers and to understand trade-offs among different dimensions of poverty and different groups of the poor (including between men and women). Special attention...

  11. Caribbean-NREL Cooperation | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    internatio Country Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Saint...

  12. Caribbean-GTZ Renewable Energy Program | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    enpraxis95 Country Antigua & Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Puerto...

  13. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF FOSSIL...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    national treatment for trade in natural gas with Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jordan, Mexico, Morocco,...

  14. Governance for Sustainable Development in the Arab Region | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Resource Type Guidemanual Website http:www.escwa.un.orginform Country Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, United Arab...

  15. Best Practices and Tools for Large-scale Deployment of Renewable...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    www.escwa.un.orginformationpublicationsedituploadsdpd-09-TP3.pdf Country: Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, United Arab...

  16. United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Background Membership "ESCWA comprises 14 Arab countries in Western Asia: Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, United Arab...

  17. DOE/EA-1976 FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT FOR PROPOSED CNG...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jordan, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Panama, Peru, Republic of Korea, and Singapore. ...

  18. IDIQ BS Ex A (Rev. 3.1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); or (3) A ...

  19. Time and Materials Exhibit A General Conditions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); or (3) A ...

  20. DISCLAIMER:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... (Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); or (3) A ...

  1. AES Exhibit A General Conditions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); or (3) A ...

  2. PART II - CONTRACT CLAUSES

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... (Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); (3) A least ...

  3. AWARD/CONTRACT

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... country (Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, or Singapore); (3) A least developed country ...

  4. SUPPORT ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES FOR THE NATIONAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... country (Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, or Singapore); (3) A least developed country ...

  5. Section - - SPECIAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR USE IN MOST GRANTS...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    ... (Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); (3) A ...

  6. M186

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); or (3) A ...

  7. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF FOSSIL...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jordan, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Panama, Peru, Republic of Korea, and Singapore. ...

  8. CONST Ex A (Rev. 5.1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); or (3) A ...

  9. Microsoft Word - WTP Contract Section I - Conformed Thru 363...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... (Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); (3) A least ...

  10. CI-OFF Ex A (Rev. 0.2, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); or (3) A ...

  11. EFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); or (3) A ...

  12. CPFFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); or CPFFS Ex ...

  13. CI-ON Ex A (Rev. 0.1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); or (3) A ...

  14. LFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); or (3) A ...

  15. NCIPO Ex A (Rev. 2.1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); or (3) A ...

  16. Microsoft Word - DE-SOL-0006851 FINAL Amended 9-5-14.rtf

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Korea (Republic of), Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Panama, Peru, or ...

  17. downloadForm.asp

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Korea (Republic of), Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Panama, Peru, or ...

  18. R&D Ex A (Rev. 3.1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); or (3) A ...

  19. D-B CONST Ex A (Rev. 4.1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); or (3) A ...

  20. Generic copy of DOEs IDIQ ESPC contract

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... country (Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, or Singapore); (3) A least developed country ...

  1. SFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); or (3) A ...

  2. How to Obtain Authorization to Import and/or Export Natural Gas...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    natural gas with Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jordan, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Panama, Peru,...

  3. 52

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    country (Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore); (3) A...

  4. --No Title--

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    No data reported. W Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. 1 Includes Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Neutral Zone, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates....

  5. --No Title--

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    W Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. 1 Includes Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Neutral Zone, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. 2 Includes...

  6. untitled

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    W Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. a Includes Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. b Includes Algeria,...

  7. --No Title--

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    to avoid disclosure of individual company data. 3 Free on Board. See Glossary. 1 Includes Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Neutral Zone, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates....

  8. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Persian Gulf Includes Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United ... and 2016-present), Iran (1960present), Iraq (1960present), Kuwait (1960present), ...

  9. Microsoft Word - 91180786_2.docx

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... Australia, Bahrain, Colombia, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Chile, Morocco, Canada, Mexico, Oman, Peru, Singapore, Republic of Korea, Jordan, ...

  10. U.S. and Bahamian Governments to Cooperate on Detecting Illicit Shipments

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Nuclear Material | Department of Energy Bahamian Governments to Cooperate on Detecting Illicit Shipments of Nuclear Material U.S. and Bahamian Governments to Cooperate on Detecting Illicit Shipments of Nuclear Material January 11, 2005 - 9:46am Addthis Bahamas to Become First Caribbean Country to Use Detection Equipment NASSAU, BAHAMAS -- In an effort to work together in the war on terrorism, the United States and the Commonwealth of the Bahamas recently signed an agreement to install

  11. Cape Systems Limited | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Cape Systems Limited Place: Rock Sound, Bahamas Sector: Services Product: Offers installation and site surveying services for clean...

  12. Market Analysis Toolkit | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Antigua and Barbuda-Regional Implementation Plan for CARICOM's Climate Change Resilience Framework Bahamas-Regional Implementation Plan for CARICOM's Climate Change...

  13. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    government. However, both projects await final approval from the Bahamas Environment, Science and Technology Commission for their environmental impact statements. Planning for a...

  14. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    government. However, both projects await final approval from the Bahamas Environment, Science and Technology Commission for their environmental impact statements. Planning for a...

  15. PART II - CONTRACT CLAUSES

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, British Virgin Islands, Costa Rica, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, St. ...

  16. TABLE37.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Zaire. e Includes Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. (s) Less than 500 barrels per day. Note: Totals may not equal sum of components...

  17. TABLE42.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Zaire. e Includes Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. (s) Less than 500 barrels per day. Note: Totals may not equal sum of components...

  18. Minerals Yearbook, 1988. The mineral industries of the Arabian Peninsula and Persian Gulf countries. International review

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, B.; Antonides, L.E.; Morgan, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    The document contains commodity reviews (metals, mineral fuels, industrial minerals where applicable) for the following countries: Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, People's Democratic Republic of Yeman, and Yeman Arab Republic.

  19. U.S. and New Zealand Take Steps to Launch International Partnership...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    U.S. to Work with New Zealand to Encourage Utilization of Natural Renewable Energy Resources NASSAU, BAHAMAS - The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Assistant Secretary for Energy ...

  20. Slide 1

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Antonio, TX Agreements for Peaceful Nuclear Cooperation * Argentina * Australia * Bangladesh * Brazil * Canada * China * Colombia * Egypt * EURATOM * IAEA * Indonesia * Japan *...

  1. Asian Development Outlook 2010 | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, China, South Korea, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Laos, Vietnam,...

  2. The unstable Gulf, Threats from within

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    Martin offers an analysis of disputes along the borders of countries in the Persian Gulf region and a description of the religious, ethnic, and ideological tensions among the peoples. The pros and cons of various options for protecting American interests are outlined. The discussion covers Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, North and South Yemen, Oman, Soudi Arabia, U.A.E., Bahrain, and Qatar.

  3. Asian Age Enterprise Ltd | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Asian Age Enterprise Ltd Place: Dhaka, Bangladesh Zip: 1000 Product: Bangladeshi private project developer. References: Asian Age...

  4. Microsoft Word - TOC Section I Conformed thru Mod 274.docx

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Nicaragua, or Singapore); (3) A least developed country (Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Central African...

  5. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook

    outweigh the benefits, especially for net oil importers. In Bangladesh, Brazil, Brunei, India, Indonesia, Jordan, Malaysia, Burma (Myanmar), Pakistan, South Africa, Sri Lanka,...

  6. File:SWERA-247.pdf | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    navigation, search File File history File usage Solar: monthly global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km resolution for Bangladesh from NREL Size of this preview: 776 600...

  7. 1

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Student researcher helps construct bioethical artificial human organs Although Bangladesh has made strides in recent decades, the war-torn and poverty stricken South Asian ...

  8. A Strategy to Engage the Private Sector in Climate Change Adaptation...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    to Engage the Private Sector in Climate Change Adaptation in Bangladesh Jump to: navigation, search Name A Strategy to Engage the Private Sector in Climate Change Adaptation in...

  9. CX-010258: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bangladesh Meteorological Instrumentation Installation CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 04/26/2013 Location(s): Colorado Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  10. Rahimafrooz Renewable Energy Ltd | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Renewable Energy Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Rahimafrooz Renewable Energy Ltd. Place: Dhaka, Bangladesh Zip: 1212 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Renewable energy...

  11. File:NREL-asia-tilt.pdf | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Countries Bhutan, China, Nepal, Mongolia, India, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Philippines, Bangladesh UN Region Southern Asia, Eastern Asia,...

  12. File:NREL-asia-dir.pdf | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Countries Bhutan, China, Nepal, Mongolia, India, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Philippines, Bangladesh UN Region Southern Asia, Eastern Asia,...

  13. File:NREL-asia-glo.pdf | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Countries Bhutan, China, Nepal, Mongolia, India, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Philippines, Bangladesh UN Region Southern Asia, Eastern Asia,...

  14. Rural Energy Services Best Practices | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    for Energy Sector Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy Topics Implementation Resource Type Lessons learnedbest practices Website http:www.sari-energy.orgPro Country Bangladesh,...

  15. Petroleum Supply Annual

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2.PDF Table 32. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Destination, January 2015 (Thousand Barrels) Destination Crude Oil 1 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Argentina ............................ - - 0 0 - 18 18 - - - Australia .............................. - 0 - 0 - 300 300 - - - Bahamas ............................ - 0 32 - - 46 46 -

  16. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    1 August 2016 Table 51. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Destination, August 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Destination Crude Oil 1 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Argentina ............................ - - 0 0 - 116 116 - - - Australia .............................. - 0 1 - - 1 1 - 0 0 Bahamas ............................ - - 206 0 -

  17. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Turks & Caicos (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    This profile presents a snapshot of the electricity generation and reduction technologies, including solar hot water heating, available to Turks and Caicos - a British overseas territory consisting of two groups of islands located southeast of the Bahamas. Heating and transportation fuels are not addressed.

