National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for avoided cost level

  1. Levelized cost and levelized avoided cost of new generation resources...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    3 The importance of the factors varies among the technologies. For technologies such as solar and wind generation that have no fuel costs and relatively small variable O&M costs,...

  2. Levelized Cost of Electricity and Levelized Avoided Cost of Electricity Methodology Supplement

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    per Thousand Cubic Feet) Lake Charles, LA Natural Gas LNG Imports from Equatorial Guinea (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Lake Charles, LA Natural Gas LNG Imports from Equatorial Guinea (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -- 6.75 -- -- 2010's -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 10/31/2016 Next Release Date:

  3. An Examination of Avoided Costs in Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-01-07

    The Utah Wind Working Group (UWWG) believes there are currently opportunities to encourage wind power development in the state by seeking changes to the avoided cost tariff paid to qualifying facilities (QFs). These opportunities have arisen as a result of a recent renegotiation of Pacificorp's Schedule 37 tariff for wind QFs under 3 MW, as well as an ongoing examination of Pacificorp's Schedule 38 tariff for wind QFs larger than 3 MW. It is expected that decisions made regarding Schedule 38 will also impact Schedule 37. Through the Laboratory Technical Assistance Program (Lab TAP), the UWWG has requested (through the Utah Energy Office) that LBNL provide technical assistance in determining whether an alternative method of calculating avoided costs that has been officially adopted in Idaho would lead to higher QF payments in Utah, and to discuss the pros and cons of this method relative to the methodology recently adopted under Schedule 37 in Utah. To accomplish this scope of work, I begin by summarizing the current method of calculating avoided costs in Utah (per Schedule 37) and Idaho (the ''surrogate avoided resource'' or SAR method). I then compare the two methods both qualitatively and quantitatively. Next I present Pacificorp's four main objections to the use of the SAR method, and discuss the reasonableness of each objection. Finally, I conclude with a few other potential considerations that might add value to wind QFs in Utah.

  4. Levelized Power Generation Cost Codes

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    1996-04-30

    LPGC is a set of nine microcomputer programs for estimating power generation costs for large steam-electric power plants. These programs permit rapid evaluation using various sets of economic and technical ground rules. The levelized power generation costs calculated may be used to compare the relative economics of nuclear and coal-fired plants based on life-cycle costs. Cost calculations include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, decommissioning cost, and total levelized power generationmore » cost. These programs can be used for quick analyses of power generation costs using alternative economic parameters, such as interest rate, escalation rate, inflation rate, plant lead times, capacity factor, fuel prices, etc. The two major types of electric generating plants considered are pressurized water reactor (PWR) and pulverized coal-fired plants. Data are also provided for the Large Scale Prototype Breeder (LSPB) type liquid metal reactor.« less

  5. Avoided level crossings in very highly charged ions (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Avoided level crossings in very highly charged ions Authors: Beiersdorfer, P. ; Scofield, J. H. ; Brown, G. V. ; Chen, M. H. ; Hell, N. ; Osterheld, A. L. ; Vogel, D. A. ; ...

  6. Avoided Cost Rates, Environmental Externalities | OpenEI Community

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    or even individual utilities counting (i.e. pricing) the avoided emmissions, healt benefits, etc. that flow from cleaner sources of generation. I am aware of 2010 FERC rule...

  7. Load Leveling Battery System Costs

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    1994-10-12

    SYSPLAN evaluates capital investment in customer side of the meter load leveling battery systems. Such systems reduce the customer's monthly electrical demand charge by reducing the maximum power load supplied by the utility during the customer's peak demand. System equipment consists of a large array of batteries, a current converter, and balance of plant equipment and facilities required to support the battery and converter system. The system is installed on the customer's side of themore » meter and controlled and operated by the customer. Its economic feasibility depends largely on the customer's load profile. Load shape requirements, utility rate structures, and battery equipment cost and performance data serve as bases for determining whether a load leveling battery system is economically feasible for a particular installation. Life-cycle costs for system hardware include all costs associated with the purchase, installation, and operation of battery, converter, and balance of plant facilities and equipment. The SYSPLAN spreadsheet software is specifically designed to evaluate these costs and the reduced demand charge benefits; it completes a 20 year period life cycle cost analysis based on the battery system description and cost data. A built-in sensitivity analysis routine is also included for key battery cost parameters. The life cycle cost analysis spreadsheet is augmented by a system sizing routine to help users identify load leveling system size requirements for their facilities. The optional XSIZE system sizing spreadsheet which is included can be used to identify a range of battery system sizes that might be economically attractive. XSIZE output consisting of system operating requirements can then be passed by the temporary file SIZE to the main SYSPLAN spreadsheet.« less

  8. User's guide to SERICPAC: A computer program for calculating electric-utility avoided costs rates

    SciTech Connect

    Wirtshafter, R.; Abrash, M.; Koved, M.; Feldman, S.

    1982-05-01

    SERICPAC is a computer program developed to calculate average avoided cost rates for decentralized power producers and cogenerators that sell electricity to electric utilities. SERICPAC works in tandem with SERICOST, a program to calculate avoided costs, and determines the appropriate rates for buying and selling of electricity from electric utilities to qualifying facilities (QF) as stipulated under Section 210 of PURA. SERICPAC contains simulation models for eight technologies including wind, hydro, biogas, and cogeneration. The simulations are converted in a diversified utility production which can be either gross production or net production, which accounts for an internal electricity usage by the QF. The program allows for adjustments to the production to be made for scheduled and forced outages. The final output of the model is a technology-specific average annual rate. The report contains a description of the technologies and the simulations as well as complete user's guide to SERICPAC.

  9. Submission of Final Scientific/Technical Report [Solar Avoided Cost Solution: SunShot 6 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Danziger, Eric

    2014-01-29

    The core objectives of this project were two separate but integrated products, collectively providing game-changing Avoided Cost capabilities. • The first was a kit of avoided cost tools and data that any solar provider can use a-lacarte or as a whole. It’s open and easily accessible nature allows the rapid and accurate calculation of avoided cost in whatever context and software that make sense (“Typical and Avoided Cost Tools”). This kit includes a dataset of typical energy rates, costs and usage that can be used for solar prospecting, lead generation and any situation where data about an opportunity is missing or imperfect. • The second is a web application and related APIs specifically built for solar providers to radically streamline their lead-to-sale process (“Solar Provider Module”). The typical and Avoided Cost tools are built directly into this, and allow for solar providers to track their opportunities, collaborate with their installers and financiers, and close more sales faster.

  10. Cost avoidance techniques through the Fernald controlled area trash segregation program and the RIMIA solid waste reduction program

    SciTech Connect

    Menche, C.E.

    1997-05-14

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project is a Department of Energy owned facility that produced high quality uranium metals for military defense. The Fernald mission has changed from one of production to remediation. Remediation is intended to clean up legacy (primary) waste from past practices. Little opportunity is available to reduce the amount of primary waste. However, there is an opportunity to reduce secondary waste generation, primarily through segregation. Two programs which accomplish this are the Controlled Area Trash Segregation Program and the RIMIA Solid Waste Reduction Program. With these two programs now in place at the FEMP, it has been estimated that a 60% reduction has been achieved in unnecessary clean waste being disposed as Low Level Waste at the Nevada Test Site. The cost savings associated with these programs (currently 79,000 cubic feet, $428,000) could easily run into the millions of dollars based on the upcoming restoration activities to be undertaken. The segregation of non-radiological waste in the radiologically Controlled Area not only establishes a firm commitment to send only low-level radioactive waste to the Nevada Test Site, but also results in substantial cost avoidance.

  11. Levelized Costs for Nuclear, Gas and Coal for Electricity, under...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Levelized Costs for Nuclear, Gas and Coal for Electricity, under the Mexican Scenario Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Levelized Costs for Nuclear, Gas and ...

  12. Cutting-Edge Savannah River Site Project Avoids Millions in Costs, Removes Chemical Solvents from Underground: Project avoided costs totaling more than $15 million, removed tons of chemical solvents from beneath the Savannah River Site

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    AIKEN, S.C. – Workers recently completed a multiyear project that removed more than 33,000 gallons of non-radioactive chemical solvents from beneath a portion of the Savannah River Site (SRS), preventing those pollutants from entering the local water table and helping the site avoid costs of more than $15 million.

  13. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    1 July 2012 Short-Term Energy Outlook Highlights * EIA projects the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil spot price to average about $88 per barrel over the second half of 2012 and the U.S. refiner acquisition cost (RAC) of crude oil to average $93 per barrel, both about $7 per barrel lower than last month's Outlook. EIA expects WTI and RAC crude oil prices to remain roughly at these second half levels in 2013. Beginning in this month's Outlook, EIA is also providing a forecast of Brent crude

  14. Levelized Cost of Energy in US | OpenEI Community

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Levelized Cost of Energy in US Home I'd like to pull a cost comparison for the levelized cost of energy in the US. How do I do this on this site? Does the LCOE interactive table...

  15. levelized cost of energy | OpenEI Community

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    levelized cost of energy Home Kch's picture Submitted by Kch(24) Member 15 July, 2014 - 07:07 MHK Cost Breakdown Structure Draft CBS current energy GMREC LCOE levelized cost of...

  16. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Report," collects the cost and quality of fossil fuel purchases made by electric ... a reduction of approximately 9 percent of natural gas purchases, cost, and quality data. ...

  17. A NOVEL APPROACH TO MINERAL CARBONATION: ENHANCING CARBONATION WHILE AVOIDING MINERAL PRETREATMENT PROCESS COST

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. McKelvy; Andrew V.G. Chizmeshya; Kyle Squires; Ray W. Carpenter; Hamadallah Bearat

    2005-10-01

    Known fossil fuel reserves, especially coal, can support global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other CO{sub 2} sequestration candidate technologies that propose long-term storage, mineral sequestration provides permanent disposal by forming geologically stable mineral carbonates. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a large-scale sequestration process candidate for regional implementation, which converts CO{sub 2} into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The primary goal is cost-competitive process development. As the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is key to economic viability. Recent studies at the U.S. DOE Albany Research Center have established that aqueous-solution carbonation using supercritical CO{sub 2} is a promising process; even without olivine activation, 30-50% carbonation has been achieved in an hour. Mechanical activation (e.g., attrition) has accelerated the carbonation process to an industrial timescale (i.e., near completion in less than an hour), at reduced pressure and temperature. However, the activation cost is too high to be economical and lower cost pretreatment options are needed. Herein, we report our first year progress in exploring a novel approach that offers the potential to substantially enhance carbonation reactivity while bypassing pretreatment activation. We have discovered that robust silica-rich passivating layers form on the olivine surface during carbonation. As carbonation proceeds, these passivating layers thicken, fracture and eventually exfoliate, exposing fresh olivine surfaces during rapidly-stirred/circulating carbonation. We are exploring the mechanisms that govern carbonation reactivity and the impact that (1) modeling/controlling the slurry fluid-flow conditions, (2) varying the

  18. A Novel Approach To Mineral Carbonation: Enhancing Carbonation While Avoiding Mineral Pretreatment Process Cost

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. McKelvy; Andrew V. G. Chizmeshya; Kyle Squires; Ray W. Carpenter; Hamdallah Bearat

    2006-06-21

    Known fossil fuel reserves, especially coal, can support global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other CO{sub 2} sequestration candidate technologies that propose long-term storage, mineral sequestration provides permanent disposal by forming geologically stable mineral carbonates. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a large-scale sequestration process candidate for regional implementation, which converts CO{sub 2} into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The primary goal is cost-competitive process development. As the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is key to economic viability. Recent studies at the U.S. DOE Albany Research Center have established that aqueous-solution carbonation using supercritical CO{sub 2} is a promising process; even without olivine activation, 30-50% carbonation has been achieved in an hour. Mechanical activation (e.g., attrition) has accelerated the carbonation process to an industrial timescale (i.e., near completion in less than an hour), at reduced pressure and temperature. However, the activation cost is too high to be economical and lower cost pretreatment options are needed. Herein, we report our second year progress in exploring a novel approach that offers the potential to substantially enhance carbonation reactivity while bypassing pretreatment activation. As our second year progress is intimately related to our earlier work, the report is presented in that context to provide better overall understanding of the progress made. We have discovered that robust silica-rich passivating layers form on the olivine surface during carbonation. As carbonation proceeds, these passivating layers thicken, fracture and eventually exfoliate, exposing fresh olivine surfaces during rapidly

  19. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: After reaching a four-month low in the beginning of August, crude oil prices rebounded close to the highest levels of the ...

  20. A Novel Approach to Mineral Carbonation: Enhancing Carbonation While Avoiding Mineral Pretreatment Process Cost

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew V. G. Chizmeshya; Michael J. McKelvy; Kyle Squires; Ray W. Carpenter; Hamdallah Bearat

    2007-06-21

    Known fossil fuel reserves, especially coal, can support global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other CO{sub 2} sequestration candidate technologies that propose long-term storage, mineral sequestration provides permanent disposal by forming geologically stable mineral carbonates. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a large-scale sequestration process candidate for regional implementation, which converts CO{sub 2} into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The primary goal is cost-competitive process development. As the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is key to economic viability. Recent studies at the U.S. DOE Albany Research Center have established that aqueous-solution carbonation using supercritical CO{sub 2} is a promising process; even without olivine activation, 30-50% carbonation has been achieved in an hour. Mechanical activation (e.g., attrition) has accelerated the carbonation process to an industrial timescale (i.e., near completion in less than an hour), at reduced pressure and temperature. However, the activation cost is too high to be economical and lower cost pretreatment options are needed. We have discovered that robust silica-rich passivating layers form on the olivine surface during carbonation. As carbonation proceeds, these passivating layers thicken, fracture and eventually exfoliate, exposing fresh olivine surfaces during rapidly-stirred/circulating carbonation. We are exploring the mechanisms that govern carbonation reactivity and the impact that (1) modeling/controlling the slurry fluid-flow conditions, (2) varying the aqueous ion species/size and concentration (e.g., Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cl-, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}), and (3) incorporating select sonication offer to enhance exfoliation and carbonation. Thus

  1. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $34.46/b on February 4 $2.76 per barrel (b) below its January 4 level (Figure 1). The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front month futures price settled at $31.72, a decrease of $5.04/b over the same period. On January 20, both Brent and WTI were at their lowest levels since 2003. During the first three weeks of January, Brent and WTI front month futures prices declined 25% and 28%,

  2. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: International crude oil prices, which reached their highest point of the year in June, fell to their lowest levels of the year in early August. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $105.44/barrel on August 7, a decrease of $6.85/barrel from July 1 (Figure 1). The front month West Texas Intermediate (WTI) contract also fell, settling at $97.34/barrel on August 7, $8.00/barrel lower than on July 1. A further easing of

  3. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: Crude oil prices in November declined to the lowest levels since August. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $43.84 per barrel (b) on December 3, a decrease of $4.95/b since November 2 (Figure 1). The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front month futures price settled at $41.08/b on December 3, declining $5.06/b over the same period. The prospect of an oversupplied crude oil market continuing in the near term weighed on

  4. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: Crude oil futures prices reached the lowest level in 12 years in December and early January. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $33.75 per barrel (b) on January 7, $10.69/b lower than the close on December 1 (Figure 1). The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front month futures price settled at $33.27, a decrease of $8.58/b over the same period. Global crude oil prices declined after the December 4 Organization of Petroleum

  5. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: After an upward move in mid-June, crude oil prices retreated close to previous levels. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $111/barrel on July 3, an increase of $2.17/barrel from June 2 (Figure 1). The front month West Texas Intermediate (WTI) contract also rose, settling at $104.06/barrel on July 3, $1.59/barrel higher than on June 2. Tensions in Iraq were the primary driver of the crude oil price increase in mid-June.

  6. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: International crude oil futures prices rebounded in April and approached the top of their recent trading range. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $107.76 per barrel (bbl) on May 1, an increase of $2.14/bbl from April 1 (Figure 1). West Texas Intermediate (WTI) prices at the start of May were near the same levels as the beginning of April. The front month WTI contract settled at $99.42/bbl on May 1, a slight decrease

  7. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: Crude oil prices continued to rise in April and reached their highest levels of the year. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $65.54 per barrel (b) on May 7, an increase of $8.44/b since the close on April 1 (Figure 1). The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front month futures price rose by $8.85/b over the same period to settle at $58.94/b on May 7. Although current oil market conditions still show production outpacing

  8. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: Crude oil prices continued upward and reached the highest levels of the year. The North Sea Brent front-month futures price rose $6.34 per barrel (b) from April 1 to settle at $45.01/b on May 5 (Figure 1). The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front-month futures price rose $7.53/b and settled at $44.32/b over the same period. Early data on petroleum product consumption in 2016 suggest that last year's strong growth may continue this year. U.S.

  9. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: International crude oil prices fell in August and remain near their lowest levels of 2014. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $101.83/barrel on September 4, a decrease of $3.01/barrel from August 1 (Figure 1). The front month West Texas Intermediate (WTI) contract price fell by $3.43/barrel over the same period, settling at $94.45/barrel on September 4. Although the U.S. economy showed robust growth in the second

  10. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: After reaching a four-month low in the beginning of August, crude oil prices rebounded close to the highest levels of the year. The front-month Brent crude oil price increased $3.31 per barrel (b) since August 1, settling at $45.45/b on September 1 (Figure 1). The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front-month crude oil price settled at $43.16/b, an increase of $3.10/b over the same period. Price volatility in global equity markets declined in

  11. Manufacturing Cost Levelization Model – A User’s Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, William R.; Shehabi, Arman; Smith, Sarah Josephine

    2015-08-01

    The Manufacturing Cost Levelization Model is a cost-performance techno-economic model that estimates total large-scale manufacturing costs for necessary to produce a given product. It is designed to provide production cost estimates for technology researchers to help guide technology research and development towards an eventual cost-effective product. The model presented in this user’s guide is generic and can be tailored to the manufacturing of any product, including the generation of electricity (as a product). This flexibility, however, requires the user to develop the processes and process efficiencies that represents a full-scale manufacturing facility. The generic model is comprised of several modules that estimate variable costs (material, labor, and operating), fixed costs (capital & maintenance), financing structures (debt and equity financing), and tax implications (taxable income after equipment and building depreciation, debt interest payments, and expenses) of a notional manufacturing plant. A cash-flow method is used to estimate a selling price necessary for the manufacturing plant to recover its total cost of production. A levelized unit sales price ($ per unit of product) is determined by dividing the net-present value of the manufacturing plant’s expenses ($) by the net present value of its product output. A user defined production schedule drives the cash-flow method that determines the levelized unit price. In addition, an analyst can increase the levelized unit price to include a gross profit margin to estimate a product sales price. This model allows an analyst to understand the effect that any input variables could have on the cost of manufacturing a product. In addition, the tool is able to perform sensitivity analysis, which can be used to identify the key variables and assumptions that have the greatest influence on the levelized costs. This component is intended to help technology researchers focus their research attention on tasks

  12. Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Estimates of Renewable Portfolio Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, J.; Barbose, G.; Bird, L.; Weaver, S.; Flores-Espino, F.; Kuskova-Burns, K.; Wiser, R.

    2014-05-01

    Most renewable portfolio standards (RPS) have five or more years of implementation experience, enabling an assessment of their costs and benefits. Understanding RPS costs and benefits is essential for policymakers evaluating existing RPS policies, assessing the need for modifications, and considering new policies. This study provides an overview of methods used to estimate RPS compliance costs and benefits, based on available data and estimates issued by utilities and regulators. Over the 2010-2012 period, average incremental RPS compliance costs in the United States were equivalent to 0.8% of retail electricity rates, although substantial variation exists around this average, both from year-to-year and across states. The methods used by utilities and regulators to estimate incremental compliance costs vary considerably from state to state and a number of states are currently engaged in processes to refine and standardize their approaches to RPS cost calculation. The report finds that state assessments of RPS benefits have most commonly attempted to quantitatively assess avoided emissions and human health benefits, economic development impacts, and wholesale electricity price savings. Compared to the summary of RPS costs, the summary of RPS benefits is more limited, as relatively few states have undertaken detailed benefits estimates, and then only for a few types of potential policy impacts. In some cases, the same impacts may be captured in the assessment of incremental costs. For these reasons, and because methodologies and level of rigor vary widely, direct comparisons between the estimates of benefits and costs are challenging.

  13. Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) for selective absorber materials

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Ho, Clifford K.; Pacheco, James E.

    2014-08-08

    A new metric has been developed to evaluate and compare selective absorber coatings for concentrating solar power applications. Previous metrics have typically considered the performance of the selective coating (i.e., solar absorptance and thermal emittance), but cost and durability were not considered. This report describes the development of the levelized cost of coating (LCOC), which is similar to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) commonly used to evaluate alternative energy technologies. The LCOC is defined as the ratio of the annualized cost of the coating (and associated costs such as labor and number of heliostats required) to the average annualmore » thermal energy produced by the receiver. The baseline LCOC using Pyromark 2500 paint was found to be %240.055/MWht, and the distribution of LCOC values relative to this baseline were determined in a probabilistic analysis to range from -%241.6/MWht to %247.3/MWht, accounting for the cost of additional (or fewer) heliostats required to yield the same baseline average annual thermal energy produced by the receiver. A stepwise multiple rank regression analysis showed that the initial solar absorptance was the most significant parameter impacting the LCOC, followed by thermal emittance, degradation rate, reapplication interval, and downtime during reapplication.« less

  14. Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) for selective absorber materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Clifford K.; Pacheco, James E.

    2014-08-08

    A new metric has been developed to evaluate and compare selective absorber coatings for concentrating solar power applications. Previous metrics have typically considered the performance of the selective coating (i.e., solar absorptance and thermal emittance), but cost and durability were not considered. This report describes the development of the levelized cost of coating (LCOC), which is similar to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) commonly used to evaluate alternative energy technologies. The LCOC is defined as the ratio of the annualized cost of the coating (and associated costs such as labor and number of heliostats required) to the average annual thermal energy produced by the receiver. The baseline LCOC using Pyromark 2500 paint was found to be %240.055/MWht, and the distribution of LCOC values relative to this baseline were determined in a probabilistic analysis to range from -%241.6/MWht to %247.3/MWht, accounting for the cost of additional (or fewer) heliostats required to yield the same baseline average annual thermal energy produced by the receiver. A stepwise multiple rank regression analysis showed that the initial solar absorptance was the most significant parameter impacting the LCOC, followed by thermal emittance, degradation rate, reapplication interval, and downtime during reapplication.

  15. Lighting system replacement brings energy costs down, light levels up

    SciTech Connect

    Radmer, D.J.

    1984-11-08

    The R.J. Frisby Mfg. Co. operates on three shifts and produces precision screw machine products for a variety of industries, including automotive, marine, machine tool, hydraulics and pneumatics, business machines, electrical and electronics, photography, and precision instruments. The required degree of manufacturing precision demands high light levels in manufacturing areas. When the 100,000 sq ft plant was built in 1973, mercury vapor lighting was installed consistent with the current state of the art for lighting such facilities. In the ensuing years, it became apparent that the soaring electric bills that came in the wake of the Arab oil embargo of 1973-74 would have to be controlled. Estimates by the U.S. Department of Energy indicated that electric energy costs were likely to rise by 160 percent over the next 10 yr. Based on this estimate, and the fact that lighting accounted for $70,000, or half of the annual electric bill, it was estimated that $900,000 to $1,000,000 would be spent for lighting energy over the next decade. The concern over the probability of rapidly escalating electrical costs was soon justified when, in three steps over one 12 mo period, the electric energy rate increased from $0.0305/kwh to $0.0416/kwh -more than a 36 percent increase. During that same period, the demand charge was raised in two steps from $3.75/kw to $4.85/kw --more than a 29 percent increase.

  16. Levelized cost of energy for a Backward Bent Duct Buoy

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Bull, Diana; Jenne, D. Scott; Smith, Christopher S.; Copping, Andrea E.; Copeland, Guild

    2016-07-18

    The Reference Model Project, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, was developed to provide publicly available technical and economic benchmarks for a variety of marine energy converters. The methodology to achieve these benchmarks is to develop public domain designs that incorporate power performance estimates, structural models, anchor and mooring designs, power conversion chain designs, and estimates of the operations and maintenance, installation, and environmental permitting required. The reference model designs are intended to be conservative, robust, and experimentally verified. The Backward Bent Duct Buoy (BBDB) presented in this paper is one of three wave energy conversion devices studied withinmore » the Reference Model Project. Furthermore, comprehensive modeling of the BBDB in a Northern California climate has enabled a full levelized cost of energy (LCOE) analysis to be completed on this device.« less

  17. Transparent Cost Database for Generation at Regional Level? ...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    cost of electricity generation using different technologies. I think at all these data are national averages, however. I was wondering if such data was available at...

  18. Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2008-02-09

    This is the final technical report for a three-site project that is part of an overall program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) and industry partners to obtain the necessary information to assess the feasibility and costs of controlling mercury from coal-fired utility plants. This report summarizes results from tests conducted at MidAmerican's Louisa Generating Station and Entergy's Independence Steam Electric Station (ISES) and sorbent screening at MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center (CBEC) (subsequently renamed Walter Scott Energy Center (WSEC)). Detailed results for Independence and Louisa are presented in the respective Topical Reports. As no full-scale testing was conducted at CBEC, screening updates were provided in the quarterly updates to DOE. ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL, EPRI, and other industry partners, has conducted evaluations of EPRI's TOXECON II{trademark} process and of high-temperature reagents and sorbents to determine the capabilities of sorbent/reagent injection, including activated carbon, for mercury control on different coals and air emissions control equipment configurations. An overview of each plant configuration is presented: (1) MidAmerican's Louisa Generating Station burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal in its 700-MW Unit 1 and employs hot-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) with flue gas conditioning for particulate control. This part of the testing program evaluated the effect of reagents used in the existing flue gas conditioning on mercury removal. (2) MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center typically burns PRB coal in its 88-MW Unit 2. It employs a hot-side ESP for particulate control. Solid sorbents were screened for hot-side injection. (3) Entergy's Independence Steam Electric Station typically burns PRB coal in its 880-MW Unit 2. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on 1/8 to 1/32 of the flue gas stream either within or in front of one

  19. Waste Management Facilities cost information for mixed low-level waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biadgi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing mixed low-level waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  20. levelized costs

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Applications National Solar Thermal Test Facility ... EnergyWater Nexus EnergyWater History Water Monitoring & ... Market Transformation Fuel Cells Predictive Simulation of ...

  1. Derivation of a Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) metric for evaluation of solar selective absorber materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C. K.; Pacheco, J. E.

    2015-06-05

    A new metric, the Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC), is derived in this paper to evaluate and compare alternative solar selective absorber coatings against a baseline coating (Pyromark 2500). In contrast to previous metrics that focused only on the optical performance of the coating, the LCOC includes costs, durability, and optical performance for more comprehensive comparisons among candidate materials. The LCOC is defined as the annualized marginal cost of the coating to produce a baseline annual thermal energy production. Costs include the cost of materials and labor for initial application and reapplication of the coating, as well as the cost of additional or fewer heliostats to yield the same annual thermal energy production as the baseline coating. Results show that important factors impacting the LCOC include the initial solar absorptance, thermal emittance, reapplication interval, degradation rate, reapplication cost, and downtime during reapplication. The LCOC can also be used to determine the optimal reapplication interval to minimize the levelized cost of energy production. As a result, similar methods can be applied more generally to determine the levelized cost of component for other applications and systems.

  2. Operating cost guidelines for benchmarking DOE thermal treatment systems for low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, R.; Loghry, S.L.; Hermes, W.H.

    1994-11-01

    This report presents guidelines for estimating operating costs for use in benchmarking US Department of Energy (DOE) low-level mixed waste thermal treatment systems. The guidelines are based on operating cost experience at the DOE Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) mixed waste incinerator at the K-25 Site at Oak Ridge. In presenting these guidelines, it should be made clear at the outset that it is not the intention of this report to present operating cost estimates for new technologies, but only guidelines for estimating such costs.

  3. Interim report: Waste management facilities cost information for mixed low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1994-03-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for treating alpha and nonalpha mixed low-level radioactive waste. This report contains information on twenty-seven treatment, storage, and disposal modules that can be integrated to develop total life cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also summarized in this report.

  4. Derivation of a Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) metric for evaluation of solar selective absorber materials

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Ho, C. K.; Pacheco, J. E.

    2015-06-05

    A new metric, the Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC), is derived in this paper to evaluate and compare alternative solar selective absorber coatings against a baseline coating (Pyromark 2500). In contrast to previous metrics that focused only on the optical performance of the coating, the LCOC includes costs, durability, and optical performance for more comprehensive comparisons among candidate materials. The LCOC is defined as the annualized marginal cost of the coating to produce a baseline annual thermal energy production. Costs include the cost of materials and labor for initial application and reapplication of the coating, as well as the costmore » of additional or fewer heliostats to yield the same annual thermal energy production as the baseline coating. Results show that important factors impacting the LCOC include the initial solar absorptance, thermal emittance, reapplication interval, degradation rate, reapplication cost, and downtime during reapplication. The LCOC can also be used to determine the optimal reapplication interval to minimize the levelized cost of energy production. As a result, similar methods can be applied more generally to determine the levelized cost of component for other applications and systems.« less

  5. A Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Estimates of Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This report surveys and summarizes existing state-level RPS cost and benefit estimates and examines the various methods used to calculate such estimates. The report relies largely upon data or results reported directly by electric utilities and state regulators. As such, the estimated costs and benefits itemized in this document do not result from the application of a standardized approach or the use of a consistent set of underlying assumptions. Because the reported values may differ from those derived through a more consistent analytical treatment, we do not provide an aggregate national estimate of RPS costs and benefits, nor do we attempt to quantify net RPS benefits at national or state levels.

  6. Estimating costs of low-level radioactive waste disposal alternatives for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report was prepared for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, National Low-Level Waste Management Program. It presents planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for four sizes of in-state low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities. These PLCC estimates include preoperational and operational expenditures, all support facilities, materials, labor, closure costs, and long-term institutional care and monitoring costs. It is intended that this report bc used as a broad decision making tool for evaluating one of the several complex factors that must be examined when deciding between various LLRW management options -- relative costs. Because the underlying assumptions of these analyses will change as the Board decides how it will manage Massachusett`s waste and the specific characteristics any disposal facility will have, the results of this study are not absolute and should only be used to compare the relative costs of the options presented. The disposal technology selected for this analysis is aboveground earth-mounded vaults. These vaults are reinforced concrete structures where low-level waste is emplaced and later covered with a multi-layered earthen cap. The ``base case`` PLCC estimate was derived from a preliminary feasibility design developed for the Illinois Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility. This PLCC report describes facility operations and details the procedure used to develop the base case PLCC estimate for each facility component and size. Sensitivity analyses were performed on the base case PLCC estimate by varying several factors to determine their influences upon the unit disposal costs. The report presents the results of the sensitivity analyses for the five most significant cost factors.

  7. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) metric to characterize solar absorber coatings for the CSP industry

    SciTech Connect

    Boubault, Antoine; Ho, Clifford K.; Hall, Aaron; Lambert, Timothy N.; Ambrosini, Andrea

    2015-07-08

    The contribution of each component of a power generation plant to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) can be estimated and used to increase the power output while reducing system operation and maintenance costs. The LCOE is used in order to quantify solar receiver coating influence on the LCOE of solar power towers. Two new parameters are introduced: the absolute levelized cost of coating (LCOC) and the LCOC efficiency. Depending on the material properties, aging, costs, and temperature, the absolute LCOC enables quantifying the cost-effectiveness of absorber coatings, as well as finding optimal operating conditions. The absolute LCOC is investigated for different hypothetic coatings and is demonstrated on Pyromark 2500 paint. Results show that absorber coatings yield lower LCOE values in most cases, even at significant costs. Optimal reapplication intervals range from one to five years. At receiver temperatures greater than 700 °C, non-selective coatings are not always worthwhile while durable selective coatings consistently reduce the LCOE—up to 12% of the value obtained for an uncoated receiver. Moreover the absolute LCOC is a powerful tool to characterize and compare different coatings, not only considering their initial efficiencies but also including their durability.

  8. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) metric to characterize solar absorber coatings for the CSP industry

    SciTech Connect

    Boubault, Antoine; Ho, Clifford K.; Hall, Aaron; Lambert, Timothy N.; Ambrosini, Andrea

    2015-07-08

    The contribution of each component of a power generation plant to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) can be estimated and used to increase the power output while reducing system operation and maintenance costs. The LCOE is used in order to quantify solar receiver coating influence on the LCOE of solar power towers. Two new parameters are introduced: the absolute levelized cost of coating (LCOC) and the LCOC efficiency. Depending on the material properties, aging, costs, and temperature, the absolute LCOC enables quantifying the cost-effectiveness of absorber coatings, as well as finding optimal operating conditions. The absolute LCOC is investigated for different hypothetic coatings and is demonstrated on Pyromark 2500 paint. Results show that absorber coatings yield lower LCOE values in most cases, even at significant costs. Optimal reapplication intervals range from one to five years. At receiver temperatures greater than 700 C, non-selective coatings are not always worthwhile while durable selective coatings consistently reduce the LCOEup to 12% of the value obtained for an uncoated receiver. Moreover the absolute LCOC is a powerful tool to characterize and compare different coatings, not only considering their initial efficiencies but also including their durability.

  9. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) metric to characterize solar absorber coatings for the CSP industry

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Boubault, Antoine; Ho, Clifford K.; Hall, Aaron; Lambert, Timothy N.; Ambrosini, Andrea

    2015-07-08

    The contribution of each component of a power generation plant to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) can be estimated and used to increase the power output while reducing system operation and maintenance costs. The LCOE is used in order to quantify solar receiver coating influence on the LCOE of solar power towers. Two new parameters are introduced: the absolute levelized cost of coating (LCOC) and the LCOC efficiency. Depending on the material properties, aging, costs, and temperature, the absolute LCOC enables quantifying the cost-effectiveness of absorber coatings, as well as finding optimal operating conditions. The absolute LCOC is investigatedmore » for different hypothetic coatings and is demonstrated on Pyromark 2500 paint. Results show that absorber coatings yield lower LCOE values in most cases, even at significant costs. Optimal reapplication intervals range from one to five years. At receiver temperatures greater than 700 °C, non-selective coatings are not always worthwhile while durable selective coatings consistently reduce the LCOE—up to 12% of the value obtained for an uncoated receiver. Moreover the absolute LCOC is a powerful tool to characterize and compare different coatings, not only considering their initial efficiencies but also including their durability.« less

  10. Funding Opportunity Announcement: CSP: Concentrating Optics for Lower Levelized Energy Costs (COLLECTS)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Building upon the successful outcomes of the 2012 SunShot CSP Research and Development funding program, the CSP: Concentrating Optics for Lower Levelized Energy Costs (COLLECTS) funding opportunity announcement (FOA) seeks to further CSP system technologies by soliciting disruptive, transformative projects for the concentrating solar collectors in the CSP plant. These innovative projects will seek to surpass the targets set out in the SunShot Vision Study, enabling CSP to be cost-competitive with conventional forms of electric power generation. Projects will target the design and manufacturing of novel solar collectors with the ability to significantly reduce the solar field contribution to the overall levelized cost of energy of the CSP plant, and which have not been previously specifically targeted by CSP funding programs. These developments should lead to subsequent system integration, engineering scale-up, and eventual commercial production for electricity generation applications by 2020.

  11. A system-level cost-of-energy wind farm layout optimization with landowner modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Le [Ames Laboratory; MacDonald, Erin [Ames Laboratory

    2013-10-01

    This work applies an enhanced levelized wind farm cost model, including landowner remittance fees, to determine optimal turbine placements under three landowner participation scenarios and two land-plot shapes. Instead of assuming a continuous piece of land is available for the wind farm construction, as in most layout optimizations, the problem formulation represents landowner participation scenarios as a binary string variable, along with the number of turbines. The cost parameters and model are a combination of models from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and Windustiy. The system-level cost-of-energy (COE) optimization model is also tested under two land-plot shapes: equally-sized square land plots and unequal rectangle land plots. The optimal COEs results are compared to actual COE data and found to be realistic. The results show that landowner remittances account for approximately 10% of farm operating costs across all cases. Irregular land-plot shapes are easily handled by the model. We find that larger land plots do not necessarily receive higher remittance fees. The model can help site developers identify the most crucial land plots for project success and the optimal positions of turbines, with realistic estimates of costs and profitability. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Low-cost household paint abatement to reduce children's blood lead levels

    SciTech Connect

    Taha, T.; Kanarek, M.S.; Schultz, B.D.; Murphy, A.

    1999-11-01

    The purpose was to examine the effectiveness of low-cost abatement on children's blood lead levels. Blood lead was analyzed before and after abatement in 37 homes of children under 7 years old with initial blood lead levels of 25--44 {micro}g/dL. Ninety-five percent of homes were built before 1950. Abatement methods used were wet-scraping and repainting deteriorated surfaces and wrapping window wells with aluminum or vinyl. A control group was retrospectively selected. Control children were under 7 years old, had initial blood lead levels of 25--44 {micro}g/dL and a follow-up level at least 28 days afterward, and did not have abatements performed in their homes between blood lead levels. After abatement, statistically significant declines occurred in the intervention children's blood lead levels. The mean decline was 22%, 1 to 6 months after treatment. After adjustment for seasonality and child's age, the mean decline was 6.0 {micro}g/dL, or 18%. The control children's blood levels did not decline significantly. There was a mean decline of 0.25 {micro}g/dL, or 0.39%. After adjustment for seasonality and age, the mean decline for control children was 1.6 {micro}g/dL, or 1.8%. Low-cost abatement and education are effective short-term interim controls.

  13. Comparison of costs for solidification of high-level radioactive waste solutions: glass monoliths vs metal matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L.J.; Carlton, R.E.; Steindler, M.J.

