National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for average toc wt

  1. Rheology and TIC/TOC results of ORNL tank samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pareizs, J. M.; Hansen, E. K.

    2013-04-26

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)) was requested by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to perform total inorganic carbon (TIC), total organic carbon (TOC), and rheological measurements for several Oak Ridge tank samples. As received slurry samples were diluted and submitted to SRNL-Analytical for TIC and TOC analyses. Settled solids yield stress (also known as settled shear strength) of the as received settled sludge samples were determined using the vane method and these measurements were obtained 24 hours after the samples were allowed to settled undisturbed. Rheological or flow properties (Bingham Plastic viscosity and Bingham Plastic yield stress) were determined from flow curves of the homogenized or well mixed samples. Other targeted total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations samples were also analyzed for flow properties and these samples were obtained by diluting the as-received sample with de-ionized (DI) water.

  2. Microsoft Word - TOC_Section_J.12_Model.doc

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    J.12-1 ATTACHMENT J-12 GOVERNMENT-FURNISHED SERVICES AND INFORMATION (GFS/I) RFP Section Project GFS/I C.2.1 Transition DOE will require the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC), Mission Support Contract (MSC), River Corridor Closure Contract (RCCC) and Tank Operations Contract (TOC)/Tank Farm Management Contract (TFC) contractors to assign existing subcontracts upon Contractor request C.2.2.2 SST (Waste Management Area) Closure With the assistance of the Contractor, ORP will issue the

  3. Phase Development in a U-7 wt.% Mo vs. Al-7 wt.% Ge Diffusion Couple

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Perez; D.D. Keiser, Jr.; Y.H. Sohn

    2013-10-01

    Fuel development for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program has demonstrated that U-Mo alloys in contact with Al develop interaction regions with phases that have poor irradiation behavior. The addition of Si to the Al has been considered with positive results. Compositional modification to replace Si with Ge is now under evaluation to attempt to further improve irradiation behavior. In this study, the microstructural and phase development of a diffusion couple of U-7 wt.% Mo in contact with Al-7 wt.% Ge was examined by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The interdiffusion zone developed a microstructure that included the cubic-UGe3 phase and amorphous phases. The UGe3 phase was observed with and without Mo and Al solid solutioning developing a (U,Mo)(Al,Ge)3 phase.

  4. Neutron resonance averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrien, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs.

  5. Effects of W on microstructure of as-cast 28 wt.%Cr–2.6 wt.%C–(0–10)wt.%W irons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imurai, S.; Thanachayanont, C.; Pearce, J.T.H.; Tsuda, K.; Chairuangsri, T.

    2015-01-15

    Microstructures of as-cast 28 wt.%Cr–2.6 wt.%C irons containing (0–10)wt.%W with the Cr/C ratio about 10 were studied and related to their hardness. The experimental irons were cast into dry sand molds. Microstructural investigation was performed by light microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. It was found that the irons with 1 to 10 wt.%W addition was hypereutectic containing large primary M{sub 7}C{sub 3}, whereas the reference iron without W addition was hypoeutectic. The matrix in all irons was austenite, partly transformed to martensite during cooling. The volume fractions of primary M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and the total carbides increased, but that of eutectic carbides decreased with increasing the W content of the irons. W addition promoted the formation of W-rich M{sub 7}C{sub 3}, M{sub 6}C and M{sub 23}C{sub 6}. At about 4 wt.%W, two eutectic carbides including M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and M{sub 6}C were observed together with primary M{sub 7}C{sub 3}. At 10 wt.%W, multiple carbides including primary M{sub 7}C{sub 3}, fish-bone M{sub 23}C{sub 6}, and M{sub 6}C were observed. M{sub x}C where x = 3 or less has not been found due possibly to the high M/C ratio in the studied irons. W distribution to all carbides has been determined increasing from ca. 0.3 to 0.8 in mass fraction as the W content in the irons was increased. W addition led to an increase in Vickers macro-hardness of the irons up to 671 kgf/(mm){sup 2} (HV30/15) obtained from the iron with 10 wt.%W. The formation of primary M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and aggregates of M{sub 6}C and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} were the main reasons for hardness increase, indicating potentially improved wear performance of the as-cast irons with W addition. - Highlights: • W addition at 1 up to 10 wt.%W to Fe–28Cr–2.6C produced “hypereutectic” structure. • W addition promoted the formation of W-rich M{sub 7}C{sub 3}, M{sub 6}C and M

  6. Americans' Average Radiation Exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NA

    2000-08-11

    We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body.

  7. SPALLATION STUDIES ON SHOCK LOADED U-6 WT PCT NB.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. TONKS; ET AL

    2001-01-10

    Several spallation experiments have been performed on the 6 wt pct alloy of uranium using gas gun driven normal plate impacts with VISAR instrumentation and soft recovery. The nominal shock pressures achieved were 28, 34, 42, 50, 55, and 82 kbar. This paper will focus on spallation modeling, e.g. using the 1 D characteristics code CHARADE to simulate the free surface particle velocity. The spallation model involves the ductile growth and coalescence of voids. Metallographical examination of recovered samples and details of the experimental apparatus are discussed in a separate paper.

  8. Active eutectoid decomposition in Zr-3 wt.% Fe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, L.; Ramanujan, R.V.; Tewari, R.; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Banerjee, S.

    1999-02-19

    In the work reported here, the microstructural features associated with the active eutectoid decomposition of a near eutectoid alloy (Zr-3 wt.%Fe) on {beta} quenching were examined. The effects of aging after {beta} quenching, and of furnace cooling from the {beta} phase field, on the microstructure of the alloy were also studied. The microstructural characterization was carried out using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The room temperature mechanical properties corresponding to some of the microstructures were evaluated by mechanical testing.

  9. Thermo-physical Properties of DU-10 wt.% Mo Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas E. Burkes; Cynthia A. Papesch; Andrew P. Maddison; Thomas Hartmann; Francine J. Rice

    2010-08-01

    Low-enriched uranium alloyed with 10 wt% molybdenum is under consideration by the Global Threat Reduction Initiative reactor convert program as a very high density fuel to enable the conversion of high-performance research reactors away from highly-enriched uranium fuels. As with any fuel development program, the thermophysical properties of the fuel as a function of temperature are extremely important and must be well characterized in order to effectively model and predict fuel behavior under normal and off-normal irradiation conditions. For the alloy system under investigation, there is a lack of thermophysical property data, and in most cases, the data is relatively inconsistent and lacks sufficient explanation. Available literature on this alloy system comes mainly from studies done during the 1960s and 1970s, and often does not include sufficient information on fabrication history or conditions to draw conclusions for the current application. The current paper has investigated specific heat capacity, coefficient of linear thermal expansion, density, and thermal diffusivity that were then used to calculate alloy thermal conductivity as a function of temperature. The data obtained from this investigation was compared to available literature on similar U-Mo alloys, and in most cases are in good agreement.

  10. Spacetime averaged null energy condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, Douglas; Olum, Ken D.

    2010-06-15

    The averaged null energy condition has known violations for quantum fields in curved space, even when one considers only achronal geodesics. Many such examples involve rapid variation in the stress-energy tensor in the vicinity of the geodesic under consideration, giving rise to the possibility that averaging in additional dimensions would yield a principle universally obeyed by quantum fields. However, after discussing various procedures for additional averaging, including integrating over all dimensions of the manifold, we give here a class of examples that violate any such averaged condition.

  11. Wall-catalyzed Water-Gas Shift Reaction in Multi-tubular, Pd and 80wt%Pd-20wt%Cu Membrane Reactors at 1173K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osemwengie, I.; Enick, R.M.; Killmeyer, R.P.

    2007-07-20

    The high-temperature, water-gas shift reaction was conducted in 100 wt%Pd and 80 wt%Pd–20 wt%Cu (Pd80 wt%Cu) shell-and-tube membrane reactors at 1173 K with a 241 kPa (35 psig) trans-membrane pressure differential in the absence of heterogeneous catalyst particles. The tube bundle consisted of four parallel 15.25 cm long, 3.175 mm OD Pd-based tubes with a wall thickness of 125 μm. The modest catalytic activity of the Pd-based membrane surface for the forward WGSR, the high rate of hydrogen extraction through the Pd-based membranes, and the long residence times (1–5 s) resulted in a dramatic shift in carbon monoxide conversions of 93% at 1173 K and a 1.5:1 steam-to-carbon monoxide feed ratio—a value well above the equilibrium value of 54% associated with a conventional (non-membrane) reactor. Carbon monoxide conversions decreased from 93% to 66% and hydrogen recovery from 90% to 85% at a residence time of 5 s when the Pd was replaced with Pd80 wt%Cu, due to the lower permeance of the Pd80 wt%Cu alloy. SEM-EDS analysis of the membrane tubes suggested that the water-gas shift environment caused pinhole formation in the retentate surfaces of the Pd and Pd80 wt%Cu after approximately 8 days of operation.

  12. High average power pockels cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daly, Thomas P.

    1991-01-01

    A high average power pockels cell is disclosed which reduces the effect of thermally induced strains in high average power laser technology. The pockels cell includes an elongated, substantially rectangular crystalline structure formed from a KDP-type material to eliminate shear strains. The X- and Y-axes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the edges of the crystal cross-section and to the C-axis direction of propagation to eliminate shear strains.

  13. 2015 Average Monthly Bill- Commercial

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Commercial (Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A-D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U) State Number of Customers Average Monthly Consumption (kWh) Average Price (cents/kWh) Average Monthly Bill (Dollar and cents) New England 874,948 5,084 15.46 786.28 Connecticut 152,482 7,082 15.97 1,131.05 Maine 97,057 3,450 12.47 430.29 Massachusetts 407,063 5,364 15.79 846.67 New Hampshire 105,833 3,536 14.96 529.21 Rhode Island 58,903 5,241 15.78 826.90 Vermont 53,610 3,125 14.54 454.43 Middle Atlantic 2,258,911 5,883

  14. 2015 Average Monthly Bill- Industrial

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Industrial (Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A-D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U) State Number of Customers Average Monthly Consumption (kWh) Average Price (cents/kWh) Average Monthly Bill (Dollar and cents) New England 26,912 58,008 12.34 7,159.42 Connecticut 4,458 64,154 12.95 8,310.68 Maine 2,993 89,321 9.05 8,084.41 Massachusetts 14,100 46,644 13.54 6,317.53 New Hampshire 3,277 50,377 12.74 6,416.71 Rhode Island 1,853 35,912 13.76 4,940.91 Vermont 231 512,843 10.27 52,677.42 Middle Atlantic 43,552

  15. 2015 Average Monthly Bill- Residential

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Residential (Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A-D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U) State Number of Customers Average Monthly Consumption (kWh) Average Price (cents/kWh) Average Monthly Bill (Dollar and cents) New England 6,322,833 626 19.43 121.60 Connecticut 1,468,958 731 20.94 153.13 Maine 699,241 556 15.61 86.75 Massachusetts 2,794,918 602 19.83 119.26 New Hampshire 607,465 621 18.50 114.90 Rhode Island 440,191 594 19.29 114.50 Vermont 312,060 558 17.09 95.33 Middle Atlantic 15,872,487 707 15.97

  16. Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences Percent of Projections Over- Estimated Gross Domestic Product Real Gross Domestic Product (Average Cumulative Growth)* (Table 2) 0.9 45.8 Petroleum Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Constant $) (Table 3a) 37.7 17.3 Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Nominal $) (Table 3b) 36.6 18.7 Total Petroleum Consumption (Table 4) 7.9 70.7 Crude Oil Production (Table 5) 8.1 51.1 Petroleum Net Imports (Table 6) 24.7 73.8 Natural Gas

  17. W.T.; Rainey, R.H. 11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS;...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    thorium fuel reprocessing experience Brooksbank, R.E.; McDuffee, W.T.; Rainey, R.H. 11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; NUCLEAR MATERIALS DIVERSION; SAFEGUARDS; SPENT FUELS;...

  18. TOC Mod 020 .pdf

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

  19. TOC Mod 32.pdf

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

  20. TOC.indd

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... The introduction of the new City Hall and civic green, the proposed Las Flores Shopping ... Climate which allows for use of alternative energy - Capitalizing on solar power and other ...

  1. Integration of the Uncertainties of Anion and TOC Measurements into the Flammability Control Strategy for Sludge Batch 8 at the DWPF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, T. B.

    2013-03-14

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been working with the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) in the development and implementation of a flammability control strategy for DWPFs melter operation during the processing of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). SRNLs support has been in response to technical task requests that have been made by SRRs Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) organization. The flammability control strategy relies on measurements that are performed on Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) samples by the DWPF Laboratory. Measurements of nitrate, oxalate, formate, and total organic carbon (TOC) standards generated by the DWPF Laboratory are presented in this report, and an evaluation of the uncertainties of these measurements is provided. The impact of the uncertainties of these measurements on DWPFs strategy for controlling melter flammability also is evaluated. The strategy includes monitoring each SME batch for its nitrate content and its TOC content relative to the nitrate content and relative to the antifoam additions made during the preparation of the SME batch. A linearized approach for monitoring the relationship between TOC and nitrate is developed, equations are provided that integrate the measurement uncertainties into the flammability control strategy, and sample calculations for these equations are shown to illustrate the impact of the uncertainties on the flammability control strategy.

  2. H2 production from simulated coal syngas containing H2S in multi-tubular Pd and 80 wt% Pd-20 wt% Cu membrane reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iyoha, O.; Enick, R.M.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Howard, B.H.; Ciocco, M.V.; Morreale, B.

    2007-12-01

    99.7% conversion of CO in a simulated syngas feed containing 53% CO, 35% H2 and 12% CO2 was achieved via the water–gas shift (WGS) reaction in a counter-current Pd multi-tube membrane reactor (MR) at 1173 K and 2 s residence time. This conversion is significantly greater than the 32% equilibrium conversion associated with a conventional (non-membrane) reactor primarily due to the high rate of H2 extraction from the reaction zone through the Pd membranes at elevated temperatures. Furthermore, nearly complete H2 recovery was attained in the permeate, resulting in the simultaneous production of a high-pressure CO2 (>99%) retentate stream after condensation of the steam. When Pd80 wt%Cu tubes were used in the reactor, a significantly lower CO conversion of 68% was attained at comparable residence times, probably due to the lower H2 permeance of the alloy. When H2S was added to the syngas feed and the H2S-to-H2 ratio was maintained below the threshold required for thermodynamically stable sulfides to form, the Pd and Pd80 wt%Cu MRs retained their mechanical integrity and H2 selectivity, but a precipitous drop in CO conversion was observed due to deactivation of the catalytic surface. The Pd and Pd80 wt%Cu MRs were observed to fail within minutes after increasing the H2S-to-H2 ratio to levels above that expected for thermodynamically stable sulfides to form, as evidenced by rupturing of the membrane tubes. SEM–EDS analyses of the membranes suggested that at high H2S-to-H2 ratios, the H2S compromised the mechanical integrity of the MRs by preferentially attacking the grain boundary region.

  3. ADAMS/WT advanced development - version 1.4 and beyond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, A.S.; Depauw, T.R.

    1996-12-31

    ADAMS/WT is an wind-turbine-specific shell for the general-purpose mechanical system simulation package ADAMS5. It was developed under the guidance of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to give engineers and analysts in the wind turbine community access to the analytical power of ADAMS, without having to become expert in its particular technology. The 1.4 version of ADAMS/WT is the most recent upgrade to the package, incorporating the most up-to-date version of the AeroDyn aerodynamic forcing subroutines from the University of Utah. It is also the first version to be made available on the Windows/NT platform. In version 1.4, ADAMS/WT has been significantly improved throughout and runs much faster. Automatic generation of standardized output has been added. The documentation has been extensively augmented with more detailed descriptions, more figures and more examples. ADAMS/WT remains the most powerful analytical tool available for horizontal-axis wind turbine development. 10 figs.

  4. Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Average and effective Q-values for ...

  5. Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Average and ...

  6. ,"Selected National Average Natural Gas Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Selected National Average Natural Gas Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data ...

  7. Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard W. Johnson

    2012-09-01

    A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical

  8. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    online 17 October 2012 Keywords: Wave energy conversion Heave Computational Fluid Dynamics Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations Point absorber Power take-off a b s t r ...

  9. Spacetime Average Density (SAD) cosmological measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, Don N.

    2014-11-01

    The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmological constant.

  10. Analysis of irradiated U-7wt%Mo dispersion fuel microstructures using automated image processing

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Collette, R.; King, J.; Buesch, C.; Keiser, Jr., D. D.; Williams, W.; Miller, B. D.; Schulthess, J.

    2016-04-01

    The High Performance Research Reactor Fuel Development (HPPRFD) program is responsible for developing low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel substitutes for high performance reactors fueled with highly enriched uranium (HEU) that have not yet been converted to LEU. The uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) fuel system was selected for this effort. In this study, fission gas pore segmentation was performed on U-7wt%Mo dispersion fuel samples at three separate fission densities using an automated image processing interface developed in MATLAB. Pore size distributions were attained that showed both expected and unexpected fission gas behavior. In general, it proved challenging to identify any dominant trends whenmore » comparing fission bubble data across samples from different fuel plates due to varying compositions and fabrication techniques. Here, the results exhibited fair agreement with the fission density vs. porosity correlation developed by the Russian reactor conversion program.« less

  11. Solidification analysis of a centrifugal atomizer using the Al-32.7wt.% Cu alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osborne, M.G.

    1998-02-23

    A centrifugal atomizer (spinning disk variety) was designed and constructed for the production of spherical metal powders, 100--1,000 microns in diameter in an inert atmosphere. Initial atomization experiments revealed the need for a better understanding of how the liquid metal was atomized and how the liquid droplets solidified. To investigate particle atomization, Ag was atomized in air and the process recorded on high-speed film. To investigate particle solidification, Al-32.7 wt.% Cu was atomized under inert atmosphere and the subsequent particles were examined microscopically to determine solidification structure and rate. This dissertation details the experimental procedures used in producing the Al-Cu eutectic alloy particles, examination of the particle microstructures, and determination of the solidification characteristics (e.g., solidification rate) of various phases. Finally, correlations are proposed between the operation of the centrifugal atomizer and the observed solidification spacings.

  12. STEO January 2013 - average gasoline prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    drivers to see lower average gasoline prices in 2013 and 2014 U.S. retail gasoline prices are expected to decline over the next two years. The average pump price for regular unleaded gasoline was $3.63 a gallon during 2012. That is expected to fall to $3.44 this year and then drop to $3.34 in 2014, according to the new forecast from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Expected lower crude oil prices.....which accounted for about two-thirds of the price of gasoline in 2012....will

  13. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  14. HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BEN-ZVI, ILAN, DAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.

    2005-08-21

    Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department.

  15. New applications for high average power beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neau, E.L.; Turman, B.N.; Patterson, E.L.

    1993-08-01

    The technology base formed by the development of high peak power simulators, laser drivers, FEL`s, and ICF drivers from the early 60`s through the late 80`s is being extended to high average power short-pulse machines with the capabilities of supporting new types of manufacturing processes and performing new roles in environmental cleanup applications. This paper discusses a process for identifying and developing possible commercial applications, specifically those requiring very high average power levels of hundreds of kilowatts to perhaps megawatts. The authors discuss specific technology requirements and give examples of application development efforts. The application development work is directed at areas that can possibly benefit from the high specific energies attainable with short pulse machines.

  16. Air pollution control systems in WtE units: An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vehlow, J.

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The paper describes in brief terms the development of gas cleaning in waste incineration. • The main technologies for pollutant removal are described including their basic mechanisms. • Their respective efficiencies and their application are discussed. • A cautious outlook regarding future developments is made. - Abstract: All WtE (waste-to-energy) plants, based on combustion or other thermal processes, need an efficient gas cleaning for compliance with legislative air emission standards. The development of gas cleaning technologies started along with environment protection regulations in the late 1960s. Modern APC (air pollution control) systems comprise multiple stages for the removal of fly ashes, inorganic and organic gases, heavy metals, and dioxins from the flue gas. The main technologies and devices used for abatement of the various pollutants are described and their basic principles, their peculiarities, and their application are discussed. Few systems for cleaning of synthesis gas from waste gasification plants are included. Examples of APC designs in full scale plants are shown and cautious prospects for the future development of APC systems are made.

  17. Method for improving the mechanical properties of uranium-1 to 3 wt % zirconium alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, R.C.

    1983-11-22

    A uranium-1 to 3 wt % zirconium alloy characterized by high strength, high ductility and stable microstructure is fabricated by an improved thermal mechanical process. A homogenous ingot of the alloy which has been reduced in thickness of at least 50% in the two-step forging operation, rolled into a plate with a 75% reduction and then heated in vacuum at a temperature of about 750 to 850/sup 0/C and then quenched in water, is subjected to further thermal-mechanical operation steps to increase the compressive yield strength approximately 30%, stabilize the microstructure, and decrease the variations in mechanical properties throughout the plate is provided. These thermal-mechanical steps are achieved by cold rolling the quenchd plate to reduce the thickness thereof about 8 to 12%, aging the cold rolled plate at a first temperature of about 325 to 375/sup 0/C for five to six hours and then aging the plate at a higher temperature ranging from 480 to 500/sup 0/C for five to six hours prior to cooling the billet to ambient conditions and sizing the billet or plate into articles provides the desired increase in mechanical properties and phase stability throughout the plate.

  18. Microstructural studies on cast Zr[sub 3]Al-3wt%Nb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, R.; Dey, G.K.; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Banerjee, S. . Metallurgy Div.)

    1994-05-01

    In the binary Zr-Al system, Zr[sub 3]Al is the intermetallic phase richest in zirconium. In view of its low absorption cross section for thermal neutrons and its good strength and corrosion resistance, Zr[sub 3]Al may have possible applications as a structural material in thermal reactors. This phase has the ordered cubic L1[sub 2] structure and forms through the peritectoid reaction: [beta]-Zr + Zr[sub 2]Al[minus] > Zr[sub 3]Al, the reaction temperature being 1,292 K. Structurally Zr[sub 3]Al is quite similar to the [alpha][sub 2] or the Ti[sub 3]Al phase (ordered hexagonal DO[sub 19] structure) in the Ti-Al system, the two structures differing only in the stacking sequence of the close packed atomic layers. But for its inherent brittleness, Ti[sub 3]Al is a promising structural material for aerospace applications. It has, however, been demonstrated that niobium additions can reduce the brittleness of this phase. Studies on the Ti[sub 3]Al-Nb system have also shown that niobium stabilizes the high temperature [beta] phase (bcc structure) which, on cooling, can decompose through various phase reactions, generating some interesting microstructures. Similar studies on the Zr[sub 3]Al-Nb system have not been reported yet. The present paper describes some microstructural observations made on a cast Zr[sub 3]Al-3wt%Nb alloy.

  19. Table 1. Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal, By Year and Primary Transport Mode" "Year","Average Transportation Cost of Coal (Dollars per Ton)","Average Delivered Cost...

  20. A Green's function quantum average atom model

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Starrett, Charles Edward

    2015-05-21

    A quantum average atom model is reformulated using Green's functions. This allows integrals along the real energy axis to be deformed into the complex plane. The advantage being that sharp features such as resonances and bound states are broadened by a Lorentzian with a half-width chosen for numerical convenience. An implementation of this method therefore avoids numerically challenging resonance tracking and the search for weakly bound states, without changing the physical content or results of the model. A straightforward implementation results in up to a factor of 5 speed-up relative to an optimized orbital based code.

  1. Microsoft Word - toc.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    o n t r o l l e d c o p y Perennial sorghum, Sorghum almum Noxious (on list) Prickly lettuce, Lactuca serriola Undesirable U n c o n t r o l l e d c o p y Prostrate knotweed, ...

  2. spread_comp_02 TOC

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Background. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 21 Steps 1. Identify all connections to SCADA networks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Disconnect unnecessary

  3. Microsoft Word - toc.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... to ground water or flow directions change following the removal of the permeable ... Example parameters that will be discussed include temporary climate changes (e.g., ...

  4. Microsoft Word - toc.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Maintenance Plan for the Monticello NPL Sites Rev. 0 Doc. No. S0038700 Rev. Date: June 25, 2007 Page I-3 U n c o n t r o l l e d c o p y Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance ...

  5. Microsoft Word - toc.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... Date: June 25, 2007 Creates, revises, and maintains the content of project documents ... Assigns a unique document number and formatsedits documents Creates PDF files and obtains ...

  6. Low level TOC measurement method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, Amy A.

    2001-01-01

    A method for the determination of total organic carbon in an aqueous sample by trapping the organic matter on a sorbent which is carbon free and analyzing the sorbent by combustion and determination of total CO.sub.2 by IR.

  7. Microsoft Word - toc.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Appendix E Repository and Pond 4 Groundwater Contingency Plan (February 1998) Note: Appendices to this plan are not included U n c o n t r o l l e d c o p y U n c o n t r o l l e...

  8. Microsoft Word - toc.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    H1.1 Scope * Establishes the requirements for transporting radioactive material on public ... and maintenance (LTS&M) scope is not likely; however, mixed waste may be encountered. ...

  9. Microsoft Word - toc.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    G Uranium Scanning Procedure U n c o n t r o l l e d c o p y U.S. Department of Energy ... S0038700 Rev. Date: June 25, 2007 Page G-3 Uranium Scanning Procedure for Property ...

  10. Microsoft Word - toc.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Cell (vegetated cover, settlement plates, erosion controlsdrains, sediment ponds) * Leachate Management System (pumping and monitoring equipment, telemetry system, solar ...

  11. Microsoft Word - toc.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... Scintillometers are calibrated, by contract service providers, every 12 months or after major repair. * Perform a battery check by selecting Check Mode. The battery voltage must be ...

  12. Microsoft Word - toc.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    C Site Specific Emergency Response and Hazard Survey Information U n c o n t r o l l e d c o p y U n c o n t r o l l e d c o p y U n c o n t r o l l e d c o p y U n c o n t r o l l...

  13. Microsoft Word - toc.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Office of Legacy Management DOE M1465 2007 - -L Work Performed Under DOE Contract No. for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management. DE-AC01-02GJ79491 Approved for ...

  14. Microsoft Word - toc.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    CO Site Safety Supervisor Joe Slade Contractor Monticello, UT LM Records Lead Cindy Smith Contractor Grand Junction, CO LM Records Coordinator Dianna Roberts Contractor Grand ...

  15. Microstructure, texture evolution and magnetic properties of strip-casting non-oriented 6.5 wt.% Si electrical steel doped with cerium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Hao-Ze Liu, Hai-Tao; Liu, Zhen-Yu Wang, Guo-Dong

    2015-05-15

    A 0.3 mm thick non-oriented 6.5 wt.% Si electrical steel sheet doped with cerium is produced by twin-roll strip casting, hot rolling, warm rolling and annealing. A detailed study of the cerium precipitates in the as-cast strip, microstructure and texture evolution at different processing stages is carried out by electron probe micro-analysis, optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron backscattered diffraction analysis. Grain interior distributing precipitates identified as Ce-oxides, Ce-oxysulfides and Ce-phosphides, and boundary distributing Ce-oxides and Ce-phosphides are observed in the as-cast strip. The initial as-cast strip is characterized by a much finer solidification microstructure and dominated by obvious < 001 >//ND texture through the strip thickness. After hot and warm rolling, inhomogeneous microstructure containing large amounts of in-grain shear bands is characterized by mixed < 110 >//RD and < 111 >//ND textures. The texture of the annealed sheet with a relatively large average grain size is far more optimized by the domination of the beneficial cube, rotated cube, (001)< 120 > to (001)< 130 > and Goss texture components, and the elimination of the detrimental γ-fiber texture, leading to a superior magnetic induction and improved iron loss. - Highlights: • An Fe–6.5 wt.% Si as-cast strip doped with cerium was produced. • A thin warm rolled sheet with limited edge cracks was obtained. • Microstructure and texture evolution at each stage were investigated. • Strong λ-fiber and Goss recrystallization textures were formed. • The magnetic properties of the annealed sheet were significantly improved.

  16. High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for...

  17. ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 60-min averaging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 60-min averaging interval Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 60-min averaging ...

  18. ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 10-min averaging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 10-min averaging interval Title: ARM: Temperature Profiles from Raman Lidar at 10-min averaging interval Temperature Profiles from Raman ...

  19. Annual average efficiency of a solar thermochemical reactor....

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Annual average efficiency of a solar thermochemical reactor. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Annual average efficiency of a solar thermochemical reactor. Abstract not ...

  20. ARM: AOS Wet Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages (Dataset) | Data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: ARM: AOS Wet Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages AOS Wet Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages Authors: Scott Smith ; Cynthia Salwen ; Janek Uin ; Gunnar Senum ; Stephen Springston ; ...

  1. ARM: AOS Dry Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages (Dataset) | Data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: ARM: AOS Dry Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages AOS Dry Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages Authors: Scott Smith ; Cynthia Salwen ; Janek Uin ; Gunnar Senum ; Stephen Springston ; ...

  2. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51%...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    9: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014 Fact 849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better ...

  3. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    0: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Excel file and ...

  4. Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    It is calculated as the product of the wheelbase and the average track width of the vehicle. The upcoming Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards have fuel economy targets ...

  5. Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    9: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years Fact 889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First ...

  6. Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    According to the latest National Household Travel Survey, the average trip length grew to over 10 miles in 2009, just slightly over the 9.9 mile average in 2001. Trips to work in 2009 increased to...

  7. Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    35: Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 fotw835web.xlsx (21.31 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact 915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, ...

  8. α-Phase transformation kinetics of U – 8 wt% Mo established by in situ neutron diffraction

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Garlea, Elena; Steiner, M. A.; Calhoun, C. A.; Klein, R. W.; An, K.; Agnew, S. R.

    2016-05-08

    The α-phase transformation kinetics of as-cast U - 8 wt% Mo below the eutectoid temperature have been established by in situ neutron diffraction. α-phase weight fraction data acquired through Rietveld refinement at five different isothermal hold temperatures can be modeled accurately utilizing a simple Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov impingement-based theory, and the results are validated by a corresponding evolution in the γ-phase lattice parameter during transformation that follows Vegard’s law. Neutron diffraction data is used to produce a detailed Time-Temperature-Transformation diagram that improves upon inconsistencies in the current literature, exhibiting a minimum transformation start time of 40 min at temperatures between 500 °Cmore » and 510 °C. Lastly, the transformation kinetics of U – 8 wt% Mo can vary significantly from as-cast conditions after extensive heat treatments, due to homogenization of the typical dendritic microstructure which possesses non-negligible solute segregation.« less

  9. Fabrication of U-10 wt.%Zr Metallic Fuel Rodlets for Irradiation Test in BOR-60 Fast Reactor

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Kim, Ki-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Oh, Seok-Jin; Lee, Jung-Won; Lee, Ho-Jin; Lee, Chan-Bock

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication technology for metallic fuel has been developed to produce the driver fuel in a PGSFR in Korea since 2007. In order to evaluate the irradiation integrity and validate the in-reactor of the starting metallic fuel with FMS cladding for the loading of the metallic fuel, U-10 wt.%Zr fuel rodlets were fabricated and evaluated for a verification of the starting driver fuel through an irradiation test in the BOR-60 fast reactor. The injection casting method was applied to U-10 wt.%Zr fuel slugs with a diameter of 5.5 mm. Consequently, fuel slugs per melting batch without casting defects were fabricated through the developmentmore » of advanced casting technology and evaluation tests. The optimal GTAW welding conditions were also established through a number of experiments. In addition, a qualification test was carried out to prove the weld quality of the end plug welding of the metallic fuel rodlets. The wire wrapping of metallic fuel rodlets was successfully accomplished for the irradiation test. Thus, PGSFR fuel rodlets have been soundly fabricated for the irradiation test in a BOR-60 fast reactor.« less

  10. Diffusional Interaction between U-10 wt.% Zr and Fe at 903K, 923K and 953K (630C, 650C, and 680C)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, K Y.; Huang, K.; Paz y Puente, A.; Lee, H. S.; Sencer, B. H.; Kennedy, J. R.

    2014-04-15

    U-Zr metallic fuels cladded in Fe-alloys are being considered for application in an advanced Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) that can recycle the U-Zr fuels and minimize the long-lived actinide waste. To understand the complex fuel-cladding chemical interaction between the U-Zr metallic fuel with Fe-alloys, a systematic multicomponent diffusion study was carried out using solid-to-solid diffusion couples. The U-10 wt.% Zr vs. pure Fe diffusion couples were assembled and annealed at temperatures, 903, 923 and 953K for 96 hours. Development of microstructure, phase constituents, and compositions developed during the thermal anneals were examined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. Complex microstructure consisting of several layers that include phases such as U6Fe, UFe2, ZrFe2, ?-U, ?-U, Zr-precipitates, ?, ? and ? were observed. Multi-phase layers were grouped based on phase constituents and microstructure, and the layer thicknesses were measured to calculate the growth constant and activation energy. The local average compositions through the interaction layer were systematically determined, and employed to construct semi-quantitative diffusion paths on isothermal U-Zr-Fe ternary phase diagrams at respective temperatures. The diffusion paths were examined to qualitatively estimate the diffusional behavior of individual components and their interactions. Furthermore, selected area diffraction analyses were carried out to determine, for the first time, the exact crystal structure and composition of ?, ? and ?-phases. The ?, ? and ?-phases were identified as Pnma(62) Fe(Zr,U), I4/mcm(140) Fe(Zr,U)2, and I4/mcm(140) U3(Zr,Fe), respectively.

