National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for appl biochem biotechnol

  1. Comparing Apples to Apples: Benchmarking Electrocatalysts for...

    Office of Science (SC)

    Comparing Apples to Apples: Benchmarking Electrocatalysts for Solar Water-Splitting Devices Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights ...

  2. About APPLE II Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-19

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  3. Apple Strength Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Syn, C

    2009-12-22

    Strength of the apple parts has been noticed to decrease, especially those installed by the new induction heating system since the LEP campaign started. Fig. 1 shows the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS), and elongation of the installed or installation-simulated apples on various systems. One can clearly see the mean values of UTS and YS of the post-LEP parts decreased by about 8 ksi and 6 ksi respectively from those of the pre-LEP parts. The slight increase in elongation seen in Fig.1 can be understood from the weak inverse relationship between the strength and elongation in metals. Fig.2 shows the weak correlation between the YS and elongation of the parts listed in Fig. 1. Strength data listed in Figure 1 were re-plotted as histograms in Figs. 3 and 4. Figs. 3a and 4a show histograms of all UTS and YS data. Figs. 3b and 4b shows histograms of pre-LEP data and Figs. 3c and 4c of post-LEP data. Data on statistical scatter of tensile strengths have been rarely published by material suppliers. Instead, only the minimum 'guaranteed' strength data are typically presented. An example of strength distribution of aluminum 7075-T6 sheet material, listed in Fig. 5, show that its scatter width of both UTS and YS for a single sheet can be about 6 ksi and for multi-lot scatter can be as large as 11 ksi even though the sheets have been produced through well-controlled manufacturing process. By approximating the histograms shown in Figs. 3 and 4 by a Gaussian or similar type of distribution curves, one can plausibly see the strength reductions in the later or more recent apples. The pre-LEP data in Figs. 3b and 4b show wider scatter than the post-LEP data in Figs. 3c and 4c and seem to follow the binomial distribution of strength indicating that the apples might have been made from two different lots of material, either from two different vendors or from two different melts of perhaps slightly different chemical composition by a single vendor. The post

  4. Feasibility of utilizing apple pomace

    SciTech Connect

    Stapleton, J.

    1983-06-01

    Apple pomace, the solid residue from juice production, is a solid waste problem in the Hudson Valley. This study investigates possibilities for converting it to a resource. The characteristics of the region's apple growing and processing industries are examined at length, including their potential for converting waste biomass. The properties of apple pomace are described. From interviews with Hudson Valley apple processors the following information is presented: quantities of pomace produced; seasonality of production; disposal procedures, costs, and revenues; trends in juice production; and attitudes toward alternatives. Literature research resulted in a list of more than 25 end uses for apple pomace of which eight were selected for analysis. Landfilling, landspreading, composting, animal feed, direct burning, gasification, anaerobic digestion (methane generation), and fermentation (ethanol production) were analyzed with regard to technical availability, regulatory and environmental impact, attitudes toward end use, and energetic and economic feasibility (See Table 19). The study recommends (1) a pilot anaerobic digestion plant be set up, (2) the possibility of extracting methane from the Marlborough landfill be investigated, (3) a study of the mid-Hudson waste conversion potential be conducted, and (4) an education program in alternative waste management be carried out for the region's industrial and agricultural managers.

  5. Connecting your Apple to Octopus 7600's

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, G.W. Jr.

    1983-01-17

    In UCID-19588, Communicating between the Apple and the Wang, we described how to take Apple DOS text files and send them to the Wang, and how to return Wang files to the Apple. It is also possible to use your Apple as an Octopus terminal, and to exchange files with Octopus 7600's. Presumably, you can also talk to the Crays, or any other part of the system. This connection has another virtue. It eliminates one of the terminals in your office.

  6. Energy accounting of apple processing operations

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, R.; Singh, R.P.; Brown, D.

    1981-01-01

    A thermal-energy accounting study was conducted at an apple processing plant. An analysis is given of thermal energy use and thermal efficiencies of an apple-juice single-effect evaporator and an apple-sauce cooker. 3 refs.

  7. V-191: Apple Mac OS X Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    1: Apple Mac OS X Multiple Vulnerabilities V-191: Apple Mac OS X Multiple Vulnerabilities July 3, 2013 - 6:00am Addthis PROBLEM: Apple has issued a security update for Mac OS X...

  8. Appling County, Georgia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Georgia Appling County Pellets Places in Appling County, Georgia Baxley, Georgia Graham, Georgia Surrency, Georgia Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  9. Biochemical Platform Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this project is to perform analysis for the Biochemical Platform to support the on-going research in biochemical conversion of biomass that will be part of an integrated biorefinery.

  10. Production of alcohol from apple pomace

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, Y.D.; Lee, C.Y.; Woodams, E.E.; Cooley, H.J.

    1981-12-01

    Production of ethyl alcohol from apple pomace with a Montrachet strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is described. More than 43 grams of the ethyl alcohol could be produced per kg of apple pomace fermented at 30 degrees Celcius in 24 hours. The fermentation efficiency of this process was approximately 89%. (Refs. 9).

  11. Biochemical Processes | Bioenergy | NREL

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Biochemical Processes NREL is developing biochemical conversion processes to generate sugars and sugars-derived intermediates for upgrading to biofuels and bioproducts. We develop hydrolytic and related deconstruction processes; improve enzymes, microbes, and catalysts; integrate and scale up process steps across the biochemical conversion pathway; and facilitate deployment and commercialization with our partners in the Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility. Enzyme and Microbial Development

  12. Ergonomic evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard

    SciTech Connect

    Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Shih, M.; Rempel, D.

    1994-05-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard based on subjective preference and observed joint angles during typing. Thirty five keyboard users were asked to use the Apple adjustable keyboard for 7--14 days and rate the various characteristics of the keyboard. Our findings suggest that the most preferred opening angles range from 11--20{degree}. The mean ulnar deviation on the Apple Adjustable keyboard is 11{degree}, compared to 16{degree} on the standard keyboard. The mean extension was decreased from 24{degree} to 16{degree} when using the adjustable keyboard. When asked to subjectively rate the adjustable keyboard in comparison to the standard, the average subject felt that the Apple Adjustable Keyboard was more comfortable and easier to use than the standard flat keyboard.

  13. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOEpatents

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed. 7 figs.

  14. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY); Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY)

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  15. Production of fuels and chemicals from apple pomace

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, Y.D.

    1987-03-01

    Nearly 36 million tons of apples are produced annually in the US. Approximately 45% of the total US apple production is used for processing purposes. The primary by-product of apple processing is apple pomace. It consists of the presscake resulting from pressing apples for juice or cider, including the presscake obtained in pressing peel and core wastes generated in the manufacture of apple sauce or slices. More than 500 food processing plants in the US produce a total of about 1.3 million metric tons of apple pomace each year, and it is likely that annual disposal fees exceed $10 million. Apple pomace has the potential to be used for the production of fuels (ethanol and biogas containing 60% methane) and food-grade chemicals. These uses will be reviewed in this article.

  16. Communicating between the Apple and the Wang

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, G.W., Downey, R.

    1982-10-26

    This manual covers what the beginner needs to know in order to transfer files between an Apple's Microcomputer and a Wang's OIS Word Processor. We have also tried to indicate where the experienced user might want to look for additional details. We cover the use of Apple Writer )(, VisiTerm, VisiCalc, and EasyWriter Professional. For us, the two most useful connections are from Applewriter to Wang and from Visicalc to Wang. From Wang to Apple Writer via Visiterm may have some value. Files can be transferred by VisiTerm to Wang, but they arrive with RETURNS in the middle of words, which have to be edited out, so we do not recommend it. We describe how to go from EasyWriter to Wang, but we do not know how to go from Wang to EasyWriter. We see no reason to go from Wang to VisiCalc, so we haven't thought about it. All instructions are given for a typical configuration of the Apple, namely the one on which this manual was composed. It is detailed in the section on Hardware and Software.

  17. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

    1999-01-12

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing in organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed.

  18. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1999-01-12

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed. 121 figs.

  19. DE GRUYTER Pure Appl. Chem. 2016; aop

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DE GRUYTER Pure Appl. Chem. 2016; aop Conference paper Ariel A. Chialvo* and Lukas Vlcek "Thought experiments" as dry-runs for "tough experiments": novel approaches to the hydration behavior of oxyanions DOI 10.1515/pac-2015-1002 Abstract: We explore the deconvolution of correlations for the interpretation of the microstructural behav- ior of aqueous electrolytes according to the neutron diffraction with isotopic substitution (NDIS) approach toward the experimental

  20. Innovative Hydropower Technology Now Powering an Apple Data Center |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Hydropower Technology Now Powering an Apple Data Center Innovative Hydropower Technology Now Powering an Apple Data Center November 24, 2015 - 9:43am Addthis Innovative Hydropower Technology Now Powering an Apple Data Center Sarah Wagoner Sarah Wagoner Communications Specialist, Wind and Water Power Technologies Office Above: Completed Intake Structure. Water from the irrigation canal is divided in two as it approaches the plant. The existing drop structure (foreground)

  1. Biochemical Conversion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Conversion Biochemical Conversion This area focuses on the research, development and demonstration of biological processes that convert biomass to biofuels, chemicals, and power. Biochemical processes also complement thermochemical conversion by providing residual materials for further processing. Biochemical conversion will advance in the future by enhancing fuel yields in integrated biorefineries which combine conversion types with heat and power efficiencies to produce fuel and products.

  2. V-115: Apple iOS Bugs Let Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    5: Apple iOS Bugs Let Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges V-115: Apple iOS Bugs Let Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges March 20, 2013 - 12:08am Addthis PROBLEM: Apple iOS Bugs...

  3. V-113: Apple Safari Bugs Let Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    3: Apple Safari Bugs Let Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code V-113: Apple Safari Bugs Let Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code March 18, 2013 - 1:53am Addthis PROBLEM: Apple Safari...

  4. Apple Valley, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Apple Valley, California: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 34.5008311, -117.1858759 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"map...

  5. From: Nicholas Ammann [mailto:nammann@apple.com]

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Wednesday, June 20, 2012 8:12 AM To: Exparte Communications Subject: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies; Proposed Rule Making - Ex Parte Communication Apple Inc. met with DOE to discuss the notice of proposed rule making the Department sent out regarding battery chargers and external power supplies. Below is a list of topics that Apple discussed with DOE. - Discussion regarding Battery Charger product Class 8 and that it does not scale with battery

  6. Celebrating Clean Energy Manufacturing in the Big Apple | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Celebrating Clean Energy Manufacturing in the Big Apple Celebrating Clean Energy Manufacturing in the Big Apple June 15, 2016 - 10:51am Addthis Dr. Mark Johnson (left), Director of the Energy Department’s Advanced Manufacturing Office, moderates a panel on shared infrastructure and innovation ecosystems. Dr. Mark Johnson (left), Director of the Energy Department's Advanced Manufacturing Office, moderates a panel on shared infrastructure and innovation ecosystems. Dr. Dave

  7. Biochemical Conversion: Using Hydrolysis, Fermentation, and Catalysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Biochemical Conversion: Using Hydrolysis, Fermentation, and Catalysis to Make Fuels and Chemicals Biochemical Conversion: Using Hydrolysis, Fermentation, and Catalysis to Make ...

  8. New SRC APPLE ll Variable Polarization Beamline

    SciTech Connect

    M Severson; M Bissen; M Fisher; G Rogers; R Reininger; M Green; D Eisert; B Tredinnick

    2011-12-31

    SRC has recently commissioned a new Varied Line-Spacing Plane Grating Monochromator (VLS-PGM) utilizing as its source a 1 m long APPLE II insertion device in short-straight-section 9 of the Aladdin storage ring. The insertion device reliably delivers horizontal, vertical, and right and left circularly polarized light to the beamline. Measurements from an in situ polarimeter can be used for undulator corrections to compensate for depolarizing effects of the beamline. The beamline has only three optical elements and covers the energy range from 11.1 to 270 eV using two varied line-spacing gratings. A plane mirror rotates to illuminate the gratings at the correct angle to cancel the defocus term at all photon energies. An exit slit and elliptical-toroid refocusing mirror complete the beamline. Using a 50 {mu}m exit slit, the beamline provides moderate to high resolution, with measured flux in the mid 10{sup 12} (photons/s/200 mA) range, and a spot size of 400 {mu}m horizontal by 30 {mu}m vertical.

  9. Biomass Program 2007 Accomplishments - Biochemical Conversion Platform

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document details accomplishments of the Biomass Program Biochemical Conversion Platform accomplishments in 2007.

  10. Biochemical Conversion Pilot Plant (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Biochemical Conversion Pilot Plant capabilities and resources at NREL.

  11. National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Integration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-07-01

    April through June 2008 update on activities of the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Platform Integration Project.

  12. U-239: Apple iPhone SMS Processing Flaw Lets Remote Users Spoof...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    URLs T-676: Apple iOS Certificate Chain Validation Flaw Lets Certain Remote Users Access or Modify SSLTLS Sessions U-036: Apple iOS Bugs Let Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code

  13. V-020: Apple QuickTime Multiple Flaws Let Remote Users Execute...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    0: Apple QuickTime Multiple Flaws Let Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code V-020: Apple QuickTime Multiple Flaws Let Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code November 9, 2012 - 6:00am...

  14. BEST: Biochemical Engineering Simulation Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1996-01-01

    The idea of developing a process simulator that can describe biochemical engineering (a relatively new technology area) was formulated at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) during the late 1980s. The initial plan was to build a consortium of industrial and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) partners to enhance a commercial simulator with biochemical unit operations. DOE supported this effort; however, before the consortium was established, the process simulator industry changed considerably. Work on the first phase of implementing various fermentation reactors into the chemical process simulator, ASPEN/SP-BEST, is complete. This report will focus on those developments. Simulation Sciences, Inc. (SimSci) no longer supports ASPEN/SP, and Aspen Technology, Inc. (AspenTech) has developed an add-on to its ASPEN PLUS (also called BioProcess Simulator [BPS]). This report will also explain the similarities and differences between BEST and BPS. ASPEN, developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for DOE in the late 1970s, is still the state-of-the-art chemical process simulator. It was selected as the only simulator with the potential to be easily expanded into the biochemical area. ASPEN/SP, commercially sold by SimSci, was selected for the BEST work. SimSci completed work on batch, fed-batch, and continuous fermentation reactors in 1993, just as it announced it would no longer commercially support the complete ASPEN/SP product. BEST was left without a basic support program. Luckily, during this same time frame, AspenTech was developing a biochemical simulator with its version of ASPEN (ASPEN PLUS), which incorporates most BEST concepts. The future of BEST will involve developing physical property data and models appropriate to biochemical systems that are necessary for good biochemical process design.

  15. V-137: Apple Mac OS X update for Java | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    7: Apple Mac OS X update for Java V-137: Apple Mac OS X update for Java April 18, 2013 - 6:00am Addthis PROBLEM: Apple Mac OS X update for Java PLATFORM: Mac OS X 10.6, OS X Lion...

  16. Using the Apple LaserWriter at ANL

    SciTech Connect

    Errion, S.M.; Thommes, M.M. Caruthers, C.M.

    1987-09-01

    Using the Apple LaserWriter at ANL (ANL/TM 452) explains how Argonne computer users (with CMS, MVS, or VAX/VMS accounts) can print quality text and graphics on the Apple LaserWriter. Currently, applications at Argonne that are compatible with the Apple LaserWriter include Waterloo Script, CA/ISSCO graphics software (i.e., Cuechart, Tellagraf, and Disspla), SAS/Graph, ANSYS (version 4.2), and some personal computer test and graphics software. This manual does not attempt to cover use of the Apple LaserWriter with other applications, though some information on the handling of PostScript-compatible files may be valid for other applications. Refer to the documentation of those applications to learn how they work with the Apple LaserWriter. Most of the information in this manual applies to the Allied Linotype L300P typesetter in Building 222. However, the typesetter is not a high volume output device and should be used primarily for high quality (1250 and 2500 dots per inch) final copy output for Laboratory publications prior to making printing plates. You should print all drafts and proof pages on LaserWriers or other printers compatible with the PostScript page description language. Consult with Graphic Arts (at extension 2-5603) to determine the availability of the typesetter for printing the final copy of your document or graphics application. Since the Apple LaserWriter itself produces good quality output (300 dots per inch), we expect that most internal documents consisting of test or graphics will continue to be printed at LaserWriters distributed throughout the Laboratory. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Firm develops own EMS built on Apple computer

    SciTech Connect

    Pospisil, R.