    1981-05-01

    A comparative economic analysis was made of four solidification processes for liquid high-level radioactive waste. Two processes produced borosilicate glass monoliths and two others produced metal matrix composites of lead and borosilicate glass beads and lead and supercalcine pellets. Within the uncertainties of the cost (1979 dollars) estimates, the cost of the four processes was about the same, with the major cost component being the cost of the primary building structure. Equipment costs and operating and maintenance costs formed only a small portion of the building structure costs for all processes.

  14. Analyzing the Levelized Cost of Centralized and Distributed Hydrogen Production Using the H2A Production Model, Version 2

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsden, T.; Steward, D.; Zuboy, J.

    2009-09-01

    Analysis of the levelized cost of producing hydrogen via different pathways using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's H2A Hydrogen Production Model, Version 2.

  15. Wind Levelized Cost of Energy: A Comparison of Technical and Financing Input Variables

    SciTech Connect

    Cory, K.; Schwabe, P.

    2009-10-01

    The expansion of wind power capacity in the United States has increased the demand for project development capital. In response, innovative approaches to financing wind projects have emerged and are proliferating in the U.S. renewable energy marketplace. Wind power developers and financiers have become more efficient and creative in structuring their financial relationships, and often tailor them to different investor types and objectives. As a result, two similar projects may use very different cash flows and financing arrangements, which can significantly vary the economic competitiveness of wind projects. This report assesses the relative impact of numerous financing, technical, and operating variables on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) associated with a wind project under various financing structures in the U.S. marketplace. Under this analysis, the impacts of several financial and technical variables on the cost of wind electricity generation are first examined individually to better understand the relative importance of each. Then, analysts examine a low-cost and a high-cost financing scenario, where multiple variables are modified simultaneously. Lastly, the analysis also considers the impact of a suite of financial variables versus a suite of technical variables.

  16. Cost estimate of high-level radioactive waste containers for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, E.W.; Clarke, W.; Domian, H.A.; Madson, A.A.

    1991-08-01

    This report summarizes the bottoms-up cost estimates for fabrication of high-level radioactive waste disposal containers based on the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design (SCP-CD). These estimates were acquired by Babcock and Wilcox (B&S) under sub-contract to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The estimates were obtained for two leading container candidate materials (Alloy 825 and CDA 715), and from other three vendors who were selected from a list of twenty solicited. Three types of container designs were analyzed that represent containers for spent fuel, and for vitrified high-level waste (HLW). The container internal structures were assumed to be AISI-304 stainless steel in all cases, with an annual production rate of 750 containers. Subjective techniques were used for estimating QA/QC costs based on vendor experience and the specifications derived for the LLNL-YMP Quality Assurance program. In addition, an independent QA/QC analysis is reported which was prepared by Kasier Engineering. Based on the cost estimates developed, LLNL recommends that values of $825K and $62K be used for the 1991 TSLCC for the spent fuel and HLW containers, respectively. These numbers represent the most conservative among the three vendors, and are for the high-nickel anstenitic steel (Alloy 825). 6 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Evaluation of the Super ESPC Program: Level 2 -- Recalculated Cost Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, John A; Hughes, Patrick

    2009-04-01

    This report presents the results of Level 2 of a three-tiered evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program's Super Energy Savings Performance Contract (Super ESPC) Program. Level 1 of the analysis studied all of the Super ESPC projects for which at least one Annual Measurement & Verification (M&V) Report had been produced by April 2006. For those 102 projects in aggregate, we found that the value of cost savings reported by the energy service company (ESCO) in the Annual M&V Reports was 108% of the cost savings guaranteed in the contracts. We also compared estimated energy savings (which are not guaranteed, but are the basis for the guaranteed cost savings) to the energy savings reported by the ESCO in the Annual M&V Report. In aggregate, reported energy savings were 99.8% of estimated energy savings on the basis of site energy, or 102% of estimated energy savings based on source energy. Level 2 focused on a random sample of 27 projects taken from the 102 Super ESPC projects studied in Level 1. The objectives were, for each project in the sample, to: repeat the calculations of the annual energy and cost savings in the most recent Annual M&V Report to validate the ESCO's results or correct any errors, and recalculate the value of the reported energy, water, and operations and maintenance (O&M) savings using actual utility prices paid at the project site instead of the 'contract' energy prices - the prices that are established in the project contract as those to be used by the ESCO to calculate the annual cost savings, which determine whether the guarantee has been met. Level 3 analysis will be conducted on three to five projects from the Level 2 sample that meet validity criteria for whole-building or whole-facility data analysis. This effort will verify energy and cost savings using statistical analysis of actual utility use, cost, and weather data. This approach, which can only be used for projects meeting particular validity

  18. Levelized Cost of Energy Analysis of Marine and Hydrokinetic Reference Models: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Jenne, D. S.; Yu, Y. H.; Neary, V.

    2015-04-24

    In 2010 the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the development of six marine energy converter reference models. The reference models are point designs of well-known marine energy converters. Each device was designed to operate in a specific marine resource, instead of a generic device that can be deployed at any location. This method allows each device to be used as a benchmark for future reference model to benchmark future devices. The six designs consist of three current energy converters and three wave energy converters. The reference model project has generated both technical and economic data sets that are available in the public domain. The methodology to calculate the levelized cost of energy for the reference model project and an overall comparison of the cost of energy from these six reference-model designs are presented in this paper.

  19. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

  20. A Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Estimates of Renewable Portfolio Standards

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    A Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Estimates of Renewable Portfolio Standards J. Heeter 1 , G. Barbose 2 , L. Bird 1 , S. Weaver 2 , F. Flores-Espino 1 , K. Kuskova-Burns 1 , and R. Wiser 2 1 National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 2 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC, under contract DE-AC36-08GO28308.

  1. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  2. Comparison of SRP high-level waste disposal costs for borosilicate glass and crystalline ceramic waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    McDonell, W R

    1982-04-01

    An evaluation of costs for the immobilization and repository disposal of SRP high-level wastes indicates that the borosilicate glass waste form is less costly than the crystalline ceramic waste form. The wastes were assumed immobilized as glass with 28% waste loading in 10,300 reference 24-in.-diameter canisters or as crystalline ceramic with 65% waste loading in either 3400 24-in.-diameter canisters or 5900 18-in.-diameter canisters. After an interim period of onsite storage, the canisters would be transported to the federal repository for burial. Total costs in undiscounted 1981 dollars of the waste disposal operations, excluding salt processing for which costs are not yet well defined, were about $2500 million for the borosilicate glass form in reference 24-in.-diameter canisters, compared to about $2900 million for the crystalline ceramic form in 24-in.-diameter canisters and about $3100 million for the crystalline ceramic form in 18-in.-diameter canisters. No large differences in salt processing costs for the borosilicate glass and crystalline ceramic forms are expected. Discounting to present values, because of a projected 2-year delay in startup of the DWPF for the crystalline ceramic form, preserved the overall cost advantage of the borosilicate glass form. The waste immobilization operations for the glass form were much less costly than for the crystalline ceramic form. The waste disposal operations, in contrast, were less costly for the crystalline ceramic form, due to fewer canisters requiring disposal; however, this advantage was not sufficient to offset the higher development and processing costs of the crystalline ceramic form. Changes in proposed Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations to permit lower cost repository packages for defense high-level wastes would decrease the waste disposal costs of the more numerous borosilicate glass forms relative to the crystalline ceramic forms.

  3. Funding Opportunity: Geothermal Technologies Program Seeks Technologies to Reduce Levelized Cost of Electricity for Hydrothermal Development and EGS

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Geothermal Technologies Program seeks non-prime mover technologies that have the potential to contribute to reducing the levelized cost of electricity from new hydrothermal development to 6¢/ kWh by 2020 and Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) to 6¢/ kWh by 2030.

  4. Realistic costs of carbon capture

    SciTech Connect

    Al Juaied, Mohammed . Belfer Center for Science and International Affiaris); Whitmore, Adam )

    2009-07-01

    There is a growing interest in carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a means of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However there are substantial uncertainties about the costs of CCS. Costs for pre-combustion capture with compression (i.e. excluding costs of transport and storage and any revenue from EOR associated with storage) are examined in this discussion paper for First-of-a-Kind (FOAK) plant and for more mature technologies, or Nth-of-a-Kind plant (NOAK). For FOAK plant using solid fuels the levelised cost of electricity on a 2008 basis is approximately 10 cents/kWh higher with capture than for conventional plants (with a range of 8-12 cents/kWh). Costs of abatement are found typically to be approximately US$150/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$120-180/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants the additional cost of electricity with capture is approximately 2-5 cents/kWh, with costs of the range of US$35-70/tCO2 avoided. Costs of abatement with carbon capture for other fuels and technologies are also estimated for NOAK plants. The costs of abatement are calculated with reference to conventional SCPC plant for both emissions and costs of electricity. Estimates for both FOAK and NOAK are mainly based on cost data from 2008, which was at the end of a period of sustained escalation in the costs of power generation plant and other large capital projects. There are now indications of costs falling from these levels. This may reduce the costs of abatement and costs presented here may be 'peak of the market' estimates. If general cost levels return, for example, to those prevailing in 2005 to 2006 (by which time significant cost escalation had already occurred from previous levels), then costs of capture and compression for FOAK plants are expected to be US$110/tCO2 avoided (with a range of US$90-135/tCO2 avoided). For NOAK plants costs are expected to be US$25-50/tCO2. Based on these considerations a likely representative range of costs of abatement from CCS excluding

  5. Analyzing the Levelized Cost of Centralized and Distributed Hydrogen Production Using the H2A Production Model, Version 2

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    267 September 2009 Analyzing the Levelized Cost of Centralized and Distributed Hydrogen Production Using the H2A Production Model, Version 2 T. Ramsden and D. Steward National Renewable Energy Laboratory J. Zuboy Independent Contractor National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for

  6. Value of Demand Response: Quantities from Production Cost Modeling...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Load Production cost savings * Avoided Fuel Off take * Avoided Generator Startups and Shutdowns * Avoided Generator Ramping Revenue: * kW (peak capacity) of end use offered to ...

  7. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards:A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-16

    State renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have emerged as one of the most important policy drivers of renewable energy capacity expansion in the U.S. Collectively, these policies now apply to roughly 40% of U.S. electricity load, and may have substantial impacts on electricity markets, ratepayers, and local economies. As RPS policies have been proposed or adopted in an increasing number of states, a growing number of studies have attempted to quantify the potential impacts of these policies, focusing primarily on projecting cost impacts, but sometimes also estimating macroeconomic and environmental effects. This report synthesizes and analyzes the results and methodologies of 28 distinct state or utility-level RPS cost impact analyses completed since 1998. Together, these studies model proposed or adopted RPS policies in 18 different states. We highlight the key findings of these studies on the costs and benefits of RPS policies, examine the sensitivity of projected costs to model assumptions, assess the attributes of different modeling approaches, and suggest possible areas of improvement for future RPS analysis.

  8. Cost savings associated with landfilling wastes containing very low levels of uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Boggs, C.J.; Shaddoan, W.T.

    1996-03-01

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) has operated captive landfills (both residential and construction/demolition debris) in accordance with the Commonwealth of Kentucky regulations since the early 1980s. Typical waste streams allowed in these landfills include nonhazardous industrial and municipal solid waste (such as paper, plastic, cardboard, cafeteria waste, clothing, wood, asbestos, fly ash, metals, and construction debris). In July 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued new requirements for the disposal of sanitary wastes in a {open_quotes}contained landfill.{close_quotes} These requirements were promulgated in the 401 Kentucky Administrative Record Chapters 47 and 48 that became effective 30 June 1995. The requirements for a new contained landfill include a synthetic liner made of high-density polyethylene in addition to the traditional 1-meter (3-foot) clay liner and a leachate collection system. A new landfill at Paducah would accept waste streams similar to those that have been accepted in the past. The permit for the previously existing landfills did not include radioactivity limits; instead, these levels were administratively controlled. Typically, if radioactivity was detected above background levels, the waste was classified as low-level waste (LLW), which would be sent off-site for disposal.

  9. Reevaluation Of Vitrified High-Level Waste Form Criteria For Potential Cost Savings At The Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, J. W.; Marra, S. L.; Herman, C. C.

    2013-01-09

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a durable borosilicate glass since 1996. Currently the DWPF has poured over 3,500 canisters, all of which are compliant with the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS) and therefore ready to be shipped to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. Due to DOE petitioning to withdraw the Yucca Mountain License Application (LA) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2010 and thus no clear disposal path for SRS canistered waste forms, there are opportunities for cost savings with future canister production at DWPF and other DOE producer sites by reevaluating high-level waste form requirements and compliance strategies and reducing/eliminating those that will not negatively impact the quality of the canistered waste form.

  10. Reevaluation of Vitrified High-Level Waste Form Criteria for Potential Cost Savings at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 13598

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, J.W.; Marra, S.L.; Herman, C.C.

    2013-07-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS) the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been immobilizing SRS's radioactive high level waste (HLW) sludge into a durable borosilicate glass since 1996. Currently the DWPF has poured over 3,500 canisters, all of which are compliant with the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms (WAPS) and therefore ready to be shipped to a federal geologic repository for permanent disposal. Due to DOE petitioning to withdraw the Yucca Mountain License Application (LA) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2010 and thus no clear disposal path for SRS canistered waste forms, there are opportunities for cost savings with future canister production at DWPF and other DOE producer sites by reevaluating high-level waste form requirements and compliance strategies and reducing/eliminating those that will not negatively impact the quality of the canistered waste form. (authors)

  11. Integrating Volume Reduction and Packaging Alternatives to Achieve Cost Savings for Low Level Waste Disposal at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Church, A.; Gordon, J.; Montrose, J. K.

    2002-02-26

    In order to reduce costs and achieve schedules for Closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), the Waste Requirements Group has implemented a number of cost saving initiatives aimed at integrating waste volume reduction with the selection of compliant waste packaging methods for the disposal of RFETS low level radioactive waste (LLW). Waste Guidance Inventory and Shipping Forecasts indicate that over 200,000 m3 of low level waste will be shipped offsite between FY2002 and FY2006. Current projections indicate that the majority of this waste will be shipped offsite in an estimated 40,000 55-gallon drums, 10,000 metal and plywood boxes, and 5000 cargo containers. Currently, the projected cost for packaging, shipment, and disposal adds up to $80 million. With these waste volume and cost projections, the need for more efficient and cost effective packaging and transportation options were apparent in order to reduce costs and achieve future Site packaging a nd transportation needs. This paper presents some of the cost saving initiatives being implemented for waste packaging at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site). There are many options for either volume reduction or alternative packaging. Each building and/or project may indicate different preferences and/or combinations of options.

  12. Levelized life-cycle costs for four residue-collection systems and four gas-production systems

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, G.R.; Rood, P.L.; Williamson, K.D. Jr.; Rollett, H.

    1983-01-01

    Technology characterizations and life-cycle costs were obtained for four residue-collection systems and four gas-production systems. All costs are in constant 1981 dollars. The residue-collection systems were cornstover collection, wheat-straw collection, soybean-residue collection, and wood chips from forest residue. The life-cycle costs ranged from $19/ton for cornstover collection to $56/ton for wood chips from forest residues. The gas-production systems were low-Btu gas from a farm-size gasifier, solar flash pyrolysis of biomass, methane from seaweed farms, and hydrogen production from bacteria. Life-cycle costs ranged from $3.3/10/sup 6/ Btu for solar flash pyrolysis of biomass to $9.6/10/sup 6/ Btu for hydrogen from bacteria. Sensitivity studies were also performed for each system. The sensitivity studies indicated that fertilizer replacement costs were the dominate costs for the farm-residue collection, while residue yield was most important for the wood residue. Feedstock costs were most important for the flash pyrolysis. Yields and capital costs are most important for the seaweed farm and the hydrogen from bacteria system.

  13. Potential for savings in compliance costs for reducing ground-level ozone possible by instituting seasonal versus annual nitric oxide emission limits

    SciTech Connect

    Lookman, A.A.

    1996-12-31

    Ground-level ozone is formed in the atmosphere from its precursor emissions, namely nitric oxide (NO{sub x}) and volatile organic compounds (VOC), with its rate of formation dependent on atmospheric conditions. Since ozone levels tend to be highest during the summer months, seasonal controls of precursors have been suggested as a means of reducing the costs of decreasing ozone concentrations to acceptable levels. This paper attempts to quantify what the potential savings if seasonal control were instituted for coal-fired power plants, assuming that only commercially available NO{sub x} control technologies are used. Cost savings through seasonal control is measured by calculating the total annualized cost of NO{sub x} removal at a given amount of seasonal control for different target levels of annual control. For this study, it is assumed that trading of NO{sub x} emissions will be allowed, as has been proposed by the Ozone Transportation Commission (OTC). The problem has been posed as a binary integer linear programming problem, with decision variables being which control to use at each power plant. The results indicate that requiring annual limits which are lower than seasonal limits can substantially reduce compliance costs. These savings occur because requiring stringent compliance only on a seasonal basis allows power plants to use control methods for which the variable costs are paid for only part of the year, and through the use of gas-based controls, which are much cheaper to operate in the summer months.

  14. Estimating Renewable Energy Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Some renewable energy measures, such as daylighting, passive solar heating, and cooling load avoidance, do not add much to the cost of a building. However, renewable energy technologies typically...

  15. Vision-based obstacle avoidance

    DOEpatents

    Galbraith, John

    2006-07-18

    A method for allowing a robot to avoid objects along a programmed path: first, a field of view for an electronic imager of the robot is established along a path where the electronic imager obtains the object location information within the field of view; second, a population coded control signal is then derived from the object location information and is transmitted to the robot; finally, the robot then responds to the control signal and avoids the detected object.

  16. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of State Renewables Portfolio Standards in the United States: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Mills, Andrew; Bolinger, Mark

    2008-01-07

    State renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have emerged as one of the most important policy drivers of renewable energy capacity expansion in the U.S. As RPS policies have been proposed or adopted in an increasing number of states, a growing number of studies have attempted to quantify the potential impacts of these policies, focusing primarily on cost impacts, but sometimes also estimating macroeconomic, risk reduction, and environmental effects. This article synthesizes and analyzes the results and methodologies of 31 distinct state or utility-level RPS cost-impact analyses completed since 1998. Together, these studies model proposed or adopted RPS policies in 20 different states. We highlight the key findings of these studies on the projected costs of state RPS policies, examine the sensitivity of projected costs to model assumptions, evaluate the reasonableness of key input assumptions, and suggest possible areas of improvement for future RPS analyses. We conclude that while there is considerable uncertainty in the study results, the majority of the studies project modest cost impacts. Seventy percent of the state RPS cost studies project retail electricity rate increases of no greater than one percent. Nonetheless, there is considerable room for improving the analytic methods, and therefore accuracy, of these estimates.

  17. Probabilistic Approaches for Communication Avoidance and Resilience...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Avoidance and Resilience in Exascale Simulations. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Probabilistic Approaches for Communication Avoidance and Resilience in Exascale ...

  18. Obstacle-avoiding navigation system

    DOEpatents

    Borenstein, Johann; Koren, Yoram; Levine, Simon P.

    1991-01-01

    A system for guiding an autonomous or semi-autonomous vehicle through a field of operation having obstacles thereon to be avoided employs a memory for containing data which defines an array of grid cells which correspond to respective subfields in the field of operation of the vehicle. Each grid cell in the memory contains a value which is indicative of the likelihood, or probability, that an obstacle is present in the respectively associated subfield. The values in the grid cells are incremented individually in response to each scan of the subfields, and precomputation and use of a look-up table avoids complex trigonometric functions. A further array of grid cells is fixed with respect to the vehicle form a conceptual active window which overlies the incremented grid cells. Thus, when the cells in the active window overly grid cell having values which are indicative of the presence of obstacles, the value therein is used as a multiplier of the precomputed vectorial values. The resulting plurality of vectorial values are summed vectorially in one embodiment of the invention to produce a virtual composite repulsive vector which is then summed vectorially with a target-directed vector for producing a resultant vector for guiding the vehicle. In an alternative embodiment, a plurality of vectors surrounding the vehicle are computed, each having a value corresponding to obstacle density. In such an embodiment, target location information is used to select between alternative directions of travel having low associated obstacle densities.

  19. Life-Cycle Cost and Risk Analysis of Alternative Configurations for Shipping Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    PM Daling; SB Ross; BM Biwer

    1999-12-17

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is a major receiver of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) for disposal. Currently, all LLW received at NTS is shipped by truck. The trucks use highway routes to NTS that pass through the Las Vegas Valley and over Hoover Dam, which is a concern of local stakeholder groups in the State of Nevada. Rail service offers the opportunity to reduce transportation risks and costs, according to the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM-PEIS). However, NTS and some DOE LLW generator sites are not served with direct rail service so intermodal transport is under consideration. Intermodal transport involves transport via two modes, in this case truck and rail, from the generator sites to NTS. LLW shipping containers would be transferred between trucks and railcars at intermodal transfer points near the LLW generator sites, NTS, or both. An Environmental Assessment (EA)for Intermodal Transportation of Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site (referred to as the NTSIntermodal -M) has been prepared to determine whether there are environmental impacts to alterations to the current truck routing or use of intermodal facilities within the State of Nevada. However, an analysis of the potential impacts outside the State of Nevada are not addressed in the NTS Intermodal EA. This study examines the rest of the transportation network between LLW generator sites and the NTS and evaluates the costs, risks, and feasibility of integrating intermodal shipments into the LLW transportation system. This study evaluates alternative transportation system configurations for NTS approved and potential generators based on complex-wide LLW load information. Technical judgments relative to the availability of DOE LLW generators to ship from their sites by rail were developed. Public and worker risk and life-cycle cost components are quantified. The study identifies and evaluates alternative scenarios that increase the use of rail (intermodal

  20. Levelized cost and levelized avoiced cost of new generation resources...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Technologies Wind 34 56.6 13.3 0.0 3.2 73.1 Wind - Offshore 37 141.7 22.8 0.0 5.7 170.3 Solar PV 2 25 95.3 11.4 0.0 4.0 110.8 -9.5 101.3 Solar Thermal 20 156.2 42.1 0.0 5.9 204.3...

  1. Startup Costs

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter discusses startup costs for construction and environmental projects, and estimating guidance for startup costs.

  2. Communication-avoiding symmetric-indefinite factorization

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Ballard, Grey Malone; Becker, Dulcenia; Demmel, James; Dongarra, Jack; Druinsky, Alex; Peled, Inon; Schwartz, Oded; Toledo, Sivan; Yamazaki, Ichitaro

    2014-11-13

    We describe and analyze a novel symmetric triangular factorization algorithm. The algorithm is essentially a block version of Aasen's triangular tridiagonalization. It factors a dense symmetric matrix A as the product A=PLTLTPT where P is a permutation matrix, L is lower triangular, and T is block tridiagonal and banded. The algorithm is the first symmetric-indefinite communication-avoiding factorization: it performs an asymptotically optimal amount of communication in a two-level memory hierarchy for almost any cache-line size. Adaptations of the algorithm to parallel computers are likely to be communication efficient as well; one such adaptation has been recently published. As a result,more » the current paper describes the algorithm, proves that it is numerically stable, and proves that it is communication optimal.« less

  3. Communication-avoiding symmetric-indefinite factorization

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, Grey Malone; Becker, Dulcenia; Demmel, James; Dongarra, Jack; Druinsky, Alex; Peled, Inon; Schwartz, Oded; Toledo, Sivan; Yamazaki, Ichitaro

    2014-11-13

    We describe and analyze a novel symmetric triangular factorization algorithm. The algorithm is essentially a block version of Aasen's triangular tridiagonalization. It factors a dense symmetric matrix A as the product A=PLTLTPT where P is a permutation matrix, L is lower triangular, and T is block tridiagonal and banded. The algorithm is the first symmetric-indefinite communication-avoiding factorization: it performs an asymptotically optimal amount of communication in a two-level memory hierarchy for almost any cache-line size. Adaptations of the algorithm to parallel computers are likely to be communication efficient as well; one such adaptation has been recently published. As a result, the current paper describes the algorithm, proves that it is numerically stable, and proves that it is communication optimal.

  4. External cost in the road transport sector: A lack of consensus in monetary evaluation making internalization difficult

    SciTech Connect

    Babusiaux, D.; Chollet, P.; Furlan, S.

    1995-12-31

    In the debate on transport and environment it is often claimed that the transport sector does not pay its full social costs and that actions should be taken to insure that these full costs are paid. The suggested mean for achieving such a {open_quotes}balance{close_quotes} is an increase in the relevant transport prices through increased taxes. Furthermore, it is sometimes implicitly believed that estimation of external costs will show that the transport prices should be raised significantly. If taxation of the transport sector should be changed in direction of including all external costs, it is necessary that these external costs can be estimated. The difficulties of external cost estimation consist of two major elements. Firstly, the estimation of the damage costs itself is extremely difficult. Secondly, both damage and avoidance costs have to be estimated to determine the correct level of external costs. So far, these issues appear not to have been sufficiently appraised in literature on internalization.

  5. Applying electrical utility least-cost approach to transportation planning

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, G.A.; Growdon, K.; Lagerberg, B.

    1994-09-01

    Members of the energy and environmental communities believe that parallels exist between electrical utility least-cost planning and transportation planning. In particular, the Washington State Energy Strategy Committee believes that an integrated and comprehensive transportation planning process should be developed to fairly evaluate the costs of both demand-side and supply-side transportation options, establish competition between different travel modes, and select the mix of options designed to meet system goals at the lowest cost to society. Comparisons between travel modes are also required under the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA). ISTEA calls for the development of procedures to compare demand management against infrastructure investment solutions and requires the consideration of efficiency, socioeconomic and environmental factors in the evaluation process. Several of the techniques and approaches used in energy least-cost planning and utility peak demand management can be incorporated into a least-cost transportation planning methodology. The concepts of avoided plants, expressing avoidable costs in levelized nominal dollars to compare projects with different on-line dates and service lives, the supply curve, and the resource stack can be directly adapted from the energy sector.

  6. Technical and economic assessments of electrochemical energy storage systems: Topical report on the potential for savings in load-leveling battery and balance of plant costs

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, J.; Binas, G.; Del Monaco, J.L.; Pandya, D.A.; Sharp, T.E.; Consiglio, J.A.

    1985-08-31

    The battery technologies considered in this study are zinc-bromide, lead-acid, zinc-chloride and sodium sulfur. Results of the study are presented in self contained sections in the following order: Balance of Plant, Zinc-Bromide, Lead-Acid, Zinc-chloride, and Sodium-Sulfur. The balance of plant cost estimates are examined first since the results of this section are utilized in the following battery sections to generate cost reductions in the battery plant costs for each of the battery technologies.

  7. " Level: National Data;" " ...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Energy Sources, 2010;" " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy ... 0.5." " WWithheld to avoid disclosing data for individual establishments." " ...

  8. " Level: National Data;" " ...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy ... 0.5." " WWithheld to avoid disclosing data for individual establishments." " ...

  9. " Level: National Data;" " ...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Unswitchable, 2006;" " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Reasons ... 0.5." " WWithheld to avoid disclosing data for individual establishments." " ...

  10. Best Practices - and Practices to Avoid

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Best Practices - and Practices to Avoid Best Practices - Dos and Don'ts on the cluster Please keep the following in mind when runningsubmitting jobs on Genepool: Use qstat...

  11. Operating Costs

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter is focused on capital costs for conventional construction and environmental restoration and waste management projects and examines operating cost estimates to verify that all elements of the project have been considered and properly estimated.

  12. BPA's Costs

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings and Workshops Customer...

  13. Transmission line capital costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.

  14. Cost analysis guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Strait, R.S.

    1996-01-10

    The first phase of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program (Program)--management strategy selection--consists of several program elements: Technology Assessment, Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Cost Analysis will estimate the life-cycle costs associated with each of the long-term management strategy alternatives for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). The scope of Cost Analysis will include all major expenditures, from the planning and design stages through decontamination and decommissioning. The costs will be estimated at a scoping or preconceptual design level and are intended to assist decision makers in comparing alternatives for further consideration. They will not be absolute costs or bid-document costs. The purpose of the Cost Analysis Guidelines is to establish a consistent approach to analyzing of cost alternatives for managing Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) stocks of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The component modules that make up the DUF6 management program differ substantially in operational maintenance, process-options, requirements for R and D, equipment, facilities, regulatory compliance, (O and M), and operations risk. To facilitate a consistent and equitable comparison of costs, the guidelines offer common definitions, assumptions or basis, and limitations integrated with a standard approach to the analysis. Further, the goal is to evaluate total net life-cycle costs and display them in a way that gives DOE the capability to evaluate a variety of overall DUF6 management strategies, including commercial potential. The cost estimates reflect the preconceptual level of the designs. They will be appropriate for distinguishing among management strategies.

  15. MCA 22-3-430 - Montana Antiquities Avoidance and Mitigation ...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    MCA 22-3-430 - Montana Antiquities Avoidance and MitigationLegal Abstract Sets forth a principle of preferred avoidance of heritage properties or paleontological remains,...

  16. Avoid Nuisance Tripping with Premium Efficiency Motors

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Avoid Nuisance Tripping with Premium Efficiency Motors In most cases, upgrading to premium effciency motors has no noticeable impact on the electrical system. However, in rare cases nuisance trips can occur during start-up. Addressing this topic requires an understanding of starting current. The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) recognizes and describes two components of starting current: instantaneous peak inrush and locked rotor current (LRC). Nuisance tripping primarily has

  17. Standardized Cost Savings Definitions and Reporting Template

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    As part of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Acquisition Savings Initiative and the DOE Strategic Sourcing Program, a key challenge has been to address the requirements of reporting cost savings and cost avoidance data. In order for DOE to fully comply with reporting requirements, we are directing that the attached template be utilized for reporting Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 data.

  18. LIFE Cost of Electricity, Capital and Operating Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Anklam, T

    2011-04-14

    Successful commercialization of fusion energy requires economic viability as well as technical and scientific feasibility. To assess economic viability, we have conducted a pre-conceptual level evaluation of LIFE economics. Unit costs are estimated from a combination of bottom-up costs estimates, working with representative vendors, and scaled results from previous studies of fission and fusion plants. An integrated process model of a LIFE power plant was developed to integrate and optimize unit costs and calculate top level metrics such as cost of electricity and power plant capital cost. The scope of this activity was the entire power plant site. Separately, a development program to deliver the required specialized equipment has been assembled. Results show that LIFE power plant cost of electricity and plant capital cost compare favorably to estimates for new-build LWR's, coal and gas - particularly if indicative costs of carbon capture and sequestration are accounted for.

  19. FY 1995 cost savings report

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews-Smith, K.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-21

    Fiscal Year (FY) 1995 challenged us to dramatically reduce costs at Hanford. We began the year with an 8 percent reduction in our Environmental Management budget but at the same time were tasked with accomplishing additional workscope. This resulted in a Productivity Challenge whereby we took on more work at the beginning of the year than we had funding to complete. During the year, the Productivity Challenge actually grew to 23 percent because of recissions, Congressional budget reductions, and DOE Headquarters actions. We successfully met our FY 1995 Productivity Challenge through an aggressive cost reduction program that identified and eliminated unnecessary workscope and found ways to be more efficient. We reduced the size of the workforce, cut overhead expenses, eliminated paperwork, cancelled construction of new facilities, and reengineered our processes. We are proving we can get the job done better and for less money at Hanford. DOE`s drive to do it ``better, faster, cheaper`` has led us to look for more and larger partnerships with the private sector. The biggest will be privatization of Hanford`s Tank Waste Remediation System, which will turn liquid tank waste into glass logs for eventual disposal. We will also save millions of dollars and avoid the cost of replacing aging steam plants by contracting Hanford`s energy needs to a private company. Other privatization successes include the Hanford Mail Service, a spinoff of advanced technical training, low level mixed waste thermal treatment, and transfer of the Hanford Museums of Science and history to a private non-profit organization. Despite the rough roads and uncertainty we faced in FY 1995, less than 3 percent of our work fell behind schedule, while the work that was performed was completed with an 8.6 percent cost under-run. We not only met the FY 1995 productivity challenge, we also met our FY 1995-1998 savings commitments and accelerated some critical cleanup milestones. The challenges continue

  20. System Cost Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    1996-03-27

    SCM is used for estimation of the life-cycle impacts (costs, health and safety risks) of waste management facilities for mixed low-level, low-level, and transuranic waste. SCM uses parametric cost functions to estimate life-cycle costs for various treatment, storage, and disposal modules which reflect planned and existing waste management facilities at Department of Energy (DOE) installations. SCM also provides transportation costs for intersite transfer of DOE wastes. SCM covers the entire DOE waste management complex tomore » allow system sensitivity analysis including: treatment, storage, and disposal configuration options; treatment technology selection; scheduling options; transportation options; waste stream and volume changes; and site specific conditions.« less

  1. Low cost electronic ultracapacitor interface technique to provide load leveling of a battery for pulsed load or motor traction drive applications

    DOEpatents

    King, Robert Dean; DeDoncker, Rik Wivina Anna Adelson

    1998-01-01

    A battery load leveling arrangement for an electrically powered system in which battery loading is subject to intermittent high current loading utilizes a passive energy storage device and a diode connected in series with the storage device to conduct current from the storage device to the load when current demand forces a drop in battery voltage. A current limiting circuit is connected in parallel with the diode for recharging the passive energy storage device. The current limiting circuit functions to limit the average magnitude of recharge current supplied to the storage device. Various forms of current limiting circuits are disclosed, including a PTC resistor coupled in parallel with a fixed resistor. The current limit circuit may also include an SCR for switching regenerative braking current to the device when the system is connected to power an electric motor.

  2. Unbundling power products, modifying rate design, and fixed cost coverage

    SciTech Connect

    Procter, R.J.

    1996-03-01

    In this paper, the author provides an overview of efforts currently underway at the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to respond to these various challenges to how BPA has traditionally managed the marketing of power at the wholesale level in the Pacific Northwest and to areas outside this region along the West Cast in general. The paper begins with an overview of the role of the BPA in the region, and trends in costs and revenues. The paper provides a general outline of BPA`s efforts to separate its business into three separate product lines (power, energy services, and transmission) as well as providing an overview of how BPA is unbundling power products. In addition, the paper provides an overview of some of the major changes BPA has proposed in its rate design. This is followed by an overview of the approach to the issue of stranded cost. You will see that it is their desire to as much as possible avoid a legislative solution to this issue and rely on marketing and working with customers as a way of dealing with this very contentious issue. The paper wraps up with an assessment of the potential for power product unbundling to significantly reduce potential stranded costs. You will see that at the present time, unbundling power products offers BPA little in the way of substantial reductions in potential stranded costs. Whereas, margins on the delivery of energy and capacity offer the greatest potential for covering fixed costs.

  3. Whole arm obstacle avoidance for teleoperated robots

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, J.T.; Novak, J.L.

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes a collision avoidance system using Whole Arm Proximity (WHAP) sensors on a PUMA 560 robot arm. The capacitance-based sensors generate electric fields which can completely encompass the robot arm and detect obstacles as they approach from any direction. The directional obstacle information gathered by the WHAP sensors together with the sensor geometry and robot configuration is used to scale the commanded joint velocities of the robot. A linearized relationship between the WHAP sensor reading and the distance from the obstacle allows direct transformation of perturbations in VHAP readings to perturbations in joint velocities. The VHAP reading is used to directly reduce the component of the command input velocity along the normal axis of the sensor, allowing graceful reductions in speed as the arm approaches the obstacle. By scaling only the component of the velocity vector in the,direction of the nearest obstacles, the control system restricts motion in the direction of obstacles while permitting unconstrained motion in other directions.

  4. GHG Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - Relative role for agroforestry

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

  5. Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - relative role for agroforestry

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

  6. AVOID BECOMING A VICTIM OF COUNTERFEIT ITEMS

    SciTech Connect

    WARRINER RD

    2011-07-13

    In today's globalized economy, we cannot live without imported products. Most people do not realize how thin the safety net of regulation and inspection really is. Less than three percent of imported products receive any form of government inspection prior to sale. Avoid flea markets, street vendors and deep discount stores. The sellers of counterfeit wares know where to market their products. They look for individuals who are hungry for a brand name item but do not want to pay a brand name price for it. The internet provides anonymity to the sellers of counterfeit products. Unlike Europe, U.S. law does not hold internet-marketing organizations, responsible for the quality of the products sold on their websites. These organizations will remove an individual vendor when a sufficient number of complaints are lodged, but they will not take responsibility for the counterfeit products you may have purchased. EBay has a number of counterfeit product guides to help you avoid being a victim of the sellers of these products. Ten percent of all medications taken worldwide are counterfeit. If you do buy medications on-line, be sure that the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy Verified Internet Pharmacy Practice Sites (VIPPS) recommends the pharmacy you choose to use. Inspect all medication purchases and report any change in color, shape, imprinting or odor to your pharmacist. If you take generic medications these attributes may change from one manufacturer to another. Your pharmacist should inform you of any changes when you refill your prescription. If they do not, get clarification prior to taking the medication. Please note that the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate supplements. The FDA only steps in when a specific supplement proves to cause physical harm or contains a regulated ingredient. Due to counterfeiting, Underwriters Laboratories (UL) changed their label design three times since 1996. The new gold label should be attached to the cord or

  7. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... of Congress, the General Accounting Office, or other Federal agencies authorized by law to receive such information. A court of competent jurisdiction may obtain this ...

  8. Levelized Cost of Energy: A Parametric Study

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Photovoltaic Reliability and Performance Model Jennifer E. Granata, Steven Miller, and ... predicting the performance of photovoltaic systems can be a challenging ...

  9. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook

    From a market perspective, commodity buyers do not typically care about the source of a product as long as its chemical composition meets specifications. We are proposing to rework ...

  10. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    202-586-6419 Vishakh Mantri, Ph.D, P.E. Chemical Engineer, Energy Information ... tcapehart@ers.usda.gov 202-694-5313 Chemical Production in the AEO Peter Gross Energy ...