  11. ARM: AOS Dry Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages (Dataset) | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dry Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages Title: ARM: AOS Dry Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages AOS Dry Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages Authors: Scott Smith ; Cynthia Salwen ; Janek Uin ; Gunnar Senum ; Stephen Springston ; Anne Jefferson Publication Date: 2013-12-11 OSTI Identifier: 1259233 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Dataset Data Type: Numeric Data Research Org: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Archive, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (US); Sponsoring

  12. ARM: AOS Wet Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages (Dataset) | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Wet Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages Title: ARM: AOS Wet Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages AOS Wet Nephelometer 1 Minute Averages Authors: Scott Smith ; Cynthia Salwen ; Janek Uin ; Gunnar Senum ; Stephen Springston ; Anne Jefferson Publication Date: 2013-12-11 OSTI Identifier: 1259232 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Dataset Data Type: Numeric Data Research Org: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Archive, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (US); Sponsoring

  13. Table 14a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Constant Dollars (constant dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour in "dollar year" specific to each AEO) AEO Year ...

  14. Table 14a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Constant Dollars" " (constant dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour in ""dollar year"" specific to each AEO)" ...

  15. Table 4. Average value of photovoltaic modules, 2005-2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Average value of photovoltaic modules, 2005-2015" "(dollars per peak watt)" ... Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic CellModule Shipments Report.' Note: ...

  16. Table 2. Value and average value of photovoltaic module shipments...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Value and average value of photovoltaic module shipments, 2015" "Module value, total ... Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic CellModule Shipments Report' Note: ...

  17. Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination Authors: Carroll, James 1 ; Monteith, Kristine 2 ; Seppi, Kevin 2 ; Martinez, Tony 2 + Show Author ...

  18. "2014 Average Monthly Bill- Residential"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Average Monthly Bill- Residential" "(Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A-D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U)" "State","Number of Customers","Average Monthly Consumption (kWh)","Average Price (cents/kWh)","Average Monthly Bill (Dollar and cents)" "New England",6243013,630.1915,17.822291,112.31456 "Connecticut",1459239,729.69421,19.748254,144.10186 "Maine",706952,549.37782,15.272983,83.90638

  19. High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications Authors: Rao T. ; Ben-Zvi I. ; Skarita, J. ; Wang, E. Publication Date: 2013-08-26 OSTI Identifier: ...

  20. "Table 2. Real Average Annual Coal Transportation Costs, By Primary...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Real Average Annual Coal Transportation Costs, By Primary Transport Mode and Supply Region" "(2013 dollars per ton)" "Coal Supply Region",2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "Railroad"...

  1. Fact #803: November 11, 2013 Average Number of Transmission Gears...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Average Number of Gears for New Light Vehicles, Model Years 1979-2012 Model Year Average Number of Gears 1979 3.3 1980 3.5 1981 3.5 1982 3.6 1983 3.7 1984 3.7 1985 3.8 1986 3.8 ...

  2. Extrusion-formed uranium-2.4 wt. % article with decreased linear thermal expansion and method for making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Robert C.; Jones, Jack M.; Kollie, Thomas G.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the fabrication of an article of uranium-2.4 wt. % niobium alloy in which the linear thermal expansion in the direction transverse to the extrusion direction is less than about 0.98% between 22.degree. C. and 600.degree. C. which corresponds to a value greater than the 1.04% provided by previous extrusion operations over the same temperature range. The article with the improved thermal expansion possesses a yield strength at 0.2% offset of at least 400 MPa, an ultimate tensile strength of 1050 MPa, a compressive yield strength of at least 0.2% offset of at least 675 MPa, and an elongation of at least 25% over 25.4 mm/sec. To provide this article with the improved thermal expansion, the uranium alloy billet is heated to 630.degree. C. and extruded in the alpha phase through a die with a reduction ratio of at least 8.4:1 at a ram speed no greater than 6.8 mm/sec. These critical extrusion parameters provide the article with the desired decrease in the linear thermal expansion while maintaining the selected mechanical properties without encountering crystal disruption in the article.

  3. Method of increasing the phase stability and the compressive yield strength of uranium-1 to 3 wt. % zirconium alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    A uranium-1 to 3 wt. % zirconium alloy characterized by high strength, high ductility and stable microstructure is fabricated by an improved thermal mechanical process. A homogenous ingot of the alloy which has been reduced in thickness of at least 50% in the two-step forging operation, rolled into a plate with a 75% reduction and then heated in vacuum at a temperature of about 750.degree. to 850.degree. C. and then quenched in water is subjected to further thermal-mechanical operation steps to increase the compressive yield strength approximately 30%, stabilize the microstructure, and decrease the variations in mechanical properties throughout the plate is provided. These thermal-mechanical steps are achieved by cold rolling the quenched plate to reduce the thickness thereof about 8 to 12%, aging the cold rolled plate at a first temperature of about 325.degree. to 375.degree. C. for five to six hours and then aging the plate at a higher temperature ranging from 480.degree. to 500.degree. C. for five to six hours prior to cooling the billet to ambient conditions and sizing the billet or plate into articles provides the desired increase in mechanical properties and phase stability throughout the plate.

  4. Thermomechanical process optimization of U-10wt% Mo Part 2: The effect of homogenization on the mechanical properties and microstructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshi, Vineet V.; Nyberg, Eric A.; Lavender, Curt A.; Paxton, Dean M.; Burkes, Douglas E.

    2015-07-09

    Low-enriched uranium alloyed with 10 wt% molybdenum (U-10Mo) is currently being investigated as an alternative fuel for the highly enriched uranium used in several of the United States high performance research reactors. Development of the methods to fabricate the U-10Mo fuel plates is currently underway and requires fundamental understanding of the mechanical properties at the expected processing temperatures. In the first part of this series, it was determined that the as-cast U-10Mo had a dendritic microstructure with chemical inhomogeneity and underwent eutectoid transformation during hot compression testing. In the present (second) part of the work, the as-cast samples were heat treated at several temperatures and times to homogenize the Mo content. Like the previous as-cast material, the homogenized materials were then tested under compression between 500 and 800C. The as-cast samples and those treated at 800C for 24 hours had grain sizes of 25-30 ?m, whereas those treated at 1000C for 16 hours had grain sizes around 250 ?m before testing. Upon compression testing, it was determined that the heat treatment had effects on the mechanical properties and the precipitation of the lamellar phase at sub-eutectoid temperatures.

  5. U.S. Refiner Sales to End Users (Average) Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Sales Type: Sales to End Users, Average Through Retail Outlets Sales for Resale, Average DTW Rack Bulk Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Formulation/ Grade Sales Type Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Conventional, Average 1.450 1.617 1.790 1.894 1.697 1.682 1994-2016 Conventional Regular 1.412 1.576 1.749 1.854 1.649 1.636 1994-2016 Conventional Midgrade 1.601 1.781 1.950 2.041

  6. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    1978-2014 - Dataset | Department of Energy 0: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 fotw#870_web.xlsx (17.92 KB) More Documents & Publications Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Milestone Report on Materials and Machining of Specimens for the ATR-2

  7. U.S. Natural Gas Average Consumption per Industrial Consumer...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Industrial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Average Consumption per Industrial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

  8. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Nominal Dollars (nominal dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 ...

  9. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Nominal Dollars" " (nominal dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,200...

  10. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    The final rule for the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards was published in ... The CAFE levels that must be met by the fleet of each manufacturer will be determined by ...

  11. Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by utility company? I'm seeing an inconsistency between the OpenEI website and EIA 861 data set. Home > Groups > Utility...

  12. Pennsylvania Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    67 15.82 17.83 18.62 18.32 NA 1989-2015 Commercial Average Price 10.73 11.25 12.09 11.21 11.10 NA...

  13. Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs...

    Energy Savers

    Costs Less Than 4 cents per kWh - Without New Dams Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs Less Than 4 cents per kWh - Without New Dams November 4, ...

  14. Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 fotw915web.xlsx (24.76 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact 888: August 31, 2015 Historical Gas Prices - Dataset Fact ...

  15. Averaged null energy condition violation in a conformally flat spacetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, Douglas; Olum, Ken D.

    2010-01-15

    We show that the averaged null energy condition can be violated by a conformally coupled scalar field in a conformally flat spacetime in 3+1 dimensions. The violation is dependent on the quantum state and can be made as large as desired. It does not arise from the presence of anomalies, although anomalous violations are also possible. Since all geodesics in conformally flat spacetimes are achronal, the achronal averaged null energy condition is likewise violated.

  16. Flavor Physics Data from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) was established at the May 2002 Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference in Philadelphia, and continues the LEP Heavy Flavor Steering Group's tradition of providing regular updates to the world averages of heavy flavor quantities. Data are provided by six subgroups that each focus on a different set of heavy flavor measurements: B lifetimes and oscillation parameters, Semi-leptonic B decays, Rare B decays, Unitarity triangle parameters, B decays to charm final states, and Charm Physics.

  17. Virginia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Market Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Residential Average Price 10.21 10.65 12.71 15.54 19.95 21.37 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 7.26 6.72 7.32 7.81 8.36 8.57 1989-2016

  18. Florida Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Markete Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Residential Average Price 17.20 17.98 20.69 22.59 24.18 23.96 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 10.48 10.27 10.18 10.40 10.46 10.49 1989-2016

  19. Georgia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Markete Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Residential Average Price 12.90 16.27 20.07 24.64 25.97 25.99 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 7.33 7.89 8.11 8.44 9.05 9.27 1989-2016

  20. Tensile and compressive creep behavior of extruded Mg–10Gd–3Y–0.5Zr (wt.%) alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H.; Wang, Q.D.; Boehlert, C.J.; Yin, D.D.; Yuan, J.

    2015-01-15

    The tensile and compressive creep behavior of an extruded Mg–10Gd–3Y–0.5Zr (wt.%) alloy was investigated at temperatures ranging from 200 °C to 300 °C and under stresses ranging from 30 MPa to 120 MPa. There existed an asymmetry in the tensile and compressive creep properties. The minimum creep rate of the alloy was slightly greater in tension than in compression. The measured values of the transient strain and initial creep rate in compression were greater than those in tension. The creep stress exponent was approximately 2.5 at low temperatures (T < 250 °C) and 3.4 at higher temperatures both in tension and in compression. The compression creep activation energy at low temperatures and high temperatures was 83.4 and 184.3 kJ/mol respectively, while one activation energy (184 kJ/mol) represented the tensile–creep behavior over the temperature range examined. Dislocation creep was suggested to be the main mechanism in tensile creep and in the high-temperature regime in compressive creep, while grain boundary sliding was suggested to dominate in the low-temperature regime in compressive creep. Precipitate free zones were observed near grain boundaries perpendicular to the loading direction in tension and parallel to the loading direction in compression. Electron backscattered diffraction analysis revealed that the texture changed slightly during creep. Non-basal slip was suggested to contribute to the deformation after basal slip was introduced. In the tensile–creep ruptured specimens, intergranular cracks were mainly observed at general high-angle boundaries. - Highlights: • Creep behavior of an extruded Mg–RE alloy was characterized by EBSD. • T5 aging treatment enhanced the tension–compression creep asymmetry. • The grains grew slightly during tensile creep, but not for compressive creep. • Precipitate free zones (PFZs) were observed at specific grain boundaries. • Intergranular fracture was dominant and cracks mainly originated at

  1. Full-length U-xPu-10Zr (x=0, 8, 19 wt%) Fast Reactor Fuel Test in FFTF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. L. Porter; H.C. Tsai

    2012-08-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor-1 (IFR-1) experiment performed in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was the only U-Pu-10Zr (Pu-0, 8 and 19 wt%) metallic fast reactor test with commercial-length (91.4 cm active fuel column length) conducted to date. With few remaining test reactors there is little opportunity for performing another test with a long active fuel column. The assembly was irradiated to the goal burnup of 10 at.%. The beginning of life (BOL) peak cladding temperature of the hottest pin was 608?C, cooling to 522?C at end of life (EOL). Selected fuel pins were examined non destructively using neutron radiography, precision axial gamma scanning, and both laser and spiral contact cladding profilometry. Destructive exams included plenum gas pressure, volume, and gas composition determinations on a number of pins followed by optical metallography, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and alpha and beta gamma autoradiography on a single U-19Pu-10Zr pin. The post-irradiation examinations (PIEs) showed very few differences compared to the short-pin (34.3 cm fuel column) testing performed on fuels of similar composition in Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II). The fuel column grew axially slightly less than observed in the short pins, but with the same pattern of decreasing growth with increasing Pu content. There was a difference in the fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI) in that the maximum cladding penetration by interdiffusion with fuel/fission products did not occur at the top of the fuel column where the cladding temperature is highest, as observed in EBR-II tests. Instead, the more exaggerated fission-rate profile of the FFTF pins resulted in a peak FCCI at ~0.7 X/L axial location along the fuel column. This resulted from a lower production of rare earth fission products higher in the fuel column as well as a much smaller delta-T between fuel center and cladding, and therefore less FCCI, despite the higher cladding temperature. This behavior could

  2. U.S. average gasoline price up slightly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    U.S. average gasoline price up slightly The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose slightly to $3.65 a gallon on Monday. That's up a tenth of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast region at 3.89 a gallon, down 4.4 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast States at 3.34 a gallon, down 2.6 cents. Jonathan Cogan for EIA,

  3. High average power scaleable thin-disk laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beach, Raymond J.; Honea, Eric C.; Bibeau, Camille; Payne, Stephen A.; Powell, Howard; Krupke, William F.; Sutton, Steven B.

    2002-01-01

    Using a thin disk laser gain element with an undoped cap layer enables the scaling of lasers to extremely high average output power values. Ordinarily, the power scaling of such thin disk lasers is limited by the deleterious effects of amplified spontaneous emission. By using an undoped cap layer diffusion bonded to the thin disk, the onset of amplified spontaneous emission does not occur as readily as if no cap layer is used, and much larger transverse thin disks can be effectively used as laser gain elements. This invention can be used as a high average power laser for material processing applications as well as for weapon and air defense applications.

  4. Residual Fuel Oil Prices, Average - Sales to End Users

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Product/Sales Type: Residual Fuel, Average - Sales to End Users Residual Fuel, Average - Sales for Resale Sulfur Less Than or Equal to 1% - Sales to End Users Sulfur Less Than or Equal to 1% - Sales for Resale Sulfur Greater Than 1% - Sales to End Users Sulfur Greater Than 1% - Sales for Resale Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product/Sales Type Area Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16

  5. Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination Authors: Carroll, James [1] ; Monteith, Kristine [2] ; Seppi, Kevin [2] ; Martinez, Tony [2] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory BYU Publication Date: 2011-07-28 OSTI Identifier: 1084524 Report Number(s): LA-UR-11-04419; LA-UR-11-4419 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396

  6. Speckle averaging system for laser raster-scan image projection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiszauer, D.H.; Hackel, L.A.

    1998-03-17

    The viewers` perception of laser speckle in a laser-scanned image projection system is modified or eliminated by the addition of an optical deflection system that effectively presents a new speckle realization at each point on the viewing screen to each viewer for every scan across the field. The speckle averaging is accomplished without introduction of spurious imaging artifacts. 5 figs.

  7. Speckle averaging system for laser raster-scan image projection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiszauer, Detlev H.; Hackel, Lloyd A.

    1998-03-17

    The viewers' perception of laser speckle in a laser-scanned image projection system is modified or eliminated by the addition of an optical deflection system that effectively presents a new speckle realization at each point on the viewing screen to each viewer for every scan across the field. The speckle averaging is accomplished without introduction of spurious imaging artifacts.

  8. Maryland Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    8.35 18.44 19.08 19.39 13.51 12.72 1989-2015 Commercial Average Price 11.74 10.98 11.61 11.11 9.98 9.56...

  9. Michigan Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2.50 13.65 13.52 13.21 8.93 7.84 1989-2015 Commercial Average Price 8.91 9.31 9.17 9.05 7.46 6.75...

  10. New York Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    6.28 17.10 17.33 17.53 14.26 12.27 1989-2015 Commercial Average Price 6.84 6.08 5.75 5.99 6.27 6.3...

  11. Parity-violating anomalies and the stationarity of stochastic averages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reuter, M.

    1988-01-15

    Within the framework of stochastic quantization the parity-violating anomalies in odd space-time dimensions are derived from the asymptotic stationarity of the stochastic average of a certain fermion bilinear. Contrary to earlier attempts, this method yields the correct anomalies for both massive and massless fermions.

  12. Maryland Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Local Distribution Companies 12.20 2006-2010 Marketers 13.51 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 81.7 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 9.87 10.29 10.00 10.06 ...

  13. New Jersey Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Local Distribution Companies 12.77 2006-2010 Marketers 14.87 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 96.6 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 10.11 9.51 8.50 9.55 ...

  14. Michigan Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Commercial Average Price 8.95 9.14 8.35 7.82 8.28 7.49 1967-2015 Local Distribution Companies 10.00 2006-2010 Marketers 7.61 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies ...

  15. Virginia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Local Distribution Companies 12.64 2006-2010 Marketers 13.64 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 90.9 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 9.55 9.69 8.77 8.83 9.17 ...

  16. Pennsylvania Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Local Distribution Companies 12.82 2006-2010 Marketers 13.78 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 91.2 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 10.47 10.42 10.24 10.11 ...

  17. Modeling an Application's Theoretical Minimum and Average Transactional Response Times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paiz, Mary Rose

    2015-04-01

    The theoretical minimum transactional response time of an application serves as a ba- sis for the expected response time. The lower threshold for the minimum response time represents the minimum amount of time that the application should take to complete a transaction. Knowing the lower threshold is beneficial in detecting anomalies that are re- sults of unsuccessful transactions. On the converse, when an application's response time falls above an upper threshold, there is likely an anomaly in the application that is causing unusual performance issues in the transaction. This report explains how the non-stationary Generalized Extreme Value distribution is used to estimate the lower threshold of an ap- plication's daily minimum transactional response time. It also explains how the seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average time series model is used to estimate the upper threshold for an application's average transactional response time.

  18. Florida Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Markete 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History Residential Average Price 17.89 18.16 18.34 18.46 19.02 19.55 1967-2015 Local Distribution Companies 17.85 2006-2010 Marketers 19.44 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 97.9 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 10.60 11.14 10.41 10.87 11.42 10.92 1967-2015 Local Distribution Companies 11.59 2006-2010 Marketers 9.94 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 40.2

  19. Georgia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Markete 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History Residential Average Price 15.17 15.72 16.23 14.60 14.45 14.62 1967-2015 Local Distribution Companies 12.18 11.98 12.47 11.86 12.38 12.14 2006-2015 Marketers 15.67 16.38 16.82 15.04 14.79 15.00 2006-2015 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 14.3 15.1 13.5 13.9 14.0 13.5 2006-2015 Commercial Average Price 10.95 10.51 9.75 9.38 9.86 8.58 1967-2015 Local Distribution Companies 10.72 10.42

  20. Table A44. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity and Steam

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity and Steam" " by Type of Supplier, Census Region, Census Division, and" " Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1994" " (Estimates in Dollars per Physical Units)" ," Electricity",," Steam" ," (kWh)",," (million Btu)" ,,,,,"RSE" ,"Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Row" "Economic

  1. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.

    2014-10-23

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  2. Average dynamics of a finite set of coupled phase oscillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dima, Germn C. Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2014-06-15

    We study the solutions of a dynamical system describing the average activity of an infinitely large set of driven coupled excitable units. We compared their topological organization with that reconstructed from the numerical integration of finite sets. In this way, we present a strategy to establish the pertinence of approximating the dynamics of finite sets of coupled nonlinear units by the dynamics of its infinitely large surrogate.

  3. TOC_Fully_Executed_Mod_330.pdf

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

  4. Microsoft Word - TOC&Units.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... 1-15 Figure 1-7 2004 Wind Rose, 33-Foot (10-Meter) Height...... 1-17 Figure 1-8 2004 Wind Rose, 197-Foot (60-Meter) ...

  5. Volume 3 - Front Matter and TOC

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... nuclear power reactors), irradiation in fast reactors, immobilization with HLW, downblending ... The sodium-cooled BN-800 reactor could be operable in 2014, though a host of technical ...

  6. Microsoft Word - TOC - ALL.doc

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... National Nuclear Security Administration U.S. Department ... 3-12 3.2.8 Savannah River Site......3-88 3.8.1.3 Pantex Plant ......

  7. Microsoft Word - TOC - ALL.doc

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... Test SHPO State Historic Preservation Office SJVUAPCD San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District SMR standardized mortality rate SNF Spent nuclear fuel SNL Sandia ...

  8. corp-toc | netl.doe.gov

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Institutional Fact Sheets NETL Flyer Strategic Center for Coal Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil (SCNGO) Office of Energy Project Management Office of Research and...

  9. Volume 1 Front Matter and TOC

    Energy Savers

    Video: FEMP eTraining New Certificate Series Video: FEMP eTraining New Certificate Series Video describes the FEMP Certificate Series and lists the benefits of taking courses available from the various series topic areas Department of Energy

    Federal Energy Management Program eTraining Core Courses Video: Federal Energy Management Program eTraining Core Courses Video summarizes the Federal Energy Management Program's eTraining core courses available anytime online on the Whole Building

  10. Predictive RANS simulations via Bayesian Model-Scenario Averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edeling, W.N.; Cinnella, P.; Dwight, R.P.

    2014-10-15

    The turbulence closure model is the dominant source of error in most Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes simulations, yet no reliable estimators for this error component currently exist. Here we develop a stochastic, a posteriori error estimate, calibrated to specific classes of flow. It is based on variability in model closure coefficients across multiple flow scenarios, for multiple closure models. The variability is estimated using Bayesian calibration against experimental data for each scenario, and Bayesian Model-Scenario Averaging (BMSA) is used to collate the resulting posteriors, to obtain a stochastic estimate of a Quantity of Interest (QoI) in an unmeasured (prediction) scenario. The scenario probabilities in BMSA are chosen using a sensor which automatically weights those scenarios in the calibration set which are similar to the prediction scenario. The methodology is applied to the class of turbulent boundary-layers subject to various pressure gradients. For all considered prediction scenarios the standard-deviation of the stochastic estimate is consistent with the measurement ground truth. Furthermore, the mean of the estimate is more consistently accurate than the individual model predictions.

  11. Table 19. Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    9. Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports (dollars per short ton) Year to Date Continent and Country of Origin April - June 2016 January - March 2016 April - June 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change North America Total 73.59 71.92 122.71 72.76 117.29 -38.0 Canada 73.61 71.93 122.71 72.77 117.29 -38.0 Mexico 59.08 66.79 - 65.02 113.43 -42.7 South America Total 66.00 64.73 66.89 65.33 68.96 -5.3 Colombia 66.00 64.73 66.89 65.34 68.81 -5.0 Peru - 63.31 92.99 63.31 86.24 -26.6 Venezuela - - - - 81.04 - Europe

  12. Table 22. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports (dollars per short ton) Year to Date Continent and Country of Origin April - June 2016 January - March 2016 April - June 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change North America Total 113.00 181.85 192.95 122.44 203.02 -39.7 Canada 113.00 181.85 192.95 122.44 203.02 -39.7 South America Total 145.65 - 274.73 145.65 274.73 -47.0 Colombia 145.65 - 274.73 145.65 274.73 -47.0 Europe Total 120.27 270.94 302.86 124.21 303.90 -59.1 Czech Republic - - 288.36 - 288.36 - France - -

  13. Table 8. Average Price of U.S. Coal Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    8. Average Price of U.S. Coal Exports (dollars per short ton) Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination April - June 2016 January - March 2016 April - June 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change North America Total 60.73 62.62 83.85 61.50 81.02 -24.1 Canada* 68.54 87.37 89.92 74.83 87.20 -14.2 Dominican Republic 307.64 213.68 78.67 253.55 90.47 180.3 Guatemala 373.12 - 103.41 373.12 105.77 252.8 Honduras 45.60 78.02 45.36 61.79 49.82 24.0 Jamaica 139.81 38.10 90.72 38.29 68.54 -44.1 Mexico 48.44

  14. U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    450 1.617 1.790 1.894 1.697 1.682 1994-2016 Through Retail Outlets 1.451 1.617 1.791 1.895 1.696 1.682 1994-2016 Sales for Resale, Average 1.276 1.416 1.573 1.597 1.452 1.487 1994-2016 DTW 1.369 1.498 1.641 1.696 1.643 1.563 1994-2016 Rack 1.283 1.421 1.583 1.602 1.451 1.495 1994-2016 Bulk 1.194 1.339 1.451 1.522 1.410 1.393

  15. U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    736 1.921 2.011 2.078 1.998 1.885 1994-2016 Through Retail Outlets 1.737 1.921 2.012 2.079 1.999 1.885 1994-2016 Sales for Resale, Average 1.463 1.601 1.694 1.740 1.574 1.553 1994-2016 DTW 1.783 1.895 1.917 1.983 1.884 1.732 1994-2016 Rack 1.388 1.533 1.645 1.690 1.504 1.513 1994-2016 Bulk 1.377 1.514 1.602 1.619 1.524 1.479

  16. Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-06-01

    Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)

  17. Gauge and averaging in gravitational self-force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gralla, Samuel E.

    2011-10-15

    A difficulty with previous treatments of the gravitational self-force is that an explicit formula for the force is available only in a particular gauge (Lorenz gauge), where the force in other gauges must be found through a transformation law once the Lorenz-gauge force is known. For a class of gauges satisfying a 'parity condition' ensuring that the Hamiltonian center of mass of the particle is well-defined, I show that the gravitational self-force is always given by the angle average of the bare gravitational force. To derive this result I replace the computational strategy of previous work with a new approach, wherein the form of the force is first fixed up to a gauge-invariant piece by simple manipulations, and then that piece is determined by working in a gauge designed specifically to simplify the computation. This offers significant computational savings over the Lorenz gauge, since the Hadamard expansion is avoided entirely and the metric perturbation takes a very simple form. I also show that the rest mass of the particle does not evolve due to first-order self-force effects. Finally, I consider the 'mode sum regularization' scheme for computing the self-force in black hole background spacetimes, and use the angle-average form of the force to show that the same mode-by-mode subtraction may be performed in all parity-regular gauges. It appears plausible that suitably modified versions of the Regge-Wheeler and radiation gauges (convenient to Schwarzschild and Kerr, respectively) are in this class.

  18. High average power magnetic modulator for copper lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, E.G.; Ball, D.G.; Birx, D.L.; Branum, J.D.; Peluso, S.E.; Langford, M.D.; Speer, R.D.; Sullivan, J.R.; Woods, P.G.

    1991-06-14

    Magnetic compression circuits show the promise of long life for operation at high average powers and high repetition rates. When the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory needed new modulators to drive their higher power copper lasers in the Laser Demonstration Facility (LDF), existing technology using thyratron switched capacitor inversion circuits did not meet the goal for long lifetimes at the required power levels. We have demonstrated that magnetic compression circuits can achieve this goal. Improving thyratron lifetime is achieved by increasing the thyratron conduction time, thereby reducing the effect of cathode depletion. This paper describes a three stage magnetic modulator designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper laser at a 4. 5 kHz repetition rate. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power and has exhibited MTBF of {approx}1000 hours when using thyratrons and even longer MTBFs with a series of stack of SCRs for the main switch. Within this paper, the electrical and mechanical designs for the magnetic compression circuits are discussed as are the important performance parameters of lifetime and jitter. Ancillary circuits such as the charge circuit and reset circuit are shown. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Ensemble bayesian model averaging using markov chain Monte Carlo sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrugt, Jasper A; Diks, Cees G H; Clark, Martyn P

    2008-01-01

    Bayesian model averaging (BMA) has recently been proposed as a statistical method to calibrate forecast ensembles from numerical weather models. Successful implementation of BMA however, requires accurate estimates of the weights and variances of the individual competing models in the ensemble. In their seminal paper (Raftery etal. Mon Weather Rev 133: 1155-1174, 2(05)) has recommended the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm for BMA model training, even though global convergence of this algorithm cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, we compare the performance of the EM algorithm and the recently developed Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for estimating the BMA weights and variances. Simulation experiments using 48-hour ensemble data of surface temperature and multi-model stream-flow forecasts show that both methods produce similar results, and that their performance is unaffected by the length of the training data set. However, MCMC simulation with DREAM is capable of efficiently handling a wide variety of BMA predictive distributions, and provides useful information about the uncertainty associated with the estimated BMA weights and variances.

  20. Long-term average performance benefits of parabolic trough improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, R.; Gaul, H.W.; Kearney, D.; Rabl, A.

    1980-03-01

    Improved parabolic trough concentrating collectors will result from better design, improved fabrication techniques, and the development and utilization of improved materials. The difficulty of achieving these improvements varies as does their potential for increasing parabolic trough performance. The purpose of this analysis is to quantify the relative merit of various technology advancements in improving the long-term average performance of parabolic trough concentrating collectors. The performance benefits of improvements are determined as a function of operating temperature for north-south, east-west, and polar mounted parabolic troughs. The results are presented graphically to allow a quick determination of the performance merits of particular improvements. Substantial annual energy gains are shown to be attainable. Of the improvements evaluated, the development of stable back-silvered glass reflective surfaces offers the largest performance gain for operating temperatures below 150/sup 0/C. Above 150/sup 0/C, the development of trough receivers that can maintain a vacuum is the most significant potential improvement. The reduction of concentrator slope errors also has a substantial performance benefit at high operating temperatures.

  1. Thermodynamic effects of calcium and iron oxides on crystal phase formation in synthetic gasifier slags containing from 0 to 27wt.% V2O3

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Nakano, Jinichiro; Duchesne, Marc; Bennett, James; Kwong, Kyei -Sing; Nakano, Anna; Hughes, Robin

    2014-11-15

    Thermodynamic phase equilibria in synthetic slags (Al2O3–CaO–FeO–SiO2–V2O3) were investigated with 0–27 wt.% vanadium oxide corresponding to industrial coal–petroleum coke (petcoke) feedstock blends in a simulated gasifier environment. Samples encompassing coal–petcoke mixed slag compositions were equilibrated at 1500 °C in a 64 vol.% CO/36 vol.% CO2 atmosphere (Po2 ≈ 10–8 atm at 1500 °C) for 72 h, followed by rapid water quench, then analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, X-ray diffractometry, and scanning electron microscopy with wavelength dispersive spectroscopy. With increasing CaO content, FeO content, or both; the slag homogeneity region expanded and a composition range exhibiting crystals wasmore » reduced. The mullite (Al6Si2O13) crystalline phase was not present in the slags above 9 wt.% FeO while the karelianite (V2O3) crystalline phase was always present in compositions studied if a sufficient amount of vanadium existed in the slag. Furthermore, based on the present experimental equilibrium evaluation, a set of isothermal phase diagrams showing effects of CaO and FeO on thermodynamic phase stabilities in the vanadium-bearing slags is proposed. Some uses of the diagrams for potential industrial practice are discussed.« less

  2. Process for producing enriched uranium having a .sup.235 U content of at least 4 wt. % via combination of a gaseous diffusion process and an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to eliminate uranium hexafluoride tails storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horton, James A.; Hayden, Jr., Howard W.

    1995-01-01

    An uranium enrichment process capable of producing an enriched uranium, having a .sup.235 U content greater than about 4 wt. %, is disclosed which will consume less energy and produce metallic uranium tails having a lower .sup.235 U content than the tails normally produced in a gaseous diffusion separation process and, therefore, eliminate UF.sub.6 tails storage and sharply reduce fluorine use. The uranium enrichment process comprises feeding metallic uranium into an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to produce an enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture having a .sup.235 U content of at least about 2 wt. % and a metallic uranium residue containing from about 0.1 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. % .sup.235 U; fluorinating this enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture to form UF.sub.6 ; processing the resultant isotopic mixture of UF.sub.6 in a gaseous diffusion process to produce a final enriched uranium product having a .sup.235 U content of at least 4 wt. %, and up to 93.5 wt. % or higher, of the total uranium content of the product, and a low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 having a .sup.235 U content of about 0.71 wt. % of the total uranium content of the low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 ; and converting this low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 to metallic uranium for recycle to the atomic vapor laser isotope separation process.

  3. Process for producing enriched uranium having a {sup 235}U content of at least 4 wt. % via combination of a gaseous diffusion process and an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to eliminate uranium hexafluoride tails storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horton, J.A.; Hayden, H.W. Jr.

    1995-05-30

    An uranium enrichment process capable of producing an enriched uranium, having a {sup 235}U content greater than about 4 wt. %, is disclosed which will consume less energy and produce metallic uranium tails having a lower {sup 235}U content than the tails normally produced in a gaseous diffusion separation process and, therefore, eliminate UF{sub 6} tails storage and sharply reduce fluorine use. The uranium enrichment process comprises feeding metallic uranium into an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to produce an enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture having a {sup 235} U content of at least about 2 wt. % and a metallic uranium residue containing from about 0.1 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. % {sup 235} U; fluorinating this enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture to form UF{sub 6}; processing the resultant isotopic mixture of UF{sub 6} in a gaseous diffusion process to produce a final enriched uranium product having a {sup 235}U content of at least 4 wt. %, and up to 93.5 wt. % or higher, of the total uranium content of the product, and a low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6} having a {sup 235}U content of about 0.71 wt. % of the total uranium content of the low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6}; and converting this low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6} to metallic uranium for recycle to the atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. 4 figs.