    1982-04-05

    Firestone Fibers and Textile Co. programmed a $2000 desktop Apple II computer and special electronic panels designed by the engineering staff to perform process control and other energy-management functions. The system should reduce natural gas consumption 40% and save the company up to $75,000 a year by reducing the amount of hot air exhausted from fabric-treating ovens. The system can be expanded to control lights and space-conditioning equipment. The company is willing to negotiate with other firms to market the panels. The Apple II was chosen because it has a high capacity for data acquisition and testing and because of the available software. (DCK)

  18. T-673: Apple Safari Multiple Flaws Let Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code, Conduct Cross-Site Scripting Attacks

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Apple Safari Multiple Flaws Let Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code, Conduct Cross-Site Scripting Attacks

  19. NREL: Biomass Research - Biochemical Conversion Projects

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL's projects in biochemical conversion involve three ... yeast and bacteria) Processing the fermentation product ... Bioprocess Integration Researchers are refining a ...

  20. Biochemical Conversion - Biorefinery Integration | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Research & Development » Conversion Technologies » Biochemical Conversion » Biochemical Conversion - Biorefinery Integration Biochemical Conversion - Biorefinery Integration One of the essential elements in the economical and efficient production of cellulosic biofuels is the development of biorefineries. Similar in concept to traditional petroleum refineries, biorefineries convert various types of biomass feedstock into marketable chemicals, fuels, and products. By taking advantage of

  1. Financing Advanced Biofuels, Biochemicals And Biopower In Integrated...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Financing Advanced Biofuels, Biochemicals And Biopower In Integrated Biorefineries Financing Advanced Biofuels, Biochemicals And Biopower In Integrated Biorefineries Afternoon ...

  2. Use of an Apple IIe microcomputer for pyrolysis data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    An Apple IIe microcomputer is being used to collect data and to control a pyrolysis system. Pyrolysis data for bitumen and kerogen are widely used to estimate source rock maturity. For a detailed analysis of kinetic parameters, however, data must be obtained more precisely than for routine pyrolysis. The authors discuss the program which controls the temperature ramp of the furnace that heats the sample, and collects data from a thermocouple in the furnace and from the flame ionization detector measuring evolved hydrocarbons. These data are stored on disk for later use by programs that display the results of the experiment or calculate kinetic parameters. The program is written in Applesoft BASIC with subroutines in Apple assembler for speed and efficiency.

  3. Mercury residues in south Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa)

    SciTech Connect

    Eisemann, J.D.; Beyer, W.N.; Morton, A.; Bennetts, R.E.

    1997-05-01

    Mercury concentrations in the sediments of south Florida wetlands have increased three fold in the last century. Because south Florida is home to many endemic and endangered species, it is important to understand the potential impacts of mercury in this ecosystem`s food web. Recent research by Malley et al. has shown mollusks to be sensitive indicators of methyl mercury which can reflect small differences in background methyl mercury concentrations. In this study, we attempted to determine if the apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) or its eggs are good indicators of bioavailable mercury. Then, using the apple snail as an indicator, we attempted to determine geographic differences in the concentrations of mercury in south Florida. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. From: Nicholas Ammann [mailto:nammann@apple.com]

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Tuesday, July 16, 2013 4:35 PM To: Exparte Communications Subject: Request for Information on Evaluating New Products for the Battery Chargers and External Power Supply Rulemaking - Ex Parte Communication Below are a list of topics that Apple Inc. discussed with DOE. - Timeline for the effective date of the DOE battery charger efficiency regulation and the external power supply regulation. - Flexibility of DOE Battery Charger efficiency mark, including using software or package as an alternate

  5. U-239: Apple iPhone SMS Processing Flaw Lets Remote Users Spoof SMS Source

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Addresses | Department of Energy 39: Apple iPhone SMS Processing Flaw Lets Remote Users Spoof SMS Source Addresses U-239: Apple iPhone SMS Processing Flaw Lets Remote Users Spoof SMS Source Addresses August 20, 2012 - 7:00am Addthis PROBLEM: Apple iPhone SMS Processing Flaw Lets Remote Users Spoof SMS Source Addresses PLATFORM: Version(s): 6 beta 4 and prior versions ABSTRACT: A remote user can spoof SMS source addresses. Reference LINKS: SecurityTracker Alert ID: 1027410 Apple.com PCMag.com

  6. U-170: Apple QuickTime Multiple Flaws Let Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Multiple vulnerabilities were reported in Apple QuickTime. A remote user can cause arbitrary code to be executed on the target user's system.

  7. NREL: Biomass Research - Biochemical Conversion Capabilities

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL researchers are working to improve the efficiency and economics of the biochemical ... that can coferment all the sugars in biomass to improve ethanol production economics. ...

  8. Biochemical Conversion Related Links | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Conversion 2009 Peer Review Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State of Technology Model For more publications, see the Bioenergy Publication Library

  9. Biochemical transformation of solid carbonaceous material

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY); Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY)

    2001-09-25

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  10. T-634: Apple Mac OS X MacDefender Fake Antivirus Malicious Software

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Apple Mac OS X users could infect their systems after visiting a malicious web page. Reports suggest that the Apple Safari web browser could allow automatic download and execution of the JavaScript-based malware because of an incorrectly set security option in Safari.

  11. Preparing the BESSY APPLE Undulators for Top-Up Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Bahrdt, J.; Frentrup, W.; Gaupp, A.; Scheer, M.

    2007-01-19

    BESSY plans to go to topping up operation in the near future. A high injection efficiency is essential to avoid particle losses inside the undulator magnets and to ensure a low radiation background in the beamlines. Dynamic and static multipoles of the insertion devices have to be minimized to accomplish this requirement. APPLE II devices show strong dynamic multipoles in the elliptical and vertical polarization mode. Measurements before and after shimming of these multipoles are presented. The static multipoles of the BESSY UE56-2 which are due to systematic block inhomgeneities have successfully been shimmed recovering the full dynamic aperture.

  12. Biochemical Mechanisms and Energy Strategies of Geobacter Sulfurreduce...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biochemical Mechanisms and Energy Strategies of Geobacter Sulfurreducens Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Biochemical Mechanisms and Energy Strategies of Geobacter ...

  13. Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State of Technology Model Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State of Technology Model An update to ...

  14. Demonstration and Deployment Workshop Day 2 - Biochem | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Demonstration and Deployment Workshop Day 2 - Biochem Day 2 Report - Breakout Group: Biochem danddworkshopbiochem2.pdf (289.41 KB) More Documents & Publications Demonstration ...

  15. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Biochemical Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Biochemical Conversion 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Biochemical Conversion This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent ...

  16. Biochemical Process Development and Integration | Bioenergy | NREL

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Biochemical Process Development and Integration Our mission is to develop, test, and demonstrate improved biochemically catalyzed processes to produce fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. Photo of NREL's High Bay Lab at the Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility, showing people in hard hats working on the bay floor and amongst the metal tubes and pipes. Our research scope spans bench-scale research and development (R&D) of diverse biomass conversion and separation processes to

  17. Solid state fermentation system for production of ethanol from apple pomace

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, Y.D.; Lee, C.Y.; Woodams, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    A solid state fermentation system for the production of ethanol from apple pomace with a Montrachet strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is described. The yields of ethanol varied from about 29 g to more than 40 g/kg of apple pomace, depending on the samples fermented. Separation of up to 99% of the ethanol from spent qpple pomace was achieved with a rotary vacuum evaporator. Alcohol fermentation of apple pomace might be an efficient method of alleviating waste disposal problems with the concomitant production of ethanol.

  18. T-676: Apple iOS Certificate Chain Validation Flaw Lets Certain Remote

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Users Access or Modify SSL/TLS Sessions | Department of Energy 6: Apple iOS Certificate Chain Validation Flaw Lets Certain Remote Users Access or Modify SSL/TLS Sessions T-676: Apple iOS Certificate Chain Validation Flaw Lets Certain Remote Users Access or Modify SSL/TLS Sessions July 26, 2011 - 1:06am Addthis PROBLEM: A vulnerability was reported in Apple iOS. A remote user with the ability to conduct a man-in-the-middle attack can access or modify SSL/TLS sessions. PLATFORM: iOS 4.2.5

  19. A Fixed Gap APPLE II Undulator for SLS

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, T.; Imhof, A.; Ingold, G.; Jakob, B.; Vollenweider, C.

    2007-01-19

    To vary the polarization vector of an APPLE II undulator continuously from 0 - 180 deg., all four magnet arrays need to be movable. Following the adjustable-phase undulator approach by R. Carr, a 3.4 m long fixed gap undulator for SLS with a gap of 11.6 mm has been constructed. It will be installed in fall 2006. The gap drive is replaced by a pair-wise shift of the magnet arrays to change the energy, while the polarization is changed by shifts of diagonal arrays. The high injection efficiency and standard operation top-up mode at the SLS allows this simplified undulator design. The design as well as the operational aspects will be discussed.

  20. T-676: Apple iOS Certificate Chain Validation Flaw Lets Certain...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Remote Users Access or Modify SSLTLS Sessions T-676: Apple iOS Certificate Chain Validation Flaw Lets Certain Remote Users Access or Modify SSLTLS Sessions July 26, 2011 - ...

  1. The Macolumn: Desperately seeking software. [Geologic software for the Apple Macintosh

    SciTech Connect

    Busbey, A.B.

    1988-08-01

    The Apple Macintosh has been available since 1984, but there has been little development of commercial geological software for it. The author briefly reviews what geological software is available for the Macintosh

  2. 2013 Peer Review Presentations-Biochemical Conversion | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Biochemical Conversion 2013 Peer Review Presentations-Biochemical Conversion The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted its 2013 Project Peer Review on May 20-24, 2015, at the Hilton Mark Center in Alexandria, Virginia. The presentations from the biochemical conversion session are available to view and download below. For detailed session descriptions and presentation titles, view the 2013 Project Peer Review Program Booklet. biochem_baez_2316.pdf (1.57 MB) biochem_beckham_2231.pdf

  3. A possibility for using an APPLE undulator to generate a photon beam with transverse optical modes.

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, S.; McNulty, I.; Shimada, T.; JAEA

    2008-01-01

    We investigate use of an APPLE-type undulator for generating Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) and Hermite-Gaussian (HG) mode beams. We find that the second harmonic radiation in the circular mode corresponds to an LG beam with l=1, and the second harmonic in the linear mode corresponds to an HG beam with l=1. The combination of an APPLE undulator and conventional monochromator optics may provide an opportunity for a new type of experimental research in the synchrotron radiation community.

  4. 2009 Biochemical Conversion Platform Review Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, John

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Biochemical Conversion platform review meeting, held on April 14-16, 2009, at the Sheraton Denver Downtown, Denver, Colorado.

  5. Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality

    SciTech Connect

    Forsline, P.L.; Musselman, R.C.; Kender, W.J.; Dee, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Mature 'McIntosh', 'Empire', and 'Golden Delicious' apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and in 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at pH 3.0 and pH 3.5. Apple foliage had no acid rain lesions at any of the pH levels tested. Pollen germination was reduced at ph 2.5 in 'Empire'. Slight fruit set reduction at pH 2.5 was observed in 'McIntosh'. The incidence of russetting on 'Golden Delicious' fruits was ameliorated by the presence of rain-exclusion chambers but was not affected by acid rain. With season-long sprays at pH 2.75, there was a slight delay in maturity and lower weight of 'McIntosh' apples. Even at the lowest pH levels no detrimental effects of simulated acid rain were found on apple tree productivity and fruit quality when measured as fruit set, seed number per fruit, and fruit size and appearance.

  6. 2009 Biochemical Conversion Platform Review Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    09 Biochemical Conversion Platform Review Report 2009 Biochemical Conversion Platform Review Report This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program's Biochemical Conversion platform review meeting, held on April 14-16, 2009, at the Sheraton Denver Downtown, Denver, Colorado. obp_biochem_conversion_platform_review_2009.pdf (4.32 MB) More Documents & Publications 2009

  7. 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Biochemical Conversion | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Biochemical Conversion 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Biochemical Conversion The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted its 2015 Project Peer Review on March 23-27, 2015, at the Hilton Mark Center in Alexandria, Virginia. The presentations from the biochemical conversion sessions are available to view and download below. For detailed session descriptions and presentation titles, view the 2015 Project Peer Review Program Booklet. biochemical_conversion_nagle_0110.pdf (2.2 MB)

  8. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Biochemical Conversion |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Biochemical Conversion 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Biochemical Conversion This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program's Biochemical Platform Review meeting, held on February 14-16, 2011, at the Crowne Plaza Hotel in Downtown Denver, Colorado. 2011_biochem_review.pdf (2.31 MB) More Documents & Publications 2011 Biomass Program Peer

  9. Demonstration and Deployment Workshop Day 2 - Biochem

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Biochem Top Advancement Activities Recommended by Group: 1. Create of Cross-Platform Development Incubator - An incubator facilitates partnerships and leverages existing infrastructure. 2. Underwrite Activities Leading to Investor Confidence - Creating a model for successful technology-to-market deployment. 3. Establish a New Standard for Critical Review - DOE/BETO need to set a standard for critical review of current state of technology and abandon "N th plant" economics; have

  10. Prickett and Lonnquist aquifer simulation program for the Apple II minicomputer

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, L.C.

    1983-02-01

    The Prickett and Lonnquist two-dimensional groundwater model has been programmed for the Apple II minicomputer. Both leaky and nonleaky confined aquifers can be simulated. The model was adapted from the FORTRAN version of Prickett and Lonnquist. In the configuration presented here, the program requires 64 K bits of memory. Because of the large number of arrays used in the program, and memory limitations of the Apple II, the maximum grid size that can be used is 20 rows by 20 columns. Input to the program is interactive, with prompting by the computer. Output consists of predicted lead values at the row-column intersections (nodes).

  11. 2009 Biochemical Conversion Platform Review Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    - Name and Type: PANTONE 2995 C; Angle: 45.000; Lines/Inch: 60.000 - Name and Type: PANTONE 308 C; Angle: 45.000; Lines/Inch: 60.000 - Name and Type: PANTONE 431 C; Angle: 45.000; Lines/Inch: 60.000 BIOMASS PROGRAM December 2009 2009 Biochemical Conversion Platform Review Report: An Independent Evaluation of Platform Activities for FY2008 and FY2009 Executive Summary This page intentionally left blank i Dear Colleague: This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an

  12. U-121: Apple iOS Bugs Let Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ID: 1026774 Apple Security Updates About the security content of iOS 5.1 Software Update CVE-2012-0641, CVE-2012-0642, CVE-2012-0643, CVE-2011-3453, CVE-2012-0644, CVE-2012-0585,...

  13. Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality

    SciTech Connect

    Forsline, P.L.; Musselman, R.C.; Kender, W.J.; Dee, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Mature McIntosh, Empire, and Golden Delicious apple trees (Malus domestica) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at pH 3.0 and 3.5. Apple foliage had no acid rain lesions at any of the pH levels tested. Pollen germination was reduced at pH 2.5 in Empire. Slight fruit set reduction at pH 2.5 was observed in McIntosh. Even at the lowest pH levels no detrimental effects of simulated acid rain were found on apple tree productivity and fruit quality when measured as fruit set, seed number per fruit, and fruit size and appearance.

  14. Biochemical Conversion: Using Hydrolysis, Fermentation, and Catalysis to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Make Fuels and Chemicals | Department of Energy Biochemical Conversion: Using Hydrolysis, Fermentation, and Catalysis to Make Fuels and Chemicals Biochemical Conversion: Using Hydrolysis, Fermentation, and Catalysis to Make Fuels and Chemicals BETO works with the emerging U.S. bioindustry to sustainably convert non-food biomass resources into cost-competitive biofuels, biopower, and bioproducts. biochemical_four_pager.pdf (2.61 MB) More Documents & Publications Replacing the Whole

  15. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover | Department of Energy Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover This report describes one potential biochemical ethanol conversion process, conceptually based upon

  16. Biochemical Conversion Techno-Economic Analysis | Bioenergy | NREL

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Conversion Techno-Economic Analysis NREL's biochemical conversion analysis team focuses on techno-economic analysis (TEA) for the biochemical conversion of biomass to fuels and products via sugars and other components derived from lignocellulosic biomass. Process flow diagram with simple icon illustrations of the biochemical conversion process and facility. Biomass is pictured in the upper left as a simple black-and-white truck illustration that begins this process in the conversion facility:

  17. Modeling Tomorrow's Biorefinery--the NREL Biochemical Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-03-01

    Brochure describing the capabilities of NREL's Biochemical Pilot Plant. In this facility, researchers test ideas for creating high-value products from cellulosic biomass.

  18. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellul...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: ...

  19. Improving Microalgal Oil Production Based on Quantitative, Biochemical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Microalgal Oil Production Based on Quantitative, Biochemical and Genetic Analyses of ... Goal Statement * Maximizing production of oil (triacylglycerols) in the green alga ...

  20. U-165: Apple iOS Bugs Let Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code and Spoof Address Bar URLs

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Two vulnerabilities were reported in Apple iOS. A remote user can cause arbitrary code to be executed on the target user's system. A remote user can spoof the address bar URL.