  11. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Addendum to Potential Impacts of Reductions in Refinery Activity on Northeast Petroleum Product Markets 1 May 11, 2012 ADDENDUM Potential Impacts of Reductions in Refinery Activity on Northeast Petroleum Product Markets Additional Information on Jones Act Vessels' Potential Role in Northeast Refinery Closures The U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) recent report exploring the potential impacts of reductions in refinery activity in the Northeast on petroleum product markets in that

  12. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    October 2014 1 October 2014 Short-Term Energy Outlook Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: International crude oil prices continued on a downward trajectory in September, falling under $100 per barrel (bbl) for the first time since June 2012. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $93.42/bbl on October 2, a decrease of $6.92/bbl from September 2 (Figure 1). U.S. domestic crude oil benchmarks also declined, with the front month West Texas Intermediate (WTI)

  13. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    ... Those schedules include; * Schedule 2, General Information and Energy Sources and ... EIA-861. These schedules include Schedule 2C Green Pricing and Schedule 2D Net Metering. ...

  14. Microsoft Word - Levelized Cost of Energy Analysis

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    ... between OK and TN) Assumptions on alternatives Plains & Eastern line o Electric losses - 5% o Transmission charge - 8.00 kW-mo Oklahoma wind o Utilization rate - see OK ...

  15. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook

    ... and other advanced technology vehicles (e.g., gasoline or diesel- electric hybrid vehicles) that vehicle suppliers made available in a calendar year and plan to make available ...

  16. Levelized Cost of Energy: A Parametric Study

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    cpcamer@sandia.gov INTRODUCTION Photovoltaic systems are often priced in W p ... Database or Datasheet Module User or Datasheet Array Layout, Wire Size Inverter Transformer, Wire ...

  17. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    6 11.7 44.2 83.7 12.9 46.8 83.8 13.8 46.1 83.4 14.4 46.2 85.1 14.3 46.6 84.9 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Residential Commercial Industrial 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Note: These deliveries included quantities covered by long-term contracts and gas involved in short-term or spot market sales. Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA -176, "Annual Report of Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition." Figure 18. Percent of natural gas deliveries in the United

  18. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    012 Short-Term Energy Outlook August 7, 2012 Notice of change to electricity generation and renewables forecast tables The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) has changed the format of the Short-Term Energy Outlook tables for electricity industry overview (Table 7a), electricity generation (Table 7d), electricity generation fuel consumption (Table 7e), and renewable energy (Table 8). Electricity Generation and Fuel Consumption The new electricity generation and fuel consumption tables

  19. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Outlook Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: International crude oil futures prices declined in March and are near the bottom of their recent trading range. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $106.15 per barrel (bbl) on April 3, a decrease of $5.05/bbl from March 3 (Figure 1). The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front month futures price declined by $4.63/bbl over the same period, settling at $100.29/bbl on April 3. An apparent decline in risks associated

  20. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    5 1 April 2015 Short-Term Energy Outlook Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: After increasing in February, global crude oil prices declined in March. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $54.95/bbl on April 2, a decline of $4.59/bbl since the close on March 2 (Figure 1). The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front month futures price declined by $0.45/bbl over the same period to settle at $49.14/bbl on April 2. The average Brent price for March was 3.2% lower

  1. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Outlook Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: After increasing at the start of March, crude oil prices stabilized and traded within a relatively narrow range through the first week of April. The North Sea Brent front month futures price rose $2.62 per barrel (b) from March 1 to settle at $39.43/b on April 7 (Figure 1). The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front month futures price rose $2.86/b and settled at $37.26 over the same period. The increase in crude oil prices alongside

  2. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: Front month futures prices for both the Brent and WTI crude oil benchmarks rose over the last month, with WTI rising faster than Brent to sharply narrow the spread between the two benchmarks. Since July 1, Brent has increased by $6.54 per barrel to settle at $109.54 per barrel on August 1 (Figure 1). Over the same time period, WTI increased by $9.90 per barrel to settle at $107.89. While the August 1 settle was the highest price for Brent

  3. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: Crude oil prices moved lower through much of July and early August. The North Sea Brent front month futures price declined $12.49 per barrel (b) since July 1 to settle at $49.52/b on August 6 (Figure 1). The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front month futures price declined $12.30/b over the same time, settling at $44.66/b on August 6. Both benchmarks recorded their largest month-over-month decline since January 2015. One of the factors that

  4. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: Crude oil prices broke below $45/b and out of of a two-month-long trading range in July. The front-month Brent crude oil price decreased $6.06 per barrel (b) since July 1, settling at $44.29/b on August 4 (Figure 1). The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil price settled at $41.93/b, declining $7.06/b over the same time. Crude oil production outages, which removed more than 3.7 million barrels per day (b/d) of production in May, declined

  5. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: International crude oil benchmarks moved higher in November, showing their first month-over-month increase since August, while U.S. crude oil prices moved higher during the first week of December. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $110.98 per barrel on December 5, an increase of $5.07 per barrel since its close on November 1 (Figure 1). The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front month futures contract rose $2.77 per

  6. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    1 December 2014 Short-Term Energy Outlook Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: Crude oil prices continued to move lower in November and recorded their fifth consecutive month of declines. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $69.64/bbl on December 4, a decline of $15.14/bbl from November 3 (Figure 1). The front month West Texas Intermediate (WTI) contract price settled at $66.81/bbl on December 4, decreasing by $11.97/bbl since the start of November. The

  7. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    February 2014 Short-Term Energy Outlook Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: International crude oil prices were relatively stable to start the year. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $107.19 per barrel (bbl) on February 6, a decline of less than $1/bbl from its settle price on January 2 (Figure 1). Over the same period, the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front month futures contract rose $2.40/bbl, settling at $97.84/bbl on February 6. Crude oil has so

  8. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: Crude oil prices moved higher toward the end of January and into the first week of February. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $56.57/bbl on February 5, an increase of $0.15/bbl from January 2 (Figure 1). The front month West Texas Intermediate (WTI) contract price settled at $50.48/bbl on February 5, $2.21/bbl lower than at the start of January. These changes were relatively small compared to an average

  9. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: International crude oil prices were relatively stable throughout December before declining at the beginning of January, while U.S. domestic prices moved higher in December. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $107.78 per barrel (bbl) on January 2, a decline of $3.67/bbl from its close on December 2 (Figure 1). Over the same period, the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front month futures contract rose $1.62/bbl, settling

  10. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: Crude oil markets continue to search for a bottom as prices declined again in December and the first week of January. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $50.96/bbl on January 8, a decline of $21.58/bbl from December 1 (Figure 1). The front month West Texas Intermediate (WTI) contract price settled at $48.79/bbl on January 8, decreasing by $20.21/bbl since the start of December. Crude oil prices now have declined more

  11. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: Global and domestic crude oil prices traded in a narrow range in June. The North Sea Brent front month futures price declined $2.87 per barrel (b) since June 1 to settle at $62.01/b on July 1 (Figure 1). The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front month futures price declined $3.24/b over the month, settling at $56.96/b on July 1. As global crude oil supply remains robust, demand-side factors are likely contributing to renewed price stability

  12. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: Despite some price volatility in June and early July, crude oil prices remained in a narrow trading range near recent highs. The front-month Brent crude oil price decreased $3.32 per barrel (b) since June 1, settling at $46.40/b on July 7 (Figure 1). The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil price settled at $45.14/b, declining $3.87/b over the same time. Drilling activity in the United States, as measured by the Baker Hughes oil rig

  13. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    4 1 June 2014 Short-Term Energy Outlook Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: International crude oil futures prices increased slightly over the previous month but remained rangebound. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $108.79 per barrel (bbl) on June 5, an increase of $1.03/bbl from May 1 (Figure 1). The front month West Texas Intermediate (WTI) contract also rose, settling at $102.48/bbl on June 5, $3.06/bbl higher than on May 1. Lower-than-previously

  14. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: International crude oil prices declined in May and in the first week of June while domestic crude oil prices stayed relatively stable. The North Sea Brent front month futures declined $4.43 per barrel (b) since May 1 to settle at $62.03/b on June 4 (Figure 1). The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front month futures price decreased $1.15/b over the same period to settle at $58/b on June 4. Elevated crude oil production from members of The

  15. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: Global crude oil prices increased for the fourth consecutive month in May, closing at more than $50 per barrel (b) for the first time since November 2015. The front- month Brent crude oil price increased $4.21/b since May 2, settling at $50.04/b on June 2. The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil price increased $4.39 over the same period to settle at $49.17/b (Figure 1). Global unplanned supply outages were estimated at 3.7 million

  16. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: International crude oil futures prices rose over the previous month but remained within the recent, and relatively narrow, trading range. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $108.10 per barrel (bbl) on March 6, an increase of $2.06/bbl from February 3 (Figure 1). Over the same period, the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front month futures contract rose $5.13/bbl, settling at $101.56/bbl on March 6. The brief uptick in

  17. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    March 2015 Short-Term Energy Outlook Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: Over the past month, international crude oil prices recorded the first month- over-month increase since June 2014. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $60.48/bbl on March 5, an increase of $5.73/bbl from February 2 (Figure 1). In the U.S. market, domestic crude oil prices continued to lag behind international benchmarks. The front month West Texas Intermediate (WTI) contract price

  18. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: The North Sea Brent front month futures price rose $2.83 per barrel (b) from February 1 to settle at $37.07/b on March 3 (Figure 1). The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front month futures price rose $2.95/b and settled at $34.57 over the same period. Crude oil prices began to increase during the second half of February in response to potential future supply reductions and better economic data in the United States. Discussion of a potential

  19. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: North Sea Brent and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front month futures contracts continued their recent decline in October and the first week of November as a larger-than-normal seasonal decrease in global refinery runs from August through October lessened demand for crude oil. The Brent contract settled at $103.46 per barrel on November 7, a decline of $4.48 per barrel compared to October 1 (Figure 1). The decreases in WTI futures prices

  20. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    4 1 November 2014 Short-Term Energy Outlook Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: Both international and domestic crude oil prices moved sharply lower over the previous five weeks. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $82.86/bbl on November 6, a decline of $11.30/bbl from October 1 (Figure 1). The front month West Texas Intermediate (WTI) contract price settled at $77.91/bbl on November 6, decreasing by $12.82/bbl since the start of October. November marked

  1. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: Crude oil prices remained within the range established over the previous three months. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $47.98 per barrel (b) on November 5, an increase of $0.29/b since October 1 (Figure 1). The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front month futures price settled at $45.20/b on November 5, rising by 46 cents/b over the same time. Although prices were relatively stable, large uncertainty remains in the

  2. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    3 1 October 2013 Short-Term Energy Outlook Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: Front month futures prices for the Brent and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil benchmarks fell in September. The Brent contract settled at $109.00 per barrel on October 3, a decline of $6.68 per barrel since September 3, and WTI settled at $103.31 per barrel on October 3, falling by $5.23 per barrel over the same period (Figure 1). These changes marked the first month-over-month declines in

  3. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    4 1 October 2014 Short-Term Energy Outlook Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: International crude oil prices continued on a downward trajectory in September, falling under $100 per barrel (bbl) for the first time since June 2012. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $93.42/bbl on October 2, a decrease of $6.92/bbl from September 2 (Figure 1). U.S. domestic crude oil benchmarks also declined, with the front month West Texas Intermediate (WTI) contract price

  4. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: The front month futures price for Brent, the world waterborne crude benchmark, increased by $5.72 per barrel to settle at $115.26 per barrel on September 5 (Figure 1). Front month futures prices for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil also increased over the same time period but by a lesser amount, to settle at $108.37 per barrel on September 5. The primary drivers of higher crude oil prices over the past five weeks included an uptick

  5. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: Crude oil prices declined through most of August before rising at the end of the month and in the first week of September. The North Sea Brent front month futures price rose $1.16 per barrel (b) since August 3 to settle at $50.68/b on September 3 (Figure 1). The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front month futures price increased $1.58/b over the same period to settle at $46.75/b. In contrast to July, when crude oil prices may have responded

  6. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    end uses such as space heating, air conditioning, water heating, refrigeration, and so on. ... Total Btu Space Heating AC Water Heating Etc. (known) total (unknown) end-use components ...

  7. Estimating Specialty Costs

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Specialty costs are those nonstandard, unusual costs that are not typically estimated. Costs for research and development (R&D) projects involving new technologies, costs associated with future regulations, and specialty equipment costs are examples of specialty costs. This chapter discusses those factors that are significant contributors to project specialty costs and methods of estimating costs for specialty projects.

  8. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2008-03-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  9. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

    2007-04-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

  10. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2009-12-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  11. Replacement Cost of Domestic Crude

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    1994-12-01

    The DEEPWATER model forecasts the replacement cost of domestic crude oil for 13 offshore regions in the lower 48 states. The replacement cost of domestic crude oil is the constant or levelized selling price that will recover the full expense of exploration, development, and productions with a reasonable return on capital.

  12. Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure development program: Cost analysis requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Custer, W.R. Jr.; Messick, C.D.

    1996-03-31

    This report was prepared to support development of the Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure -- a new capability to independently estimate and analyze costs. Currently, the cost data are reported according to a structure that blends level of effort tasks with product and process oriented tasks. Also. the budgetary inputs are developed from prior year funding authorizations and from contractor-developed parametric estimates that have been adjusted to planned funding levels or appropriations. Consequently, it is difficult for headquarters and field-level activities to use actual cost data and technical requirements to independently assess the costs generated and identify trends, potential cost savings from process improvements, and cost reduction strategies.

  13. Avoid Nuisance Tripping with Premium Efficiency Motors | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Avoid Nuisance Tripping with Premium Efficiency Motors Avoid Nuisance Tripping with Premium Efficiency Motors In most cases, upgrading to premium efficiency motors has no noticeable impact on the electrical system. However, in rare cases nuisance trips can occur during start-up. Addressing this topic requires an understanding of starting current.This tip sheet discusses how to avoid nuisance tripping with premium efficiency motors and provides suggested actions. Motor Systems Tip

  14. Financing Program Pitfalls to Avoid | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Pitfalls to Avoid Financing Program Pitfalls to Avoid Clean energy financing programs are not a new concept; however, many programs launched over the years have not had the impact intended. Financing program pitfalls to avoid are listed below. Don't Assume Financing Alone Will Increase Demand Program experience shows that financial incentives do motivate customers and can be extremely important to getting a program off the ground, but don't assume that financing alone will be enough to drive

  15. Factory Cost Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    1996-12-17

    The Factory Cost Model (FCM) is an economic analysis tool intended to provide flat panel display (FPD) and other similar discrete component manufacturers with the ability to make first-order estimates of the cost of unit production. This software has several intended uses. Primary among these is the ability to provide first-order economic analysis for future factories. Consequently, the model requires a minimal level of input detail, and accomodates situations where actual production data are notmore » available. This software is designed to be activity based such that most of the calculated direct costs are associated with the steps of a manufacturibg process. The FCM architecture has the ability to accomodate the analysis of existing manufacturing facilities. The FCM can provide assistance with strategic economic decisions surrounding production related matters. For instance, the program can project the effect on costs and resources of a new product''s introduction, or it can assess the potential cost reduction produced by step yield improvements in the manufacturing process.« less

  16. Cost Study Manual

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    2 Cost Study Manual Executive Summary This Cost Study Manual documents the procedures for preparing a Cost Study to compare the cost of a contractor's employee benefits to the industry average from a broad-based national benefit cost survey. The annual Employee Benefits Cost Study Comparison (Cost Study) assists with the analysis of contractors' employee benefits costs. The Contracting Officer (CO) may require corrective action when the average benefit per capita cost or the benefit cost as a

  17. Avoiding a Train Wreck: Replacing Old Coal Plants with Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Avoiding a Train Wreck: Replacing Old Coal Plants with Energy Efficiency, August 2011 ... More Documents & Publications Chapter 3 Demand-Side Resources Survey of Emissions Models ...

  18. Procedures for Interagency Consultation to Avoid or Mitigate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    or Mitigate Adverse Effects on Rivers in the Nationwide Inventory (CEQ, 1980) Procedures for Interagency Consultation to Avoid or Mitigate Adverse Effects on Rivers in the ...

  19. On the morphology of avoided crossings in the spectrum of irregular quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiazhou; Burgdoerfer, J.; Eschenazi, E. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Dept. of Physics Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The deformation of the energy level spectra of quantum systems as a function of a control parameter governing the strength of a non- integrable perturbation can be determined by standard molecular dynamics techniques. This method is used to analyze the distribution and morphology of avoided crossings for a system of coupled Morse oscillators. 25 refs., 4 figs.

  20. 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Lantz, E.; Schwabe, P.; Smith, A.

    2012-04-01

    This document provides a detailed description of NREL's levelized cost of wind energy equation, assumptions, and results in 2010, including historical cost trends and future projections for land-based and offshore utility-scale wind.

  1. 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Lantz, E.; Schwabe, P.; Smith, A.

    2012-04-01

    This document provides a detailed description of NREL's levelized cost of wind energy equation, assumptions and results in 2010, including historical cost trends and future projections for land-based and offshore utility-scale wind.

  2. Level 1 Electric Vehicle Charging

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    3 Scenario A: Making a Level 1 Electrical Outlet Available ......Costs for Scenario A (Making an Electrical Outlet Available) ......

  3. Impact of post-event avoidance behavior on commercial facilities sector venues-literature review.

    SciTech Connect

    Samsa, M. E.; Baldwin, T. E.; Berry, M. S.; Guzowski, L. B.; Martinez-Moyano, I.; Nieves, A. L.; Ramarasad, A.

    2011-03-24

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11), focused a great deal of interest and concern on how individual and social perceptions of risk change behavior and subsequently affect commercial sector venues. Argonne conducted a review of the literature to identify studies that quantify the direct and indirect economic consequences of avoidance behaviors that result from terrorist attacks. Despite a growing amount of literature addressing terrorism impacts, relatively little is known about the causal relationships between risk perception, human avoidance behaviors, and the economic effects on commercial venues. Nevertheless, the technical and academic literature does provide some evidence, both directly and by inference, of the level and duration of post-event avoidance behaviors on commercial venues. Key findings are summarized in this Executive Summary. Also included as an appendix is a more detailed summary table of literature findings reproduced from the full report.

  4. 2013 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect

    Mone, C.; Smith, A.; Maples, B.; Hand, M.

    2015-02-01

    This report uses representative project types to estimate the levelized cost of wind energy (LCOE) in the United States for 2013. Scheduled to be published on an annual basis, it relies on both market and modeled data to maintain a current understanding of wind generation cost trends and drivers. It is intended to provide insight into current component-level costs and a basis for understanding current component-level costs and a basis for understanding variability in the LCOE across the industry. Data and tools developed from this analysis are used to inform wind technology cost projections, goals, and improvement opportunities.

  5. PAFC Cost Challenges

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    PAFC Cost Challenges Sridhar Kanuri Manager, PAFC Technology *Sridhar.Kanuri@utcpower.com 2 AGENDA Purecell® 400 cost challenge Cost reduction opportunities Summary 3 PURECELL ® FUEL CELL SYSTEM First cost 2010 cost reduction is being accomplished by incremental changes in technology & low cost sourcing Technology advances are required to reduce further cost and attain UTC Power's commercialization targets 2010 First unit 2010 Last unit Commercialization target Powerplant cost 4

  6. Emissions Scenarios, Costs, and Implementation Considerations of REDD Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, Jayant; Andrasko, Ken; Chan, Peter

    2011-04-11

    Greenhouse gas emissions from the forestry sector are estimated to be 8.4 GtCO2-eq./year or about 17percent of the global emissions. We estimate that the cost forreducing deforestation is low in Africa and several times higher in Latin America and Southeast Asia. These cost estimates are sensitive to the uncertainties of how muchunsustainable high-revenue logging occurs, little understood transaction and program implementation costs, and barriers to implementation including governance issues. Due to lack of capacity in the affected countries, achieving reduction or avoidance of carbon emissions will require extensive REDD-plus programs. Preliminary REDD-plus Readiness cost estimates and program descriptions for Indonesia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Guyana and Mexico show that roughly one-third of potential REDD-plus mitigation benefits might come from avoided deforestation and the rest from avoided forest degradation and other REDD-plus activities.

  7. A reliable, fast and low cost maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Enrique, J.M.; Andujar, J.M.; Bohorquez, M.A.

    2010-01-15

    This work presents a new maximum power point tracker system for photovoltaic applications. The developed system is an analog version of the ''P and O-oriented'' algorithm. It maintains its main advantages: simplicity, reliability and easy practical implementation, and avoids its main disadvantages: inaccurateness and relatively slow response. Additionally, the developed system can be implemented in a practical way at a low cost, which means an added value. The system also shows an excellent behavior for very fast variables in incident radiation levels. (author)

  8. Cost Contributors to Geothermal Power Production (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    has developed the tool Geothermal Electricity Technologies Evaluation Model (GETEM) to assess the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of power produced from geothermal resources. ...

  9. Renewable Portfolio Standards: Costs and Benefits (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Barbose, G.; Weaver, S.; Flores, F.; Kuskova-Burns, K.; Wiser, R.

    2014-10-01

    This report summarizes state-level RPS costs to date, and considers how those costs may evolve going forward given scheduled increases in RPS targets and cost containment mechanisms. The report also summarizes RPS benefits estimates, based on published studies for individual states and discusses key methodological considerations.

  10. Cost Model and Cost Estimating Software

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter discusses a formalized methodology is basically a cost model, which forms the basis for estimating software.

  11. GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide Twelve Steps of a High-Quality Cost Estimating Process

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide Twelve Steps of a High-Quality Cost Estimating Process Step Description Associated task 1 Define estimate's purpose Determine estimate's purpose, required level of detail, and overall scope; Determine who will receive the estimate 2 Develop estimating plan Determine the cost estimating team and develop its master schedule; Determine who will do the independent cost estimate; Outline the cost estimating approach; Develop the estimate timeline 3 Define

  12. Electric power substation capital costs

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, J.E.; Brown, D.R.

    1997-12-01

    The displacement or deferral of substation equipment is a key benefit associated with several technologies that are being developed with the support of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. This could occur, for example, as a result of installing a distributed generating resource within an electricity distribution system. The objective of this study was to develop a model for preparing preliminary estimates of substation capital costs based on rudimentary conceptual design information. The model is intended to be used by energy systems analysts who need ``ballpark`` substation cost estimates to help establish the value of advanced utility technologies that result in the deferral or displacement of substation equipment. This cost-estimating model requires only minimal inputs. More detailed cost-estimating approaches are recommended when more detailed design information is available. The model was developed by collecting and evaluating approximately 20 sets of substation design and cost data from about 10 US sources, including federal power marketing agencies and private and public electric utilities. The model is principally based on data provided by one of these sources. Estimates prepared with the model were compared with estimated and actual costs for the data sets received from the other utilities. In general, good agreement (for conceptual level estimating) was found between estimates prepared with the cost-estimating model and those prepared by the individual utilities. Thus, the model was judged to be adequate for making preliminary estimates of typical substation costs for US utilities.

  13. Cost Analysis: Technology, Competitiveness, Market Uncertainty | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Energy Technology to Market » Cost Analysis: Technology, Competitiveness, Market Uncertainty Cost Analysis: Technology, Competitiveness, Market Uncertainty As a basis for strategic planning, competitiveness analysis, funding metrics and targets, SunShot supports analysis teams at national laboratories to assess technology costs, location-specific competitive advantages, policy impacts on system financing, and to perform detailed levelized cost of energy (LCOE) analyses. This shows the

  14. Workplace Charging Equipment and Installation Costs | Department...

    Energy Saver

    Charging equipment costs depend on the type of charging station you decide to install in your workplace. Level 1 (300-1,500) and Level 2 (400-6,500) charging stations are ...

  15. Activity Based Costing

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Activity Based Costing (ABC) is method for developing cost estimates in which the project is subdivided into discrete, quantifiable activities or a work unit. This chapter outlines the Activity Based Costing method and discusses applicable uses of ABC.

  16. Construction Cost Growth for New Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kubic, Jr., William L.

    2014-05-25

    Cost growth and construction delays are problems that plague many large construction projects including the construction of new Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities. A study was conducted to evaluate cost growth of large DOE construction projects. The purpose of the study was to compile relevant data, consider the possible causes of cost growth, and recommend measures that could be used to avoid extreme cost growth in the future. Both large DOE and non-DOE construction projects were considered in this study. With the exception of Chemical and Metallurgical Research Building Replacement Project (CMRR) and the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF), cost growth for DOE Nuclear facilities is comparable to the growth experienced in other mega construction projects. The largest increase in estimated cost was found to occur between early cost estimates and establishing the project baseline during detailed design. Once the project baseline was established, cost growth for DOE nuclear facilities was modest compared to non-DOE mega projects.

  17. Development of surface mine cost estimating equations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-26

    Cost estimating equations were developed to determine capital and operating costs for five surface coal mine models in Central Appalachia, Northern Appalachia, Mid-West, Far-West, and Campbell County, Wyoming. Engineering equations were used to estimate equipment costs for the stripping function and for the coal loading and hauling function for the base case mine and for several mines with different annual production levels and/or different overburden removal requirements. Deferred costs were then determined through application of the base case depreciation schedules, and direct labor costs were easily established once the equipment quantities (and, hence, manpower requirements) were determined. The data points were then fit with appropriate functional forms, and these were then multiplied by appropriate adjustment factors so that the resulting equations yielded the model mine costs for initial and deferred capital and annual operating cost. (The validity of this scaling process is based on the assumption that total initial and deferred capital costs are proportional to the initial and deferred costs for the primary equipment types that were considered and that annual operating cost is proportional to the direct labor costs that were determined based on primary equipment quantities.) Initial capital costs ranged from $3,910,470 in Central Appalachia to $49,296,785; deferred capital costs ranged from $3,220,000 in Central Appalachia to $30,735,000 in Campbell County, Wyoming; and annual operating costs ranged from $2,924,148 in Central Appalachia to $32,708,591 in Campbell County, Wyoming. (DMC)

  18. Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    2003-04-25

    The Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model (GENSIM) is a user-friendly, high-level dynamic simulation model that calculates electricity production costs for variety of electricity generation technologies, including: pulverized coal, gas combustion turbine, gas combined cycle, nuclear, solar (PV and thermal), and wind. The model allows the user to quickly conduct sensitivity analysis on key variables, including: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; and capacity factors. The model also includes consideration ofmore » a wide range of externality costs and pollution control options for carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and mercury. Two different data sets are included in the model; one from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the other from Platt's Research Group. Likely users of this model include executives and staff in the Congress, the Administration and private industry (power plant builders, industrial electricity users and electric utilities). The model seeks to improve understanding of the economic viability of various generating technologies and their emission trade-offs. The base case results using the DOE data, indicate that in the absence of externality costs, or renewable tax credits, pulverized coal and gas combined cycle plants are the least cost alternatives at 3.7 and 3.5 cents/kwhr, respectively. A complete sensitivity analysis on fuel, capital, and construction time shows that these results coal and gas are much more sensitive to assumption about fuel prices than they are to capital costs or construction times. The results also show that making nuclear competitive with coal or gas requires significant reductions in capital costs, to the $1000/kW level, if no other changes are made. For renewables, the results indicate that wind is now competitive with the nuclear option and is only competitive with coal and gas for grid connected applications if one includes the federal production tax

  19. Concentrating Solar Power: Concentrating Optics for Lower Levelized...

    Energy Saver

    Concentrating Solar Power: Concentrating Optics for Lower Levelized Energy Costs (CSP: COLLECTS) Concentrating Solar Power: Concentrating Optics for Lower Levelized Energy Costs ...

  20. Life Cycle Cost Estimate

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Life-cycle costs (LCCs) are all the anticipated costs associated with a project or program alternative throughout its life. This includes costs from pre-operations through operations or to the end of the alternative.This chapter discusses life cycle costs and the role they play in planning.

  1. Cost Estimation Package

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter focuses on the components (or elements) of the cost estimation package and their documentation.

  2. A chronicle of costs

    SciTech Connect

    Elioff, T.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains the history of all estimated costs associated with the superconducting super collider.

  3. A VLSI structure for the deadlock avoidance problem

    SciTech Connect

    Bertolazzi, P.; Bongiovanni, G.

    1985-11-01

    In this paper the authors present two VLSI structures implementing the banker's algorithm for the deadlock avoidance problem, and we derive the area x (time)/sup 2/ lower bound for such an algorithm. The first structure is based on the VLSI mesh of trees. The second structure is a modification of the first one, and it approaches more closely the theoretical lower bound.

  4. Examples of Cost Estimation Packages

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Estimates can be performed in a variety of ways. Some of these are for projects for an undefined scope, a conventional construction project, or where there is a level of effort required to complete the work. Examples of cost estimation packages for these types of projects are described in this appendix.

  5. Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Program Record (Offices of Fuel Cell Technologies) Record #: 11007 Date: March 25, 2011 Title: Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation Originator: Mark Ruth & Fred Joseck Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: March 24, 2011 Description: The hydrogen threshold cost is defined as the hydrogen cost in the range of $2.00-$4.00/gge (2007$) which represents the cost at which hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) are projected to become competitive on a cost per mile basis with the competing

  6. OOTW COST TOOLS

    SciTech Connect

    HARTLEY, D.S.III; PACKARD, S.L.

    1998-09-01

    This document reports the results of a study of cost tools to support the analysis of Operations Other Than War (OOTW). It recommends the continued development of the Department of Defense (DoD) Contingency Operational Support Tool (COST) as the basic cost analysis tool for 00TWS. It also recommends modifications to be included in future versions of COST and the development of an 00TW mission planning tool to supply valid input for costing.

  7. Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Pathway Cost Distributions Jim Uihlein Fuel Pathways Integration Tech Team January 25, 2006 2 Outline * Pathway-Independent Cost Goal * Cost Distribution Objective * Overview * H2A Influence * Approach * Implementation * Results * Discussion Process * Summary 3 Hydrogen R&D Cost Goal * Goal is pathway independent * Developed through a well defined, transparent process * Consumer fueling costs are equivalent or less on a cents per mile basis * Evolved gasoline ICE and gasoline-electric

  8. 2014 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect

    Mone, Christopher; Stehly, Tyler; Maples, Ben; Settle, Edward

    2015-10-01

    This report uses representative commercial projects to estimate the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for both land-based and offshore wind plants in the United States for 2014. Scheduled to be published on an annual basis, the analysis relies on both market and modeled data to maintain an up-to-date understanding of wind generation cost trends and drivers. It is intended to provide insight into current component-level costs and a basis for understanding variability in the LCOE across the industry. Data and tools developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are used in this analysis to inform wind technology cost projections, goals, and improvement opportunities.

  9. ASPEN costing manual

    SciTech Connect

    Schwint, K.J.

    1986-07-25

    The ASPEN program contains within it a Cost Estimation System (CES) which estimates the purchase cost and utility consumption rates for major pieces of equipment in a process flowsheet as well as installed equipment costs. These estimates are ''preliminary-study grade'' with an accuracy of plus or minus 30%. The ASPEN program also contains within it an Economic Evaluation System (EES) which estimates overall capital investment costs, annual operating expenses and profitability indices for a chemical plant. This ASPEN costing manual has been written as a guide for those inexperienced in the use of ASPEN and unfamiliar with standard cost estimating techniques who want to use the ASPEN CES and EES. The ASPEN Costing Manual is comprised of the following sections: (1) Introduction, (2) ASPEN Input Language, (3) ASPEN Cost Estimation System (CES), (4) ASPEN Cost Blocks; and (5) ASPEN Economic Evaluation System (EES).

  10. Avoiding climate change uncertainties in Strategic Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Krnv, Lone; Driscoll, Patrick

    2013-11-15

    This article is concerned with how Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) practice handles climate change uncertainties within the Danish planning system. First, a hypothetical model is set up for how uncertainty is handled and not handled in decision-making. The model incorporates the strategies reduction and resilience, denying, ignoring and postponing. Second, 151 Danish SEAs are analysed with a focus on the extent to which climate change uncertainties are acknowledged and presented, and the empirical findings are discussed in relation to the model. The findings indicate that despite incentives to do so, climate change uncertainties were systematically avoided or downplayed in all but 5 of the 151 SEAs that were reviewed. Finally, two possible explanatory mechanisms are proposed to explain this: conflict avoidance and a need to quantify uncertainty.

  11. PHENIX WBS notes. Cost and schedule review copy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Book begins with this Overview section, which contains the high-level summary cost estimate, the cost profile, and the global construction schedule. The summary cost estimate shows the total US cost and the cost in terms of PHENIX construction funds for building the PHENIX detector. All costs in the WBS book are shown in FY 1993 dollars. Also shown are the institutional and foreign contributions, the level of pre-operations funding, and the cost of deferred items. Pie charts are presented at PHENIX WBS level 1 and 2 that show this information. The PHENIX construction funds are shown broken down to PHENIX WBS level 3 items per fiscal year, and the resulting profile is compared to the RHIC target profile. An accumulated difference of the two profiles is also shown. The PHENIX global construction schedule is presented at the end of the Overview section. Following the Overview are sections for each subsystem. Each subsystem section begins with a summary cost estimate, cost profile, and critical path. The total level 3 cost is broken down into fixed costs (M&S), engineering costs (EDIA) and labor costs. Costs are further broken down in terms of PHENIX construction funds, institutional and foreign contributions, pre-operations funding, and deferred items. Also shown is the contingency at level 3 and the level 4 breakdown of the total cost. The cost profile in fiscal years is shown at level 3. The subsystem summaries are followed by the full cost estimate and schedule sheets for that subsystem. These detailed sheets are typically carried down to level 7 or 8. The cost estimate Total, M&S, EDIA, and Labor breakdowns, as well as contingency, for each WBS entry.

  12. PHENIX Work Breakdown Structure. Cost and schedule review copy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Book begins with this Overview section, which contains the high-level summary cost estimate, the cost profile, and the global construction schedule. The summary cost estimate shows the total US cost and the cost in terms of PHENIX construction funds for building the PHENIX detector. All costs in the WBS book are shown in FY 1993 dollars. Also shown are the institutional and foreign contributions, the level of pre-operations funding, and the cost of deferred items. Pie charts are presented at PHENIX WBS level 1 and 2 that show this information. The PHENIX construction funds are shown broken down to PHENIX WBS level 3 items per fiscal year, and the resulting profile is compared to the RHIC target profile. An accumulated difference of the two profiles is also shown. The PHENIX global construction schedule is presented at the end of the Overview section. Following the Overview are sections for each subsystem. Each subsystem section begins with a summary cost estimate, cost profile, and critical path. The total level 3 cost is broken down into fixed costs (M&S), engineering costs (EDIA) and labor costs. Costs are further broken down in terms of PHENIX construction funds, institutional and foreign contributions, pre-operations funding, and deferred items. Also shown is the contingency at level 3 and the level 4 breakdown of the total cost. The cost profile in fiscal years is shown at level 3. The subsystem summaries are followed by the full cost estimate and schedule sheets for that subsystem. These detailed sheets are typically carried down to level 7 or 8. The cost estimate shows Total, M&S, EDIA, and Labor breakdowns, as well as contingency, for each WBS entry.

  13. The pathogen transmission avoidance theory of sexual selection

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C.

    1997-08-01

    The current theory that sexual selection results from female preference for males with good genes suffers from several problems. An alternative explanation, the pathogen transmission avoidance hypothesis, argues that the primary function of showy traits is to provide a reliable signal of current disease status, so that sick individuals can be avoided during mating. This study shows that a significant risk of pathogen transmission occurs during mating and that showy traits are reliable indicators of current disease status. The origin of female choosiness is argued to lie in a general tendency to avoid sick individuals, even in the absence of showy traits, which originate as exaggerations of normal traits that are indicative of good health (bright feathers, vigorous movement, large size). Thus, in this new model the origins of both showy traits and female choosiness are not problematic and there is no threshold effect. This model predicts that when the possession of male showy traits does not help to reduce disease in the female, showy traits are unlikely to occur. This case corresponds to thorough exposure of every animal to all group pathogens, on average, in large groups. Such species are shown with a large data set on birds to be less likely to exhibit showy traits. The good-genes model does not make this prediction. The pathogen transmission avoidance model can also lead to the evolution of showy traits even when selection is not effective against a given pathogen (e.g., when there is no heritable variation for resistance), but can result in selection for resistance if such genes are present. Monogamy is argued to reduce selection pressures for showy traits; data show monogamous species to be both less parasitized and less showy. In the context of reduction of pathogen transmission rates in showy populations, selection pressure becomes inversely frequency-dependent, which makes showy traits likely to be self-limiting rather than runaway.

  14. Direct/Indirect Costs

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter provides recommended categories for direct and indirect elements developed by the Committee for Cost Methods Development (CCMD) and describes various estimating techniques for direct and indirect costs.

  15. Vehicle Cost Calculator

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Annual Fuel Cost gal Annual GHG Emissions (lbs of CO2) Vehicle Cost Calculator See Assumptions and Methodology Back Next U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and ...

  16. Low Cost, Durable Seal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Cost, Durable Seal George M. Roberts UTC Power Corporation February 14, 2007 This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information 1 LOW COST, DURABLE SEAL Outline * Project Objective * Technical Approach * Timeline * Team Roles * Budget * Q&A 2 LOW COST, DURABLE SEAL Project Objective Develop advanced, low cost, durable seal materials and sealing techniques amenable to high volume manufacture of PEM cell stacks. DOE Targets/Goals/Objectives Project Goal Durability

  17. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  18. Workplace Charging Equipment Costs | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Cost estimates for different tiers of Level 2 EVSE units. Image from Kristina Rivenbark, NWT. Charging stations are available from a variety of manufacturers in a range of models ...

  19. Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    H.P. Loh; Jennifer Lyons; Charles W. White, III

    2002-01-01

    This report presents generic cost curves for several equipment types generated using ICARUS Process Evaluator. The curves give Purchased Equipment Cost as a function of a capacity variable. This work was performed to assist NETL engineers and scientists in performing rapid, order of magnitude level cost estimates or as an aid in evaluating the reasonableness of cost estimates submitted with proposed systems studies or proposals for new processes. The specific equipment types contained in this report were selected to represent a relatively comprehensive set of conventional chemical process equipment types.