  4. Results of U-xMo (x=7, 10, 12 wt.%) Alloy versus Al-6061 Cladding Diffusion Couple Experiments Performed at 500, 550 and 600 Degrees C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emmanuel Perez; Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Yongho Sohn

    2013-04-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program has been developing low enrichment fuel systems encased in Al 6061 for use in research and test reactors. U–Mo alloys in contact with Al and Al alloys can undergo diffusional interactions that can result in the development of interdiffusion zones with complex fine-grained microstructures composed of multiple phases. A monolithic fuel currently being developed by the RERTR program has local regions where the U–Mo fuel plate is in contact with the Al 6061 cladding and, as a result, the program finds information about interdiffusion zone development at high temperatures of interest. In this study, the microstructural development of diffusion couples consisting of U-7wt.%Mo, U-10wt.%Mo, and U-12wt.%Mo vs. Al 6061 (or 6061 aluminum) cladding, annealed at 500, 550, 600 degrees C for 1, 5, 20, 24, or 132 hours, was analyzed by backscatter electron microscopy and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy on a scanning electron microscope. Concentration profiles were determined by standardized wavelength dispersive spectroscopy and standardless x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results of this work shows that the presence of surface layers at the U–Mo/Al 6061 interface can dramatically impact the overall interdiffusion behavior in terms of rate of interaction and uniformity of the developed interdiffusion zones. It further reveals that relatively uniform interaction layers with higher Si concentrations can develop in U–Mo/Al 6061 couples annealed at shorter times and that longer times at temperature result in the development of more non-uniform interaction layers with more areas that are enriched in Al. At longer annealing times and relatively high temperatures, U–Mo/Al 6061 couples can exhibit more interaction compared to U–Mo/pure Al couples. The minor alloying constituents in Al 6061 cladding can result in the development of many complex phases in the interaction layer of U

  5. Fact #744: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price Grows Faster

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    than Average Used Light Vehicle Price | Department of Energy 4: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price Grows Faster than Average Used Light Vehicle Price Fact #744: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price Grows Faster than Average Used Light Vehicle Price In 2011 the average used light vehicle price was 36% higher than in 1990, while the average new light vehicle price was 67% higher than it was in 1990. The average price of a used vehicle had been between $6,000 and

  6. Fact #614: March 15, 2010 Average Age of Household Vehicles | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy 4: March 15, 2010 Average Age of Household Vehicles Fact #614: March 15, 2010 Average Age of Household Vehicles The average age of household vehicles has increased from 6.6 years in 1977 to 9.2 years in 2009. Pickup trucks have the oldest average age in every year listed. Sport utility vehicles (SUVs), first reported in the 1995 survey, have the youngest average age. Average Vehicle Age by Vehicle Type Graph showing the average vehicle age by type (car, van, pickup, SUV, all household

  7. Fact #671: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    1: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds Fact #671: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds The Federal Highway Administration studies traffic volume and flow on major truck routes by tracking more than 500,000 trucks. The average speed of trucks on selected interstate highways is between 50 and 60 miles per hour (mph). The average operating speed of trucks is typically below 55 mph in major urban areas, border crossings, and in mountainous terrain. The difference in average speed between peak traffic

  8. Effect of reinforcing particle type on morphology and age-hardening behavior of Al–4.5 wt.% Cu based nanocomposites synthesized through mechanical milling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mostaed, A.; Saghafian, H.; Mostaed, E.; Shokuhfar, A.; Rezaie, H.R.

    2013-02-15

    The effects of reinforcing particle type (SiC and TiC) on morphology and precipitation hardening behavior of Al–4.5%Cu based nanocomposites synthesized via mechanical milling were investigated in the current work. In order to study the microstructure and morphology of mechanically milled powder, X-ray diffraction technique, scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy were utilized. Results revealed that at the early stages of mechanical milling, when reinforcing particles are polycrystal, the alloying process is enhanced more in the case of using the TiC particles as reinforcement. But, at the final stages of mechanical milling, when reinforcing particles are single crystal, the alloying process is enhanced more in the case of using the SiC ones. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated that Al–4.5 wt.%Cu based nanocomposite powders were synthesized and confirmed that the mutual diffusion of aluminum and copper occurs through the interfacial plane of (200). The hardness results showed that not only does introducing 4 vol.% of reinforcing particles (SiC or TiC) considerably decrease the porosity of the bulk composite samples, but also it approximately doubles the hardness of Al–4.5 wt.%Cu alloy (53.4 HB). Finally, apart from TEM and scanning electron microscopy observation which are localized, a decline in hardness in the TiC and SiC contained samples, respectively, after 1.5 and 2 h aging time at 473 K proves the fact that the size of SiC particles is smaller than the size of the TiC ones. - Highlights: ► HRTEM results show mutual diffusion of Al and Cu occurs through the (200) planes. ► TiC particles enhance alloying process more than the SiC ones at the early stages of MM. ► SiC particles enhance alloying process more than the TiC ones at the final stages of MM.

  9. Extrusion-formed uranium-2. 4 wt % article with decreased linear thermal expansion and method for making the same. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, R.C.; Jones, J.M.; Kollie, T.G.

    1982-05-24

    The present invention is directed to the fabrication of an article of uranium-2.4 wt % niobium alloy in which the linear thermal expansion in the direction transverse to the extrusion direction is less than about 0.98% between 22 and 600/sup 0/C which corresponds to a value greater than the 1.04% provided by previous extrusion operations over the same temperature range. The article with the improved thermal expansion possesses a yield strength at 0.2% offset of at least 400 MPa, an ultimate tensile strength of 1050 MPa, a compressive yield strength of at least 0.2% offset of at least 675 MPa, and an elongation of at least 25% over 25.4 mm/s. To provide this article with the improved thermal expansion, the uranium alloy billet is heated to 630/sup 0/C and extruded in the alpha phase through a die with a reduction ratio of at least 8.4:1 at a ram speed no greater than 6.8 mm/s. These critical extrusion parameters provide the article with a desired decrease in the linear thermal expansion while maintaining the selected mechanical properties without encountering crystal disruption in the article.

  10. Microstructure and properties of rapidly solidified beryllium-transition metal alloys. [With small amounts of Ti, Zr and Y (1-3 wt %)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobson, L.A.; Richardson, S.

    1988-01-01

    Alloys of beryllium with small amounts of Ti, Zr and Y (1-3 wt %) were rapidly solidified using an arc hammer splat technique. Each of these elements forms a dilute eutectic with beryllium, and has very low solid solubility in the alpha phase. In the case of Ti, the Be-rich compound is TiBe/sub 12/, and for Zr and Y, the compound is MBe. The objective of the work was to achieve a fine, uniform dispersion of particles of the intermetallic compound. Since these compounds have very high melting points, it was expected that rapidly solidified microstructures would be relatively stable at elevated temperatures. This microstructural stability should result in improved high temperature properties for the alloys. Microstructures have been characterized using optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Microhardness measurements have been made in order to determine the effects of rapid solidification and to evaluate the effects of high temperature exposure on microstructural stability and property retention. The results will be presented in light of the potential of these alloys for intermediate temperature application. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Fact #638: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car Declines in Relation to Family Earnings Fact 638: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car Declines in Relation to Family ...

  12. Fact #715: February 20, 2012 The Average Age of Light Vehicles Continues to Rise

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The average age for cars and light trucks continues to rise as consumers hold onto their vehicles longer. Between 1995 and 2011, the average age for cars increased by 32% from 8.4 years to 11.1...

  13. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4 Average Square Footage of Single-Family Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Single-Family",78.6,2422,2002,1522,880,727,553 "Census

  14. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    5 Average Square Footage of Multi-Family Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Multi-Family",28.1,930,807,535,453,393,261 "Census Region"

  15. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    6 Average Square Footage of Mobile Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Mobile Homes",6.9,1087,985,746,413,375,283 "Census Region"

  16. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    9 Average Square Footage of U.S. Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total",113.6,1971,1644,1230,766,639,478 "Census Region"

  17. Growth kinetics and microstructural evolution during hot isostatic pressing of U-10 wt.% Mo monolithic fuel plate in AA6061 cladding with Zr diffusion barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. Park; J. Yoo; K. Huang; D. D. Keiser, Jr.; J. F. Jue; B. Rabin; G. Moore; Y. H. Sohn

    2014-04-01

    Phase constituents and microstructure changes in RERTR fuel plate assemblies as functions of temperature and duration of hot-isostatic pressing (HIP) during fabrication were examined. The HIP process was carried out as functions of temperature (520, 540, 560 and 580 °C for 90 min) and time (45–345 min at 560 °C) to bond 6061 Al-alloy to the Zr diffusion barrier that had been co-rolled with U-10 wt.% Mo (U10Mo) fuel monolith prior to the HIP process. Scanning and transmission electron microscopies were employed to examine the phase constituents, microstructure and layer thickness of interaction products from interdiffusion. At the interface between the U10Mo and Zr, following the co-rolling, the UZr2 phase was observed to develop adjacent to Zr, and the a-U phase was found between the UZr2 and U10Mo, while the Mo2Zr was found as precipitates mostly within the a-U phase. The phase constituents and thickness of the interaction layer at the U10Mo-Zr interface remained unchanged regardless of HIP processing variation. Observable growth due to HIP was only observed for the (Al,Si)3Zr phase found at the Zr/AA6061 interface, however, with a large activation energy of 457 ± 28 kJ/mole. Thus, HIP can be carried to improve the adhesion quality of fuel plate without concern for the excessive growth of the interaction layer, particularly at the U10Mo-Zr interface with the a-U, Mo2Zr, and UZr2 phases.

  18. Fact #910: February 1, 2016 Study Shows Average Cost of Electric Vehicle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Charger Installations - Dataset | Department of Energy 0: February 1, 2016 Study Shows Average Cost of Electric Vehicle Charger Installations - Dataset Fact #910: February 1, 2016 Study Shows Average Cost of Electric Vehicle Charger Installations - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Study Shows Average Cost of Electric Vehicle Charger Installations fotw#910_web.xlsx (16.26 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact #909: January 25, 2016 Workplace Charging Accounts for About a Third of All

  19. ARM: 1290-MHz Beam-Steered Radar Wind Profiler: Wind and Moment Averages

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Dataset) | Data Explorer Wind and Moment Averages Title: ARM: 1290-MHz Beam-Steered Radar Wind Profiler: Wind and Moment Averages 1290-MHz Beam-Steered Radar Wind Profiler: Wind and Moment Averages Authors: Timothy Martin ; Paytsar Muradyan ; Richard Coulter Publication Date: 2012-12-06 OSTI Identifier: 1095573 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Dataset Data Type: Numeric Data Research Org: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Archive, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  20. Lithium ionic mobility study in xLi{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-yLiI (x = 95-70, y = 5-30 wt.%) solid electrolyte by impedance spectroscopy technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omar, Mohd Khari; Ahmad, Azizah Hanom

    2015-08-28

    A detailed systematic study on the effects of different amount (wt.%) of LiI addition on the electrical conductivity and dielectric behavior of the xLi{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-xLiI (x = 95-70, y = 5-30 wt.%) electrolyte system was carried out. The samples with different compositions were prepared and ground by mechanical milling method. The electrical and dielectric properties of the samples over a range of frequency (50Hz – 1MHz) were investigated by deploying electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique in a series of temperature set (298–373K). Normally, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} itself shows a very low electrical conductivity (10{sup −5} Scm{sup −1}). However, the electrical conductivity of the system was found to be increased (10{sup −3} Scm{sup −1}) as the lithium salt (LiI) were introduced to the system. The dielectric analysis displayed that the activation energy was inversely proportional to the increment of LiI (wt.%). As the electrical conductivity reached their maximum value (4.63 × 10{sup −3} Scm{sup −1}) at the 20 wt.% of LiI, the activation energy was dropped to the minimum (0.1 eV). The electrical conductivity increases with the temperature (298 – 373K) indicate that the system obeys Arrhenius law.

  1. Gasoline price to average below $2 in 2016 for first time in 12 years

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Gasoline price to average below $2 in 2016 for first time in 12 years The annual average price for U.S. regular-grade gasoline is expected to fall below $2 per gallon this year for the first time since 2004. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said drivers will pay on average $1.98 per gallon to fill up at the pump with regular-grade gasoline. EIA expects the monthly average price of gasoline to reach a seven-year low of $1.82 per gallon in February, before

  2. Table 7.3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, ...

  3. Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    the First Time in Six Years | Department of Energy 9: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week In July of 2015, the nationwide average price of diesel was lower than the average price of a regular gallon of gasoline for the first time since June 2009. Both gasoline and diesel prices fluctuate throughout the

  4. Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    1929-2015 - Dataset | Department of Energy 5: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 - Dataset Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 fotw#915_web.xlsx (24.76 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 - Dataset Fact #888: August 31, 2015 Historical Gas

  5. Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    - Dataset | Department of Energy 5: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 - Dataset Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 - Dataset Excel file with dataset for Fact #835: Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 fotw#835_web.xlsx (21.31 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 - Dataset Fact #888: August 31, 2015 Historical Gas Prices - Dataset

  6. Plan averaging for multicriteria navigation of sliding window IMRT and VMAT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craft, David Papp, Dávid; Unkelbach, Jan

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To describe a method for combining sliding window plans [intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)] for use in treatment plan averaging, which is needed for Pareto surface navigation based multicriteria treatment planning. Methods: The authors show that by taking an appropriately defined average of leaf trajectories of sliding window plans, the authors obtain a sliding window plan whose fluence map is the exact average of the fluence maps corresponding to the initial plans. In the case of static-beam IMRT, this also implies that the dose distribution of the averaged plan is the exact dosimetric average of the initial plans. In VMAT delivery, the dose distribution of the averaged plan is a close approximation of the dosimetric average of the initial plans. Results: The authors demonstrate the method on three Pareto optimal VMAT plans created for a demanding paraspinal case, where the tumor surrounds the spinal cord. The results show that the leaf averaged plans yield dose distributions that approximate the dosimetric averages of the precomputed Pareto optimal plans well. Conclusions: The proposed method enables the navigation of deliverable Pareto optimal plans directly, i.e., interactive multicriteria exploration of deliverable sliding window IMRT and VMAT plans, eliminating the need for a sequencing step after navigation and hence the dose degradation that is caused by such a sequencing step.

  7. A comparison of spatial averaging and Cadzow's method for array wavenumber estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, D.B.; Clark, G.A.

    1989-10-31

    We are concerned with resolving superimposed, correlated seismic waves with small-aperture arrays. The limited time-bandwidth product of transient seismic signals complicates the task. We examine the use of MUSIC and Cadzow's ML estimator with and without subarray averaging for resolution potential. A case study with real data favors the MUSIC algorithm and a multiple event covariance averaging scheme.

  8. Average U.S. household to spend $710 less on gasoline during 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    drivers to see big savings at the gasoline pump this summer U.S. consumers are expected to pay the lowest average price for gasoline in six years during this summer's driving season, mostly because of lower crude oil costs. In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said the price for regular gasoline should average $2.45 per gallon this summer. That's down more than a dollar from the $3.59 per gallon seen last summer, and the cheapest average summer pump price since 2009.

  9. Average household expected to save $675 at the pump in 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Average household expected to save $675 at the pump in 2015 Although retail gasoline prices have risen in recent weeks U.S. consumers are still expected to save about $675 per household in motor fuel costs this year. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration says the average pump price for regular grade gasoline in 2015 will be $2.43 per gallon. That's about 93 cents lower than last year's average. The savings for consumers will be even bigger during the

  10. Diesel prices continue to increase … U.S. average over $4

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Diesel prices continue to increase - U.S. average over $4 The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel broke the 4-dollar mark for the first time since last March. The U.S. retail average rose to $4.02 a gallon. That's up 2.8 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region at 4.39 a gallon, up 1.3 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast states at 3.81 a

  11. Fact #941: September 5, 2016 Mid-term Evaluation of the Corporate Average

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Fuel Economy Standards May Impact Future Standards for Model Years 2022 to 2025 | Department of Energy 1: September 5, 2016 Mid-term Evaluation of the Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards May Impact Future Standards for Model Years 2022 to 2025 Fact #941: September 5, 2016 Mid-term Evaluation of the Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards May Impact Future Standards for Model Years 2022 to 2025 SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards for light

  12. Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    the First Time in Six Years - Dataset | Department of Energy 9: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years - Dataset Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years fotw#889_web.xlsx (19.04 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact #859 February 9, 2015 Excess Supply is the Most

  13. Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    1929-2015 | Department of Energy 915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week When adjusted for inflation, the average annual price of gasoline has fluctuated greatly, and has recently experienced sharp increases and decreases. The effect of the U.S. embargo of oil from Iran can be seen in the early 1980's with the price of gasoline peaking in

  14. Fact #728: May 21, 2012 Average Trip Length is Less Than Ten Miles

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The average trip length (one-way) is 9.7 miles according to the 2009 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey. Trip lengths vary by the purpose of the trip. Shopping and family/personal business...

  15. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) is the sales-weighted harmonic mean fuel economy of a manufacturer’s fleet of new cars or light trucks in a certain model year (MY). First enacted by...

  16. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The final rule for the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards was published in March 2010. Under this rule, each light vehicle model produced for sale in the United States will have a fuel...

  17. Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars and Light Trucks

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    A vehicle footprint is the area defined by the four points where the tires touch the ground. It is calculated as the product of the wheelbase and the average track width of the vehicle. The...

  18. Reliability of oceanic heat flow averages (Journal Article) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Reliability of oceanic heat flow averages Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reliability of oceanic heat flow averages One of the major problems in the use of heat flow data in a quantitative manner has been the variability of closely spaced measurements. It is suggested that this variability is directly related to hydrothermal circulation in an ''effectively permeable'' oceanic crust. As a consequence, only where this crust is sealed from the seawater by an extensive and

  19. "Table HC1.1.3 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    3 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--" " Single-Family Housing Units and Mobile Homes, 2005" ,,"Single- Family and Mobile Homes (millions)","Average Square Feet per Housing Unit-- Single-Family and Mobile Homes" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Single-Family Detached",,,"Single-Family Attached",,,"Mobile Homes" "Housing Unit

  20. "Table HC1.2.3 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    3 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--" " Single-Family Housing Units and Mobile Homes, 2005" ,,"Single- Family and Mobile Homes (millions)","Average Square Feet per Housing Unit" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Single-Family Detached",,,"Single-Family Attached",,,"Mobile Homes" "Housing Unit

  1. New Jersey Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Mark Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Residential Average Price 8.24 8.99 9.49 10.78 11.49 12.27 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 7.50 6.80 7.15 7.72 8.68 8.72 1989-2016

  2. Fact #910: February 1, 2016 Study Shows Average Cost of Electric Vehicle

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Charger Installations | Department of Energy 0: February 1, 2016 Study Shows Average Cost of Electric Vehicle Charger Installations Fact #910: February 1, 2016 Study Shows Average Cost of Electric Vehicle Charger Installations SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week The EV Project and the ChargePoint America project were conducted for the Department of Energy by Idaho National Laboratory (INL). From 2011-2013 the project installed nearly 17,000 alternating current (AC) Level 2 charging stations

  3. Variation in the annual average radon concentration measured in homes in Mesa County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood, A.S.; George, J.L.; Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1990-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the variability in the annual average indoor radon concentration. The TMC has been collecting annual average radon data for the past 5 years in 33 residential structures in Mesa County, Colorado. This report is an interim report that presents the data collected up to the present. Currently, the plans are to continue this study in the future. 62 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. Ohio Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and Commercial

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Consumers by Local Distribution and Marketers Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Residential Average Price 7.14 8.02 11.70 19.24 25.47 27.29 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 5.27 5.30 6.10 6.96 7.56 8.13 1989-2016

  5. District of Columbia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    and Commercial Consumers by Local Distributio Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Residential Average Price 10.72 10.55 12.56 15.35 18.38 20.11 1989-2016 Commercial Average Price 10.21 10.24 10.24 11.31 12.12 12.32 1989-2016

  6. Revision of the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation - 12510

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, Maurice; Kennedy, James E.; Ridge, Christianne; Lowman, Donald [U.S. NRC, Washington, DC, 20555-0001 (United States); Cochran, John [Sandia National Laboratory (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulation governing low-level waste (LLW) disposal, 'Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste', 10 CFR Part 61, establishes a waste classification system based on the concentration of specific radionuclides contained in the waste. The regulation also states, at 10 CFR 61.55(a)(8), that, 'the concentration of a radionuclide (in waste) may be averaged over the volume of the waste, or weight of the waste if the units are expressed as nanocuries per gram'. The NRC's Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation provides guidance on averaging radionuclide concentrations in waste under 10 CFR 61.55(a)(8) when classifying waste for disposal. In 2007, the NRC staff proposed to revise the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation. The Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation is an NRC guidance document for averaging and classifying wastes under 10 CFR 61. The Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation is used by nuclear power plants (NPPs) licensees and sealed source users, among others. In addition, three of the four U.S. LLW disposal facility operators are required to honor the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation as a licensing condition. In 2010, the Commission directed the staff to develop guidance regarding large scale blending of similar homogenous waste types, as described in SECY-10-0043 as part of its Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation revision. The Commission is improving the regulatory approach used in the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation by moving towards a making it more risk-informed and performance-based approach, which is more consistent with the agency's regulatory policies. Among the improvements to the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation

  7. Influence of wind speed averaging on estimates of dimethylsulfide emission fluxes

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Chapman, E. G.; Shaw, W. J.; Easter, R. C.; Bian, X.; Ghan, S. J.

    2002-12-03

    The effect of various wind-speed-averaging periods on calculated DMS emission fluxes is quantitatively assessed. Here, a global climate model and an emission flux module were run in stand-alone mode for a full year. Twenty-minute instantaneous surface wind speeds and related variables generated by the climate model were archived, and corresponding 1-hour-, 6-hour-, daily-, and monthly-averaged quantities calculated. These various time-averaged, model-derived quantities were used as inputs in the emission flux module, and DMS emissions were calculated using two expressions for the mass transfer velocity commonly used in atmospheric models. Results indicate that the time period selected for averaging wind speedsmore » can affect the magnitude of calculated DMS emission fluxes. A number of individual marine cells within the global grid show DMS emissions fluxes that are 10-60% higher when emissions are calculated using 20-minute instantaneous model time step winds rather than monthly-averaged wind speeds, and at some locations the differences exceed 200%. Many of these cells are located in the southern hemisphere where anthropogenic sulfur emissions are low and changes in oceanic DMS emissions may significantly affect calculated aerosol concentrations and aerosol radiative forcing.« less

  8. Volume Averaging Study of the Capacitive Deionization Process in Homogeneous Porous Media

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Gabitto, Jorge; Tsouris, Costas

    2015-05-05

    Ion storage in porous electrodes is important in applications such as energy storage by supercapacitors, water purification by capacitive deionization, extraction of energy from a salinity difference and heavy ion purification. In this paper, a model is presented to simulate the charge process in homogeneous porous media comprising big pores. It is based on a theory for capacitive charging by ideally polarizable porous electrodes without faradaic reactions or specific adsorption of ions. A volume averaging technique is used to derive the averaged transport equations in the limit of thin electrical double layers. Transport between the electrolyte solution and the chargedmore » wall is described using the Gouy–Chapman–Stern model. The effective transport parameters for isotropic porous media are calculated solving the corresponding closure problems. Finally, the source terms that appear in the average equations are calculated using numerical computations. An alternative way to deal with the source terms is proposed.« less

  9. Reconstruction of ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in N dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strohaber, J.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Schuessler, H. A.

    2010-07-15

    We present an analytical inversion technique, which can be used to recover ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in an N-dimensional detection scheme. The solution is given as a power series in intensity. For this reason, we call this technique a multiphoton expansion (MPE). The MPE formalism was verified with an exactly solvable inversion problem in two dimensions, and probabilities in the postsaturation region, where the intensity-selective scanning approach breaks down, were recovered. In three dimensions, ionization probabilities of Xe were successfully recovered with MPE from simulated (using the Ammosov-Delone-Krainov tunneling theory) ion yields. Finally, we tested our approach with intensity-resolved benzene-ion yields, which show a resonant multiphoton ionization process. By applying MPE to this data (which were artificially averaged), the resonant structure was recovered, which suggests that the resonance in benzene may have been observed in spatially averaged data taken elsewhere.

  10. Volume Averaging Study of the Capacitive Deionization Process in Homogeneous Porous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabitto, Jorge; Tsouris, Costas

    2015-05-05

    Ion storage in porous electrodes is important in applications such as energy storage by supercapacitors, water purification by capacitive deionization, extraction of energy from a salinity difference and heavy ion purification. In this paper, a model is presented to simulate the charge process in homogeneous porous media comprising big pores. It is based on a theory for capacitive charging by ideally polarizable porous electrodes without faradaic reactions or specific adsorption of ions. A volume averaging technique is used to derive the averaged transport equations in the limit of thin electrical double layers. Transport between the electrolyte solution and the charged wall is described using the Gouy–Chapman–Stern model. The effective transport parameters for isotropic porous media are calculated solving the corresponding closure problems. Finally, the source terms that appear in the average equations are calculated using numerical computations. An alternative way to deal with the source terms is proposed.

  11. Average M shell fluorescence yields for elements with 70≤Z≤92

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahoul, A.; Deghfel, B.; Aylikci, V.; Aylikci, N. K.; Nekkab, M.

    2015-03-30

    The theoretical, experimental and analytical methods for the calculation of average M-shell fluorescence yield (ω{sup ¯}{sub M}) of different elements are very important because of the large number of their applications in various areas of physical chemistry and medical research. In this paper, the bulk of the average M-shell fluorescence yield measurements reported in the literature, covering the period 1955 to 2005 are interpolated by using an analytical function to deduce the empirical average M-shell fluorescence yield in the atomic range of 70≤Z≤92. The results were compared with the theoretical and fitted values reported by other authors. Reasonable agreement was typically obtained between our result and other works.

  12. Comparison of average and point capillary pressure-saturation functions determined by steady-state centrifugation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cropper, Clark; Perfect, Edmund; van den Berg, Dr. Elmer; Mayes, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    The capillary pressure-saturation function can be determined from centrifuge drainage experiments. In soil physics, the data resulting from such experiments are usually analyzed by the 'averaging method.' In this approach, average relative saturation, , is expressed as a function of average capillary pressure, <{psi}>, i.e., (<{psi}>). In contrast, the capillary pressure-saturation function at a physical point, i.e., S({psi}), has been extracted from similar experiments in petrophysics using the 'integral method.' The purpose of this study was to introduce the integral method applied to centrifuge experiments to a soil physics audience and to compare S({psi}) and (<{psi}>) functions, as parameterized by the Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten equations, for 18 samples drawn from a range of porous media (i.e., Berea sandstone, glass beads, and Hanford sediments). Steady-state centrifuge experiments were performed on preconsolidated samples with a URC-628 Ultra-Rock Core centrifuge. The angular velocity and outflow data sets were then analyzed using both the averaging and integral methods. The results show that the averaging method smoothes out the drainage process, yielding less steep capillary pressure-saturation functions relative to the corresponding point-based curves. Maximum deviations in saturation between the two methods ranged from 0.08 to 0.28 and generally occurred at low suctions. These discrepancies can lead to inaccurate predictions of other hydraulic properties such as the relative permeability function. Therefore, we strongly recommend use of the integral method instead of the averaging method when determining the capillary pressure-saturation function by steady-state centrifugation. This method can be successfully implemented using either the van Genuchten or Brooks-Corey functions, although the latter provides a more physically precise description of air entry at a physical point.

  13. Performance and production requirements for the optical components in a high-average-power laser system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, R.; Doss, F.W.; Taylor, J.R.; Wong, J.N.

    1999-07-02

    Optical components needed for high-average-power lasers, such as those developed for Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS), require high levels of performance and reliability. Over the past two decades, optical component requirements for this purpose have been optimized and performance and reliability have been demonstrated. Many of the optical components that are exposed to the high power laser light affect the quality of the beam as it is transported through the system. The specifications for these optics are described including a few parameters not previously reported and some component manufacturing and testing experience. Key words: High-average-power laser, coating efficiency, absorption, optical components

  14. Builds in U.S. natural gas storage running above five-year average

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Builds in U.S. natural gas storage running above five-year average The amount of natural gas put into underground storage since the beginning of the so-called "injection season" in April has been above the five-year average by a wide margin. In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said natural gas inventories, which are running more than 50% above year ago levels, are on track to reach almost 4 trillion cubic feet by the end of October which marks the start of

  15. The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose this week

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose this week The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose slightly to $3.90 a gallon on Monday. That's up 8-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region, at 4.16 a gallon, down a penny from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Rocky Mountain States at $3.68 a gallon, down 1.7

  16. The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose this week

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose this week The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to $3.93 a gallon on Monday. That's up 2 ½ cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Prices increased in all regions across the U.S. The highest prices were found in the New England region, at 4.18 a gallon, up 2.3 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Rocky Mountain States at $3.74 a gallon,

  17. U.S. diesel prices decrease … U.S. average still over $4

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    U.S. diesel prices decrease - U.S. average still over $4 The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel fell to $4.02 a gallon. That's down a tenth of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region at 4.39 a gallon, up 3-tenths of a penny from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast states at 3.79 a gallon, down 1.3 cents.

  18. U.S. diesel prices decrease … U.S. average still over $4

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    U.S. diesel prices decrease - U.S. average still over $4 The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel fell to $4.00 a gallon. That's down 1.8 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region and Central Atlantic states at 4.31 a gallon, down 4.9 and 3.9 cents, respectively, from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast states at 3.80 a gallon, down 1.1 cents.

  19. U.S. diesel prices increase … U.S. average still over $4

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    U.S. diesel prices increase - U.S. average still over $4 The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to $4.02 a gallon. That's up half a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region at 4.36 a gallon, down 2.7 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast states at 3.81 a gallon, up 2.1 cents.

  20. Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs Less Than 4

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    cents per kWh - Without New Dams | Department of Energy Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs Less Than 4 cents per kWh - Without New Dams Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs Less Than 4 cents per kWh - Without New Dams November 4, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced up to $30.6 million in Recovery Act funding for the selection of seven hydropower projects that modernize hydropower

  1. Table HC1.1.2 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace, 2005 " ,,"Average Square Feet per--" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Housing Unit",,,"Household Member" "Housing Unit Characteristics",,"Total1","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,2171,1618,1031,845,630,401 "Census Region and Division" "Northeast",20.6,2334,1664,562,911,649,220

  2. Table HC1.1.4 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2005" ,,,"Average Square Feet per Apartment in a --" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"2 to 4 Unit Building",,,"5 or More Unit Building" ,,"Apartments (millions)" "Housing Unit Characteristics",,,"Total","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,24.5,1090,902,341,872,780,441

  3. Table HC1.2.2 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace, " " Per Housing Unit and Per Household Member, 2005" ,,"Average Square Feet" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Per Housing Unit",,,"Per Household Member" "Living Space Characteristics",,"Total1","Heated","Cooled","Total1","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,2033,1618,1031,791,630,401 "Total Floorspace (Square

  4. Table HC1.2.4 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2.4 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2005" ,,,"Average Square Feet per Apartment in a --" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"2 to 4 Unit Building",,,"5 or More Unit Building" ,,"Apartments (millions)" "Living Space Characteristics",,,"Total","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,24.5,1090,902,341,872,780,441

  5. ,"Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities",16,"Monthly","8/2016","1/15/1985" ,"Release Date:","10/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  6. Fact #851 December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Average Number of Gears in New Cars and Light Trucks Model Year Gears 1980 3.5 1981 3.5 1982 3.6 1983 3.7 1984 3.7 1985 3.8 1986 3.8 1987 3.9 1988 3.9 1989 3.9 1990 4.0 1991 4.0 ...

  7. Impacts of different data averaging times on statistical analysis of distributed domestic photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widen, Joakim; Waeckelgaard, Ewa; Paatero, Jukka; Lund, Peter

    2010-03-15

    The trend of increasing application of distributed generation with solar photovoltaics (PV-DG) suggests that a widespread integration in existing low-voltage (LV) grids is possible in the future. With massive integration in LV grids, a major concern is the possible negative impacts of excess power injection from on-site generation. For power-flow simulations of such grid impacts, an important consideration is the time resolution of demand and generation data. This paper investigates the impact of time averaging on high-resolution data series of domestic electricity demand and PV-DG output and on voltages in a simulated LV grid. Effects of 10-minutely and hourly averaging on descriptive statistics and duration curves were determined. Although time averaging has a considerable impact on statistical properties of the demand in individual households, the impact is smaller on aggregate demand, already smoothed from random coincidence, and on PV-DG output. Consequently, the statistical distribution of simulated grid voltages was also robust against time averaging. The overall judgement is that statistical investigation of voltage variations in the presence of PV-DG does not require higher resolution than hourly. (author)

  8. Development of a high average current polarized electron source with long cathode operational lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. K. Sinclair; P. A. Adderley; B. M. Dunham; J. C. Hansknecht; P. Hartmann; M. Poelker; J. S. Price; P. M. Rutt; W. J. Schneider; M. Steigerwald

    2007-02-01

    Substantially more than half of the electromagnetic nuclear physics experiments conducted at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory) require highly polarized electron beams, often at high average current. Spin-polarized electrons are produced by photoemission from various GaAs-based semiconductor photocathodes, using circularly polarized laser light with photon energy slightly larger than the semiconductor band gap. The photocathodes are prepared by activation of the clean semiconductor surface to negative electron affinity using cesium and oxidation. Historically, in many laboratories worldwide, these photocathodes have had short operational lifetimes at high average current, and have often deteriorated fairly quickly in ultrahigh vacuum even without electron beam delivery. At Jefferson Lab, we have developed a polarized electron source in which the photocathodes degrade exceptionally slowly without electron emission, and in which ion back bombardment is the predominant mechanism limiting the operational lifetime of the cathodes during electron emission. We have reproducibly obtained cathode 1/e dark lifetimes over two years, and 1/e charge density and charge lifetimes during electron beam delivery of over 2?105???C/cm2 and 200 C, respectively. This source is able to support uninterrupted high average current polarized beam delivery to three experimental halls simultaneously for many months at a time. Many of the techniques we report here are directly applicable to the development of GaAs photoemission electron guns to deliver high average current, high brightness unpolarized beams.

  9. A Code to Produce Cell Averaged Cross Sections for Fast Critical Assemblies and Fast Power Reactors.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1987-05-14

    Version 00 SLAROM solves the neutron integral transport equations to determine the flux distribution and spectra in a fast reactor lattice and calculates cell averaged effective cross sections. The code uses multigroup data of the type in DLC-111/JFS that use Bondarenko factors for resonance effects.

  10. Averaged Description of Flow (Steady and Transient) and Nonreactive Solute Transport in Random Porous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schvidler, M.; Karasaki, K.