  1. The Macolumn - the plot thickens. [Review of a Apple Macintosh geologic software package and using a plotter with a Macintosh

    SciTech Connect

    Bushey, A.B. )

    1990-04-01

    Several geologic software packages are for the Apple Macintosh are reviewed along with an section on using a plotter with the Macintosh. The plotter is a CalComp Artisan 1025 8-pen plotter.

  2. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer with barrier member

    DOEpatents

    Dovichi, Norman J.; Zhang, Jian Z.

    1996-01-01

    A multiple capillary biochemical analyzer for sequencing DNA and performing other analyses, in which a set of capillaries extends from wells in a microtiter plate into a cuvette. In the cuvette the capillaries are held on fixed closely spaced centers by passing through a sandwich construction having a pair of metal shims which squeeze between them a rubber gasket, forming a leak proof seal for an interior chamber in which the capillary ends are positioned. Sheath fluid enters the chamber and entrains filament sample streams from the capillaries. The filament sample streams, and sheath fluid, flow through aligned holes in a barrier member spaced close to the capillary ends, into a collection chamber having a lower glass window. The filament streams are illuminated above the barrier member by a laser, causing them to fluoresce. The fluorescence is viewed end-on by a CCD camera chip located below the glass window. The arrangement ensures an equal optical path length from all fluorescing spots to the CCD chip and also blocks scattered fluorescence illumination, providing more uniform results and an improved signal to noise ratio.

  3. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer with barrier member

    DOEpatents

    Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

    1996-10-22

    A multiple capillary biochemical analyzer is disclosed for sequencing DNA and performing other analyses, in which a set of capillaries extends from wells in a microtiter plate into a cuvette. In the cuvette the capillaries are held on fixed closely spaced centers by passing through a sandwich construction having a pair of metal shims which squeeze between them a rubber gasket, forming a leak proof seal for an interior chamber in which the capillary ends are positioned. Sheath fluid enters the chamber and entrains filament sample streams from the capillaries. The filament sample streams, and sheath fluid, flow through aligned holes in a barrier member spaced close to the capillary ends, into a collection chamber having a lower glass window. The filament streams are illuminated above the barrier member by a laser, causing them to fluoresce. The fluorescence is viewed end-on by a CCD camera chip located below the glass window. The arrangement ensures an equal optical path length from all fluorescing spots to the CCD chip and also blocks scattered fluorescence illumination, providing more uniform results and an improved signal-to-noise ratio. 12 figs.

  4. The Macolumn - the Mac gets geophysical. [A review of geophysical software for the Apple Macintosh computer

    SciTech Connect

    Busbey, A.B. )

    1990-02-01

    Seismic Processing Workshop, a program by Parallel Geosciences of Austin, TX, is discussed in this column. The program is a high-speed, interactive seismic processing and computer analysis system for the Apple Macintosh II family of computers. Also reviewed in this column are three products from Wilkerson Associates of Champaign, IL. SubSide is an interactive program for basin subsidence analysis; MacFault and MacThrustRamp are programs for modeling faults.

  5. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Biochemical Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Pezzullo, Leslie

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Biochemical Conversion Platform Review meeting.

  6. Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2008 State...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    DE-AC36-08-GO28308 Technical Report NRELTP-510-46214 August 2009 Biochemical Production of ... the FY 2008 SOT, the assumed cost of cellulase enzymes was updated from 0.32gal to ...

  7. Financing Advanced Biofuels, Biochemicals And Biopower In Integrated

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Biorefineries | Department of Energy Financing Advanced Biofuels, Biochemicals And Biopower In Integrated Biorefineries Financing Advanced Biofuels, Biochemicals And Biopower In Integrated Biorefineries Afternoon Plenary Session: Current Trends in the Advanced Bioindustry Bioenergy Project Finance Mechanisms-Mark Riedy, Counsel, Kilpatrick, Townsend & Stockton LLP b13_riedy_ap-1.pdf (270.55 KB) More Documents & Publications U.S. And International Case Studies for Financing Bioeconomy

  8. Biochemical and Structural Insights into the Preference of Nairoviral

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DeISGylases for Interferon-Stimulated Gene Product 15 Originating from Certain Species (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Biochemical and Structural Insights into the Preference of Nairoviral DeISGylases for Interferon-Stimulated Gene Product 15 Originating from Certain Species Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Biochemical and Structural Insights into the Preference of Nairoviral DeISGylases for Interferon-Stimulated Gene Product 15 Originating from Certain Species The regulation

  9. Evaluation of laboratory-scale in-vessel co-composting of tobacco and apple waste

    SciTech Connect

    Kop?i?, Nina Vukovi? Domanovac, Marija; Ku?i?, Dajana; Briki, Felicita

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: Apple and tobacco waste mixture was efficiently composted during 22 days. Physicalchemical and microbiological properties of the mixture were suitable the process. Evaluation of selected mathematical model showed good prediction of the temperature. The temperature curve was a mirror image of the oxygen concentration curve. The peak values of the temperature were occurred 9.5 h after the peak oxygen consumption. - Abstract: Efficient composting process requires set of adequate parameters among which physicalchemical properties of the composting substrate play the key-role. Combining different types of biodegradable solid waste it is possible to obtain a substrate eligible to microorganisms in the composting process. In this work the composting of apple and tobacco solid waste mixture (1:7, dry weight) was explored. The aim of the work was to investigate an efficiency of biodegradation of the given mixture and to characterize incurred raw compost. Composting was conducted in 24 L thermally insulated column reactor at airflow rate of 1.1 L min{sup ?1}. During 22 days several parameters were closely monitored: temperature and mass of the substrate, volatile solids content, C/N ratio and pH-value of the mixture and oxygen consumption. The composting of the apple and tobacco waste resulted with high degradation of the volatile solids (53.1%). During the experiment 1.76 kg of oxygen was consumed and the C/N ratio of the product was 11.6. The obtained temperature curve was almost a mirror image of the oxygen concentration curve while the peak values of the temperature were occurred 9.5 h after the peak oxygen consumption.

  10. Characterization of the Support and Drive System of the PETRA III APPLE Undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Bahrdt, J.; Baecker, H.-J.; Frentrup, W.; Gaupp, A.; Gottschlich, S.; Kuhn, C.; Scheer, M.; Schulz, B.; Gast, M.; Englisch, U.; Schoeps, A.; Tischer, M.

    2010-06-23

    Helmholtzzentrum Berlin has built an APPLE II undulator for the storage ring PETRA III. The device has a total length of 5m and a minimum gap of 11mm. The high magnetic forces in particular in the inclined mode have been analyzed by means of finite element methods (FEM). Specific mechanic components such as flexible joints have been optimized to cope with the gap- and shift-dependent 3D-forces and a sophisticated control and drive system has been implemented. After completion of the device, detailed laser interferometer measurements for all operation modes have been performed. The data are compared to the FEM simulations.

  11. National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update #23, April-June 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.

    2009-08-01

    April to June, 2009 edition of the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly newsletter.

  12. National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update #17, October-December 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.

    2008-01-01

    October to December, 2007 edition of the newsletter of the Biochemical Platform Process Integration project.

  13. National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update #20, July-September 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D. J.

    2008-12-01

    July to September, 2008 edition of the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly newsletter.

  14. National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update #25, October - December 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.

    2010-01-01

    October to December, 2009 edition of the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly newsletter.

  15. National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update #22, January - March 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    January to March, 2009 edition of the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly newsletter.

  16. National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update #24, July-September 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.

    2009-10-01

    July to September, 2009 edition of the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly newsletter.

  17. U-264: Apple OS X Lets Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code and Local Users Gain Elevated Privileges

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Several vulnerabilities were reported in Apple OS X. A remote user can execute arbitrary code on the target system. A remote user can obtain a password hash in certain cases. A local user can obtain elevated privileges on the target system. A local user can obtain password keystrokes.

  18. Structure of a Rhamnogalacturonan Fragment from Apple Pectin: Implications for Pectin Architecture

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Wu, Xiangmei; Mort, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    A comore » mmercial apple pectin was sequentially digested with the cloned enzymes endopolygalacturonase, galactanase, arabinofuranosidase, xylogalacturonase, and rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase. The rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase-generated oligosaccharides were separated by ultrafiltration, anion exchange, and size-exclusion chromatography. Fractions from the ion exchange chromatography were pooled, lyophilized, and screened by MALDI-TOF MS. An oligosaccharide (RGP14P3) was identified and its structure, α -D-Gal p A- ( 1 → 2 ) - α -L-Rha p - ( 1 → 4 ) - α -D-Gal p A- ( 1 → 2 ) - α -L-Rha p - ( 1 → 4 ) - α -D-Gal p A, determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry. This oligosaccharide probably represents a direct connection between homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan in pectin. Alternatively, it could indicate that the nonreducing end of rhamnogalacturonan starts with a galacturonic acid residue.« less

  19. National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update #26, January - March 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.

    2010-04-01

    January-March, 2010 edition of the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly newsletter. Issue topics: understanding and improving sugar measurements in biomass hydrolysates; expansion of the NREL/DOE Biochemical Pilot Plant.

  20. National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update #13, October-December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D. J.

    2007-01-01

    Volume 13 of a quarterly newsletter that describes the activities of the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Processing Integration Task.

  1. National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update #21, October - December 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.

    2009-01-01

    October to December, 2008 edition of the National Bioenergy Center?s Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly newsletter.

  2. National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update #14, January - March 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.

    2007-04-01

    Volume 14 of a quarterly newsletter that describes the activities of the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Processing Integration Task.

  3. National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Process Integration Project: Quarterly Update #18, January-March 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.

    2008-04-01

    January-March, 2008 edition of the quarterly update for the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Platform Integration Project.

  4. Applications of biochemical processes in geothermal and other industries

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Jin, J.Z.

    1994-06-01

    Laboratory studies aimed at the development of economically and technically feasible, and environmentally acceptable technology for the disposal of geothermal sludges and wastes have led to the development of biochemical processes which meet the above conditions. A pilot-scale plant has been constructed and used to identify process variables and optimize processing conditions. The total process is flexible and can be used in several modes of operation which include (1) solubilization and removal of many metals, including radionuclides, from brines and sludges; (2) selective removal of a few metals; (3) concentration of metals; (4) recovery of metals; and (5) recovery of salts. The end product is a silica-type material which meets regulatory requirements, while the aqueous phase meets drinking water standards and can be reinjected and/or used for irrigation. Preliminary engineering studies of the metal and salt recovery technologies have indicated that significant cost benefits could be obtained by means of combined processing. Recent accomplishments in the development of new biochemical technologies will be discussed in this paper.

  5. Biobased Chemicals Landscape in 2015: What's the Role of Biochemicals in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    the Bioeconomy? | Department of Energy Biobased Chemicals Landscape in 2015: What's the Role of Biochemicals in the Bioeconomy? Biobased Chemicals Landscape in 2015: What's the Role of Biochemicals in the Bioeconomy? Breakout 3-B: The Changing Landscapes for Biobased Chemicals: A Decade After the Top Value Added Chemicals from Biomass Biobased Chemicals Landscape in 2015: What's the Role of Biochemicals in the Bioeconomy? Ken Williams, Program Leader/Principal Chemical Engineer, Nature

  6. Biochemical Conversion Pilot Plant (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Biochemical Conversion Pilot Plant A pilot-scale conversion plant for researchers, industry partners, and stakeholders to test a variety of biochemical conversion processes and technologies. NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. In the biochemical conversion pilot plant, NREL's engineers and scientists focus on all aspects of the efficiency and cost reduction of

  7. Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State of Technology Model

    SciTech Connect

    Aden, A.

    2008-05-01

    An update to the FY 2005 assessment of the state of technical research progress toward biochemical process goals. This assessment contains research results from 2006 and 2007.

  8. Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2008 State of Technology Model

    SciTech Connect

    Humbird, D.; Aden, A.

    2009-08-01

    An update to the FY 2007 assessment of the state of technical research progress toward biochemical process goals, quantified in terms of Minimum Ethanol Selling Price.

  9. Using Fermentation and Catalysis to Make Fuels and Products: Biochemical Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    Information about the Biomass Program's collaborative projects to improve processing routes for biochemical conversion, which entails breaking down biomass to make the carbohydrates available for conversion into sugars.

  10. Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State of Technology Model

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    An update to the FY 2005 assessment of the state of technical research progress toward biochemical process goals. This assessment containins research results from 2006 and 2007.

  11. Biochemical physics modeling of biological nano-motors

    SciTech Connect

    Santamara-Holek, I.; Lpez-Alamilla, N. J.

    2014-01-14

    We present a biochemical physics model accounting for the dynamics and energetics of both translational and rotational protein motors. A modified version of the hand-over-hand mechanism considering competitive inhibition by ADP is presented. Transition state-like theory is used to reconstruct the time dependent free-energy landscape of the cycle catalyst process that allows to predicting the number of steps or rotations that a single motor can perform. In addition, following the usual approach of chemical kinetics, we calculate the average translational velocity and also the stopping time of processes involving a collectivity of motors, such as exocytosis and endocytosis processes. Finally, we formulate a stochastic model reproducing very well single realizations of kinesin and rotary ATPases.

  12. Final Technical Report "Multiscale Simulation Algorithms for Biochemical Systems"

    SciTech Connect

    Petzold, Linda R.

    2012-10-25

    Biochemical systems are inherently multiscale and stochastic. In microscopic systems formed by living cells, the small numbers of reactant molecules can result in dynamical behavior that is discrete and stochastic rather than continuous and deterministic. An analysis tool that respects these dynamical characteristics is the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA, Gillespie, 1976), a numerical simulation procedure that is essentially exact for chemical systems that are spatially homogeneous or well stirred. Despite recent improvements, as a procedure that simulates every reaction event, the SSA is necessarily inefficient for most realistic problems. There are two main reasons for this, both arising from the multiscale nature of the underlying problem: (1) stiffness, i.e. the presence of multiple timescales, the fastest of which are stable; and (2) the need to include in the simulation both species that are present in relatively small quantities and should be modeled by a discrete stochastic process, and species that are present in larger quantities and are more efficiently modeled by a deterministic differential equation (or at some scale in between). This project has focused on the development of fast and adaptive algorithms, and the fun- damental theory upon which they must be based, for the multiscale simulation of biochemical systems. Areas addressed by this project include: (1) Theoretical and practical foundations for ac- celerated discrete stochastic simulation (tau-leaping); (2) Dealing with stiffness (fast reactions) in an efficient and well-justified manner in discrete stochastic simulation; (3) Development of adaptive multiscale algorithms for spatially homogeneous discrete stochastic simulation; (4) Development of high-performance SSA algorithms.

  13. Comment on ``Effect of electron temperature on negative hydrogen ion production in a low-pressure Ar discharge plasma with methane`` [Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1619 (1993)

    SciTech Connect

    Pinnaduwage, L.A. |

    1995-08-14

    The author proposes a mechanism for the efficient production of negative Hydrogen ions in a low{minus}pressure Ar discharge plasma with methane using a novel pin{minus}hollow cathode as reported in Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1619 (1993). (AIP) {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  14. When worlds collide - Mac to MS-DOS. [Data transfer to and from Apple Macintosh computers and MS-DOS based personal computers

    SciTech Connect

    Busbey, A.B.

    1989-04-01

    A number of methods and products, both hardware and software, to allow data exchange between Apple Macintosh computers and MS-DOS based systems. These included serial null modem connections, MS-DOS hardware and/or software emulation, MS-DOS disk-reading hardware and networking.

  15. Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters

  16. National Bioenergy Center, Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update, Winter 2011-2012 (Newsletter)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    Winter 2011-2012 issue of the National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly update. Issue topics: 34th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals; feasibility of NIR spectroscopy-based rapid feedstock reactive screening; demonstrating integrated pilot-scale biomass conversion. The Biochemical Process Integration Task focuses on integrating the processing steps in enzyme-based lignocellulose conversion technology. This project supports the U.S. Department of Energy's efforts to foster development, demonstration, and deployment of 'biochemical platform' biorefineries that economically produce ethanol or other fuels, as well as commodity sugars and a variety of other chemical products, from renewable lignocellulosic biomass.

  17. Study of Row Phase Dependent Skew Quadrupole Fields in Apple-II Type EPUs at the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Steier, C.; Marks, S.; Prestemon, Soren; Robin, David; Schlueter, Ross; Wolski, Andrzej

    2004-05-07

    Since about 5 years, Apple-II type Elliptically Polarizing Undulators (EPU) have been used very successfully at the ALS to generate high brightness photon beams with arbitrary polarization. However, both EPUs installed so far cause significant changes of the vertical beamsize, especially when the row phase is changed to change the polarization of the photons emitted. Detailed measurements indicate this is caused by a row phase dependent skew quadrupole term in the EPUs. Magnetic measurements revealed the same effect for the third EPU to be installed later this year. All measurements to identify and quantify the effect with beam will be presented, as well as some results of magnetic bench measurements and numeric field simulations.

  18. National Bioenergy Center--Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update, Fall 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.