  20. Avoidance responses of salmon and trout to air-supersaturated water

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, D.G.; Nebeker, A.V.; Baker, R.J.

    1980-11-01

    Coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch), sockeye (O. nerka), and chinook (O. tschawystcha) salmon smolts, and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) avoided air-supersaturated water when tested in a shallow round tank. Steelheads (S. gairdneri) did not consistently avoid the supersaturated water and died from gas bubble disease. The salmon and rainbow trout generally avoided 145 and 125% saturation but did not always avoid 115%. Territorial activity reduced avoidance by steelheads and rainbow trout.

  1. NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEM COST MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    Francesco Ganda; Brent Dixon

    2012-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program is preparing to perform an evaluation of the full range of possible Nuclear Energy Systems (NES) in 2013. These include all practical combinations of fuels and transmuters (reactors and sub-critical systems) in single and multi-tier combinations of burners and breeders with no, partial, and full recycle. As part of this evaluation, Levelized Cost of Electricity at Equilibrium (LCAE) ranges for each representative system will be calculated. To facilitate the cost analyses, the 2009 Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis Report is being amended to provide up-to-date cost data for each step in the fuel cycle, and a new analysis tool, NE-COST, has been developed. This paper explains the innovative “Island” approach used by NE-COST to streamline and simplify the economic analysis effort and provides examples of LCAE costs generated. The Island approach treats each transmuter (or target burner) and the associated fuel cycle facilities as a separate analysis module, allowing reuse of modules that appear frequently in the NES options list. For example, a number of options to be screened will include a once-through uranium oxide (UOX) fueled light water reactor (LWR). The UOX LWR may be standalone, or may be the first stage in a multi-stage system. Using the Island approach, the UOX LWR only needs to be modeled once and the module can then be reused on subsequent fuel cycles. NE-COST models the unit operations and life cycle costs associated with each step of the fuel cycle on each island. This includes three front-end options for supplying feedstock to fuel fabrication (mining/enrichment, reprocessing of used fuel from another island, and/or reprocessing of this island’s used fuel), along with the transmuter and back-end storage/disposal. Results of each island are combined based on the fractional energy generated by each islands in an equilibrium system. The cost analyses use the probability

  2. MHK Cost Breakdown Structure Draft | OpenEI Community

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    MHK Cost Breakdown Structure Draft Home > Groups > Water Power Forum Kch's picture Submitted by Kch(24) Member 15 July, 2014 - 07:07 CBS current energy GMREC LCOE levelized cost of...

  3. Damage mechanisms avoided or managed for NIF large optics

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Manes, K. R.; Spaeth, M. L.; Adams, J. J.; Bowers, M. W.; Bude, J. D.; Carr, C. W.; Conder, A. D.; DiNicola, J. M. G.; Dixit, S. N.; Feigenbaum, E.; et al

    2016-02-09

    After every other failure mode has been considered, in the end, the high-performance limit of all lasers is set by optical damage. The demands of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) pushed lasers designed as ICF drivers into this limit from their very earliest days. The first ICF lasers were small, and their pulses were short. Their goal was to provide as much power to the target as possible. Typically, they faced damage due to high intensity on their optics. As requests for higher laser energy, longer pulse lengths, and better symmetry appeared, new kinds of damage also emerged, some of themmore » anticipated and others unexpected. This paper will discuss the various types of damage to large optics that had to be considered, avoided to the extent possible, or otherwise managed as the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser was designed, fabricated, and brought into operation. Furthermore, it has been possible for NIF to meet its requirements because of the experience gained in previous ICF systems and because NIF designers have continued to be able to avoid or manage new damage situations as they have appeared.« less

  4. Fresh Way to Cut Combustion, Crop and Air Heating Costs Avoids Million BTU Purchases: Inventions and Innovation Combustion Success Story

    SciTech Connect

    Wogsland, J.

    2001-01-17

    Success story written for the Inventions and Innovation Program about a new space heating method that uses solar energy to heat incoming combustion, crop, and ventilation air.

  5. substantially reduced production costs

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    production costs - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy ...

  6. SOFT COST GRAND CHALLENGE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    energycenter.org California Center for Sustainable Energy Soft Cost Grand Challenge May 22, 2014 Accelerating the transition to a sustainable world powered by clean energy 2...

  7. Workplace Charging Installation Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Installation costs and services vary considerably, so employers are encouraged to obtain a number of quotes before moving forward with any installation. An initial site investigation should include:

  8. Cost Contributors to Geothermal Power Production

    SciTech Connect

    Nathwani, Jay; Mines, Greg

    2011-07-01

    The US Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Office (DOE-GTO) has developed the tool Geothermal Electricity Technologies Evaluation Model (GETEM) to assess the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of power produced from geothermal resources. Recently modifications to GETEM allow the DOE-GTO to better assess how different factors impact the generation costs, including initial project risk, time required to complete a development, and development size. The model characterizes the costs associated with project risk by including the costs to evaluate and drill those sites that are considered but not developed for commercial power generation, as well as to assign higher costs to finance those activities having more risk. This paper discusses how the important parameters impact the magnitude project costs for different project scenarios. The cost distributions presented include capital cost recovery for the exploration, confirmation, well field completion and power plant construction, as well as the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. The paper will present these cost distributions for both EGS and hydrothermal resources.

  9. Energy Department Awards $3.5 Million to Develop Cost-Competitive...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    project aimed at accelerating the development of sustainable, affordable algal biofuels. ... toward reducing the cost of algal biofuels to cost-competitive levels of 5,000 ...

  10. Attempts to avoid NEPA: Is it bad faith?

    SciTech Connect

    Tuckfield, D.J.

    1995-12-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) imposes procedural requirements on federal agencies that undertake {open_quotes}major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment.{close_quotes} Determining whether a project is a major federal action, subject to NEPA, is not always an easy task. When a determination is made that a project is not subject to NEPA, opponents of the project and environmental organizations occasionally cry foul. Often there are allegations that the federal agency of the project proponent (or both) acted in bad faith to avoid NEPA. The question of whether bad faith is relevant in NEPA inquiries has been the subject litigation for many of years. In that time, courts have addressed a number of bad faith questions. A common question is whether it is appropriate for a non-federal project proponent to structure a project to maintain eligibility for federal funding, but at the last minute withdraw the project from eligibility for the sole purpose of avoiding NEPA. More difficult questions arise when the federal government allocates some federal money to the project for preliminary design work before the project is withdrawn from eligibility for additional federal construction funds. Still other questions arise with respect to whether project proponents must reimburse the federal government for funds allocated to a project before the determination is made that it will not be a federal project. This paper will trace the evolution of the courts` struggle with bad faith NEPA claims. It will then show how courts have recently begun to develop a workable and appropriate test for determining when bad faith is an issue in NEPA litigation. This issue is important for project proponents and federal agency officials so they will not unwittingly take steps others might construe as bad faith. It is important for members of environmental organizations so they may recognize and properly assert bad faith claims when appropriate.

  11. Computerized operating cost model for industrial steam generation

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, T.D.

    1983-02-01

    Pending EPA regulations, establishing revised emission levels for industrial boilers are perceived to have an effect on the relative costs of steam production technologies. To aid in the comparison of competitive boiler technologies, the Steam Cost Code was developed which provides levelized steam costs reflecting the effects of a number of key steam cost parameters. The Steam Cost Code is a user interactive FORTRAN program designed to operate on a VAX computer system. The program requires the user to input a number of variables describing the design characteristics, capital costs, and operating conditions for a specific boiler system. Part of the input to the Steam Cost Code is the capital cost of the steam production system. The capital cost is obtained from a program called INDCEPT, developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory under Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center sponsorship.

  12. Decommissioning Unit Cost Data

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, P. C.; Stevens, J. L.; Brandt, R.

    2002-02-26

    The Rocky Flats Closure Site (Site) is in the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, and remediating environmental media. A number of contaminated facilities have been decommissioned, including one building, Building 779, that contained gloveboxes used for plutonium process development but did little actual plutonium processing. The actual costs incurred to decommission this facility formed much of the basis or standards used to estimate the decommissioning of the remaining plutonium-processing buildings. Recent decommissioning activities in the first actual production facility, Building 771, implemented a number of process and procedural improvements. These include methods for handling plutonium contaminated equipment, including size reduction, decontamination, and waste packaging, as well as management improvements to streamline planning and work control. These improvements resulted in a safer working environment and reduced project cost, as demonstrated in the overall project efficiency. The topic of this paper is the analysis of how this improved efficiency is reflected in recent unit costs for activities specific to the decommissioning of plutonium facilities. This analysis will allow the Site to quantify the impacts on future Rocky Flats decommissioning activities, and to develop data for planning and cost estimating the decommissioning of future facilities. The paper discusses the methods used to collect and arrange the project data from the individual work areas within Building 771. Regression and data correlation techniques were used to quantify values for different types of decommissioning activities. The discussion includes the approach to identify and allocate overall project support, waste management, and Site support costs based on the overall Site and project costs to provide a ''burdened'' unit cost. The paper ultimately provides a unit cost basis that can be used to support cost estimates for

  13. Waste Management Facilities Cost Information Report

    SciTech Connect

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1992-10-01

    The Waste Management Facility Cost Information (WMFCI) Report, commissioned by the US Department of Energy (DOE), develops planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. This report contains PLCC estimates versus capacity for 26 different facility cost modules. A procedure to guide DOE and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also provided. Estimates in the report apply to five distinctive waste streams: low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, alpha contaminated low-level waste, alpha contaminated low-level mixed waste, and transuranic waste. The report addresses five different treatment types: incineration, metal/melting and recovery, shredder/compaction, solidification, and vitrification. Data in this report allows the user to develop PLCC estimates for various waste management options.

  14. Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas ...

  15. Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Avoiding Carbon Bed Hot Spots in Thermal Process Off-Gas Systems You ...

  16. Concentrating Solar Power: Concentrating Optics for Lower Levelized Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Costs (CSP: COLLECTS) | Department of Energy Concentrating Optics for Lower Levelized Energy Costs (CSP: COLLECTS) Concentrating Solar Power: Concentrating Optics for Lower Levelized Energy Costs (CSP: COLLECTS) Concentrating Solar Power: Concentrating Optics for Lower Levelized Energy Costs (CSP: COLLECTS) The Concentrating Solar Power: Concentrating Optics for Lower Levelized Energy Costs (CSP: COLLECTS) funding program aims to further accelerate progress toward the SunShot goals through

  17. LEDSGP/Transportation Toolkit/Strategies/Avoid | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    petroleum fuels; alternative fuels (such as ethanol, biodiesel, natural gas, and propane; hydrogen fuel-cell systems; and electric rechargeable battery systems. System Level...

  18. Procuring and Implementing Solar Projects on Public Buildings: How to Avoid Common Pitfalls (Text Version)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Transcript of the webinar, "Procuring and Implementing Solar Projects on Public Buildings: How to Avoid Common Pitfalls."

  19. Vehicle Cost Calculator

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Select FuelTechnology Electric Hybrid Electric Plug-in Hybrid Electric Natural Gas (CNG) Flex Fuel (E85) Biodiesel (B20) Next Vehicle Cost Calculator Update Your Widget Code This ...

  20. Vehicle Cost Calculator

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Select FuelTechnology Electric Hybrid Electric Plug-in Hybrid Electric Natural Gas (CNG) Flex Fuel (E85) Biodiesel (B20) Propane (LPG) Next Vehicle Cost Calculator Vehicle 0 City ...

  1. Cost Estimating Guide

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-05-09

    This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that describe the methods and procedures that could be used in all programs and projects at DOE for preparing cost estimates. No cancellations.

  2. Cost Estimating Guide

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-05-09

    This Guide provides uniform guidance and best practices that describe the methods and procedures that could be used in all programs and projects at DOE for preparing cost estimates.

  3. Cost Estimating Guide

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    The objective of this Guide is to improve the quality of cost estimates and further strengthen the DOE program/project management system. The original 25 separate chapters and three appendices have been combined to create a single document.

  4. INDEPENDENT COST REVIEW (ICR)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... Report SOP Standard Operating Procedure TEC Total Estimated Cost TIPR Technical ... FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 Total PED Construction TEC OPC TPC Note: above values include MR...

  5. Soft Costs Fact Sheet

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national effort to make solar energy technologies cost-competitive with conventional forms of energy by the end of the decade. Reducing the total installed cost for utility-scale solar electricity to roughly 6 cents per kilowatt hour without subsidies will result in rapid, large-scale adoption of solar electricity across the United States. Reaching this goal will re-establish American technological leadership, improve the nation's energy security,

  6. Independent Cost Estimate (ICE)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Independent Cost Estimate (ICE). On August 8-12, the Office of Project Management Oversight and Assessments (PM) will conduct an ICE on the NNSA Albuquerque Complex Project (NACP) at Albuquerque, NM. This estimate will support the Critical Decision (CD) for establishing the performance baseline and approval to start construction (CD-2/3). This project is at CD-1, with a total project cost range of $183M to $251M.

  7. Truck transport of RAM: Risk effects of avoiding metropolitan areas

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1997-11-01

    In the transport of radioactive material (RAM), e.g., spent nuclear fuel (SNF), stakeholders are generally most concerned about risks in high population density areas along transportation routes because of the perceived high consequences of potential accidents. The most significant portions of a transcontinental route and an alternative examined previously were evaluated again using population density data derived from US Census Block data. This method of characterizing population that adjoins route segments offers improved resolution of population density variations, especially in high population density areas along typical transport routes. Calculated incident free doses and accident dose risks for these routes, and the rural, suburban and urban segments are presented for comparison of their relative magnitudes. The results indicate that modification of this route to avoid major metropolitan areas through use of non-Interstate highways increases total risk yet does not eliminate a relatively small urban component of the accident dose risk. This conclusion is not altered by improved resolution of route segments adjoining high density populations.

  8. Soft Costs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Soft Costs » Soft Costs Soft Costs The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative's soft costs program works to lower the non-hardware costs of solar and accelerate the adoption of solar energy technologies throughout the United States. In support of the SunShot Initiative goals, the soft costs program works in the following strategic areas: networking and technical assistance, data analysis, business innovation, and training. Soft Costs Activity Areas, Business Innovation, Networking

  9. Cost Competitive Electricity from Photovoltaic Concentrators Called

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    'Imminent' - News Releases | NREL Cost Competitive Electricity from Photovoltaic Concentrators Called 'Imminent' July 13, 2005 Golden, Colo. - Solar concentrators using highly efficient photovoltaic solar cells will reduce the cost of electricity from sunlight to competitive levels soon, attendees were told at a recent international conference on the subject. Herb Hayden of Arizona Public Service (APS) and Robert McConnell and Martha Symko-Davies of the U.S. Department of Energy's National

  10. NPR (New Production Reactor) capacity cost evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1988-07-01

    The ORNL Cost Evaluation Technical Support Group (CETSG) has been assigned by DOE-HQ Defense Programs (DP) the task defining, obtaining, and evaluating the capital and life-cycle costs for each of the technology/proponent/site/revenue possibilities envisioned for the New Production Reactor (NPR). The first part of this exercise is largely one of accounting, since all NPR proponents use different accounting methodologies in preparing their costs. In order to address this problem of comparing ''apples and oranges,'' the proponent-provided costs must be partitioned into a framework suitable for all proponents and concepts. If this is done, major cost categories can then be compared between concepts and major cost differences identified. Since the technologies proposed for the NPR and its needed fuel and target support facilities vary considerably in level of technical and operational maturity, considerable care must be taken to evaluate the proponent-derived costs in an equitable manner. The use of cost-risk analysis along with derivation of single point or deterministic estimates allows one to take into account these very real differences in technical and operational maturity. Chapter 2 summarizes the results of this study in tabular and bar graph form. The remaining chapters discuss each generic reactor type as follows: Chapter 3, LWR concepts (SWR and WNP-1); Chapter 4, HWR concepts; Chapter 5, HTGR concept; and Chapter 6, LMR concept. Each of these chapters could be a stand-alone report. 39 refs., 36 figs., 115 tabs.

  11. Economic Competitiveness of U.S. Utility-Scale Photovoltaics Systems in 2015: Regional Cost Modeling of Installed Cost ($/W) and LCOE ($/kWh)

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Ran; James, Ted L.; Chung, Donald; Gagne, Douglas; Lopez, Anthony; Dobos, Aron

    2015-06-14

    Utility-scale photovoltaics (PV) system growth is largely driven by the economic metrics of total installed costs and levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), which differ by region. This study details regional cost factors, including environment (wind speed and snow loads), labor costs, material costs, sales taxes, and permitting costs using a new system-level bottom-up cost modeling approach. We use this model to identify regional all-in PV installed costs for fixed-tilt and one-axis tracker systems in the United States with consideration of union and non-union labor costs in 2015. LCOEs using those regional installed costs are then modeled and spatially presented. Finally, we assess the cost reduction opportunities of increasing module conversion efficiencies on PV system costs in order to indicate the possible economic impacts of module technology advancements and help future research and development (R&D) effects in the context of U.S. SunShot targets.

  12. Soft Costs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    costs program works to lower the non-hardware costs of ... data analysis, business innovation, and training. ... for as much as 64% of the total cost of a new solar system. ...

  13. QGESS: Capital Cost Scaling Methodology

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    the tonnes of CO2 utilized. The costs of the process are to include infrastructure, raw materials, processing, byproduct disposal, and utilities costs, as well as any other costs....

  14. Factors Impacting Decommissioning Costs - 13576

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Karen; McGrath, Richard

    2013-07-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studied United States experience with decommissioning cost estimates and the factors that impact the actual cost of decommissioning projects. This study gathered available estimated and actual decommissioning costs from eight nuclear power plants in the United States to understand the major components of decommissioning costs. Major costs categories for decommissioning a nuclear power plant are removal costs, radioactive waste costs, staffing costs, and other costs. The technical factors that impact the costs were analyzed based on the plants' decommissioning experiences. Detailed cost breakdowns by major projects and other cost categories from actual power plant decommissioning experiences will be presented. Such information will be useful in planning future decommissioning and designing new plants. (authors)

  15. Low Cost, Durable Seal

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, George; Parsons, Jason; Friedman, Jake

    2010-12-17

    Seal durability is critical to achieving the 2010 DOE operational life goals for both stationary and transportation PEM fuel cell stacks. The seal material must be chemically and mechanically stable in an environment consisting of aggressive operating temperatures, humidified gases, and acidic membranes. The seal must also be producible at low cost. Currentlyused seal materials do not meet all these requirements. This project developed and demonstrated a high consistency hydrocarbon rubber seal material that was able to meet the DOE technical and cost targets. Significant emphasis was placed on characterization of the material and full scale molding demonstrations.

  16. Low Cost Hydrogen Production Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy M. Aaron, Jerome T. Jankowiak

    2009-10-16

    conducted to identify any potential design deficiency related to the concept. The analysis showed that no fundamental design flaw existed with the concept, but additional simulations and prototypes would be required to verify the design prior to fabricating a production unit. These identified risks were addressed in detail during Phase II of the development program. Along with the models of the high temperature components, a detailed process and 3D design model of the remainder of system, including PSA, compression, controls, water treatment and instrumentation was developed and evaluated. Also, in Phase II of the program, laboratory/fullscale testing of the high temperature components was completed and stable operation/control of the system was verified. The overall design specifications and test results were then used to develop accurate hydrogen costs for the optimized system. Praxair continued development and testing of the system beyond the Phase II funding provided by the DOE through the end of 2008. This additional testing is not documented in this report, but did provide significant additional data for development of a prototype system as detailed in the Phase III proposal. The estimated hydrogen product costs were developed (2007 basis) for the 4.8 kg/h system at production rates of 1, 5, 10, 100 and 1,000 units built per year. With the low cost SMR approach, the product hydrogen costs for the 4.8 kg/h units at 50 units produced per year were approximately $3.02 per kg. With increasing the volume production to 1,000 units per year, the hydrogen costs are reduced by about 12% to $2.67 per kg. The cost reduction of only 12% is a result of significant design and fabrication efficiencies being realized in all levels of production runs through utilizing the DFMA principles. A simplified and easily manufactured design does not require large production volumes to show significant cost benefits. These costs represent a significant improvement and a new benchmark in the

  17. Rocky Flats Closure Unit Cost Data

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, P.C.; Skokan, B.

    2007-07-01

    The Rocky Flats Closure Project has completed the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, remediating environmental media and closing the Rocky Flats Site (Site). The project cost approximately $4.1 B and included the decommissioning of over 700 structures including 5 major plutonium facilities and 5 major uranium facilities, shipping over 14,600 cubic meters of transuranic and 565,000 cubic meters of low level radioactive waste, and remediating a 385-acre industrial area and the surrounding land. Actual costs were collected for a large variety of closure activities. These costs can be correlated with metrics associated with the facilities and environmental media to capture cost factors from the project that could be applicable to a variety of other closure projects both within and outside of the Department of Energy's weapons complex. The paper covers four general topics: the process to correlate the actual costs and metrics, an example of the correlated data for one large sub-project, a discussion of the results, and the additional activities that are planned to correlate and make this data available to the public. The process to collect and arrange the project control data of the Closure Project relied on the actual Closure Project cost information. It was used to correlate these actual costs with the metrics for the physical work, such as building area or waste generated, to support the development of parametric cost factors. The example provides cost factors for the Industrial Sites Project. The discussion addresses the strengths and weaknesses of the data, followed by a section identifying future activities to improve and extend the analyses and integrate it within the Department's Environmental Cost Analysis System. (authors)

  18. Turbine Cost Systems Engineering Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    2012-09-30

    turb_costSE is a set of models that link wind turbine component masses (and a few other key variables) to component costs.

  19. Levelized Cost of Energy Analysis of Marine and Hydrokinetic...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... content. 1 This report is available at no ... could be applied to best accelerate technology development to market readiness. ... 2011, Mapping and Assessment of the United ...

  20. NREL-Levelized Cost of Energy Calculator | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Energy Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Non-renewable Energy, Biomass, Geothermal, Hydrogen, Solar, Water Power, Wind Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options, Develop...

  1. Overview of Levelized Cost of Energy in the AEO

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 798,236 818,233 807,040 793,261 774,978 815,754 747,154 784,209 815,512 2000's 876,145 786,947 830,504 895,100 917,014 918,593 4,290,187 4,430,466 4,839,942 5,225,005 2010's 5,864,402 6,958,125 8,225,321 689,082 631,536 600,656

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 826,576 1990's 810,100 784,362 800,913 788,472 774,724 759,728 805,491 736,679 775,235 800,579 2000's

  2. Heliostat cost reduction study.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Scott A.; Lumia, Ronald. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Davenport, Roger (Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, CA); Thomas, Robert C. (Advanced Thermal Systems, Centennial, CO); Gorman, David; Kolb, Gregory J.; Donnelly, Matthew W.

    2007-06-01

    Power towers are capable of producing solar-generated electricity and hydrogen on a large scale. Heliostats are the most important cost element of a solar power tower plant. Since they constitute {approx} 50% of the capital cost of the plant it is important to reduce heliostat cost as much as possible to improve the economic performance of power towers. In this study we evaluate current heliostat technology and estimate a price of $126/m{sup 2} given year-2006 materials and labor costs for a deployment of {approx}600 MW of power towers per year. This 2006 price yields electricity at $0.067/kWh and hydrogen at $3.20/kg. We propose research and development that should ultimately lead to a price as low as $90/m{sup 2}, which equates to $0.056/kWh and $2.75/kg H{sup 2}. Approximately 30 heliostat and manufacturing experts from the United States, Europe, and Australia contributed to the content of this report during two separate workshops conducted at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility.

  3. New Berkeley Lab Report Tracks a Decade of PV Installed Cost Trends

    SciTech Connect

    Barbose, Galen; Peterman, Carla; Wiser, Ryan

    2009-04-15

    Installations of PV systems have been expanding at a rapid pace in recent years. In the United States, the market for PV is driven by national, state, and local government incentives, including upfront cash rebates, production-based incentives, requirements that electricity suppliers purchase a certain amount of solar energy, and Federal and state tax benefits. These programs are, in part, motivated by the popular appeal of solar energy and by the positive attributes of PV - e.g., modest environmental impacts, avoidance of fuel price risks, coincidence with peak electrical demand, and the location of PV at the point of use. Given the relatively high cost of PV, however, a key goal of these policies is to encourage cost reductions over time. Therefore, as policy incentives have become more significant and as PV deployment has accelerated, so too has the desire to track the installed cost of PV systems over time, by system characteristics, by system location, and by component. A new Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory report, 'Tracking the Sun: The Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the U.S. from 1998-2007', helps to fill this need by summarizing trends in the installed cost (i.e., the cost paid by the system owner) of grid-connected PV systems in the U.S. The report is based on an analysis of project-level cost data from nearly 37,000 residential and non-residential PV systems completed from 1998-2007 and installed on the utility-customer-side of the meter. These systems total 363 MW, equal to 76% of all grid-connected PV capacity installed in the U.S. through 2007, representing the most comprehensive data source available on the installed cost of PV in the United States. The data were obtained from administrators of PV incentive programs around the country, who typically collect installed cost data for systems receiving incentives. A total of 16 programs, spanning 12 states, ultimately provided data for the study. Reflecting the broader geographical trends in the

  4. New developments in capital cost estimating

    SciTech Connect

    Stutz, R.A.; Zocher, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The new developments in cost engineering revolve around the ability to capture information that in the past could not be automated. The purpose of automation is not to eliminate the expert cost engineer. The goal is to use available technology to have more information available to the professionals in the cost engineering field. In that sense, the demand for expertise increases in order to produce the highest quality estimate and project possible from all levels of cost engineers. We cannot overemphasize the importance of using a good source of expert information in building these types of programs. ''Garbage in, garbage out'' still applies in this form of programming. Expert systems technology will become commonplace in many vertical markets; it is important to undersand what can and cannot be accomplished in our field, and where this technology will lead us in the future.

  5. Independent Cost Review (ICR) and Independent Cost Estimate (ICE) Standard

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Operating Procedures, Revision 2 | Department of Energy Independent Cost Review (ICR) and Independent Cost Estimate (ICE) Standard Operating Procedures, Revision 2 Independent Cost Review (ICR) and Independent Cost Estimate (ICE) Standard Operating Procedures, Revision 2 This Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) provides guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) Project Management Oversight and Assessment (PM) staff and contractors performing either an Independent Cost Estimate (ICE) or an

  6. Cost Estimating, Analysis, and Standardization

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1984-11-02

    To establish policy and responsibilities for: (a) developing and reviewing project cost estimates; (b) preparing independent cost estimates and analysis; (c) standardizing cost estimating procedures; and (d) improving overall cost estimating and analytical techniques, cost data bases, cost and economic escalation models, and cost estimating systems. Cancels DOE O 5700.2B, dated 8-5-1983; DOE O 5700.8, dated 5-27-1981; and HQ 1130.1A, dated 12-30-1981. Canceled by DOE O 5700.2D, dated 6-12-1992

  7. Renewable Energy Cost Modeling. A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Gifford, Jason S.; Grace, Robert C.; Rickerson, Wilson H.

    2011-05-01

    This report serves as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about levelized cost of energy (LCOE) calculations, including cost-based incentives. The report identifies key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlights the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and presents recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, FITs, or similar policies. These recommendations shaped the design of NREL's Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST), which is used by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist with analyses of policy and renewable energy incentive payment structures. Authored by Jason S. Gifford and Robert C. Grace of Sustainable Energy Advantage LLC and Wilson H. Rickerson of Meister Consultants Group, Inc.

  8. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    SciTech Connect

    Orren, L.H.; Ziman, G.M.; Jones, S.C.; Lee, T.K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-08-01

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model is used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents are analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance are examined. (MHR)

  9. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Power Plant Cycling Costs April 2012 N. Kumar, P. Besuner, S. Lefton, D. Agan, and D. Hilleman Intertek APTECH Sunnyvale, California NREL Technical Monitor: Debra Lew Subcontract Report NREL/SR-5500-55433 July 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov

  10. Reducing Power Factor Cost

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Low power factor is expensive and inefficient. Many utility companies charge you an additional fee if your power factor is less than 0.95. Low power factor also reduces your electrical system's distribu- tion capacity by increasing current flow and causing voltage drops. This fact sheet describes power factor and explains how you can improve your power factor to reduce electric bills and enhance your electrical system's capacity. REDUCING POWER FACTOR COST To understand power factor, visualize a

  11. Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop Washington D.C. February 17, 2011 Fred Joseck U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Program Fuel Cells: Diverse Fuels and Applications More than $40 million from the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to fund 12 projects to deploy up to 1,000 fuel cells Recovery Act Funding for Fuel Cells COMPANY AWARD APPLICATION Delphi Automotive $2.4 M Auxiliary Power FedEx

  12. Review of storage battery system cost estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    Cost analyses for zinc bromine, sodium sulfur, and lead acid batteries were reviewed. Zinc bromine and sodium sulfur batteries were selected because of their advanced design nature and the high level of interest in these two technologies. Lead acid batteries were included to establish a baseline representative of a more mature technology.

  13. Energy Cost Calculator for Faucets and Showerheads | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Faucets and Showerheads Energy Cost Calculator for Faucets and Showerheads Vary utility cost, hours of operation, and /or efficiency level. INPUT SECTION Input the following data (if any parameter is missing, calculator will set to the default value). Defaults Water Saving Product Faucet Showerhead Faucet Showerhead Flow Rate gpm 2.2 gpm 2.5 gpm Water Cost (including waste water charges) $/1000 gal $4/1000 gal $4/1000 gal Gas Cost $/therm 0.60 $/therm 0.60 $/therm Electricity Cost $/kWh 0.06

  14. Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kreycik, Claire; Couture, Toby D.; Cory, Karlynn S.

    2011-06-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent policy used globally to reduce development risks, cut financing costs, and grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control. Using case studies and market-focused analysis, this report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) examines strengths and weaknesses of three cost-containment tools: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report provides useful insights on containing costs for policymakers and regulators in the United States and other areas where FIT policies are in development.

  15. Avoiding 100 New Power Plants by Increasing Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners in India: Opportunities and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, Nikit; Shah, Nihar

    2014-06-19

    Electricity demand for room ACs is growing very rapidly in emerging economies such as India. We estimate the electricity demand from room ACs in 2030 in India considering factors such as weather and income growth using market data on penetration of ACs in different income classes and climatic regions. We discuss the status of the current standards, labels, and incentive programs to improve the efficiency of room ACs in these markets and assess the potential for further large improvements in efficiency and find that efficiency can be improved by over 40percent cost effectively. The total potential energy savings from Room AC efficiency improvement in India using the best available technology will reach over 118 TWh in 2030; potential peak demand saving is found to be 60 GW by 2030. This is equivalent to avoiding 120 new coal fired power plants of 500 MW each. We discuss policy options to complement, expand and improve the ongoing programs to capture this large potential.

  16. Avoiding 100 new power plants by increasing efficiency of room air conditioners in India: opportunities and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, Nikit; Shah, Nihar

    2013-10-15

    Electricity demand for room ACs is growing very rapidly in emerging economies such as India. We estimate the electricity demand from room ACs in 2030 in India considering factors such as weather and income growth using market data on penetration of ACs in different income classes and climatic regions. We discuss the status of the current standards, labels, and incentive programs to improve the efficiency of room ACs in these markets and assess the potential for further large improvements in efficiency and find that efficiency can be improved by over 40% cost effectively. The total potential energy savings from Room AC efficiency improvement in India using the best available technology will reach over 118 TWh in 2030; potential peak demand saving is found to be 60 GW by 2030. This is equivalent to avoiding 120 new coal fired power plants of 500 MW each. We discuss policy options to complement, expand and improve the ongoing programs to capture this large potential.

  17. New process to avoid emissions: Constant pressure in coke ovens

    SciTech Connect

    Giertz, J.; Huhn, F.; Hofherr, K.

    1995-12-01

    A chamber pressure regulation (PROven), especially effective in regard to emission control problems of coke ovens is introduced for the first time. Because of the partial vacuum in the collecting main system, it is possible to keep the oven`s raw gas pressure constant on a low level over the full coking time. The individual pressure control for each chamber is assured directly as a function of the oven pressure by an immersion system controlling the flow resistance of the collecting main valve. The latter is a fixed-position design (system name ``FixCup``). By doing away with the interdependence of collecting main pressure and chamber pressure, a parameter seen as a coking constant could not be made variable. This opens a new way to reduce coke oven emissions and simultaneously to prevent the ovens from damage caused by air ingress into the oven.

  18. Cost Study Manual | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Cost Study Manual Cost Study Manual Update 62912. PDF icon Memo regarding Cost Study Manual PDF icon Cost Study Manual More Documents & Publications Contractor Human Resources ...

  19. Liquefaction and Pipeline Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Liquefaction and Pipeline Costs Bruce Kelly Nexant, Inc. Hydrogen Delivery Analysis Meeting May 8-9, 2007 Columbia, Maryland 2 Hydrogen Liquefaction Basic process Compress Cool to temperature with positive Joule- Thompson coefficient Throttle to form liquid Water cooling Nitrogen refrigerator precooler Ortho-para conversion reactors J-T valve L H 2 H 2 gas Compressor(s) 3 Hydrogen Liquefaction - Continued Electric energy requirements Isentropic demand is 3.9 kWh/kg y = 17.844x -0.1548 6 8 10 12

  20. 2011 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.; Lantz, E.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Smith, A.; Schwabe, P.

    2013-03-01

    This report describes the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for a typical land-based wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011, as well as the modeled LCOE for a fixed-bottom offshore wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011. Each of the four major components of the LCOE equation are explained in detail, such as installed capital cost, annual energy production, annual operating expenses, and financing, and including sensitivity ranges that show how each component can affect LCOE. These LCOE calculations are used for planning and other purposes by the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Program.

  1. Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Tidball, Rick; Bluestein, Joel; Rodriguez, Nick; Knoke, Stu

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this project was to compare and contrast utility scale power plant characteristics used in data sets that support energy market models. Characteristics include both technology cost and technology performance projections to the year 2050. Cost parameters include installed capital costs and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Performance parameters include plant size, heat rate, capacity factor or availability factor, and plant lifetime. Conventional, renewable, and emerging electricity generating technologies were considered. Six data sets, each associated with a different model, were selected. Two of the data sets represent modeled results, not direct model inputs. These two data sets include cost and performance improvements that result from increased deployment as well as resulting capacity factors estimated from particular model runs; other data sets represent model input data. For the technologies contained in each data set, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) was also evaluated, according to published cost, performance, and fuel assumptions.

  2. Cost and Potential of Monolithic CIGS Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, Kelsey; Woodhouse, Michael

    2015-06-17

    A bottom-up cost analysis of monolithic, glass-glass Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIGS) modules is presented, illuminating current cost drivers for this technology and possible pathways to reduced cost. At 14% module efficiency, for the case of U.S. manufacturing, a manufacturing cost of $0.56/WDC and a minimum sustainable price of $0.72/WDC were calculated. Potential for reduction in manufacturing costs to below $0.40/WDC in the long-term may be possible if module efficiency can be increased without significant increase in $/m2 costs. The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in Phoenix, AZ under different conditions is assessed and compared to standard c-Si.

  3. Cost and Potential of Monolithic CIGS Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, Kelsey A.; Woodhouse, Michael

    2015-06-14

    A bottom-up cost analysis of monolithic, glass-glass Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIGS) modules is presented, illuminating current cost drivers for this technology and possible pathways to reduced cost. At 14% module efficiency, for the case of U.S. manufacturing, a manufacturing cost of $0.56/WDC and a minimum sustainable price of $0.72/WDC were calculated. Potential for reduction in manufacturing costs to below $0.40/WDC in the long-term may be possible if module efficiency can be increased without significant increase in $/m2 costs. The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in Phoenix, AZ under different conditions is assessed and compared to standard c-Si.

  4. Cost | OpenEI Community

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Cost Home Ocop's picture Submitted by Ocop(5) Member 15 July, 2014 - 07:07 MHK LCOE Reporting Guidance Draft Cost Current DOE LCOE numerical modeling Performance Tidal Wave To...

  5. Wind resource quality affected by high levels of renewables

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Diakov, Victor

    2015-06-17

    For solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind resources, the capacity factor is an important parameter describing the quality of the resource. As the share of variable renewable resources (such as PV and wind) on the electric system is increasing, so does curtailment (and the fraction of time when it cannot be avoided). At high levels of renewable generation, curtailments effectively change the practical measure of resource quality from capacity factor to the incremental capacity factor. The latter accounts only for generation during hours of no curtailment and is directly connected with the marginal capital cost of renewable generators for a givenmore » level of renewable generation during the year. The Western U.S. wind generation is analyzed hourly for a system with 75% of annual generation from wind, and it is found that the value for the system of resources with equal capacity factors can vary by a factor of 2, which highlights the importance of using the incremental capacity factor instead. Finally, the effect is expected to be more pronounced in smaller geographic areas (or when transmission limitations imposed) and less pronounced at lower levels of renewable energy in the system with less curtailment.« less

  6. Wind resource quality affected by high levels of renewables

    SciTech Connect

    Diakov, Victor

    2015-06-17

    For solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind resources, the capacity factor is an important parameter describing the quality of the resource. As the share of variable renewable resources (such as PV and wind) on the electric system is increasing, so does curtailment (and the fraction of time when it cannot be avoided). At high levels of renewable generation, curtailments effectively change the practical measure of resource quality from capacity factor to the incremental capacity factor. The latter accounts only for generation during hours of no curtailment and is directly connected with the marginal capital cost of renewable generators for a given level of renewable generation during the year. The Western U.S. wind generation is analyzed hourly for a system with 75% of annual generation from wind, and it is found that the value for the system of resources with equal capacity factors can vary by a factor of 2, which highlights the importance of using the incremental capacity factor instead. Finally, the effect is expected to be more pronounced in smaller geographic areas (or when transmission limitations imposed) and less pronounced at lower levels of renewable energy in the system with less curtailment.

  7. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: DETAILS - AVOIDING BOX CANYONS, ROACH MOTELS, AND WRONG TURNS

    SciTech Connect

    Swegle, John A.; Tincher, Douglas J.