  18. Electric Vehicles | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Electric Vehicles Electric Vehicles Addthis BMW i8 1 of 13 BMW i8 The BMW i8 is a plug-in hybrid electric car packed with power. It goes 0-60 mph in 4.2 seconds according the automaker. Photo | BMW Date taken: 2016-09-07 12:40 McLaren P1 Bahrain 2 of 13 McLaren P1 Bahrain This limited production plug-in hybrid electric vehicle can reach speeds up to 217 mph according the automaker. Photo | McLaren Automotive Date taken: 2016-09-07 12:40 Porsche 918 Spyder 3 of 13 Porsche 918 Spyder The Spyder is

  19. Electrical Calcium Test for Measuring Barrier Permeability - Energy

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Electric Vehicles Electric Vehicles Addthis BMW i8 1 of 13 BMW i8 The BMW i8 is a plug-in hybrid electric car packed with power. It goes 0-60 mph in 4.2 seconds according the automaker. Photo | BMW Date taken: 2016-09-07 12:40 McLaren P1 Bahrain 2 of 13 McLaren P1 Bahrain This limited production plug-in hybrid electric vehicle can reach speeds up to 217 mph according the automaker. Photo | McLaren Automotive Date taken: 2016-09-07 12:40 Porsche 918 Spyder 3 of 13 Porsche 918 Spyder The Spyder is

  20. Middle East: Output expansions boost drilling

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Iraqi exports may return to the market in limited fashion, but none of the region`s producers seems particularly concerned. They believe that global oil demand is rising fast enough to justify their additions to productive capacity. The paper discusses exploration, drilling and development, and production in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the Neutral Zone, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Oman, Iran, Iraq, Yemen, Qatar, Syria, Turkey, and Sharjah. The paper also briefly mentions activities in Bahrain, Israel, Jordan, and Ras al Khaimah.

  1. Somebody better find some rigs

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The paper discusses the outlook for the gas and oil industries of the Middle East. Field development projects abound, as the larger exporting nations pursue ambitious policies of production expansion. However, their plans may be hampered by the growing worldwide shortage of rigs. Separate evaluations are given for Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Neutral Zone, Abu Dhabi, Iran, Iraq, Qatar, Yemen, Syria, Dubai, Turkey, Sharjah, and briefly for Bahrain, Israel, Jordan, UAE-Ajman, and UAE-Ras al-Khaimah.

  2. Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Mason, J.F.; Hatch, G.C.

    1981-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1980 totaled 6,747,719,000 bbl or an average rate of 18,436,390,000 bbl/d, down 13.9% from 1979. Increases were in Saudi Arabia and Syria. Significant decreases occurred in Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, and Turkey. New discoveries were made in Abu Dhabi, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sharjah, and Oman. New areas were explored in Bahrain, Oman, Syria, and Yemen. 9 figures, 16 tables.

  3. Middle East oil and gas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    The following subjects are covered in this publication: (1) position of preeminence of the Middle East; (2) history of area's oil operations for Iran, Iraq, Bahrain, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, neutral zone, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman and Egypt; (3) gas operations of Saudi Arabia, Iran, Kuwait, Qatar, Iraq and United Arab Emirates; (4) changing relationships with producing countries; (5) a new oil pricing environment; (6) refining and other industrial activities; and (7) change and progress. 10 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. International Services | Jefferson Lab

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Projects published on Beta are not final and may contain programming errors. They are for public testing and comment only. We welcome your feedback. For final products, please visit www.eia.gov. Read our feedback policy. Project Feedback Rea Give Us Your Feedback We welcome your feedback and insights on this project. Your Country: United States Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Angola Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas, The

  5. South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, C.

    1981-10-01

    Summaries of oil and gas drillings, well completions, production, exploratory wells, exploration activity and wildcat drilling were given for South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico. The countries, islands, etc. included Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward and Windward Islands, Mexico, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador, Surinam, Trinidad and Venezuela. 16 figures, 120 tables. (DP)

  6. untitled

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Destination, 2015 (Thousand Barrels) Destination Crude Oil 1 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Argentina ............................ - 5 1 203 - 933 933 - 0 0 Australia .............................. - 8 23 9 - 303 303 1 0 1 Bahamas ............................ - 1 309 136 - 1,113 1,113 0 1,001

  7. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    5 August 2016 Table 52. Year-to-Date Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Destination, January-August 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Destination Crude Oil 1 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Argentina ............................ - 0 462 370 - 801 801 - 124 124 Australia .............................. - 3 2,108 3 - 6 6 - 0 0 Bahamas

  8. International - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Projects published on Beta are not final and may contain programming errors. They are for public testing and comment only. We welcome your feedback. For final products, please visit www.eia.gov. Read our feedback policy. Project Feedback Rea Give Us Your Feedback We welcome your feedback and insights on this project. Your Country: United States Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Angola Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas, The

  9. Facies dimensions within carbonate reservoirs - guidelines from satellite images of modern analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, P.M.; Kowalik, W.S.

    1995-08-01

    Modern analogs illustrate the distribution of carbonate facies within an overall depositional setting and can be an integral part of a subsurface geologic model in indicating the dimensions, trend, and interrelationships of facies that might be related to reservoir and non-reservoir distribution. Satellite images from several modern carbonate areas depict the geologic characteristics that can be expected in ancient shallow-water settings. Isolated carbonate platforms- the Bahamas, Caicos Platform in the British West Indies, Chinchorro Bank offshore of Yucatan, and portions of the Belize area; Ramp-style shelf-to-basin transitions - Abu Dhabi and northern Yucatan; Rimmed shelf margins - South Florida, portions of Belize, and the Great Barrier Reef of Australia; Broad, deep shelf lagoons - the Great Barrier Reef and Belize; Reef variability - South Florida, the Bahamas, Caicos, Northern Yucatan, and Abu Dhabi; Shallow lagoon/tidal flat settings - South Florida, the Bahamas, Caicos, Northern Yucatan, Shark Bay in Western Australia, Abu Dhabi; Mixed carbonate and siliciclastic depostion - South Florida, Belize, the Great Barrier Reef, Shark Bay and Abu Dhabi. The geologic framework as illustrated by these areas is important at the development scale where lateral variation of porosity and permeability, i.e. reservoir quality, is commonly tied to facies changes and facies dimensions are required as input to reservoir models. The geologic framework is essential at the exploration scale for reservoir facies prediction and stratigraphic play concepts which are related directly to depositional facies patterns.

  10. Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Tool: Steps for Moving a NAMA from Idea Towards Implementation Add Tool GIZ Programs Bangladesh-GTZ Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Programme Brazil-GTZ Renewable Energy and...

  11. Microsoft Word - THE EFFECT OF OBSTACLE#4781.doc

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    KHADEM 1 , J. BADGER*, S. M. ULLAH, S. K. ADITYA, H. R. GHOSH & M. HUSSAIN Renewable Energy Research Centre, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh, e-mail: skkhadem@yahoo.com RISO...

  12. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 7, No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-11-01

    Quarterly magazine with articles on recent additions to the Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Station Locator database, biodiesel buying co-ops, and developing the CNG infrastructure in Bangladesh. Also a memo from CIVITAS 2003.

  13. Women @ Energy: Ashfia Huq | Department of Energy

    Energy Saver

    Ashfia was born in Bangladesh and after finishing high school in Dhaka, she attended Mount Holyoke College in MA for her undergraduate degree. Ashfia double majored in Physics and ...

  14. JPRS report: Nuclear developments, [June 21, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    1988-06-21

    This report contains information concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: Canada, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Argentina, Brazil, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Soviet Union, Belgium, France, Turkey, and the United Kingdom.

  15. File:SWERA-248.pdf | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    8.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Solar: monthly latitude tilt GIS data at 40km resolution for Bangladesh from NREL Size of this preview: 776 600...

  16. Microsoft Word - Measurement and Estima#4786.doc

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Ghosh 1 , S M Ullah, S K Khadem, N C Bhowmik and M Hussain Renewable Energy Research Center, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh E-mail: himuape@yahoo.com , rercdu@yahoo.com Abstract...

  17. ELECTROCHEMICAL REMEDIATION OF ARSENIC-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 50 million people in Bangladesh drink arsenic-laden water, making it the largest case of mass poisoning in human history. ...

  18. NREL: International Activities - Bilateral Partnerships

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Printable Version Bilateral Partnerships NREL partners with more than 50 countries around the world to advance development and use of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies: Angola Argentina Australia Bangladesh Brazil Canada Chile China Colombia Costa Rica Gabon Haiti India Indonesia Japan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea Mexico North America Philippines Saudi Arabia U.S. Pacific Territories United Arab Emirates Vietnam Asia Bangladesh Under sponsorship from the U.S. Agency for International

  19. The oil policies of the Gulf Arab Nations

    SciTech Connect

    Ripple, R.D.; Hagen, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    At its heart, Arab oil policy is inseparable from Arab economic and social policy. This holds whether we are talking about the Arab nations as a group or each separately. The seven Arab nations covered in this report-Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates--participate in several organizations focusing on regional cooperation regarding economic development, social programs, and Islamic unity, as well as organizations concerned with oil policies. This report focuses on the oil-related activities of the countries that may reveal the de facto oil policies of the seven Persian Gulf nations. Nevertheless it should be kept in mind that the decision makers participating in the oil policy organizations are also involved with the collaborative efforts of these other organizations. Oil policies of five of the seven Arab nations are expressed within the forums of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC). Only Oman, among the seven, is not a member of either OAPEC or OPEC; Bahrain is a member of OAPEC but not of OPEC. OPEC and OAPEC provide forums for compromise and cooperation among their members. Nevertheless, each member state maintains its own sovereignty and follows its own policies. Each country deviates from the group prescription from time to time, depending upon individual circumstances.