    2010-12-01

    Fall 2010 edition of the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly newsletter. Issue topics: rapid analysis models for compositional analysis of intermediate process streams; engineered arabinose-fermenting Zymomonas mobilis strain.

  19. Biochemical Conversion: Using Enzymes, Microbes, and Catalysis to Make Fuels and Chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-26

    This fact sheet describes the Bioenergy Technologies Office's biochemical conversion work and processes. BETO conducts collaborative research, development, and demonstration projects to improve several processing routes for the conversion of cellulosic biomass.

  20. Prediction of microalgae hydrothermal liquefaction products from feedstock biochemical composition

    SciTech Connect

    Leow, Shijie; Witter, John R.; Vardon, Derek R.; Sharma, Brajendra K.; Guest, Jeremy S.; Strathmann, Timothy J.

    2015-05-11

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) uses water under elevated temperatures and pressures (200–350 °C, 5–20 MPa) to convert biomass into liquid “biocrude” oil. Despite extensive reports on factors influencing microalgae cell composition during cultivation and separate reports on HTL products linked to cell composition, the field still lacks a quantitative model to predict HTL conversion product yield and qualities from feedstock biochemical composition; the tailoring of microalgae feedstock for downstream conversion is a unique and critical aspect of microalgae biofuels that must be leveraged upon for optimization of the whole process. This study developed predictive relationships for HTL biocrude yield and other conversion product characteristics based on HTL of Nannochloropsis oculata batches harvested with a wide range of compositions (23–59% dw lipids, 58–17% dw proteins, 12–22% dw carbohydrates) and a defatted batch (0% dw lipids, 75% dw proteins, 19% dw carbohydrates). HTL biocrude yield (33–68% dw) and carbon distribution (49–83%) increased in proportion to the fatty acid (FA) content. A component additivity model (predicting biocrude yield from lipid, protein, and carbohydrates) was more accurate predicting literature yields for diverse microalgae species than previous additivity models derived from model compounds. FA profiling of the biocrude product showed strong links to the initial feedstock FA profile of the lipid component, demonstrating that HTL acts as a water-based extraction process for FAs; the remainder non-FA structural components could be represented using the defatted batch. These findings were used to introduce a new FA-based model that predicts biocrude oil yields along with other critical parameters, and is capable of adjusting for the wide variations in HTL methodology and microalgae species through the defatted batch. Lastly, the FA model was linked to an upstream cultivation model (Phototrophic Process Model

  1. Prediction of microalgae hydrothermal liquefaction products from feedstock biochemical composition

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Leow, Shijie; Witter, John R.; Vardon, Derek R.; Sharma, Brajendra K.; Guest, Jeremy S.; Strathmann, Timothy J.

    2015-05-11

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) uses water under elevated temperatures and pressures (200–350 °C, 5–20 MPa) to convert biomass into liquid “biocrude” oil. Despite extensive reports on factors influencing microalgae cell composition during cultivation and separate reports on HTL products linked to cell composition, the field still lacks a quantitative model to predict HTL conversion product yield and qualities from feedstock biochemical composition; the tailoring of microalgae feedstock for downstream conversion is a unique and critical aspect of microalgae biofuels that must be leveraged upon for optimization of the whole process. This study developed predictive relationships for HTL biocrude yield and othermore » conversion product characteristics based on HTL of Nannochloropsis oculata batches harvested with a wide range of compositions (23–59% dw lipids, 58–17% dw proteins, 12–22% dw carbohydrates) and a defatted batch (0% dw lipids, 75% dw proteins, 19% dw carbohydrates). HTL biocrude yield (33–68% dw) and carbon distribution (49–83%) increased in proportion to the fatty acid (FA) content. A component additivity model (predicting biocrude yield from lipid, protein, and carbohydrates) was more accurate predicting literature yields for diverse microalgae species than previous additivity models derived from model compounds. FA profiling of the biocrude product showed strong links to the initial feedstock FA profile of the lipid component, demonstrating that HTL acts as a water-based extraction process for FAs; the remainder non-FA structural components could be represented using the defatted batch. These findings were used to introduce a new FA-based model that predicts biocrude oil yields along with other critical parameters, and is capable of adjusting for the wide variations in HTL methodology and microalgae species through the defatted batch. Lastly, the FA model was linked to an upstream cultivation model (Phototrophic Process Model

  2. Biochemical Conversion: Using Hydrolysis, Fermentation, and Catalysis to Make Fuels and Chemicals

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    New pathways will enable energy-efficient biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels that are compatible with today's vehicles and infrastructure. Photos (clockwise from upper left): iStock/4373820, Energetics Inc., iStock/6091090, NREL/15040 Biochemical Conversion: Using Enzymes, Microbes, and Catalysts to Make Fuels and Chemicals Advanced biofuels are part of America's all-of-the-above strategy to develop domestic energy resources and win the global race in clean energy

  3. Biochemical Process Modeling and Simulation Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    2015 Project Peer Review Biochemical Process Modeling and Simulation 25 March 2015 Biochemical Platform Michael Crowley NREL This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 2 Goal Statement Cellulase Action Lignin Binding LPMO mechanism Reactor Design Understand relevant processes at Molecular Level Predict improved enzymes, pathways, and process parameters. Test and select best hypotheses from experiment Streamline path to improved biofuel

  4. Technical Market Analysis for Biochemical Conversion Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Technical Market Analysis for Biochemical Conversion March 23, 2015 Biochemical Conversion Jim Collett and Mark Butcher PNNL This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Goal Statement Challenge: Process and economic data on hydrocarbon production via bioconversion that are freely available to industry are limited. Data at industrially-relevant scales are limited because published research focuses mainly on compound discovery at lab-scale

  5. Purification of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase from apple fruits using s-adenosyl (3,4 sup 14 C)-methionine (SAM) as a probe

    SciTech Connect

    Yip, Wingkip; Dong, Jianguo,; Yang, Shang Fa )

    1989-04-01

    Tomato ACC synthase is inactivated by its substrate SAM, with the moiety of aminobutyrate being covalently linked to ACC synthase during the catalytic reactions. A partial purified ACC synthase (the catalytic activity 100 {mu}mol/h{center dot}mg protein) from pellets of apple extract was incubated with (3,4{sup 14}C) SAM. Only one radioactive peak was revealed in a C-4 reverse phase HPLC and one radioactive band on SDS-PAGE with an M.W. of 48 kDa. Apple ACC synthase in native form is resistant to V8, {alpha}-chromtrypsin and carboxylpeptidase A digestion, but effectively inactivated by trypsin and ficin, as demonstrated by both the activity assay and SAM labeling. The radioactive protein cut from the SDS-PAGE was injected to three mice, two of the mice showed responses to the protein in western blot analysis. The antibodies from mice is currently under characterization.

  6. Comment on “Dimpling in critical current density vs. magnetic field angle in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} films irradiated with 3-MeV gold ions” [J. Appl. Phys. 114, 233911 (2013)

    SciTech Connect

    Long, N. J. Wimbush, S. C.

    2014-04-07

    We provide an alternative explanation for the results of Matsui et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 114, 233911 (2013)] by considering the effects of disorder on flux pinning.

  7. Structure and biochemical characterization of proliferating cellular nuclear antigen from a parasitic protozoon

    SciTech Connect

    Cardona-Felix, Cesar S.; Lara-Gonzalez, Samuel; Brieba, Luis G.

    2012-02-08

    Proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a toroidal-shaped protein that is involved in cell-cycle control, DNA replication and DNA repair. Parasitic protozoa are early-diverged eukaryotes that are responsible for neglected diseases. In this work, a PCNA from a parasitic protozoon was identified, cloned and biochemically characterized and its crystal structure was determined. Structural and biochemical studies demonstrate that PCNA from Entamoeba histolytica assembles as a homotrimer that is able to interact with and stimulate the activity of a PCNA-interacting peptide-motif protein from E. histolytica, EhDNAligI. The data indicate a conservation of the biochemical mechanisms of PCNA-mediated interactions between metazoa, yeast and parasitic protozoa.

  8. National Bioenergy Center - Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update, Winter 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.

    2011-02-01

    Winter 2011 edition of the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly newsletter. Issue topics: 33rd Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals program topic areas; results from reactive membrane extraction of inhibitors from dilute-acid pretreated corn stover; list of 2010 task publications.

  9. Biomass Program 2007 Program Peer Review - Biochemical and Products Platform Summary

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document discloses the comments provided by a review panel at the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Program Peer Review held on November 15-16, 2007 in Baltimore, MD and the Biochemical and Products Platform Review held on August 7-9, 2007 in Denver, Colorado.

  10. Mathematical treatment of isotopologue and isotopomer speciation and fractionation in biochemical kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Maggi, F.M.; Riley, W.J.

    2009-11-01

    We present a mathematical treatment of the kinetic equations that describe isotopologue and isotopomer speciation and fractionation during enzyme-catalyzed biochemical reactions. These equations, presented here with the name GEBIK (general equations for biochemical isotope kinetics) and GEBIF (general equations for biochemical isotope fractionation), take into account microbial biomass and enzyme dynamics, reaction stoichiometry, isotope substitution number, and isotope location within each isotopologue and isotopomer. In addition to solving the complete GEBIK and GEBIF, we also present and discuss two approximations to the full solutions under the assumption of biomass-free and enzyme steady-state, and under the quasi-steady-state assumption as applied to the complexation rate. The complete and approximate approaches are applied to observations of biological denitrification in soils. Our analysis highlights that the full GEBIK and GEBIF provide a more accurate description of concentrations and isotopic compositions of substrates and products throughout the reaction than do the approximate forms. We demonstrate that the isotopic effects of a biochemical reaction depend, in the most general case, on substrate and complex concentrations and, therefore, the fractionation factor is a function of time. We also demonstrate that inverse isotopic effects can occur for values of the fractionation factor smaller than 1, and that reactions that do not discriminate isotopes do not necessarily imply a fractionation factor equal to 1.

  11. National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update #28, Spring 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D. J.

    2011-04-01

    Spring 2011 edition of the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly newsletter. Issue topics: 33rd Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals program sessions and special topic sessions; assessment of waste water treatment needs; and an update on new arabinose-to-ethanol fermenting Zymomonas mobilis strains.

  12. National Bioenergy Center, Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update, Summer 2011 (Newsletter)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    Summer 2011 issue of the National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly update. Issue topics: evaluating new analytical techniques for measuring soluble sugars in the liquid portion of biomass hydrolysates, and measurement of the fraction of insoluble solids in biomass slurries.

  13. Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State of Technology Model

    SciTech Connect

    Aden, Andy

    2008-05-01

    Since 2001, NREL has kept track of technical research progress in the biochemical process through what are known as “State of Technology” (SOT) assessments. The purpose of this report is to update the FY 2005 SOT model with the latest research results from the past two years.

  14. National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update #27, April - June 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.

    2010-07-01

    April-June, 2010 edition of the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly newsletter. Issue topics: understanding performance of alternative process configurations for producing ethanol from biomass; investigating Karl Fischer Titration for measuring water content of pretreated biomass slurries.

  15. Apparatus and method for converting biomass to feedstock for biofuel and biochemical manufacturing processes

    DOEpatents

    Kania, John; Qiao, Ming; Woods, Elizabeth M.; Cortright, Randy D.; Myren, Paul

    2015-12-15

    The present invention includes improved systems and methods for producing biomass-derived feedstocks for biofuel and biochemical manufacturing processes. The systems and methods use components that are capable of transferring relatively high concentrations of solid biomass utilizing pressure variations between vessels, and allows for the recovery and recycling of heterogeneous catalyst materials.

  16. Biochemical changes in blood components after lethal doses of radiation. Final report Oct 80-Sep 81

    SciTech Connect

    Magro, A.M.

    1982-10-01

    Nonpeptide, peptide, and protein blood components were measured postirradiation in Wistar rats to investigate biochemical changes that might be related to or form the basis of radiation-induced emesis. The rats were irradiated with lethal doses of radiation, and blood components were analyzed at various times postirradiation. The blood-component levels were compared to those of nonirradiated controls to determine if any significant changes occurred due to the radiation.

  17. A Computational Model for the Identification of Biochemical Pathways in the Krebs Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, Joseph S.; Bailey, Colin G.; Jones-Oliveira, Janet B.; Dixon, David A.; Gull, Dean W.; Chandler, Mary L.

    2003-03-01

    We have applied an algorithmic methodology which provably decomposes any complex network into a complete family of principal subcircuits to study the minimal circuits that describe the Krebs cycle. Every operational behavior that the network is capable of exhibiting can be represented by some combination of these principal subcircuits and this computational decomposition is linearly efficient. We have developed a computational model that can be applied to biochemical reaction systems which accurately renders pathways of such reactions via directed hypergraphs (Petri nets). We have applied the model to the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle). The Krebs cycle, which oxidizes the acetyl group of acetyl CoA to CO2 and reduces NAD and FAD to NADH and FADH2 is a complex interacting set of nine subreaction networks. The Krebs cycle was selected because of its familiarity to the biological community and because it exhibits enough complexity to be interesting in order to introduce this novel analytic approach. This study validates the algorithmic methodology for the identification of significant biochemical signaling subcircuits, based solely upon the mathematical model and not upon prior biological knowledge. The utility of the algebraic-combinatorial model for identifying the complete set of biochemical subcircuits as a data set is demonstrated for this important metabolic process.

  18. A Model Incorporating Some of the Mechanical and Biochemical Factors Underlying Clot Formation and Dissolution in Flowing Blood

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Anand, M.; Rajagopal, K.; Rajagopal, K. R.

    2003-01-01

    Multiple interacting mechanisms control the formation and dissolution of clots to maintain blood in a state of delicate balance. In addition to a myriad of biochemical reactions, rheological factors also play a crucial role in modulating the response of blood to external stimuli. To date, a comprehensive model for clot formation and dissolution, that takes into account the biochemical, medical and rheological factors, has not been put into place, the existing models emphasizing either one or the other of the factors. In this paper, after discussing the various biochemical, physiologic and rheological factors at some length, we develop a modelmore » for clot formation and dissolution that incorporates many of the relevant crucial factors that have a bearing on the problem. The model, though just a first step towards understanding a complex phenomenon, goes further than previous models in integrating the biochemical, physiologic and rheological factors that come into play.« less

  19. Obesity and Risk of Biochemical Failure for Patients Receiving Salvage Radiotherapy After Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    King, Christopher R. Spiotto, Michael T.; Kapp, Daniel S.

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: Obesity has been proposed as an independent risk factor for patients undergoing surgery or radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer. Using body mass index (BMI) as a measure of obesity, we tested its role as a risk factor for patients receiving salvage RT after prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: Rates of subsequent biochemical relapse were examined in 90 patients who underwent salvage RT between 1984 and 2004 for biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy. Median follow-up was 3.7 years. The BMI was tested as a continuous and categorical variable (stratified as <25, 25-<30, and {>=}30 kg/m{sup 2}). Univariate and multivariate proportional hazards regression analyses were performed for clinical, pathologic, and treatment factors associated with time to relapse after salvage RT. Results: There were 40 biochemical failures after salvage RT with a median time to failure of 1.2 years. The BMI was not associated with adverse clinical, pathologic, or treatment factors. On multivariate analysis, obesity was independently significant (hazard ratio [HR], 1.2; p = 0.01), along with RT dose (HR, 0.7; p = 0.003) and pre-RT prostate-specific antigen level (HR, 1.2; p = 0.0003). Conclusions: This study is weakly suggestive that obesity may be a risk factor for salvage RT patients. Whether this results from greater biologic aggressiveness or technical inadequacies cannot be answered by this study. Given the very high failure rate observed for severely obese patients, we propose that technical difficulties with RT are at play. This hypothesis is supported by the RT literature and could be prospectively investigated. Techniques that optimize targeting, especially in obese patients, perhaps seem warranted at this time.