    2013-08-09

    The United States is concurrently pursuing the goals of reducing the size of its nuclear weapons force – strategic and non-strategic, deployed and non-deployed – and of modernizing the weapons it continues to possess. Many of the existing systems were deployed 30 to 50 years ago, and the modernization process can be expected to extend over the next decade or more. Given the impossibility of predicting the future over the lifetime of systems that could extend to the end of this century, it is essential that dead ends in force development be avoided, and the flexibility and availability of options be retained that allow for • Scalability downward in the event that further reductions are agreed upon; • Reposturing to respond to changes in threat levels and to new nuclear actors; and • Breakout response in the event that a competitor significantly increases its force size or force capability, In this paper, we examine the current motivations for reductions and modernization; review a number of historical systems and the attendant capabilities that have been eliminated in recent decades; discuss the current path forward for the U.S. nuclear force; provide a view of the evolving deterrence situation and our assessment of the uncertainties involved; and present examples of possibly problematic directions in force development. We close with our thoughts on how to maintain flexibility and the availability of options for which a need might recur in the future.

  8. Waste management facilities cost information for hazardous waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biagi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing hazardous waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  9. Energy Cost Calculator for Urinals | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Urinals Energy Cost Calculator for Urinals Vary water cost, frequency of operation, and /or efficiency level. INPUT SECTION This calculator assumes that early replacement of a urinal or toilet will take place with 10 years of life remaining for existing fixture. Input the following data (if any parameter is missing, calculator will set to default value). Defaults Water Saving Product Urinal Urinal Gallons per Flush gpf 1.0 gpf Quantity to be Purchased 1 Water Cost (including waste water charges)

  10. Energy Cost Savings Calculator for Air-Cooled Electric Chillers |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Air-Cooled Electric Chillers Energy Cost Savings Calculator for Air-Cooled Electric Chillers This cost calculator is a screening tool that estimates a product's lifetime energy cost savings at various efficiency levels. Learn more about the calculator assumptions and definitions. Project Type Is this a new installation or a replacement? New Replacement How many chillers will you purchase? Performance Factors Existing What is the existing design condition? Full Load

  11. Energy Cost Savings Calculator for Commercial Boilers: Closed Loop, Space

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Heating Applications Only | Department of Energy Commercial Boilers: Closed Loop, Space Heating Applications Only Energy Cost Savings Calculator for Commercial Boilers: Closed Loop, Space Heating Applications Only This cost calculator is a screening tool that estimates a product's lifetime energy cost savings at various efficiency levels. Learn more about the base model and other assumptions. Project Type Is this a new installation or a replacement? New Replacement What is the deliverable

  12. Driving Demand for Home Energy Improvements: Motivating residential customers to invest in comprehensive upgrades that eliminate energy waste, avoid high utility bills, and spur the economy

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Merrian C.

    2010-09-20

    Policy makers and program designers in the U.S. and abroad are deeply concerned with the question of how to scale up energy efficiency to a level that is commensurate both to the scale of the energy and climate challenges we face, and to the potential for energy savings that has been touted for decades. When policy makers ask what energy efficiency can do, the answers usually revolve around the technical and economic potential of energy efficiency - they rarely hone in on the element of energy demand that matters most for changing energy usage in existing homes: the consumer. A growing literature is concerned with the behavioral underpinnings of energy consumption. We examine a narrower, related subject: How can millions of Americans be persuaded to divert valued time and resources into upgrading their homes to eliminate energy waste, avoid high utility bills, and spur the economy? With hundreds of millions of public dollars flowing into incentives, workforce training, and other initiatives to support comprehensive home energy improvements, it makes sense to review the history of these programs and begin gleaning best practices for encouraging comprehensive home energy improvements. Looking across 30 years of energy efficiency programs that targeted the residential market, many of the same issues that confronted past program administrators are relevant today: How do we cost-effectively motivate customers to take action? Who can we partner with to increase program participation? How do we get residential efficiency programs to scale? While there is no proven formula - and only limited success to date with reliably motivating large numbers of Americans to invest in comprehensive home energy improvements, especially if they are being asked to pay for a majority of the improvement costs - there is a rich and varied history of experiences that new programs can draw upon. Our primary audiences are policy makers and program designers - especially those that are relatively

  13. Wind Integration Cost and Cost-Causation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Martin-Martinez, S.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Peneda, I.; Smith, C.

    2013-10-01

    The question of wind integration cost has received much attention in the past several years. The methodological challenges to calculating integration costs are discussed in this paper. There are other sources of integration cost unrelated to wind energy. A performance-based approach would be technology neutral, and would provide price signals for all technology types. However, it is difficult to correctly formulate such an approach. Determining what is and is not an integration cost is challenging. Another problem is the allocation of system costs to one source. Because of significant nonlinearities, this can prove to be impossible to determine in an accurate and objective way.

  14. Check Estimates and Independent Costs

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Check estimates and independent cost estimates (ICEs) are tools that can be used to validate a cost estimate. Estimate validation entails an objective review of the estimate to ensure that estimate criteria and requirements have been met and well documented, defensible estimate has been developed. This chapter describes check estimates and their procedures and various types of independent cost estimates.

  15. Hydropower Baseline Cost Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, Patrick W.; Zhang, Qin Fen; DeNeale, Scott T.; Chalise, Dol Raj; Centurion, Emma E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent resource assessments conducted by the United States Department of Energy have identified significant opportunities for expanding hydropower generation through the addition of power to non-powered dams and on undeveloped stream-reaches. Additional interest exists in the powering of existing water resource infrastructure such as conduits and canals, upgrading and expanding existing hydropower facilities, and the construction new pumped storage hydropower. Understanding the potential future role of these hydropower resources in the nation’s energy system requires an assessment of the environmental and techno-economic issues associated with expanding hydropower generation. To facilitate these assessments, this report seeks to fill the current gaps in publically available hydropower cost-estimating tools that can support the national-scale evaluation of hydropower resources.

  16. Are flying wildlife attracted to (or do they avoid) wind turbines?

    SciTech Connect

    Larkin, Ronald

    2010-03-31

    A DOE-sponsored research project found strong evidence that flying wildlife avoid or are attracted to commercial-scale wind turbines from a distance. Some nocturnally migrating birds avoid flying near turbines and few or none change flight paths to approach them. High-flying bats less often avoid flying near turbines and some are attracted to them from a distance, although bats’ flight paths were often complex and convoluted. The findings are being prepared for submission to a peer-reviewed scientific journal (Larkin, in prep 2013).

  17. Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan

    2009-07-16

    The aim of commissioning new buildings is to ensure that they deliver, if not exceed, the performance and energy savings promised by their design. When applied to existing buildings, commissioning identifies the almost inevitable 'drift' from where things should be and puts the building back on course. In both contexts, commissioning is a systematic, forensic approach to quality assurance, rather than a technology per se. Although commissioning has earned increased recognition in recent years - even a toehold in Wikipedia - it remains an enigmatic practice whose visibility severely lags its potential. Over the past decade, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has built the world's largest compilation and meta-analysis of commissioning experience in commercial buildings. Since our last report (Mills et al. 2004) the database has grown from 224 to 643 buildings (all located in the United States, and spanning 26 states), from 30 to 100 million square feet of floorspace, and from $17 million to $43 million in commissioning expenditures. The recorded cases of new-construction commissioning took place in buildings representing $2.2 billion in total construction costs (up from 1.5 billion). The work of many more commissioning providers (18 versus 37) is represented in this study, as is more evidence of energy and peak-power savings as well as cost-effectiveness. We now translate these impacts into avoided greenhouse gases and provide new indicators of cost-effectiveness. We also draw attention to the specific challenges and opportunities for high-tech facilities such as labs, cleanrooms, data centers, and healthcare facilities. The results are compelling. We developed an array of benchmarks for characterizing project performance and cost-effectiveness. The median normalized cost to deliver commissioning was $0.30/ft2 for existing buildings and $1.16/ft2 for new construction (or 0.4% of the overall construction cost). The commissioning projects for which data are

  18. Electric power plant capital costs

    SciTech Connect

    Dodero, G.; Castellie, D.; Coffetti, M.

    1998-07-01

    Due to the increase of technology options, it is becoming day by day more important to have an overview of electric power plants capital costs so to take the right decisions in the preliminary stages of the project choices. From 1970 through the 1980's and 1990's, the capital costs of traditional steam power plants increased steadily, due in part to the addition of more advanced, and more costly, pollution control equipment. On the other hand the availability of ample natural gas, the scaling up of gas turbine machinery and the appearance on the market of new technologies (PFB, IGCC, fuel cells, etc.) are offering new opportunities to the traditional utilities and to the new players including the independent power producers, developers and private operators. The costs indicated will be referred to the two main world markets, that is, the Western countries and Asian area. These costs are obviously for preliminary studies and project assessment. To minimize the cost/benefit ratio, the design activities of the architect-engineer consultant have a very important role. Impact of manufacturing area on main component costs and on erection works: The three main factors, which influence machinery price are: local labor cost, license or research cost and raw material cost. An additional impact on plant cost on local basis are the raw material cost for erection, erection manpower, their skill and components available/manufactured in the erection area. Local taxation and custom duties must also be considered. Labor costs in Eastern Germany are still much lower than in the West Germany, but they are not indicated in the survey. Portuguese and Greek workers have the lowest labor costs.

  19. Parabolic Trough Collector Cost Update for the System Advisor...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The steel-framed Ultimate Trough solar field cost was more sensitive to steel prices than the SkyTrough. Ultimate Trough uses back-surface glass mirrors. The greater level of ...

  20. HD Applications of Significantly Downsized SI Engines Using Alcohol DI for Knock Avoidance

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Direct injection of a second fuel (ethanol or methanol) is explored as a means of avoiding knock in turbocharged, high-compression ratio spark-ignited engines that could replace diesels in certain vocational applications.

  1. Cost and Schedule Estimate and Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Cost and Schedule Estimate and Analysis Cost and Schedule Estimate and Analysis October 31, 2016 9:00AM EDT to November 4, 2016 5:00PM EDT Cost and Schedule Estimate and Analysis; Classroom Training; 5 days/40 CLPs; Lexington, KY; October 31 - November 4, 2016 Level 2 Core Course 5 days / 40 CLPs PMCDP is offering instructor-led deliveries of the 5-day course, Cost and Schedule Estimate and Analysis, October 31 - November 4, 2016, Lexington, KY. This course provides participants with a

  2. Avoiding a Train Wreck: Replacing Old Coal Plants with Energy Efficiency,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    August 2011 | Department of Energy Avoiding a Train Wreck: Replacing Old Coal Plants with Energy Efficiency, August 2011 Avoiding a Train Wreck: Replacing Old Coal Plants with Energy Efficiency, August 2011 This paper discusses the so-called "coal train wreck" which may afford an opportunity to modernize our electric utility regulations to reflect a new century of different economic and energy markets, creating opportunities for the utility industry to define a new path to

  3. Hydrogen Station Cost Estimates: Comparing Hydrogen Station Cost...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Model (HDSAM), including costs for retail stations receiving either gaseous or liquid ... Truck delivery systems, with production usually occurring at existing natural gas SMR ...

  4. PROJECT PROFILE: 2D Materials for Low Cost Epitaxial Growth of...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    SunShot Award Amount: 125,000 Low-cost III-V cells will result in a breakthrough in photovoltaic (PV) market by enabling a lower levelized cost of energy. The project will develop ...

  5. Lightweighting Impacts on Fuel Economy, Cost, and Component Losses

    SciTech Connect

    Brooker, A. D.; Ward, J.; Wang, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) is the U.S. Department of Energy's high-level vehicle powertrain model developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. It uses a time versus speed drive cycle to estimate the powertrain forces required to meet the cycle. It simulates the major vehicle powertrain components and their losses. It includes a cost model based on component sizing and fuel prices. FASTSim simulated different levels of lightweighting for four different powertrains: a conventional gasoline engine vehicle, a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), and a battery electric vehicle (EV). Weight reductions impacted the conventional vehicle's efficiency more than the HEV, PHEV and EV. Although lightweighting impacted the advanced vehicles' efficiency less, it reduced component cost and overall costs more. The PHEV and EV are less cost effective than the conventional vehicle and HEV using current battery costs. Assuming the DOE's battery cost target of $100/kWh, however, the PHEV attained similar cost and lightweighting benefits. Generally, lightweighting was cost effective when it costs less than $6/kg of mass eliminated.

  6. The real cost of solar energy in a hybrid system

    SciTech Connect

    Nava, P.

    1996-12-31

    A key figure used to characterize the economic viability of a power project is the LEC (Levelized Electricity Generation Costs). The models (performance model, O and M model, investment cost model, economic model) which feed information into the calculation are briefly described. Examples are given in order to show the high LEC dependency on configuration, location and annual fuel load hours. Then, more in detail, a methodology is sketched how to separate the fuel and the solar related cost in a hybrid system. Using this methodology, the average LEC, the solar related LEC and the fuel related LEC are presented for different plant configurations under varying assumptions of fuel costs. In addition, the level of grant for the solar boiler is calculated which results in equivalent costs for the solar based and fuel based kWh`s.

  7. Cost and Performance Model for Redox Flow Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Crawford, Aladsair J.; Stephenson, David E.; Kim, Soowhan; Wang, Wei; Li, Bin; Coffey, Greg W.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Graff, Gordon L.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2014-02-01

    A cost model was developed for all vanadium and iron-vanadium redox flow batteries. Electrochemical performance modeling was done to estimate stack performance at various power densities as a function of state of charge. This was supplemented with a shunt current model and a pumping loss model to estimate actual system efficiency. The operating parameters such as power density, flow rates and design parameters such as electrode aspect ratio, electrolyte flow channel dimensions were adjusted to maximize efficiency and minimize capital costs. Detailed cost estimates were obtained from various vendors to calculate cost estimates for present, realistic and optimistic scenarios. The main drivers for cost reduction for various chemistries were identified as a function of the energy to power ratio of the storage system. Levelized cost analysis further guided suitability of various chemistries for different applications.

  8. Forage Harvest and Transport Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.; Downing, M.; Turhollow, A.

    1998-12-01

    An engineering-economic approach is used to calculate harvest, in-field transport, and over-the-road transport costs for hay as bales and modules, silage, and crop residues as bales and modules. Costs included are equipment depreciation interest; fuel, lube, and oil; repairs; insurance, housing, and taxes; and labor. Field preparation, pest control, fertilizer, land, and overhead are excluded from the costs calculated Equipment is constrained by power available, throughput or carrying capacity, and field speed.

  9. Waste Management Strategy for Dismantling Waste to Reduce Costs for Power Plant Decommissioning - 13543

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, Arne; Lidar, Per; Bergh, Niklas; Hedin, Gunnar

    2013-07-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants generates large volumes of radioactive or potentially radioactive waste. The proper management of the dismantling waste plays an important role for the time needed for the dismantling phase and thus is critical to the decommissioning cost. An efficient and thorough process for inventorying, characterization and categorization of the waste provides a sound basis for the planning process. As part of comprehensive decommissioning studies for Nordic NPPs, Westinghouse has developed the decommissioning inventories that have been used for estimations of the duration of specific work packages and the corresponding costs. As part of creating the design basis for a national repository for decommissioning waste, the total production of different categories of waste packages has also been predicted. Studsvik has developed a risk based concept for categorization and handling of the generated waste using six different categories with a span from extremely small risk for radiological contamination to high level waste. The two companies have recently joined their skills in the area of decommissioning on selected market in a consortium named 'ndcon' to further strengthen the proposed process. Depending on the risk for radiological contamination or the radiological properties and other properties of importance for waste management, treatment routes are proposed with well-defined and proven methods for on-site or off-site treatment, activity determination and conditioning. The system is based on a graded approach philosophy aiming for high confidence and sustainability, aiming for re-use and recycling where found applicable. The objective is to establish a process where all dismantled material has a pre-determined treatment route. These routes should through measurements, categorization, treatment, conditioning, intermediate storage and final disposal be designed to provide a steady, un-disturbed flow of material to avoid interruptions. Bottle

  10. HTGR Cost Model Users' Manual

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Gandrik

    2012-01-01

    The High Temperature Gas-Cooler Reactor (HTGR) Cost Model was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. The HTGR Cost Model calculates an estimate of the capital costs, annual operating and maintenance costs, and decommissioning costs for a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. The user can generate these costs for multiple reactor outlet temperatures; with and without power cycles, including either a Brayton or Rankine cycle; for the demonstration plant, first of a kind, or nth of a kind project phases; for a single or four-pack configuration; and for a reactor size of 350 or 600 MWt. This users manual contains the mathematical models and operating instructions for the HTGR Cost Model. Instructions, screenshots, and examples are provided to guide the user through the HTGR Cost Model. This model was design for users who are familiar with the HTGR design and Excel. Modification of the HTGR Cost Model should only be performed by users familiar with Excel and Visual Basic.

  11. Project Cost Profile Spreadsheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Project Cost Profile Spreadsheet Project Cost Profile Spreadsheet File Project Cost Profile Spreadsheet.xlsx More Documents & Publications Statement of Work (SOW) Template ...

  12. PHEV Battery Cost Assessment | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    es02barnett.pdf (615.99 KB) More Documents & Publications PHEV Battery Cost Assessment PHEV Battery Cost Assessment PHEV and LEESS Battery Cost Assessment

  13. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Storage Cost Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Law, Karen; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Han, Vickie; Chan, Michael; Chiang, Helena; Leonard, Jon

    2013-03-11

    The overall objective of this project is to conduct cost analyses and estimate costs for on- and off-board hydrogen storage technologies under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on a consistent, independent basis. This can help guide DOE and stakeholders toward the most-promising research, development and commercialization pathways for hydrogen-fueled vehicles. A specific focus of the project is to estimate hydrogen storage system cost in high-volume production scenarios relative to the DOE target that was in place when this cost analysis was initiated. This report and its results reflect work conducted by TIAX between 2004 and 2012, including recent refinements and updates. The report provides a system-level evaluation of costs and performance for four broad categories of on-board hydrogen storage: (1) reversible on-board metal hydrides (e.g., magnesium hydride, sodium alanate); (2) regenerable off-board chemical hydrogen storage materials(e.g., hydrolysis of sodium borohydride, ammonia borane); (3) high surface area sorbents (e.g., carbon-based materials); and 4) advanced physical storage (e.g., 700-bar compressed, cryo-compressed and liquid hydrogen). Additionally, the off-board efficiency and processing costs of several hydrogen storage systems were evaluated and reported, including: (1) liquid carrier, (2) sodium borohydride, (3) ammonia borane, and (4) magnesium hydride. TIAX applied a bottom-up costing methodology customized to analyze and quantify the processes used in the manufacture of hydrogen storage systems. This methodology, used in conjunction with ® software and other tools, developed costs for all major tank components, balance-of-tank, tank assembly, and system assembly. Based on this methodology, the figure below shows the projected on-board high-volume factory costs of the various analyzed hydrogen storage systems, as designed. Reductions in the key cost drivers may bring hydrogen storage system costs closer to this DOE target

  14. Value of Demand Response: Quantities from Production Cost Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hummon, M.

    2014-04-01

    Demand response (DR) resources present a potentially important source of grid flexibility particularly on future systems with high penetrations of variable wind and solar power generation. However, managed loads in grid models are limited by data availability and modeling complexity. This presentation focuses on the value of co-optimized DR resources to provide energy and ancillary services in a production cost model. There are significant variations in the availabilities of different types of DR resources, which affect both the operational savings as well as the revenue for each DR resource. The results presented include the system-wide avoided fuel and generator start-up costs as well as the composite revenue for each DR resource by energy and operating reserves. In addition, the revenue is characterized by the capacity, energy, and units of DR enabled.

  15. Costs and benefits of energy efficiency improvements in ceiling fans

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Nihar; Sathaye, Nakul; Phadke, Amol; Letschert, Virginie

    2013-10-15

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, especially in developing countries with warm climates. The paper provides analysis of costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans to assess the global potential for electricity savings and green house gas (GHG) emission reductions. Ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terawatt hours per year could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize potential savings.

  16. Investing in International Information Exchange Activities to Improve the Safety, Cost Effectiveness and Schedule of Cleanup - 13281

    SciTech Connect

    Seed, Ian; James, Paula; Mathieson, John; Judd, Laurie; Elmetti-Ramirez, Rosa; Han, Ana

    2013-07-01

    With decreasing budgets and increasing pressure on completing cleanup missions as quickly, safely and cost-effectively as possible, there is significant benefit to be gained from collaboration and joint efforts between organizations facing similar issues. With this in mind, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) have formally agreed to share information on lessons learned on the development and application of new technologies and approaches to improve the safety, cost effectiveness and schedule of the cleanup legacy wastes. To facilitate information exchange a range of tools and methodologies were established. These included tacit knowledge exchange through facilitated meetings, conference calls and Site visits as well as explicit knowledge exchange through document sharing and newsletters. A DOE web-based portal has been established to capture these exchanges and add to them via discussion boards. The information exchange is operating at the Government-to-Government strategic level as well as at the Site Contractor level to address both technical and managerial topic areas. This effort has resulted in opening a dialogue and building working relationships. In some areas joint programs of work have been initiated thus saving resource and enabling the parties to leverage off one another activities. The potential benefits of high quality information exchange are significant, ranging from cost avoidance through identification of an approach to a problem that has been proven elsewhere to cost sharing and joint development of a new technology to address a common problem. The benefits in outcomes significantly outweigh the costs of the process. The applicability of the tools and methods along with the lessons learned regarding some key issues is of use to any organization that wants to improve value for money. In the waste management marketplace, there are a multitude of challenges being addressed by multiple organizations and

  17. Use of Cost Estimating Relationships

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) are an important tool in an estimator's kit, and in many cases, they are the only tool. Thus, it is important to understand their limitations and characteristics. This chapter discusses considerations of which the estimator must be aware so the Cost Estimating Relationships can be properly used.

  18. Renewable Energy Cost Optimization Spreadsheet

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    2007-12-31

    The Software allow users to determine the optimum combination of renewable energy technologies to minimize life cycle cost for a facility by employing various algorithms which calculate initial and operating cost, energy delivery, and other attributes associated with each technology as a function of size.

  19. Costs of Storing and Transporting Hydrogen

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    An analysis was performed to estimate the costs associated with storing and transporting hydrogen. These costs can be added to a hydrogen production cost to determine the total delivered cost of hydrogen.

  20. Tracking the Sun III; The Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998-2009

    SciTech Connect

    Barbose, Galen; Darghouth, Naim; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-12-13

    Installations of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have been growing at a rapid pace in recent years. In 2009, approximately 7,500 megawatts (MW) of PV were installed globally, up from approximately 6,000 MW in 2008, consisting primarily of grid-connected applications. With 335 MW of grid-connected PV capacity added in 2009, the United States was the world's fourth largest PV market in 2009, behind Germany, Italy, and Japan. The market for PV in the United States is driven by national, state, and local government incentives, including up-front cash rebates, production-based incentives, requirements that electricity suppliers purchase a certain amount of solar energy, and federal and state tax benefits. These programs are, in part, motivated by the popular appeal of solar energy, and by the positive attributes of PV - modest environmental impacts, avoidance of fuel price risks, coincidence with peak electrical demand, and the possible deployment of PV at the point of use. Given the relatively high cost of PV, however, a key goal of these policies is to encourage cost reductions over time. Therefore, as policy incentives have become more significant and as PV deployment has accelerated, so too has the desire to track the installed cost of PV systems over time, by system characteristics, by system location, and by component. Despite the significant year-on-year growth, however, the share of global and U.S. electricity supply met with PV remains small, and annual PV additions are currently modest in the context of the overall electric system. To address this need, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory initiated a report series focused on describing trends in the installed cost of grid-connected PV systems in the United States. The present report, the third in the series, describes installed cost trends from 1998 through 2009, and provides preliminary cost data for systems installed in 2010. The analysis is based on project-level cost data from approximately 78

  1. Unreasonable Cost Waivers | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Unreasonable Cost Waivers Unreasonable Cost Waivers unreasonablecost10-03-2012.pdf cnmidecision.pdf eaglepassdecision.pdf...

  2. Addressing Deferred Maintenance, Infrastructure Costs, and Excess...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Addressing Deferred Maintenance, Infrastructure Costs, and Excess Facilities at Portsmouth and Paducah Addressing Deferred Maintenance, Infrastructure Costs, and Excess Facilities ...

  3. Wind energy`s declining costs

    SciTech Connect

    Gipe, P.

    1995-11-01

    Wind energy is competitive with traditional energy sources for the first time since European windmills graced the landscapes of the Old World. This article explores the current economics of wind power. Topics discussed include the following: standardizing cost of energy reporting and the cost of wind energy; wind power plant price; maintenance costs; effect of installed cost on the cost of energy; future costs; decommissioning; modularity; social or environmental costs; cost of capital; bidding and price.

  4. A municipal guide to least cost utility planning

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The recent track record of ``traditional`` electricity planning, which entails selection of supply side resources to meet forecasted demand, has not been good. There are numerous examples of utilities incorrectly forecasting demand and over-building generating capacity while others underestimated growth and have had to cut demand and find alternate power sources to avoid outages. A potential solution to this problem is the continuing development of Least Cost Utility Plannning (LCUP). Regulatory commissions, consumer advocates and utilities are increasingly relying an LCUP as the most responsible way to avoid construction of new capacity and alleviate anticipated shortages caused by cancellation of construction projects, load growth, or natural replacement of aging capacity. The purpose of this report is to provide municipalities a starting point for evaluating their servicing utilities or states` least cost plan. This was accomplished by: Identifying key issues in LCUP; reviewing examples of the collaborative and classic approaches to LCUP in Illinois, California, New York State and Michigan; cataloging municipal authorities and strategies which can influence or support LCUP activities. Results of the project indicate that through a basic understanding of LCUP processes and issues, municipalities will be in a better position to influence plans or, if necessary, intervene in regulatory proceedings where plans are adopted. Constraints to municipal involvement in LCUP include statutory limitations, resource constraints, and a lack of knowledge of indirect authorities that support the LCUP process.

  5. A municipal guide to least cost utility planning

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The recent track record of traditional'' electricity planning, which entails selection of supply side resources to meet forecasted demand, has not been good. There are numerous examples of utilities incorrectly forecasting demand and over-building generating capacity while others underestimated growth and have had to cut demand and find alternate power sources to avoid outages. A potential solution to this problem is the continuing development of Least Cost Utility Plannning (LCUP). Regulatory commissions, consumer advocates and utilities are increasingly relying an LCUP as the most responsible way to avoid construction of new capacity and alleviate anticipated shortages caused by cancellation of construction projects, load growth, or natural replacement of aging capacity. The purpose of this report is to provide municipalities a starting point for evaluating their servicing utilities or states' least cost plan. This was accomplished by: Identifying key issues in LCUP; reviewing examples of the collaborative and classic approaches to LCUP in Illinois, California, New York State and Michigan; cataloging municipal authorities and strategies which can influence or support LCUP activities. Results of the project indicate that through a basic understanding of LCUP processes and issues, municipalities will be in a better position to influence plans or, if necessary, intervene in regulatory proceedings where plans are adopted. Constraints to municipal involvement in LCUP include statutory limitations, resource constraints, and a lack of knowledge of indirect authorities that support the LCUP process.

  6. Cascaded Microinverter PV System for Reduced Cost

    SciTech Connect

    Bellus, Daniel R.; Ely, Jeffrey A.

    2013-04-29

    In this project, a team led by Delphi will develop and demonstrate a novel cascaded photovoltaic (PV) inverter architecture using advanced components. This approach will reduce the cost and improve the performance of medium and large-sized PV systems. The overall project objective is to develop, build, and test a modular 11-level cascaded three-phase inverter building block for photovoltaic applications and to develop and analyze the associated commercialization plan. The system will be designed to utilize photovoltaic panels and will supply power to the electric grid at 208 VAC, 60 Hz 3-phase. With the proposed topology, three inverters, each with an embedded controller, will monitor and control each of the cascade sections, reducing costs associated with extra control boards. This report details the final disposition on this project.

  7. Entanglement, avoided crossings, and quantum chaos in an Ising model with a tilted magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Karthik, J.; Sharma, Auditya; Lakshminarayan, Arul [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2007-02-15

    We study a one-dimensional Ising model with a magnetic field and show that tilting the field induces a transition to quantum chaos. We explore the stationary states of this Hamiltonian to show the intimate connection between entanglement and avoided crossings. In general, entanglement gets exchanged between the states undergoing an avoided crossing with an overall enhancement of multipartite entanglement at the closest point of approach, simultaneously accompanied by diminishing two-body entanglement as measured by concurrence. We find that both for stationary as well as nonstationary states, nonintegrability leads to a destruction of two-body correlations and distributes entanglement more globally.

  8. Geothermal Exploration Cost and Time

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jenne, Scott

    2013-02-13

    The Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technology Office (GTO) provides RD&D funding for geothermal exploration technologies with the goal of lowering the risks and costs of geothermal development and exploration. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was tasked with developing a metric in 2012 to measure the impacts of this RD&D funding on the cost and time required for exploration activities. The development of this cost and time metric included collecting cost and time data for exploration techniques, creating a baseline suite of exploration techniques to which future exploration cost and time improvements can be compared, and developing an online tool for graphically showing potential project impacts (all available at http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway: Geothermal). This paper describes the methodology used to define the baseline exploration suite of techniques (baseline), as well as the approach that was used to create the cost and time data set that populates the baseline. The resulting product, an online tool for measuring impact, and the aggregated cost and time data are available on the Open Energy Information website (OpenEI, http://en.openei.org) for public access. - Published 01/01/2013 by US National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL.

  9. Cost-Causation and Integration Cost Analysis for Variable Generation

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Cost-Causation and Integration Cost Analysis for Variable Generation Michael Milligan, Erik Ela, Bri-Mathias Hodge, Brendan Kirby (Consultant), and Debra Lew National Renewable Energy Laboratory Charlton Clark, Jennifer DeCesaro, and Kevin Lynn U.S. Department of Energy Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-51860 June 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National

  10. Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview 9 May 2011 LM002 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential or otherwise restricted information. 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_name CARBON FIBER OVERVIEW Materials LM002 Task FY 2010 Budget Industry Cost Share FY 2011 Budget Industry Cost Share Precursors $1,725,000 $688,000 $1,850,000 $1,136,000 Commercialization of Textile Precursors Precursor & Fiber Evaluation Polyolefin Precursors Lignin Based

  11. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    restricted information page 1 Overview * Base Period: - 100% complete * ... these 3 tech level Fuel Cell System Battery System Storage 2. Determine costs for these 3 tech ...

  12. Low Cost Heliostat Development Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kusek, Stephen M.

    2014-04-21

    The heliostat field in a central receiver plant makes up roughly one half of the total plant cost. As such, cost reductions for the installed heliostat price greatly impact the overall plant cost and hence the plant’s Levelized Cost of Energy. The general trend in heliostat size over the past decades has been to make them larger. One part of our thesis has been that larger and larger heliostats may drive the LCOE up instead of down due to the very nature of the precise aiming and wind-load requirements for typical heliostats. In other words, it requires more and more structure to precisely aim the sunlight at the receiver as one increases heliostat mirror area and that it becomes counter-productive, cost-wise, at some point.

  13. Yearly Energy Costs for Buildings

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    1991-03-20

    COSTSAFR3.0 generates a set of compliance forms which will be attached to housing Requests for Proposals (RFPs) issued by Departments or Agencies of the Federal Government. The compliance forms provide a uniform method for estimating the total yearly energy cost for each proposal. COSTSAFR3.0 analyzes specific housing projects at a given site, using alternative fuel types, and considering alternative housing types. The program is designed around the concept of minimizing overall costs through energy conservationmore » design, including first cost and future utility costs, and estabilishes a standard design to which proposed housing designs are compared. It provides a point table for each housing type that can be used to determine whether a proposed design meets the standard and how a design can be modified to meet the standard.« less

  14. Wind Electrolysis: Hydrogen Cost Optimization

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 50.1 million a Electrolyzer Efficiency 50 kWhkg Replacement Cost 25% of direct installed ... units were 384kW (800kgday and 50 kWhkg) with an installation factor of 1.05 to ...

  15. Cost Effective Water Heating Solutions

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 25, 2012, and addressed the question"Are high-efficiency hot water heating systems worth the cost?"

  16. Sustainable Alternative Fuels Cost Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Alternative Fuels Cost Workshop Tuesday, November 27, 2012 9:00 a.m. - 4:00 p.m. National Renewable Energy Lab Offices - Suite 930 901 D Street, SW, Washington, DC 20585 AGENDA ...

  17. Low Cost Non-Reactive

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Prepared: 10/28/09 Low Cost Non-Reactive Coating for Refractory Metals A non-reactive coating for refractory metals has been developed at The Ames Laboratory. Contamination of rare earth and reactive metals and their alloys has been a chronic problem that results from their interaction with the crucibles or other vessels used in high temperature processing or during other applications. As a consequence, processing and other costs are high due to the need to replace equipment or containers, or

  18. Tracking the Sun II: The Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the U.S. from 1998-2008

    SciTech Connect

    Barbose, Galen L; Wiser, Ryan; Peterman, Carla; Darghouth, Naim

    2009-10-05

    Installations of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have been growing at a rapid pace in recent years. In 2008, 5,948 MW of PV was installed globally, up from 2,826 MW in 2007, and was dominated by grid-connected applications. The United States was the world's third largest PV market in terms of annual capacity additions in 2008, behind Spain and Germany; 335 MW of PV was added in the U.S. in 2008, 293 MW of which came in the form of grid-connected installations. Despite the significant year-on-year growth, however, the share of global and U.S. electricity supply met with PV remains small, and annual PV additions are currently modest in the context of the overall electric system. The market for PV in the U.S. is driven by national, state, and local government incentives, including up-front cash rebates, production-based incentives, requirements that electricity suppliers purchase a certain amount of solar energy, and Federal and state tax benefits. These programs are, in part, motivated by the popular appeal of solar energy, and by the positive attributes of PV - modest environmental impacts, avoidance of fuel price risks, coincidence with peak electrical demand, and the location of PV at the point of use. Given the relatively high cost of PV, however, a key goal of these policies is to encourage cost reductions over time. Therefore, as policy incentives have become more significant and as PV deployment has accelerated, so too has the desire to track the installed cost of PV systems over time, by system characteristics, by system location, and by component. To address this need, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory initiated a report series focused on describing trends in the installed cost of grid-connected PV systems in the U.S. The present report, the second in the series, describes installed cost trends from 1998 through 2008. The analysis is based on project-level cost data from more than 52,000 residential and non-residential PV systems in the U.S., all of

  19. Bunch length compression method for free electron lasers to avoid parasitic compressions

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, David R.; Benson, Stephen; Nguyen, Dinh Cong; Tennant, Christopher; Wilson, Guy

    2015-05-26

    A method of bunch length compression method for a free electron laser (FEL) that avoids parasitic compressions by 1) applying acceleration on the falling portion of the RF waveform, 2) compressing using a positive momentum compaction (R.sub.56>0), and 3) compensating for aberration by using nonlinear magnets in the compressor beam line.

  20. Trends in U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Upstream Costs

    Reports and Publications

    2016-01-01

    Average 2015 well drilling and completion costs in five onshore areas decline 25% and 30% below their level in 2012 The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) commissioned IHS Global Inc. (IHS) to perform a study of upstream drilling and production costs. The IHS report assesses capital and operating costs associated with drilling, completing, and operating wells and facilities.

  1. Breaking the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Breaking the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier AMFC Workshop May 8 th , 2011, Arlington, VA Shimshon Gottesfeld, CTO The Fuel Cell Cost Challenge 2 CellEra's goal - achieve price parity with incumbents earlier on in market entry process ! Mainstream Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell ( PEM) Cost Barriers 3 Graphite / stainless steel hardware Acidic membrane Platinum based electrodes Cost barriers deeply embedded in core tech materials BOM-based cost barriers - 90% of stack cost Cost volatility - Platinum

  2. Resources at the State and Regional Level for Manufacturers ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Resources at the State and Regional Level for Manufacturers Manufacturers can use resources delivered by industrial energy efficiency programs in their area. AMO's cost-shared ...

  3. Energy Cost Calculator for Commercial Ice Machines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Ice Machines Energy Cost Calculator for Commercial Ice Machines Vary capacity size, energy cost, hours of operation, and /or efficiency level. INPUT SECTION Input the following data (if any parameter is missing, calculator will set to default value). Defaults Type of Ice Cube Machine Ice Making Head Self-Contained Remote Condensing Unit Ice Making Head Type of Condenser Air Cooled Water Cooled Air Cooled Ice Harvest Rate (lbs. ice per 24 hrs.) lbs. per 24 hrs. 500 lbs. per 24 hrs. Energy

  4. Cost and quality of fuels for electric plants 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants (C&Q) presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  5. Cost-Driven Materials Selection Criteria for Redox Flow Battery

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrolytes - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research 1, 2016, Research Highlights Cost-Driven Materials Selection Criteria for Redox Flow Battery Electrolytes Potential/size selection maps and cost reduction strategies for flow batteries using either non-aqueous or aqueous electrolytes. Scientific Achievement Techno-economic analysis shows that design challenges for non-aqueous batteries include minimizing salt content and dropping redox-active species concentration to moderate levels,

  6. Costs of Building Waste Facilities; Price Per Shipment to Recoup Costs

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    1993-05-14

    The Automated Pricing Schedule is a computer model for evaluating the economics of developing, operating, and closing a low-level radioactive waste disposal site. It provides pricing for individual shipments based on the characteristics of the shipment, and calculates a disposal fee to be charged for each shipment to recover the costs of the facility. It includes a sensitivity analysis module to evaluate the effect of varying the parameters of the model.