    2011-06-15

    In previous papers (Shvidler and Karasaki, 1999, 2001, 2005, and 2008) we presented and analyzed an approach for finding the general forms of exactly averaged equations of flow and transport in porous media. We studied systems of basic equations for steady flow with sources in unbounded domains with stochastically homogeneous conductivity fields. A brief analysis of exactly averaged equations of nonsteady flow and nonreactive solute transport was also presented. At the core of this approach is the existence of appropriate random Green's functions. For example, we showed that in the case of a 3-dimensional unbounded domain the existence of appropriate random Green's functions is sufficient for finding the exact nonlocal averaged equations for flow velocity using the operator with a unique kernel-vector. Examination of random fields with global symmetry (isotropy, transversal isotropy and orthotropy) makes it possible to describe significantly different types of averaged equations with nonlocal unique operators. It is evident that the existence of random Green's functions for physical linear processes is equivalent to assuming the existence of some linear random operators for appropriate stochastic equations. If we restricted ourselves to this assumption only, as we have done in this paper, we can study the processes in any dimensional bounded or unbounded fields and in addition, cases in which the random fields of conductivity and porosity are stochastically nonhomogeneous, nonglobally symmetrical, etc.. It is clear that examining more general cases involves significant difficulty and constricts the analysis of structural types for the processes being studied. Nevertheless, we show that we obtain the essential information regarding averaged equations for steady and transient flow, as well as for solute transport.

  11. Microsoft Word - TOC Section I Conformed thru Mod 274.docx

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Nicaragua, or Singapore); (3) A least developed country (Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Central African...

  12. Microsoft Word - TOC_Section_J.6_Model.doc

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    requirements for socioeconomic programs and SB development. STRATEGY FOR SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT One of our management principles, and a key element in our strategy...

  13. M-16 Copy of TOC Mod 81.pdf

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

  14. TOC Mod 233-Entire Modification_signed.pdf

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  10. Microsoft Word - Vol 2 Appendices TOC.doc

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... to control leaking containers (i.e., tanks, truck and railroad tankers, etc.), and ... main; remediating underground storage tanks; replacing five roll-up doors; renovating ...

  11. Microsoft Word - Vol 1 Chapters TOC.doc

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... is designed to treat radioactive waste from the Hanford Site's underground storage tanks. ... sewer main, remediate underground storage tanks, replace five roll- up doors, renovate and ...

  12. Microsoft Word - Vol 1 Chapters TOC.doc

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... be either served by their own new septic tanks and leach fields or connected to existing ... Each service station is collocated with an E85 fueling station. The bulk storage tanks in ...

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  14. Microsoft Word - Vol 2 Appendices TOC.doc

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... boreholes on the NNSS. Based on the current schedule ... tanks; replacing electric hot water heaters; installing water ... from certain mineral extraction facilities, and ...

  15. Microsoft Word - Mod_558_Section_J_TOC_Conformed

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    58 PART III - LIST OF DOCUMENTS, EXHIBITS, AND OTHER ATTACHMENTS SECTION J -- LIST OF ATTACHMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS Attachment Number Title of Attachment Revision Number Pages J-1. ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYM LIST 000 4 J-2. REQUIREMENT SOURCES AND IMPLEMENTING DOCUMENTS 542 9 J-3. HANFORD SITE SERVICES AND INTERFACE REQUIREMENTS MATRIX 464 108 J-4. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND MEASUREMENT PLAN a FY 2010 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION & MEASUREMENT PLAN 052 19 b FY 2011 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION &

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    J Contract No. DE-AC27-08RV14800 Modification No. 113 J.15-1 ATTACHMENT J.15 AMERICAN RECOVERY AND REINVESTMENT ACT (ARRA) SCOPE AND END-STATE MILESTONES Analytical Building Block Contract Line Item Number Scope Date* Completion End Point(s) RA-1 Tank Farm Infrastructure Upgrades Sub-CLIN 7.1 AP/SY Ventilation Design and Fabrication Sep - 11 Fabrication complete. RA-1 Tank Farm Infrastructure Upgrades Sub-CLIN 7.1 SY Electrical Upgrades Sep - 11 Upgrades complete. RA-1 Tank Farm Infrastructure

  17. Microsoft Word - TOC_Section_J.11_Model.doc

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    11-1 ATTACHMENT J.11 SUPPLEMENTAL WORK DESCRIPTION TABLES Section C, "Statement of Work", broadly describes the entire work scope the Office of River Protection contemplates as being performed under the Tank Operation Contract. For the purposes of proposal preparation and material difference determination per Section C 2.1.1, Transition, this table further defines that work scope. Tank Operations Contract Section J Contract No. DE-AC27-08RV14800 J.11-2 SECTION C/ WBS NO. A WBS TITLE B

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    5-1 ATTACHMENT J-5 PERFORMANCE GUARANTEE AGREEMENT 8/24/07 Signature on File Signature on File 8/24/07 Signature on File Signature on File Signature on File

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    7-1 ATTACHMENT J-7 SMALL DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS PARTICIPATION PROGRAM TARGETS

  20. TOC_Section J.14_Conformed thru Mod 274.xlsx

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    ... 100-K-36, 1706-KE Chemical Storage Facility Dry Well ... 100-K-60 100-K-60, 1904-K Process Sewer (165-KW) 100K CHPRC ... J.14-6 Tank Operations Contract Contract No. DE-AC27-RV14800 ...

  1. Synchronously injected amplifiers, a novel approach to high-average-power FEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, D.C.; Fortgang, C.M.; Goldstein, J.C.; Kinross-Wright, J.M.; Sheffield, R.L.

    1996-11-01

    Two new FEL ideas based on synchronously injected amplifiers are described. Both of these rely on the synchronous injection of the optical signal into a high-gain, high-efficiency tapered wiggler. The first concept, called Regenerative Amplifier FEL (RAFEL), uses an optical feedback loop to provide a coherent signal at the wiggler entrance so that the optical power can reach saturation rapidly. The second idea requires the use of a uniform wiggler in the feedback loop to generate light that can be synchronously injected back into the first wiggler. The compact Advanced FEL is being modified to implement the RAFEL concept. We describe future operation of the Advanced FEL at high average current and discuss the possibility of generating 1 kW average power.

  2. Gatling gun: high average polarized current injector for eRHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvinenko, V.N.

    2010-01-01

    This idea was originally developed in 2001 for, at that time, an ERL-based (and later recirculating-ring) electron-ion collider at JLab. Naturally the same idea is applicable for any gun requiring current exceeding capability of a single cathode. ERL-based eRHIC is one of such cases. This note related to eRHIC was prepared at Duke University in February 2003. In many case photo-injectors can have a limited average current - it is especially true about polarized photo-guns. It is know that e-RHIC requires average polarized electron current well above currently demonstrated by photo-injectors - hence combining currents from multiple guns is can be useful option for eRHIC.

  3. HIGH AVERAGE CURRENT LOW EMITTANCE BEAM EMPLOYING CW NORMAL CONDUCTING GUN.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHANG,X.; BEN-ZVI, I.; KEWISCH, J.; PAI, C.

    2007-06-25

    CW normal conducting guns usually do not achieve very high field gradient and waste much RF power at high field gradient compared to superconducting cavities. But they have less trapped modes and wakefields compared to the superconducting cavities due to their low Q. The external bucking coil can also be applied very close to the cathode to improve the beam quality. By using a low frequency gun with a recessed cathode and a carefully designed beam line we can get a high average current and a high quality beam with acceptable RF power loss on the cavity wall. This paper shows that the CW normal conducting gun can be a backup solution for those projects which need high peak and average current, low emittance electron beams such as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) e-cooling project and Energy Recovery Linac (Em) project.

  4. On simulating flow with multiple time scales using a method of averages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margolin, L.G.

    1997-12-31

    The author presents a new computational method based on averaging to efficiently simulate certain systems with multiple time scales. He first develops the method in a simple one-dimensional setting and employs linear stability analysis to demonstrate numerical stability. He then extends the method to multidimensional fluid flow. His method of averages does not depend on explicit splitting of the equations nor on modal decomposition. Rather he combines low order and high order algorithms in a generalized predictor-corrector framework. He illustrates the methodology in the context of a shallow fluid approximation to an ocean basin circulation. He finds that his new method reproduces the accuracy of a fully explicit second-order accurate scheme, while costing less than a first-order accurate scheme.

  5. Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: All Energy Sources Collected;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"

  6. Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; " " Column: All Energy Sources Collected;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"

  7. Table 7.3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 20

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units." ,,,"Electricity","Components",,"Natural Gas","Components",,"Steam","Components" " ","

  8. Table N8.2. Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 1998

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2. Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected","Wood and Other","Biomass","Components" ,,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,"Electricity","Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural

  9. Coupling of an average-atom model with a collisional-radiative equilibrium model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faussurier, G. Blancard, C.; Cossé, P.

    2014-11-15

    We present a method to combine a collisional-radiative equilibrium model and an average-atom model to calculate bound and free electron wavefunctions in hot dense plasmas by taking into account screening. This approach allows us to calculate electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity as well as pressure in non local thermodynamic equilibrium plasmas. Illustrations of the method are presented for dilute titanium plasma.

  10. Summary Notes from 3 October 2007 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Concentration Averaging

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    3 October 2007 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Concentration Averaging Attendees: Representatives from Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) met at the DOE offices in Germantown, Maryland on 3 October 2007. Representatives from Department of Energy-Savannah River (DOE-SR) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) participated in the meeting via a teleconference link. Discussion: DOE believes that

  11. "Table A25. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    . Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census" " Region, Industry Group, and Selected Industries, 1991: Part 1" " (Estimates in Dollars per Physical Unit)" ,,,,," " " "," "," ","Residual","Distillate","Natural Gas(c)"," "," ","RSE" "SIC"," ","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel

  12. "Table A47. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    7. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas" " by Type of Supplier, Census Region, Industry Group, and Selected Industries," 1991 " (Estimates in Dollars per Physical Units)" ,," Electricity",," Steam",," Natural Gas" ,," (million kWh)",," (Billion BTU)",," (1000 cu ft)" ,"

  13. "Table A49. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    9. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas" " by Type of Supplier, Census Region, and Economic Characteristics of the" " Establishment, 1991" " (Estimates in Dollars per Physical Units)" ," Electricity",," Steam",," Natural Gas" ," (Million kWh)",," (Billion Btu)",," (1000 cu ft)"

  14. Picosecond Pulse Recirculation for High Average Brightness Thomson Scattering-based Gamma-ray Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semenov, V. A.

    2009-06-12

    Pulse recirculation has been successfully demonstrated with the interaction laser system of LLNL's Thomson-Radiated Extreme X-ray (T-REX) source. The recirculation increased twenty-eight times the intensity of the light coming out of the laser system, demonstrating the capability of increasing the gamma-ray flux emitted by T-REX. The technical approach demonstrated could conceivably increase the average gamma-ray flux output by up to a hundred times.

  15. Calculation of variable-base degree-days and degree-nights from monthly average temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonderegger, R.; Cleary, P.; Dickinson, B.

    1985-01-01

    The Computerized Instrumented Residential Audit (CIRA), a micro-computer building energy analysis program developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, uses a monthly variable-base degree-day method to calculate heating and cooling loads. The method's unique feature is its ability to model thermostat setbacks and storage of solar gain. The program accomplishes this by dividing each day into two periods, ''average day'' (8 a.m. to 8 p.m.) and ''average night'' (8 p.m. to 8 a.m.), with different base temperatures. For each mode (heating or cooling) and for each period (day or night), the program reconstructs degree-days as a function of average monthly day or night temperature using three empirical coefficients specific to the location. A comparison is made between degree-days computed from hourly weather tapes and those predicted using this method. The root mean square error between predicted and actual degree days is typically between 3 and 12 degree-days per month. Tables of the coefficients are given for over 150 locations in the United States, computed from hourly dry-bulb temperatures on TRY and TMY tapes. Seasonal predictions of heating and cooling energy budgets using this method show good correspondence to the DOE-2 hourly simulation method.

  16. Coherent radar estimates of average high-latitude ionospheric Joule heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosch, M.J.; Nielsen, E.

    1995-07-01

    The Scandinavian Twin Auroral Radar Experiment (STARE) and Sweden and Britain Radar Experiment (SABRE) bistatic coherent radar systems have been employed to estimate the spatial and temporal variation of the ionospheric Joule heating in the combined geographic latitude range 63.8 deg - 72.6 deg (corrected geomagnetic latitude 61.5 deg - 69.3 deg) over Scandinavia. The 173 days of good observations with all four radars have been analyzed during the period 1982 to 1986 to estimate the average ionospheric electric field versus time and latitude. The AE dependent empirical model of ionospheric Pedersen conductivity of Spiro et al. (1982) has been used to calculate the Joule heating. The latitudinal and diurnal variation of Joule heating as well as the estimated mean hemispherical heating of 1.7 x 10(exp 11) W are in good agreement with earlier results. Average Joule heating was found to vary linearly with the AE, AU, and AL indices and as a second-order power law with Kp. The average Joule heating was also examined as a function of the direction and magnitude of the interplanetary magnetic field. It has been shown for the first time that the ionospheric electric field magnitude as well as the Joule heating increase with increasingly negative (southward) Bz.

  17. Averaging and Linear Programming in Some Singularly Perturbed Problems of Optimal Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaitsgory, Vladimir; Rossomakhine, Sergey

    2015-04-15

    The paper aims at the development of an apparatus for analysis and construction of near optimal solutions of singularly perturbed (SP) optimal controls problems (that is, problems of optimal control of SP systems) considered on the infinite time horizon. We mostly focus on problems with time discounting criteria but a possibility of the extension of results to periodic optimization problems is discussed as well. Our consideration is based on earlier results on averaging of SP control systems and on linear programming formulations of optimal control problems. The idea that we exploit is to first asymptotically approximate a given problem of optimal control of the SP system by a certain averaged optimal control problem, then reformulate this averaged problem as an infinite-dimensional linear programming (LP) problem, and then approximate the latter by semi-infinite LP problems. We show that the optimal solution of these semi-infinite LP problems and their duals (that can be found with the help of a modification of an available LP software) allow one to construct near optimal controls of the SP system. We demonstrate the construction with two numerical examples.

  18. '09 Salishan Talk_ Slides_WT.ppt

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Salishan Conference on High-Speed Computing Computational Challenges at the Petascale and Beyond for Fusion Energy Sciences W. M. TANG Princeton University, Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey Salishan Lodge Gleneden Beach, Oregon 28 April 2009 Fusion Energy: Burning plasmas are self-heated and self-organized systems "ITER is an international collaboration to build the first fusion science experiment capable of producing a self- sustaining fusion reaction, called a burning

  19. '09 Salishan Talk_ Slides_WT.ppt

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    self-heated and self-organized systems "ITER is an international collaboration to build ... Fusion Power 2015 TFTR (U.S.) JET (EUROPE) ITER Progress in Magnetic Fusion Research 10MW ...

  20. Effect of vitrification temperature upon the solar average absorptance properties of Pyromark Series 2500 black paint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, C.; Mahoney, A.R.

    1986-06-01

    A significant drop in production efficiency has occurred over time at the Solar One facility at Barstow, California, primarily as a result of the degradation of the Pyromark Series 2500 black paint used as the absorptive coating on the receiver panels. As part of the investigation of the problem, the solar-averaged adsorptance properties of the paint were determined as a function of vitrification temperature, since it is known that a significant amount of the panel surface area at Solar One was vitrified at temperatures below those recommended by the paint manufacturer (540/sup 0/C, 1000/sup 0/F). Painted samples initially vitrified at 230/sup 0/C (450/sup 0/F), 315/sup 0/C (600/sup 0/F), 371/sup 0/C (700/sup 0/F), and 480/sup 0/C (900/sup 0/F) exhibited significantly lower solar-averaged absorptance values (0.02 absorptance units) compared to samples vitrified at 540/sup 0/C (1000/sup 0/F). Thus, Solar One began its service life below optimal levels. After 140 h of thermal aging at 370/sup 0/C (700/sup 0/F) and 540/sup 0/C (1000/sup 0/F), all samples regardless of their initial vitrification temperatures, attained the same solar-averaged absorptance value (..cap alpha../sub s/ = 0.973). Therefore, both the long-term low-temperature vitrification and the short-term high-temperature vitrification can be used to obtain optimal or near-optimal absorptance of solar flux. Futher thermal aging of vitrified samples did not result in paint degradation, clearly indicating that high solar flux is required to produce this phenomenon. The panels at Solar One never achieved optimal absorptance because their exposure to high solar flux negated the effect of long-term low-temperature vitrification during operation. On future central receiver projects, every effort should be made to properly vitrify the Pyromark coating before its exposure to high flux conditions.

  1. Table 7.4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units." " ",," "," ",," "," " ,,"Residual","Distillate","Natural ","LPG and",,"RSE" "Economic","Electricity","Fuel

  2. Table 7.5 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    5 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." " ",," "," ",," "," ","RSE" "Economic",,"Residual","Distillate","Natural ","LPG and",,"Row"

  3. Specification of optical components for a high average-power laser environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, J.R.; Chow, R.; Rinmdahl, K.A.; Willis, J.B.; Wong, J.N.

    1997-06-25

    Optical component specifications for the high-average-power lasers and transport system used in the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) plant must address demanding system performance requirements. The need for high performance optics has to be balanced against the practical desire to reduce the supply risks of cost and schedule. This is addressed in optical system design, careful planning with the optical industry, demonstration of plant quality parts, qualification of optical suppliers and processes, comprehensive procedures for evaluation and test, and a plan for corrective action.

  4. Properties of a new average power Nd-doped phosphate laser glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, S.A.; Marshall, C.D.; Bayramian, A.J.; Wilke, G.D.; Hayden, J.S.

    1995-03-09

    The Nd-doped phosphate laser glass described herein can withstand 2.3 times greater thermal loading without fracture, compared to APG-1 (commercially-available average-power glass from Schott Glass Technologies). The enhanced thermal loading capability is established on the basis of the intrinsic thermomechanical properties and by direct thermally-induced fracture experiments using Ar-ion laser heating of the samples. This Nd-doped phosphate glass (referred to as APG-t) is found to be characterized by a 29% lower gain cross section and a 25% longer low-concentration emission lifetime.

  5. Laser properties of an improved average-power Nd-doped phosphate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, S.A.; Marshall, C.D.; Bayramian, A.J.

    1995-03-15

    The Nd-doped phosphate laser glass described herein can withstand 2.3 times greater thermal loading without fracture, compared to APG-1 (commercially-available average-power glass from Schott Glass Technologies). The enhanced thermal loading capability is established on the basis of the intrinsic thermomechanical properties (expansion, conduction, fracture toughness, and Young`s modulus), and by direct thermally-induced fracture experiments using Ar-ion laser heating of the samples. This Nd-doped phosphate glass (referred to as APG-t) is found to be characterized by a 29% lower gain cross section and a 25% longer low-concentration emission lifetime.

  6. "Table A25 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources by Census" " Region, Industry Group, and Selected Industries, 1991: Part 2" " (Estimates in Dollars per Million Btu)" ,,,,,,,,"RSE" "SIC"," "," ","Residual","Distillate"," "," "," ","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Groups and Industry","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel

  7. A bounce-averaged kinetic model of the ring current ion population

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordanova, V.K.; Kozyra, J.U.; Khazanov, G.V.; Nagy, A.F.; Rasmussen, C.E.; Fok, M.C.

    1994-12-15

    A bounce-averaged ring current kinetic model for arbitrary pitch angle, including losses due to charge exchange and Coulomb collisions along ion drift paths, is developed and solved numerically. Results from simplified model runs, intended to illustrate the effects of adiabatic drifts and collisional losses on the proton population, are presented. The processes of (i) particle acceleration under the conditions of time-independent magnetospheric electric fields; (ii) a predominant loss of particles with small pitch angles due to charge exchange; and (iii) a buildup of a low-energy population caused by the Coulomb drag energy degradation, are discussed. 21 refs., 1 fig.

  8. High Average Power Laser Gain Medium With Low Optical Distortion Using A Transverse Flowing Liquid Host

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Ault, Earl R.; Kuklo, Thomas C.

    2005-07-05

    A high average power, low optical distortion laser gain media is based on a flowing liquid media. A diode laser pumping device with tailored irradiance excites the laser active atom, ion or molecule within the liquid media. A laser active component of the liquid media exhibits energy storage times longer than or comparable to the thermal optical response time of the liquid. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for mixing and circulating the lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump, a diffuser, and a heat exchanger. A liquid flow gain cell includes flow straighteners and flow channel compression.

  9. U.S. Natural Gas Average Consumption per Commercial Consumer (Thousand

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Cubic Feet) Commercial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Average Consumption per Commercial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 637 665 699 1970's 737 751 777 779 734 730 789 745 784 811 1980's 739 693 696 625 672 634 587 606 647 652 1990's 619 626 636 641 639 654 669 675 595 608 2000's 635 605 621 617 609 577 537 568 579 586 2010's 585 593 540 613 640 587 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable;

  10. Method and system for modulation of gain suppression in high average power laser systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bayramian, Andrew James

    2012-07-31

    A high average power laser system with modulated gain suppression includes an input aperture associated with a first laser beam extraction path and an output aperture associated with the first laser beam extraction path. The system also includes a pinhole creation laser having an optical output directed along a pinhole creation path and an absorbing material positioned along both the first laser beam extraction path and the pinhole creation path. The system further includes a mechanism operable to translate the absorbing material in a direction crossing the first laser beam extraction laser path and a controller operable to modulate the second laser beam.

  11. Thermodynamic effects of calcium and iron oxides on crystal phase formation in synthetic gasifier slags containing from 0 to 27wt.% V2O3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakano, Jinichiro; Duchesne, Marc; Bennett, James; Kwong, Kyei -Sing; Nakano, Anna; Hughes, Robin

    2014-11-15

    Thermodynamic phase equilibria in synthetic slags (Al2O3–CaO–FeO–SiO2–V2O3) were investigated with 0–27 wt.% vanadium oxide corresponding to industrial coal–petroleum coke (petcoke) feedstock blends in a simulated gasifier environment. Samples encompassing coal–petcoke mixed slag compositions were equilibrated at 1500 °C in a 64 vol.% CO/36 vol.% CO2 atmosphere (Po2 ≈ 10–8 atm at 1500 °C) for 72 h, followed by rapid water quench, then analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, X-ray diffractometry, and scanning electron microscopy with wavelength dispersive spectroscopy. With increasing CaO content, FeO content, or both; the slag homogeneity region expanded and a composition range exhibiting crystals was reduced. The mullite (Al6Si2O13) crystalline phase was not present in the slags above 9 wt.% FeO while the karelianite (V2O3) crystalline phase was always present in compositions studied if a sufficient amount of vanadium existed in the slag. Furthermore, based on the present experimental equilibrium evaluation, a set of isothermal phase diagrams showing effects of CaO and FeO on thermodynamic phase stabilities in the vanadium-bearing slags is proposed. Some uses of the diagrams for potential industrial practice are discussed.

  12. Hyperspectral remote sensing of plant biochemistry using Bayesian model averaging with variable and band selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Kaiguang; Valle, Denis; Popescu, Sorin; Zhang, Xuesong; Malick, Bani

    2013-05-15

    Model specification remains challenging in spectroscopy of plant biochemistry, as exemplified by the availability of various spectral indices or band combinations for estimating the same biochemical. This lack of consensus in model choice across applications argues for a paradigm shift in hyperspectral methods to address model uncertainty and misspecification. We demonstrated one such method using Bayesian model averaging (BMA), which performs variable/band selection and quantifies the relative merits of many candidate models to synthesize a weighted average model with improved predictive performances. The utility of BMA was examined using a portfolio of 27 foliage spectral–chemical datasets representing over 80 species across the globe to estimate multiple biochemical properties, including nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon, cellulose, lignin, chlorophyll (a or b), carotenoid, polar and nonpolar extractives, leaf mass per area, and equivalent water thickness. We also compared BMA with partial least squares (PLS) and stepwise multiple regression (SMR). Results showed that all the biochemicals except carotenoid were accurately estimated from hyerspectral data with R2 values > 0.80.

  13. Average intragranular misorientation trends in polycrystalline materials predicted by a viscoplastic self-consistent approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebensohn, Ricardo A.; Zecevic, Miroslav; Knezevic, Marko; McCabe, Rodney J.

    2015-12-15

    Here, this work presents estimations of average intragranular fluctuations of lattice rotation rates in polycrystalline materials, obtained by means of the viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) model. These fluctuations give a tensorial measure of the trend of misorientation developing inside each single crystal grain representing a polycrystalline aggregate. We first report details of the algorithm implemented in the VPSC code to estimate these fluctuations, which are then validated by comparison with corresponding full-field calculations. Next, we present predictions of average intragranular fluctuations of lattice rotation rates for cubic aggregates, which are rationalized by comparison with experimental evidence on annealing textures of fcc and bcc polycrystals deformed in tension and compression, respectively, as well as with measured intragranular misorientation distributions in a Cu polycrystal deformed in tension. The orientation-dependent and micromechanically-based estimations of intragranular misorientations that can be derived from the present implementation are necessary to formulate sound sub-models for the prediction of quantitatively accurate deformation textures, grain fragmentation, and recrystallization textures using the VPSC approach.

  14. Average intragranular misorientation trends in polycrystalline materials predicted by a viscoplastic self-consistent approach

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Lebensohn, Ricardo A.; Zecevic, Miroslav; Knezevic, Marko; McCabe, Rodney J.

    2015-12-15

    Here, this work presents estimations of average intragranular fluctuations of lattice rotation rates in polycrystalline materials, obtained by means of the viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) model. These fluctuations give a tensorial measure of the trend of misorientation developing inside each single crystal grain representing a polycrystalline aggregate. We first report details of the algorithm implemented in the VPSC code to estimate these fluctuations, which are then validated by comparison with corresponding full-field calculations. Next, we present predictions of average intragranular fluctuations of lattice rotation rates for cubic aggregates, which are rationalized by comparison with experimental evidence on annealing textures of fccmore » and bcc polycrystals deformed in tension and compression, respectively, as well as with measured intragranular misorientation distributions in a Cu polycrystal deformed in tension. The orientation-dependent and micromechanically-based estimations of intragranular misorientations that can be derived from the present implementation are necessary to formulate sound sub-models for the prediction of quantitatively accurate deformation textures, grain fragmentation, and recrystallization textures using the VPSC approach.« less

  15. Table 10. Average Price of U.S. Steam Coal Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0. Average Price of U.S. Steam Coal Exports (dollars per short ton) Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination April - June 2016 January - March 2016 April - June 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change North America Total 46.45 40.85 71.02 44.10 71.11 -38.0 Canada* 59.39 85.43 69.55 66.79 71.43 -6.5 Dominican Republic 307.64 213.68 78.67 253.55 90.47 180.3 Guatemala 373.12 - 103.41 373.12 105.77 252.8 Honduras 45.60 - - 45.60 54.43 -16.2 Jamaica 139.81 38.10 90.72 38.29 68.54 -44.1 Mexico 37.53

  16. Table 12. Average Price of U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2. Average Price of U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports (dollars per short ton) Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination April - June 2016 January - March 2016 April - June 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change North America Total 78.05 91.86 97.73 83.50 96.50 -13.5 Canada* 73.44 88.10 98.87 78.69 96.39 -18.4 Honduras - 78.02 45.36 78.02 45.36 72.0 Mexico 111.25 111.56 103.74 111.40 105.60 5.5 Trinidad and Tobago - - 89.81 - 89.81 - South America Total 67.64 64.83 93.21 66.18 94.84 -30.2 Argentina

  17. Kubo–Greenwood approach to conductivity in dense plasmas with average atom models

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Starrett, C. E.

    2016-04-13

    In this study, a new formulation of the Kubo–Greenwood conductivity for average atom models is given. The new formulation improves upon previous treatments by explicitly including the ionic-structure factor. Calculations based on this new expression lead to much improved agreement with ab initio results for DC conductivity of warm dense hydrogen and beryllium, and for thermal conductivity of hydrogen. We also give and test a slightly modified Ziman–Evans formula for the resistivity that includes a non-free electron density of states, thus removing an ambiguity in the original Ziman–Evans formula. Again, results based on this expression are in good agreement withmore » ab initio simulations for warm dense beryllium and hydrogen. However, for both these expressions, calculations of the electrical conductivity of warm dense aluminum lead to poor agreement at low temperatures compared to ab initio simulations.« less

  18. Measurement of average density and relative volumes in a dispersed two-phase fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sreepada, Sastry R.; Rippel, Robert R.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and a method are disclosed for measuring the average density and relative volumes in an essentially transparent, dispersed two-phase fluid. A laser beam with a diameter no greater than 1% of the diameter of the bubbles, droplets, or particles of the dispersed phase is directed onto a diffraction grating. A single-order component of the diffracted beam is directed through the two-phase fluid and its refraction is measured. Preferably, the refracted beam exiting the fluid is incident upon a optical filter with linearly varing optical density and the intensity of the filtered beam is measured. The invention can be combined with other laser-based measurement systems, e.g., laser doppler anemometry.

  19. The impact of NRC guidance on concentration averaging on low level waste sealed source disposal - 11424

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitworth, Julia; Stewart, Bill; Cuthbertson, Abigail

    2011-01-20

    As part of its ongoing efforts to revise the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) current position on blending to be risk-informed and performance based and its current review of the low-level waste classification codified in 10 CFR 61.55, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has stated that it may review the 1995 'Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation' (BTP), which is still commonly used today. Such a review will have timely advantages, given the lack of commercial disposal availability within the United States for radioactive sealed sources that are in wide beneficial use across the country. The current application of the BTP guidance has resulted in an effective cap on commercial disposal for sources larger than 1.1 TBq (30 Ci). This paper will analyze how the BTP has been implemented with respect to sealed sources, what the implications have been for commercial disposal availability, and whether alternative packaging configurations could be considered for disposal.

  20. Angular Averaged Profiling of the Radial Electric Field in Compensated FTICR Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Robinson, Errol W.; Wu, Si; Smith, Richard D.; Futrell, Jean H.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2012-05-08

    A recent publication from this laboratory (1) reported a theoretical analysis comparing approaches for creating harmonic ICR cells. We considered two examples of static segmented cells - namely, a seven segment cell developed in this laboratory (2) and one described by Rempel et al (3), along with a recently described dynamically harmonized cell (4). This conceptual design for a dynamically harmonized cell has now been reduced to practice and first experimental results obtained with this cell were recently reported in this journal (5). This publication reports details of cell construction and describes its performance in a 7 Tesla Fourier Transform mass spectrometer. Herein, we describe the extension of theoretical analysis presented in (1) to include angular-averaged radial electric field calculations and a discussion of the influence of trapping plates.

  1. 2015 Total Electric Industry- Average Retail Price (cents/kWh)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Average Retail Price (cents/kWh) (Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A-D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U) State Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total New England 19.43 15.46 12.34 10.07 16.52 Connecticut 20.94 15.97 12.95 13.18 17.77 Maine 15.61 12.47 9.05 12.78 Massachusetts 19.83 15.79 13.54 7.76 16.90 New Hampshire 18.50 14.96 12.74 16.02 Rhode Island 19.29 15.78 13.76 18.54 17.01 Vermont 17.09 14.54 10.27 14.41 Middle Atlantic 15.97 13.13 7.32 11.72 13.00 New Jersey 15.81 12.79

  2. Average Neutron Total Cross Sections in the Unresolved Energy Range From ORELA High Resolutio Transmission Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derrien, H

    2004-05-27

    Average values of the neutron total cross sections of {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu have been obtained in the unresolved resonance energy range from high-resolution transmission measurements performed at ORELA in the past two decades. The cross sections were generated by correcting the effective total cross sections for the self-shielding effects due to the resonance structure of the data. The self-shielding factors were found by calculating the effective and true cross sections with the computer code SAMMY for the same Doppler and resolution conditions as for the transmission measurements, using an appropriate set of resonance parameters. Our results are compared to results of previous measurements and to the current ENDF/B-VI data.

  3. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan

    2014-09-12

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  4. United States Wind Resource Map: Annual Average Wind Speed at 30 Meters

    WindExchange

    30 m 21-FEB-2012 2.1.1 Wind Speed m/s >10.5 10.0 9.5 9.0 8.5 8.0 7.5 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 < 4.0 Source: Wind resource estimates developed by AWS Truepower, LLC. Web: http://www.awstruepower.com. Map developed by NREL. Spatial resolution of wind resource data: 2.0 km. Projection: Albers Equal Area WGS84. The average wind speeds indicated on this map are model-derived estimates that may not represent the true wind resource at any given location. Small terrain features, vegetation,

  5. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory and

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,635 1950's 3,742 3,944 4,132 4,069 4,070 4,101 4,080 4,174 4,118 4,220 1960's 4,213 4,285 4,408 4,405 4,431 4,510 4,478 4,385 4,738 4,881 1970's 4,943 4,858 4,974 5,041 4,662 4,661 4,577 4,708 4,760 4,689

  6. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennerly, J.M.; Lindner, G.M.; Rowe, J.C.

    1981-04-30

    This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.

  7. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennerly, John M. (Knoxville, TN); Lindner, Gordon M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rowe, John C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1982-01-01

    This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.

  8. A zonally averaged, three-basin ocean circulation model for climate studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovine, S.; Fichefet, T.