  20. Aspirin and Statin Nonuse Associated With Early Biochemical Failure After Prostate Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zaorsky, Nicholas G.; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Li, Tianyu; Horwitz, Eric M.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To present the largest retrospective series investigating the effect of aspirin and statins, which are hypothesized to have antineoplastic properties, on biochemical failure (nadir plus 2 ng/mL) after prostate radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Between 1989 and 2006, 2051 men with clinically localized prostate cancer received definitive RT alone (median dose, 76 Gy). The rates of aspirin use and statin use (defined as any use at the time of RT or during follow-up) were 36% and 34%, respectively. The primary endpoint of the study was an interval to biochemical failure (IBF) of less than 18 months, which has been shown to be the single strongest predictor of distant metastasis, prostate cancer survival, and overall survival after RT. Patient demographic characteristics and tumor staging factors were assessed with regard to associations with the endpoint. Univariate analysis was performed with the {chi}{sup 2} test for categorical variables and the Wilcoxon test for continuous variables. Multivariable analysis was performed with a multiple logistic regression. Results: The median follow-up was 75 months. Univariate analysis showed that an IBF of less than 18 months was associated with aspirin nonuse (P<.0001), statin nonuse (P<.0001), anticoagulant nonuse (P=.0006), cardiovascular disease (P=.0008), and prostate-specific antigen (continuous) (P=.008) but not with Gleason score, age, RT dose, or T stage. On multivariate analysis, only aspirin nonuse (P=.0012; odds ratio, 2.052 [95% confidence interval, 1.328-3.172]) and statin nonuse (P=.0002; odds ratio, 2.465 [95% confidence interval, 1.529-3.974]) were associated with an IBF of less than 18 months. Conclusions: In patients who received RT for prostate cancer, aspirin or statin nonuse was associated with early biochemical failure, a harbinger of distant metastasis and death. Further study is needed to confirm these findings and to determine the optimal dosing and schedule, as well as the relative

  1. Method and apparatus for energy efficient self-aeration in chemical, biochemical, and wastewater treatment processes

    DOEpatents

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR

    2002-05-28

    The present invention is a pulse spilling self-aerator (PSSA) that has the potential to greatly lower the installation, operation, and maintenance cost associated with aerating and mixing aqueous solutions. Currently, large quantities of low-pressure air are required in aeration systems to support many biochemical production processes and wastewater treatment plants. Oxygen is traditionally supplied and mixed by a compressor or blower and a mechanical agitator. These systems have high-energy requirements and high installation and maintenance costs. The PSSA provides a mixing and aeration capability that can increase operational efficiency and reduce overall cost.

  2. Techno-Economic Analysis of Bioconversion of Methane into Biofuel and Biochemical (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Fei, Q.; Tao, L.; Pienkos, P .T.; Guarnieri, M.; Palou-Rivera, I.

    2014-10-01

    In light of the relatively low price of natural gas and increasing demands of liquid transportation fuels and high-value chemicals, attention has begun to turn to novel biocatalyst for conversion of methane (CH4) into biofuels and biochemicals [1]. A techno-economic analysis (TEA) was performed for an integrated biorefinery process using biological conversion of methane, such as carbon yield, process efficiency, productivity (both lipid and acid), natural gas and other raw material prices, etc. This analysis is aimed to identify research challenges as well provide guidance for technology development.

  3. Advanced biochemical processes for geothermal brines FY 1998 annual operating plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    As part of the overall Geothermal Energy Research which is aimed at the development of economical geothermal resources production systems, the aim of the Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) effort is the development of economic and environmentally acceptable methods for disposal of geothermal wastes and conversion of by-products to useful forms. Methods are being developed for dissolution, separation and immobilization of geothermal wastes suitable for disposal, usable in inert construction materials, suitable for reinjection into the reservoir formation, or used for recovery of valuable metals.

  4. Response to “Comment on ‘Twin symmetry texture of energetically condensed niobium thin films on sapphire substrate’ ” [J. Appl. Phys. 112, 016101 (2012)

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Zhao, X.; Philips, L.; Reece, C. E.; Seo, Kang; Krishnan, M.; Valderrama, E.

    2012-07-01

    Welander is correct about the misidentified crystal-directions in the top-view sapphire lattice (Fig. 4 [Zhao et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 033523 (2011)]). He is also correct about the misorientation of the pole figures in Fig. 4. In Fig. 1 of this response, we have corrected these errors. Perhaps because of these errors, Welander misconstrued our discussion of the Nbcrystal growth as claiming a new 3D registry. That was not our intention. Rather, we wished to highlight the role of energetic condensation that drives low-defect crystal growth by a combination of non-equilibrium sub-plantation that disturbs the substrate lattice and thermalmore » annealing that annihilates defects and promotes large-grain crystal growth.« less

  5. Apple latent spherical virus vectors for reliable and effective virus-induced gene silencing among a broad range of plants including tobacco, tomato, Arabidopsis thaliana, cucurbits, and legumes

    SciTech Connect

    Igarashi, Aki; Yamagata, Kousuke; Sugai, Tomokazu; Takahashi, Yukari; Sugawara, Emiko; Tamura, Akihiro; Yaegashi, Hajime; Yamagishi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tsubasa; Isogai, Masamichi; Takahashi, Hideki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2009-04-10

    Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vectors were evaluated for virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of endogenous genes among a broad range of plant species. ALSV vectors carrying partial sequences of a subunit of magnesium chelatase (SU) and phytoene desaturase (PDS) genes induced highly uniform knockout phenotypes typical of SU and PDS inhibition on model plants such as tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana, and economically important crops such as tomato, legume, and cucurbit species. The silencing phenotypes persisted throughout plant growth in these plants. In addition, ALSV vectors could be successfully used to silence a meristem gene, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and disease resistant N gene in tobacco and RCY1 gene in A. thaliana. As ALSV infects most host plants symptomlessly and effectively induces stable VIGS for long periods, the ALSV vector is a valuable tool to determine the functions of interested genes among a broad range of plant species.

  6. Regenerating cellulose from ionic liquids for an accelerated enzymatic hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Hua; Jones, Cecil L; Baker, Gary A; Xia, Shuqian; Olubajo, Olarongbe; Person, Vernecia

    2009-01-01

    The efficient conversion of lignocellulosic materials into fuel ethanol has become a research priority in producing affordable and renewable energy. The pretreatment of lignocelluloses is known to be key to the fast enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Recently, certain ionic liquids (ILs)were found capable of dissolving more than 10 wt% cellulose. Preliminary investigations [Dadi, A.P., Varanasi, S., Schall, C.A., 2006. Enhancement of cellulose saccharification kinetics using an ionic liquid pretreatment step. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 95, 904 910; Liu, L., Chen, H., 2006. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose materials treated with ionic liquid [BMIM]Cl. Chin. Sci. Bull. 51, 2432 2436; Dadi, A.P., Schall, C.A., Varanasi, S., 2007. Mitigation of cellulose recalcitrance to enzymatic hydrolysis by ionic liquid pretreatment. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 137 140, 407 421] suggest that celluloses regenerated from IL solutions are subject to faster saccharification than untreated substrates. These encouraging results offer the possibility of using ILs as alternative and nonvolatile solvents for cellulose pretreatment. However, these studies are limited to two chloride-based ILs: (a) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl), which is a corrosive, toxic and extremely hygroscopic solid (m.p. 70 C), and (b) 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([AMIM]Cl), which is viscous and has a reactive side-chain. Therefore, more in-depth research involving other ILs is much needed to explore this promising pretreatment route. For this reason, we studied a number of chloride- and acetate-based ILs for cellulose regeneration, including several ILs newly developed in our laboratory. This will enable us to select inexpensive, efficient and environmentally benign solvents for processing cellulosic biomass. Our data confirm that all regenerated celluloses are less crystalline (58 75% lower) and more accessible to cellulase (>2 times) than untreated substrates. As a result, regenerated Avicel

  7. Impact of chronic lead poisoning on the hematological and biochemical profiles of a fish, Barbus conchonius (Ham)

    SciTech Connect

    Tewari, H.; Gill, S.T.; Pant, J.

    1987-05-01

    The contamination of natural waters by lead is mostly caused by a variety of anthropogenic activities related to increased mining operations and industrial uses of this metal. Adverse effects of lead poisoning in the fishes have been reported with references to both hematological and biochemical variables. The aim of present investigation was to study the effects of chronically administered sublethal levels of inorganic lead on the hematological and biochemical profiles of widely distributed freshwater fish, Barbus conchonius. The variables such as erythrocyte numbers, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, blood glucose, glycogen in liver, skeletal muscles, and myocardium, and cholesterol in blood, liver, ovary, and testes were evaluated.

  8. Simulation of biochemical reactions with time-dependent rates by the rejection-based algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Thanh, Vo Hong; Priami, Corrado

    2015-08-07

    We address the problem of simulating biochemical reaction networks with time-dependent rates and propose a new algorithm based on our rejection-based stochastic simulation algorithm (RSSA) [Thanh et al., J. Chem. Phys. 141(13), 134116 (2014)]. The computation for selecting next reaction firings by our time-dependent RSSA (tRSSA) is computationally efficient. Furthermore, the generated trajectory is exact by exploiting the rejection-based mechanism. We benchmark tRSSA on different biological systems with varying forms of reaction rates to demonstrate its applicability and efficiency. We reveal that for nontrivial cases, the selection of reaction firings in existing algorithms introduces approximations because the integration of reaction rates is very computationally demanding and simplifying assumptions are introduced. The selection of the next reaction firing by our approach is easier while preserving the exactness.

  9. Parallel macromolecular delivery and biochemical/electrochemical interface to cells employing nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    McKnight, Timothy E; Melechko, Anatoli V; Griffin, Guy D; Guillorn, Michael A; Merkulov, Vladimir L; Simpson, Michael L

    2015-03-31

    Systems and methods are described for parallel macromolecular delivery and biochemical/electrochemical interface to whole cells employing carbon nanostructures including nanofibers and nanotubes. A method includes providing a first material on at least a first portion of a first surface of a first tip of a first elongated carbon nanostructure; providing a second material on at least a second portion of a second surface of a second tip of a second elongated carbon nanostructure, the second elongated carbon nanostructure coupled to, and substantially parallel to, the first elongated carbon nanostructure; and penetrating a boundary of a biological sample with at least one member selected from the group consisting of the first tip and the second tip.

  10. Proton mediated control of biochemical reactions with bioelectronic pH modulation

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Deng, Yingxin; Miyake, Takeo; Keene, Scott; Josberger, Erik E.; Rolandi, Marco

    2016-04-07

    In Nature, protons (H+) can mediate metabolic process through enzymatic reactions. Examples include glucose oxidation with glucose dehydrogenase to regulate blood glucose level, alcohol dissolution into carboxylic acid through alcohol dehydrogenase, and voltage-regulated H+ channels activating bioluminescence in firefly and jellyfish. Artificial devices that control H+ currents and H+ concentration (pH) are able to actively influence biochemical processes. Here, we demonstrate a biotransducer that monitors and actively regulates pH-responsive enzymatic reactions by monitoring and controlling the flow of H+ between PdHx contacts and solution. The present transducer records bistable pH modulation from an “enzymatic flip-flop” circuit that comprises glucose dehydrogenasemore » and alcohol dehydrogenase. Furthermore, the transducer also controls bioluminescence from firefly luciferase by affecting solution pH.« less

  11. Biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid simulation waste containing detergent

    SciTech Connect

    Kundari, Noor Anis Putra, Sugili; Mukaromah, Umi

    2015-12-29

    Research of biochemical process of low level radioactive liquid waste containing detergent has been done. Thse organic liquid wastes are generated in nuclear facilities such as from laundry. The wastes that are cotegorized as hazard and poison materials are also radioactive. It must be treated properly by detoxification of the hazard and decontamination of the radionuclides to ensure that the disposal of the waste meets the requirement of standard quality of water. This research was intended to determine decontamination factor and separation efficiensies, its kinetics law, and to produce a supernatant that ensured the environmental quality standard. The radioactive element in the waste was thorium with activity of 5.10{sup −5} Ci/m{sup 3}. The radioactive liquid waste which were generated in simulation plant contains detergents that was further processed by aerobic biochemical process using SGB 103 bacteria in a batch reactor equipped with aerators. Two different concentration of samples were processed and analyzed for 212 hours and 183 hours respectively at a room temperature. The product of this process is a liquid phase called as supernatant and solid phase material called sludge. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solid (SS), and its alpha activity were analyzed. The results show that the decontamination factor and the separation efficiency of the lower concentration samples are higher compared to the samples with high concentration. Regarding the decontamination factor, the result for 212 hours processing of waste with detergent concentration of 1.496 g/L was 3.496 times, whereas at the detergent concentration of 0.748 g/L was 15.305 times for 183 hours processing. In case of the separation efficiency, the results for both samples were 71.396% and 93.465% respectively. The Bacterial growth kinetics equation follow Monod’s model and the decreasing of COD and BOD were first order with the rate constant of 0

  12. Physico-chemical and Bio-chemical Controls on Soil C Saturation Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Six, Johan; Plante, Alain

    2011-06-02

    In this project, we tested through a multitude of lab and field experiments the concept of soil C stabilization and determined metrics for the level of C saturation across soils and soil organic matter fractions. The basic premise of the soil C saturation concept is that there is a maximum amount of C that can be stabilized within a soil, even when C input is further increased. In a first analysis, our results showed that linear regression models do not adequately predict maximal organic C stabilization by fine soil particles. Soil physical and chemical properties associated with soil clay mineralogy, such as specific surface area and organic C loading, should be incorporated into models for predicting maximal organic C stabilization. In a second analysis, we found significantly greater maximal C stabilization in the microaggregate-protected versus the non-microaggregate protected mineral fractions, which provides independent validation that microaggregation plays an important role in increasing the protection and stabilization of soil C leading to greater total soil C accumulation in these pools. In a third study, our results question the role of biochemical preference in mineral C stabilization and of the chemical recalcitrance of specific plant-derived compounds in non-protected soil C accumulation. Because C biochemical composition of slowly turning over mineral protected C pools does not change with C saturation, input C composition is unlikely to affect long-term C stabilization. Rather, C saturation and stabilization in soil is controlled only by the quantity of C input to the soil and the physical and chemical protection mechanisms at play in long-term C stabilization. In conclusion, we have further corroborated the concept of soil C saturation and elucidated several mechanisms underlying this soil C saturation.

  13. Identification of Catalysts and Materials for a High-Energy Density Biochemical Fuel Cell: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-345

    SciTech Connect

    Ghirardi, M.; Svedruzic, D.

    2013-07-01

    The proposed research attempted to identify novel biochemical catalysts, catalyst support materials, high-efficiency electron transfer agents between catalyst active sites and electrodes, and solid-phase electrolytes in order to maximize the current density of biochemical fuel cells that utilize various alcohols as substrates.

  14. Biochemical Control With Radiotherapy Improves Overall Survival in Intermediate and High-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Who Have an Estimated 10-Year Overall Survival of >90%

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert, Christopher; Liu, Mitchell; Tyldesley, Scott; Morris, W. James; Joffres, Michel; Khaira, Mandip; Kwan, Winkle; Moiseenko, Vitali; Pickles, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To identify subgroups of patients with carcinoma of the prostate treated with radical radiotherapy that have improved overall survival when disease is biochemically controlled. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 1,060 prostate cancer patients treated with radical radiotherapy was divided into nine subgroups based on National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk category and estimated 10-year overall survival (eOS 10y) derived from the age adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index. Patients with and without biochemical control were compared with respect to overall survival. Actuarial estimates of overall survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used for analysis of overall survival. Results: Median follow-up was 125 months (range, 51-176 months). Only the subgroups with high or intermediate risk disease and an eOS 10y of >90% had a statistically significantly improved overall survival when prostate cancer was biochemically controlled. In all other groups, biochemical control made no significant difference to overall survival. In the subgroup with high-risk disease and eOS 10y >90%, actuarial overall survival was 86.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 78.5%-94.1%) and 62.1% (95% CI 52.9%-71.3%) for patients with biochemical control and biochemical relapse respectively (p = 0.002). In the intermediate risk group with eOS >90%, actuarial overall survival was 95.3% (95% CI 89.0%-100%) and 79.8% (95% CI 68.0%-91.6%) for biochemically controlled and biochemically relapsed patients (p = 0.033). On multivariate analysis, National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk group (p = 0.005), biochemical control (p = 0.033) and eOS 10y (p < 0.001) were statistically significant. Conclusion: Biochemical control translates into improved overall survival in patients with high or intermediate risk disease and an estimated 10-year overall survival of >90%.

  15. (Bio)Chemical Tailoring of Biogenic 3-D Nanopatterned Templates with Energy-Relevant Functionalities

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhage, Kenneth H; Kroger, Nils

    2014-09-08

    The overall aim of this research has been to obtain fundamental understanding of (bio)chemical methodologies that will enable utilization of the unique 3-D nanopatterned architectures naturally produced by diatoms for the syntheses of advanced functional materials attractive for applications in energy harvesting/conversion and storage. This research has been conducted in three thrusts: Thrust 1 (In vivo immobilization of proteins in diatom biosilica) is directed towards elucidating the fundamental mechanism(s) underlying the cellular processes of in vivo immobilization of proteins in diatom silica. Thrust 2 (Shape-preserving reactive conversion of diatom biosilica into porous, high-surface area inorganic replicas) is aimed at understanding the fundamental mechanisms of shape preservation and nanostructural evolution associated with the reactive conversion and/or coating-based conversion of diatom biosilica templates into porous inorganic replicas. Thrust 3 (Immobilization of energy-relevant enzymes in diatom biosilica and onto diatom biosilica-derived inorganic replicas) involves use of the results from both Thrust 1 and 2 to develop strategies for in vivo and in vitro immobilization of enzymes in/on diatom biosilica and diatom biosilica-derived inorganic replicas, respectively. This Final Report describes progress achieved in all 3 of these thrusts.