  7. Theoretical, Methodological, and Empirical Approaches to Cost Savings: A Compendium

    SciTech Connect

    M Weimar

    1998-12-10

    This publication summarizes and contains the original documentation for understanding why the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) privatization approach provides cost savings and the different approaches that could be used in calculating cost savings for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Phase I contract. The initial section summarizes the approaches in the different papers. The appendices are the individual source papers which have been reviewed by individuals outside of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the TWRS Program. Appendix A provides a theoretical basis for and estimate of the level of savings that can be" obtained from a fixed-priced contract with performance risk maintained by the contractor. Appendix B provides the methodology for determining cost savings when comparing a fixed-priced contractor with a Management and Operations (M&O) contractor (cost-plus contractor). Appendix C summarizes the economic model used to calculate cost savings and provides hypothetical output from preliminary calculations. Appendix D provides the summary of the approach for the DOE-Richland Operations Office (RL) estimate of the M&O contractor to perform the same work as BNFL Inc. Appendix E contains information on cost growth and per metric ton of glass costs for high-level waste at two other DOE sites, West Valley and Savannah River. Appendix F addresses a risk allocation analysis of the BNFL proposal that indicates,that the current approach is still better than the alternative.

  8. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, M.

    2011-10-01

    This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via biomass gasification and identified four principal components of hydrogen levelized cost: CapEx; feedstock costs; project financing structure; efficiency/hydrogen yield. The panel reexamined the assumptions around these components and arrived at new estimates and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments.

  9. Savannah River Remediation Cost Savings Initiative - 12339

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Neil R.

    2012-07-01

    Savannah River enjoyed two years of increased funding as a result of the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act and Department of Energy (DOE) directed scope additions. Moving into FY2012, a much lower funding level is anticipated. In the past, the first response to a reduced funding scenario was to defer scope and slow down the program. This time, Savannah River decided that a better process was needed to try to maximize value to the government. This approach was named the Cost Savings Initiative (CSI). The CSI process is similar to a zero-based budget concept. Every element of work scope was screened to eliminate everything that was not directly related to safety and regulatory compliance. Then the schedules for the regulatory-driven scope were deferred such that the regulatory milestones were achieved just in time with no acceleration. This resulted in a strategy that met regulatory requirements in FY2012-13 with some remaining funding but not in FY2014-15. The remaining funding was then invested in cost savings initiatives in FY2012-13 to reduce the future cost of doing business in the FY2014-15 timeframe and beyond. This resulted in a Strategy that: - Meets all regulatory commitments; - Meets some regulatory commitments early; and - Preserves most of the life cycle savings that were built in to the baseline plan The CSI process used at Savannah River may be considered for application elsewhere in the DOE Complex. (authors)

  10. Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kreycik, C.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-06-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent renewable energy policy used globally to date, and there are many benefits to the certainty offered in the marketplace to reduce development risks and associated financing costs and to grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control in renewable energy policy design. In recent years, policy mechanisms for containing FIT costs have become more refined, allowing policymakers to exert greater control on policy outcomes and on the resulting costs to ratepayers. As policymakers and regulators in the United States begin to explore the use of FITs, careful consideration must be given to the ways in which policy design can be used to balance the policies' advantages while bounding its costs. This report explores mechanisms that policymakers have implemented to limit FIT policy costs. If designed clearly and transparently, such mechanisms can align policymaker and market expectations for project deployment. Three different policy tools are evaluated: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report employs case studies to explore the strengths and weaknesses of these three cost containment tools. These tools are then evaluated with a set of criteria including predictability for policymakers and the marketplace and the potential for unintended consequences.

  11. Modifications to Replacement Costs System

    SciTech Connect

    Godec, M. [ICF Resources, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1989-05-18

    The purpose of this memorandum is to document the improvements and modifications made to the Replacement Costs of Crude Oil (REPCO) Supply Analysis System. While some of this work was performed under our previous support contract to DOE/ASFE, we are presenting all modifications and improvements are presented here for completeness. The memo primarily documents revisions made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model. Revisions and modifications made to other components and models in the REPCO system which are documented elsewhere are only highlighted in this memo. Generally, the modifications made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model reflect changes that have occurred in domestic drilling, oil field costs, and reserves since 1982, the date of the most recent available data used for the original Replacement Costs report, published in 1985.

  12. Cost-Causation and Integration Cost Analysis for Variable Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hodge, B. M.; Kirby, B.; Lew, D.; Clark, C.; DeCesaro, J.; Lynn, K.

    2011-06-01

    This report examines how wind and solar integration studies have evolved, what analysis techniques work, what common mistakes are still made, what improvements are likely to be made in the near future, and why calculating integration costs is such a difficult problem and should be undertaken carefully, if at all.

  13. GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    GAO Cost Estimating and Assessment Guide: Twelve Steps of a High-Quality Cost Estimating Process, from the first step of defining the estimate's purpose to the last step of updating the estimate to reflect actual costs and changes.

  14. Steven Sabbagh leads study to predict and avoid disruptions on KSTAR

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    plasmas | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Steven Sabbagh leads study to predict and avoid disruptions on KSTAR plasmas By John Greenwald October 3, 2016 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Steven Sabbagh, a senior research scientist at Columbia University on long-term assignment to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), has been named lead principal investigator for a multi-institutional project on the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced

  15. Steven Sabbagh leads study to predict and avoid disruptions on KSTAR

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    plasmas | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Steven Sabbagh leads study to predict and avoid disruptions on KSTAR plasmas By John Greenwald October 3, 2016 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Physicist Steven Sabbagh (Photo by Elle Starkman/Office of Communications) Physicist Steven Sabbagh Steven Sabbagh, a senior research scientist at Columbia University on long-term assignment to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), has been named lead

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Tools Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vehicle Cost Calculator on

  17. Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Threshold Cost Calculation Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation DOE Hydrogen Program Record number11007, Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation, documents the methodology and assumptions used to calculate that threshold cost. 11007_h2_threshold_costs.pdf (443.22 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 11007: Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation Fuel Cell Technologies Program Overview: 2010 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting Fuel Cell Technologies

  18. Attraction to and Avoidance of instream Hydrokinetic Turbines by Freshwater Aquatic Organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, Glenn F; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2011-05-01

    The development of hydrokinetic (HK) energy projects is under consideration at over 150 sites in large rivers in the United States, including the Mississippi, Ohio, Tennessee, and Atchafalaya Rivers. These waterbodies support numerous fish species that might interact with the HK projects in a variety of ways, e.g., by attraction to or avoidance of project structures. Although many fish species inhabit these rivers (about 172 species in the Mississippi River alone), not all of them will encounter the HK projects. Some species prefer low-velocity, backwater habitats rather than the high-velocity, main channel areas that would be the best sites for HK. Other, riverbank-oriented species are weak swimmers or too small to inhabit the main channel for significant periods of time. Some larger, main channel fish species are not known to be attracted to structures. Based on a consideration of habitat preferences, size/swim speed, and behavior, fish species that are most likely to be attracted to HK structures in the main channel include carps, suckers, catfish, white bass, striped bass, smallmouth bass, spotted bass, and sauger. Proper siting of the project in order to avoid sensitive fish populations, backwater and fish nursery habitat areas, and fish migration corridors will likely minimize concerns about fish attraction to or avoidance of HK structures.

  19. Survey of statistical and sampling needs for environmental monitoring of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, L.L.; Thomas, J.M.

    1986-07-01

    This project was designed to develop guidance for implementing 10 CFR Part 61 and to determine the overall needs for sampling and statistical work in characterizing, surveying, monitoring, and closing commercial low-level waste sites. When cost-effectiveness and statistical reliability are of prime importance, then double sampling, compositing, and stratification (with optimal allocation) are identified as key issues. If the principal concern is avoiding questionable statistical practice, then the applicability of kriging (for assessing spatial pattern), methods for routine monitoring, and use of standard textbook formulae in reporting monitoring results should be reevaluated. Other important issues identified include sampling for estimating model parameters and the use of data from left-censored (less than detectable limits) distributions.

  20. Favorable Supplies, Costs, Environmental Profile for Natural...

    Energy Saver

    Favorable Supplies, Costs, Environmental Profile for Natural Gas Revealed in New Department of Energy Study Favorable Supplies, Costs, Environmental Profile for Natural Gas ...

  1. California Biomass Collaborative Energy Cost Calculators | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Biomass Collaborative Energy Cost Calculators Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: California Biomass Collaborative Energy Cost Calculators AgencyCompany...

  2. Property:Cost | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Cost Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:Cost&oldid285418...

  3. Electric power substation capital costs (Technical Report) |...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Subject: 24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; POWER SUBSTATIONS; CAPITALIZED COST; CALCULATION METHODS; PLANNING; COST ESTIMATION; MATHEMATICAL MODELS Word Cloud More Like This ...

  4. Example Cost Codes for Construction Projects

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter provides an example outline of cost items and their corresponding cost codes that may be used for construction projects.

  5. Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet on benchmarking the fuel cost of steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  6. Novel Low Cost, High Reliability Wind Turbine Drivetrain

    SciTech Connect

    Chobot, Anthony; Das, Debarshi; Mayer, Tyler; Markey, Zach; Martinson, Tim; Reeve, Hayden; Attridge, Paul; El-Wardany, Tahany

    2012-09-13

    Clipper Windpower, in collaboration with United Technologies Research Center, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation, developed a low-cost, deflection-compliant, reliable, and serviceable chain drive speed increaser. This chain and sprocket drivetrain design offers significant breakthroughs in the areas of cost and serviceability and addresses the key challenges of current geared and direct-drive systems. The use of gearboxes has proven to be challenging; the large torques and bending loads associated with use in large multi-MW wind applications have generally limited demonstrated lifetime to 8-10 years [1]. The large cost of gearbox replacement and the required use of large, expensive cranes can result in gearbox replacement costs on the order of $1M, representing a significant impact to overall cost of energy (COE). Direct-drive machines eliminate the gearbox, thereby targeting increased reliability and reduced life-cycle cost. However, the slow rotational speeds require very large and costly generators, which also typically have an undesirable dependence on expensive rare-earth magnet materials and large structural penalties for precise air gap control. The cost of rare-earth materials has increased 20X in the last 8 years representing a key risk to ever realizing the promised cost of energy reductions from direct-drive generators. A common challenge to both geared and direct drive architectures is a limited ability to manage input shaft deflections. The proposed Clipper drivetrain is deflection-compliant, insulating later drivetrain stages and generators from off-axis loads. The system is modular, allowing for all key parts to be removed and replaced without the use of a high capacity crane. Finally, the technology modularity allows for scalability and many possible drivetrain topologies. These benefits enable reductions in drivetrain capital cost by 10.0%, levelized replacement and O&M costs by 26.7%, and overall cost of

  7. Mandatory Photovoltaic System Cost Estimate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    If the customer has a ratio of estimated monthly kilowatt-hour (kWh) usage to line extension mileage that is less than or equal to 1,000, the utility must provide the comparison at no cost. If the...

  8. Wind Electrolysis: Hydrogen Cost Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Saur, G.; Ramsden, T.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes a hydrogen production cost analysis of a collection of optimized central wind based water electrolysis production facilities. The basic modeled wind electrolysis facility includes a number of low temperature electrolyzers and a co-located wind farm encompassing a number of 3MW wind turbines that provide electricity for the electrolyzer units.

  9. Pollution prevention cost savings potential

    SciTech Connect

    Celeste, J.

    1994-12-01

    The waste generated by DOE facilities is a serious problem that significantly impacts current operations, increases future waste management costs, and creates future environmental liabilities. Pollution Prevention (P2) emphasizes source reduction through improved manufacturing and process control technologies. This concept must be incorporated into DOE`s overall operating philosophy and should be an integral part of Total Quality Management (TQM) program. P2 reduces the amount of waste generated, the cost of environmental compliance and future liabilities, waste treatment, and transportation and disposal costs. To be effective, P2 must contribute to the bottom fine in reducing the cost of work performed. P2 activities at LLNL include: researching and developing innovative manufacturing; evaluating new technologies, products, and chemistries; using alternative cleaning and sensor technologies; performing Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessments (PPOAs); and developing outreach programs with small business. Examples of industrial outreach are: innovative electroplating operations, printed circuit board manufacturing, and painting operations. LLNL can provide the infrastructure and technical expertise to address a wide variety of industrial concerns.

  10. Regulatory cost-risk study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This study is intended to provide some quantitative perspective by selecting certain examples of criteria for which estimates of risks and costs can be obtained, and the balance of the various risks, (i.e., internal versus external risks), can be put into perspective. 35 refs., 39 tabs. (JDB)

  11. Hydrogen Station Cost Estimates: Comparing Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator Results with other Recent Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M.; Penev, M.

    2013-09-01

    This report compares hydrogen station cost estimates conveyed by expert stakeholders through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculation (HSCC) to a select number of other cost estimates. These other cost estimates include projections based upon cost models and costs associated with recently funded stations.

  12. Developing a Cost Model and Methodology to Estimate Capital Costs for Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Glatzmaier, G.

    2011-12-01

    This report provides an update on the previous cost model for thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The update allows NREL to estimate the costs of such systems that are compatible with the higher operating temperatures associated with advanced power cycles. The goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technology Program is to develop solar technologies that can make a significant contribution to the United States domestic energy supply. The recent DOE SunShot Initiative sets a very aggressive cost goal to reach a Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of 6 cents/kWh by 2020 with no incentives or credits for all solar-to-electricity technologies.1 As this goal is reached, the share of utility power generation that is provided by renewable energy sources is expected to increase dramatically. Because Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) is currently the only renewable technology that is capable of integrating cost-effective energy storage, it is positioned to play a key role in providing renewable, dispatchable power to utilities as the share of power generation from renewable sources increases. Because of this role, future CSP plants will likely have as much as 15 hours of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) included in their design and operation. As such, the cost and performance of the TES system is critical to meeting the SunShot goal for solar technologies. The cost of electricity from a CSP plant depends strongly on its overall efficiency, which is a product of two components - the collection and conversion efficiencies. The collection efficiency determines the portion of incident solar energy that is captured as high-temperature thermal energy. The conversion efficiency determines the portion of thermal energy that is converted to electricity. The operating temperature at which the overall efficiency reaches its maximum depends on many factors, including material properties of the CSP plant components. Increasing the operating temperature of the power generation

  13. Quasiparticle-continuum level repulsion in a quantum magnet

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Plumb, K. W.; Hwang, Kyusung; Qiu, Y.; Harriger, Leland W.; Granroth, G.  E.; Kolesnikov, Alexander I.; Shu, G. J.; Chou, F. C.; Rüegg, Ch.; Kim, Yong Baek; et al

    2015-11-30

    When the energy eigenvalues of two coupled quantum states approach each other in a certain parameter space, their energy levels repel each other and level crossing is avoided. Such level repulsion, or avoided level crossing, is commonly used to describe the dispersion relation of quasiparticles in solids. But, little is known about the level repulsion when more than two quasiparticles are present; for example, in a strongly interacting quantum system where a quasiparticle can spontaneously decay into a many-particle continuum. Here we show that even in this case level repulsion exists between a long-lived quasiparticle state and a continuum. Here,more » we observe a renormalization of the quasiparticle dispersion relation due to the presence of the continuum of multi-quasiparticle states, in our fine-resolution neutron spectroscopy study of magnetic quasiparticles in the frustrated quantum magnet BiCu2PO6.« less

  14. Quasiparticle-continuum level repulsion in a quantum magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Plumb, K. W.; Hwang, Kyusung; Qiu, Y.; Harriger, Leland W.; Granroth, G.  E.; Kolesnikov, Alexander I.; Shu, G. J.; Chou, F. C.; Rüegg, Ch.; Kim, Yong Baek; Kim, Young-June

    2015-11-30

    When the energy eigenvalues of two coupled quantum states approach each other in a certain parameter space, their energy levels repel each other and level crossing is avoided. Such level repulsion, or avoided level crossing, is commonly used to describe the dispersion relation of quasiparticles in solids. But, little is known about the level repulsion when more than two quasiparticles are present; for example, in a strongly interacting quantum system where a quasiparticle can spontaneously decay into a many-particle continuum. Here we show that even in this case level repulsion exists between a long-lived quasiparticle state and a continuum. Here, we observe a renormalization of the quasiparticle dispersion relation due to the presence of the continuum of multi-quasiparticle states, in our fine-resolution neutron spectroscopy study of magnetic quasiparticles in the frustrated quantum magnet BiCu2PO6.

  15. A model of the Capital Cost of a natural gas-fired fuel cell based Central Utilities Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-30

    This model defines the methods used to estimate the cost associated with acquisition and installation of capital equipment of the fuel cell systems defined by the central utility plant model. The capital cost model estimates the cost of acquiring and installing the fuel cell unit, and all auxiliary equipment such as a boiler, air conditioning, hot water storage, and pumps. The model provides a means to adjust initial cost estimates to consider learning associated with the projected level of production and installation of fuel cell systems. The capital cost estimate is an input to the cost of ownership analysis where it is combined with operating cost and revenue model estimates.

  16. Cost-Effective Cable Insulation: Nanoclay Reinforced Ethylene-Propylene-Rubber for Low-Cost HVDC Cabling

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-24

    GENI Project: GE is developing new, low-cost insulation for high-voltage direct current (HVDC) electricity transmission cables. The current material used to insulate HVDC transmission cables is very expensive and can account for as much as 1/3 of the total cost of a high-voltage transmission system. GE is embedding nanomaterials into specialty rubber to create its insulation. Not only are these materials less expensive than those used in conventional HVDC insulation, but also they will help suppress excess charge accumulation. The excess charge left behind on a cable poses a major challenge for high-voltage insulation—if it’s not kept to a low level, it could ultimately lead the insulation to fail. GE’s low-cost insulation is compatible with existing U.S. cable manufacturing processes, further enhancing its cost effectiveness.

  17. Novel, Low-Cost Nanoparticle Production

    SciTech Connect

    2011-05-31

    Fact sheet describing a modular hybrid plasma reactor and process to manufacture low-cost nanoparticles

  18. Supplemental report on cost estimates'

    SciTech Connect

    1992-04-29

    The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have completed an analysis of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 budget request for its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) program. The results were presented to an interagency review group (IAG) of senior-Administration officials for their consideration in the budget process. This analysis included evaluations of the underlying legal requirements and cost estimates on which the ERWM budget request was based. The major conclusions are contained in a separate report entitled, ''Interagency Review of the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program.'' This Corps supplemental report provides greater detail on the cost analysis.

  19. Low Cost Titanium Alloy Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Titanium Alloy Production Titanium for Energy Efficient Mechanical Systems. Titanium (Ti) is highly valued for its strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. However, after conventional wrought processing and machining, it is typically in excess of 40 times more expensive than a corresponding steel part and nearly 20 times more expensive than an aluminum part. The high cost of Ti parts is a function of both high materials loss and multiple high temperature forging steps. This, in turn,

  20. Advanced Biofuels Cost of Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    OF ENERGY BIOMASS PROGRAM Advanced Biofuels Cost of Production Aviation Biofuels Conference Zia Haq DPA Coordinator October 12, 2012 2 | Office of the Biomass Program eere.energy.gov Introduction * Resource assessment - do we have enough biomass? * Techno-economic analysis - can biofuels be produced at competitive prices? * Sustainability - What are the greenhouse gas emissions? * Integrated biorefineries - what is being funded at DOE and what are future plans? 3 | Office of the Biomass Program

  1. 1998 Cost and Quality Annual

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    8) Distribution Category UC-950 Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants 1998 Tables June 1999 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of

  2. Support for Cost Analyses on

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    35 Hartwell Ave Lexington, MA 02421 Support for Cost Analyses on Solar-Driven High Temperature Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles Final Report to: Department of Energy Order DE-DT0000951 Report prepared by TIAX LLC Reference D0535 February 22, 2011 Matt Kromer (Principal Investigator) Kurt Roth Rosalind Takata Paul Chin Copyright 2011, TIAX LLC Notice: This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government

  3. Forestry mitigation potential and costs in developing countries - Preface

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Makundi, Willy; Andrasko, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    The forest sector in Tanzania offers ample opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and sequestered carbon (C) in terrestrial ecosystems. More than 90% of the country's demand for primary energy is obtained from biomass mostly procured unsustainably from natural forests. This study examines the potential to sequester C through expansion of forest plantations aimed at reducing the dependence on natural forest for wood fuel production, as well as increase the country's output of industrial wood from plantations. These were compared ton conservation options in the tropical and miombo ecosystems. Three sequestration options were analyzed, involving the establishment of short rotation and long rotation plantations on about 1.7 x 106 hectares. The short rotation community forest option has a potential to sequester an equilibrium amount of 197.4 x 106 Mg C by 2024 at a net benefit of $79.5 x 106, while yielding a NPV of $0.46 Mg-1 C. The long rotation options for softwood and hardwood plantations will reach an equilibrium sequestration of 5.6 and 11.8 x 106 Mg C at a negative NPV of $0.60 Mg-1 C and $0.32 Mg-1 C. The three options provide cost competitive opportunities for sequestering about 7.5 x 106 Mg C yr -1 while providing desired forest products and easing the pressure on the natural forests in Tanzania. The endowment costs of the sequestration options were all found to be cheaper than the emission avoidance cost for conservation options which had an average cost of $1.27 Mg-1 C, rising to $7.5 Mg-1 C under some assumptions on vulnerability to encroachment. The estimates shown here may represent the upper bound, because the actual potential will be influenced by market prices for inputs and forest products, land use policy constraints and the structure of global C transactions.

  4. Virginia Offshore Wind Cost Reduction Through Innovation Study (VOWCRIS) (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Maples, B.; Campbell, J.; Arora, D.

    2014-10-01

    The VOWCRIS project is an integrated systems approach to the feasibility-level design, performance, and cost-of-energy estimate for a notional 600-megawatt offshore wind project using site characteristics that apply to the Wind Energy Areas of Virginia, Maryland and North Carolina.

  5. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-02

    This publication presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  6. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-14

    This document presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. Purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate, timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  7. Section L Attachment G - Management Team Cost Sheet.xlsx

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    G Management Team Cost Sheet Definitions of items to be included in the worksheet Name Title Reimbursable* Annual Base Salary Reimbursable* Incentive Pay and bonuses Reimbursable* Deferred compensation Reimbursable* Employer contributions to Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs) Reimbursable* Employer Contributions to Defined Contribution Pension Plans Total Reimbursable* Annual Compensation Current Annual Base Salary Current Total Annual Compensation Benchmark job title/level Median Annual

  8. A Second Opinion is Worth the Cost - 12479

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, Drew

    2012-07-01

    This paper, 'A Second Opinion is Worth the Cost', shows how a second opinion for a Department of Energy (DOE) Project helped prepare and pass a DOE Order 413.3A 'Program and Project Management for the acquisition of Capital Assets' Office of Engineering and Construction Management (OECM) required External Independent Review (EIR) in support of the approved baseline for Critical Decision (CD) 2. The DOE project personnel were informed that the project's Total Project Cost (TPC) was going to increase from $815 million to $1.1 billion due to unforeseen problems and unexplained reasons. The DOE Project Team determined that a second opinion was needed to review and validate the TPC. Project Time and Cost, Inc. (PT and C) was requested to evaluate the cost estimate, schedule, basis of estimate (BOE), and risk management plan of the Project and to give an independent assessment of the TPC that was presented to DOE. This paper will demonstrate how breaking down a project to the work breakdown structure (WBS) level allows a project to be analyzed for potential cost increases and/or decreases, thus providing a more accurate TPC. The review Team's cost analyses of Projects identified eight primary drivers resulting in cost increases. They included: - Overstatement of the effort required to develop drawings and specifications. - Cost allocation to 'Miscellaneous' without sufficient detail or documentation. - Cost for duplicated efforts. - Vendor estimates or quotations without sufficient detail. - The practice of using the highest price quoted then adding an additional 10% mark-up. - Application of Nuclear Quality Assurance (NQA) highest level quality requirements when not required. - Allocation of operational costs to the Project Costs instead of to the Operating Expenses (OPEX). OPEX costs come from a different funding source. - DOE had not approved the activities. By using a Team approach with professionals from cost, civil, mechanical, electrical, structural and nuclear

  9. An analysis of nuclear power plant operating costs: A 1995 update

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-21

    Over the years real (inflation-adjusted) O&M cost have begun to level off. The objective of this report is to determine whether the industry and NRC initiatives to control costs have resulted in this moderation in the growth of O&M costs. Because the industry agrees that the control of O&M costs is crucial to the viability of the technology, an examination of the factors causing the moderation in costs is important. A related issue deals with projecting nuclear operating costs into the future. Because of the escalation in nuclear operating costs (and the fall in fossil fuel prices) many State and Federal regulatory commissions are examining the economics of the continued operation of nuclear power plants under their jurisdiction. The economics of the continued operation of a nuclear power plant is typically examined by comparing the cost of the plants continued operation with the cost of obtaining the power from other sources. This assessment requires plant-specific projections of nuclear operating costs. Analysts preparing these projections look at past industry-wide cost trends and consider whether these trends are likely to continue. To determine whether these changes in trends will continue into the future, information about the causal factors influencing costs and the future trends in these factors are needed. An analysis of the factors explaining the moderation in cost growth will also yield important insights into the question of whether these trends will continue.

  10. Land-Based Wind Plant Balance-of-System Cost Drivers and Sensitivities (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Mone, C.; Maples, B.; Hand, M.

    2014-04-01

    With Balance of System (BOS) costs contributing up to 30% of the installed capital cost, it is fundamental to understand the BOS costs for wind projects as well as potential cost trends for larger turbines. NREL developed a BOS model using project cost estimates developed by industry partners. Aspects of BOS covered include engineering and permitting, foundations for various wind turbines, transportation, civil work, and electrical arrays. The data introduce new scaling relationships for each BOS component to estimate cost as a function of turbine parameters and size, project parameters and size, and geographic characteristics. Based on the new BOS model, an analysis to understand the non‐turbine wind plant costs associated with turbine sizes ranging from 1-6 MW and wind plant sizes ranging from 100-1000 MW has been conducted. This analysis establishes a more robust baseline cost estimate, identifies the largest cost components of wind project BOS, and explores the sensitivity of the capital investment cost and the levelized cost of energy to permutations in each BOS cost element. This presentation shows results from the model that illustrate the potential impact of turbine size and project size on the cost of energy from US wind plants.

  11. A Bunch Compression Method for Free Electron Lasers that Avoids Parasitic Compressions

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Stephen V.; Douglas, David R.; Tennant, Christopher D.; Wilson, Frederick G.; Nguyen, Dinh

    2015-09-01

    Virtually all existing high energy (>few MeV) linac-driven FELs compress the electron bunch length though the use of off-crest acceleration on the rising side of the RF waveform followed by transport through a magnetic chicane. This approach has at least three flaws: 1) it is difficult to correct aberrations- particularly RF curvature, 2) rising side acceleration exacerbates space charge-induced distortion of the longitudinal phase space, and 3) all achromatic "negative compaction" compressors create parasitic compression during the final compression process, increasing the CSR-induced emittance growth. One can avoid these deficiencies by using acceleration on the falling side of the RF waveform and a compressor with M56>0. This approach offers multiple advantages: 1) It is readily achieved in beam lines supporting simple schemes for aberration compensation, 2) Longitudinal space charge (LSC)-induced phase space distortion tends, on the falling side of the RF waveform, to enhance the chirp, and 3) Compressors with M56>0 can be configured to avoid spurious over-compression. We will discuss this bunch compression scheme in detail and give results of a successful beam test in April 2012 using the JLab UV Demo FEL

  12. The social costs to the US of monopolization of the world oil market, 1972--1991

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Leiby, P.N.

    1993-03-01

    The partial monopolization of the world oil market by the OPEC cartel has produced significant economic costs to the economies of the world. This paper reports estimates of the costs of monopolization of oil to the US over the period 1972--1991. Two fundamental assumptions of the analysis are, (1) that OPEC has acted as a monopoly, albeit with limited control, knowledge, and ability to act and, (2) that the US and other consuming nations could, through collective (social) action affect the cartel's ability to act as a monopoly. We measure total costs by comparing actual costs for the 1972--1991 period to a hypothetical more competitive'' world oil market scenario. By measuring past costs we avoid the enormous uncertainties about the future course of the world oil market and leave to the reader's judgment the issue of how much the future will be like the past. We note that total cost numbers cannot be used to determine the value of reducing US oil use by one barrel. They are useful for describing the overall size of the petroleum problem and are one important factor in deciding how much effort should be devoted to solving it. Monopoly pricing of oil transfers wealth from US oil consumers to foreign oil producers and, by increasing theeconomic scarcity of oil, reduces the economy's potential to produce. The actions of the OPEC cartel have also produced oil price shocks, both upward and downward, that generate additional costs because of the economy's inherent inability to adjust quickly to a large change in energy prices. Estimated total costs to the United States from these three sources for the 1972--1991 period are put at $4.1 trillion in 1990$($1.2 T wealth transfer, $0.8 T macroeconomic adjustment costs, $2.1 T potential GNP losses). The cost of the US's primary oil supply contingency program is small ($10 B) by comparison.

  13. The social costs to the US of monopolization of the world oil market, 1972--1991

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Leiby, P.N.

    1993-03-01

    The partial monopolization of the world oil market by the OPEC cartel has produced significant economic costs to the economies of the world. This paper reports estimates of the costs of monopolization of oil to the US over the period 1972--1991. Two fundamental assumptions of the analysis are, (1) that OPEC has acted as a monopoly, albeit with limited control, knowledge, and ability to act and, (2) that the US and other consuming nations could, through collective (social) action affect the cartel`s ability to act as a monopoly. We measure total costs by comparing actual costs for the 1972--1991 period to a hypothetical ``more competitive`` world oil market scenario. By measuring past costs we avoid the enormous uncertainties about the future course of the world oil market and leave to the reader`s judgment the issue of how much the future will be like the past. We note that total cost numbers cannot be used to determine the value of reducing US oil use by one barrel. They are useful for describing the overall size of the petroleum problem and are one important factor in deciding how much effort should be devoted to solving it. Monopoly pricing of oil transfers wealth from US oil consumers to foreign oil producers and, by increasing theeconomic scarcity of oil, reduces the economy`s potential to produce. The actions of the OPEC cartel have also produced oil price shocks, both upward and downward, that generate additional costs because of the economy`s inherent inability to adjust quickly to a large change in energy prices. Estimated total costs to the United States from these three sources for the 1972--1991 period are put at $4.1 trillion in 1990$($1.2 T wealth transfer, $0.8 T macroeconomic adjustment costs, $2.1 T potential GNP losses). The cost of the US`s primary oil supply contingency program is small ($10 B) by comparison.

  14. Cycling fossil-fired units proves costly business

    SciTech Connect

    Lefton, S.; Grimsrud, P.; Besuner, P.

    1997-07-01

    Competition in the electric utility business is having a far-reaching impact. Cost-cutting measures have in major downsizing efforts in virtually every utility in the country. After several cost-cutting rounds to reduce the low hanging fruit of inefficiency, utilities are still challenged to become leaner and meaner in order to compete in a deregulated environment. The problem for many power utilities, however, is they have not precisely determined their costs in every aspect of the plant`s operation. Naturally, obtaining an accurate understanding of expenditures is the starting point for utilities that wish to develop strategic plans to better manage assets, minimize costs and maximize return on investment better understand plant O&M costs and take measures to use this knowledge to their advantage. Cycling is a major reason for the increase in O&M costs of many fossil units. Cycling, in this context, refers to the operation of generating units at varying load levels in response to changes in system-load requirements.

  15. Incorporating psychological influences in probabilistic cost analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kujawski, Edouard; Alvaro, Mariana; Edwards, William

    2004-01-08

    Today's typical probabilistic cost analysis assumes an ''ideal'' project that is devoid of the human and organizational considerations that heavily influence the success and cost of real-world projects. In the real world ''Money Allocated Is Money Spent'' (MAIMS principle); cost underruns are rarely available to protect against cost overruns while task overruns are passed on to the total project cost. Realistic cost estimates therefore require a modified probabilistic cost analysis that simultaneously models the cost management strategy including budget allocation. Psychological influences such as overconfidence in assessing uncertainties and dependencies among cost elements and risks are other important considerations that are generally not addressed. It should then be no surprise that actual project costs often exceed the initial estimates and are delivered late and/or with a reduced scope. This paper presents a practical probabilistic cost analysis model that incorporates recent findings in human behavior and judgment under uncertainty, dependencies among cost elements, the MAIMS principle, and project management practices. Uncertain cost elements are elicited from experts using the direct fractile assessment method and fitted with three-parameter Weibull distributions. The full correlation matrix is specified in terms of two parameters that characterize correlations among cost elements in the same and in different subsystems. The analysis is readily implemented using standard Monte Carlo simulation tools such as {at}Risk and Crystal Ball{reg_sign}. The analysis of a representative design and engineering project substantiates that today's typical probabilistic cost analysis is likely to severely underestimate project cost for probability of success values of importance to contractors and procuring activities. The proposed approach provides a framework for developing a viable cost management strategy for allocating baseline budgets and contingencies. Given the

  16. Cost-Effective Silicon Wafers for Solar Cells: Direct Wafer Enabling Terawatt Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-15

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: 1366 is developing a process to reduce the cost of solar electricity by up to 50% by 2020from $0.15 per kilowatt hour to less than $0.07. 1366s process avoids the costly step of slicing a large block of silicon crystal into wafers, which turns half the silicon to dust. Instead, the company is producing thin wafers directly from molten silicon at industry-standard sizes, and with efficiencies that compare favorably with todays state-of-the-art technologies. 1366s wafers could directly replace wafers currently on the market, so there would be no interruptions to the delivery of these products to market. As a result of 1366s technology, the cost of silicon wafers could be reduced by 80%.

  17. Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors 9 June 2010 C. David (Dave) Warren Field Technical Manager Transportation Materials Research Oak Ridge National Laboratory P.O. Box 2009, M/S 8050 Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8050 Phone: 865-574-9693 Fax: 865-574-0740 Email: WarrenCD@ORNL.GOV LM004 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_name Alternative Precursors and Conventional

  18. Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    PPPO/03-0145&D2 Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for Group 1 Buildings X-103, X-334, and X-344B at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio This document has been approved for public release: Henry H. Thomas (signature on file) 10/29/10 Classification & Information Control Officer Date Restoration Services, Inc. (RSI) contributed to the preparation of this document and should not be considered an eligible contractor for its review DOE/PPPO/03-0145&D2 Engineering

  19. Syngas Mixed Alcohol Cost Validation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Techno-economic analysis (TEA) - Feedback to the research efforts Specific objective in 2012: Provide TEA and validate DOE BETO's goal to demonstrate technologies capable of producing cost competitive ethanol from biomass by the year 2012. 2 Quad Chart Overview 3 Start Date Oct 1, 2006 End Date Sept 30, 2012 % Complete 100% Timeline for Mixed Alcohols Year Total [Gasification/Pyrolysis] FY12 $860k [$700k/$160k] FY13 $1,000k [$250k/$750k] FY14 $1,050k [$350k/$700k] projected Years 10 (FY04 to

  20. The basics of least cost analysis for archaeological applications

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    White, Devin Alan

    2015-11-01

    Here we report that Least Cost Analysis (LCA) is a geospatially focused quantitative approach that can help archaeologists better understand how people may have moved across a landscape. At its core is the assumption that humans make decisions about movement as fully rational actors with complete knowledge of the landscape, attempting to minimize the cost of that movement as they travel from one location to another. LCA is most often used to construct a small number of hypothetical routes between locations of interest and, when used effectively, can even lead to the creation of entire transportation networks. Desktop GIS softwaremore » packages, both commercial and open source, make running LCA relatively straightforward, but that does not necessarily mean that the output is informative or accurate. The following tutorial is designed to expose the reader to the foundational steps required to complete an LCA workflow, along with the scientific rationale behind each step and how to avoid potential pitfalls that one might run into along the way. Finally, relevant literature is cited throughout the tutorial in order to provide context for the technical methods that underpin available tools, to suggest various ways that LCA can be used to solve archaeological problems, and to show the art of the possible.« less

  1. Demand response compensation, net Benefits and cost allocation: comments

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, William W.

    2010-11-15

    FERC's Supplemental Notice of Public Rulemaking addresses the question of proper compensation for demand response in organized wholesale electricity markets. Assuming that the Commission would proceed with the proposal ''to require tariff provisions allowing demand response resources to participate in wholesale energy markets by reducing consumption of electricity from expected levels in response to price signals, to pay those demand response resources, in all hours, the market price of energy for such reductions,'' the Commission posed questions about applying a net benefits test and rules for cost allocation. This article summarizes critical points and poses implications for the issues of net benefit tests and cost allocation. (author)

  2. Estimated Costing of an EUV Mask Inspection Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Barty, A; Taylor, J S

    2002-08-20

    This document is the fourth sub-report of the EUV AIM design study being conducted at LLNL on behalf of International SEMATECH (ISMT) and addresses the issue of preliminary system costing. The purpose of the LLNL study, as identified in section 1.2 of the statement of work, is to research the basic user requirements of an actinic defect characterization tool, potential design configurations and top-level specifications. The objectives of this design study specifically identified in section 1.3 of the statement of work were to: (1) Determine the user requirements of an actinic defect characterization tool; (2) Determine if an EUV AIM tool is an appropriate platform for actinic defect characterization; (3) Determine possible design configurations and top-level performance specifications; (4) Identify potential technical issues and risks of different technical approaches; (5) Provide estimates of cost relating to different technical approaches; and (6) Provide simulated performance for key subsystems and the entire system. The sub-sections of the study to be addressed were accordingly defined in the statement of work as being: (1) Formulation of top-level specifications; (2) Identification of system configurations suitable for meeting the top-level specifications; (3) Preliminary design of imaging systems; (4) Preliminary design of illumination systems; (5) Prediction and comparison of performance through aerial image calculation; (6) Identification of sub-system requirements; (7) Identification of potential vendors; (8) Estimation of system cost; (9) Identification of technical issues; and (10) Definition of technology transfer or development required. Points 1 to 7 and 9 to 10 are addressed in separate reports to ISMT. This report addresses item 8, system costing, and is provided as a separate report so that its content can be kept confidential at the discretion of ISMT. In this analysis we cost two systems--one based on normal-incidence multilayer-coated optics and

  3. Offshore Wind Plant Balance-of-Station Cost Drivers and Sensitivities (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Saur, G.; Maples, B.; Meadows, B.; Hand, M.; Musial, W.; Elkington, C.; Clayton, J.