  20. Global warming and the regions in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Alvi, S.H.; Elagib, N.

    1996-12-31

    The announcement of NASA scientist James Hansen made at a United States Senate`s hearing in June 1988 about the onset of global warming ignited a whirlwind of public concern in United States and elsewhere in the world. Although the temperature had shown only a slight shift, its warming has the potential of causing environmental catastrophe. According to atmosphere scientists, the effect of higher temperatures will change rainfall patterns--some areas getting drier, some much wetter. The phenomenon of warming in the Arabian Gulf region was first reported by Alvi for Bahrain and then for Oman. In the recent investigations, the authors have found a similar warming in other regions of the Arabian Gulf and in several regions of Sudan in Africa. The paper will investigate the observed data on temperature and rainfall of Seeb in Oman, Bahrain, International Airport in Kuwait as index stations for the Arabian Gulf and Port Sudan, Khartoum and Malakal in the African Continent of Sudan. Based on various statistical methods, the study will highlight a drying of the regions from the striking increase in temperature and decline of rainfall amount. Places of such environmental behavior are regarded as desertifying regions. Following Hulme and Kelly, desertification is taken to mean land degradation in dryland regions, or the permanent decline in the potential of the land to support biological activity, and hence human welfare. The paper will also, therefore, include the aspect of desertification for the regions under consideration.

  1. SREL Reprint #3261

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Sexual dimorphism and feeding ecology of Diamond-backed Terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) Elizabeth B. Underwood1,2, Sarah Bowers1, Jacquelyn C. Guzy1, Jeffrey E. Lovich3, Carole A. Taylor4, J. Whitfield Gibbons5, and Michael E. Dorcas1 1Department of Biology, Davidson College, Davidson, NC 28035, USA 2The Cape Eleuthera Institute, PO Box 29, Rock Sound, Eleuthera, The Bahamas 3US Geological Survey, Southwest Biological Science Center, 2255 North Gemini Drive, MS-9394, Flagstaff, AZ 86001, USA

  2. Could the pressure of a nuclear explosion disrupt a hurricane?

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Could the pressure of a nuclear explosion disrupt a hurricane? At the Bradbury Latest Issue:November 2016 all issues All Issues » submit Could the pressure of a nuclear explosion disrupt a hurricane? Our question of the month. November 1, 2016 Sometimes people ask us a question and we try to answer them A satellite image of Hurricane Matthew moving through the Bahamas. Credits: NOAA/NASA Goddard Rapid Response Team Could you disrupt a hurricane with a nuclear blast? The eye of a hurricane is

  3. U.S. and New Zealand Take Steps to Launch International Partnership to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Further the Development of Clean Energy on Island Nations | Department of Energy New Zealand Take Steps to Launch International Partnership to Further the Development of Clean Energy on Island Nations U.S. and New Zealand Take Steps to Launch International Partnership to Further the Development of Clean Energy on Island Nations July 24, 2008 - 2:14pm Addthis U.S. to Work with New Zealand to Encourage Utilization of Natural Renewable Energy Resources NASSAU, BAHAMAS - The U.S. Department of

  4. Hurricane Earl - Where Is It Headed and What Does It Have to Do With

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy? | Department of Energy Earl - Where Is It Headed and What Does It Have to Do With Energy? Hurricane Earl - Where Is It Headed and What Does It Have to Do With Energy? September 1, 2010 - 5:50pm Addthis Dr. Richard Newell Dr. Richard Newell Hurricane Earl has the East Coast of the United States in his sights. Earl is moving northward from the Bahamas, and is expected to skirt the U.S. Atlantic coast from Cape Hatteras to New England, before making landfall in Nova Scotia over the

  5. Middle Eastern power systems; Present and future developments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    Middle Eastern Power systems have evolved independently of each other over many decades. The region covers a wide geographical area of over 4 million square kilometers with an estimated population in 1990 of over 120 million people. This paper discusses the present status and future power system developments in the Middle East with emphasis on the Mashrequ Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Yemen, and the six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Interconnections within MAC and possible extensions to Turkey, Europe, and Central Africa are discussed. A common characteristic of the MAC power systems is that they are all operated by government or semi-government bodies. The energy resources in the region are varied. Countries such as Iraq, Egypt, and Syria have significant hydro power resources. On the other hand, the GCC countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel reserves.

  6. Middle East: Iran isn't missed much

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-15

    A concerted effort to further develop productive capacity is evident in most Middle Eastern Countries, through exploration, field development, and secondary recovery. Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Abu Dhabi all plan expanded petroleum industry programs in 1980. Oil production in Saudi Arabia through the first one-half of 1980 averaged 9.5 million bpd, and the Saudis are proceeding with the large-scale associated gas utilization and industrialization program. Iraq's near-term interest is in development of the Majnoon Discovery. Abu Dhabi is continuing efforts to complete development of a giant offshore field and finalize an onshore/offshore associated gas utilization facility. Only Iran and Kuwait are expected to be relatively inactive in petroleum programs during the remainder of 1980. Individual country reports are presented for Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Iran, Kuwait, the Divided Neutral Zone, Qatar, Oman, Bahrain, Syria, Turkey, Israel, Jordan, South Yemen, and Yemen Arab Republic.

  7. JPRS report: Nuclear developments, [May 23, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1989-05-23

    This report contains information concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) Japan, (2) China, (3) South Korea, (4) Czechoslovakia, Poland, (5) Argentina, Brazil, (6) Bangladesh, India, Egypt, Iraq, Israel, Pakistan, (7) Soviet Union, and (8) Federal Republic of Germany, Canada, United Kingdom, France.

  8. Fact #569: May 4, 2009 Gasoline Prices Around the World | Department...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    India (Delhi)* 3.75 Australia 3.32 South Africa 3.24 Bangladesh* 2.42 Russia 2.38 Mexico 2.36 Vietnam* 2.27 United States 2.23 China* 1.93 Malaysia* 1.93 Nigeria 1.85 ...

  9. CRC handbook of agricultural energy potential of developing countries. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Duke, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Introduction, Argentina, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Bourkina (Upper Volta), Brazil, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, French Guiana, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Appendix I. Conventional and Energetic Yields, Appendix II, Phytomass Files, and References.

  10. JPRS report, nuclear developments

    SciTech Connect

    1991-02-25

    This report contains articles concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China; (2) Indonesia, North Korea, South Korea, Thailand; (3) Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary; (4) Argentina, Brazil, El Salvador, Nicaragua; (5) India, Iran, Bangladesh, Israel, Egypt, Jordan, Pakistan; (6) Soviet Union; (7) France, Germany, Austria, United Kingdom; and (8) South Africa.

  11. CX-100064 Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    NREL – Bangladesh Wind Resources Assessment Project: NREL Tracking No. 14-020 Award Number: DE-AC36-08GO28308 CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.1 Date: 09/11/2014 Location(s): Colorado Office(s): Golden Field Office

  12. Genome Sequence of the Historical Clinical Isolate Burkholderia pseudomallei PHLS 6

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    D’haeseleer, Patrik; Johnson, Shannon L.; Davenport, Karen W.; Chain, Patrick S.; Schoeniger, Joe; Ray, Debjit; Sinha, Anupama; Williams, Kelly P.; Peña, José; Branda, Steven S.; et al

    2016-06-30

    We present the draft genome sequence ofBurkholderia pseudomalleiPHLS 6, a virulent clinical strain isolated from a melioidosis patient in Bangladesh in 1960. This draft genome consists of 39 contigs and is 7,322,181 bp long.

  13. Reduction of ruminant methane emissions - a win-win-win opportunity for business, development, and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, R.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes research efforts of The Global Livestock Producers Program (GLPP) in establishing self-sustaining enterprises for cost-effective technologies (i.e., animal nutrition and genetic improvement) and global methane emissions reductions in developing world nations. The US Environmental Protection Agency has funded several studies to examine the possibilities of reducing ruminant methane emissions in India, Tanzania, Bangladesh, and Brazil. The results of the studies showed that: (1) many developing countries` production systems are inefficient, and (2) great potential exists for decreasing global methane emissions through increasing animal productivity. From this effort, the GLPP established livestock development projects in India, Zimbabwe, and Tanzania, and is developing projects for Bangladesh, Nepal, and Brazil. The GLPP has developed a proven methodology for assessing ruminant methane and incorporating methane emissions monitoring into viable projects.

  14. Global Solutions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Global Solutions Our Vision National User Facilities Research Areas In Focus Global Solutions ⇒ Navigate Section Our Vision National User Facilities Research Areas In Focus Global Solutions A-Z Index Berkeley Lab masthead U.S. Department of Energy logo Phone Book Jobs Search BANGLADESH INDIA CHINA DAYA BAY CHINA RUSSIA SIBERIA JAPAN SAMOA HAWAII SOUTH POLE ANTARCTICA NEW MEXICO SOUTH DAKOTA TEXAS GULF OF MEXICO NEW YORK PUERTO RICO AMAZON RAIN FOREST CANARY ISLANDS SWITZERLAND ETHIOPIA

  15. NREL: Technology Deployment Home Page

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Deployment Photo of a man with a blue hard hat on installing instrumentation on an 80 meter meteorological tower used to measure the wind resource in Bangladesh. With support from NREL, developing countries are realizing the benefits of Low Emission Development Strategies. Full story. More success stories. NREL provides market expertise and tools to governments, utilities, tribes, and industry to implement clean energy solutions. Learn how NREL's integrated technology deployment

  16. Costing and pricing electricity in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Munasinghe, M.; Rungta, S.

    1984-01-01

    This book compiles the papers presented at a conference on costing and pricing electricity in developing countries. The topics discussed include: Power tariffs, an overview; electricity tariff policy; estimating and using marginal cost pricing concepts; power tariff policy of Philippines, India, Papua New Guinea, Burma, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Korea, Pakistan; Inter-American Development Bank-Electricity tariffs, policies and practices; and costs of supplying electricity and tariff policy in some other countries.