  16. Membrane process designs in the recovery of bio-fuels and bio-chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Leeper, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    In this presentation, the emerging membrane unit operations and process designs that can be used in recovery of fuels and organic chemicals produced via bioconversion are briefly summarized. Product recovery costs are a major barrier to increased use of bioconversion for the production of fuels and chemicals. The integration of developing membrane unit operations into product recovery schemes may reduce process energy requirements and cost. Membrane unit operations that are used or studied in recovery of bio-fuels and organic chemicals include pervaporation (PV), vapor permeation (VPe), reverse osmosis (RO), membrane extraction, and electrodialysis (ED). Although it can be argued that ultrafiltration (UF) is used to purify bio-fuels and bio-chemicals, UF is not included in this survey for two reasons: (1) the primary uses of UF in bioprocessing are to clarify fermentation broth and to retain cells/enzymes in bioreactors and (2) the literature on UF in biotechnology is expansive. Products of bioconversion for which data are compiled include ethanol, acetone, butanol, glycerol, isopropanol, ethyl acetate, fusel oils, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, butyric acid, citric acid, propionic acid, succinic acid, and tartaric acid. 13 refs.

  17. Structural and Biochemical Studies of TIGAR (TP53-induced Glycolysis and Apoptosis Regulator)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.; Jogl, G

    2009-01-01

    Activation of the p53 tumor suppressor by cellular stress leads to variable responses ranging from growth inhibition to apoptosis. TIGAR is a novel p53-inducible gene that inhibits glycolysis by reducing cellular levels of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, an activator of glycolysis and inhibitor of gluconeogenesis. Here we describe structural and biochemical studies of TIGAR from Danio rerio. The overall structure forms a histidine phosphatase fold with a phosphate molecule coordinated to the catalytic histidine residue and a second phosphate molecule in a position not observed in other phosphatases. The recombinant human and zebra fish enzymes hydrolyze fructose-2,6-bisphosphate as well as fructose-1,6-bisphosphate but not fructose 6-phosphate in vitro. The TIGAR active site is open and positively charged, consistent with its enzymatic function as bisphosphatase. The closest related structures are the bacterial broad specificity phosphatase PhoE and the fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase domain of the bifunctional 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase. The structural comparison shows that TIGAR combines an accessible active site as observed in PhoE with a charged substrate-binding pocket as seen in the fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase domain of the bifunctional enzyme.

  18. Impact of feedstock quality and variation on biochemical and thermochemical conversion

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Li, Chenlin; Aston, John E.; Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Thompson, Vicki S.; Thompson, David N.

    2016-07-21

    The production of biofuels from lignocellulosic feedstock is attracting considerable attention in the United States and globally as a strategy to diversify energy resources, spur regional economic development and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Because of the wide variation in feedstock types, compositions and content of convertible organics, there is a growing need to better understand correlations among feedstock quality attributes and conversion performance. Knowledge of the feedstock impact on conversion is essential to supply quality controlled, uniform and on-spec feedstocks to biorefineries. This review paper informs the development of meaningful feedstock quality specifications for different conversion processes. Discussions are focusedmore » on how compositional properties of feedstocks affect various unit operations in biochemical conversion processes, fast pyrolysis and hydrothermal liquefaction. In addition, future perspectives are discussed that focus on the challenges and prospects of addressing compositionally intrinsic inhibitors through feedstock preprocessing at regionally distributed depots. As a result, such preprocessing depots may allow for the commoditization of lignocellulosic feedstock and realization of stable, cost-effective and quality controlled biomass supply systems.« less

  19. Application of Biochemical and Physiological Indicators for Assessing Recovery of Fish Populations in a Disturbed Stream

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S. M.; Ham, Kenneth D.

    2011-06-01

    Recovery dynamics in a previously disturbed streamwere investigated to determine the influence of a series of remedial actions on stream recovery and to evaluate the potential application of bioindicators as an environmental management tool. A suite of bioindicators, representing five different functional response groups, were measured annually for a sentinel fish species over a 15 year period during which a variety of remedial and pollution abatement actions were implemented. Trends in biochemical, physiological, condition, growth, bioenergetic, and nutritional responses demonstrated that the health status of a sentinel fish species in the disturbed stream approached that of fish in the reference stream by the end of the study. Two major remedial actions, dechlorination and water flow management, had large effects on stream recovery resulting in an improvement in the bioenergetic, disease, nutritional, and organ condition status of the sentinel fish species. A subset of bioindicators responded rather dramatically to temporal trends affecting all sites, but some indicators showed little response to disturbance or to restoration activities. In assessing recovery of aquatic systems, application of appropriate integrative structural indices along with a variety of sensitive functional bioindicators should be used to understand the mechanistic basis of stress and recovery and to reduce the risk of false positives. Understanding the mechanistic processes involved between stressors, stress responses of biota, and the recovery dynamics of aquatic systems reduces the uncertainty involved in environmental management and regulatory decisions resulting in an increased ability to predict the consequences of restoration and remedial actions for aquatic systems.

  20. Method for detection of long-lived radioisotopes in small biochemical samples

    DOEpatents

    Turteltaub, K.W.; Vogel, J.S.; Felton, J.S.; Gledhill, B.L.; Davis, J.C.

    1994-11-22

    Disclosed is a method for detection of long-lived radioisotopes in small biochemical samples, comprising: a. selecting a biological host in which radioisotopes are present in concentrations equal to or less than those in the ambient biosphere, b. preparing a long-lived radioisotope labeled reactive chemical specie, c. administering the chemical specie to the biologist host in doses sufficiently low to avoid significant overt damage to the biological system, d. allowing a period of time to elapse sufficient for dissemination and interaction of the chemical specie with the host throughout the biological system of the host, e. isolating a reacted fraction of the biological substance from the host in a manner sufficient to avoid contamination of the substance from extraneous sources, f. converting the fraction of biological substance by suitable means to a material which efficiently produces charged ions in at least one of several possible ion sources without introduction of significant isotopic fractionation, and, g. measuring the radioisotope concentration in the material by means of direct isotopic counting. 5 figs.

  1. Method for detection of long-lived radioisotopes in small biochemical samples

    DOEpatents

    Turteltaub, Kenneth W.; Vogel, John S.; Felton, James S.; Gledhill, Barton L.; Davis, Jay C.

    1994-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for detection of long-lived radioisotopes in small bio-chemical samples, comprising: a. selecting a biological host in which radioisotopes are present in concentrations equal to or less than those in the ambient biosphere, b. preparing a long-lived radioisotope labeled reactive chemical specie, c. administering said chemical specie to said biologist host in doses sufficiently low to avoid significant overt damage to the biological system thereof, d. allowing a period of time to elapse sufficient for dissemination and interaction of said chemical specie with said host throughout said biological system of said host, e. isolating a reacted fraction of the biological substance from said host in a manner sufficient to avoid contamination of said substance from extraneous sources, f. converting said fraction of biological substance by suitable means to a material which efficiently produces charged ions in at least one of several possible ion sources without introduction of significant isotopic fractionation, and, g. measuring the radioisotope concentration in said material by means of direct isotopic counting.

  2. Modified biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays to assess biodegradation potential of landfilled refuse

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, J.E.; Rose, C.; Piorkowski, R.

    1989-01-01

    Modified Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) assays were used to assess biogas production potential of solid landfill samples. In landfill samples with visible soil content, moisture addition alone was generally as effective at stimulating biogas production as the addition of a comprehensive nutrient media. In a variety of samples from humid and semiarid landfills, addition of an aqueous nutrient media was the most effective stimulant for biogas production; however, moisture addition was almost as effective for most samples, suggesting that water addition would be the most cost-effective field approach. Onset of methanogenesis was slower in fresh refuse samples (even when inoculated with anaerobic digester sludge) than in landfill samples, indicating that the soil into which materials are landfilled is a major source of microorganisms. High volatile solids loading in fresh refuse and landfill assays retarded methanogenesis. A comparison of anaerobic and aerobic sample handling techniques showed no significant differences with regard to onset of methanogenesis and total gas production. The technique shows initial promise with regard to replication and reproducibility of results and could be a meaningful addition to landfill site evaluations where commercial gas recovery is anticipated. The BMP technique could also be adapted to assess anaerobic biodegradability of other solid waste materials for conventional anaerobic digestion applications. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Monolithic piezoelectric sensor (MPS) for sensing chemical, biochemical and physical measurands

    DOEpatents

    Andle, Jeffrey C.; Lec, Ryszard M.

    2000-01-01

    A piezoelectric sensor and assembly for measuring chemical, biochemical and physical measurands is disclosed. The piezoelectric sensor comprises a piezoelectric material, preferably a crystal, a common metal layer attached to the top surface of the piezoelectric crystal, and a pair of independent resonators placed in close proximity on the piezoelectric crystal such that an efficacious portion of acoustic energy couples between the resonators. The first independent resonator serves as an input port through which an input signal is converted into mechanical energy within the sensor and the second independent resonator serves an output port through which a filtered replica of the input signal is detected as an electrical signal. Both a time delay and an attenuation at a given frequency between the input signal and the filtered replica may be measured as a sensor output. The sensor may be integrated into an assembly with a series feedback oscillator and a radio frequency amplifier to process the desired sensor output. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, a selective film is disposed upon the grounded metal layer of the sensor and the resonators are encapsulated to isolate them from the measuring environment. In an alternative embodiment of the invention, more than two resonators are used in order to increase the resolution of the sensor.

  4. COATINGS FOR PROTECTION OF EQUIPMENT FOR BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSING OF GEOTHERMAL RESIDUES: PROGRESS REPORT FY 97

    SciTech Connect

    ALLAN,M.L.

    1997-11-01

    Thermal sprayed ethylene methacrylic acid (EMAA) and ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), spray-and-bake ETFE and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and brushable ceramic-epoxy coatings were evaluated for corrosion protection in a biochemical process to treat geothermal residues. The findings are also relevant to other moderate temperature brine environments where corrosion is a problem. Coupon, Atlas cell, peel strength, cathodic disbondment and abrasion tests were performed in aggressive environments including geothermal sludge, hypersaline brine and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Thiobadus ferrooxidans) to determine suitability for protecting storage tanks and reaction vessels. It was found that all of the coatings were resistant to chemical attack and biodegradation at the test temperature of 55 C. The EMAA coatings protected 316L stainless steel from corrosion in coupon tests. However, corrosion of mild steel substrates thermal sprayed with EMAA and ETFE occurred in Atlas cell tests that simulated a lined reactor operating environment and this resulted in decreased adhesive strength. Peel tests to measure residual adhesion revealed that failure mode was dependent on exposure conditions. Long-term tests on the durability of ceramic-epoxy coatings in brine and bacteria are ongoing. Initial indications are that this coating has suitable characteristics. Abrasion tests showed that the ceramic-epoxy had good resistance to the abrasive effects of sludge. Thermal sprayed EMAA coatings also displayed abrasion resistance. Cathodic disbondment tests in brine at room temperature indicated that EMAA coatings are resistant to disbondment at applied potentials of {minus}780 to {minus}1,070 mV SCE for the test conditions and duration. Slight disbondment of one specimen occurred at a potential of {minus}1,500 mV SCE. The EMAA may be suited to use in conjunction with cathodic protection although further long-term, higher temperature testing would be needed.

  5. Coatings for protection of equipment for biochemical processing of geothermal residues: Progress report FY`97

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.L.

    1997-11-01

    Thermal sprayed ethylene methacrylic acid (EMAA) and ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), spray-and-bake ETFE and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and brushable ceramic-epoxy coatings were evaluated for corrosion protection in a biochemical process to treat geothermal residues. Coupon, Atlas cell, peel strength, cathodic disbondment and abrasion tests were performed in aggressive environments including geothermal sludge, hypersaline brine and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) to determine suitability for protecting storage tanks and reaction vessels. It was found that all of the coatings were resistant to chemical attack and biodegradation at the test temperature of 55 C. The EMAA coatings protected 316L stainless steel from corrosion in coupon tests. However, corrosion of mild steel substrates thermal sprayed with EMAA and ETFE occurred in Atlas cell tests that simulated a lined reactor operating environment and this resulted in decreased adhesive strength. Peel tests to measure residual adhesion revealed that failure mode was dependent on exposure conditions. Abrasion tests showed that the ceramic-epoxy had good resistance to the abrasive effects of sludge. Thermal sprayed EMAA coatings also displayed abrasion resistance. Cathodic disbondment tests in brine at room temperature indicated that EMAA coatings are resistant to disbondment at applied potentials of {minus}780 to {minus}1,070 mV SCE for the test conditions and duration. Slight disbondment of one specimen occurred at a potential of {minus}1,500 mV SCE. The EMAA may be suited to use in conjunction with cathodic protection although further long-term, higher temperature testing would be needed.

  6. Evaluation and comparison of biochemical markers of anthropogenic stress in the sheepshead minnow

    SciTech Connect

    Stuck, K.; Furst, H.; Boyd, C.; Walker, W.; Watts, S.; Mayer, F.

    1995-12-31

    The utility of bioenergetic and growth-rate indices for assessing chemically induced stress in larval and juvenile sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) was investigated. Viable embryos were exposed to zinc chloride at concentrations of 0.6, 1.5 and 3.8 ppm over a period of 28 days. Samples were collected from each exposure group and a unexposed control group on days 7, 14 and 28 of the study. Individual fish were measured and weighed wet. Triacylglycerol (TAG) and sterol content of exposed and control fish was determined using a FID/TLC latroscan system, polyamines were quantified by HPLC, nucleic acids levels were determined using an ethidium bromide fluorescence technique, and % tissue solids were estimated by dry weight analysis. A significant reduction in the TAG:sterol ratio was observed among fish exposed to 3.8 ppm ZnCl for 28 days. TAG:sterol was significantly correlated with growth-rate, % tissue solids, and concentration of ZnCl. RNA:DNA and polyamine (putrescine: spermine) ratios were significantly higher among day 7 control and exposed fish than those obtained from fish collected on days 14 and 28. RNA:DNA ratios of fish exposed to 3.8 ppm ZnCl for 28 days were significantly lower than those of fish in the control group. Polyamine ratios from fish exposed to 3.8 ppm ZnCl were significantly lower than control fish after 14 days of exposure. There was a significant correlation between polyamine ratios and concentration of ZnCl. TAG:sterol, RNA:DNA, and polyamine ratios can be used to biochemically assess anthropogenic stress; however, due to ontogenetic changes, these indicators are applicable only after endogenous yolk reserves have been depleted.

  7. Towards eliminating systematic errors caused by the experimental conditions in Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests

    SciTech Connect

    Strömberg, Sten; Nistor, Mihaela; Liu, Jing

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • The evaluated factors introduce significant systematic errors (10–38%) in BMP tests. • Ambient temperature (T) has the most substantial impact (∼10%) at low altitude. • Ambient pressure (p) has the most substantial impact (∼68%) at high altitude. • Continuous monitoring of T and p is not necessary for kinetic calculations. - Abstract: The Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) test is increasingly recognised as a tool for selecting and pricing biomass material for production of biogas. However, the results for the same substrate often differ between laboratories and much work to standardise such tests is still needed. In the current study, the effects from four environmental factors (i.e. ambient temperature and pressure, water vapour content and initial gas composition of the reactor headspace) on the degradation kinetics and the determined methane potential were evaluated with a 2{sup 4} full factorial design. Four substrates, with different biodegradation profiles, were investigated and the ambient temperature was found to be the most significant contributor to errors in the methane potential. Concerning the kinetics of the process, the environmental factors’ impact on the calculated rate constants was negligible. The impact of the environmental factors on the kinetic parameters and methane potential from performing a BMP test at different geographical locations around the world was simulated by adjusting the data according to the ambient temperature and pressure of some chosen model sites. The largest effect on the methane potential was registered from tests performed at high altitudes due to a low ambient pressure. The results from this study illustrate the importance of considering the environmental factors’ influence on volumetric gas measurement in BMP tests. This is essential to achieve trustworthy and standardised results that can be used by researchers and end users from all over the world.