    1994-09-01

    A two-dimensional, three-basin ocean model suitable for long-term climate studies is developed. The model is based on the zonally averaged form of the primitive equations written in spherical coordinates. The east-west density difference which arises upon averaging the momentum equations is taken to be proportional to the meridional density gradient. Lateral exchanges of heat and salt between the basins are explicitly resolved. Moreover, the model includes bottom topography and has representations of the Arctic Ocean and of the Weddell and Ross seas. Under realistic restoring boundary conditions, the model reproduces the global conveyor belt: deep water is formed in the Atlantic between 60 and 70{degree}N at a rate of about 17 Sv (1 Sv=10{sup 6} m{sup 3}S{sup {minus}1}) and in the vicinity of the Antarctic continent, while the Indian and Pacific basins show broad upwelling. Superimposed on this thermohaline circulation are vigorous wind-driven cells in the upper thermocline. The simulated temperature and salinity fields and the computed meridional heat transport compare reasonably well with the observational estimates. When mixed boundary conditions i.e., a restoring condition no sea-surface temperature and flux condition on sea-surface salinity are applied, the model exhibits an irregular behavior before reaching a steady state characterized by self-sustained oscillations of 8.5-y period. The conveyor-belt circulation always results at this stage. A series of perturbation experiments illustrates the ability of the model to reproduce different steady-state circulations under mixed boundary conditions. Finally, the model sensitivity to various factors is examined. This sensitivity study reveals that the bottom topography and the presence of a submarine meridional ridge in the zone of the Drake passage play a crucial role in determining the properties of the model bottom-water masses. The importance of the seasonality of the surface forcing is also stressed.

  9. U.S. gasoline price expected to average less than $2 a gallon both this year and next

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    U.S. gasoline price expected to average less than $2 a gallon both this year and next U.S. drivers are now expected to see back-to-back years of annual average gasoline prices below $2 per gallon for the first time in more than a decade. In its latest monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said low oil prices will keep the average annual price for a gallon of regular-grade gasoline at $1.89 this year and at $1.97 in 2017. The last time gasoline averaged less than $2 for two

  10. Averages of B-Hadron, C-Hadron, and tau-lepton properties as of early 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amhis, Y.; et al.

    2012-07-01

    This article reports world averages of measurements of b-hadron, c-hadron, and tau-lepton properties obtained by the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) using results available through the end of 2011. In some cases results available in the early part of 2012 are included. For the averaging, common input parameters used in the various analyses are adjusted (rescaled) to common values, and known correlations are taken into account. The averages include branching fractions, lifetimes, neutral meson mixing parameters, CP violation parameters, parameters of semileptonic decays and CKM matrix elements.

  11. Fact #851: December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used in Transmissions Continues to Rise – Dataset

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #851: December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used in Transmissions Continues to Rise

  12. Comparison of Two Gas Selection Methodologies: An Application of Bayesian Model Averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renholds, Andrea S.; Thompson, Sandra E.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Chilton, Lawrence K.

    2006-03-31

    One goal of hyperspectral imagery analysis is the detection and characterization of plumes. Characterization includes identifying the gases in the plumes, which is a model selection problem. Two gas selection methods compared in this report are Bayesian model averaging (BMA) and minimum Akaike information criterion (AIC) stepwise regression (SR). Simulated spectral data from a three-layer radiance transfer model were used to compare the two methods. Test gases were chosen to span the types of spectra observed, which exhibit peaks ranging from broad to sharp. The size and complexity of the search libraries were varied. Background materials were chosen to either replicate a remote area of eastern Washington or feature many common background materials. For many cases, BMA and SR performed the detection task comparably in terms of the receiver operating characteristic curves. For some gases, BMA performed better than SR when the size and complexity of the search library increased. This is encouraging because we expect improved BMA performance upon incorporation of prior information on background materials and gases.

  13. Evaluation of machine learning algorithms for prediction of regions of high Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes uncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ling, Julia; Templeton, Jeremy Alan

    2015-08-04

    Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) models are widely used in industry to predict fluid flows, despite their acknowledged deficiencies. Not only do RANS models often produce inaccurate flow predictions, but there are very limited diagnostics available to assess RANS accuracy for a given flow configuration. If experimental or higher fidelity simulation results are not available for RANS validation, there is no reliable method to evaluate RANS accuracy. This paper explores the potential of utilizing machine learning algorithms to identify regions of high RANS uncertainty. Three different machine learning algorithms were evaluated: support vector machines, Adaboost decision trees, and random forests. The algorithms were trained on a database of canonical flow configurations for which validated direct numerical simulation or large eddy simulation results were available, and were used to classify RANS results on a point-by-point basis as having either high or low uncertainty, based on the breakdown of specific RANS modeling assumptions. Classifiers were developed for three different basic RANS eddy viscosity model assumptions: the isotropy of the eddy viscosity, the linearity of the Boussinesq hypothesis, and the non-negativity of the eddy viscosity. It is shown that these classifiers are able to generalize to flows substantially different from those on which they were trained. As a result, feature selection techniques, model evaluation, and extrapolation detection are discussed in the context of turbulence modeling applications.

  14. Evaluation of machine learning algorithms for prediction of regions of high Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes uncertainty

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Ling, Julia; Templeton, Jeremy Alan

    2015-08-04

    Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) models are widely used in industry to predict fluid flows, despite their acknowledged deficiencies. Not only do RANS models often produce inaccurate flow predictions, but there are very limited diagnostics available to assess RANS accuracy for a given flow configuration. If experimental or higher fidelity simulation results are not available for RANS validation, there is no reliable method to evaluate RANS accuracy. This paper explores the potential of utilizing machine learning algorithms to identify regions of high RANS uncertainty. Three different machine learning algorithms were evaluated: support vector machines, Adaboost decision trees, and random forests.more » The algorithms were trained on a database of canonical flow configurations for which validated direct numerical simulation or large eddy simulation results were available, and were used to classify RANS results on a point-by-point basis as having either high or low uncertainty, based on the breakdown of specific RANS modeling assumptions. Classifiers were developed for three different basic RANS eddy viscosity model assumptions: the isotropy of the eddy viscosity, the linearity of the Boussinesq hypothesis, and the non-negativity of the eddy viscosity. It is shown that these classifiers are able to generalize to flows substantially different from those on which they were trained. As a result, feature selection techniques, model evaluation, and extrapolation detection are discussed in the context of turbulence modeling applications.« less

  15. Twist-averaged boundary conditions for nuclear pasta Hartree-Fock calculations

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Schuetrumpf, B.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2015-10-21

    Nuclear pasta phases, present in the inner crust of neutron stars, are associated with nucleonic matter at subsaturation densities arranged in regular shapes. Those complex phases, residing in a layer which is approximately 100-m thick, impact many features of neutron stars. Theoretical quantum-mechanical simulations of nuclear pasta are usually carried out in finite three-dimensional boxes assuming periodic boundary conditions. The resulting solutions are affected by spurious finite-size effects. To remove spurious finite-size effects, it is convenient to employ twist-averaged boundary conditions (TABC) used in condensed matter, nuclear matter, and lattice quantum chromodynamics applications. In this work, we study the effectivenessmore » of TABC in the context of pasta phase simulations within nuclear density functional theory. We demonstrated that by applying TABC reliable results can be obtained from calculations performed in relatively small volumes. By studying various contributions to the total energy, we gain insights into pasta phases in mid-density range. Future applications will include the TABC extension of the adaptive multiresolution 3D Hartree-Fock solver and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov TABC applications to superfluid pasta phases and complex nucleonic topologies as in fission.« less

  16. Twist-averaged boundary conditions for nuclear pasta Hartree-Fock calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuetrumpf, B.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2015-10-21

    Nuclear pasta phases, present in the inner crust of neutron stars, are associated with nucleonic matter at subsaturation densities arranged in regular shapes. Those complex phases, residing in a layer which is approximately 100-m thick, impact many features of neutron stars. Theoretical quantum-mechanical simulations of nuclear pasta are usually carried out in finite three-dimensional boxes assuming periodic boundary conditions. The resulting solutions are affected by spurious finite-size effects. To remove spurious finite-size effects, it is convenient to employ twist-averaged boundary conditions (TABC) used in condensed matter, nuclear matter, and lattice quantum chromodynamics applications. In this work, we study the effectiveness of TABC in the context of pasta phase simulations within nuclear density functional theory. We demonstrated that by applying TABC reliable results can be obtained from calculations performed in relatively small volumes. By studying various contributions to the total energy, we gain insights into pasta phases in mid-density range. Future applications will include the TABC extension of the adaptive multiresolution 3D Hartree-Fock solver and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov TABC applications to superfluid pasta phases and complex nucleonic topologies as in fission.

  17. Use of SPMDs to determine average water concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban stormwater runoff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVita, W.; Crunkilton, R.

    1995-12-31

    Semipermeable polymeric membrane devices (SPMDS) were deployed for 30 day periods to monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an urban stream which receives much of its flow from urban runoff. SPMDs are capable of effectively sampling several liters of water per day for some PAHs. Unlike conventional methods, SPMDs sample only those non-polar organic contaminants which are truly dissolved and available for bioconcentration. Also, SPMDs may concentrate contaminants from episodic events such as stormwater discharge. The State of Wisconsin has established surface water quality criteria based upon human lifetime cancer risk of 23 ppt for benzo(a)pyrene and 23 ppt as the sum of nine other potentially carcinogenic PAHs. Bulk water samples analyzed by conventional methodology were routinely well above this criteria, but contained particulate bound PAHs as well as PAHs bound by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) which are not available for bioconcentration. Average water concentrations of dissolved PAHs determined using SPMDs were also above this criteria. Variables used for determining water concentration included sampling rate at the exposure temperature, length of exposure and estimation of biofouling of SPMD surface.

  18. Cylinder-averaged histories of nitrogen oxide in a D.I. diesel with simulated turbocharging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donahue, R.J.; Borman, G.L.; Bower, G.R.

    1994-10-20

    An experimental study was conducted using the dumping technique (total cylinder sampling) to produce cylinder mass-averaged nitric oxide histories. Data were taken using a four stroke diesel research engine employing a quiescent chamber, high pressure direct ijection fuel system, and simulated turbocharging. Two fuels were used to determine fuel cetane number effects. Two loads were run, one at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 and the other at a ratio of 0.3. The engine speed was held constant at 1500 rpm. Under the turbocharged and retarded timing conditions of this study, nitric oxide was produced up to the point of about 85% mass burned. Two different models were used to simulate the engine mn conditions: the phenomenological Hiroyasu spray-combustion model, and the three dimensional, U.W.-ERO modified KIVA-lI computational fluid dynamic code. Both of the models predicted the correct nitric oxide trend. Although the modified KIVA-lI combustion model using Zeldovich kinetics correctly predicted the shapes of the nitric oxide histories, it did not predict the exhaust concentrations without arbitrary adjustment based on experimental values.

  19. Dynamical interpretation of average fission-fragment kinetic energy systematics and nuclear scission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nadtochy, P.N. [GSI, Plankstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Omsk State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mira Prospect 55-A, RU-644077 Omsk (Russian Federation); Adeev, G.D. [Omsk State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mira Prospect 55-A, RU-644077 Omsk (Russian Federation)

    2005-11-01

    A dynamical interpretation of the well-known systematics for average total kinetic energy of fission fragments over a wide range of the Coulomb parameter (600 on the Coulomb parameter. The results of dynamical calculations of within three-dimensional Langevin dynamics show that the mean distance between the centers of mass of nascent fragments at the scission configuration increases linearly with the parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3}. This distance changes approximately from 2.35R{sub 0} for {sup 119}Xe to 2.6R{sub 0} for {sup 256}Fm. In spite of this increase in mean distance between future fragments at scission, the linear dependence of on the parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3} remains approximately valid over a wide range of the Coulomb parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3}.

  20. Design and component specifications for high average power laser optical systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Neil, R.W.; Sawicki, R.H.; Johnson, S.A.; Sweatt, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    Laser imaging and transport systems are considered in the regime where laser-induced damage and/or thermal distortion have significant design implications. System design and component specifications are discussed and quantified in terms of the net system transport efficiency and phase budget. Optical substrate materials, figure, surface roughness, coatings, and sizing are considered in the context of visible and near-ir optical systems that have been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for laser isotope separation applications. In specific examples of general applicability, details of the bulk and/or surface absorption, peak and/or average power damage threshold, coating characteristics and function, substrate properties, or environmental factors will be shown to drive the component size, placement, and shape in high-power systems. To avoid overstressing commercial fabrication capabilities or component design specifications, procedures will be discussed for compensating for aberration buildup, using a few carefully placed adjustable mirrors. By coupling an aggressive measurements program on substrates and coatings to the design effort, an effective technique has been established to project high-power system performance realistically and, in the process, drive technology developments to improve performance or lower cost in large-scale laser optical systems. 13 refs.

  1. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 4,232 1950's 4,335 4,609 4,781 4,761 4,740 4,819 4,901 5,036 4,993 5,021 1960's 5,170 5,099 5,124 4,878 5,509 5,672 5,700 5,758 5,914 6,054 1970's 6,247 5,745 5,880 6,243 5,855 5,913 6,010 5,902 6,067 6,011 1980's 5,727 5,853 5,504 5,141 5,565 5,865 6,069 6,104 6,182 6,028 1990's 6,838 6,641 6,930 6,627 6,671

  2. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    (Feet per Well) and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,720 1950's 3,893 4,103 4,214 4,033 4,028 3,981 3,942 4,021 3,916 3,935 1960's 3,889 3,994 4,070 4,063 4,042 4,059 4,013 3,825 4,153 4,286 1970's 4,385 4,126 4,330 4,369 3,812 3,943 3,895 4,025 4,017 3,966 1980's 3,801 3,923 3,793 3,662 3,791 3,906 3,999

  3. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Developmental Wells

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Drilled (Feet per Well) Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,568 1950's 3,691 3,851 3,999 3,880 3,905 3,904 3,880 3,966 3,907 3,999 1960's 4,020 4,064 4,227 4,193 4,179 4,288 4,112 4,004 4,328 4,431 1970's 4,610 4,480 4,590 4,687 4,249 4,285 4,214 4,404 4,421 4,374 1980's 4,166 4,209 4,225 4,004 4,125

  4. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory Wells

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Drilled (Feet per Well) Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,842 1950's 3,898 4,197 4,476 4,557 4,550 4,632 4,587 4,702 4,658 4,795 1960's 4,770 4,953 4,966 5,016 5,174 5,198 5,402 5,388 5,739 5,924 1970's 5,885 5,915 6,015 5,955 5,777 5,842 5,825 5,798 5,978 5,916 1980's 5,733 5,793 5,597 5,035 5,369 5,544 5,680 5,563

  5. U.S. Average Depth of Dry Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    per Well) Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Dry Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,473 1950's 3,445 3,706 3,983 4,004 4,004 4,161 4,079 4,126 4,110 4,275 1960's 4,248 4,311 4,524 4,552 4,598 4,723 4,573 4,616 5,053 5,195 1970's 5,265 5,305 5,377 5,403 5,191 5,073 5,014 5,120 5,183 5,071 1980's 4,791 4,827 4,691 4,320 4,631 4,733 4,763

  6. U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,225 1950's 3,077 3,255 3,520 3,401 3,512 3,699 3,574 3,605 3,631 3,844 1960's 3,889 3,782 4,239 4,143 4,207 4,446 3,900 3,901 4,311 4,437 1970's 4,714 4,633 4,725 4,851 4,599 4,415 4,439 4,662 4,600 4,517 1980's 4,214 4,226 4,184 3,974 4,205 4,306 4,236 4,390 4,704 4,684 1990's 4,755 4,629

  7. U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,658 1950's 3,733 4,059 4,334 4,447 4,408 4,498 4,425 4,488 4,449 4,602 1960's 4,575 4,799 4,790 4,933 4,980 5,007 5,117 5,188 5,589 5,739 1970's 5,700 5,796 5,882 5,808 5,649 5,674 5,607 5,605 5,812 5,716 1980's 5,533 5,582 5,367 4,800 5,178 5,317 5,447 5,294 5,748 5,579 1990's 5,685 5,658 5,480

  8. U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Well) Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,412 1950's 3,766 3,837 4,015 4,373 4,365 4,339 4,734 4,950 4,801 5,120 1960's 5,321 5,145 5,186 5,198 5,171 5,337 5,474 5,629 5,716 5,531 1970's 5,644 5,670 5,259 5,286 5,173 5,238 4,960 5,053 5,066 5,082 1980's 5,093 5,149 5,453 5,187 5,158 5,193 5,080 5,112 5,155 5,038 1990's

  9. U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 5,682 1950's 5,466 5,497 6,071 5,654 6,059 5,964 6,301 6,898 6,657 6,613 1960's 6,298 6,457 6,728 6,370 7,547 7,295 8,321 7,478 7,697 8,092 1970's 7,695 7,649 7,400 6,596 6,456 6,748 6,777 6,625 6,662 6,630 1980's 6,604 6,772 6,921 6,395 6,502 6,787 6,777 6,698 6,683 6,606 1990's 7,100 7,122 6,907 6,482 6,564

  10. U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory and Developmental Wells

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Drilled (Feet per Well) and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1940's 3,698 1950's 3,979 4,056 4,342 4,599 4,670 4,672 5,018 5,326 5,106 5,396 1960's 5,486 5,339 5,408 5,368 5,453 5,562 5,928 5,898 5,994 5,918 1970's 5,860 5,890 5,516 5,488 5,387 5,470 5,220 5,254 5,262 5,275 1980's 5,275 5,351 5,617 5,319 5,276

  11. A Comparative Study of the Harmonic and Arithmetic Averaging of Diffusion Coefficients for Non-linear Heat Conduction Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samet Y. Kadioglu; Robert R. Nourgaliev; Vincent A. Mousseau

    2008-03-01

    We perform a comparative study for the harmonic versus arithmetic averaging of the heat conduction coefficient when solving non-linear heat transfer problems. In literature, the harmonic average is the method of choice, because it is widely believed that the harmonic average is more accurate model. However, our analysis reveals that this is not necessarily true. For instance, we show a case in which the harmonic average is less accurate when a coarser mesh is used. More importantly, we demonstrated that if the boundary layers are finely resolved, then the harmonic and arithmetic averaging techniques are identical in the truncation error sense. Our analysis further reveals that the accuracy of these two techniques depends on how the physical problem is modeled.

  12. Search for the production of single vector-like and excited quarks in the Wt final state in pp collisions at √s = 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; et al

    2016-02-17

    A search for vector-like quarks and excited quarks in events containing a top quark and a W boson in the final state is reported here. The search is based on 20.3 fb-1 of proton-proton collision data taken at the LHC at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector. Events with one or two leptons, and one, two or three jets are selected with the additional requirement that at least one jet contains a b-quark. Single-lepton events are also required to contain at least one large-radius jet from the hadronic decay of a high-pT W boson ormore » a top quark. No significant excess over the expected background is observed and upper limits on the cross-section times branching ratio for different vector-like quark and excited-quark model masses are derived. As a result, for the excited-quark production and decay to Wt with unit couplings, quarks with masses below 1500 GeV are excluded and coupling-dependent limits are set.« less

  13. A quantitative approach to the characterization of cumulative and average solvent exposure in paint manufacturing plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, D.P.; Schwartz, B.S.; Powell, S.; Nelson, T.; Keller, L.; Sides, S.; Agnew, J.; Bolla, K.; Bleecker, M. )

    1991-06-01

    Previous reports have attributed a range of neurobehavioral effects to low-level, occupational solvent exposure. These studies have generally been limited in their exposure assessments and have specifically lacked good estimates of exposure intensity. In the present study, the authors describe the development of two exposure variables that quantitatively integrate industrial hygiene sampling data with estimates of exposure duration--a cumulative exposure (CE) estimate and a lifetime weighted average exposure (LWAE) estimate. Detailed occupational histories were obtained from 187 workers at two paint manufacturing plants. Historic industrial hygiene sampling data for total hydrocarbons (a composite variable of the major neurotoxic solvents present) were grouped according to 20 uniform, temporally stable exposure zones, which had been defined during plant walk-through surveys. Sampling at the time of the study was used to characterize the few zones for which historic data were limited or unavailable. For each participant, the geometric mean total hydrocarbon level for each exposure zone worked in was multiplied by the duration of employment in that zone; the resulting products were summed over the working lifetime to create the CE variable. The CE variable was divided by the total duration of employment in solvent-exposed jobs to create the LWAE variable. The explanatory value of each participant's LWAE estimate in the regression of simple visual reaction time (a neurobehavioral test previously shown to be affected by chronic solvent exposure) on exposure was compared with that of several other exposure variables, including exposure duration and an exposure variable based on an ordinal ranking of the exposure zones.

  14. Maximum likelihood Bayesian model averaging and its predictive analysis for groundwater reactive transport models

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Lu, Dan; Ye, Ming; Curtis, Gary P.

    2015-08-01

    While Bayesian model averaging (BMA) has been widely used in groundwater modeling, it is infrequently applied to groundwater reactive transport modeling because of multiple sources of uncertainty in the coupled hydrogeochemical processes and because of the long execution time of each model run. To resolve these problems, this study analyzed different levels of uncertainty in a hierarchical way, and used the maximum likelihood version of BMA, i.e., MLBMA, to improve the computational efficiency. Our study demonstrates the applicability of MLBMA to groundwater reactive transport modeling in a synthetic case in which twenty-seven reactive transport models were designed to predict themore » reactive transport of hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) based on observations at a former uranium mill site near Naturita, CO. Moreover, these reactive transport models contain three uncertain model components, i.e., parameterization of hydraulic conductivity, configuration of model boundary, and surface complexation reactions that simulate U(VI) adsorption. These uncertain model components were aggregated into the alternative models by integrating a hierarchical structure into MLBMA. The modeling results of the individual models and MLBMA were analyzed to investigate their predictive performance. The predictive logscore results show that MLBMA generally outperforms the best model, suggesting that using MLBMA is a sound strategy to achieve more robust model predictions relative to a single model. MLBMA works best when the alternative models are structurally distinct and have diverse model predictions. When correlation in model structure exists, two strategies were used to improve predictive performance by retaining structurally distinct models or assigning smaller prior model probabilities to correlated models. Since the synthetic models were designed using data from the Naturita site, the results of this study are expected to provide guidance for real-world modeling. Finally

  15. Maximum likelihood Bayesian model averaging and its predictive analysis for groundwater reactive transport models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Dan; Ye, Ming; Curtis, Gary P.

    2015-08-01

    While Bayesian model averaging (BMA) has been widely used in groundwater modeling, it is infrequently applied to groundwater reactive transport modeling because of multiple sources of uncertainty in the coupled hydrogeochemical processes and because of the long execution time of each model run. To resolve these problems, this study analyzed different levels of uncertainty in a hierarchical way, and used the maximum likelihood version of BMA, i.e., MLBMA, to improve the computational efficiency. Our study demonstrates the applicability of MLBMA to groundwater reactive transport modeling in a synthetic case in which twenty-seven reactive transport models were designed to predict the reactive transport of hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) based on observations at a former uranium mill site near Naturita, CO. Moreover, these reactive transport models contain three uncertain model components, i.e., parameterization of hydraulic conductivity, configuration of model boundary, and surface complexation reactions that simulate U(VI) adsorption. These uncertain model components were aggregated into the alternative models by integrating a hierarchical structure into MLBMA. The modeling results of the individual models and MLBMA were analyzed to investigate their predictive performance. The predictive logscore results show that MLBMA generally outperforms the best model, suggesting that using MLBMA is a sound strategy to achieve more robust model predictions relative to a single model. MLBMA works best when the alternative models are structurally distinct and have diverse model predictions. When correlation in model structure exists, two strategies were used to improve predictive performance by retaining structurally distinct models or assigning smaller prior model probabilities to correlated models. Since the synthetic models were designed using data from the Naturita site, the results of this study are expected to provide guidance for real-world modeling. Finally, limitations of

  16. U.S. average gasoline and diesel fuel prices expected to be slightly lower in 2013 than in 2012

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    average gasoline and diesel fuel prices expected to be slightly lower in 2013 than in 2012 Despite the recent run-up in gasoline prices, the U.S. Energy Information Administration expects falling crude oil prices will lead to a small decline in average motor fuel costs this year compared with last year. The price for regular gasoline is expected to average $3.55 a gallon in 2013 and $3.39 next year, according to EIA's new Short-Term Energy Outlook. That's down from $3.63 a gallon in 2012. For

  17. Does the orbit-averaged theory require a scale separation between periodic orbit size and perturbation correlation length?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wenlu; Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 ; Lin, Zhihong; Fusion Simulation Center, Peking University, Beijing 100871

    2013-10-15

    Using the canonical perturbation theory, we show that the orbit-averaged theory only requires a time-scale separation between equilibrium and perturbed motions and verifies the widely accepted notion that orbit averaging effects greatly reduce the microturbulent transport of energetic particles in a tokamak. Therefore, a recent claim [Hauff and Jenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 075004 (2009); Jenko et al., ibid. 107, 239502 (2011)] stating that the orbit-averaged theory requires a scale separation between equilibrium orbit size and perturbation correlation length is erroneous.

  18. Improved volume-averaged model for steady and pulsed-power electronegative discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sungjin; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.; Gudmundsson, J. T.

    2006-11-15

    An improved volume-averaged global model is developed for a cylindrical (radius R, length L) electronegative (EN) plasma that is applicable over a wide range of electron densities, electronegativities, and pressures. It is applied to steady and pulsed-power oxygen discharges. The model incorporates effective volume and surface loss factors for positive ions, negative ions, and electrons combining three electronegative discharge regimes: a two-region regime with a parabolic EN core surrounded by an electropositive edge, a one-region parabolic EN plasma, and a one-region flat-topped EN plasma, spanning the plasma parameters and gas pressures of interest for low pressure processing (below a few hundred millitorr). Pressure-dependent effective volume and surface loss factors are also used for the neutral species. A set of reaction rate coefficients, updated from previous model calculations, is developed for oxygen for the species O{sub 2}, O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}{sub g}), O, O{sub 2}{sup +}, O{sup +}, and O{sup -}, based on the latest published cross-section sets and measurements. The model solutions yield all of the quantities above together with such important processing quantities such as the neutral/ion flux ratio {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i}, with the discharge aspect ratio 2R/L and pulsed-power period and duty ratio (pulse on-time/pulse period) as parameters. The steady discharge results are compared to an experiment, giving good agreement. For steady discharges, increasing 2R/L from 1 to 6 leads to a factor of 0.45 reduction in {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i}. For pulsed discharges with a fixed duty ratio, {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i} is found to have a minimum with respect to pulse period. A 25% duty ratio pulse reduces {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i} by a factor of 0.75 compared to the steady-state case.

  19. Fact #638: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car Declines in Relation to Family Earnings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Although the average expenditure for a new car has increased from 1967 to 2009, family earnings have also been on the rise. For this period, new car expenditures went from $3,216 to $23,186, while...

  20. Fact #794: August 26, 2013 How Much Does an Average Vehicle Owner Pay in Fuel Taxes Each Year?

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    According to the Federal Highway Administration, the average fuel economy for all light vehicles on the road today is 21.4 miles per gallon (mpg). A person owning a gasoline vehicle with that fuel...

  1. Horizontal-Velocity and Variance Measurements in the Stable Boundary Layer Using Doppler Lidar: Sensitivity to Averaging Procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pichugina, Yelena L.; Banta, Robert M.; Kelley, Neil D.; Jonkman, Bonnie J.; Tucker, Sara C.; Newsom, Rob K.; Brewer, W. A.

    2008-08-01

    Quantitative data on turbulence variables aloft--above the region of the atmosphere conveniently measured from towers--has been an important but difficult measurement need for advancing understanding and modeling of the stable boundary layer (SBL). Vertical profiles of streamwise velocity variances obtained from NOAAs High Resolution Doppler Lidar (HRDL), which have been shown to be numerically equivalent to turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) for stable conditions, are a measure of the turbulence in the SBL. In the present study, the mean horizontal wind component U and variance ?u2 were computed from HRDL measurements of the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity using a technique described in Banta, et al. (2002). The technique was tested on datasets obtained during the Lamar Low-Level Jet Project (LLLJP) carried out in early September 2003, near the town of Lamar in southeastern Colorado. This paper compares U with mean wind speed obtained from sodar and sonic anemometer measurements. It then describes several series of averaging tests that produced the best correlation between TKE calculated from sonic anemometer data at several tower levels and lidar measurements of horizontal velocity variance ?u2. The results show high correlation (0.71-0.97) of the mean U and average wind speed measured by sodar and in-situ instruments, independent of sampling strategies and averaging procedures. Comparison of estimates of variance, on the other hand, proved sensitive to both the spatial and temporal averaging techniques.

  2. Horizontal Velocity and Variance Measurements in the Stable Boundary Layer Using Doppler Lidar: Sensitivity to Averaging Procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pichugina, Y. L.; Banta, R. M.; Kelley, N. D.; Jonkman, B. J.; Tucker, S. C.; Newsom, R. K.; Brewer, W. A.

    2008-08-01

    Quantitative data on turbulence variables aloft--above the region of the atmosphere conveniently measured from towers--have been an important but difficult measurement need for advancing understanding and modeling of the stable boundary layer (SBL). Vertical profiles of streamwise velocity variances obtained from NOAA's high-resolution Doppler lidar (HRDL), which have been shown to be approximately equal to turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) for stable conditions, are a measure of the turbulence in the SBL. In the present study, the mean horizontal wind component U and variance {sigma}2u were computed from HRDL measurements of the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity using a method described by Banta et al., which uses an elevation (vertical slice) scanning technique. The method was tested on datasets obtained during the Lamar Low-Level Jet Project (LLLJP) carried out in early September 2003, near the town of Lamar in southeastern Colorado. This paper compares U with mean wind speed obtained from sodar and sonic anemometer measurements. The results for the mean U and mean wind speed measured by sodar and in situ instruments for all nights of LLLJP show high correlation (0.71-0.97), independent of sampling strategies and averaging procedures, and correlation coefficients consistently >0.9 for four high-wind nights, when the low-level jet speeds exceeded 15 m s{sup -1} at some time during the night. Comparison of estimates of variance, on the other hand, proved sensitive to both the spatial and temporal averaging parameters. Several series of averaging tests are described, to find the best correlation between TKE calculated from sonic anemometer data at several tower levels and lidar measurements of horizontal-velocity variance {sigma}{sup 2}{sub u}. Because of the nonstationarity of the SBL data, the best results were obtained when the velocity data were first averaged over intervals of 1 min, and then further averaged over 3-15 consecutive 1-min intervals, with best results

  3. Average Residential Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    16.21 16.78 16.37 12.59 10.06 1973-2015 Alabama 19.49 20.35 20.60 20.38 19.12 17.67 1989-2015 Alaska 11.38 11.78 11.50 9.86 9.44 8.89 1989-2015 Arizona 21.53 23.59 24.01 23.01...

  4. Average Commercial Price

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Show Data By: Data Series Area 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History District of ... Florida 10.60 11.14 10.41 10.87 11.42 10.92 1967-2015 Georgia 10.95 10.51 9.75 9.38 9.86 ...

  5. Average Residential Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Show Data By: Data Series Area 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History District of ... Ohio 11.13 10.78 9.91 9.46 10.16 9.51 1967-2015 Pennsylvania 12.90 12.46 11.99 ...

  6. Average Commercial Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    9.47 8.91 8.10 8.08 8.90 7.89 1967-2015 Alabama 13.34 12.36 12.56 12.35 11.92 11.03 1967-2015 Alaska 8.78 8.09 8.09 8.34 8.30 7.80 1967-2015 Arizona 10.72 9.99 9.35 8.76 10.34 ...

  7. Average Residential Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    11.39 11.03 10.65 10.32 10.97 10.38 1967-2015 Alabama 15.79 15.08 16.20 15.47 14.59 13.95 1967-2015 Alaska 8.89 8.77 8.47 8.85 9.11 9.68 1967-2015 Arizona 15.87 15.04 15.75 13.92 ...

  8. Average Commercial Price

    Annual Energy Outlook

    30 10.21 10.24 10.24 11.31 12.12 1989-2016 Florida 10.61 10.48 10.27 10.18 10.40 10.46 1989-2016 Georgia 6.98 7.33 7.89 8.11 8.44 9.05 1989-2016 Maryland 8.14 8.82 NA NA 9.79 11.50 ...

  9. Average Residential Price

    Annual Energy Outlook

    53 10.72 10.55 12.56 15.35 18.38 1989-2016 Florida 16.13 17.20 17.98 20.69 22.59 24.18 1989-2016 Georgia 10.90 12.90 16.27 20.07 24.64 25.97 1989-2016 Maryland 9.44 11.02 NA 12.63 ...

  10. Average Commercial Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Pipeline and Distribution Use Price Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Vehicle Fuel Price Electric Power Price Proved Reserves as of 12/31 Reserves Adjustments Reserves Revision Increases Reserves Revision Decreases Reserves Sales Reserves Acquisitions Reserves Extensions Reserves New Field Discoveries New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields Number of Producing Gas Wells Number of Gas Producing Oil Wells Estimated Production Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals

  11. Average Commercial Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  12. Average Residential Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Pipeline and Distribution Use Price Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Vehicle Fuel Price Electric Power Price Proved Reserves as of 12/31 Reserves Adjustments Reserves Revision Increases Reserves Revision Decreases Reserves Sales Reserves Acquisitions Reserves Extensions Reserves New Field Discoveries New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields Number of Producing Gas Wells Number of Gas Producing Oil Wells Estimated Production Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals

  13. Average Residential Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  14. Average Commercial Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    8.45 8.37 7.74 7.38 7.21 6.66 1973-2016 Alabama 11.93 11.75 11.40 11.47 10.73 9.81 1989-2016 Alaska 7.89 7.03 7.67 7.43 7.39 7.18 1989-2016 Arizona 10.52 10.40 10.14 9.36 9.17 8.93 ...