  17. Nanoscientist Ayesha Arefin has heart

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscientist Ayesha Arefin has heart Nanoscientist Ayesha Arefin has heart Student researcher helps construct bioethical artificial human organs and develop methods to improve toxicology and disease research. August 27, 2013 image description Ayesha is shown here with her closest friends from childhood (left to right: Tore, Nadia, Mouly, and Ayesha) who are now a doctor, pharmacist, chartered accountant, and bioscientist-unusual careers for women in Bangladesh. Ayesha has come to the United

  18. CO sub 2 emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of energy in the long term

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N.

    1991-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing recognition of the link between emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and changes in the global climate. of all anthropogenic activities, energy production and use generate the single largest portion of these greenhouse gases. Although developing countries currently account for a small share of global carbon emissions, their contribution is increasing rapidly. Due to the rapid expansion of energy demand in these nations, the developing world's share in global modern energy use rose from 16 to 27 percent between 1970 and 1990. If the growth rates observed over the past 20 years persist, energy demand in developing nations will surpass that in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) early in the 21st century. The study seeks to examine the forces that galvanize the growth of energy use and carbon emissions, to assess the likely future levels of energy and CO{sub 2} in selected developing nations and to identify opportunities for restraining this growth. The purpose of this report is to provide the quantitative information needed to develop effective policy options, not to identify the options themselves. A combined study was carried out for the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates).

  19. CO{sub 2} emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of energy in the long term. Volume 4, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Nigeria and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N.

    1991-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing recognition of the link between emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and changes in the global climate. of all anthropogenic activities, energy production and use generate the single largest portion of these greenhouse gases. Although developing countries currently account for a small share of global carbon emissions, their contribution is increasing rapidly. Due to the rapid expansion of energy demand in these nations, the developing world`s share in global modern energy use rose from 16 to 27 percent between 1970 and 1990. If the growth rates observed over the past 20 years persist, energy demand in developing nations will surpass that in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) early in the 21st century. The study seeks to examine the forces that galvanize the growth of energy use and carbon emissions, to assess the likely future levels of energy and CO{sub 2} in selected developing nations and to identify opportunities for restraining this growth. The purpose of this report is to provide the quantitative information needed to develop effective policy options, not to identify the options themselves. A combined study was carried out for the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates).

  20. Mashreq Arab interconnected power system potential for economic energy trading

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Shehri, A.M.; El-Amin, I.M.; Opoku, G.; Al-Baiyat, S.A.; Zedan, F.M.

    1994-12-01

    The Mashreq Arab countries covered in this study are Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. A feasibility study for the interconnection of the electrical networks of the Mashreq Arab countries, sponsored by the Arab Fund, was completed in June 1992. Each country is served by one utility except Saudi Arabia, which is served by four major utilities and some smaller utilities serving remote towns and small load centers. The major utilities are the Saudi consolidated electric Company in the Eastern Province (SCECO East), SCECO Center, SCECO West, and SCECO South. These are the ones considered in this study. The Mashreq Arab region has a considerable mix of energy resources. Egypt and Syria have some limited amounts of hydropower resources, and the Arabian Gulf region is abundant in fossil fuel reserves. Owing to the differences in energy production costs, a potential exists for substantial energy trading between electric utilities in the region. The major objective of this project is to study the feasibility of electric energy trading between the Mashreq Arab countries. The basis, assumptions, and methodologies on which this energy trading study is based relate to the results and conclusions arising out of the previous study, power plant characteristics and costs, assumptions on economic parameters, rules for economy energy exchange, etc. This paper presents the basis, methodology, and major findings of the study.

  1. Electric network interconnection of Mashreq Arab Countries

    SciTech Connect

    El-Amin, I.M.; Al-Shehri, A.M.; Opoku, G.; Al-Baiyat, S.A.; Zedan, F.M.

    1994-12-01

    Power system interconnection is a well established practice for a variety of technical and economical reasons. Several interconnected networks exist worldwide for a number of factors. Some of these networks cross international boundaries. This presentation discusses the future developments of the power systems of Mashreq Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Yemen. Mac power systems are operated by government or semigovernment bodies. Many of these countries have national or regional electric grids but are generally isolated from each other. With the exception of Saudi Arabia power systems, which employ 60 Hz, all other MAC utilities use 50 Hz frequency. Each country is served by one utility, except Saudi Arabia, which is served by four major utilities and some smaller utilities serving remote towns and small load centers. The major utilities are the Saudi Consolidated electric Company in the Eastern Province (SCECO East), SCECO Center, SCECO West, and SCECO South. These are the ones considered in this study. The energy resources in MAC are varied. Countries such as Egypt, Iraq, and Syria have significant hydro resources.The gulf countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel, The variation in energy resources as well as the characteristics of the electric load make it essential to look into interconnections beyond the national boundaries. Most of the existing or planned interconnections involve few power systems. A study involving 12 countries and over 20 utilities with different characteristics represents a very large scale undertaking.

  2. SESAME, A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Einfeld, D.; Hasnain, S.S.; Sayers, Z.; Schopper, H.; Winick, H.; Al-Dmour, E.

    2004-05-12

    Developed under the auspices of UNESCO, SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be a major international research centre in the Middle East and Mediterranean region. On 6th of January 2003, the official foundation of SESAME took place. The facility is located in Allan, Jordan, 30 km North-West of Amman. As of August 2003 the Founding Members are Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine, Turkey and United Arabic Emirates, representing a population of over 300 million. SESAME will be a 2.5 GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 24.6 nm.rad, circumference {approx}125m). About 40% of the circumference is available for insertion devices (average length 2.75m) in 13 straight sections. Beam lines are up to 36m. The site and a building are provided by Jordan. Construction started in August 2003. The scientific program will start with up to 6 beam lines: MAD Protein Crystallography, SAXS and WAXS for polymers and proteins, Powder Diffraction for material science, UV/VUV/SXR Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Photoabsorption Spectroscopy, IR Spectroscopy, and EXAFS.

  3. 3-D seismology in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Husseini, M.; Chimblo, R.

    1995-08-01

    Since 1977 when Aramco and GSI (Geophysical Services International) pioneered the first 3-D seismic survey in the Arabian Gulf, under the guidance of Aramco`s Chief Geophysicist John Hoke, 3-D seismology has been effectively used to map many complex subsurface geological phenomena. By the mid-1990s extensive 3-D surveys were acquired in Abu Dhabi, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Also in the mid-1990`s Bahrain, Kuwait and Dubai were preparing to record surveys over their fields. On the structural side 3-D has refined seismic maps, focused faults and fractures systems, as well as outlined the distribution of facies, porosity and fluid saturation. In field development, 3D has not only reduced drilling costs significantly, but has also improved the understanding of fluid behavior in the reservoir. In Oman, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) has now acquired the first Gulf 4-D seismic survey (time-lapse 3D survey) over the Yibal Field. The 4-D survey will allow PDO to directly monitor water encroachment in the highly-faulted Cretaceous Shu`aiba reservoir. In exploration, 3-D seismology has resolved complex prospects with structural and stratigraphic complications and reduced the risk in the selection of drilling locations. The many case studies from Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, which are reviewed in this paper, attest to the effectiveness of 3D seismology in exploration and producing, in clastics and carbonates reservoirs, and in the Mesozoic and Paleozoic.

  4. Multiple dolomitization events in Triassic Latemar buildup, the Dolomites, northern Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, E.N.

    1988-01-01

    Partially dolomitized grainstones of the Middle Triassic Latemar buildup (Dolomites, northern Italy) exhibit a range of texturally distinct dolomite types. Petrographic and field observations of spatial associations and cross-cutting relationships among dolomites allow unravelling of the paragenesis of dolomitization events. Three generations of dolomite are preserved in the Latemar. Microdolomite, the earliest generation, occurs as replacement of allochems and as cement in thin (5-15 cm) exposure caps of meter-scale subtidal cycles. These dolomite crusts are texturally and chemically analogous to the Holocene supratidal crusts of Florida and the Bahamas. Saddle dolomite cements, the second generation, fill or line pores and fractures through the platform. The final generation is massive replacement of limestone by coarse, crystalline dolomite, which occupies a 2-3 km/sup 3/ mushroom-shaped zone in the center of the buildup and includes a wide array of fabrics. Here, subtidal limestones are altered to porous sucrosic dolomite, while microdolomite caps are altered to dense dolomite mosaics. Saddle dolomite cements remain as relics surrounded by replacement rhombs. Two important conclusions are (1) early dolomite is preserved as poorly ordered microdolomite (unless overprinted by a later dolomitization event) and accounts for an insignificant volume of the Latemar dolomite, and (2) saddle dolomite cements, often regarded as late-stage burial, occur before massive replacement.

  5. Late Paleozoic paleolatitude and paleogeography of the Midland basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.A. ); Golonka, J. ); Reid, A.M.; Reid, S.T. )

    1992-04-01

    During the Late Pennsylvanian through Early Permian, the Midland basin was located in the low latitudes. In the Desmoinesian (Strawn), the basin was astride the equator; during the Missourian (Canyon), the center of the basin had migrated northward so it was located at 1-2N latitude. In the Virgilian (Cisco), the basin center was located around 2-4N latitude, and by the Wolfcampian, it was positioned at around 4-6N latitude. From the Desmoinesian (312 Ma) through the Missourian (306 Ma), the relative motion of the basin was 63NE. Later during the Virgilian (298 Ma) to Wolfcampian (280 Ma), the direction of motion was 24NE. This change in motion reflects a major tectonic event, occurring between the Missourian and Virgilian, that greatly modifed the movement of the Laurentian (North American) plate. At that time, Laurentia had collided with Gondwana and become part of the supercontinent Pangea. Throughout the late Paleozoic, Laurentia was rotated so the Midland basin was oriented 43{degree} northeast from its current setting. Late Paleozoic paleogeography and paleolatitude controlled the direction of prevailing winds and ocean currents, thereby influencing the distribution of carbonate facies in the Midland basin. Present prevailing winds and ocean currents have been shown to have a major impact on modern carbonate sedimentation and facies distribution in Belize, the Bahamas and Turks, and Caicos. A clearer understanding of how late Paleozoic latitude and geography affected sedimentation helps explain and predict the distribution of carbonates throughout the Midland basin.