    2012-09-01

    With Balance of System (BOS) costs contributing up to 70% of the installed capital cost, it is fundamental to understanding the BOS costs for offshore wind projects as well as potential cost trends for larger offshore turbines. NREL developed a BOS model using project cost estimates developed by GL Garrad Hassan. Aspects of BOS covered include engineering and permitting, ports and staging, transportation and installation, vessels, foundations, and electrical. The data introduce new scaling relationships for each BOS component to estimate cost as a function of turbine parameters and size, project parameters and size, and soil type. Based on the new BOS model, an analysis to understand the non-turbine costs associated with offshore turbine sizes ranging from 3 MW to 6 MW and offshore wind plant sizes ranging from 100 MW to 1000 MW has been conducted. This analysis establishes a more robust baseline cost estimate, identifies the largest cost components of offshore wind project BOS, and explores the sensitivity of the levelized cost of energy to permutations in each BOS cost element. This presentation shows results from the model that illustrates the potential impact of turbine size and project size on the cost of energy from US offshore wind plants.

  4. U.S. Balance-of-Station Cost Drivers and Sensitivities (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Maples, B.

    2012-10-01

    With balance-of-system (BOS) costs contributing up to 70% of the installed capital cost, it is fundamental to understanding the BOS costs for offshore wind projects as well as potential cost trends for larger offshore turbines. NREL developed a BOS model using project cost estimates developed by GL Garrad Hassan. Aspects of BOS covered include engineering and permitting, ports and staging, transportation and installation, vessels, foundations, and electrical. The data introduce new scaling relationships for each BOS component to estimate cost as a function of turbine parameters and size, project parameters and size, and soil type. Based on the new BOS model, an analysis to understand the non‐turbine costs has been conducted. This analysis establishes a more robust baseline cost estimate, identifies the largest cost components of offshore wind project BOS, and explores the sensitivity of the levelized cost of energy to permutations in each BOS cost element. This presentation shows results from the model that illustrates the potential impact of turbine size and project size on the cost of energy from U.S. offshore wind plants.

  5. Retail Infrastructure Costs Comparison for Hydrogen and Electricity for Light-Duty Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M.; Sun, Y.; Bush, B.

    2014-08-01

    Both hydrogen and plug-in electric vehicles offer significant social benefits to enhance energy security and reduce criteria and greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. However, the rollout of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and hydrogen retail stations (HRS) requires substantial investments with high risks due to many uncertainties. We compare retail infrastructure costs on a common basis - cost per mile, assuming fueling service to 10% of all light-duty vehicles in a typical 1.5 million person city in 2025. Our analysis considers three HRS sizes, four distinct types of EVSE and two distinct EVSE scenarios. EVSE station costs, including equipment and installation, are assumed to be 15% less than today's costs. We find that levelized retail capital costs per mile are essentially indistinguishable given the uncertainty and variability around input assumptions. Total fuel costs per mile for battery electric vehicle (BEV) and plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) are, respectively, 21% lower and 13% lower than that for hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) under the home-dominant scenario. Including fuel economies and vehicle costs makes FCEVs and BEVs comparable in terms of costs per mile, and PHEVs are about 10% less than FCEVs and BEVs. To account for geographic variability in energy prices and hydrogen delivery costs, we use the Scenario Evaluation, Regionalization and Analysis (SERA) model and confirm the aforementioned estimate of cost per mile, nationally averaged, but see a 15% variability in regional costs of FCEVs and a 5% variability in regional costs for BEVs.

  6. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-05

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  7. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  8. Cost Participation in Research and Development Contracting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Section 988 also provides guidance, in addition to the applicable cost principles, for determining allowable costs. 2.1.1 Authority to Exclude Research and Development of a Basic ...

  9. Low Cost Heliostat Development | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Low Cost Heliostat Development Low Cost Heliostat Development This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, ...

  10. Poster — Thur Eve — 50: Common Regulatory Non-Compliances and How to Avoid Them

    SciTech Connect

    Heimann, M.

    2014-08-15

    The Accelerators and Class II Facilities Division (ACFD) of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), is responsible for the oversight of radiotherapy facilities containing Class II prescribed equipment in Canada. Over the past several years, ACFD has been performing compliance inspections of Class II nuclear facilities across the country (medical and otherwise), and in that time, has issued several hundred corrective actions to licensees due to non-compliance with regulatory requirements. Recently, a study was done to determine the most common regulatory non-compliances. The purpose of this poster presentation is to disseminate information to the licensee community about the nature of these non-compliances, and how they can be avoided by licensees in the future.

  11. Two-dimensional oriented self-avoiding walks with parallel contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Barkema, G.T.; Flesia, S.

    1996-11-01

    Oriented self-avoiding walks (OSAWs) on a square lattice are studied, with binding energies between steps that are oriented parallel across a face of the lattice. By means of exact enumeration and Monte Carlo simulation, we reconstruct the shape of the partition function and show that this system features a first-order phase transition from a free phase to a tight-spiral phase at {Beta}{sub c} = log({mu}), where {mu} = 2.638 is the growth constant for SAWs. With Monte Carlo simulations we show that parallel contacts happen predominantly between a step close to the end of the OSAW and another step nearby; this appears to cause the expected number of parallel contacts to saturate at large lengths of the OSAW.

  12. The cost of silicon nitride powder: What must it be to compete?

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.; Curlee, T.R.

    1992-02-01

    The ability of advanced ceramic components to compete with similar metallic parts will depend in part on current and future efforts to reduce the cost of ceramic parts. This paper examines the potential reductions in part cost that could result from the development of less expensive advanced ceramic powders. The analysis focuses specifically on two silicon nitride engine components -- roller followers and turbocharger rotors. The results of the process-cost models developed for this work suggest that reductions in the cost of advanced silicon nitride powder from its current level of about $20 per pound to about $5 per pound will not in itself be sufficient to lower the cost of ceramic parts below the current cost of similar metallic components. This work also examines if combinations of lower-cost powders and further improvements in other key technical parameters to which costs are most sensitive could push the cost of ceramics below the cost of metallics. Although these sensitivity analyses are reflective of technical improvements that are very optimistic, the resulting part costs are estimated to remain higher than similar metallic parts. Our findings call into question the widely-held notion that the cost of ceramic components must not exceed the cost of similar metallic parts if ceramics are to be competitive. Economic viability will ultimately be decided not on the basis of which part is less costly, but on an assessment of the marginal costs and benefits provided by ceramics and metallics. This analysis does not consider the benefits side of the equation. Our findings on the cost side of the equation suggest that the competitiveness of advanced ceramics will ultimately be decided by our ability to evaluate and communicate the higher benefits that advanced ceramic parts may offer.

  13. The cost of silicon nitride powder: What must it be to compete

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.; Curlee, T.R.

    1992-02-01

    The ability of advanced ceramic components to compete with similar metallic parts will depend in part on current and future efforts to reduce the cost of ceramic parts. This paper examines the potential reductions in part cost that could result from the development of less expensive advanced ceramic powders. The analysis focuses specifically on two silicon nitride engine components -- roller followers and turbocharger rotors. The results of the process-cost models developed for this work suggest that reductions in the cost of advanced silicon nitride powder from its current level of about $20 per pound to about $5 per pound will not in itself be sufficient to lower the cost of ceramic parts below the current cost of similar metallic components. This work also examines if combinations of lower-cost powders and further improvements in other key technical parameters to which costs are most sensitive could push the cost of ceramics below the cost of metallics. Although these sensitivity analyses are reflective of technical improvements that are very optimistic, the resulting part costs are estimated to remain higher than similar metallic parts. Our findings call into question the widely-held notion that the cost of ceramic components must not exceed the cost of similar metallic parts if ceramics are to be competitive. Economic viability will ultimately be decided not on the basis of which part is less costly, but on an assessment of the marginal costs and benefits provided by ceramics and metallics. This analysis does not consider the benefits side of the equation. Our findings on the cost side of the equation suggest that the competitiveness of advanced ceramics will ultimately be decided by our ability to evaluate and communicate the higher benefits that advanced ceramic parts may offer.

  14. Hydrogen Pathways: Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, and Emissions for the

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Current Technology Status of Seven Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Distribution Scenarios | Department of Energy Pathways: Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, and Emissions for the Current Technology Status of Seven Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Distribution Scenarios Hydrogen Pathways: Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, and Emissions for the Current Technology Status of Seven Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Distribution Scenarios This document reports the levelized cost in 2005 U.S.

  15. Biotrans: Cost Optimization Model | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentbiotrans-cost-optimization-model,http Language: English Policies: Deployment Programs DeploymentPrograms: Demonstration &...

  16. Low Cost, Durable Seal | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Low Cost, Durable Seal Low Cost, Durable Seal This presentation, which focuses on low cost, durable seals, was given by George Roberts of UTC Power at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects. new_fc_roberts_utc.pdf (823.45 KB) More Documents & Publications Improved AST's Based on Real World FCV Data Low Cost Durable Seal Breakout Group 3: Water Management

  17. PHEV Battery Cost Assessment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Battery Cost Assessment PHEV Battery Cost Assessment 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting es111_gallagher_2012_o.pdf (1.1 MB) More Documents & Publications Promises and Challenges of Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Transition-Metal Layered-Oxide Cathodes PHEV Battery Cost Assessment EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Battery Status and Cost Reduction Prospects

  18. Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Pathway Cost Distributions Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions Presentation on hydrogen pathway cost distributions presented January 25, 2006. wkshp_storage_uihlein.pdf (189.04 KB) More Documents & Publications Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 1 kW and 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for Auxiliary Power Applications Natural Gas Imports and Exports First Quarter Report 2016 Pathway and Resource Overview

  19. Reduce Pumping Costs through Optimum Pipe Sizing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-10-01

    BestPractices Program tip sheet discussing pumping system efficiency by reducing pumping costs through optimum pipe sizing.

  20. Cost Participation in Research and Development Contracting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    5.2 June 2016 ______________________________________________________________________________ 1 Cost Participation in Research and Development Contracting [References: Public Law 109-58, Energy Policy Act of 2005, FAR 35.003(b), DEAR 917.70] 1.0 Summary of Latest Changes This update: (1) combines Acquisition Guide Chapters 17.2, Cost Participation, and 35.2, Cost Sharing in Research and Development Contracting, (2) updates delegations of authority, (3) updates sample cost sharing language for

  1. Evolving Utility Cost-Effectiveness Test Criteria

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents an overview of tests done to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency program benefits.

  2. High Energy Cost Grants | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    High Energy Cost Grants High Energy Cost Grants The High Energy Cost Grant Program provides financial assistance for the improvement of energy generation, transmission, and distribution facilities servicing eligible rural communities with home energy costs that are over 275% of the national average. Grants under this program may be used for the acquisition, construction, installation, repair, replacement, or improvement of energy generation, transmission, or distribution facilities in

  3. Microsoft Word - CR-091 Primary Basis of Cost Savings and Cost...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Cost Savings and Cost Savings Amount. The new configurations will only apply to acquisition document types, specifically: BPA Calls, Contracts, Delivery OrderTask Order,...

  4. Stability of High-Level Radioactive Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.

    2001-06-22

    High-level waste (HLW) glass compositions, processing schemes, limits on waste content, and corrosion/dissolution release models are dependent on an accurate knowledge of melting temperatures and thermochemical values. Unfortunately, existing models for predicting these temperatures are empirically-based, depending on extrapolations of experimental information. In addition, present models of leaching behavior of glass waste forms use simplistic assumptions or experimentally measured values obtained under non-realistic conditions. There is thus a critical need for both more accurate and more widely applicable models for HLW glass behavior, which this project addressed. Significant progress was made in this project on modeling HLW glass. Borosilicate glass was accurately represented along with the additional important components that contain iron, lithium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium. The formation of crystalline inclusions in the glass, an issue in Hanford HLW formulations, was modeled and shown to be predictive. Thus the results of this work have already demonstrated practical benefits with the ability to map compositional regions where crystalline material forms, and therefore avoid that detrimental effect. With regard to a fundamental understanding, added insights on the behavior of the components of glass have been obtained, including the potential formation of molecular clusters. The EMSP project had very significant effects beyond the confines of Environmental Management. The models developed for glass have been used to solve a very costly problem in the corrosion of refractories for glass production. The effort resulted in another laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories-Livermore, to become conversant in the techniques and to apply those through a DOE Office of Industrial Technologies project joint with PPG Industries. The glass industry as a whole is now cognizant of these capabilities, and there is a Glass Manufacturer's Research Institute proposal

  5. High efficiency, low cost scrubber upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Klingspor, J.S.; Walters, M.

    1998-07-01

    ABB introduced the LS-2 technology; a limestone based wet FGD system, which is capable of producing high purity gypsum from low grade limestone, in late 1995. Drawing from 30,000 MWe of worldwide wet FGD experience, ABB has incorporated several innovations in the new system designed to reduce the overall cost of SO{sub 2} compliance. Collectively, these improvements are referred to as LS-2. The improvements include a compact high efficiency absorber, a simple dry grinding system, a closed coupled flue gas reheat system, and a tightly integrated dewatering system. The compact absorber includes features such a high velocity spray zone, significantly improved gas-liquid contact system, compact reaction tank, and a high velocity mist eliminator. The LS-2 system is being demonstrated at Ohio Edison's Niles Plant at the 130 MWe level, and this turnkey installation was designed and erected in a 20-month period. At Niles, all of the gypsum is sold to a local wallboard manufacturer. Many of the features included in the LS-2 design and demonstrated at Niles can be used to improve the efficiency and operation of existing systems including open spray towers and tray towers. The SO{sub 2} removal efficiency can be significantly improved by installing the high efficiency LS-2 style spray header design and the unique wall rings. The absorber bypass can be eliminated or reduced by including the LS-2 style high velocity mist eliminator. Also, the LS-2 style spray header design combined with wall rings allow for an increase in absorber gas velocity at a maintained or improved performance without the need for costly upgrades of the absorber recycle pumps. the first upgrade using LS-2 technology was done at CPA's Coal Creek Station (2{times}545 MWe). The experience form the scrubber upgrade at Coal Creek is discussed along with operating results.

  6. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Life Cycle Cost Assessment, Final Technical Report, 30 May 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Martel, Laura; Smith, Paul; Rizea, Steven; Van Ryzin, Joe; Morgan, Charles; Noland, Gary; Pavlosky, Rick; Thomas, Michael; Halkyard, John

    2012-05-30

    The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Life Cycle Cost Assessment (OLCCA) is a study performed by members of the Lockheed Martin (LM) OTEC Team under funding from the Department of Energy (DOE), Award No. DE-EE0002663, dated 01/01/2010. OLCCA objectives are to estimate procurement, operations and maintenance, and overhaul costs for two types of OTEC plants: -Plants moored to the sea floor where the electricity produced by the OTEC plant is directly connected to the grid ashore via a marine power cable (Grid Connected OTEC plants) -Open-ocean grazing OTEC plant-ships producing an energy carrier that is transported to designated ports (Energy Carrier OTEC plants) Costs are developed using the concept of levelized cost of energy established by DOE for use in comparing electricity costs from various generating systems. One area of system costs that had not been developed in detail prior to this analysis was the operations and sustainment (O&S) cost for both types of OTEC plants. Procurement costs, generally referred to as capital expense and O&S costs (operations and maintenance (O&M) costs plus overhaul and replacement costs), are assessed over the 30 year operational life of the plants and an annual annuity calculated to achieve a levelized cost (constant across entire plant life). Dividing this levelized cost by the average annual energy production results in a levelized cost of electricity, or LCOE, for the OTEC plants. Technical and production efficiency enhancements that could result in a lower value of the OTEC LCOE were also explored. The thermal OTEC resource for Oahu, Hawaii and projected build out plan were developed. The estimate of the OTEC resource and LCOE values for the planned OTEC systems enable this information to be displayed as energy supplied versus levelized cost of the supplied energy; this curve is referred to as an Energy Supply Curve. The Oahu Energy Supply Curve represents initial OTEC deployment starting in 2018 and demonstrates the

  7. Low-level waste program technical strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Bledsoe, K.W.

    1994-10-01

    The Low-Level Waste Technical Strategy document describes the mechanisms which the Low-Level Waste Program Office plans to implement to achieve its mission. The mission is to manage the receipt, immobilization, packaging, storage/disposal and RCRA closure (of the site) of the low-level Hanford waste (pretreated tank wastes) in an environmentally sound, safe and cost-effective manner. The primary objective of the TWRS Low-level waste Program office is to vitrify the LLW fraction of the tank waste and dispose of it onsite.

  8. Costs of U.S. Oil Dependence: 2005 Update

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    2005-03-08

    For thirty years, dependence on oil has been a significant problem for the United States. Oil dependence is not simply a matter of how much oil we import. It is a syndrome, a combination of the vulnerability of the U.S. economy to higher oil prices and oil price shocks and a concentration of world oil supplies in a small group of oil producing states that are willing and able to use their market power to influence world oil prices. Although there are vitally important political and military dimensions to the oil dependence problem, this report focuses on its direct economic costs. These costs are the transfer of wealth from the United States to oil producing countries, the loss of economic potential due to oil prices elevated above competitive market levels, and disruption costs caused by sudden and large oil price movements. Several enhancements have been made to methods used in past studies to estimate these costs, and estimates of key parameters have been updated based on the most recent literature. It is estimated that oil dependence has cost the U.S. economy $3.6 trillion (constant 2000 dollars) since 1970, with the bulk of the losses occurring between 1979 and 1986. However, if oil prices in 2005 average $35-$45/bbl, as recently predicted by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, oil dependence costs in 2005 will be in the range of $150-$250 billion. Costs are relatively evenly divided between the three components. A sensitivity analysis reflecting uncertainty about all the key parameters required to estimate oil dependence costs suggests that a reasonable range of uncertainty for the total costs of U.S. oil dependence over the past 30 years is $2-$6 trillion (constant 2000 dollars). Reckoned in terms of present value using a discount rate of 4.5%, the costs of U.S. oil dependence since 1970 are $8 trillion, with a reasonable range of uncertainty of $5 to $13 trillion.

  9. 2006 Update of Business Downtime Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hinrichs, Mr. Doug; Goggin, Mr. Michael

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the downtime cost of power outages to businesses in the commercial and industrial sectors, updating and improving upon studies that have already been published on this subject. The goal is to produce a study that, relative to existing studies, (1) applies to a wider set of business types (2) reflects more current downtime costs, (3) accounts for the time duration factor of power outages, and (4) includes data on the costs imposed by real outages in a well-defined market. This study examines power outage costs in 11 commercial subsectors and 5 industrial subsectors, using data on downtime costs that was collected in the 1990's. This study also assesses power outage costs for power outages of 20 minutes, 1 hour, and 4 hours duration. Finally, this study incorporates data on the costs of real power outages for two business subsectors. However, the current limited state of data availability on the topic of downtime costs means there is room to improve upon this study. Useful next steps would be to generate more recent data on downtime costs, data that covers outages shorter than 20 minutes duration and longer than 4 hours duration, and more data that is based on the costs caused by real-world outages. Nevertheless, with the limited data that is currently available, this study is able to generate a clear and detailed picture of the downtime costs that are faced by different types of businesses.

  10. Low-cost inertial measurement unit.

    SciTech Connect

    Deyle, Travis Jay

    2005-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performs many expensive tests using inertial measurement units (IMUs)--systems that use accelerometers, gyroscopes, and other sensors to measure flight dynamics in three dimensions. For the purpose of this report, the metrics used to evaluate an IMU are cost, size, performance, resolution, upgradeability and testing. The cost of a precision IMU is very high and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus the goals and results of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the data flow in an IMU and determine a generic IMU design. (2) Discuss a high cost IMU implementation and its theoretically achievable results. (3) Discuss design modifications that would save money for suited applications. (4) Design and implement a low cost IMU and discuss its theoretically achievable results. (5) Test the low cost IMU and compare theoretical results with empirical results. (6) Construct a more streamlined printed circuit board design reducing noise, increasing capabilities, and constructing a self-contained unit. Using these results, we can compare a high cost IMU versus a low cost IMU using the metrics from above. Further, we can examine and suggest situations where a low cost IMU could be used instead of a high cost IMU for saving cost, size, or both.

  11. Benefit cost estimation and cooperation in greenhouse gas abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Hamaide, B.

    1997-12-31

    The world is divided in five players: the USA, the other OECD countries, the former Soviet Union, China and the Rest of the World. The damage equation is formulated around the benchmark damage (at twice the CO{sub 2} level) and the change of temperature in time due to past concentration and current emissions. For having damage cost data (or benefit data) with respect to emissions reduction, damages must be computed at each level of restriction, summed from 2000 to 2100 and discounted back at a predetermined two percent rate of time preference. Abatement costs have been estimated by various authors, some of which believe in no-regrets and some of which only believe in low-regrets policy, some of which are aggregate and some of which are disaggregate. Both theories are taken into account to find abatement cost data between the lower bound of some studies and the upper bound of others. Finally, all exercise is undertaken for getting a curve through the disaggregated benefit and cost data and the best regional fit, represented by a mathematical expression is chosen.

  12. Life-cycle costs for the Department of Energy Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    Sherick, M.J.; Shropshire, D.E.; Hsu, K.M.

    1996-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management has produced a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) in order to assess the potential consequences resulting from a cross section of possible waste management strategies for the DOE complex. The PEIS has been prepared in compliance with the NEPA and includes evaluations of a variety of alternatives. The analysis performed for the PEIS included the development of life-cycle cost estimates for the different waste management alternatives being considered. These cost estimates were used in the PEIS to support the identification and evaluation of economic impacts. Information developed during the preparation of the life-cycle cost estimates was also used to support risk and socioeconomic analyses performed for each of the alternatives. This technical report provides an overview of the methodology used to develop the life-cycle cost estimates for the PEIS alternatives. The methodology that was applied made use of the Waste Management Facility Cost Information Reports, which provided a consistent approach and estimating basis for the PEIS cost evaluations. By maintaining consistency throughout the cost analyses, life-cycle costs of the various alternatives can be compared and evaluated on a relative basis. This technical report also includes the life-cycle cost estimate results for each of the PEIS alternatives evaluated. Summary graphs showing the results for each waste type are provided and tables showing different breakdowns of the cost estimates are provided. Appendix E contains PEIS cost information that was developed using an approach different than the standard methodology described in this report. Specifically, costs for high-level waste are found in this section, as well as supplemental costs for additional low-level waste and hazardous waste alternatives.

  13. Los Alamos Waste Management Cost Estimation Model; Final report: Documentation of waste management process, development of Cost Estimation Model, and model reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Matysiak, L.M.; Burns, M.L.

    1994-03-01

    This final report completes the Los Alamos Waste Management Cost Estimation Project, and includes the documentation of the waste management processes at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for hazardous, mixed, low-level radioactive solid and transuranic waste, development of the cost estimation model and a user reference manual. The ultimate goal of this effort was to develop an estimate of the life cycle costs for the aforementioned waste types. The Cost Estimation Model is a tool that can be used to calculate the costs of waste management at LANL for the aforementioned waste types, under several different scenarios. Each waste category at LANL is managed in a separate fashion, according to Department of Energy requirements and state and federal regulations. The cost of the waste management process for each waste category has not previously been well documented. In particular, the costs associated with the handling, treatment and storage of the waste have not been well understood. It is anticipated that greater knowledge of these costs will encourage waste generators at the Laboratory to apply waste minimization techniques to current operations. Expected benefits of waste minimization are a reduction in waste volume, decrease in liability and lower waste management costs.

  14. Natural gas cost for evaluating energy resource opportunities at Fort Stewart

    SciTech Connect

    Stucky, D.J.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Ft. Stewart, a United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) installation located near Hinesville, Georgia, is currently undergoing an evaluation of its energy usage, which is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. In order to examine the energy resource opportunities (EROs) at Ft. Stewart, marginal fuel costs must be calculated. The marginal, or avoided, cost of gas service is used in conjunction with the estimated energy savings of an ERO to calculate the dollar value of those savings. In the case of natural gas, the costing becomes more complicated due to the installation of a propane-air mixing station. The propane-air station is being built under a shared energy savings (SES) contract. The building of a propane-air station allows Ft. Stewart to purchase natural gas from their local utility at an interruptible rate, which is lower than the rate for contracting natural gas on a firm basis. The propane-air station will also provide Ft. Stewart with fuel in the event that the natural gas supply is curtailed. While the propane-air station does not affect the actual cost of natural gas, it does affect the cost of services provided by gas. Because the propane-air station and the SES contract affect the cost of gas service, they must be included in the analysis. Our analysis indicates a marginal cost of gas service of 30.0 cents per therm, assuming a total propane usage by the mixing station of 42,278 gallons (38,600 therms) annually. Because the amount of propane that may be required in the event of a curtailment is small relative to the total service requirement, variations in the actual amount should not significantly affect the cost per therm.

  15. Carbon mitigation potential and costs of forestry options in Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, the Philippines and Tanzania

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, J.; Makundi, W.; Andrasko, K.; Boer, R.; Ravindranath, N.; Sudha, P.; Rao, S.; Lasco, R.; Pulhin, F.; Masera, O.; Ceron, A.; Ordonez, J.; Deying, X.; Zhang, X.; Zuomin, S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of carbon (C) mitigation potential and costs of about 40 forestry options in seven developing countries. Each study uses the same methodological approach - Comprehensive Mitigation Assessment Process (COMAP) - to estimate the above parameters between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios. Coupled with data on a per ha basis on C sequestration or avoidance, and costs and benefits, it allows the estimation of monetary benefit per Mg C, and the total costs and carbon potential. The results show that about half (3.0 Pg C) the cumulative mitigation potential of 6.2 Petagram (Pg) C between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries (about 200 x 106 Mg C yr-1) could be achieved at a negative cost and the remainder at costs ranging up to $100 Mg C-1. About 5 Pg C could be achieved, at a cost less than $20 per Mg C. Negative cost potential indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of these options. The achievable potential is likely to be smaller, however, due to market, institutional, and sociocultural barriers that can delay or prevent the implementation of the analyzed options.

  16. Design guidelines for avoiding thermo-acoustic oscillations in helium piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Prabhat Kumar; Rabehl, Roger

    2015-04-02

    Thermo-acoustic oscillations are a commonly observed phenomenon in helium cryogenic systems, especially in tubes connecting hot and cold areas. The open ends of these tubes are connected to the lower temperature (typically at 4.5 K), and the closed ends of these tubes are connected to the high temperature (300 K). Cryogenic instrumentation installations provide ideal conditions for these oscillations to occur due to the steep temperature gradient along the tubing. These oscillations create errors in measurements as well as an undesirable heat load to the system. The work presented here develops engineering guidelines to design oscillation-free helium piping. This work also studies the effect of different piping inserts and shows how the proper geometrical combinations have to be chosen to avoid thermo-acoustic oscillations. The effect of an 80 K intercept is also studied and shows that thermo-oscillations can be dampened by placing the intercept at an appropriate location. As a result, the design of helium piping based on the present work is also verified with the experimental results available in open literature.

  17. Design guidelines for avoiding thermo-acoustic oscillations in helium piping systems

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Gupta, Prabhat Kumar; Rabehl, Roger

    2015-04-02

    Thermo-acoustic oscillations are a commonly observed phenomenon in helium cryogenic systems, especially in tubes connecting hot and cold areas. The open ends of these tubes are connected to the lower temperature (typically at 4.5 K), and the closed ends of these tubes are connected to the high temperature (300 K). Cryogenic instrumentation installations provide ideal conditions for these oscillations to occur due to the steep temperature gradient along the tubing. These oscillations create errors in measurements as well as an undesirable heat load to the system. The work presented here develops engineering guidelines to design oscillation-free helium piping. This workmore » also studies the effect of different piping inserts and shows how the proper geometrical combinations have to be chosen to avoid thermo-acoustic oscillations. The effect of an 80 K intercept is also studied and shows that thermo-oscillations can be dampened by placing the intercept at an appropriate location. As a result, the design of helium piping based on the present work is also verified with the experimental results available in open literature.« less

  18. Design guidelines for avoiding thermo-acoustic oscillations in helium piping systems

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Gupta, Prabhat Kumar; Rabehl, Roger

    2015-04-02

    Thermo-acoustic oscillations are a commonly observed phenomenon in helium cryogenic systems, especially in tubes connecting hot and cold areas. The open ends of these tubes are connected to the lower temperature (typically at 4.5 K), and the closed ends of these tubes are connected to the high temperature (300 K). Cryogenic instrumentation installations provide ideal conditions for these oscillations to occur due to the steep temperature gradient along the tubing. These oscillations create errors in measurements as well as an undesirable heat load to the system. The work presented here develops engineering guidelines to design oscillation-free helium piping. This workmorealso studies the effect of different piping inserts and shows how the proper geometrical combinations have to be chosen to avoid thermo-acoustic oscillations. The effect of an 80 K intercept is also studied and shows that thermo-oscillations can be dampened by placing the intercept at an appropriate location. As a result, the design of helium piping based on the present work is also verified with the experimental results available in open literature.less

  19. Generation cost unbundling: Untangling the gordian knot

    SciTech Connect

    Conkling, R.L.

    1997-03-01

    One useful byproduct of California`s efforts to restructure its electricity industry comes in the form of Southern California Edison`s proposal to facilitate unbundling by adopting a superior cost allocation method. Utilities and regulators elsewhere should take notice. Clearing the deck for generating competition is the urgent order of the day in electric restructuring. The critical question is: What are the generation costs to be unbundled? Schemes for restructuring, both in California and elsewhere, have called for the stranded component of utility generating costs to be recovered through customer payments of a non-bypassable competition transition charge (CTC). The stranded cost component of generation is the difference between total costs and the revenues received from future market-based prices. This makes a total cost determination for the calculation of the CTC essential, not optional.

  20. IEA Wind Task 26: The Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy, Work Package 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Wiser, R.; Hand, M.

    2012-05-01

    Over the past 30 years, wind power has become a mainstream source of electricity generation around the world. However, the future of wind power will depend a great deal on the ability of the industry to continue to achieve cost of energy reductions. In this summary report, developed as part of the International Energy Agency Wind Implementing Agreement Task 26, titled 'The Cost of Wind Energy,' we provide a review of historical costs, evaluate near-term market trends, review the methods used to estimate long-term cost trajectories, and summarize the range of costs projected for onshore wind energy across an array of forward-looking studies and scenarios. We also highlight the influence of high-level market variables on both past and future wind energy costs.

  1. Low Cost Durable Seal | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Low Cost Durable Seal Low Cost Durable Seal Part of a $100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE Secretary Bodman on Oct. 25, 2006. 4_utc.pdf (21.66 KB) More Documents & Publications Low Cost, Durable Seal 2012 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program 2011 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program

  2. Lower Cost, Higher Performance Carbon Fiber

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Lower Cost, Higher Performance Carbon Fiber 14 February 2011 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_name Questions for Today Materials How can the cost of carbon fiber suitable for higher performance applications (H 2 Storage) be developed? H 2 Storage requirements implies Aerospace grade fibers. Can we build off of work previously done for more modest structural applications? To accurately answer: We need to know the minimum performance and maximum cost

  3. Costing and pricing electricity in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Munasinghe, M.; Rungta, S.

    1984-01-01

    This book compiles the papers presented at a conference on costing and pricing electricity in developing countries. The topics discussed include: Power tariffs, an overview; electricity tariff policy; estimating and using marginal cost pricing concepts; power tariff policy of Philippines, India, Papua New Guinea, Burma, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Korea, Pakistan; Inter-American Development Bank-Electricity tariffs, policies and practices; and costs of supplying electricity and tariff policy in some other countries.

  4. WIPP - Cost of a FOIA request

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Cost of a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request The FOIA generally requires that requestors pay fees for processing their requests. If costs associated with the processing of a FOIA request are $15.00 or less, no fees are charged. Each FOIA request is reviewed for the purpose of placing a requestor in one of four fee categories described below: Commercial use requestor: Responsible for all direct costs; i.e. search for responsive documents, review of documents located for responsiveness; 16%

  5. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Duleep, K.G.

    1992-03-01

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer`s surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer`s surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

  6. Costs and benefits of automotive fuel economy improvement: A partial analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L. ); Duleep, K.G. )

    1992-03-01

    This paper is an exercise in estimating the costs and benefits of technology-based fuel economy improvements for automobiles and light trucks. Benefits quantified include vehicle cots, fuel savings, consumer's surplus effects, the effect of reduced weight on vehicle safety, impacts on emissions of CO{sub 2} and criteria pollutants, world oil market and energy security benefits, and the transfer of wealth from US consumes to oil producers. A vehicle stock model is used to capture sales, scrappage, and vehicle use effects under three fuel price scenarios. Three alternative fuel economy levels for 2001 are considered, ranging from 32.9 to 36.5 MPG for cars and 24.2 to 27.5 MPG for light trucks. Fuel economy improvements of this size are probably cost-effective. The size of the benefit, and whether there is a benefit, strongly depends on the financial costs of fuel economy improvement and judgments about the values of energy security, emissions, safety, etc. Three sets of values for eight parameters are used to define the sensitivity of costs and benefits to key assumptions. The net present social value (1989$) of costs and benefits ranges from a cost of $11 billion to a benefit of $286 billion. The critical parameters being the discount rate (10% vs. 3%) and the values attached to externalities. The two largest components are always the direct vehicle costs and fuel savings, but these tend to counterbalance each other for the fuel economy levels examined here. Other components are the wealth transfer, oil cost savings, CO{sub 2} emissions reductions, and energy security benefits. Safety impacts, emissions of criteria pollutants, and consumer's surplus effects are relatively minor components. The critical issues for automotive fuel economy are therefore: (1) the value of present versus future costs and benefits, (2) the values of external costs and benefits, and (3) the financially cost-effective level of MPG achievable by available technology. 53 refs.

  7. Updated Cost Analysis of Photobiological Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Updated Cost Analysis of Photobiological Hydrogen Production from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Green Algae: Milestone Completion Report This report updates the 1999 economic analysis ...

  8. Modified Accelerated Cost-Recovery System (MACRS)

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under the federal Modified Accelerated Cost-Recovery System (MACRS), businesses may recover investments in certain property through depreciation deductions. The MACRS establishes a set of class...

  9. Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs.

    Energy Saver

    Biomass Derivatives Competitive with Heating Oil Costs Transportation fuel Heat or electricity * Data are from literature, except heating oil is adjusted from 2011 winter average * ...

  10. 2013 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... (Tavner 2010) (BVG Associates 2010) Reliability Database (Hill et al. 2009) Cost ... and dynamic cable systems 6 Portable diesel generators Provide power to turbines if the grid ...

  11. Benchmarking for Cost Improvement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) conducted the Benchmarking for Cost Improvement initiative with three objectives: Pilot test benchmarking as an EM cost improvement tool; identify areas for cost improvement and recommend actions to address these areas; provide a framework for future cost improvement. The benchmarking initiative featured the use of four principal methods (program classification, nationwide cost improvement survey, paired cost comparison and component benchmarking). Interested parties contributed during both the design and execution phases. The benchmarking initiative was conducted on an accelerated basis. Of necessity, it considered only a limited set of data that may not be fully representative of the diverse and complex conditions found at the many DOE installations. The initiative generated preliminary data about cost differences and it found a high degree of convergence on several issues. Based on this convergence, the report recommends cost improvement strategies and actions. This report describes the steps taken as part of the benchmarking initiative and discusses the findings and recommended actions for achieving cost improvement. The results and summary recommendations, reported below, are organized by the study objectives.

  12. Clean distributed generation performance and cost analysis

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2004-04-01

    This assessment examined the performance, cost, and timing of ultra-low emissions CHP technologies driven by certain air quality regions in the U.S.

  13. Cost Recovery | OpenEI Community

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Cost Recovery Home Kyoung's picture Submitted by Kyoung(150) Contributor 9 July, 2013 - 20:57 GRR 3rd Quarter - Stakeholder Update Meeting Alaska analysis appropriations...

  14. Cost Mechanisms | OpenEI Community

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Cost Mechanisms Home Kyoung's picture Submitted by Kyoung(150) Contributor 9 July, 2013 - 20:57 GRR 3rd Quarter - Stakeholder Update Meeting Alaska analysis appropriations...

  15. Cost Effectiveness of Electricity Energy Efficiency Programs...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Effectiveness of Electricity Energy Efficiency Programs Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Cost Effectiveness of Electricity Energy Efficiency Programs...

  16. Interruption Cost Estimate Calculator | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Cost Estimate (ICE) Calculator This calculator is a tool designed for electric reliability planners at utilities, government organizations or other entities that are...

  17. Aerogel commercialization: Technology, markets and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, G.; Lewis, D.; McKinley, K.; Richardson, J.; Tillotson, T.

    1994-10-07

    Commercialization of aerogels has been slow due to several factors including cost and manufacturability issues. The technology itself is well enough developed as a result of work over the past decade by an international-community of researchers. Several extensive substantial markets appear to exist for aerogels as thermal and sound insulators, if production costs can keep prices in line with competing established materials. The authors discuss here the elements which they have identified as key cost drivers, and they give a prognosis for the evolution of the technology leading to reduced cost aerogel production.

  18. Wind Turbine Design Cost and Scaling Model

    SciTech Connect

    Fingersh, L.; Hand, M.; Laxson, A.

    2006-12-01

    This model intends to provide projections of the impact on cost from changes in economic indicators such as the Gross Domestic Product and Producer Price Index.

  19. Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Addendum Document states additional feedback on the worksop received via a request for information issued in ...

  20. Controller (Cost Compliance and Financial Reporting) | Princeton...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    GAAP, Cost Accounting Standards and internal controls required. Excellent analytical and problem solving skills Knowledge of DOE reporting requirements and prior Laboratory or...