  8. Structural and biochemical characterization of AidC, a quorum-quenching lactonase with atypical selectivity

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Mascarenhas, Romila; Thomas, Pei W.; Wu, Chun -Xiang; Nocek, Boguslaw P.; Hoang, Quyen Q.; Liu, Dali; Fast, Walter

    2015-06-26

    Quorum-quenching catalysts are of interest for potential application as biochemical tools for interrogating interbacterial communication pathways, as antibiofouling agents, and as anti-infective agents in plants and animals. Herein, the structure and function of AidC, an N-acyl-l-homoserine lactone (AHL) lactonase from Chryseobacterium, is characterized. Steady-state kinetics show that zinc-supplemented AidC is the most efficient wild-type quorum-quenching enzymes characterized to date, with a kcat/KM value of approximately 2 × 106 M-1 s-1 for N-heptanoyl-l-homoserine lactone. The enzyme has stricter substrate selectivity and significantly lower KM values (ca. 50 μM for preferred substrates) compared to those of typical AHL lactonases (ca. >1 mM).more » X-ray crystal structures of AidC alone and with the product N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine were determined at resolutions of 1.09 and 1.67 Å, respectively. Each structure displays as a dimer, and dimeric oligiomerization was also observed in solution by size-exclusion chromatography coupled with multiangle light scattering. Lastly, the structures reveal two atypical features as compared to previously characterized AHL lactonases: a "kinked" α-helix that forms part of a closed binding pocket that provides affinity and enforces selectivity for AHL substrates and an active-site His substitution that is usually found in a homologous family of phosphodiesterases. We discuss implications for the catalytic mechanism of AHL lactonases.« less

  9. High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Alone for Localized Prostate Cancer in Patients at Moderate or High Risk of Biochemical Recurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskin, Peter; Rojas, Ana; Lowe, Gerry; Bryant, Linda; Ostler, Peter; Hughes, Rob; Milner, Jessica; Cladd, Helen

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) morbidity and biochemical control of disease in patients with localized prostate adenocarcinoma treated with escalating doses per fraction of high-dose rate brachytherapy alone. Methods and Materials: A total of 197 patients were treated with 34 Gy in four fractions, 36 Gy in four fractions, 31.5 Gy in three fractions, or 26 Gy in two fractions. Median follow-up times were 60, 54, 36, and 6 months, respectively. Results: Incidence of early Grade {>=} 3 GU morbidity was 3% to 7%, and Grade 4 was 0% to 4%. During the first 12 weeks, the highest mean International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) value was 14, and between 6 months and 5 years it was 8. Grade 3 or 4 early GI morbidity was not observed. The 3-year actuarial rate of Grade 3 GU was 3% to 16%, and was 3% to 7% for strictures requiring surgery (4-year rate). An incidence of 1% Grade 3 GI events was seen at 3 years. Late Grade 4 GU or GI events were not observed. At 3 years, 99% of patients with intermediate-risk and 91% with high-risk disease were free of biochemical relapse (log-rank p = 0.02). Conclusions: There was no significant difference in urinary and rectal morbidity between schedules. Biochemical control of disease in patients with intermediate and high risk of relapse was good.

  10. Molecular Siganture and Sources of Biochemical Recalcitrance of Organic C in Amozonian Dark Earths

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon,D.; Lehmann, J.; Thies, J.; Schafer, T.; Liang, B.; Kinyangi, J.; Neves, E.; Peterson, J.; Liuzao, F.; Skjemstad, J.

    2007-01-01

    Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) are a unique type of soils developed through intense anthropogenic activities that transformed the original soils into Anthrosols throughout the Brazilian Amazon Basin. We conducted a comparative molecular-level investigation of soil organic C (SOC) speciation in ADE (ages between 600 and 8700 years B.P.) and adjacent soils using ultraviolet photo-oxidation coupled with {sup 13}C cross polarization-magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (CP-MAS NMR), synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (Sr-FTIR-ATR) and C (1s) near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy to obtain deeper insights into the structural chemistry and sources of refractory organic C compounds in ADE. Our results show that the functional group chemistry of SOC in ADE was considerably different from adjacent soils. The SOC in ADE was enriched with: (i) aromatic-C structures mostly from H- and C-substituted aryl-C, (ii) O-rich organic C forms from carboxylic-C, aldehyde-C, ketonic-C and quinine-C, and (iii) diverse group of refractory aliphatic-C moieties. The SOC in adjacent soils was predominantly composed of O-alkyl-C and methoxyl-C/N-alkyl-C structures and elements of labile aliphatic-C functionalities. Our study suggests that the inherent molecular structures of organic C due to selective accumulation of highly refractory aryl-C structures seems to be the key factor for the biochemical recalcitrance and stability of SOC in ADE. Anthropogenic enrichment with charred carbonaceous residues from biomass-derived black C (BC) is presumed to be the precursor of these recalcitrant polyaromatic structures. Our results also highlight the complementary role that might be played by organic C compounds composed of O-containing organic C moieties and aliphatic-C structures that persisted for millennia in these anthropic soils as additional or secondary sources of chemical recalcitrance of SOC in ADE. These organic C

  11. Genomic Prostate Cancer Classifier Predicts Biochemical Failure and Metastases in Patients After Postoperative Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Den, Robert B.; Feng, Felix Y.; Showalter, Timothy N.; Mishra, Mark V.; Trabulsi, Edouard J.; Lallas, Costas D.; Gomella, Leonard G.; Kelly, W. Kevin; Birbe, Ruth C.; McCue, Peter A.; Ghadessi, Mercedeh; Yousefi, Kasra; Davicioni, Elai; Knudsen, Karen E.; Dicker, Adam P.

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: Totest the hypothesis that a genomic classifier (GC) would predict biochemical failure (BF) and distant metastasis (DM) in men receiving radiation therapy (RT) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods and Materials: Among patients who underwent post-RP RT, 139 were identified for pT3 or positive margin, who did not receive neoadjuvant hormones and had paraffin-embedded specimens. Ribonucleic acid was extracted from the highest Gleason grade focus and applied to a high-density-oligonucleotide microarray. Receiver operating characteristic, calibration, cumulative incidence, and Cox regression analyses were performed to assess GC performance for predicting BF and DM after post-RP RT in comparison with clinical nomograms. Results: Thearea under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the Stephenson model was 0.70 for both BF and DM, with addition of GC significantly improving area under the receiver operating characteristic curve to 0.78 and 0.80, respectively. Stratified by GC risk groups, 8-year cumulative incidence was 21%, 48%, and 81% for BF (P<.0001) and for DM was 0, 12%, and 17% (P=.032) for low, intermediate, and high GC, respectively. In multivariable analysis, patients with high GC had a hazard ratio of 8.1 and 14.3 for BF and DM. In patients with intermediate or high GC, those irradiated with undetectable prostate-specific antigen (PSA ?0.2ng/mL) had median BF survival of >8years, compared with <4years for patients with detectable PSA (>0.2ng/mL) before initiation of RT. At 8years, the DM cumulative incidence for patients with high GC and RT with undetectable PSA was 3%, compared with 23% with detectable PSA (P=.03). No outcome differences were observed for low GC between the treatment groups. Conclusion: The GC predicted BF and metastasis after post-RP irradiation. Patients withlower GC risk may benefit from delayed RT, as opposed to those with higher GC; however, this needs prospective validation. Genomic-based models may be

  12. A solvent replenishment solution for managing evaporation of biochemical reactions in air-matrix digital microfluidics devices

    SciTech Connect

    Jebrail, Mais J.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Sinha, Anupama; Van De Vreugde, Jim; Gondhalekar, Carmen; Ambriz, Cesar; Meagher, Robert J.; Branda, Steven S.

    2014-10-01

    Digital microfluidics (DMF) is a powerful technique for sample preparation and analysis for a broad range of biological and chemical applications. In many cases, it is desirable to carry out DMF on an open surface, such that the matrix surrounding the droplets is ambient air. However, the utility of the air-matrix DMF format has been severely limited by problems with droplet evaporation, especially when the droplet-based biochemical reactions require high temperatures for long periods of time. We present a simple solution for managing evaporation in air-matrix DMF: just-in-time replenishment of the reaction volume using droplets of solvent. We demonstrate that this solution enables DMF-mediated execution of several different biochemical reactions (RNA fragmentation, first-strand cDNA synthesis, and PCR) over a range of temperatures (4–95 °C) and incubation times (up to 1 h or more) without use of oil, humidifying chambers, or off-chip heating modules. Reaction volumes and temperatures were maintained roughly constant over the course of each experiment, such that the reaction kinetics and products generated by the air-matrix DMF device were comparable to those of conventional benchscale reactions. As a result, this simple yet effective solution for evaporation management is an important advance in developing air-matrix DMF for a wide variety of new, high-impact applications, particularly in the biomedical sciences.

  13. A solvent replenishment solution for managing evaporation of biochemical reactions in air-matrix digital microfluidics devices

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Jebrail, Mais J.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Sinha, Anupama; Van De Vreugde, Jim; Gondhalekar, Carmen; Ambriz, Cesar; Meagher, Robert J.; Branda, Steven S.

    2014-10-01

    Digital microfluidics (DMF) is a powerful technique for sample preparation and analysis for a broad range of biological and chemical applications. In many cases, it is desirable to carry out DMF on an open surface, such that the matrix surrounding the droplets is ambient air. However, the utility of the air-matrix DMF format has been severely limited by problems with droplet evaporation, especially when the droplet-based biochemical reactions require high temperatures for long periods of time. We present a simple solution for managing evaporation in air-matrix DMF: just-in-time replenishment of the reaction volume using droplets of solvent. We demonstrate thatmore » this solution enables DMF-mediated execution of several different biochemical reactions (RNA fragmentation, first-strand cDNA synthesis, and PCR) over a range of temperatures (4–95 °C) and incubation times (up to 1 h or more) without use of oil, humidifying chambers, or off-chip heating modules. Reaction volumes and temperatures were maintained roughly constant over the course of each experiment, such that the reaction kinetics and products generated by the air-matrix DMF device were comparable to those of conventional benchscale reactions. As a result, this simple yet effective solution for evaporation management is an important advance in developing air-matrix DMF for a wide variety of new, high-impact applications, particularly in the biomedical sciences.« less

  14. appl_household2001.pdf

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    RSE Row Factors New York California Texas Florida 0.4 1.2 1.1 1.4 1.3 Total ... RSE Row Factors New York California Texas Florida 0.4 1.2 1.1 1.4 1.3 Age of Refrigerator ...

  15. appl_household2001.pdf

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0a. Appliances by Midwest Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Midwest Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division East North Central West North Central 0.5 1.0 1.2 1.5 Total .............................................................. 107.0 24.5 17.1 7.4 NE Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ......................................................... 101.7 23.8 16.6 7.2 NE 1

  16. appl_household2001.pdf

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    1a. Appliances by South Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. South Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division South Atlantic East South Central West South Central 0.5 0.8 1.1 1.4 1.5 Total .............................................................. 107.0 38.9 20.3 6.8 11.8 NE Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ......................................................... 101.7 36.2 19.4 6.4 10.3 1.5 1

  17. appl_household2001.pdf

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2a. Appliances by West Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. West Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division Mountain Pacific 0.5 1.0 1.7 1.2 Total .............................................................. 107.0 23.3 6.7 16.6 NE Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ......................................................... 101.7 22.1 6.6 15.5 1.1 1

  18. appl_household2001.pdf

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    a. Appliances by Climate Zone, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Climate Zone 1 RSE Row Factors Fewer than 2,000 CDD and -- 2,000 CDD or More and Fewer than 4,000 HDD More than 7,000 HDD 5,500 to 7,000 HDD 4,000 to 5,499 HDD Fewer than 4,000 HDD 0.4 1.9 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.1 Total .................................................. 107.0 9.2 28.6 24.0 21.0 24.1 7.8 Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven

  19. appl_household2001.pdf

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    2a. Appliances by Year of Construction, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Year of Construction RSE Row Factors 1990 to 2001 1 1980 to 1989 1970 to 1979 1960 to 1969 1950 to 1959 1949 or Before 0.4 1.5 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.1 0.9 Total ............................................... 107.0 15.5 18.2 18.8 13.8 14.2 26.6 4.2 Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ........................................... 101.7 14.3 17.2 17.8 12.9 13.7 25.9 4.2 1

  20. appl_household2001.pdf

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    3a. Appliances by Household Income, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total 2001 Household Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral Assist- ance 1 RSE Row Factors Less than $14,999 $15,000 to $29,999 $30,000 to $49,999 $50,000 or More 0.5 1.4 1.1 1.0 0.8 1.6 1.0 Total ............................................... 107.0 18.7 22.9 27.1 38.3 15.0 33.8 3.2 Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven

  1. appl_household2001.pdf

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    4a. Appliances by Type of Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Type of Housing Unit RSE Row Factors Single-Family Apartments in Buildings With Mobile Home Two to Four Units Five or More Units 0.4 0.5 1.7 1.6 1.9 Total ............................................... 107.0 73.7 9.5 17.0 6.8 4.2 Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ........................................... 101.7 69.1 9.4 16.7 6.6 4.3 1

  2. appl_household2001.pdf

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    5a. Appliances by Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Owner- Occupied Units Type of Owner-Occupied Housing Unit RSE Row Factors Single-Family Apartments in Buildings With Mobile Home Two to Four Units Five or More Units 0.3 0.4 2.1 3.1 1.3 Total ............................................... 72.7 63.2 2.1 1.8 5.7 6.7 Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ...........................................

  3. appl_household2001.pdf

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    6a. Appliances by Type of Rented Housing Unit, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Rented Units Type of Rented Housing Unit RSE Row Factors Single-Family Apartments in Buildings With Mobile Home Two to Four Units Five or More Units 0.5 0.8 1.1 0.9 2.5 Total ............................................... 34.3 10.5 7.4 15.2 1.1 6.9 Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ........................................... 33.4 10.1 7.3 14.9 1.1

  4. appl_household2001.pdf

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    8a. Appliances by Urban/Rural Location, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Urban/Rural Location 1 RSE Row Factors City Town Suburbs Rural 0.5 0.9 1.4 1.2 1.3 Total .............................................................. 107.0 49.9 18.0 21.2 17.9 4.1 Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ......................................................... 101.7 47.5 17.5 19.9 16.8 4.2 1

  5. appl_household2001.pdf

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    9a. Appliances by Northeast Census Region, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Appliance Types and Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Northeast Census Region RSE Row Factors Total Census Division Middle Atlantic New England 0.5 1.0 1.3 1.6 Total .............................................................. 107.0 20.3 14.8 5.4 NE Kitchen Appliances Cooking Appliances Oven ......................................................... 101.7 19.6 14.5 5.2 1.1 1

  6. appl_household2001.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    ... 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.6 18.3 Through-the-Door IceWater Service Yes ......Water Heater Equipment Water Heaters ...... 107.0 9.2 28.6 24.0 ...

  7. Comment on A study of vertical and in-plane electron mobility due to interface roughness scattering at low temperature in InAs-GaSb superlattices [J. Appl. Phys. 114, 053712 (2013)

    SciTech Connect

    Szmulowicz, F.

    2014-04-14

    The purpose of this comment is to point out that the paper by Safa, Asgari, and Faraone [J. Appl. Phys. 114, 053712 (2013)] (SAF) on electronic transport in superlattices contains a number of errors in physics and execution. By dealing with a finite number of periods and forcing the wave function to be zero at the upper and lower boundaries of the superlattice stack, SAF have turned the system into a quantum well for which the momentum along the growth axis is not a good quantum number, so that the bands in the growth direction are flat and the corresponding carrier velocities and vertical mobilities are zero. A number of other errors allow the authors to get nonzero results and to reach conclusions that qualitatively mirror those of Szmulowicz, Haugan, Elhamri, and Brown [Phys. Rev. B 84, 155307 (2011)].

  8. Biochemical Response to Androgen Deprivation Therapy Before External Beam Radiation Therapy Predicts Long-term Prostate Cancer Survival Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Zelefsky, Michael J.; Gomez, Daniel R.; Polkinghorn, William R.; Pei, Xin; Kollmeier, Marisa

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the response to neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) defined by a decline in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) to nadir values is associated with improved survival outcomes after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: One thousand forty-five patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with definitive EBRT in conjunction with neoadjuvant and concurrent ADT. A 6-month course of ADT was used (3 months during the neoadjuvant phase and 2 to 3 months concurrently with EBRT). The median EBRT prescription dose was 81 Gy using a conformal-based technique. The median follow-up time was 8.5 years. Results: The 10-year PSA relapse-free survival outcome among patients with pre-radiation therapy PSA nadirs of ?0.3 ng/mL was 74.3%, compared with 57.7% for patients with higher PSA nadir values (P<.001). The 10-year distant metastases-free survival outcome among patients with pre-radiation therapy PSA nadirs of ?0.3 ng/mL was 86.1%, compared with 78.6% for patients with higher PSA nadir values (P=.004). In a competing-risk analysis, prostate cancer-related deaths were also significantly reduced among patients with pre-radiation therapy PSA nadirs of <0.3 ng/mL compared with higher values (7.8% compared with 13.7%; P=.009). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that the pre-EBRT PSA nadir value was a significant predictor of long-term biochemical tumor control, distant metastases-free survival, and cause-specific survival outcomes. Conclusions: Pre-radiation therapy nadir PSA values of ?0.3 ng/mL after neoadjuvant ADT were associated with improved long-term biochemical tumor control, reduction in distant metastases, and prostate cancer-related death. Patients with higher nadir values may require alternative adjuvant therapies to improve outcomes.