  6. The increased concentration of SO{sub 2} and threat to the largest mangrove forest of the world - the Sundarbans

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, J.U.; Ullah, S.S.; Carmichael, G.R.; Haque, R.

    1996-12-31

    The atmospheric concentration of SO{sub 2} was monitored in two different sites, Khulna and Savar in Bangladesh as a part of Rains Asia Atmos Module, Phase I Project. The results show that the winter concentration of SO{sub 2} in Khulna is 3 to 4 times higher than the summer concentrations, which is also higher compared to measurements at Savar which is adjacent to Dhaka city. Based on these facts and seasonal wind pattern, trans-boundary air pollution has been suggested. Khulna is in the southwestern part of Bangladesh and this area harbors the largest mangrove forest of the world, the Sundarbans. Sundari trees are the main trees of the Sundarban ecosystem. During the last few years, many of the Sundari trees, which are quite susceptible to pH stress, are dying from the top. The unusual winter increase of atmospheric sulphurdioxide has been assigned to be one of the reasons for the top dying. Other factors might be the increase of salinity and diminished flow of water.

  7. Basic needs, rural financial markets, and appropriate technology: Toward a solution of analytical and policy issues

    SciTech Connect

    Farooq, M.O.

    1988-01-01

    The failure of the standard Growth Approach to economic development to solve the problems of underdevelopment in LDCs has caused an alternative approach, Basic Needs Approach (BNA), to attain prominence in development thought. BNA emphasizes poverty-minimizing growth. Its strategy of direct attack on poverty has better potential for LDCs' development and fulfillment of their populations' basic needs than the trickle-down mechanism of the Growth Approach. BNA requires, among other things, (a) suitable rural financial markets (RFMs) as parts of the overall financial system, and (b) indigenous technological capabilities. The financial system, if it functions as a central element in an institutionalized technology policy, can link technology-related institutions that generate, evaluate, and promote appropriate technologies (ATs) with RFMs that can support adoption and diffusion of ATs in the agro-rural sector. The above argument uses Bangladesh as a case for illustration. In the light of an institutional framework presented, examined, and extended in this dissertation, it is found that Bangladesh currently does not have an institutionalized technology policy. The current organizational framework and policies related to technological development are not conducive to BNA.

  8. TIMS U-series dating and stable isotopes of the last interglacial event in Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, M.; Wasserburg, G.J.; Chen, J.H. ); Aharon, P. ); Zhu, Z.R.; Chappell, J. ); Bloom, A. )

    1993-06-01

    The extensive flight of uplifted reef terraces which occurs along the Vitiaz strait on the northern flank of the Huon Peninsula in PNG (Papua New Guinea) contains a particularly good record of sea level changes in the last 250 ky. The Huon terraces were the target of an international expedition which took place in July--August 1988. In particular, the authors searched for suitable samples for U-series dating in a reef complex designated as VII, which is correlated with the last interglacial episode and high sea level stand. This complex is composed of a barrier reef (VIIb), a lagoon, and a fringing reef (VIIa). Twelve corals from these terraces and two corals from the older reef complex VIII were selected for analysis. The petrography, oxygen and carbon isotope compositions, and magnesium and strontium concentrations were determined along with the concentrations and isotopic compositions of uranium and thorium. The simplest model for sea level height for terrace VII is a continuous rise between 134 and 118 ky. Alternatively, there may have been two periods of rapid sea level rise. In contrast, in the Bahamas, there is evidence that sea level remained rather constant over the time interval 132 to 120 ky. The absence of ages between 132 and 120 ky in PNG could be the result of changes in the local tectonic uplift rates during that time, or erosion that disrupted the continuous record. In any event, the authors find no basis for accepting a single brief time for the age of the last interglacial and applying this age as a precise chronometer for worldwide correlation, or as a test of climatic models. The older ages reported here precede the Milankovitch solar insolation peak at 128 ky, and the younger ages are [approximately]10 ky after this peak. If the present high-precision data are correct, then it will be necessary to reassess the validity of the Milankovitch theory of climatic changes. 76 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Multiple dolomitization events in Triassic latemar buildup, the dolomites, northern Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, E.N.

    1988-02-01

    Partially dolomitized grainstones of the Middle Triassic Latemar buildup (Dolomites, northern Italy) exhibit a range of texturally distinct dolomite types. Petrographic and field observations of spatial associations and cross-cutting relationships among dolomites allow unravelling of the paragenesis of dolomitization events. Three generations of dolomite are preserved in the Latemar. Microdolomite, the earliest generation, occurs as replacement of allochems and as cement in thin (5-15 cm) exposure caps of meter-scale subtidal cycles. These dolomite crusts are texturally and chemically analogous to the Holocene supratidal crusts of Florida and the Bahamas. Saddle dolomite cements, the second generation, fill or line pores and fractures through the platform. The final generation is massive replacement of limestone by coarse, crystalline dolomite, which occupies a 2-3 km/sup 3/ mushroom-shaped zone in the center of the buildup and includes a wide array of fabrics. Here, subtidal limestones are altered to porous sucrosic dolomite, while microdolomite caps are altered to dense dolomite mosaics. Saddle dolomite cements remain as relics surrounded by replacement rhombs. Two important conclusions are (1) early dolomite is preserved as poorly ordered microdolomite (unless overprinted by a later dolomitization event) and accounts for an insignificant volume of the Latemar dolomite, and (2) saddle dolomite cements, often regarded as late-stage burial, occur before massive replacement. Standard textural classification of Latemar dolomites hindered the resolution of the timing of dolomitization events. Instead, paragenetic relationships provided a powerful tool for grouping dolomites into generations representing specific diagenetic events in specific dolomitizing environments.

  10. Bacterially induced precipitation of CaCO{sub 3}: An example from studies of cyanobacterial mats. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chafetz, H.S.

    1990-04-30

    Bacteria induce the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the laboratory and in nature by altering their chemical environment. Geologists are recognizing the possibility that bacterially induced precipitates may form significant mineral deposits, unfortunately, there are currently no sound criteria by which they can be recognized in recent sediments, or in the rock record. Cultures of aerobic and facultative bacteria from cyanobacterial mats on Andros Island, Bahamas, and Baffin Bay, Texas, induced the precipitation of calcium carbonate under controlled conditions. Crusts, the largest features formed, are composed of 5--200{mu}m diameter bundles which are, in turn, composed of numerous individual crystals. The smallest observed features are 0.1--0.4{mu}m spheres and rods which comprise some individual crystals and crystal bundles. Crystal bundles resembling rhombohedra, tetragonal disphenoids, tetragonal dipyramids, and calcite dumbbells appear to be uniquely bacterial in origin, and they have all been observed in recent sediments. Swollen rods, discs, curved dumbbells, and 50--200{mu}m optically continuous crystals resembling brushes may be uniquely bacterial in origin, however, they have not been reported by other laboratories nor observed in natural settings. Presence of any of these forms in recent sediments should be taken as strong evidence for bacterial influence. Spheres and aragonite dumbbells have also been observed in natural environments, however, they are not always bacterial in origin. Precipitation of calcium carbonate occurs preferentially on dead cyanobacteria in the presence of bacteria. Lithification of algal mats to form stromatolites may take place in the zone of decaying organic matter due to bacterial activity.

  11. Bacterially induced precipitation of CaCO sub 3 : An example from studies of cyanobacterial mats

    SciTech Connect

    Chafetz, H.S.

    1990-04-30

    Bacteria induce the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the laboratory and in nature by altering their chemical environment. Geologists are recognizing the possibility that bacterially induced precipitates may form significant mineral deposits, unfortunately, there are currently no sound criteria by which they can be recognized in recent sediments, or in the rock record. Cultures of aerobic and facultative bacteria from cyanobacterial mats on Andros Island, Bahamas, and Baffin Bay, Texas, induced the precipitation of calcium carbonate under controlled conditions. Crusts, the largest features formed, are composed of 5--200{mu}m diameter bundles which are, in turn, composed of numerous individual crystals. The smallest observed features are 0.1--0.4{mu}m spheres and rods which comprise some individual crystals and crystal bundles. Crystal bundles resembling rhombohedra, tetragonal disphenoids, tetragonal dipyramids, and calcite dumbbells appear to be uniquely bacterial in origin, and they have all been observed in recent sediments. Swollen rods, discs, curved dumbbells, and 50--200{mu}m optically continuous crystals resembling brushes may be uniquely bacterial in origin, however, they have not been reported by other laboratories nor observed in natural settings. Presence of any of these forms in recent sediments should be taken as strong evidence for bacterial influence. Spheres and aragonite dumbbells have also been observed in natural environments, however, they are not always bacterial in origin. Precipitation of calcium carbonate occurs preferentially on dead cyanobacteria in the presence of bacteria. Lithification of algal mats to form stromatolites may take place in the zone of decaying organic matter due to bacterial activity.

  12. Growth rates of upper Permian carbonate platform, Capitan margin of northern Delaware basin

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, P.M.; Grover, G.A.