  15. Computing the partition function, ensemble averages, and density of states for lattice spin systems by sampling the mean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillespie, Dirk

    2013-10-01

    An algorithm to approximately calculate the partition function (and subsequently ensemble averages) and density of states of lattice spin systems through non-Monte-Carlo random sampling is developed. This algorithm (called the sampling-the-mean algorithm) can be applied to models where the up or down spins at lattice nodes interact to change the spin states of other lattice nodes, especially non-Ising-like models with long-range interactions such as the biological model considered here. Because it is based on the Central Limit Theorem of probability, the sampling-the-mean algorithm also gives estimates of the error in the partition function, ensemble averages, and density of states. Easily implemented parallelization strategies and error minimizing sampling strategies are discussed. The sampling-the-mean method works especially well for relatively small systems, systems with a density of energy states that contains sharp spikes or oscillations, or systems with little a priori knowledge of the density of states.

  16. Dynamic evolution of temporal dissipative-soliton molecules in large normal path-averaged dispersion fiber lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Xueming

    2010-12-15

    The robust dissipative soliton molecules (DSM's) exhibiting as the quasirectangular spectral profile are investigated numerically and observed experimentally in mode-locked fiber lasers with the large normal path-averaged dispersion and the large net cavity dispersion. These DSM's have an independently evolving phase with a pulse duration T{sub 0} of about 20 ps and a peak-to-peak separation of about 8T{sub 0}. Under laboratory conditions, the proposed laser delivers vibrating DSM's with an oscillating amplitude of less than a percent of peak separation. Numerical simulations show that DSM's are characterized by a spectral modulation pattern with about a 3-dB modulation depth measured as an averaged value. The experimental observations are in excellent agreement with the numerical predictions.

  17. Edge-facet pumped, multi-aperture, thin-disk laser geometry for very high average power output scaling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zapata, Luis E.

    2004-12-21

    The average power output of a laser is scaled, to first order, by increasing the transverse dimension of the gain medium while increasing the thickness of an index matched light guide proportionately. Strategic facets cut at the edges of the laminated gain medium provide a method by which the pump light introduced through edges of the composite structure is trapped and passes through the gain medium repeatedly. Spontaneous emission escapes the laser volume via these facets. A multi-faceted disk geometry with grooves cut into the thickness of the gain medium is optimized to passively reject spontaneous emission generated within the laser material, which would otherwise be trapped and amplified within the high index composite disk. Such geometry allows the useful size of the laser aperture to be increased, enabling the average laser output power to be scaled.

  18. Computation of Domain-Averaged Irradiance with a Simple Two-Stream Radiative Transfer Model Including Vertical Cloud Property Correlations

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Computation of Domain-Averaged Irradiance with a Simple Two-Stream Radiative Transfer Model Including Vertical Cloud Property Correlations S. Kato Center for Atmospheric Sciences Hampton University Hampton, Virginia Introduction Recent development of remote sensing instruments by Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM?) Program provides information of spatial and temporal variability of cloud structures. However it is not clear what cloud properties are required to express complicated cloud

  19. Closure of the Averaged Equations for Disperse Two-Phase Flow by Direct Numerical Simulation: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrea Prosperetti

    2006-03-24

    The report briefly describes the activities carried out in the course of the project. A first line of research was the development of systematic closure relations for averaged equations for disperse multiphase flow. A second line was the development of efficient numerical methods for the simulation of Navier-Stokes flows with many suspended particles. The report also lists the 21 journal articles in which this work is more fully decsribed.

  20. Retrieval of Areal-averaged Spectral Surface Albedo from Transmission Data Alone: Computationally Simple and Fast Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Michalsky, Joseph; Hodges, G. B.

    2014-10-25

    We introduce and evaluate a simple retrieval of areal-averaged surface albedo using ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission alone at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673 and 870nm), under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line semi-analytical equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties, such as cloud optical depth and asymmetry parameter, in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. To illustrate the performance of our retrieval, we use as input measurements of spectral atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). These MFRSR data are collected at two well-established continental sites in the United States supported by the U.S. Department of Energys (DOEs) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The areal-averaged albedos obtained from the MFRSR are compared with collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) white-sky albedo. In particular, these comparisons are made at four MFRSR wavelengths (500, 615, 673 and 870nm) and for four seasons (winter, spring, summer and fall) at the ARM site using multi-year (2008-2013) MFRSR and MODIS data. Good agreement, on average, for these wavelengths results in small values (?0.01) of the corresponding root mean square errors (RMSEs) for these two sites. The obtained RMSEs are comparable with those obtained previously for the shortwave albedos (MODIS-derived versus tower-measured) for these sites during growing seasons. We also demonstrate good agreement between tower-based daily-averaged surface albedos measured for nearby overcast and non-overcast days. Thus, our retrieval originally developed for overcast conditions likely can be extended for non-overcast days by interpolating between overcast retrievals.

  1. Areal-averaged and Spectrally-resolved Surface Albedo from Ground-based Transmission Data Alone: Toward an Operational Retrieval

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Michalsky, Joseph; Hodges, G. B.

    2014-08-22

    We present here a simple retrieval of the areal-averaged and spectrally resolved surface albedo using only ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. The feasibility of our approach for the routine determinations of albedo is demonstrated for different landscapes with various degrees of heterogeneity using three sets of measurements:(1) spectrally resolved atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at wavelength 415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm, (2) tower-based measurements of local surface albedo at the same wavelengths, and (3) areal-averaged surface albedo at four wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm) from collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations. These integrated datasets cover both long (2008-2013) and short (April-May, 2010) periods at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and the NOAA Table Mountain site, respectively. The calculated root mean square error (RMSE), which is defined here as the root mean squared difference between the MODIS-derived surface albedo and the retrieved area-averaged albedo, is quite small (RMSE≤0.01) and comparable with that obtained previously by other investigators for the shortwave broadband albedo. Good agreement between the tower-based daily averages of surface albedo for the completely overcast and non-overcast conditions is also demonstrated. This agreement suggests that our retrieval originally developed for the overcast conditions likely will work for non-overcast conditions as well.

  2. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    For the 2014 model year, midsize hybrid cars averaged 43.4 miles per gallon (mpg) while midsize non-hybrid cars averaged 28.7 mpg; the difference between the two has narrowed due to the rising...

  3. Early Clinical Outcomes Demonstrate Preserved Cognitive Function in Children With Average-Risk Medulloblastoma When Treated With Hyperfractionated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Tejpal; Jalali, Rakesh; Goswami, Savita; Nair, Vimoj; Moiyadi, Aliasgar; Epari, Sridhar; Sarin, Rajiv

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To report on acute toxicity, longitudinal cognitive function, and early clinical outcomes in children with average-risk medulloblastoma. Methods and Materials: Twenty children {>=}5 years of age classified as having average-risk medulloblastoma were accrued on a prospective protocol of hyperfractionated radiation therapy (HFRT) alone. Radiotherapy was delivered with two daily fractions (1 Gy/fraction, 6 to 8 hours apart, 5 days/week), initially to the neuraxis (36 Gy/36 fractions), followed by conformal tumor bed boost (32 Gy/32 fractions) for a total tumor bed dose of 68 Gy/68 fractions over 6 to 7 weeks. Cognitive function was prospectively assessed longitudinally (pretreatment and at specified posttreatment follow-up visits) with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children to give verbal quotient, performance quotient, and full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ). Results: The median age of the study cohort was 8 years (range, 5-14 years), representing a slightly older cohort. Acute hematologic toxicity was mild and self-limiting. Eight (40%) children had subnormal intelligence (FSIQ <85), including 3 (15%) with mild mental retardation (FSIQ 56-70) even before radiotherapy. Cognitive functioning for all tested domains was preserved in children evaluable at 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years after completion of HFRT, with no significant decline over time. Age at diagnosis or baseline FSIQ did not have a significant impact on longitudinal cognitive function. At a median follow-up time of 33 months (range, 16-58 months), 3 patients had died (2 of relapse and 1 of accidental burns), resulting in 3-year relapse-free survival and overall survival of 83.5% and 83.2%, respectively. Conclusion: HFRT without upfront chemotherapy has an acceptable acute toxicity profile, without an unduly increased risk of relapse, with preserved cognitive functioning in children with average-risk medulloblastoma.

  4. Determination of the Average Aromatic Cluster Size of Fossil Fuels by Solid-State NMR at High Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, Kanmi; Kennedy, Gordon J.; Althaus, Stacey M.; Pruski, Marek

    2013-01-07

    We show that the average aromatic cluster size in complex carbonaceous materials can be accurately determined using fast magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR at a high magnetic field. To accurately quantify the nonprotonated aromatic carbon, we edited the 13C spectra using the recently reported MAS-synchronized spinecho, which alleviated the problem of rotational recoupling of 1H-13C dipolar interactions associated with traditional dipolar dephasing experiments. The dependability of this approach was demonstrated on selected Argonne Premium coal standards, for which full sets of basic structural parameters were determined with high accuracy.

  5. Time-dependent local and average structural evolution of δ-phase 239Pu-Ga alloys

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Smith, Alice I.; Page, Katharine L.; Siewenie, Joan E.; Losko, Adrian S.; Vogel, Sven C.; Gourdon, Olivier A.; Richmond, Scott; Saleh, Tarik A.; Ramos, Michael; Schwartz, Daniel S.

    2016-08-05

    Here, plutonium metal is a very unusual element, exhibiting six allotropes at ambient pressure, between room temperature and its melting point, a complicated phase diagram, and a complex electronic structure. Many phases of plutonium metal are unstable with changes in temperature, pressure, chemical additions, or time. This strongly affects structure and properties, and becomes of high importance, particularly when considering effects on structural integrity over long periods of time [1]. This paper presents a time-dependent neutron total scattering study of the local and average structure of naturally aging δ-phase239Pu-Ga alloys, together with preliminary results on neutron tomography characterization.

  6. Application of Maximum Likelihood Bayesian Model Averaging to Groundwater Flow and Transport at the Hanford Site 300 Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Philip D.; Ye, Ming; Neuman, Shlomo P.; Rockhold, Mark L.

    2008-06-01

    A methodology to systematically and quantitatively assess model predictive uncertainty was applied to saturated zone uranium transport at the 300 Area of the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site in Washington State, USA. The methodology extends Maximum Likelihood Bayesian Model Averaging (MLBMA) to account jointly for uncertainties due to the conceptual-mathematical basis of models, model parameters, and the scenarios to which the models are applied. Conceptual uncertainty was represented by postulating four alternative models of hydrogeology and uranium adsorption. Parameter uncertainties were represented by estimation covariances resulting from the joint calibration of each model to observed heads and uranium concentration. Posterior model probability was dominated by one model. Results demonstrated the role of model complexity and fidelity to observed system behavior in determining model probabilities, as well as the impact of prior information. Two scenarios representing alternative future behavior of the Columbia River adjacent to the site were considered. Predictive simulations carried out with the calibrated models illustrated the computation of model- and scenario-averaged predictions and how results can be displayed to clearly indicate the individual contributions to predictive uncertainty of the model, parameter, and scenario uncertainties. The application demonstrated the practicability of applying a comprehensive uncertainty assessment to large-scale, detailed groundwater flow and transport modelling.

  7. Technical Note: Measuring contrast- and noise-dependent spatial resolution of an iterative reconstruction method in CT using ensemble averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Lifeng Vrieze, Thomas J.; Leng, Shuai; Fletcher, Joel G.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The spatial resolution of iterative reconstruction (IR) in computed tomography (CT) is contrast- and noise-dependent because of the nonlinear regularization. Due to the severe noise contamination, it is challenging to perform precise spatial-resolution measurements at very low-contrast levels. The purpose of this study was to measure the spatial resolution of a commercially available IR method using ensemble-averaged images acquired from repeated scans. Methods: A low-contrast phantom containing three rods (7, 14, and 21 HU below background) was scanned on a 128-slice CT scanner at three dose levels (CTDI{sub vol} = 16, 8, and 4 mGy). Images were reconstructed using two filtered-backprojection (FBP) kernels (B40 and B20) and a commercial IR method (sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction, SAFIRE, Siemens Healthcare) with two strength settings (I40-3 and I40-5). The same scan was repeated 100 times at each dose level. The modulation transfer function (MTF) was calculated based on the edge profile measured on the ensemble-averaged images. Results: The spatial resolution of the two FBP kernels, B40 and B20, remained relatively constant across contrast and dose levels. However, the spatial resolution of the two IR kernels degraded relative to FBP as contrast or dose level decreased. For a given dose level at 16 mGy, the MTF{sub 50%} value normalized to the B40 kernel decreased from 98.4% at 21 HU to 88.5% at 7 HU for I40-3 and from 97.6% to 82.1% for I40-5. At 21 HU, the relative MTF{sub 50%} value decreased from 98.4% at 16 mGy to 90.7% at 4 mGy for I40-3 and from 97.6% to 85.6% for I40-5. Conclusions: A simple technique using ensemble averaging from repeated CT scans can be used to measure the spatial resolution of IR techniques in CT at very low contrast levels. The evaluated IR method degraded the spatial resolution at low contrast and high noise levels.

  8. Analytical gradients of the state-average complete active space self-consistent field method with density fitting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delcey, Mickaël G.; Pedersen, Thomas Bondo; Aquilante, Francesco; Lindh, Roland

    2015-07-28

    An efficient implementation of the state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) gradients employing density fitting (DF) is presented. The DF allows a reduction both in scaling and prefactors of the different steps involved. The performance of the algorithm is demonstrated on a set of molecules ranging up to an iron-Heme b complex which with its 79 atoms and 811 basis functions is to our knowledge the largest SA-CASSCF gradient computed. For smaller systems where the conventional code could still be used as a reference, both the linear response calculation and the gradient formation showed a clear timing reduction and the overall cost of a geometry optimization is typically reduced by more than one order of magnitude while the accuracy loss is negligible.

  9. Application of a generalized matrix averaging method for the calculation of the effective properties of thin multiferroic layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starkov, A. S.; Starkov, I. A.

    2014-11-15

    It is proposed to use a generalized matrix averaging (GMA) method for calculating the parameters of an effective medium with physical properties equivalent to those of a set of thin multiferroic layers. This approach obviates the need to solve a complex system of magnetoelectroelasticity equations. The required effective characteristics of a system of multiferroic layers are obtained using only operations with matrices, which significantly simplifies calculations and allows multilayer systems to be described. The proposed approach is applicable to thin-layer systems, in which the total thickness is much less than the system length, radius of curvature, and wavelengths of waves that can propagate in the system (long-wave approximation). Using the GMA method, it is also possible to obtain the effective characteristics of a periodic structure with each period comprising a number of thin multiferroic layers.

  10. PySpline: A Modern, Cross-Platform Program for the Processing of Raw Averaged XAS Edge and EXAFS Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tenderholt, A.; Hedman, B.; Hodgson, K.O.

    2007-01-08

    PySpline is a modern computer program for processing raw averaged XAS and EXAFS data using an intuitive approach which allows the user to see the immediate effect of various processing parameters on the resulting k- and R-space data. The Python scripting language and Qt and Qwt widget libraries were chosen to meet the design requirement that it be cross-platform (i.e. versions for Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux). PySpline supports polynomial pre- and post-edge background subtraction, splining of the EXAFS region with a multi-segment polynomial spline, and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the resulting k{sup 3}-weighted EXAFS data.

  11. Fact #941: September 5, 2016 Mid-term Evaluation of the Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards May Impact Future Standards for Model Years 2022 to 2025- Dataset

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file and dataset for Mid-term Evaluation of the Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards May Impact Future Standards for Model Years 2022 to 2025

  12. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014- Dataset

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014

  13. Charge and fluence lifetime measurements of a dc high voltage GaAs photogun at high average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Grames, R. Suleiman, P.A. Adderley, J. Clark, J. Hansknecht, D. Machie, M. Poelker, M.L. Stutzman

    2011-04-01

    GaAs-based dc high voltage photoguns used at accelerators with extensive user programs must exhibit long photocathode operating lifetime. Achieving this goal represents a significant challenge for proposed high average current facilities that must operate at tens of milliamperes or more. This paper describes techniques to maintain good vacuum while delivering beam, and techniques that minimize the ill effects of ion bombardment, the dominant mechanism that reduces photocathode yield of a GaAs-based dc high voltage photogun. Experimental results presented here demonstrate enhanced lifetime at high beam currents by: (a) operating with the drive laser beam positioned away from the electrostatic center of the photocathode, (b) limiting the photocathode active area to eliminate photoemission from regions of the photocathode that do not support efficient beam delivery, (c) using a large drive laser beam to distribute ion damage over a larger area, and (d) by applying a relatively low bias voltage to the anode to repel ions created within the downstream beam line. A combination of these techniques provided the best total charge extracted lifetimes in excess of 1000 C at dc beam currents up to 9.5 mA, using green light illumination of bulk GaAs inside a 100 kV photogun.

  14. Combining multi-objective optimization and bayesian model averaging to calibrate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrugt, Jasper A; Wohling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Most studies in vadose zone hydrology use a single conceptual model for predictive inference and analysis. Focusing on the outcome of a single model is prone to statistical bias and underestimation of uncertainty. In this study, we combine multi-objective optimization and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) to generate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models. To illustrate our method, we use observed tensiometric pressure head data at three different depths in a layered vadose zone of volcanic origin in New Zealand. A set of seven different soil hydraulic models is calibrated using a multi-objective formulation with three different objective functions that each measure the mismatch between observed and predicted soil water pressure head at one specific depth. The Pareto solution space corresponding to these three objectives is estimated with AMALGAM, and used to generate four different model ensembles. These ensembles are post-processed with BMA and used for predictive analysis and uncertainty estimation. Our most important conclusions for the vadose zone under consideration are: (1) the mean BMA forecast exhibits similar predictive capabilities as the best individual performing soil hydraulic model, (2) the size of the BMA uncertainty ranges increase with increasing depth and dryness in the soil profile, (3) the best performing ensemble corresponds to the compromise (or balanced) solution of the three-objective Pareto surface, and (4) the combined multi-objective optimization and BMA framework proposed in this paper is very useful to generate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models.

  15. SU-C-207-02: A Method to Estimate the Average Planar Dose From a C-Arm CBCT Acquisition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Supanich, MP

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The planar average dose in a C-arm Cone Beam CT (CBCT) acquisition had been estimated in the past by averaging the four peripheral dose measurements in a CTDI phantom and then using the standard 2/3rds peripheral and 1/3 central CTDIw method (hereafter referred to as Dw). The accuracy of this assumption has not been investigated and the purpose of this work is to test the presumed relationship. Methods: Dose measurements were made in the central plane of two consecutively placed 16cm CTDI phantoms using a 0.6cc ionization chamber at each of the 4 peripheral dose bores and in the central dose bore for a C-arm CBCT protocol. The same setup was scanned with a circular cut-out of radiosensitive gafchromic film positioned between the two phantoms to capture the planar dose distribution. Calibration curves for color pixel value after scanning were generated from film strips irradiated at different known dose levels. The planar average dose for red and green pixel values was calculated by summing the dose values in the irradiated circular film cut out. Dw was calculated using the ionization chamber measurements and film dose values at the location of each of the dose bores. Results: The planar average dose using both the red and green pixel color calibration curves were within 10% agreement of the planar average dose estimated using the Dw method of film dose values at the bore locations. Additionally, an average of the planar average doses calculated using the red and green calibration curves differed from the ionization chamber Dw estimate by only 5%. Conclusion: The method of calculating the planar average dose at the central plane of a C-arm CBCT non-360 rotation by calculating Dw from peripheral and central dose bore measurements is a reasonable approach to estimating the planar average dose. Research Grant, Siemens AG.

  16. Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K/sub T/ for 248 national weather service stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, C L; Stoffel, T L; Whitaker, S D

    1980-10-01

    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3/sup 0/C (65/sup 0/F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. (MHR)

  17. Precipitation in 18 wt% Ni maraging steel of grade 350

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, R.; Mazumder, S.; Batra, I.S.; Dey, G.K.; Banerjee, S.

    2000-03-14

    The evolution of precipitates in maraging steel of grade 350 was studied using the complementary techniques of small angle X-ray scattering (SACS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These investigations revealed that ageing the steel at 703 K involved a rhombohedral distortion of the supersaturated b.c.c. martensite accompanied by the appearance of diffuse {omega}-like structures. This was followed by the appearance of well-defined {omega} particles containing chemical order. At the ageing temperature of 783 K, Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Mo) precipitates were the first to appear with a growth exponent of 1/3. The values of the Pored exponent obtained from the SAXS profiles indicated that the {omega} particles, formed below 723 K, had diffuse interfaces up to an ageing time of 48 h. On the other hand, Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Mo) precipitates, formed above 723 K, developed sharp interfaces in just about an hour. Also, the steel exhibited scaling in phase separation both at 703 and 783 K, but only during the early stages. Through this study it was established that at temperatures of ageing less than 723 K, evolution of {omega} particles takes place through the collapse of the unstable b.c.c. lattice and, at temperatures above 723 K, precipitation of A{sub 3}B type of phases through the mechanism of clustering and ordering of atomic species. Sharp interfaces develop rather quickly when the mechanism of precipitation involves development and amplification of a concentration wave along as in the nucleation of Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Mo) at 783 K than when an interplay of both the displacement and concentration waves is required as in the evolution of {omega} at 703 K. These results indicate towards the possibility of existence of two separate time-temperature-transformation (TTT) curves, one for the evolution of {omega}-phase and another for nucleation and growth of Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Mo).

  18. Transverse flowing liquid Kerr cell for high average power laser Q-switching and for direct modulation of high power laser beams.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J.

    2004-12-07

    A fluid flow concept is applied in an optical apparatus to define a high gain stand-off, fast electro-optical q-switch which is highly impervious to high average power optical loads.

  19. En route to Background Independence: Broken split-symmetry, and how to restore it with bi-metric average actions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, D. Reuter, M.

    2014-11-15

    The most momentous requirement a quantum theory of gravity must satisfy is Background Independence, necessitating in particular an ab initio derivation of the arena all non-gravitational physics takes place in, namely spacetime. Using the background field technique, this requirement translates into the condition of an unbroken split-symmetry connecting the (quantized) metric fluctuations to the (classical) background metric. If the regularization scheme used violates split-symmetry during the quantization process it is mandatory to restore it in the end at the level of observable physics. In this paper we present a detailed investigation of split-symmetry breaking and restoration within the Effective Average Action (EAA) approach to Quantum Einstein Gravity (QEG) with a special emphasis on the Asymptotic Safety conjecture. In particular we demonstrate for the first time in a non-trivial setting that the two key requirements of Background Independence and Asymptotic Safety can be satisfied simultaneously. Carefully disentangling fluctuation and background fields, we employ a ‘bi-metric’ ansatz for the EAA and project the flow generated by its functional renormalization group equation on a truncated theory space spanned by two separate Einstein–Hilbert actions for the dynamical and the background metric, respectively. A new powerful method is used to derive the corresponding renormalization group (RG) equations for the Newton- and cosmological constant, both in the dynamical and the background sector. We classify and analyze their solutions in detail, determine their fixed point structure, and identify an attractor mechanism which turns out instrumental in the split-symmetry restoration. We show that there exists a subset of RG trajectories which are both asymptotically safe and split-symmetry restoring: In the ultraviolet they emanate from a non-Gaussian fixed point, and in the infrared they loose all symmetry violating contributions inflicted on them by the

  20. Microsoft Word - June_2012_CEG_FINAL_6_25_2012_TOC_Links

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Project Management Career Development Program Certification and Equivalency Guidelines June 2015 Washington D.C. 20585 Record of Changes for Calendar Year 2015 Modification 01, Effective date 1/1/2015: 1. The PMCDP curriculum map was updated to show which PMCDP courses are available online or through desktop delivery - there were no curriculum changes in 2015. Modification 02, Effective date 5/14/2015: 2. The reference to the Program Secretarial Offices' use of "Homerooms" as support

  1. TOC_Section_J.13_Conformed_thru_Mod 138.xlsx

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Control Building 200E WRPS 242A-BA Boiler Annex 200E JCI 242AC Pipefitter's Shop ... Petroleum Tank (Diesel) 600 MSA 2524WTP LAW Switchgear Building 200E BNI 252A 13.8kV ...

  2. Microsoft Word - TOC_Section H_Conformed thru_Mod 274.docx

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    plans previously maintained by the Kaiser-Hill Company, L.L.C., for operations at Rocky Flats under Contract No. DE-AC27-99RL14047. The Rocky Flats plans are: the Rocky Flats...

  3. TOC_Attachment J.16_GFP Listing_Mod 235.pdf

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

  4. TOC_M-16_REISSUE_Fully_Excuted_Mod_350.pdf

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

  5. Microsoft Word - TOC_Section_J_Table of Contents_274.doc

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    18 8 J.3 HANFORD SITE SERVICES AND INTERFACE REQUIREMENTS MATRIX 3 68 J.4 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND MEASUREMENT PLAN (PEMP) 26 113 J.5 PERFORMANCE GUARANTEE AGREEMENT 0 5 J.6...

  6. Microsoft Word - TOC Section J.2_Conformed thru Mod 274 (rlb...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Personal Use of Government Office Equipment Including Information DOE O 205.1A DOE Cyber Security Management DOE M 205.1-4 National Security System Manual DOE M 205.1-5,...

  7. Microsoft Word - TOC_Section J.3_Conformed thru Mod 198.docx

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... consists of approximately 40 miles of Class II track and one signal crossing between ... secondary side of the building service transformer (MSC also owns the electrical meters). ...

  8. Microsoft Word - TOC_Section B_Conformed thru_Mod 315.docx

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    nuclear weapons-related data. (iv) Failure to timely implement corrective actions stemming from the loss, compromise, or unauthorized disclosure of Top Secret Restricted Data...

  9. Microsoft Word - Approved TOC Contract Management Plan 10_27_08_Rev_0.doc

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    TANK OPERATIONS CONTRACT Contract No. DE-AC27-08RV14800 CONTRACT MANAGEMENT PLAN Washington River Protection Solutions LLC U.S. Department of Energy OFFICE OF RIVER PROTECTION __Original Signed and in Contract File_________ ___10/27/08________ Joseph C. Poniatowski Date Contracting Officer AMD, 509-376-2760 DE-AC27-08RV14800 CMP Rev. 0 October 27, 2008 i TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 PURPOSE OF PLAN

  10. Microsoft Word - TOC_Section_J.10_Conformed_thru_Mod 138.docx

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    J.10 Contract No. DE-AC27-08RV14800 Modification No. 138 J.10-1 REGISTER OF WAGE DETERMINATIONS UNDER | U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR THE SERVICE CONTRACT ACT | EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION By direction of the Secretary of Labor | WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION | WASHINGTON D.C. 20210 | | | | Wage Determination No.: 2005-2569 Diane C. Koplewski Division of | Revision No.: 13 Director Wage Determinations| Date Of Revision: 06/13/2011

  11. Microsoft Word - TOC_Section_C_Conformed_thru_Mod 274.docx

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    as a RAP team member; * Participate in no-notice activations; and * Maintain fitness for duty, as requested. Tank Operations Contract Section C Contract No. DE-AC27-08RV14800...

  12. Microsoft Word - June_2012_CEG_FINAL_6_25_2012_TOC_Links

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... 4-30 3.5 QualitySafety Management ... of the Certification Review Board ...... 5-15 PMCDP ... by the Acquisition Executive (AE) can be used in lieu ...

  13. EIS-0391-FEIS-Volume3-Comment_Response_TOC-2012

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    DOEEIS-0391 Final Tank Closure and Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement for ... (EPA) Title: Final Tank Closure and Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement ...

  14. How Well Can We Estimate Areal-Averaged Spectral Surface Albedo from Ground-Based Transmission in an Atlantic Coastal Area?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Marinovici, Maria C.

    2015-10-15

    Areal-averaged albedos are particularly difficult to measure in coastal regions, because the surface is not homogenous, consisting of a sharp demarcation between land and water. With this difficulty in mind, we evaluate a simple retrieval of areal-averaged surface albedo using ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission alone under fully overcast conditions. To illustrate the performance of our retrieval, we find the areal-averaged albedo using measurements from the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm). These MFRSR data are collected at a coastal site in Graciosa Island, Azores supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The areal-averaged albedos obtained from the MFRSR are compared with collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) white-sky albedo at four nominal wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm). These comparisons are made during a 19-month period (June 2009 - December 2010). We also calculate composite-based spectral values of surface albedo by a weighted-average approach using estimated fractions of major surface types observed in an area surrounding this coastal site. Taken as a whole, these three methods of finding albedo show spectral and temporal similarities, and suggest that our simple, transmission-based technique holds promise, but with estimated errors of about ±0.03. Additional work is needed to reduce this uncertainty in areas with inhomogeneous surfaces.

  15. Organic carbon in Bakken Formation, United States portion of Williston Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmoker, J.W.; Hester, T.C.

    1983-12-01

    The upper and lower members of the Mississippian and Devonian Bakken Formation in the United States portion of the Williston basin are black shales that are extremely rich in organic matter and are the source of much of the oil found in the basin. Organic-carbon values are calculated from formationdensity logs using the equation: TOC = (154.497//rho/) -57.261, where TOC is organic-carbon content (wt. %) and /rho/ is formation density (g/cm/sup 3/). Test calculations comparing this equation to laboratory organic-carbon analyses from 39 wells in North Dakota show an average absolute difference of 1.1% in organic-carbon content. Organic-carbon content, calculated at 159 locations in North Dakota and 107 in Montana, averages 12.1% for the upper member of the Bakken Formation and 11.5% for the lower member. There is a regional depletion of organic carbon, paralleling present-day isotherms, that reflects the conversion of organic matter to oil and subsequent expulsion of the oil from the formation. The mass of organic carbon in the Bakken Formation is approximately evenly divided between the upper and lower members, and it totals about 126 X 10/sup 12/ kg in the study area, of which 102 X 10/sup 12/ kg are in the thermally mature region. The assumption that 167 mg HC/g TOC have migrated out of the mature Bakken shales leads to a tentative estimate that hydrocarbons equivalent to 132 billion bbl of 43/sup 0/ (API gravity) oil have been expelled from the United States portion of the upper and lower members of the Bakken Formation.

  16. SU-E-T-174: Evaluation of the Optimal Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Plans Done On the Maximum and Average Intensity Projection CTs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jurkovic, I; Stathakis, S; Li, Y; Patel, A; Vincent, J; Papanikolaou, N; Mavroidis, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the difference in coverage between plans done on average intensity projection and maximum intensity projection CT data sets for lung patients and to establish correlations between different factors influencing the coverage. Methods: For six lung cancer patients, 10 phases of equal duration through the respiratory cycle, the maximum and average intensity projections (MIP and AIP) from their 4DCT datasets were obtained. MIP and AIP datasets had three GTVs delineated (GTVaip — delineated on AIP, GTVmip — delineated on MIP and GTVfus — delineated on each of the 10 phases and summed up). From the each GTV, planning target volumes (PTV) were then created by adding additional margins. For each of the PTVs an IMRT plan was developed on the AIP dataset. The plans were then copied to the MIP data set and were recalculated. Results: The effective depths in AIP cases were significantly smaller than in MIP (p < 0.001). The Pearson correlation coefficient of r = 0.839 indicates strong degree of positive linear relationship between the average percentage difference in effective depths and average PTV coverage on the MIP data set. The V2 0 Gy of involved lung depends on the PTV coverage. The relationship between PTVaip mean CT number difference and PTVaip coverage on MIP data set gives r = 0.830. When the plans are produced on MIP and copied to AIP, r equals −0.756. Conclusion: The correlation between the AIP and MIP data sets indicates that the selection of the data set for developing the treatment plan affects the final outcome (cases with high average percentage difference in effective depths between AIP and MIP should be calculated on AIP). The percentage of the lung volume receiving higher dose depends on how well PTV is covered, regardless of on which set plan is done.

  17. THE AVERAGE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF THE UV-BRIGHTEST STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z {approx} 3.7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Glikman, Eilat; Dey, Arjun; Reddy, Naveen; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Cooper, Michael C.; Fan Xiaohui; Bian Fuyan; Stern, Daniel; Brodwin, Mark; Cooray, Asantha

    2011-06-01

    We investigate the average physical properties and star formation histories (SFHs) of the most UV-luminous star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 3.7. Our results are based on the average spectral energy distributions (SEDs), constructed from stacked optical-to-infrared photometry, of a sample of the 1913 most UV-luminous star-forming galaxies found in 5.3 deg{sup 2} of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. We find that the shape of the average SED in the rest optical and infrared is fairly constant with UV luminosity, i.e., more UV-luminous galaxies are, on average, also more luminous at longer wavelengths. In the rest UV, however, the spectral slope {beta} ({identical_to} dlogF{sub {lambda}}/dlog{lambda}; measured at 0.13 {mu}m < {lambda}{sub rest} < 0.28 {mu}m) rises steeply with the median UV luminosity from -1.8 at L {approx} L* to -1.2 (L {approx} 4-5L*). We use population synthesis analyses to derive their average physical properties and find that (1) L{sub UV} and thus star formation rates (SFRs) scale closely with stellar mass such that more UV-luminous galaxies are also more massive, (2) the median ages indicate that the stellar populations are relatively young (200-400 Myr) and show little correlation with UV luminosity, and (3) more UV-luminous galaxies are dustier than their less-luminous counterparts, such that L {approx} 4-5L* galaxies are extincted up to A(1600) = 2 mag while L {approx} L* galaxies have A(1600) = 0.7-1.5 mag. We argue that the average SFHs of UV-luminous galaxies are better described by models in which SFR increases with time in order to simultaneously reproduce the tight correlation between the UV-derived SFR and stellar mass and their universally young ages. We demonstrate the potential of measurements of the SFR-M{sub *} relation at multiple redshifts to discriminate between simple models of SFHs. Finally, we discuss the fate of these UV-brightest galaxies in the next 1-2 Gyr and their possible connection to the most massive galaxies at

  18. High-Average Power Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowell, David H.; Power, John G.; /Argonne

    2012-09-05

    There has been significant progress in the development of high-power facilities in recent years yet major challenges remain. The task of WG4 was to identify which facilities were capable of addressing the outstanding R&D issues presently preventing high-power operation. To this end, information from each of the facilities represented at the workshop was tabulated and the results are presented herein. A brief description of the major challenges is given, but the detailed elaboration can be found in the other three working group summaries.