  1. Table 1. Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal, By Year and Primary Transport Mode" "Year","Average Transportation Cost of Coal (Dollars per Ton)","Average Delivered Cost...

  2. Use Patterns of LED Flashlights in Kenya and a One-Year Cost Analysis of Flashlight Ownership

    SciTech Connect

    Tracy, Jennifer; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2010-02-16

    Flashlight usage is widespread across much of sub-Saharan Africa.1 In Kenya in particular, over half of all households report owning a flashlight (Kamfor, 2002). Aside from household use, flashlights are also widely used to perform income-earning jobs in Kenya. Lumina Research Note No.4, the first report in this series documenting flashlight use in Kenya, highlights flashlight use patterns of night watchmen and bicycle taxi drivers. Both of these are occupations that rely on the use of flashlights on a nightly basis (Tracy et al., 2009). Also highlighted by Research Note No.4, flashlight users in Kenya have reported being highly dissatisfied with the quality of the low-cost LED flashlights that are available, and they identify several reoccurring problems they have faced as flashlight end-users (Tracy et al., 2009). The fact that there exists a substantial dependency upon flashlights in Kenya and that users are disgruntled with the available products suggests reasons for concern about flashlight quality. This concern is present despite two recent technological transitions in the flashlight market. First, LED technology has quickly emerged as the dominant source of portable lighting in Kenya, outpacing incandescent flashlights (Johnstone et al., 2009). LED technology has the potential to provide efficiency and performance benefits relative to incandescent bulbs, and low-cost LEDs have achieved price levels that make them cost competitive with conventional lighting sources for a number of applications (Mills, 2005). Second, rechargeable sealed-lead acid (SLA) batteries are also becoming more prevalent alternatives to disposable dry cell batteries. Flashlights using rechargeable SLA batteries tend to have a lower total cost of ownership over a two-year period than a flashlight using dry cell batteries (Radecsky, 2009); however, as this current report highlights, this may vary depending on the intensity of use patterns. To avoid a potential market spoiling effect for

  3. U.S. Imputed Value of Natural Gas Market Production (Cost)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Imputed Value of Natural Gas Market Production (Cost) U.S. Imputed Value of Natural Gas Market Production (Cost) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 30,524,691 1990's 31,754,803 30,327,779 32,570,827 38,810,612 36,535,940 30,285,862 42,951,353 46,131,323 39,085,318 43,324,690 2000's 74,338,958 82,202,805 58,596,868 97,555,375 106,521,974 138,750,746 124,074,399 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  4. Systematic Approach to Better Understanding Integration Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, Gregory B.

    2015-09-01

    This research presents a systematic approach to evaluating the costs of integrating new generation and operational procedures into an existing power system, and the methodology is independent of the type of change or nature of the generation. The work was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy and performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to investigate three integration cost-related questions: (1) How does the addition of new generation affect a system's operational costs, (2) How do generation mix and operating parameters and procedures affect costs, and (3) How does the amount of variable generation (non-dispatchable wind and solar) impact the accuracy of natural gas orders? A detailed operational analysis was performed for seven sets of experiments: variable generation, large conventional generation, generation mix, gas prices, fast-start generation, self-scheduling, and gas supply constraints. For each experiment, four components of integration costs were examined: cycling costs, non-cycling VO&M costs, fuel costs, and reserves provisioning costs. The investigation was conducted with PLEXOS production cost modeling software utilizing an updated version of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 118-bus test system overlaid with projected operating loads from the Western Electricity Coordinating Council for the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Puget Sound Energy, and Public Service Colorado in the year 2020. The test system was selected in consultation with an industry-based technical review committee to be a reasonable approximation of an interconnection yet small enough to allow the research team to investigate a large number of scenarios and sensitivity combinations. The research should prove useful to market designers, regulators, utilities, and others who want to better understand how system changes can affect production costs.

  5. Cost Estimating Handbook for Environmental Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    1990-09-01

    Environmental restoration (ER) projects have presented the DOE and cost estimators with a number of properties that are not comparable to the normal estimating climate within DOE. These properties include: An entirely new set of specialized expressions and terminology. A higher than normal exposure to cost and schedule risk, as compared to most other DOE projects, due to changing regulations, public involvement, resource shortages, and scope of work. A higher than normal percentage of indirect costs to the total estimated cost due primarily to record keeping, special training, liability, and indemnification. More than one estimate for a project, particularly in the assessment phase, in order to provide input into the evaluation of alternatives for the cleanup action. While some aspects of existing guidance for cost estimators will be applicable to environmental restoration projects, some components of the present guidelines will have to be modified to reflect the unique elements of these projects. The purpose of this Handbook is to assist cost estimators in the preparation of environmental restoration estimates for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) projects undertaken by DOE. The DOE has, in recent years, seen a significant increase in the number, size, and frequency of environmental restoration projects that must be costed by the various DOE offices. The coming years will show the EM program to be the largest non-weapons program undertaken by DOE. These projects create new and unique estimating requirements since historical cost and estimating precedents are meager at best. It is anticipated that this Handbook will enhance the quality of cost data within DOE in several ways by providing: The basis for accurate, consistent, and traceable baselines. Sound methodologies, guidelines, and estimating formats. Sources of cost data/databases and estimating tools and techniques available at DOE cost professionals.

  6. Avoiding the Haircut: Potential Ways to Enhance the Value of theUSDA's Section 9006 Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark

    2006-07-13

    Section 9006 of Title IX of The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (the '2002 Farm Bill') established the Renewable Energy Systems and Energy Efficiency Improvements Program (the 'Section 9006 program'). Administered by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Section 9006 program provides grants, loan guarantees, and - perhaps in the future - direct loans to farmers, ranchers, and rural small businesses for assistance with purchasing renewable energy systems and making energy efficiency improvements. In the three rounds of Section 9006 funding to date (FY03-FY05), roughly 40% of all grant dollars in aggregate have been awarded to 'large' (defined as > 100 kW) wind projects. Such projects are also typically eligible for the Federal Production Tax Credit (PTC) codified in Section 45 of the US tax code. Because the PTC provides a significant amount of value to a wind project, most 'large wind' applicants to the Section 9006 program have also tried to take advantage of the PTC. Through what are known as 'anti-double-dipping' or, more colloquially, 'haircut' provisions, however, the size of the PTC is reduced if a project receives certain other forms of governmental support. Specifically, Section 45(b)(3) of the US tax code reduces the size of the PTC in proportion to the aggregate amount of government grants, tax-exempt or subsidized financing, or other Federal tax credits that a project receives over time, relative to its overall capital cost (with the proportion not to exceed 50%). The legislative and regulatory history surrounding the PTC's haircut provisions suggests that grants and direct loans (but not loan guarantees) provided under the Section 9006 program will cause a PTC haircut. Focusing exclusively on 'large wind' projects, this report demonstrates that the magnitude of the haircut can be significant: Section 9006 grants lose between 11% and 46% of their face value (depending on the wind project's capital cost and capacity factor

  7. A cost-benefit analysis of landfill mining and material recycling in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Chuanbin Gong, Zhe; Hu, Junsong; Cao, Aixin; Liang, Hanwen

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Assessing the economic feasibility of landfill mining. • We applied a cost-benefit analysis model for landfill mining. • Four material cycling and energy recovery scenarios were designed. • We used net present value to evaluate the cost-benefit efficiency. - Abstract: Landfill mining is an environmentally-friendly technology that combines the concepts of material recycling and sustainable waste management, and it has received a great deal of worldwide attention because of its significant environmental and economic potential in material recycling, energy recovery, land reclamation and pollution prevention. This work applied a cost-benefit analysis model for assessing the economic feasibility, which is important for promoting landfill mining. The model includes eight indicators of costs and nine indicators of benefits. Four landfill mining scenarios were designed and analyzed based on field data. The economic feasibility of landfill mining was then evaluated by the indicator of net present value (NPV). According to our case study of a typical old landfill mining project in China (Yingchun landfill), rental of excavation and hauling equipment, waste processing and material transportation were the top three costs of landfill mining, accounting for 88.2% of the total cost, and the average cost per unit of stored waste was 12.7 USD ton{sup −1}. The top three benefits of landfill mining were electricity generation by incineration, land reclamation and recycling soil-like materials. The NPV analysis of the four different scenarios indicated that the Yingchun landfill mining project could obtain a net positive benefit varying from 1.92 million USD to 16.63 million USD. However, the NPV was sensitive to the mode of land reuse, the availability of energy recovery facilities and the possibility of obtaining financial support by avoiding post-closure care.

  8. Draft Submission; Social Cost of Energy Generation

    SciTech Connect

    1990-01-05

    This report is intended to provide a general understanding of the social costs associated with electric power generation. Based on a thorough review of recent literature on the subject, the report describes how these social costs can be most fully and accurately evaluated, and discusses important considerations in applying this information within the competitive bidding process. [DJE 2005

  9. Cost Codes and the Work Breakdown Structure

    Directives, Delegations, and Other Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    The chapter discusses the purpose of the work breakdown structure (WBS) and code of account (COA) cost code system, shows the purpose and fundamental structure of both the WBS and the cost code system, and explains the interface between the two systems.

  10. PAFC Cost Challenges | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Cost Challenges PAFC Cost Challenges Presentation at the MCFC and PAFC R&D Workshop held Nov. 16, 2009, in Palm Springs, CA mcfc_pafc_workshop_kanuri.pdf (1.5 MB) More Documents & Publications MCFC and PAFC R&D Workshop Summary Report High Temperature Fuel Cell (Phosphoric Acid) Manufacturing R&D PAFC History and Successes

  11. Cost Analysis of Hydrogen Storage Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... Forecast: System Cost (kWH) I L L U S T R A T I V E 12 SLJB012306D0268 ... Fuel Economy (mpgge) H 2 Storage Requirement (kg H 2 ) Fuel Price (eq gal) O&M Cost (mi) ...

  12. ''Measuring the Costs of Climate Change Policies''

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, W. D.; Smith, A. E.; Biggar, S. L.; Bernstein, P.M.

    2003-05-09

    Studies of the costs of climate change policies have utilized a variety of measures or metrics for summarizing costs. The leading economic models have utilized GNP, GDP, the ''area under a marginal cost curve,'' the discounted present value of consumption, and a welfare measure taken directly from the utility function of the model's representative agent (the ''Equivalent Variation''). Even when calculated using a single model, these metrics do not necessarily give similar magnitudes of costs or even rank policies consistently. This paper discusses in non-technical terms the economic concepts lying behind each concept, the theoretical basis for expecting each measure to provide a consistent ranking of policies, and the reasons why different measures provide different rankings. It identifies a method of calculating the ''Equivalent Variation'' as theoretically superior to the other cost metrics in ranking policies. When regulators put forward new economic or regulatory policies, there is a need to compare the costs and benefits of these new policies to existing policies and other alternatives to determine which policy is most cost-effective. For command and control policies, it is quite difficult to compute costs, but for more market-based policies, economists have had a great deal of success employing general equilibrium models to assess a policy's costs. Not all cost measures, however, arrive at the same ranking. Furthermore, cost measures can produce contradictory results for a specific policy. These problems make it difficult for a policy-maker to determine the best policy. For a cost measures to be of value, one would like to be confident of two things. First one wants to be sure whether the policy is a winner or loser. Second, one wants to be confident that a measure produces the correct policy ranking. That is, one wants to have confidence in a policy measure's ability to correctly rank policies from most beneficial to most harmful. This paper analyzes

  13. Residential retrofit specification/cost data base

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, N.; Potter, T.; Bircher, T.

    1982-06-01

    To aid state agencies, utilities, and contractors participating in the Residential Conservation Service (RCS) program in determining contractor-installed and do-it-yourself costs for active, passive, and wind retrofit measures in their locality, the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) has developed a residential retrofit specification/cost data base. The document consists of technical specifications for 17 renewable resource systems. The specifications were used as the basis for costing the systems in 56 cities. This paper describes the specifications, highlighting the passive systems, discusses the costs for the system, and describes how the costs were used with performance predictions to develop an applicability matrix that served as the basis for determining eligible passive measures in 146 regions under the RCS rule.

  14. The Laboratory Microfusion Facility standardized costing methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.B.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The DOE-organized Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF) has a goal of generation 1000 MJ of fusion yield in order to perform weapons physics experiments, simulate weapons effects, and develop high-gain inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets for military and civil applications. There are currently three options seriously being considered for the driver of this facility: KrF lasers, Nd:glass lasers, and light-ion accelerators. In order to provide a basis for comparison of the cost estimated for each of the different driver technologies, a standardized costing methodology has been devised. This methodology defines the driver-independent costs and indirect cost multipliers for the LMF to aid in the comparison of the LMF proposal cost estimates. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  15. Nuclear plant cancellations: causes, costs, and consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This study was commissioned in order to help quantify the effects of nuclear plant cancellations on the Nation's electricity prices. This report presents a historical overview of nuclear plant cancellations through 1982, the costs associated with those cancellations, and the reasons that the projects were terminated. A survey is presented of the precedents for regulatory treatment of the costs, the specific methods of cost recovery that were adopted, and the impacts of these decisions upon ratepayers, utility stockholders, and taxpayers. Finally, the report identifies a series of other nuclear plants that remain at risk of canellation in the future, principally as a result of similar demand, finance, or regulatory problems cited as causes of cancellation in the past. The costs associated with these potential cancellations are estimated, along with their regional distributions, and likely methods of cost recovery are suggested.

  16. DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 12024: Hydrogen Production Cost Using Low-Cost Natural Gas

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This program record from the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office provides information about the cost of hydrogen production using low-cost natural gas.

  17. Transgenic Plants Lower the Costs of Cellulosic Biofuels (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    A new transgenic maize was observed to be less recalcitrant than wild-type biomass, as manifested through lower severity requirements to achieve comparable levels of conversion. Expression of a single gene derived from bacteria in plants has resulted in transgenic plants that are easier and cheaper to convert into biofuels. Part of the high production cost of cellulosic biofuels is the relatively poor accessibility of substrates to enzymes due to the strong associations between plant cell wall components. This biomass recalcitrance makes costly thermochemical pretreatment necessary. Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have created transgenic maize expressing an active glycosyl hydrolase enzyme, E1 endoglucanase, originally isolated from a thermophilic bacterium, Acidothermus cellulolyticus. This engineered feedstock was observed to be less recalcitrant than wild-type biomass when subjected to reduced severity pretreatments and post-pretreatment enzymatic hydrolysis. This reduction in recalcitrance was manifested through lower severity requirements to achieve comparable levels of conversion of wild-type biomass. The improvements observed are significant enough to positively affect the economics of the conversion process through decreased capital construction costs and decreased degradation products and inhibitor formation.

  18. Simple cost model for EV traction motors

    SciTech Connect

    Cuenca, R.M.

    1995-02-01

    A simple cost model has been developed that allows the calculation of the OEM cost of electric traction motors of three different types, normalized as a function of power in order to accommodate different power and size. The model includes enough information on the various elements integrated in the motors to allow analysis of individual components and to factor-in the effects of changes in commodities prices. A scalable cost model for each of the main components of an electric vehicle (EV) is a useful tool that can have direct application in computer simulation or in parametric studies. For the cost model to have wide usefulness, it needs to be valid for a range of values of some parameter that determines the magnitude or size of the component. For instance, in the case of batteries, size may be determined by energy capacity, usually expressed in kilowatt-hours (kWh), while in the case of traction motors, size is better determined by rated power, usually expressed in kilowatts (kW). The simplest case is when the cost of the component in question is a direct function of its size; then cost is simply the product of its specific cost ($/unit size) and the number of units (size) in the vehicle in question. Batteries usually fall in this category (cost = energy capacity x $/kWh). But cost is not always linear with size or magnitude; motors (and controllers), for instance, become relatively less expensive as power rating increases. Traction motors, one of the main components for EV powertrains are examined in this paper, and a simplified cost model is developed for the three most popular design variations.

  19. Dissecting the Cost of the Smart Grid | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentdissecting-cost-smart-grid Language: English Policies: Regulations Regulations: "Resource Integration Planning,Cost...

  20. Microsoft PowerPoint - Cost Escalation.ppt

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydroelectric Design Center Hydroelectric Design Center " " Cost Trends for Cost Trends for Hydropower Capital Hydropower Capital Replacements" Replacements" Presentation Outline ...

  1. Differences in neurobehavioral responses of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to copper and cobalt: Behavioral avoidance

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, J.A.; Marr, J.C.A.; Lipton, J.; Cacela, D.; Bergman, H.L.

    1999-09-01

    Behavioral avoidance of copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), and a Cu and Co mixture in soft water differed greatly between rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha). Chinook salmon avoided at least 0.7 {micro}g Cu/L, 24 {micro}g Co/L, and the mixture of 1.0 {micro}g Cu/L and 0.9 {micro}g Co/L, whereas rainbow trout avoided at least 1.6 {micro}g Cu/L, 180 {micro}g Co/L, and the mixture of 2.6 {micro}g Cu/L and 2.4 {micro}g Co/L. Chinook salmon were also more sensitive to the toxic effects of Cu in that they failed to avoid {ge}44 {micro}g Cu/L, whereas rainbow trout failed to avoid {ge}180 {micro}g Cu/L. Furthermore, following acclimation to 2 {micro}g Cu/L, rainbow trout avoided 4 {micro}g Cu/L and preferred clean water, but chinook salmon failed to avoid any Cu concentrations and did not prefer clean water. The failure to avoid high concentrations of metals by both species suggests that the sensory mechanism responsible for avoidance responses was impaired. Exposure to Cu concentrations that were not avoided could result in lethality from prolonged Cu exposure or in impairment of sensory-dependent behaviors that are essential for survival and reproduction.

  2. Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel Tam; Alan Nizamoff; Sheldon Kramer; Scott Olson; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts; David Stopek; Robert Zabransky; Jeffrey Hoffmann; Erik Shuster; Nelson Zhan

    2005-05-01

    As part of an ongoing effort of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to investigate the feasibility of gasification on a broader level, Nexant, Inc. was contracted to perform a comprehensive study to provide a set of gasification alternatives for consideration by the DOE. Nexant completed the first two tasks (Tasks 1 and 2) of the ''Gasification Plant Cost and Performance Optimization Study'' for the DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in 2003. These tasks evaluated the use of the E-GAS{trademark} gasification technology (now owned by ConocoPhillips) for the production of power either alone or with polygeneration of industrial grade steam, fuel gas, hydrocarbon liquids, or hydrogen. NETL expanded this effort in Task 3 to evaluate Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. The Task 3 study had three main objectives. The first was to examine the application of the gasifier at an industrial application in upstate New York using a Southeastern Ohio coal. The second was to investigate the GTI gasifier in a stand-alone lignite-fueled IGCC power plant application, sited in North Dakota. The final goal was to train NETL personnel in the methods of process design and systems analysis. These objectives were divided into five subtasks. Subtasks 3.2 through 3.4 covered the technical analyses for the different design cases. Subtask 3.1 covered management activities, and Subtask 3.5 covered reporting. Conceptual designs were developed for several coal gasification facilities based on the fluidized bed U-GAS{reg_sign} gasifier. Subtask 3.2 developed two base case designs for industrial combined heat and power facilities using Southeastern Ohio coal that will be located at an upstate New York location. One base case design used an air-blown gasifier, and the other used an oxygen-blown gasifier in order to evaluate their relative economics. Subtask 3.3 developed an advanced design for an air-blown gasification combined heat and power

  3. The Social Costs to the U.S. of Monopolization of the World Oil Market, 1972-1991

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    The partial monopolization of the world oil market by the OPEC cartel has produced significant economic costs to the economies of the world. This paper reports estimates of the costs of monopolization of oil to the U.S. over the period 1972-1991. Two fundamental assumptions of the analysis are, (1) that OPEC has acted as a monopoly, albeit with limited control, knowledge, and ability to act and, (2) that the U.S. and other consuming nations could, through collective (social) action affect the cartel's ability to act as a monopoly. We measure total costs by comparing actual costs for the 1972-1991 period to a hypothetical ''more competitive'' world oil market scenario. By measuring past costs we avoid the enormous uncertainties about the future course of the world oil market and leave to the reader's judgment the issue of how much the future will be like the past. We note that total cost numbers cannot be used to determine the value of reducing U.S. oil use by one barrel. They are useful for describing the overall size of the petroleum problem and are one important factor in deciding how much effort should be devoted to solving it. Monopoly pricing of oil transfers wealth from US. oil consumers to foreign oil producers and, by increasing the economic scarcity of oil, reduces the economy's potential to produce. The actions of the OPEC Cartel have also produced oil price shocks, both upward and downward, that generate additional costs because of the economy's inherent inability to adjust quickly to a large change in energy prices. Estimated total costs to the United States from these three sources for the 1972-1991 period are put at $4.1 trillion in 1990$ ($1.2 T wealth transfer, $0.8 T macroeconomic adjustment costs, $2.1 T potential GNP losses). The cost of the US's primary oil supply contingency program is small ($10 B) by comparison.

  4. UV/oxidation providers shed technical problems, fight cost perceptions

    SciTech Connect

    Rapaport, D. )

    1993-05-01

    Systems combining ultraviolet light and oxidation (UV/oxidation) to remove contaminants from water were introduced in the early 1980s. Since then, improvements in the technology, a wide array of applications, educational efforts by companies offering the systems and changes in environmental regulations have accelerated acceptance of UV/oxidation technology. From the standpoint of regulatory officials, the major advantage of UV/oxidation is that it creates no secondary pollutants to treat or haul away. It is a self-contained, in situ treatment technology. This benefit has gained importance as regulations have become more stringent regarding disposal of secondary pollutants, such as saturated carbon, and concentration levels of air emissions created by air stripping. Such regulations have increased the costs of monitoring and disposal, while the costs of using UV/oxidation were decreasing.

  5. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    1993-01-01

    The primary objective of this report is to provide estimates of volumes and development costs of known nonassociated gas reserves in selected, potentially important supplier nations, using a standard set of costing algorithms and conventions. Estimates of undeveloped nonassociated gas reserves and the cost of drilling development wells, production equipment, gas processing facilities, and pipeline construction are made at the individual field level. A discounted cash-flow model of production, investment, and expenses is used to estimate the present value cost of developing each field on a per-thousand-cubic-foot (Mcf) basis. These gas resource cost estimates for individual accumulations (that is, fields or groups of fields) then were aggregated into country-specific price-quantity curves. These curves represent the cost of developing and transporting natural gas to an export point suitable for tanker shipments or to a junction with a transmission line. The additional costs of LNG or methanol conversion are not included. A brief summary of the cost of conversion to methanol and transportation to the United States is contained in Appendix D: Implications of Gas Development Costs for Methanol Conversion.

  6. Renewable Energy Planning: Multiparametric Cost Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a method for determining the combination of renewable energy technologies that minimize life-cycle cost at a facility, often with a specified goal regarding percent of energy use from renewable sources. Technologies include: photovoltaics (PV); wind; solar thermal heat and electric; solar ventilation air preheating; solar water heating; biomass heat and electric (combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion); and daylighting. The method rests upon the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) capabilities in characterization of technology cost and performance, geographic information systems (GIS) resource assessment, and life-cycle cost analysis. The paper discusses how to account for the way candidate technologies interact with each other, and the solver routine used to determine the combination that minimizes life-cycle cost. Results include optimal sizes of each technology, initial cost, operating cost, and life-cycle cost, including incentives from utilities or governments. Results inform early planning to identify and prioritize projects at a site for subsequent engineering and economic feasibility study.

  7. Renewable Energy Planning: Multiparametric Cost Optimization; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, A.

    2008-05-01

    This paper describes a method for determining the combination of renewable energy technologies that minimize life-cycle cost at a facility, often with a specified goal regarding percent of energy use from renewable sources. Technologies include: photovoltaics (PV); wind; solar thermal heat and electric; solar ventilation air preheating; solar water heating; biomass heat and electric (combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion); and daylighting. The method rests upon the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) capabilities in characterization of technology cost and performance, geographic information systems (GIS) resource assessment, and life-cycle cost analysis. The paper discusses how to account for the way candidate technologies interact with each other, and the solver routine used to determine the combination that minimizes life-cycle cost. Results include optimal sizes of each technology, initial cost, operating cost, and life-cycle cost, including incentives from utilities or governments. Results inform early planning to identify and prioritize projects at a site for subsequent engineering and economic feasibility study.

  8. Deregulation and Nuclear Training: Cost Effective Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Richard P. Coe; Patricia A. Lake

    2000-11-12

    Training is crucial to the success of any organization. It is also expensive, with some estimates exceeding $50 billion annually spent on training by U.S. corporations. Nuclear training, like that of many other highly technical organizations, is both crucial and costly. It is unlikely that the amount of training can be significantly reduced. If anything, current trends indicate that training needs will probably increase as the industry and workforce ages and changes. With the advent of energy deregulation in the United States, greater pressures will surface to make the costs of energy more cost-competitive. This in turn will drive businesses to more closely examine existing costs and find ways to do things in a more cost-effective way. The commercial nuclear industry will be no exception, and nuclear training will be equally affected. It is time for nuclear training and indeed the entire nuclear industry to begin using more aggressive techniques to reduce costs. This includes the need for nuclear training to find alternatives to traditional methods for the delivery of cost-effective high-quality training that meets regulatory requirements and produces well-qualified personnel capable of working in an efficient and safe manner. Computer-based and/or Web-based training are leading emerging technologies.

  9. Discrete Event Modeling of Algae Cultivation and Harvesting at Commercial Scale: Capital Costs, Operating Costs, and System Bottlenecks

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, Ph.D, P.E., Ronald E.

    2012-07-16

    Discrete Event Modeling of Algae Cultivation and Harvesting at Commercial Scale: Capital Costs, Operating Costs, and System Bottlenecks

  10. Probabilistic cost-benefit analysis of enhanced safety features for strategic nuclear weapons at a representative location

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, D.R.; Hall, C.H.; Holman, G.S.; Graham, K.F.; Harvey, T.F.; Serduke, F.J.D.

    1993-10-01

    We carried out a demonstration analysis of the value of developing and implementing enhanced safety features for nuclear weapons in the US stockpile. We modified an approach that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) developed in response to a congressional directive that NRC assess the ``value-impact`` of regulatory actions for commercial nuclear power plants. Because improving weapon safety shares some basic objectives with NRC regulations, i.e., protecting public health and safety from the effects of accidents involving radioactive materials, we believe the NRC approach to be appropriate for evaluating weapons-safety cost-benefit issues. Impact analysis includes not only direct costs associated with retrofitting the weapon system, but also the expected costs (or economic risks) that are avoided by the action, i.e., the benefits.

  11. Cost and code study of underground buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Sterling, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Various regulatory and financial implications for earth-sheltered houses and buildings are discussed. Earth-sheltered houses are covered in the most detail including discussions of building-code restrictions, HUD Minimum Property Standards, legal aspects, zoning restrictions, taxation, insurance, and home financing. Examples of the initial-cost elements in earth-sheltered houses together with projected life-cycle costs are given and compared to more-conventional energy-conserving houses. For larger-scale underground buildings, further information is given on building code, fire protection, and insurance provisions. Initial-cost information for five large underground buildings is presented together with energy-use information where available.

  12. How three smart managers control steam costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, R.

    1982-11-01

    Three steam-intensive companies report innovative ways to reduce steam-production costs. Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co. concentrated on regular maintenance, process modifications, and heat recovery, but also has an on-going policy of seeking further cost savings. Future efforts will explore computer-based boiler controls. Zenith Radio Corporation's color picture tube-making process uses 12% less steam after 700 mechanical steam traps were replaced with fixed-orifice traps. Petro-Tex Chemical Corp. reduced steam costs by monitoring and optimizing process units and by making capital investments to improve steam management. (DCK)

  13. Fact Sheet: Soft Costs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Soft Costs Fact Sheet: Soft Costs Soft costs can vary significantly as a result of a fragmented energy marketplace. In the U.S., there are 18,000 jurisdictions and 3,000 utilities with different rules and regulations for how to go solar. The same solar equipment may vary widely in its final installation price due to process and market variations across jurisdictions, creating barriers to rapid industry growth. SunShot supports the development of innovative solutions that enable communities to

  14. Hydrogen Pathways: Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, and Emissions for the Current Technology Status of Seven Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Distribution Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, M.; Laffen, M.; Timbario, T. A.

    2009-09-01

    Report of levelized cost in 2005 U.S. dollars, energy use, and GHG emission benefits of seven hydrogen production, delivery, and distribution pathways.

  15. Hydrogen Pathways. Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, and Emissions for the Current Technology Status of Seven Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Distribution Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, Mark; Laffen, Melissa; Timbario, Thomas A.

    2009-09-01

    Report of levelized cost in 2005 U.S. dollars, energy use, and GHG emission benefits of seven hydrogen production, delivery, and distribution pathways.

  16. Hydrogen Pathways: Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, and Emissions for the Current Technology Status of Seven Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Distribution Scenarios

    Publication and Product Library

    Report of levelized cost in 2005 U.S. dollars, energy use, and GHG emission benefits of seven hydrogen production, delivery, and distribution pathways.

  17. High-Level Waste Melter Review

    SciTech Connect

    Ahearne, J.; Gentilucci, J.; Pye, L. D.; Weber, T.; Woolley, F.; Machara, N. P.; Gerdes, K.; Cooley, C.

    2002-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is faced with a massive cleanup task in resolving the legacy of environmental problems from years of manufacturing nuclear weapons. One of the major activities within this task is the treatment and disposal of the extremely large amount of high-level radioactive (HLW) waste stored at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The current planning for the method of choice for accomplishing this task is to vitrify (glassify) this waste for disposal in a geologic repository. This paper describes the results of the DOE-chartered independent review of alternatives for solidification of Hanford HLW that could achieve major cost reductions with reasonable long-term risks, including recommendations on a path forward for advanced melter and waste form material research and development. The potential for improved cost performance was considered to depend largely on increased waste loading (fewer high-level waste canisters for disposal), higher throughput, or decreased vitrification facility size.

  18. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    SciTech Connect

    Perez Jr, Joseph M; Bickford, Dennis F; Day, Delbert E; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L; Marra, Sharon L; Peeler, David K; Strachan, Denis M; Triplett, Mark B; Vienna, John D; Wittman, Richard S

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  19. Attack optimization at moderate force levels

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-04-01

    Optimal offensive missile allocations for moderate offensive and defensive forces are derived and used to study their sensitivity to force structure parameters levels. It is shown that the first strike cost is a product of the number of missiles and a function of the optimum allocation. Thus, the conditions under which the number of missiles should increase or decrease in time is also determined by this allocation.

  20. EXPERT ELICITATION OF ACROSS-TECHNOLOGY CORRELATIONS FOR REACTOR CAPITAL COSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Dixon; Various

    2014-06-01

    Calculations of the uncertainty in the Levelized Cost at Equilibrium (LCAE) of generating nuclear electricity typically assume that the costs of the system component, notably reactors, are uncorrelated. Partial cancellation of independent errors thus gives rise to unrealistically small cost uncertainties for fuel cycles that incorporate multiple reactor technologies. This summary describes an expert elicitation of correlations between overnight reactor construction costs. It also defines a method for combining the elicitations into a single, consistent correlation matrix suitable for use in Monte Carlo LCAE calculations. Both the elicitation and uncertainty propagation methods are demonstrated through a pilot study where cost correlations between eight reactor technologies were elicited from experts in the US DOE Fuel Cycle Research

  1. Technological cost-reduction pathways for attenuator wave energy converters in the marine hydrokinetic environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Bull, Diana L; Ochs, Margaret Ellen

    2013-09-01

    This report considers and prioritizes the primary potential technical costreduction pathways for offshore wave activated body attenuators designed for ocean resources. This report focuses on technical research and development costreduction pathways related to the device technology rather than environmental monitoring or permitting opportunities. Three sources of information were used to understand current cost drivers and develop a prioritized list of potential costreduction pathways: a literature review of technical work related to attenuators, a reference device compiled from literature sources, and a webinar with each of three industry device developers. Data from these information sources were aggregated and prioritized with respect to the potential impact on the lifetime levelized cost of energy, the potential for progress, the potential for success, and the confidence in success. Results indicate the five most promising costreduction pathways include advanced controls, an optimized structural design, improved power conversion, planned maintenance scheduling, and an optimized device profile.

  2. Solar at the cost of coal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    at the cost of coal 1 Domestic shale gas 2 US shale gas enables solar g SunShot: towards 1 Watt SunShot: towards 1 Watt Silicon PV can reach coal parity p y *LCOE calculated ...

  3. Renewable Energy Cost Recovery Incentive Payment

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: Some utilities have reached their cap for incentive allocations under the Renewable Energy Cost Recovery Incentive Payment program. Some of these utilities have reduced per-customer incentive...

  4. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen ...

  5. Total Estimated Contract Cost: Performance Period

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    FY2012 Fee Information Minimum Fee Maximum Fee September 2015 Contract Number: Cost Plus Incentive Fee Contractor: 3,264,909,094 Contract Period: EM Contractor Fee s Idaho...

  6. Energy Cost Control: How the Money Works

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Cost Control: How the Money Works (Copies of these slides to be ... Samuel Goldwyn (1879-1974) "Spare no expense to save money on this one." (c)2009 Energy ...

  7. Least cost options for life extension

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, F.; Bradaric, M.

    1995-12-01

    Rehabilitation of existing electric generating capacity offers one of the most cost-effective ways of meeting near-term power needs in many Eastern and Central European countries. In particular, the uncertainty associated with other supply sources and severe capital constraints tends to favor investments which maximize the utilization of existing fossil-fired equipment. However, it is critical that least-cost planning principles, including the consideration of environmental impacts, be applied to the economic analysis of rehabilitation options. This paper draws on Bechtel`s experience in applying least-cost planning to plant rehabilitation studies in Bulgaria, Romania and Slovakia. The examples provided illustrate the importance of least-cost planning and the effect of the value placed on environmental emissions.

  8. Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reduction

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    On September 1, 2011, DOE announced $42.4 million in funding over three years for the Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reduction (BOS-X) funding opportunity. Part of the SunShot Systems...

  9. SEP 2015 Cost Benefit Analysis Paper

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This Superior Energy Performance® (SEP™) paper analyzes previously reported and newly collected data of costs and benefits associated with the implementation of an ISO 50001 and SEP certification.

  10. USDA High Energy Cost Grant Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is accepting applications for the improvement of energy generation, transmission, and distribution facilities serving rural communities with home energy costs that are over 275% of the national average.

  11. Cost of Energy | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    as well as projections for the future. Tegen, S.; Lantz, E.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Smith, A.; Schwabe, P. (March 2013). 2011 Cost of Wind Energy Review. National Renewable...

  12. Optimization of life cycle management costs

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, A.K.

    1994-12-31

    As can be seen from the case studies, a LCM program needs to address and integrate, in the decision process, technical, political, licensing, remaining plant life, component replacement cycles, and financial issues. As part of the LCM evaluations, existing plant programs, ongoing replacement projects, short and long-term operation and maintenance issues, and life extension strategies must be considered. The development of the LCM evaluations and the cost benefit analysis identifies critical technical and life cycle cost parameters. These {open_quotes}discoveries{close_quotes} result from the detailed and effective use of a consistent, quantifiable, and well documented methodology. The systematic development and implementation of a plant-wide LCM program provides for an integrated and structured process that leads to the most practical and effective recommendations. Through the implementation of these recommendations and cost effective decisions, the overall power production costs can be controlled and ultimately lowered.

  13. Durable, Low Cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    z To develop a low cost (vs. perfluorosulfonated ionomers), durable membrane. z To develop a membrane capable at 80C at low relative humidity (25-50%). z To develop a ...

  14. SunShot Summit: Soft Costs

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This video on the soft costs of installing solar technologies was shown during the DOE SunShot Grand Challenge: Summit and Technology Forum, June 13-14, 2012.

  15. Soft Costs Competitive Awards | Department of Energy

    Energy Saver

    governments, nonprofit organizations, and national laboratories to drive down the cost of solar electricity to 0.06 per kilowatt-hour or 1 per watt (not including incentives). ...

  16. Company Level Imports Archives

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Company Level Imports Company Level Imports Archives 2015 Imports by Month January XLS February XLS March XLS April XLS May XLS June XLS July XLS August XLS September XLS October...

  17. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  18. Level III Mentoring Requirement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Level III applicants must be mentored (minimum of six months) by a Level III or IV FPD or demonstrate equivalency (see below Competency 3.12.2 in the PMCDP's CEG). A formal mentoring agreement must...

  19. Examining the effectiveness of municipal solid waste management systems: An integrated cost-benefit analysis perspective with a financial cost modeling in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Yu-Chi; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-06-15

    In order to develop a sound material-cycle society, cost-effective municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems are required for the municipalities in the context of the integrated accounting system for MSW management. Firstly, this paper attempts to establish an integrated cost-benefit analysis (CBA) framework for evaluating the effectiveness of MSW management systems. In this paper, detailed cost/benefit items due to waste problems are particularly clarified. The stakeholders of MSW management systems, including the decision-makers of the municipalities and the citizens, are expected to reconsider the waste problems in depth and thus take wise actions with the aid of the proposed CBA framework. Secondly, focusing on the financial cost, this study develops a generalized methodology to evaluate the financial cost-effectiveness of MSW management systems, simultaneously considering the treatment technological levels and policy effects. The impacts of the influencing factors on the annual total and average financial MSW operation and maintenance (O and M) costs are analyzed in the Taiwanese case study with a demonstrative short-term future projection of the financial costs under scenario analysis. The established methodology would contribute to the evaluation of the current policy measures and to the modification of the policy design for the municipalities.

  20. Level Diagram Format Choice

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Level 1 Electric Vehicle Charging Stations at the Workplace Level 1 Electric Vehicle Charging Stations at the Workplace Workplace charging programs are successful when organizations choose the charging station design that best fits the needs of both, employers and employees. Taking into account the available budget, program goals, employee interest, and site specific requirements, DOE's report, "Level 1 Electric Vehicle Charging Stations at the Workplace" explores how Level