    1989-03-01

    Subsurface and outcrop studies of the Capitan margin (late Guadalupian, Capitanian) in the northern Delaware basin have revealed that over 80% of the total progradation of the margin, over half the total aggradation of the platform (150 of 290 m), and over two-thirds of the basin fill (190 of 280 m) occurred during an early phase of development equating with Seven Rivers beds on the platform. The amount of progradation varied from 6 km from outcrop data in the Guadalupe Mountains to 19 km along trend to the east from subsurface information. The later phase of Capitan margin development was coincident with Yates and Tansill deposition on the platform and was dominated by aggradation and steepening of the margin. Corresponding to this two-phase model, two third-order cycles of relative sea level occur within the Capitanian on the eustasy curve of Ross and Ross: a Seven Rivers cycle lasting 1.5 m.y. and a Yates-Tansill cycle of 1.0 m.y. Progradation rates for the Capitan range from 2.6 to 8.3 m/1000 years. Similar rates are calculated from high-resolution seismic lines across the Cenozoic margin of northwestern great Bahama Bank. Accumulation rates for the Capitan, uncorrected for compaction, average 125 ..mu..m/year and 335 ..mu..m/year for the early phase shelf and shelf margin, respectively, and 160 ..mu..m/year and 430..mu..m/year for the later phase shelf and shelf margin. These accumulation rates are similar to those of other ancient, prograding platforms.

  13. Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) polymorphism in lead exposed Bangladeshi children and its effect on urinary aminolevulinic acid (ALA)

    SciTech Connect

    Tasmin, Saira; Furusawa, Hana; Ahmad, Sk. Akhtar; Watanabe, Chiho

    2015-01-15

    Background and objective: Lead has long been recognized as a harmful environmental pollutant. People in developing countries like Bangladesh still have a higher risk of lead exposure. Previous research has suggested that the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) genotype can modify lead toxicity and individual susceptibility. As children are more susceptible to lead-induced toxicity, this study investigated whether the ALAD genotype influenced urinary excretion of delta-aminolevulinic acid (U-ALA) among children exposed to environmental lead in Bangladesh. Methods: Subjects were elementary schoolchildren from a semi-urban industrialized area in Bangladesh. A total of 222 children were studied. Blood and urine were collected to determine ALAD genotypes, blood lead levels and urinary aminolevulinic acid (U-ALA). Results: The mean BPb level was 9.7 µg/dl for the study children. BPb was significantly positively correlated with hemoglobin (p<0.01). In total, allele frequency for ALAD 1 and 2 was 0.83 and 0.17 respectively. The mean U-ALA concentration was lower in ALAD1-2/2-2 carriers than ALAD1-1 carriers for boys (p=0.001). But for girls, U-ALA did not differ significantly by genotype (p=0.26). When U-ALA was compared by genotype at the same exposure level in a multiple linear regression analysis, boys who were ALAD1-2/2-2 carriers still had a lower level of U-ALA compared to ALAD1-1carriers. Conclusion: This study provides information about the influence of ALAD polymorphism and its association with U-ALA in Bangladeshi children. Our results indicate that the ALAD1-2/2-2 genotype may have a protective effect in terms of U-ALA for environmentally lead exposed boys. - Highlights: • High blood lead level for the environmentally exposed schoolchildren. • BPb was significantly correlated with U-ALA and Hb. • Effect of ALAD genotype on U-ALA is differed by sex. • Lower U-ALA in ALAD2 than ALAD1 carriers only for boys at same exposure.

  14. SESAME - A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Ulkue, Dincer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-19

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference {approx}133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member

  15. Policies to Spur Energy Access. Executive Summary; Volume 1, Engaging the Private Sector in Expanding Access to Electricity; Volume 2, Case Studies to Public-Private Models to Finance Decentralized Electricity Access

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Terri; Rai, Neha; Esterly, Sean; Cox, Sadie; Reber, Tim; Muzammil, Maliha; Mahmood, Tasfiq; Kaur, Nanki; Tesfaye, Lidya; Mamuye, Simret; Knuckles, James; Morris, Ellen; de Been, Merijn; Steinbach, Dave; Acharya, Sunil; Chhetri, Raju Pandit; Bhushal, Ramesh

    2015-09-01

    Government policy is one of the most important factors in engaging the private sector in providing universal access to electricity. In particular, the private sector is well positioned to provide decentralized electricity products and services. While policy uncertainty and regulatory barriers can keep enterprises and investors from engaging in the market, targeted policies can create opportunities to leverage private investment and skills to expand electricity access. However, creating a sustainable market requires policies beyond traditional electricity regulation. The report reviews the range of policy issues that impact the development and expansion of a market for decentralized electricity services from establishing an enabling policy environment to catalyzing finance, building human capacity, and integrating energy access with development programs. The case studies in this report show that robust policy frameworks--addressing a wide range of market issues--can lead to rapid transformation in energy access. The report highlights examples of these policies in action Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Mali, Mexico, and Nepal.

  16. CO2 Supermarket Refrigeration Systems for Southeast Asia and the USA

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Vishaldeep; Fricke, Brian A; Bansal, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of the annual energy consumption of these refrigeration systems in eighty eight cities from all climate zones in Southeast Asia. Also, the performance of the CO2 refrigeration systems is compared to the baseline R404A multiplex direct expansion (DX) system. Finally, the overall performance of the CO2 refrigeration systems in various climatic conditions in Southeast Asia is compared to that in the United States. For the refrigeration systems investigated, it was found that the Transcritical Booster System with Bypass Compressor (TBS-BC) performs better or equivalent to the R404A multiplex DX system in the northern regions of Southeast Asia (China and Japan). In the southern regions of Southeast Asia (India, Bangladesh, Burma), the R404A multiplex DX system and the Combined Secondary Cascade (CSC) system performs better than the TBS-BC.

  17. Marginal cost of natural gas in developing countries: concepts and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mashayekhi, A.

    1983-01-01

    Many developing nations are facing complex questions regarding the best strategy for developing their domestic gas reserves. The World Bank has addressed these questions in studies on the cost and prices of gas and its optimal allocation among different markets. Based on the average incremental method, an estimate of the marginal cost of natural gas in 10 developing countries proved to be $0.61-1.79/1000 CF or $3.59-10.54/bbl of oil equivalent, far below the border prices of competing fuels in these nations. Moreover, the cost of gas is not expected to rise in these countries within the next 20 years while the reserves/production ratios remain high. The sample involves a variety of gas compositions and production conditions among the countries of Bangladesh, Cameroon, Egypt, India, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Thailand, and Tunisia.

  18. Strategies of Asian oil-importing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, M.

    1997-04-01

    Various strategies are used by oil-importing countries to reduce their economic dependence on imported oil: national oil production, energy conservation, and the change of economic structures from high energy intensity sectors to low ones. In this article, the roles of these different strategies have been identified for 10 selected oil-importing countries in Asia: Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Thailand, Hong Kong, R.O Korea, and Taiwan. The results show that most of the selected countries (although Hong Kong and Taiwan are independent economic entities, for simplicity, the author refers to them as countries) have succeeded in reducing their national economy dependence on imported oil since 1973. Hong Kong, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and India are among the most successful countries, with more than 40% reduction in their economic dependence on imported oil.

  19. The impact of high-frequency sedimentation cycles on stratigraphic interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Perlmutter, M.A.; Radovich, B.J.; Matthews, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    Global cyclostratigraphy, a methodology that utilizes climate change to evaluate sediment flux, characterizes the impact of sediment cycles on stratigraphy. Climatic succession, sediment yield cycles, and the phase relationship of sediment cycles to eustatic cycles are all determined in the early stages of basin analysis. Sedimentologic information is then used to assist in sequence evaluations. Climatic successions are intrinsically associated with global position (paleogeography) and are not necessarily synchronous with glacioeustatic sea-level cycles. A preliminary evaluation of the effect of climate on sediment supply from modem river systems indicates that sediment yield may vary by well over two orders of magnitude during one climate cycle. Consequently, basins in different climatic belts can have distinctly different volumes and lithologies for systems tracts that have similar base-level changes. The stratigraphic computer program Sedpak was utilized to examine the possible impact of different sedimentation cycles on sequence interpretation and reservoir forecasts. The effect of sedimentation cycles on reservoir distribution in real world sequences is demonstrated with a comparison of the Miocene section of the Surma basin, Bangladesh, and the Plio-Pleistocene section of the Gulf of Mexico. In the Surma basin, reservoirs are most likely to occur in transgressive and highstand systems tracts, while reservoirs in the Gulf of Mexico are more likely in lowstand prograding complexes.

  20. Nuclear energy: Where do we go from here?

    SciTech Connect

    Muslim, Dato’ Dr Noramly

    2015-04-29

    As Malaysia progresses towards 2020, the depleting resource of oil and gas has forced a re-look at alternatives to replace fossil fuels as energy sources. Among the viable options is nuclear energy, enabling us to meet energy needs and sustain national development in the twenty-first century. Three essential steps Malaysia must take to introduce nuclear power into its energy mix are: energy planning, infrastructure development, and deployment. Malaysia has to face a series of challenges, including public acceptance, waste management, minimizing proliferation risk, and ensuring the security of nuclear plants and materials. Timely development of qualified and competent manpower is a key limiting factor in the development and transfer of nuclear technologies — and education and training take time, effort and money. There is a need for political will. Within the Asian region, China, Korea and Japan are in the forefront in utilizing nuclear power to meet electricity demands. Countries such as UAE, Bangladesh, Vietnam and Turkey are moving ahead with the nuclear option for electricity generation and they have begun planning and construction of nuclear power plants. Against this backdrop, what are Malaysia’s moves? This paper discusses various options and challenges, obstacles and repercussions in meeting future energy demands.

  1. Energy-conservation-investment decision making in developing countries: A review of project implementation in industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    Despite recent efforts in a number of developing countries to promote energy conservation (EC) and efficiency, only a fraction of EC potential has been captured, especially for projects that require significant investments. The document analyzes EC efforts in 11 countries where energy audit and/or feasibility study programs have been carried out (Bangladesh, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jordan, Pakistan, Panama, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka), covering some 1,500 EC projects involving 242 industrial companies. Cost and length of payback seem to be the determining factors for companies considering EC measures; no-cost or low-cost projects with paybacks of less than a year (such as power factor improvement projects) had the highest rate of implementation, while expensive, complicated projects (e.g., cogeneration or fuel substitution projects) were most often rejected. The document concludes, however, that the rate of implementation of EC programs has been quite high, and recommends that inexpensive, short-term projects be featured in future EC programs and increased levels of TA and financial assistance be made available to companies implementing long-term EC measures.