  19. Concentration Averaging | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Compliance Order, Los Alamos National Security, LLC - July 12, 2007 Compliance Order, Los Alamos National Security, LLC - July 12, 2007 July 12, 2007 Issued to Los Alamos National Security, LLC related to the Unauthorized Reproduction and Removal of Classified Matter from the Los Alamos National Laboratory On July 12, 2007, the Secretary of Energy issued a Compliance Order to Los Alamos National Security, LLC requiring the contractor to implement specific corrective

  20. "2014 Average Monthly Bill- Industrial"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...3,92553.92,8.9475131,8281.2741 "Massachusetts",14896,44536.235,12.740483,5674.1312 "New Hampshire",3342,49098.943,11.929516,5857.2661 "Rhode Island",1884,39240.534,12.862616,5047.3...

  1. "2014 Average Monthly Bill- Commercial"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...,3627.3091,12.702676,460.7653 "Massachusetts",398717,5450.0243,14.676411,799.86795 "New Hampshire",105840,3515.1565,14.339091,504.04148 "Rhode Island",58346,5224.1213,14.560559,760...

  2. Measurement of Time-Averaged Particle-Wall Collision Properties Using Particle Tracking Velocimetry, CRADA PC93-006, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaffer, F.; Massah, H.; Sinclair, J.; Shahnam, M.

    1995-04-30

    This paper describes an experimental facility to measure time-averaged properties of particle-wall collisions. A particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) system measures particle rebound angles and velocities and impact angles and velocities for specific particles. From these measured properties, values of normal and tangential coefficient of restitution are derived. The PTV system rapidly measures thousands of particle-wall collisions enabling determination of time-averaged properties. In this initial work we use 191 {micro}m glass particles colliding with a glass plate at a fixed angle of 17.5{degree} and a velocity of 17.07 m/s. Observations are also made of aspherical particles colliding with gross sliding. In the future, this experimental system will be used with particles and wall materials of industrial significance.

  3. Channeling of high-power radio waves under conditions of strong anomalous absorption in the presence of an averaged electron heating source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vas'kov, V. V.; Ryabova, N. A.

    2010-02-15

    Strong anomalous absorption of a high-power radio wave by small-scale plasma inhomogeneities in the Earth's ionosphere can lead to the formation of self-consistent channels (solitons) in which the wave propagates along the magnetic field, but has a soliton-like intensity distribution across the field. The structure of a cylindrical soliton as a function of the wave intensity at the soliton axis is analyzed. Averaged density perturbations leading to wave focusing were calculated using the model proposed earlier by Vas'kov and Gurevich (Geomagn. Aeron. 16, 1112 (1976)), in which an averaged electron heating source was used. It is shown that, under conditions of strong electron recombination, the radii of individual solitons do not exceed 650 m.

  4. Bounce- and MLT-averaged diffusion coefficients in a physics-based magnetic field geometry obtained from RAM-SCB for the March 17 2013 storm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Lei; Yu, Yiqun; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Jordanova, Vania K.

    2015-04-01

    Local acceleration via whistler wave and particle interaction plays a significant role in particle dynamics in the radiation belt. In this work we explore gyro-resonant wave-particle interaction and quasi-linear diffusion in different magnetic field configurations related to the March 17 2013 storm. We consider the Earth's magnetic dipole field as a reference and compare the results against non-dipole field configurations corresponding to quiet and stormy conditions. The latter are obtained with the ring current-atmosphere interactions model with a self-consistent magnetic field RAM-SCB, a code that models the Earth's ring current and provides a realistic modeling of the Earth's magnetic field. By applying quasi-linear theory, the bounce- and MLT-averaged electron pitch angle, mixed term, and energy diffusion coefficients are calculated for each magnetic field configuration. For radiation belt (~1 MeV) and ring current (~100 keV) electrons, it is shown that at some MLTs the bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients become rather insensitive to the details of the magnetic field configuration, while at other MLTs storm conditions can expand the range of equatorial pitch angles where gyro-resonant diffusion occurs and significantly enhance the diffusion rates. When MLT average is performed at drift shell L = 4.25 (a good approximation to drift average), the diffusion coefficients become quite independent of the magnetic field configuration for relativistic electrons, while the opposite is true for lower energy electrons. These results suggest that, at least for the March 17 2013 storm and for L ? 4.25, the commonly adopted dipole approximation of the Earth's magnetic field can be safely used for radiation belt electrons, while a realistic modeling of the magnetic field configuration is necessary to describe adequately the diffusion rates of ring current electrons.

  5. Bounce- and MLT-averaged diffusion coefficients in a physics-based magnetic field geometry obtained from RAM-SCB for the March 17 2013 storm

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Zhao, Lei; Yu, Yiqun; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Jordanova, Vania K.

    2015-04-01

    Local acceleration via whistler wave and particle interaction plays a significant role in particle dynamics in the radiation belt. In this work we explore gyro-resonant wave-particle interaction and quasi-linear diffusion in different magnetic field configurations related to the March 17 2013 storm. We consider the Earth's magnetic dipole field as a reference and compare the results against non-dipole field configurations corresponding to quiet and stormy conditions. The latter are obtained with the ring current-atmosphere interactions model with a self-consistent magnetic field RAM-SCB, a code that models the Earth's ring current and provides a realistic modeling of the Earth's magnetic field.more » By applying quasi-linear theory, the bounce- and MLT-averaged electron pitch angle, mixed term, and energy diffusion coefficients are calculated for each magnetic field configuration. For radiation belt (~1 MeV) and ring current (~100 keV) electrons, it is shown that at some MLTs the bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients become rather insensitive to the details of the magnetic field configuration, while at other MLTs storm conditions can expand the range of equatorial pitch angles where gyro-resonant diffusion occurs and significantly enhance the diffusion rates. When MLT average is performed at drift shell L = 4.25 (a good approximation to drift average), the diffusion coefficients become quite independent of the magnetic field configuration for relativistic electrons, while the opposite is true for lower energy electrons. These results suggest that, at least for the March 17 2013 storm and for L ≲ 4.25, the commonly adopted dipole approximation of the Earth's magnetic field can be safely used for radiation belt electrons, while a realistic modeling of the magnetic field configuration is necessary to describe adequately the diffusion rates of ring current electrons.« less

  6. Bounce- and MLT-averaged diffusion coefficients in a physics-based magnetic field geometry obtained from RAM-SCB for the March 17 2013 storm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Lei; Yu, Yiqun; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Jordanova, Vania K.

    2015-04-01

    Local acceleration via whistler wave and particle interaction plays a significant role in particle dynamics in the radiation belt. In this work we explore gyro-resonant wave-particle interaction and quasi-linear diffusion in different magnetic field configurations related to the March 17 2013 storm. We consider the Earth's magnetic dipole field as a reference and compare the results against non-dipole field configurations corresponding to quiet and stormy conditions. The latter are obtained with the ring current-atmosphere interactions model with a self-consistent magnetic field RAM-SCB, a code that models the Earth's ring current and provides a realistic modeling of the Earth's magnetic field. By applying quasi-linear theory, the bounce- and MLT-averaged electron pitch angle, mixed term, and energy diffusion coefficients are calculated for each magnetic field configuration. For radiation belt (~1 MeV) and ring current (~100 keV) electrons, it is shown that at some MLTs the bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients become rather insensitive to the details of the magnetic field configuration, while at other MLTs storm conditions can expand the range of equatorial pitch angles where gyro-resonant diffusion occurs and significantly enhance the diffusion rates. When MLT average is performed at drift shell L = 4.25 (a good approximation to drift average), the diffusion coefficients become quite independent of the magnetic field configuration for relativistic electrons, while the opposite is true for lower energy electrons. These results suggest that, at least for the March 17 2013 storm and for L ≲ 4.25, the commonly adopted dipole approximation of the Earth's magnetic field can be safely used for radiation belt electrons, while a realistic modeling of the magnetic field configuration is necessary to describe adequately the diffusion rates of ring current electrons.

  7. Communication: An efficient approach to compute state-specific nuclear gradients for a generic state-averaged multi-configuration self consistent field wavefunction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granovsky, Alexander A.

    2015-12-21

    We present a new, very efficient semi-numerical approach for the computation of state-specific nuclear gradients of a generic state-averaged multi-configuration self consistent field wavefunction. Our approach eliminates the costly coupled-perturbed multi-configuration Hartree-Fock step as well as the associated integral transformation stage. The details of the implementation within the Firefly quantum chemistry package are discussed and several sample applications are given. The new approach is routinely applicable to geometry optimization of molecular systems with 1000+ basis functions using a standalone multi-core workstation.

  8. Average and local crystal structures of (Ga1–xZnx)(N1–xOx) solid solution nanoparticles

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Feygenson, Mikhail; Neuefeind, Joerg C.; Tyson, Trevor A.; Schieber, Natalie; Han, Wei -Qiang

    2015-11-06

    We report the comprehensive study of the crystal structure of (Ga1–xZnx)(N1–xOx) solid solution nanoparticles by means of neutron and synchrotron x-ray scattering. In our study we used four different types of (Ga1–xZnx)(N1–xOx) nanoparticles, with diameters of 10–27 nm and x = 0.075–0.51, which show the narrow energy-band gaps from 2.21 to 2.61 eV. The Rietveld analysis of the neutron diffraction data revealed that the average crystal structure is the hexagonal wurtzite (space group P63mc), in agreement with previous reports on similar bulk materials. The pair-distribution function (PDF) analysis of the same data found that the local structure is more disorderedmore » than the average one. It is best described by the model with a lower symmetry space group P1, where atoms are quasirandomly distorted from their nominal positions in the hexagonal wurtzite lattice.« less

  9. Nearest Neighbor Averaging and its Effect on the Critical Level and Minimum Detectable Concentration for Scanning Radiological Survey Instruments that Perform Facility Release Surveys.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fournier, Sean Donovan; Beall, Patrick S; Miller, Mark L.

    2014-08-01

    Through the SNL New Mexico Small Business Assistance (NMSBA) program, several Sandia engineers worked with the Environmental Restoration Group (ERG) Inc. to verify and validate a novel algorithm used to determine the scanning Critical Level (L c ) and Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) (or Minimum Detectable Areal Activity) for the 102F scanning system. Through the use of Monte Carlo statistical simulations the algorithm mathematically demonstrates accuracy in determining the L c and MDC when a nearest-neighbor averaging (NNA) technique was used. To empirically validate this approach, SNL prepared several spiked sources and ran a test with the ERG 102F instrument on a bare concrete floor known to have no radiological contamination other than background naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The tests conclude that the NNA technique increases the sensitivity (decreases the L c and MDC) for high-density data maps that are obtained by scanning radiological survey instruments.

  10. Particle-In-Cell/Monte Carlo Simulation of Ion Back BomBardment in a High Average Current RF Photo-Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiang, J.

    2009-10-17

    In this paper, we report on study of ion back bombardment in a high average current radio-frequency (RF) photo-gun using a particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo simulation method. Using this method, we systematically studied effects of gas pressure, RF frequency, RF initial phase, electric field profile, magnetic field, laser repetition rate, different ion species on ion particle line density distribution, kinetic energy spectrum, and ion power line density distribution back bombardment onto the photocathode. Those simulation results suggested that effects of ion back bombardment could increase linearly with the background gas pressure and laser repetition rate. The RF frequency has significantly affected the ion motion inside the gun so that the ion power deposition on the photocathode in an RF gun can be several orders of magnitude lower than that in a DC gun. The ion back bombardment can be minimized by appropriately choosing the electric field profile and the initial phase.

  11. Local and average crystal structure and displacements of La{sup 11}B{sub 6} and EuB{sub 6} as a function of temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booth, C.H.; Sarrao, J.L.; Hundley, M.F.; Cornelius, A.L.; Kwei, G.H.; Bianchi, A.; Fisk, Z.; Lawrence, J.M.

    2001-01-30

    Measurements of both the average crystal structure from Rietveld refinement of neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data and the local structure from La L{sub III}-edge x-ray-absorption fine-structure (XAFS) are presented for a La{sup 11}B{sub 6} sample as a function of temperature ({approx}10-320 K). These data are compared to XAFS results on a EuB{sub 6} sample. The single-site La and B positional distribution widths and the La-B and La-La bond length distribution widths and their temperature dependence are compared. This comparison allows an estimate of the La and B site displacements, and we find that these sublattices are only slightly correlated with each other. Moreover, while the temperature dependence of the displacement parameters of the average sites from diffraction fit an Einstein model well, the temperature dependence of the La-B bond length distribution width requires at least two vibrational frequencies, corresponding to the La and B frequencies of the individual sites. XAFS data on EuB{sub 6} indicate that the situation is the same in the Eu compound. In addition, comparisons between data taken below and above the ferromagnetic transition temperature for EuB{sub 6} place stringent limits on the lattice involvement in the associated metal-insulator transition and the ensuing large magnetoresistance effect. This lack of lattice involvement in the magnetoresistance transition is in sharp contrast to the strong lattice involvement observed in the colossal magnetoresistance lanthanum manganese perovskites.

  12. Langmuir probe measurements in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized non-equilibrium cutting arc: Analysis of the electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Kelly, H.; Instituto de Fsica del Plasma , Departamento de Fsica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires

    2013-12-15

    This work describes the application of Langmuir probe diagnostics to the measurement of the electron temperature in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized, non-equilibrium cutting arc. The electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe was analysed, assuming that the standard exponential expression describing the electron current to the probe in collision-free plasmas can be applied under the investigated conditions. A procedure is described which allows the determination of the errors introduced in time-averaged probe data due to small-amplitude plasma fluctuations. It was found that the experimental points can be gathered into two well defined groups allowing defining two quite different averaged electron temperature values. In the low-current region the averaged characteristic was not significantly disturbed by the fluctuations and can reliably be used to obtain the actual value of the averaged electron temperature. In particular, an averaged electron temperature of 0.98 0.07 eV (= 11400 800 K) was found for the central core of the arc (30 A) at 3.5 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. This average included not only a time-average over the time fluctuations but also a spatial-average along the probe collecting length. The fitting of the high-current region of the characteristic using such electron temperature value together with the corrections given by the fluctuation analysis showed a relevant departure of local thermal equilibrium in the arc core.

  13. Accelerating Monte Carlo molecular simulations by reweighting and reconstructing Markov chains: Extrapolation of canonical ensemble averages and second derivatives to different temperature and density conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadoura, Ahmad; Sun, Shuyu Salama, Amgad

    2014-08-01

    Accurate determination of thermodynamic properties of petroleum reservoir fluids is of great interest to many applications, especially in petroleum engineering and chemical engineering. Molecular simulation has many appealing features, especially its requirement of fewer tuned parameters but yet better predicting capability; however it is well known that molecular simulation is very CPU expensive, as compared to equation of state approaches. We have recently introduced an efficient thermodynamically consistent technique to regenerate rapidly Monte Carlo Markov Chains (MCMCs) at different thermodynamic conditions from the existing data points that have been pre-computed with expensive classical simulation. This technique can speed up the simulation more than a million times, making the regenerated molecular simulation almost as fast as equation of state approaches. In this paper, this technique is first briefly reviewed and then numerically investigated in its capability of predicting ensemble averages of primary quantities at different neighboring thermodynamic conditions to the original simulated MCMCs. Moreover, this extrapolation technique is extended to predict second derivative properties (e.g. heat capacity and fluid compressibility). The method works by reweighting and reconstructing generated MCMCs in canonical ensemble for Lennard-Jones particles. In this paper, system's potential energy, pressure, isochoric heat capacity and isothermal compressibility along isochors, isotherms and paths of changing temperature and density from the original simulated points were extrapolated. Finally, an optimized set of Lennard-Jones parameters (?, ?) for single site models were proposed for methane, nitrogen and carbon monoxide.

  14. From fluorite to pyrochlore: Characterisation of local and average structure of neodymium zirconate, Nd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, Julia L.; Tucker, Matthew G.; Evans, Ivana Radosavljević

    2013-09-15

    The structural characterisation of Nd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} prepared via a precursor route was performed using a combination of local and average structure probes (neutron total scattering, X-ray and neutron diffraction). We present the first total scattering and reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modelling study of Nd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}, which provides compelling evidence for the adoption of a disordered fluorite-type structure by Nd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} prepared by a low-temperature precursor route. Annealing the material at high temperatures leads to a transformation to a pyrochlore-type structure; however, Rietveld refinement using powder neutron diffraction data shows that the oxygen sublattice retains a degree of disorder. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The first total scattering and RMC modelling study of Nd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}. • Demonstration that the synthetic route influences the crystal structure adopted. • Insight into the importance of total scattering in studies of complex superstructures, especially for nano-sized materials.

  15. Plasma wakefields driven by an incoherent combination of laser pulses: A path towards high-average power laser-plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benedetti, C.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2014-05-15

    The wakefield generated in a plasma by incoherently combining a large number of low energy laser pulses (i.e., without constraining the pulse phases) is studied analytically and by means of fully self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations. The structure of the wakefield has been characterized and its amplitude compared with the amplitude of the wake generated by a single (coherent) laser pulse. We show that, in spite of the incoherent nature of the wakefield within the volume occupied by the laser pulses, behind this region, the structure of the wakefield can be regular with an amplitude comparable or equal to that obtained from a single pulse with the same energy. Wake generation requires that the incoherent structures in the laser energy density produced by the combined pulses exist on a time scale short compared to the plasma period. Incoherent combination of multiple laser pulses may enable a technologically simpler path to high-repetition rate, high-average power laser-plasma accelerators, and associated applications.

  16. Estimation of average burnup of damaged fuels loaded in Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors by using the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Endo, T.; Sato, S.; Yamamoto, A.

    2012-07-01

    Average burnup of damaged fuels loaded in Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors is estimated, using the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method for measured radioactivities of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in contaminated soils within the range of 100 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants. As a result, the measured {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio from the contaminated soil is 0.996{+-}0.07 as of March 11, 2011. Based on the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method, the estimated burnup of damaged fuels is approximately 17.2{+-}1.5 [GWd/tHM]. It is noted that the numerical results of various calculation codes (SRAC2006/PIJ, SCALE6.0/TRITON, and MVP-BURN) are almost the same evaluation values of {sup 134}Cs/ {sup 137}Cs ratio with same evaluated nuclear data library (ENDF-B/VII.0). The void fraction effect in depletion calculation has a major impact on {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio compared with the differences between JENDL-4.0 and ENDF-B/VII.0. (authors)

  17. ZPR-3 Assembly 6F : A spherical assembly of highly enriched uranium, depleted uranium, aluminum and steel with an average {sup 235}U enrichment of 47 atom %.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lell, R. M.; McKnight, R. D; Schaefer, R. W.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-09-30

    Over a period of 30 years, more than a hundred Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) critical assemblies were constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The ZPR facilities, ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9 and ZPPR, were all fast critical assembly facilities. The ZPR critical assemblies were constructed to support fast reactor development, but data from some of these assemblies are also well suited for nuclear data validation and to form the basis for criticality safety benchmarks. A number of the Argonne ZPR/ZPPR critical assemblies have been evaluated as ICSBEP and IRPhEP benchmarks. Of the three classes of ZPR assemblies, engineering mockups, engineering benchmarks and physics benchmarks, the last group tends to be most useful for criticality safety. Because physics benchmarks were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, they were as simple as possible in geometry and composition. The principal fissile species was {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu. Fuel enrichments ranged from 9% to 95%. Often there were only one or two main core diluent materials, such as aluminum, graphite, iron, sodium or stainless steel. The cores were reflected (and insulated from room return effects) by one or two layers of materials such as depleted uranium, lead or stainless steel. Despite their more complex nature, a small number of assemblies from the other two classes would make useful criticality safety benchmarks because they have features related to criticality safety issues, such as reflection by soil-like material. ZPR-3 Assembly 6 consisted of six phases, A through F. In each phase a critical configuration was constructed to simulate a very simple shape such as a slab, cylinder or sphere that could be analyzed with the limited analytical tools available in the 1950s. In each case the configuration consisted of a core region of metal plates surrounded by a thick depleted uranium metal reflector. The average compositions of the core configurations were essentially identical in phases A - F. ZPR-3

  18. ZPR-3 Assembly 12 : A cylindrical assembly of highly enriched uranium, depleted uranium and graphite with an average {sup 235}U enrichment of 21 atom %.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lell, R. M.; McKnight, R. D.; Perel, R. L.; Wagschal, J. J.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Racah Inst. of Physics

    2010-09-30

    Over a period of 30 years, more than a hundred Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) critical assemblies were constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The ZPR facilities, ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9 and ZPPR, were all fast critical assembly facilities. The ZPR critical assemblies were constructed to support fast reactor development, but data from some of these assemblies are also well suited for nuclear data validation and to form the basis for criticality safety benchmarks. A number of the Argonne ZPR/ZPPR critical assemblies have been evaluated as ICSBEP and IRPhEP benchmarks. Of the three classes of ZPR assemblies, engineering mockups, engineering benchmarks and physics benchmarks, the last group tends to be most useful for criticality safety. Because physics benchmarks were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, they were as simple as possible in geometry and composition. The principal fissile species was {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu. Fuel enrichments ranged from 9% to 95%. Often there were only one or two main core diluent materials, such as aluminum, graphite, iron, sodium or stainless steel. The cores were reflected (and insulated from room return effects) by one or two layers of materials such as depleted uranium, lead or stainless steel. Despite their more complex nature, a small number of assemblies from the other two classes would make useful criticality safety benchmarks because they have features related to criticality safety issues, such as reflection by soil-like material. ZPR-3 Assembly 12 (ZPR-3/12) was designed as a fast reactor physics benchmark experiment with an average core {sup 235}U enrichment of approximately 21 at.%. Approximately 68.9% of the total fissions in this assembly occur above 100 keV, approximately 31.1% occur below 100 keV, and essentially none below 0.625 eV - thus the classification as a 'fast' assembly. This assembly is Fast Reactor Benchmark No. 9 in the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) Benchmark Specifications

  19. Site-specific dissociation dynamics of H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} on Ag(111) and Co(0001) and the validity of the site-averaging model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Xixi; Jiang, Bin; Xie, Daiqian E-mail: hguo@unm.edu; Guo, Hua E-mail: hguo@unm.edu

    2015-09-21

    Dissociative chemisorption of polyatomic molecules on metal surfaces involves high-dimensional dynamics, of which quantum mechanical treatments are computationally challenging. A promising reduced-dimensional approach approximates the full-dimensional dynamics by a weighted average of fixed-site results. To examine the performance of this site-averaging model, we investigate two distinct reactions, namely, hydrogen dissociation on Co(0001) and Ag(111), using accurate first principles potential energy surfaces (PESs). The former has a very low barrier of ∼0.05 eV while the latter is highly activated with a barrier of ∼1.15 eV. These two systems allow the investigation of not only site-specific dynamical behaviors but also the validity of the site-averaging model. It is found that the reactivity is not only controlled by the barrier height but also by the topography of the PES. Moreover, the agreement between the site-averaged and full-dimensional results is much better on Ag(111), though quantitative in neither system. Further quasi-classical trajectory calculations showed that the deviations can be attributed to dynamical steering effects, which are present in both reactions at all energies.

  20. Spatial filters for high average power lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erlandson, Alvin C

    2012-11-27

    A spatial filter includes a first filter element and a second filter element overlapping with the first filter element. The first filter element includes a first pair of cylindrical lenses separated by a first distance. Each of the first pair of cylindrical lenses has a first focal length. The first filter element also includes a first slit filter positioned between the first pair of cylindrical lenses. The second filter element includes a second pair of cylindrical lenses separated by a second distance. Each of the second pair of cylindrical lenses has a second focal length. The second filter element also includes a second slit filter positioned between the second pair of cylindrical lenses.

  1. Property:SalinityAverage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    + B Beowawe Hot Springs Geothermal Area + 700 + Blue Mountain Geothermal Area + 4,300 + Brady Hot Springs Geothermal Area + 3,500 + Bruchsal Geothermal Area + 100,000 + C Chena...

  2. Average Natural Gas Consumption per Commercial Consumer

    Annual Energy Outlook

    586 585 593 540 613 640 1967-2014 Alabama 359 397 371 320 377 406 1967-2014 Alaska 1,258 1,225 1,489 1,515 1,411 1,338 1967-2014 Arizona 563 564 577 558 581 538 1967-2014 Arkansas...

  3. ARM - Evaluation Product - Areal Average Albedo (AREALAVEALB...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    albedo may be responsible for large uncertainties in these calculations. Moreover, the tower-based measurements of surface albedo are limited to SGP and NSA sites, and the TCAP...

  4. X-ray microscopy. Beyond ensemble averages

    DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

    Ice, Gene E.; Budai, John D.

    2015-06-23

    This work exemplifies emerging tools to characterize local materials structure and dynamics, made possible by powerful X-ray synchrotron and transmission electron microscopy methods.

  5. Average Natural Gas Consumption per Commercial Consumer

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Separation 2,556 2,445 2,722 3,393 4,114 5,277 1979-2014 Federal Offshore U.S. 659 564 514 535 562 615 1990-2014 Pacific (California) 36 28 31 22 21 21 1979-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana & Alabama) 522 468 415 411 435 464 1981-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Texas) 101 68 68 102 106 130 1981-2014 Alaska 225 174 176 172 181 204 1979-2014 Lower 48 States 2,331 2,271 2,546 3,221 3,933 5,073 1979-2014 Alabama 5 6 8 17 9 17 1979-2014 Arkansas 4 4 6 9 9 10 1979-2014 California 171 186 260 155 157 147

  6. Average Natural Gas Consumption per Industrial Consumer

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    35,418 36,947 38,159 38,616 39,794 39,953 1973-2015 Alabama 47,693 51,325 56,397 57,114 57,849 56,653 1973-2015 Alaska 2,135,975 1,353,819 2,118,957 1,354,889 4,847,208 1,215,880 1973-2015 Arizona 52,297 58,554 59,780 57,841 58,262 51,006 1973-2015 Arkansas 76,980 75,408 82,422 85,370 88,005 83,370 1973-2015 California 18,511 18,798 19,528 20,422 21,008 21,086 1973-2015 Colorado 18,340 11,396 10,575 10,734 10,012 9,718 1973-2015 Connecticut 7,874 8,576 8,555 6,728 6,728 6,492 1973-2015 Delaware

  7. Reaction kinetics for the high temperature oxidation of Pu--1wt%Ga in water vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stakebake, J L; Saba, M A

    1988-01-01

    Oxidation of plutonium metal is greatly accelerated by the presence of water vapor. The magnitude of the effect of water vapor on oxidation kinetics is determined by temperature, water concentration, and oxygen concentration. Most of the previous work has been directed toward evaluating the effect of moisture on the atmospheric oxidation of plutonium. Work on the isolation and characterization of the water reaction with plutonium has been very limited. The present work was undertaken to determine the kinetics of the plutonium--water reaction over a wide range of temperature and pressure. Reaction kinetics were measured using a vacuum microbalance system. The temperature range investigated was 100--500/degree/C. The effect of water vapor pressure on reaction kinetics was determined at 300/degree/C by varying the water pressure from 0.1 to 15 Torr. 2 figs.

  8. Report on Characterization of U-10 wt.% Zr Alloy (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The as-cast alloy material was received from Texas A and M University. Characterization and an initial heat treatment of the alloy material were conducted at Lawrence Livermore ...

  9. Report on Characterization of U-10 wt.% Zr Alloy (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The as-received ingot was sectioned for X-ray analysis, metallography, SEM, TEM, and heat treatments, as shown in Figure 1. Authors: McKeown, J ; Wall, M ; Hsiung, L ; Turchi, P ...

  10. 241-AN-B pit leak detection ANA-WT-LDSTA-231 acceptance test procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VANDYKE, D.W.

    1999-08-25

    This document describes the method used to test design criteria for Safety Class, Intrinsically Safe leak detector system installed in 241-AN-B Valve Pit located at 200E Tank Farms. The purpose of this Procedure is to demonstrate that the pit leak detection relay cabinet and intrinsically safe probe circuit is fully operable.

  11. The Effect of the Presence of 2 wt% Hafnium in T-111

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barklay, Chadwick D.; Kramer, Daniel P.; Miller, Roger G.

    2006-01-20

    Tantalum alloys have been used by the U.S. Department of Energy as structural alloys for space nuclear power systems such as Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) since the 1960s. Tantalum alloys are attractive for high temperature structural applications due to their high melting point, excellent formability, good thermal conductivity, good ductility (even at low temperatures), corrosion resistance, and weldability. A number of tantalum alloys have been developed over the years to increase high-temperature strength (Ta-10%W), and reduce creep strain (T-111). These tantalum alloys have demonstrated sufficient high-temperature toughness to survive prolonged exposure to the RTG's working environment. Due to the commercial unavailability of the tantalum alloy T-111, Ta-10%W is a possible candidate replacement material because of its high melting point (3037 deg. C), high elastic modulus (207 GPa), high yield, ultimate tensile strengths at both ambient and elevated temperatures, excellent ductility, and exceptional creep properties. Ta-10%W is also attractive due its commercial availability and low cost when compared to T-111. The objective of this paper is to compare and contrast Ta-10%W and T-111 for high-temperature nuclear based power conversion applications and to document research that must be conducted to fully characterize both materials.

  12. An atomic orbital-based formulation of analytical gradients and nonadiabatic coupling vector elements for the state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field method on graphical processing units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, James W.; Hohenstein, Edward G.; Luehr, Nathan; Martínez, Todd J.

    2015-10-21

    We recently presented an algorithm for state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) orbital optimization that capitalizes on sparsity in the atomic orbital basis set to reduce the scaling of computational effort with respect to molecular size. Here, we extend those algorithms to calculate the analytic gradient and nonadiabatic coupling vectors for SA-CASSCF. Combining the low computational scaling with acceleration from graphical processing units allows us to perform SA-CASSCF geometry optimizations for molecules with more than 1000 atoms. The new approach will make minimal energy conical intersection searches and nonadiabatic dynamics routine for molecular systems with O(10{sup 2}) atoms.

  13. Petroleum potential and over-pressuring in the molassic deposits of the south-eastern part of the South Adriatic Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gjoka, M.; Dulaj, A.

    1995-08-01

    The southeastern portion of the South Adriatic basin extends onshore in Albania and is filled with a sequence of interbedded clays, sandstones and siltstones of Cenozoic age accumulated under turbiditic, slope, shelf, deltaic and, rarely, continental depositional conditions. Geochemical data suggest a fairly uniform vertical and lateral distribution of organic matter, with TOC values ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 wt%. Average organic matter content is 0.28 wt%. Kerogen is predominantly gas-prone, Type IIIa (Huminite-Inertinite) and IIIb (Inertinite-Huminite), and is thermally immature to marginally mature, even at depths of 6000 m. Vitrinite reflectance (Ro) values range from 0.3 to 0.5; the average geothermal gradient of the region is about 16{degrees}C/100 m. Three main gas zones can be recognized in the Pliocene to Middle Miocene (Serravallian) sequence: (1) a biogenic gas zone at depths of 1200-1500 m; (2) a mixed biogenic-thermogenic zone between 1500 and 4500-W m, and, (3) a thermogenic gas zone below 4500-5000 m. Gas is indigenous and has migrated into the sandstone reservoirs from adjacent shales (syngenetic) or deeper sources (syngenetic-long migration). Gas fields discovered to date are associated with crestal culminations and with the eastern flank of structures. The normal hydrostatic gradient for the Neogene sediments is 0.437 Psi/ft, but overpressures have been encountered in numerous wells and are considered a regional phenomenon. The top of the overpressures crosses stratigraphic boundaries. The gradient is gradual and seem to increase in sequences with sandstone content of 15 to 20%. Steep pressure gradients are found on flanks and plunges of structures. Overpressuring is attributed to the very high sedimentation rate (760 m per million year) during the Neogene and resulting undercompacted shales.

  14. Average and local crystal structures of (Ga1–xZnx)(N1–xOx) solid solution nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feygenson, Mikhail; Neuefeind, Joerg C.; Tyson, Trevor A.; Schieber, Natalie; Han, Wei -Qiang

    2015-11-06

    We report the comprehensive study of the crystal structure of (Ga1–xZnx)(N1–xOx) solid solution nanoparticles by means of neutron and synchrotron x-ray scattering. In our study we used four different types of (Ga1–xZnx)(N1–xOx) nanoparticles, with diameters of 10–27 nm and x = 0.075–0.51, which show the narrow energy-band gaps from 2.21 to 2.61 eV. The Rietveld analysis of the neutron diffraction data revealed that the average crystal structure is the hexagonal wurtzite (space group P63mc), in agreement with previous reports on similar bulk materials. The pair-distribution function (PDF) analysis of the same data found that the local structure is more disordered than the average one. It is best described by the model with a lower symmetry space group P1, where atoms are quasirandomly distorted from their nominal positions in the hexagonal wurtzite lattice.

  15. Year Month U.S. Average PAD District I Average CT ME MA NH RI

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    1994 January ... 89.6 91.0 90.2 83.8 88.4 80.4 87.3 88.8 92.1 102.5 February ... 92.9 94.6 93.8 90.4 91.3 86.6 91.4 92.3 91.5 105.5...

  16. Year Month U.S. Average PAD District I Average CT ME MA NH RI

    Annual Energy Outlook

    1993 January ... 94.3 95.7 94.9 85.2 94.0 87.1 91.7 93.4 91.2 105.2 February ... 94.6 95.9 96.2 85.4 94.4 86.9 91.8 93.3 90.8 106.8...

  17. Year Month U.S. Average PAD District I Average CT ME MA NH RI

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    1995 January ... 86.9 87.6 86.7 77.8 84.8 78.4 87.3 85.7 88.4 102.4 February ... 87.4 88.2 87.8 77.4 84.9 78.5 87.3 85.9 88.5 103.4...

  18. Year Month U.S. Average PAD District I Average CT ME MA NH RI

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    1996 January ... 94.6 96.1 94.5 93.0 92.0 89.1 94.9 92.6 94.7 111.7 February ... 95.9 97.5 96.2 93.2 93.8 90.8 95.6 93.7 94.4 112.9...

  19. Year Month U.S. Average PAD District I Average CT ME MA NH RI

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    1997 January ... 107.9 109.0 108.6 105.2 106.5 102.1 107.0 104.4 106.5 130.4 February ... 105.1 106.0 105.2 102.2 103.4 101.0 104.5...

  20. Canonical-ensemble state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) strategy for problems with more diabatic than adiabatic states: Charge-bond resonance in monomethine cyanines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Seth

    2015-01-28

    This paper reviews basic results from a theory of the a priori classical probabilities (weights) in state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) models. It addresses how the classical probabilities limit the invariance of the self-consistency condition to transformations of the complete active space configuration interaction (CAS-CI) problem. Such transformations are of interest for choosing representations of the SA-CASSCF solution that are diabatic with respect to some interaction. I achieve the known result that a SA-CASSCF can be self-consistently transformed only within degenerate subspaces of the CAS-CI ensemble density matrix. For uniformly distributed (“microcanonical”) SA-CASSCF ensembles, self-consistency is invariant to any unitary CAS-CI transformation that acts locally on the ensemble support. Most SA-CASSCF applications in current literature are microcanonical. A problem with microcanonical SA-CASSCF models for problems with “more diabatic than adiabatic” states is described. The problem is that not all diabatic energies and couplings are self-consistently resolvable. A canonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF strategy is proposed to solve the problem. For canonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF, the equilibrated ensemble is a Boltzmann density matrix parametrized by its own CAS-CI Hamiltonian and a Lagrange multiplier acting as an inverse “temperature,” unrelated to the physical temperature. Like the convergence criterion for microcanonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF, the equilibration condition for canonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF is invariant to transformations that act locally on the ensemble CAS-CI density matrix. The advantage of a canonical-ensemble description is that more adiabatic states can be included in the support of the ensemble without running into convergence problems. The constraint on the dimensionality of the problem is relieved by the introduction of an energy constraint. The method is illustrated with a complete active space

  1. ZPR-3 Assembly 11 : A cylindrical sssembly of highly enriched uranium and depleted uranium with an average {sup 235}U enrichment of 12 atom % and a depleted uranium reflector.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lell, R. M.; McKnight, R. D.; Tsiboulia, A.; Rozhikhin, Y.; National Security; Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering

    2010-09-30

    Over a period of 30 years, more than a hundred Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) critical assemblies were constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The ZPR facilities, ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9 and ZPPR, were all fast critical assembly facilities. The ZPR critical assemblies were constructed to support fast reactor development, but data from some of these assemblies are also well suited for nuclear data validation and to form the basis for criticality safety benchmarks. A number of the Argonne ZPR/ZPPR critical assemblies have been evaluated as ICSBEP and IRPhEP benchmarks. Of the three classes of ZPR assemblies, engineering mockups, engineering benchmarks and physics benchmarks, the last group tends to be most useful for criticality safety. Because physics benchmarks were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, they were as simple as possible in geometry and composition. The principal fissile species was {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu. Fuel enrichments ranged from 9% to 95%. Often there were only one or two main core diluent materials, such as aluminum, graphite, iron, sodium or stainless steel. The cores were reflected (and insulated from room return effects) by one or two layers of materials such as depleted uranium, lead or stainless steel. Despite their more complex nature, a small number of assemblies from the other two classes would make useful criticality safety benchmarks because they have features related to criticality safety issues, such as reflection by soil-like material. ZPR-3 Assembly 11 (ZPR-3/11) was designed as a fast reactor physics benchmark experiment with an average core {sup 235}U enrichment of approximately 12 at.% and a depleted uranium reflector. Approximately 79.7% of the total fissions in this assembly occur above 100 keV, approximately 20.3% occur below 100 keV, and essentially none below 0.625 eV - thus the classification as a 'fast' assembly. This assembly is Fast Reactor Benchmark No. 8 in the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group

  2. As-cast microstructures in U-Pu-Zr alloy fuel pins with 5-8 wt% minor actinides and 0-1.5 wt% rare-earth elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawn E. Janney; J. Rory Kennedy

    2010-11-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is investigating U–Pu–Zr alloys with low concentrations of minor actinides (Np and Am) and rare-earth elements (La, Ce, Pr, and Nd) as possible nuclear fuels to be used to transmute minor actinides. Alloys with compositions 60U–20Pu– 3Am–2Np–15Zr, 42U–30Pu–5Am–3Np–20Zr, 59U–20Pu–3Am–2Np–1RE–15Zr, 58.5U–20Pu– 3Am–2Np–1.5RE–15Zr, 41U–30Pu–5Am–3Np–1RE–20Zr, and 40.5U–30Pu–5Am–3Np–1.5RE– 20Zr (where numbers represent weight percents of each element and RE is a rare-earth alloy consisting of 6% La, 16% Pr, 25% Ce, and 53% Nd by weight) were arc-melted and vacuum cast as fuel pins approximately 4 mmin diameter. The as-cast pins were sectioned, polished, and examined by scanning electron microscopy. Each alloy contains high-Zr inclusions surrounded by a high-actinide matrix. Alloys with rare-earth elements also contain inclusions that are high in these elements. Within the matrix, concentrations of U and Zr vary inversely, while concentrations of Np and Pu appear approximately constant. Am occurs in the matrix and with some high-rare-earth inclusions, and occasionally as high-Am inclusions in samples without rare-earth elements.

  3. As-cast microstructures in U-Pu-Zr alloy fuel pins with 5-8 wt.% minor actinides and 0-1.5 wt% rare-earth elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janney, Dawn E. Kennedy, J. Rory

    2010-11-15

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is investigating U-Pu-Zr alloys with low concentrations of minor actinides (Np and Am) and rare-earth elements (La, Ce, Pr, and Nd) as possible nuclear fuels to be used to transmute minor actinides. Alloys with compositions 60U-20Pu-3Am-2Np-15Zr, 42U-30Pu-5Am-3Np-20Zr, 59U-20Pu-3Am-2Np-1RE-15Zr, 58.5U-20Pu-3Am-2Np-1.5RE-15Zr, 41U-30Pu-5Am-3Np-1RE-20Zr, and 40.5U-30Pu-5Am-3Np-1.5RE-20Zr (where numbers represent weight percents of each element and RE is a rare-earth alloy consisting of 6% La, 16% Pr, 25% Ce, and 53% Nd by weight) were arc-melted and vacuum cast as fuel pins approximately 4 mm in diameter. The as-cast pins were sectioned, polished, and examined by scanning electron microscopy. Each alloy contains high-Zr inclusions surrounded by a high-actinide matrix. Alloys with rare-earth elements also contain inclusions that are high in these elements. Within the matrix, concentrations of U and Zr vary inversely, while concentrations of Np and Pu appear approximately constant. Am occurs in the matrix and with some high-rare-earth inclusions, and occasionally as high-Am inclusions in samples without rare-earth elements. - Research Highlights: {yields}Microstructures consist of high-Zr inclusions surrounded by a high-actinide matrix. {yields}Alloys with rare-earth (RE) elements contain inclusions that are high in REs. {yields}Concentrations of U and Zr vary inversely in the matrix. {yields}Am occurs in the matrix and with high-RE inclusions.

  4. Neutron Thermal Cross Sections, Westcott Factors, Resonance Integrals, Maxwellian Averaged Cross Sections and Astrophysical Reaction Rates Calculated from the ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.1.2, JENDL-4.0, ROSFOND-2010, CENDL-3.1 and EAF-2010 Evaluated Data Libraries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pritychenko, B.; Mughabghab, S.F.

    2012-12-15

    We present calculations of neutron thermal cross sections, Westcott factors, resonance integrals, Maxwellian-averaged cross sections and astrophysical reaction rates for 843 ENDF materials using data from the major evaluated nuclear libraries and European activation file. Extensive analysis of newly-evaluated neutron reaction cross sections, neutron covariances, and improvements in data processing techniques motivated us to calculate nuclear industry and neutron physics quantities, produce s-process Maxwellian-averaged cross sections and astrophysical reaction rates, systematically calculate uncertainties, and provide additional insights on currently available neutron-induced reaction data. Nuclear reaction calculations are discussed and new results are presented. Due to space limitations, the present paper contains only calculated Maxwellian-averaged cross sections and their uncertainties. The complete data sets for all results are published in the Brookhaven National Laboratory report.

  5. Fossil Energy Program. Progress report for November 1979. [35 Wt % Illinois No. 6 coal with Wilsonville recycle solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report - the sixty-fourth of a series - is a compendium of monthly progress reports for the ORNL research and development programs that are in support of the increased utilization of coal and other fossil fuel alternatives to oil and gas as sources of clean energy. The projects reported this month include those for coal conversion development, materials engineering, a coal equipment test program, an atmospheric fluid bed combustor for cogeneration, engineering studies and technical support, process and program analysis, environmental assessment studies, magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal, technical support to the TVA fluid bed combustion program, coal cogeneration/district heating plant assessment, chemical research and development, and technical support to major liquefaction projects.

  6. Charts and graphs: NUKEM Uranium price ange data; NUKEM Uranium historical price graph; U.S. DOE & euratom average contract prices for natural uranium; NUKEM SWU historical price graph; NUKEM SWU spot/secondary price range; U.S. DOE separative work prices data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-04-01

    This article is the uranium market data summary. It contains data for the following subjects: (1) March 1996 transactions, (2) Uranium price range data, (3) Historical uranium price range data, (4) DOE and Euratom average contract prices for natural uranium, (5) SWU historical price data, (6) SWU/spot/secondary price range data, and (7) DOE SWU prices data.

  7. Historical Average Priority Firm Power Rates (rates/previous...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    (A to Z) - - - - - - - - - - - - - Account Executives Administrator's RODs Aluminum Industry Study (2000-01) Billing Procedures Customer Service Centers Daily Notice Document...

  8. ,"U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...www.eia.govdnavpetpetprirefmg2cnusepm0rdpgalm.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information ... Reformulated Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per ...

  9. ,"U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...www.eia.govdnavpetpetprirefmg2cnusepm0udpgalm.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information ... Conventional Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per ...

  10. "Variable","Average Absolute Percent Differences","Percent of...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... combined heat and power (CHP) electricity generation in electricity generating plants. Prior to AEO2003, coal price projections reflected data collected, estimated, and reported ...

  11. Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Show Data By: Type Area Feb-16 Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 View History U.S. 1.38 ... East Coast 0.55 0.76 0.81 0.84 0.79 0.81 1985-2016 Appalachian No. 1 1.57 1.51 1.74 1.58 ...

  12. "Table A29. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Gas(c)","LPG","Coal","Factors" ,"Total United States" "RSE Column Factors:",0.8,1.2,1.2,0.9,1.3,0.8 "Value of Shipments and Receipts" ...

  13. "Table A41. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Gas(c)","LPG","Coal","Factors" ,"Total United States" "RSE Column Factors:",0.6,0.8,1.2,0.7,2.5,0.9 "Value of Shipments and Receipts" ...

  14. Reliability of oceanic heat flow averages (Journal Article) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Sclater, J.G. 1 ; Crowe, J. ; Anderson, R.N. + Show Author Affiliations (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge) Publication Date: 1976-06-10 OSTI Identifier: 7155880 ...

  15. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...llinois",4.8,2186,1911,1451,860,752,571 "Michigan",3.8,1954,1559,962,729,582,359 ...Kerosene",0.4,2093,1774,1155,682,578,376 "Solar",0.2,2313,1861,1337,1145,921,662 "Main ...

  16. Average Price (Cents/kilowatthour) by State by Provider, 1990...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Industry",11.48,10.79,6.15,0,"NA",9.27 2014,"AR","Total Electric ... Electric Industry",9.57,9.1,6.05,9.27,"NA",8.09 2014,"MA","Total Electric ...

  17. District of Columbia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Area: District of Columbia Florida Georgia Maryland Michigan New Jersey New York Ohio Pennsylvania Virginia Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History ...

  18. Average summer electric power bills expected to be lowest in...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Lower electricity use to meet cooling demand this summer because of forecasted milder temperatures compared with last summer is expected to more than offset higher electricity ...

  19. Average Structure Evolution of ?-phase Pu-Ga Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Alice Iulia; Page, Katharine L.; Gourdon, Olivier; Siewenie, Joan E.; Richmond, Scott; Saleh, Tarik A.; Ramos, Michael; Schwartz, Daniel S.

    2015-03-30

    [Full Text] Plutonium metal is a highly unusual element, exhibiting six allotropes at ambient pressure, from room temperature to its melting point. Many phases of plutonium metal are unstable with temperature, pressure, chemical additions, and time. This strongly affects structure and properties, and becomes of high importance, particularly when considering effects on structural integrity over long time periods. The fcc ?-phase deserves additional attention, not only in the context of understanding the electronic structure of Pu, but also as one of the few high-symmetry actinide phases that can be stabilized down to ambient pressure and room temperature by alloying it with trivalent elements. We will present results on recent work on aging of Pu-2at.%Ga and Pu-7at.%Ga alloys

  20. Influence of wind speed averaging on estimates of dimethylsulfide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: dimethysulfide; air-sea gas exchange; surface fluxes; marine boundary layer; climate change; Monin-Obukhov similarity theory Word Cloud More Like This Free Publicly ...

  1. Lagrangian-Averaged Scale-Dependent subfilter turbulence model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-03-01

    LASD are Fortran 90 modules that compute the stresses and scalar fluxes arising from unrelolved scales of turbulence, required for large-eddy eimulations of fluid flows.

  2. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy and Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). 5Rented includes households that occupy their primary housing unit without payment of rent. ...

  3. Influence of wind speed averaging on estimates of dimethylsulfide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of dimethylsulfide emission fluxes E. G. Chapman, W. J. Shaw, R. C. Easter, X. ... similarity theory Citation: Chapman, E. G., W. J. Shaw, R. C. Easter, X. Bian, and S. ...

  4. "Table A42. Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Coke","Waste","from Trees","Processing","Refuse","Other Solids","Total","Acetylene","Hydrogen","Gas","Gas","Byproduct Gases","Other Gases","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel","Distillate ...

  5. Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Download Carribean Islands Central America DNI GIS Mexico NREL GEF SWERA UNEP atmospheric water v... solar Additional Info Field Value Source www.nrel.gov Author National Renewable...

  6. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    1980 20 16 24.3 18.5 1981 22 16.7 25.9 20.1 1982 24 17.5 26.6 20.5 1983 26 19 26.4 20.7 1984 27 20 26.9 20.6 1985 27.5 19.5 27.6 20.7 1986 26 20 28.2 21.5 1987 26 20.5 28.5 21.7 ...

  7. Fact #744: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    light trucks. Source: Used vehicles - Ward's Automotive, New cars - Bureau of Economic Analysis, National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA) Underlying Detail Tables, Table 7.2.5S

  8. Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than...

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Fact 859 February 9, 2015 Excess Supply is the Most Recent Event to Affect Crude Oil Prices - Dataset Fact 860 February 16, 2015 Relationship of ...

  9. Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: International Joint Conference of Neural Networks 2011 ; July 31, 2011 ; San Jose, CA Research Org: Los Alamos National ...

  10. Human Perceptions of Color Rendition Vary with Average Fidelity...

    Energy Savers

    ... Participants were then directed to the experimental room in a different part of the building. A second researcher provided a white lab coat for each participant to wear, to ...

  11. Dominican Republic - Annual Average Wind Speed at 80 meters

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Monte Plata Bonao Elias Pina El Seibo Hato Mayor Higuey Santo Domingo La Romana San Pedro Jimani San Cristobal Azua Neiba Bani Barahona Pedernales Wind Speed ms >10.5 10.0 9.5...

  12. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ...,0.5,1030,968,711,524,492,362 "Year of Construction" "Before 1940",5.6,1991,1428,573,826,5... "Major Outside Wall Construction" "Siding (Aluminum, Vinyl, ...

  13. Haiti - Annual Average Wind Speed at 80 meters

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Liberte Hinche 06-JAN-2014 3.5.1 50 0 Port-au-Prince Jacmel Les Cayes Jeremie 50 100 Kilometers DOMINI REPUBL CAN IC The wind resource estimates on this map are from model...

  14. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... Vacant housing units, seasonal units, second homes, military housing, and group quarters are excluded. 2Total square footage includes all basements, finished or conditioned (heated ...

  15. Strongly Coupled Data Assimilation Using Leading Averaged Coupled...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publisher: American Meteorological Society Research Org: Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Sponsoring Org: National Science Foundation (NSF) - Directorate for Geosciences Division ...

  16. LOW-HIGH VALUES FOR PETROLEUM AVERAGE INVENTORY RANGES (MILLION...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    PADD 1 Feb 2 12.9 14.9 3 CRUDE OIL (EXCLUDING STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE) PADD 1 Mar 3 13.1 15.0 4 CRUDE OIL (EXCLUDING STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE) PADD 1 Apr 4 14.1 16.1...

  17. UWB multi-burst transmit driver for averaging receivers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dallum, Gregory E

    2012-11-20

    A multi-burst transmitter for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems generates a sequence of precisely spaced RF bursts from a single trigger event. There are two oscillators in the transmitter circuit, a gated burst rate oscillator and a gated RF burst or RF power output oscillator. The burst rate oscillator produces a relatively low frequency, i.e., MHz, square wave output for a selected transmit cycle, and drives the RF burst oscillator, which produces RF bursts of much higher frequency, i.e., GHz, during the transmit cycle. The frequency of the burst rate oscillator sets the spacing of the RF burst packets. The first oscillator output passes through a bias driver to the second oscillator. The bias driver conditions, e.g., level shifts, the signal from the first oscillator for input into the second oscillator, and also controls the length of each RF burst. A trigger pulse actuates a timing circuit, formed of a flip-flop and associated reset time delay circuit, that controls the operation of the first oscillator, i.e., how long it oscillates (which defines the transmit cycle).

  18. Table 3a. Real Average Annual Coal Transportation Costs from...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    a","W","-","-","-","-","-" "Uinta Basin","Alabama","W","-","-","-","-","-" "Uinta Basin","California","-","W","-","-","-","-" "Uinta Basin","Colorado","W","W","W","W","-","-"...

  19. High average power magnetic modulator for metal vapor lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, Don G.; Birx, Daniel L.; Cook, Edward G.; Miller, John L.

    1994-01-01

    A three-stage magnetic modulator utilizing magnetic pulse compression designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper vapor laser at a 4.5 kHz repetition rate is disclosed. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power. The circuit includes a step up auto transformer and utilizes a rod and plate stack construction technique to achieve a high packing factor.

  20. Table 17. Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2015 2016 2015 Percent Change North America Total 294.80 204.63 276.27 294.80 276.27 ... 355.59 611.72 791.78 611.72 29.4 South America Total 501.14 - 702.17 501.14 702.17 -28.6 ...

  1. Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    0.19 2.43 1942 0.20 2.39 1943 0.21 2.30 1944 0.21 2.25 1945 0.21 2.19 1946 0.21 1.96 1947 0.23 1.97 1948 0.26 2.09 1949 0.27 2.17 1950 0.27 2.14 1951 0.27 2.03 1952 0.27 2.01 ...

  2. High average power laser using a transverse flowing liquid host

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, Earl R.; Comaskey, Brian J.; Kuklo, Thomas C.

    2003-07-29

    A laser includes an optical cavity. A diode laser pumping device is located within the optical cavity. An aprotic lasing liquid containing neodymium rare earth ions fills the optical cavity. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for circulating the aprotic lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump and a heat exchanger.

  3. ,"U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    File Name:","petprirefmg2cnusepm0rdpgalm.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http:www.eia.govdnavpetpetprirefmg2cnusepm0rdpgalm.htm" ,"Source:","Energy ...

  4. ,"U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    File Name:","petprirefmg2cnusepm0udpgalm.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http:www.eia.govdnavpetpetprirefmg2cnusepm0udpgalm.htm" ,"Source:","Energy ...

  5. Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A paper copy of this document is also available for sale to the public from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA at www.ntis.gov. Authors: Carroll, James 1 ...

  6. Average Depth of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Wells

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    University of Tulsa October 26, 2016 | Tulsa, OK by Adam Sieminski, Administrator Mission: EIA collects, analyzes, and disseminates independent and impartial energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment. EIA is the Nation's official source of energy information and, by law, its data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United

  7. Average Depth of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Wells

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    7.05 6.94 7.35 7.71 8.11 8.25 1973-2016 Alabama 10.20 10.63 10.62 11.31 11.74 11.88 1989-2016 Alaska 7.87 7.90 8.00 8.41 9.07 8.78 1989-2016 Arizona 9.74 9.07 8.78 8.70 8.72 8.62 1989-2016 Arkansas 7.23 6.97 7.23 7.35 7.02 7.28 1989-2016 California 8.18 7.19 7.35 7.44 8.08 8.76 1989-2016 Colorado 5.94 5.98 6.16 7.65 8.39 9.30 1989-2016 Connecticut 7.93 9.37 9.87 11.82 11.16 11.75 1989-2016 Delaware 8.79 9.33 10.03 10.87 11.51 12.11 1989-2016 District of Columbia 10.21 10.24 10.24 11.31 12.12

  8. Residual Fuel Oil Prices, Average - Sales to End Users

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    457,353 330,184 195,534 123,438 107,521 101,728 1973-2016 Alabama 2,811 1,678 997 875 675 659 1989-2016 Alaska 1,886 1,233 864 534 479 534 1989-2016 Arizona 3,064 2,402 1,750 1,314 1,072 1,021 1989-2016 Arkansas 2,654 1,457 902 665 564 529 1989-2016 California 39,564 28,039 24,628 21,129 19,421 18,507 1989-2016 Colorado 14,346 10,396 6,531 2,956 2,597 2,751 1989-2016 Connecticut 5,562 4,229 2,385 1,365 1,075 933 1989-2016 Delaware 1,135 823 475 231 171 160 1989-2016 District of Columbia 1,107

  9. Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: International Joint Conference of Neural Networks, 2011 ; July 31, 2011 ; San Jose, CA Research Org: Los Alamos National ...

  10. New York Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Local Distribution Companies 13.87 13.52 12.72 12.24 12.15 2006-2014 Marketers 14.55 14.22 13.59 13.07 13.46 2006-2014 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 74.6 72.4 71.2 ...

  11. Ohio Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Local Distribution Companies 10.28 10.32 8.75 9.20 10.15 2006-2014 Marketers 11.80 11.09 10.42 9.52 10.16 2006-2014 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 43.7 40.8 30.9 19.8 ...

  12. Electric Sales, Revenue, and Average Price 2011 - Energy Information...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Data Tables All tables (zip file) Summary Tables T1 Number of consumers (bundled and unbundled) by sector, Census Division, and State PDF XLS T2 Sales to bundled and unbundled ...

  13. Petroleum source rock potential and thermal maturity, Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutton, S.P.

    1980-01-01

    Samples collected from 20 geographically widespread wells in the sparsely drilled Palo Duro Basin were analyzed for total organic carbon content (TOC). Highest values of TOC, up to 6.9%, occur in Upper Permian San Andres dolomite in the southern part of the basin. Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian (Wolfcampian) basinal shales contain up to 2.4% TOC and are fair to very good source rocks. Kerogen color and vitrinite reflectance, which indicate maximum paleotemperatures, were analyzed in all samples containing greater than 0.5% TOC. Pennsylvanian and Wolfcampian kerogen is yellow orange to orange, an indication that temperatures were sufficiently high to begin to generate hydrocarbons from lipid-rich organic material. Palo Duro Basin samples have a broad range of vitrinite reflectance values, but populations with the lowest reflectance probably indicate the true temperatures that were reached in the basin. Average reflectance in representative Pennsylvanian vitrinite is 0.52%; in Wolfcampian samples the average reflectance is 0.48%. These values are consistent with kerogen color and suggest that basinal source rocks may have begun to generate hydrocarbons.

  14. Average and Local Crystal Structures of (Ga 1–x Zn x )(N 1–x O x ) Solid Solution Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feygenson, Mikhail; Neuefeind, Joerg C.; Tyson, Trevor A.; Schieber, Natalie; Han, Wei-Qiang

    2015-11-06

    We report a comprehensive study of the crystal structure of (Ga1–x Zn x)(N1–x O x) solid solution nanoparticles by means of neutron and synchrotron X-ray scattering. In our study, we used four different types of (Ga1–x Zn x)(N1–x O x) nanoparticles, with diameters of 10–27 nm and x = 0.075–0.51, which show energy band gaps from 2.21 to 2.61 eV. Rietveld analysis of the neutron diffraction data revealed that the average crystal structure is hexagonal wurtzite (space group P63mc) for the larger nanoparticles, while the crystal structure of smaller nanoparticles is disordered hexagonal. Pair-distribution-function analysis found that the intermediate crystal structure retains a “motif” of the average one; however, the local structure is more disordered. The implications of disorder on the reduced energy band gap are discussed.

  15. Tropical Ocean Climate Study (TOCS) and Japan-United States Tropical Ocean Study (JUSTOS) on the R/V KAIYO, 25 Jan to 2 March 1997, to the Tropical Western Pacific Ocean BNL component

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, R.M.; Smith, S.

    1997-04-11

    The Japanese U.S. Tropical Ocean Study (JUSTOS) cruise on the R/V KAIYO in the Tropical Western Pacific Ocean was a collaborative effort with participants from the Japanese Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC), the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), and Brookhaven National Laboratory BNL. This report is a summary of the instruments, measurements, and initial analysis of the BNL portion of the cruise only. It includes a brief description of the instrument system, calibration procedures, problems and resolutions, data collection, processing and data file descriptions. This is a working document, which is meant to provide both a good description of the work and as much information as possible in one place for future analysis.

  16. Ultrafine cementitious grout

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, Ernst H.

    1998-01-01

    An ultrafine cementitious grout having a particle size 90% of which are less than 6 .mu.m in diameter and an average size of about 2.5 .mu.m or less, and preferably 90% of which are less than 5 .mu.m in diameter and an average size of about 2 .mu.m or less containing Portland cement, pumice as a pozzolanic material and superplasticizer in the amounts of about 40 wt. % to about 50 wt. % Portland cement; from about 50 wt. % to about 60 wt. % pumice containing at least 60% amorphous silicon dioxide; and from 0.1 wt. % to about 1.5 wt. % superplasticizer. The grout is mixed with water in the W/CM ratio of about 0.4-0.6/1. The grout has very high strength and very low permeability with good workability. The ultrafine particle sizes allow for sealing of microfractures below 10 .mu.m in width.

  17. Assessment of alternatives for management of ORNL retrievable transuranic waste. Nuclear Waste Program: transuranic waste (Activity No. AR 05 15 15 0; ONL-WT04)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Since 1970, solid waste with TRU or U-233 contamination in excess of 10 ..mu..Ci per kilogram of waste has been stored in a retrievable fashion at ORNL, such as in ss drums, concrete casks, and ss-lined wells. This report describes the results of a study performed to identify and evaluate alternatives for management of this waste and of the additional waste projected to be stored through 1995. The study was limited to consideration of the following basic strategies: Strategy 1: Leave waste in place as is; Strategy 2: Improve waste confinement; and Strategy 3: Retrieve waste and process for shipment to a Federal repository. Seven alternatives were identified and evaluated, one each for Strategies 1 and 2 and five for Strategy 3. Each alternative was evaluated from the standpoint of technical feasibility, cost, radiological risk and impact, regulatory factors and nonradiological environmental impact.

  18. Effects of testing and storage environments on mechanical properties of Ni-plated and bare U-3/4 wt% Ti

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zehr, S.W.; Johnson, H.R.; Smugeresky, J.E.; Pashman, K.A.; Nagelberg, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    It was found that storage environments with an adequate supply of oxygen can effectively minimize moisture corrosion of bare U-3/4 Ti. In particular, 0.75 cm/sup 3/ of dry air is calculated to protect 1 cm/sup 2/ of U-3/4 Ti for 20 years storage at room temperature. Consideration of the geometric details of U-3/4 Ti alloy specimens and the free volumes of air (and hence O/sub 2/) available can satisfactorily explain discrepancies in corrosion behavior between recent tests and previously reported data. The storage environment at 70/sup 0/C produces a minor strength increase in bare samples with increasing time. Decreases in ductility are observed for testing conditions of low temperature, low strain rate, and/or high humidity. Surface cracks occur under the same conditions conducive to corrosion, i.e., moderate temperatures, low strain rates, and high humidity. Significant increases in strength result under low-temperature and high-strain-rate conditions of tensile testing. Residual chloride contamination may be responsible for the occasional and otherwise unexplained large scatter in ductility for nominally similar specimens and test conditions. Nickel plating is observed to cause a statistically significant decrease in tensile strength, but no effect on the yield strength or ductility was observed and the presence of high explosive during the aging of tensile bars was observed to have no effect on mechanical properties.

  19. Ayuda:Palabras mgicas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    contenidos (TOC). FORCETOC Hace que la tabla de contenidos aparezca en su posicin normal (sobre el primer encabezado) TOC Coloca una tabla de contenidos en la posicin...

  20. DOE-ORP Contract Management Plans - Hanford Site

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Plan (Rev. 7 September 19, 2014) (PDF) Tank Operations Contract Management Plan TOC Contract Management Plan (October 27, 2008) (PDF) TOC CMP Attachment A Section B...

  1. Upper Permian lacustrine oil shales, southern Junggar basin, northwest China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, A.R.; Brassell, S.C.; Graham, S.A. )

    1992-12-01

    Upper Permian organic-rich lacustrine mudstones (oil shales) that crop out in the southern Junggar basin rank among the richest and thickest petroleum source rock intervals in the world, with maximum TOC values reaching 34% and Rock-Eval pyrolytic yields (S[sub 2]) up to 200 kg HC/t rock. Lacustrine sedimentary facies define an overall transgressive-regressive cycle of approximately 2000 m gross thickness, which includes approximately 800 m of source rocks averaging 4.1% TOC and 26.2 kg HC/t rock. Basinal facies comprise silicic, organic-rich, laminated lacustrine mudstones and interbedded siltstones; organic matter contained in the mudstones ranges in composition from type I to type III. Basinal facies were deposited in a deep, oxygen-deficient, stratified lake. Lake-margin facies consist of nonlaminated siliciclastic mudstones, rippled dolomitic silstones and sandstones, and minor limestones. Maximum TOC values are approximately 6%. Desiccation cracks are common in the marginal facies, but evaporite minerals are rare or absent. Biomarker correlation parameters measured from rock extracts exhibit significant stratigraphic variability, but strongly support the hypothesis that Upper Permian lacustrine oil shales charge the giant Karamay field in the northwestern Junggar basin. Karamay oils are characterized by high relative abundances of [beta]-carotane. This characteristic is restricted to desiccated facies in the outcrop sections, however. We therefore propose that an abundance of [beta]-carotane indicates elevated environmental salinities during deposition of the oil shales. 16 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Depositional environment and organic geochemistry of the Upper Permian Ravenfjeld Formation source rock in East Greenland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christiansen, F.G.; Piasecki, S.; Stemmerik, L. ); Telnaes, N. )

    1993-09-01

    The Upper Permian Ravnefjeld Formation in East Greenland is composed of shales that laterally pass into carbonate buildups and platforms of the Wegener Halvo Formation. The Ravnefjeld Formation is subdivided into five units that can be traced throughout the Upper Permian depositional basin. Two of the units are laminated and organic rich and were deposited under anoxic conditions. They are considered good to excellent source rocks for liquid hydrocarbons with initial average TOC (total organic carbon) values between 4 and 5% and HI (hydrogen index) between 300 and 400. The cumulative source rocks are separated and enclosed by three units of bioturbated siltstone with a TOC of less than 0.5% and an HI of less than 100. These siltstones were deposited under relatively oxic conditions. The organic geochemistry of the source rocks is typical for marine source rocks with some features normally associated with carbonate/evaporite environments [low Pr/Ph (pristane/phytane), low CPI (carbon preference index), distribution of tricyclic and pentacyclic terpanes]. The establishment of anoxic conditions and subsequent source rock deposition was controlled by eustatic sea level changes. The subenvironment (paleogeographic setting, influx of carbonate material, water depth, salinity) has some influence on a number of bulk parameters [TOC-HI relations, TOC-TS (total sulfur) relations] and, in particular, biomarker parameters such as Pr/Ph and terpane ratios. All the basal shales or shales in the vicinity of carbonate buildups of platforms are characterized by low Pr/Ph, high C[sub 23] tricyclic terpanes, and high C[sub 35] and C[sub 33] hopanes. 52 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Alaska" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  4. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Connecticut" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  5. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Idaho" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  6. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Kansas" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  7. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Kentucky" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  8. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Nevada" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  9. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Hampshire" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  10. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Jersey" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  11. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Mexico" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  12. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    York" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  13. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Carolina" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  14. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Dakota" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  15. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Rhode Island" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  16. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Washington" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  17. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Wisconsin" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  18. Table 8. Retail sales, revenue, and average retail price by sector, 1990 through

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Wyoming" "Sector", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990,"Percent share 2000","Percent share 2010","Percent share 2014" "Retail sales (megawatthours)",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,," "," "," "

  19. Average U.S. household to spend $710 less on gasoline during 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    natural gas inventories at end of winter higher than last year Despite recent cold temperatures in some parts of the country, U.S. natural gas inventories ended the winter heating season in better shape than last year. In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said natural gas inventories near the end of March were 75% higher compared with the same period in 2014. That sets up adequate supplies for gas-fired power plants this summer to meet electric cooling needs of

  20. United States- Land Based and Offshore Annual Average Wind Speed at 100 Meters

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Full-size, high resolution version of the 100-meter land-based and offshore wind speed resource map.