  2. South Asia Water Resources Workshop: An effort to promote water quality data sharing in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    RAJEN,GAURAV; BIRINGER,KENT L.; BETSILL,J. DAVID

    2000-04-01

    To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group comprised of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and the US convened at the Soaltee Hotel in Kathmandu, Nepal, September 12 to 14, 1999. The workshop was sponsored in part by the Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, through funding provided by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. The CMC promotes collaborations among scientists and researchers in regions throughout the world as a means of achieving common regional security objectives. In the long term, the workshop organizers and participants are interested in the significance of regional information sharing as a means to build confidence and reduce conflict. The intermediate interests of the group focus on activities that might eventually foster regional management of some aspects of water resources utilization. The immediate purpose of the workshop was to begin the implementation phase of a project to collect and share water quality information at a number of river and coastal estuary locations throughout the region. The workshop participants achieved four objectives: (1) gaining a better understanding of the partner organizations involved; (2) garnering the support of existing regional organizations promoting environmental cooperation in South Asia; (3) identifying sites within the region at which data is to be collected; and (4) instituting a data and information collection and sharing process.

  3. Grameen Bank`s experience with energy related microenterprise development

    SciTech Connect

    Barua, D.C.

    1997-12-01

    Increased population and growth of industry have resulted in greater demand for energy worldwide. Most of this energy is derived from fossil fuel (coal, gas, oil and nuclear) which will soon be depleted. In this context the need for developing renewable sources of energy has taken on a greater sense of importance and urgency. Over the years significant technological advances have been made in the area of renewable energies especially in the field of solar photovoltaics (PV), wind energy and bio-gas technology. In addition, for remote rural areas where there exists no infrastructure for conventional energy supply, these forms of decentralized alternative energy systems will be far more adaptable and well suited. Grameen Shakti (Energy) is an addition to the family of companies of Grameen Bank, to promote and supply renewable energy sources to rural households. GS, a not-for-profit company, expects not only to supply renewable energy services, but also to create employment and income generation opportunities in rural Bangladesh. GS will focus on supply, marketing, sales, testing and development of renewable energy systems of solar pv, biogas, wind turbines and windpumps.

  4. DE-EE0000319 Final Technical Report [National Open-ocean Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Skemp, Susan

    2013-12-29

    Under the authorization provided by Section 634 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (P.L. 110-140), in 2009 FAU was awarded U.S. Congressionally Directed Program (CDP) funding through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to investigate and develop technologies to harness the energy of the Florida Current as a source of clean, renewable, base-load power for Florida and the U.S. A second CDP award in 2010 provided additional funding in order to enhance and extend FAU’s activities. These two CDPs in 2009 and 2010 were combined into a single DOE grant, DE-EE0000319, and are the subject of this report. Subsequently, in July 2010 funding was made available under a separate contract, DE-EE0004200. Under that funding, DOE’s Wind and Water Power Program designated FAU’s state of Florida marine renewable energy (MRE) center as the Southeast National Marine Renewable Energy Center (SNMREC). This report discusses SNMREC activities funded by the DE-EE0000319 grant, but will make reference, as appropriate, to activities that require further investigation under the follow-on grant. The concept of extracting energy from the motions of the oceans has a long history. However, implementation on large scales of the technologies to effect renewable energy recovery from waves, tides, and open-ocean currents is relatively recent. DOE’s establishment of SNMREC recognizes a significant potential for ocean current energy recovery associated with the (relatively) high-speed Florida Current, the reach of the Gulf Stream System flowing through the Straits of Florida, between the Florida Peninsula and the Bahamas Archipelago. The proximity of the very large electrical load center of southeast Florida’s metropolitan area to the resource itself makes this potential all the more attractive. As attractive as this potential energy source is, it is not without its challenges. Although the technology is conceptually simple, its design and implementation in a commercially

  5. INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES UTILIZING SECONDARY/TERTIARY RECOVERY TECHNIQUES ON SMALL RESERVOIRS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    2002-11-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from shallow-shelf carbonate buildups or mounds within the Desert Creek zone of the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field at a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. Five fields in southeastern Utah were evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide (CO{sub 2})-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity as well as possible compartmentalization within each of the five project fields. The Desert Creek zone includes three generalized facies belts: (1) open-marine, (2) shallow-shelf and shelf-margin, and (3) intra-shelf, salinity-restricted facies. These deposits have modern analogs near the coasts of the Bahamas, Florida, and Australia, respectively, and outcrop analogs along the San Juan River of southeastern Utah. The analogs display reservoir heterogeneity, flow barriers and baffles, and lithofacies geometry observed in the fields; thus, these properties were incorporated in the reservoir simulation models. Productive carbonate buildups consist of three types: (1) phylloid algal, (2) coralline algal, and (3) bryozoan. Phylloid-algal buildups have a mound-core interval and a supra-mound interval. Hydrocarbons are stratigraphically trapped in porous and permeable lithotypes within the mound-core intervals of the lower part of the buildups and the more heterogeneous supramound intervals. To adequately represent the observed spatial heterogeneities in reservoir properties, the phylloid-algal bafflestones of the mound-core interval and the dolomites of the overlying supra-mound interval were subdivided into ten architecturally distinct lithotypes, each of which

  6. Geoscience Perspectives in Carbon Sequestration - Educational Training and Research Through Classroom, Field, and Laboratory Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Wronkiewicz, David; Paul, Varum; Abousif, Alsedik; Ryback, Kyle

    2013-09-30

    -olivine and augite, both being common minerals this sequence. The Oronto Group samples have poor reservoir rock characteristics, none ever exceeded a permeability value of 2.0 mD even after extensive dissolution of calcite cement during the experiments. The overlying Bayfield Group – Jacobsville Formation sandstones averaged 13.4 ± 4.3% porosity and a single sample tested by core-flooding revealed a permeability of ~340 mD. The high porosity-permeability characteristics of these sandstones will allow them to be used for GCS as a continuous aquifer unit with the overlying Mt. Simon Formation. 3) Anaerobic sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) can enhance the conversion rate of CO2 into solid minerals and thereby improve long-term storage. SRB accelerated carbonate mineralization reactions between pCO2 values of 0.0059 and 14.7 psi. Hydrogen, lactate and formate served as suitable electron donors for SRB metabolism. The use of a 13CO2 spiked gas source also produced carbonate minerals with ~53% of the carbon being derived from the gas phase. The sulfate reducing activity of the microbial community was limited, however, at 20 psi pCO2 and carbonate mineralization did not occur. Inhibition of bacterial metabolism may have resulted from the acidic conditions or CO2 toxicity. 4) Microbialite communities forming in the high turbidity and hypersaline water of Storrs’ Lake, San Salvador Island, The Bahamas, were investigated for their distribution, mineralogy and microbial diversity. Molecular analysis of the organic mats on the microbialites indicate only a trace amount of cyanobacteria, while anaerobic and photosynthetic non-sulfur bacteria of the phyla Chloroflexi and purple sulfur bacteria of class Gammaproteobacteria were abundant.

  7. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/11: Cooperative Environmental Monitoring in the Coastal Regions of India and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Rajen, Gauray

    1999-06-01

    The cessation of hostilities between India and Pakistan is an immediate need and of global concern, as these countries have tested nuclear devices, and have the capability to deploy nuclear weapons and long-range ballistic missiles. Cooperative monitoring projects among neighboring countries in South Asia could build regional confidence, and, through gradual improvements in relations, reduce the threat of war and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This paper discusses monitoring the trans-border movement of flow and sediment in the Indian and Pakistani coastal areas. Through such a project, India and Pakistan could initiate greater cooperation, and engender movement towards the resolution of the Sir Creek territorial dispute in their coastal region. The Joint Working Groups dialogue being conducted by India and Pakistan provides a mechanism for promoting such a project. The proposed project also falls within a regional framework of cooperation agreed to by several South Asian countries. This framework has been codified in the South Asian Seas Action Plan, developed by Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. This framework provides a useful starting point for Indian and Pakistani cooperative monitoring in their trans-border coastal area. The project discussed in this paper involves computer modeling, the placement of in situ sensors for remote data acquisition, and the development of joint reports. Preliminary computer modeling studies are presented in the paper. These results illustrate the cross-flow connections between Indian and Pakistani coastal regions and strengthen the argument for cooperation. Technologies and actions similar to those suggested for the coastal project are likely to be applied in future arms control and treaty verification agreements. The project, therefore, serves as a demonstration of cooperative monitoring technologies. The project will also increase people-to-people contacts among Indian and Pakistani policy

  8. Sex-specific patterns and deregulation of endocrine pathways in the gene expression profiles of Bangladeshi adults exposed to arsenic contaminated drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Muñoz, Alexandra; Chervona, Yana; Hall, Megan; Kluz, Thomas; Gamble, Mary V.; Costa, Max

    2015-05-01

    Arsenic contamination of drinking water occurs globally and is associated with numerous diseases including skin, lung and bladder cancers, and cardiovascular disease. Recent research indicates that arsenic may be an endocrine disruptor. This study was conducted to evaluate the nature of gene expression changes among males and females exposed to arsenic contaminated water in Bangladesh at high and low doses. Twenty-nine (55% male) Bangladeshi adults with water arsenic exposure ranging from 50 to 1000 μg/L were selected from the Folic Acid Creatinine Trial. RNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells for gene expression profiling using Affymetrix 1.0 ST arrays. Differentially expressed genes were assessed between high and low exposure groups for males and females separately and findings were validated using quantitative real-time PCR. There were 534 and 645 differentially expressed genes (p < 0.05) in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of males and females, respectively, when high and low water arsenic exposure groups were compared. Only 43 genes overlapped between the two sexes, with 29 changing in opposite directions. Despite the difference in gene sets both males and females exhibited common biological changes including deregulation of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes, deregulation of genes downstream of Sp1 (specificity protein 1) transcription factor, and prediction of estrogen receptor alpha as a key hub in cardiovascular networks. Arsenic-exposed adults exhibit sex-specific gene expression profiles that implicate involvement of the endocrine system. Due to arsenic's possible role as an endocrine disruptor, exposure thresholds for arsenic may require different parameters for males and females. - Highlights: • Males and females exhibit unique gene expression changes in response to arsenic. • Only 23 genes are common among the differentially expressed genes for the sexes. • Male and female gene lists exhibit common biological

  9. Southeast Asia: `A robust market`

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, S.S.

    1997-04-01

    Southeast Asia is emerging as a robust market for exploration and field development activities. While much of the worldwide attention is focused on lucrative deep water drilling and production in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico, Brazil, and West Africa, the burgeoning Pacific Rim region is very much in the spotlight. As the industry approaches the next century. Southeast Asia is a key growth area that will be the focus of extensive drilling and development. Regional licensing activity is buoyant as oil and gas companies continue to express interest in Southeast Asian opportunities. During 1996, about 75 new license awards were granted. This year, at least an equal number of licenses likely will be awarded to international major and independent oil companies. In the past five years, the number of production-sharing contracts and concessions awarded declined slightly as oil companies apparently opted to invest in other foreign markets. Brunei government officials plan to open offshore areas to licensing in 1997, including what may prove to be attractive deep water areas. Indonesia`s state oil company Pertamina will offer 26 offshore tracts under production-sharing and technical assistance contracts this year. Malaysia expects to attract international interest in some 30 blocks it will soon offer under production-sharing terms. Bangladesh expects to call for tenders for an unspecified number of concessions later this year. Nearby, bids were submitted earlier this year to the Australian government for rights to explore 38 offshore areas. Results are expected to be announced by mid-year.

  10. South Asia transboundary water quality monitoring workshop summary report.

    SciTech Connect

    Betsill, Jeffrey David; Littlefield, Adriane C.; Luetters, Frederick O.; Rajen, Gaurav

    2003-04-01

    The Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) promotes collaborations among scientists and researchers in several regions as a means of achieving common regional security objectives. To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group made up of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and the United States convened in Kathmandu, Nepal, from February 17-23,2002. The workshop was held to further develop the South Asia Transboundary Water Quality Monitoring (SATWQM) project. The project is sponsored in part by the CMC located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico through funding provided by the US. Department of State, Regional Environmental Affairs Office, American Embassy, Kathmandu, Nepal, and the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. This report summarizes the SATWQM project, the workshop objectives, process and results. The long-term interests of the participants are to develop systems for sharing regional environmental information as a means of building confidence and improving relations among South Asian countries. The more immediate interests of the group are focused on activities that foster regional sharing of water quality data in the Ganges and Indus River basins. Issues of concern to the SATWQM network participants include studying the impacts from untreated sewage and industrial effluents, agricultural run-off, salinity increases in fresh waters, the siltation and shifting of river channels, and the environmental degradation of critical habitats such as wetlands, protected forests, and endangered aquatic species conservation areas. The workshop focused on five objectives: (1) a deepened understanding of the partner organizations involved; (2) garnering the support of additional regional and national government and non-government organizations in South Asia involved in river water quality monitoring; (3) identification of

  11. Early life low-level cadmium exposure is positively associated with increased oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Kippler, Maria; Bakhtiar Hossain, Mohammad; Lindh, Christian; Moore, Sophie E.; Kabir, Iqbal; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2012-01-15

    Environmental exposure to cadmium (Cd) is known to induce oxidative stress, a state of imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ability to detoxify them, in adults. However, data are lacking on potential effects in early-life. We evaluated urinary concentrations of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 Prime -deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a recognized marker of oxidative DNA damage, in relation to Cd exposure in 96 predominantly breast-fed infants (11-17 weeks of age) in rural Bangladesh. Urinary 8-oxodG was measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and Cd in urine and breast milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Median concentration of 8-oxodG was 3.9 nmol/L, urinary Cd 0.30 {mu}g/L, and breast-milk Cd 0.13 {mu}g/L. In linear regression analyses, urinary 8-oxodG was positively associated with Cd in both urine (p=0.00067) and breast milk (p=0.0021), and negatively associated with body weight (kg; p=0.0041). Adjustment for age, body weight, socio-economic status, urinary arsenic, as well as magnesium, calcium, and copper in breast milk did not change the association between Cd exposure and urinary 8-oxodG. These findings suggest that early-life low-level exposure to Cd via breast milk induces oxidative stress. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether this oxidative stress is associated with impaired child health and development.

  12. The mediation of environmental assessment's influence: What role for power?

    SciTech Connect

    Cashmore, Matthew; Axelsson, Anna

    2013-02-15

    Considerable empirical research has been conducted on why policy tools such as environmental assessment (EA) often appear to have 'little effect' (after Weiss) on policy decisions. This article revisits this debate but looks at a mediating factor that has received limited attention to-date in the context of EA - political power. Using a tripartite analytical framework, a comparative analysis of the influence and significance of power in mediating environmental policy integration is undertaken. Power is analysed, albeit partially, through an exploration of institutions that underpin social order. Empirically, the research examines the case of a new approach to policy-level EA (essentially a form of Strategic Environmental Assessment) developed by the World Bank and its trial application to urban environmental governance and planning in Dhaka mega-city, Bangladesh. The research results demonstrate that power was intimately involved in mediating the influence of the policy EA approach, in both positive (enabling) and negative (constraining) ways. It is suggested that the policy EA approach was ultimately a manifestation of a corporate strategy to maintain the powerful position of the World Bank as a leading authority on international development which focuses on knowledge generation. Furthermore, as constitutive of an institution and reflecting the worldviews of its proponents, the development of a new approach to EA also represents a significant power play. This leads us to, firstly, emphasise the concepts of strategy and intentionality in theorising how and why EA tools are employed, succeed and fail; and secondly, reflect on the reasons why power has received such limited attention to-date in EA scholarship. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conducts empirical research on the neglected issue of power. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Employs an interpretation of power in which it is viewed as a productive phenomenon. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analyses the

  13. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S

    2001-05-22

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFOTM exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages. This database includes ten ARC/INFO exported integer grid files (five with the pixel size 3.75 km x 3.75 km and five with the pixel size 0.25 degree longitude x 0.25 degree latitude) and 27 ASCII files. The first ASCII file contains the documentation associated with this database. Twenty-four of the ASCII files were generated by means of the ARC/INFO GRIDASCII command and can be used by most raster-based GIS software packages. The 24 files can be subdivided into two groups of 12 files each. These files contain real data values representing actual carbon and potential carbon density in Mg C/ha (1 megagram = 10{sup 6} grams) and integer-coded values for country name, Weck's Climatic Index, ecofloristic zone, elevation, forest or non-forest designation, population density, mean annual precipitation, slope, soil texture, and vegetation classification. One set of 12 files contains these data at a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, whereas the other

  14. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.

    2002-02-07

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFO{trademark} exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages. This database includes ten ARC/INFO exported integer grid files (five with the pixel size 3.75 km x 3.75 km and five with the pixel size 0.25 degree longitude x 0.25 degree latitude) and 27 ASCII files. The first ASCII file contains the documentation associated with this database. Twenty-four of the ASCII files were generated by means of the ARC/INFO GRIDASCII command and can be used by most raster-based GIS software packages. The 24 files can be subdivided into two groups of 12 files each. These files contain real data values representing actual carbon and potential carbon density in Mg C/ha (1 megagram = 10{sup 6} grams) and integer- coded values for country name, Weck's Climatic Index, ecofloristic zone, elevation, forest or non-forest designation, population density, mean annual precipitation, slope, soil texture, and vegetation classification. One set of 12 files contains these data at a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, whereas

  15. Product Quality Assurance for Off-Grid Lighting in Africa

    SciTech Connect

    World Bank; Mills, Evan; Mills, Evan

    2008-07-13

    Although the emergence of markets for high efficiency off-grid lighting technologies holds promise, realizing the potential of this opportunity on a long-term, sustainable basis requires careful attention to issues of product quality, consumer protection, and the potential for significant 'market spoiling', in anticipation of increases of sales of low cost, low performance off-grid lighting products. The goal of the Lighting Africa quality assurance workshop was to articulate strategies to mitigate the dangers of market spoiling and to explore ways to protect consumers from misleading advertising for sales of inferior, off-grid lighting products in the context of Lighting Africa's overarching objective to support the industry in developing a robust off-grid lighting market in Africa. The workshop resulted in the identification of two strategic approaches for meeting Lighting Africa quality assurance programmatic needs. The first strategy is intended to meet a short-term programmatic need for quality associated with requests for lighting products by bulk procurement agents, such as in a World Bank-financed project. The development of procurement specifications and test procedures that could be used in a quality/usability screening method in order to provide guidance for forthcoming large volume purchases emerged as the best solution to meet this need. Such approaches are used in World Bank-financed solar home systems (SHSs) projects in Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and China, among others. However, unlike the SHSs which have multiple balance-of-system (BOS) components warranting the need for an array of specifications for individual components, stand alone lighting systems require specifications that are amenable to individual light points. To test this approach, Lighting Africa elected to use the technical specifications issued by the Photovoltaic Global Approval Program for solar lanterns that use CFL bulbs (PVRS11A) as the basis of qualifying such products. A contract