  9. Measuring Time to Biochemical Failure in the TROG 96.01 Trial: When Should the Clock Start Ticking?

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, James W.; Steigler, Allison; Kumar, Mahesh; Lamb, David S.; Joseph, David; Spry, Nigel A.; Tai, Keen-Hun; Atkinson, Chris; Turner, Sandra FRANZCR; Greer, Peter B.; Gleeson, Paul S.; D'Este, Catherine

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: We sought to determine whether short-term neoadjuvant androgen deprivation (STAD) duration influences the optimal time point from which Phoenix fail (time to biochemical failure; TTBF) should be measured. Methods and Materials: In the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 96.01 trial, men with locally advanced prostate cancer were randomized to 3 or 6 months STAD before and during prostatic irradiation (XRT) or to XRT alone. The prognostic value of TTBF measured from the end of radiation (ERT) and randomization were compared using Cox models. Results: Between 1996 and 2000, 802 eligible patients were randomized. In 436 men with Phoenix failure, TTBF measured from randomization was a powerful predictor of prostate cancer-specific survival and marginally more accurate than TTBF measured from ERT in Cox models. Insufficient data were available to confirm that TTBF measured from testosterone recovery may also be a suitable option. Conclusions: TTBF measured from randomization (commencement of therapy) performed well in this trial dataset and will be a convenient option if this finding holds in other datasets that include long-term androgen deprivation data.

  10. Comment on Magnetic field mediated low-temperature resistivity upturn in electron-doped La{sub 1?x}Hf{sub x}MnO{sub 3} manganite oxides [J. Appl. Phys. 112, 123710 (2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Rozenberg, E.

    2014-01-21

    In a recent paper, Guo et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 112, 123710 (2012)] reported on characteristic features of the temperature (T) and magnetic field (H) dependences of electrical resistivity (?) in polycrystalline La{sub 1?x}Hf{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (x?=?0.2 and 0.3) manganites. In particular, shallow minima were observed at some T{sub min} below 100?K on ?(T) curves. Application of an external H???5?T leads first to a decrease in the T{sub min} value, while this value increases notably at H?>?0.75?T. The authors attributed this complex behavior to competitive electron-electron interaction and Kondo-like spin dependent scattering of carriers. It is shown in the comment that such interpretation is very questionable due to the fundamental inapplicability of this approach for analysis of low-T conductivity in polycrystalline manganites. It seems that the most likely reason for the appearance of the low temperature minima on ?(T) curves and their evolution upon field application is the well known grain boundary effects in magnetically and structurally inhomogeneous samples.

  11. Microfluidic Technology Platforms for Synthesizing, Labeling and Measuring the Kinetics of Transport and Biochemical Reactions for Developing Molecular Imaging Probes

    SciTech Connect

    Phelps, Michael E.

    2009-09-01

    Radiotracer techniques are used in environmental sciences, geology, biology and medicine. Radiotracers with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) provided biological examinations of ~3 million patients 2008. Despite the success of positron labeled tracers in many sciences, there is limited access in an affordable and convenient manner to develop and use new tracers. Integrated microfluidic chips are a new technology well matched to the concentrations of tracers. Our goal is to develop microfluidic chips and new synthesis approaches to enable wide dissemination of diverse types of tracers at low cost, and to produce new generations of radiochemists for which there are many unfilled jobs. The program objectives are to: 1. Develop an integrated microfluidic platform technology for synthesizing and 18F-labeling diverse arrays of different classes of molecules. 2. Incorporate microfluidic chips into small PC controlled devices (“Synthesizer”) with a platform interfaced to PC for electronic and fluid input/out control. 3. Establish a de-centralized model with Synthesizers for discovering and producing molecular imaging probes, only requiring delivery of inexpensive [18F]fluoride ion from commercial PET radiopharmacies vs the centralized approach of cyclotron facilities synthesizing and shipping a few different types of 18F-probes. 4. Develop a position sensitive avalanche photo diode (PSAPD) camera for beta particles embedded in a microfluidic chip for imaging and measuring transport and biochemical reaction rates to valid new 18F-labeled probes in an array of cell cultures. These objectives are met within a research and educational program integrating radio-chemistry, synthetic chemistry, biochemistry, engineering and biology in the Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging. The Radiochemistry Training Program exposes PhD and post doctoral students to molecular imaging in vitro in cells and microorganisms in microfluidic chips and in vivo with PET, from new technologies

  12. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Dovichi, Norman J.; Zhang, Jian Z.

    1995-01-01

    A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibres to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands.

  13. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

    1995-08-08

    A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibers to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands. 21 figs.

  14. Biochemical Platform Processing Integration

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this project is to facilitate deployment of enzyme-based biomass conversion technology. The immediate goal is to explore integration issues that impact process performance and to demonstrate improved performance of the lower-cost enzymes being developed by Genencor and Novozymes.

  15. Biochemical Platform Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    429kyr Barriers * Bt-E: Pretreatment Costs * Bt-F: ... economic impact of funded R&D improvements relative to ... Rick Elander, Dan Schell, Gregg Beckham, Jim McMillan, ...

  16. Biochemical characterization of nuclear receptors for vitamin D{sub 3} and glucocorticoids in prostate stroma cell microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Hidalgo, Alejandro A.; Montecinos, Viviana P.; Paredes, Roberto; Godoy, Alejandro S.; McNerney, Eileen M.; Tovar, Heribelt; Pantoja, Diego; Johnson, Candace; Trump, Donald; Onate, Sergio A.

    2011-08-19

    Highlights: {yields} Fibroblasts from benign and carcinoma-associated stroma were biochemically characterized for VDR and GR function as transcription factors in prostate stroma cell microenvironment. {yields} Decreased SRC-1/CBP coactivators recruitment to VDR and GR may result in hormone resistance to 1,25D{sub 3} in stromal cell microenvironment prostate cancer. {yields} 1a,25-Dyhidroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (1,25D{sub 3}) and glucocorticoids, either alone or in combination, may not be an alternative for 'some' advanced prostate cancers that fails androgen therapies. -- Abstract: The disruption of stromal cell signals in prostate tissue microenvironment influences the development of prostate cancer to androgen independence. 1{alpha},25-Dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (1,25D{sub 3}) and glucocorticoids, either alone or in combination, have been investigated as alternatives for the treatment of advanced prostate cancers that fails androgen therapies. The effects of glucocorticoids are mediated by the intracellular glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Similarly, the effect of 1,25D{sub 3} is mediated by the 1,25D{sub 3} nuclear receptor (VDR). In this study, fibroblasts from benign- (BAS) and carcinoma-associated stroma (CAS) were isolated from human prostates to characterize VDR and GR function as transcription factors in prostate stroma. The VDR-mediated transcriptional activity assessed using the CYP24-luciferase reporter was limited to 3-fold induction by 1,25D{sub 3} in 9 out of 13 CAS (70%), as compared to >10-fold induction in the BAS clinical sample pair. Expression of His-tagged VDR (Ad-his-VDR) failed to recover the low transcriptional activity of the luciferase reporter in 7 out of 9 CAS. Interestingly, expression of Ad-his-VDR successfully recovered receptor-mediated induction in 2 out of the 9 CAS analyzed, suggesting that changes in the receptor protein itself was responsible for decreased response and resistance to 1,25D{sub 3} action. Conversely, VDR

  17. Biologically Effective Dose (BED) Correlation With Biochemical Control After Low-Dose Rate Prostate Brachytherapy for Clinically Low-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, Edward F.; Nelson, John W.; Alkaissi, Ali K.; Das, Shiva; Clough, Robert W.; Broadwater, Gloria; Anscher, Mitchell S.; Chino, Junzo P.; Oleson, James R.

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: To assess the correlation of postimplant dosimetric quantifiers with biochemical control of prostate cancer after low-dose rate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: The biologically effective dose (BED), dose in Gray (Gy) to 90% of prostate (D{sub 90}), and percent volume of the prostate receiving 100% of the prescription dose (V{sub 100}) were calculated from the postimplant dose-volume histogram for 140 patients undergoing low-dose rate prostate brachytherapy from 1997 to 2003 at Durham Regional Hospital and the Durham VA Medical Center (Durham, NC). Results: The median follow-up was 50 months. There was a 7% biochemical failure rate (10 of 140), and 91% of patients (127 of 140) were alive at last clinical follow-up. The median BED was 148 Gy (range, 46-218 Gy). The median D{sub 90} was 139 Gy (range, 45-203 Gy). The median V{sub 100} was 85% (range, 44-100%). The overall 5-year biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS) rate was 90.1%. On univariate Cox proportional hazards modeling, no pretreatment characteristic (Gleason score sum, age, baseline prostate-specific antigen, or clinical stage) was predictive of bRFS. The BED, D{sub 90}, and V{sub 100} were all highly correlated (Pearson coefficients >92%), and all were strongly correlated with bRFS. Using the Youden method, we identified the following cut points for predicting freedom from biochemical failure: D{sub 90} >= 110 Gy, V{sub 100} >= 74%, and BED >= 115 Gy. None of the covariates significantly predicted overall survival. Conclusions: We observed significant correlation between BED, D{sub 90}, and V{sub 100} with bRFS. The BED is at least as predictive of bRFS as D{sub 90} or V{sub 100}. Dosimetric quantifiers that account for heterogeneity in tumor location and dose distribution, tumor repopulation, and survival probability of tumor clonogens should be investigated.

  18. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Humbird, D.; Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Kinchin, C.; Hsu, D.; Aden, A.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.; Olthof, B.; Worley, M.; Sexton, D.; Dudgeon, D.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes one potential biochemical ethanol conversion process, conceptually based upon core conversion and process integration research at NREL. The overarching process design converts corn stover to ethanol by dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and co-fermentation. Building on design reports published in 2002 and 1999, NREL, together with the subcontractor Harris Group Inc., performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process. This update reflects NREL's current vision of the biochemical ethanol process and includes the latest research in the conversion areas (pretreatment, conditioning, saccharification, and fermentation), optimizations in product recovery, and our latest understanding of the ethanol plant's back end (wastewater and utilities). The conceptual design presented here reports ethanol production economics as determined by 2012 conversion targets and 'nth-plant' project costs and financing. For the biorefinery described here, processing 2,205 dry ton/day at 76% theoretical ethanol yield (79 gal/dry ton), the ethanol selling price is $2.15/gal in 2007$.

  19. Upfront Androgen Deprivation Therapy With Salvage Radiation May Improve Biochemical Outcomes in Prostate Cancer Patients With Post-Prostatectomy Rising PSA

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Joanne W.; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Guzzo, Thomas J.; Wein, Alan J.; Haas, Naomi B.; Both, Stefan; Vapiwala, Neha

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: The addition of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) to definitive external beam radiation therapy (RT) improves outcomes in higher-risk prostate cancer patients. However, the benefit of ADT with salvage RT in post-prostatectomy patients is not clearly established. Our study compares biochemical outcomes in post-prostatectomy patients who received salvage RT with or without concurrent ADT. Methods and Materials: Of nearly 2,000 post-prostatectomy patients, we reviewed the medical records of 191 patients who received salvage RT at University of Pennsylvania between 1987 and 2007. Follow-up data were obtained by chart review and electronic polling of the institutional laboratory database and Social Security Death Index. Biochemical failure after salvage RT was defined as a prostate-specific antigen of 2.0 ng/mL above the post-RT nadir or the initiation of ADT after completion of salvage RT. Results: One hundred twenty-nine patients received salvage RT alone, and 62 patients received combined ADT and salvage RT. Median follow-up was 5.4 years. Patients who received combined ADT and salvage RT were younger, had higher pathologic Gleason scores, and higher rates of seminal vesicle invasion, lymph node involvement, and pelvic nodal irradiation compared with patients who received salvage RT alone. Patients who received combined therapy had improved biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS) compared with patients who received RT alone (p = 0.048). For patients with pathologic Gleason scores {<=}7, combined RT and ADT resulted in significantly improved bPFS compared to RT alone (p = 0.013). Conclusions: These results suggest that initiating ADT during salvage RT in the post-prostatectomy setting may improve bPFS compared with salvage RT alone. However, prospective randomized data are necessary to definitively determine whether hormonal manipulation should be used with salvage RT. Furthermore, the optimal nature and duration of ADT and the patient subgroups in

  20. Structural and biochemical characterization of N[superscript 5]-carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide synthetase and N[superscript 5]-carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide mutase from Staphylococcus aureus

    SciTech Connect

    Brugarolas, Pedro; Duguid, Erica M.; Zhang, Wen; Poor, Catherine B.; He, Chuan

    2012-05-08

    With the rapid rise of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections, new strategies against S. aureus are urgently needed. De novo purine biosynthesis is a promising yet unexploited target, insofar as abundant evidence has shown that bacteria with compromised purine biosynthesis are attenuated. Fundamental differences exist within the process by which humans and bacteria convert 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (AIR) to 4-carboxy-5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (CAIR). In bacteria, this transformation occurs through a two-step conversion catalyzed by PurK and PurE; in humans, it is mediated by a one-step conversion catalyzed by class II PurE. Thus, these bacterial enzymes are potential targets for selective antibiotic development. Here, the first comprehensive structural and biochemical characterization of PurK and PurE from S. aureus is presented. Structural analysis of S. aureus PurK reveals a nonconserved phenylalanine near the AIR-binding site that occupies the putative position of the imidazole ring of AIR. Mutation of this phenylalanine to isoleucine or tryptophan reduced the enzyme efficiency by around tenfold. The K{sub m} for bicarbonate was determined for the first time for a PurK enzyme and was found to be {approx}18.8 mM. The structure of PurE is described in comparison to that of human class II PurE. It is confirmed biochemically that His38 is essential for function. These studies aim to provide foundations for future structure-based drug-discovery efforts against S. aureus purine biosynthesis.

  1. Appling County Pellets | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    County Pellets Place: Graham, Georgia Zip: 31513 Sector: Biomass Product: Producer of wood pellets and other biomass products located in Georgia. Coordinates: 47.055765,...

  2. NREL 2012 Achievement of Ethanol Cost Targets: Biochemical Ethanol Fermentation via Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, L.; Schell, D.; Davis, R.; Tan, E.; Elander, R.; Bratis, A.

    2014-04-01

    For the DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office, the annual State of Technology (SOT) assessment is an essential activity for quantifying the benefits of biochemical platform research. This assessment has historically allowed the impact of research progress achieved through targeted Bioenergy Technologies Office funding to be quantified in terms of economic improvements within the context of a fully integrated cellulosic ethanol production process. As such, progress toward the ultimate 2012 goal of demonstrating cost-competitive cellulosic ethanol technology can be tracked. With an assumed feedstock cost for corn stover of $58.50/ton this target has historically been set at $1.41/gal ethanol for conversion costs only (exclusive of feedstock) and $2.15/gal total production cost (inclusive of feedstock) or minimum ethanol selling price (MESP). This year, fully integrated cellulosic ethanol production data generated by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers in their Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (IBRF) successfully demonstrated performance commensurate with both the FY 2012 SOT MESP target of $2.15/gal (2007$, $58.50/ton feedstock cost) and the conversion target of $1.41/gal through core research and process improvements in pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation.

  3. {sup 18}F-Choline Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography–Driven High-Dose Salvage Radiation Therapy in Patients With Biochemical Progression After Radical Prostatectomy: Feasibility Study in 60 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    D'Angelillo, Rolando M.; Sciuto, Rosa; Ramella, Sara; Papalia, Rocco; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara A.; Trodella, Luca E.; Fiore, Michele; Gallucci, Michele; Maini, Carlo L.; Trodella, Lucio

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively review data of a cohort of patients with biochemical progression after radical prostatectomy, treated according to a uniform institutional treatment policy, to evaluate toxicity and feasibility of high-dose salvage radiation therapy (80 Gy). Methods and Materials: Data on 60 patients with biochemical progression after radical prostatectomy between January 2009 and September 2011 were reviewed. The median value of prostate-specific antigen before radiation therapy was 0.9 ng/mL. All patients at time of diagnosis of biochemical recurrence underwent dynamic {sup 18}F-choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), which revealed in all cases a local recurrence. High-dose salvage radiation therapy was delivered up to total dose of 80 Gy to 18F-choline PET/CT-positive area. Toxicity was recorded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, scale. Results: Treatment was generally well tolerated: 54 patients (90%) completed salvage radiation therapy without any interruption. Gastrointestinal grade ≥2 acute toxicity was recorded in 6 patients (10%), whereas no patient experienced a grade ≥2 genitourinary toxicity. No grade 4 acute toxicity events were recorded. Only 1 patient (1.7%) experienced a grade 2 gastrointestinal late toxicity. With a mean follow-up of 31.2 months, 46 of 60 patients (76.6%) were free of recurrence. The 3-year biochemical progression-free survival rate was 72.5%. Conclusions: At early follow-up, {sup 18}F-choline PET/CT-driven high-dose salvage radiation therapy seems to be feasible and well tolerated, with a low rate of toxicity.

  4. Evidence for posttranslational protein flavinylation in the syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum: Structural and biochemical insights from the catalytic core of a periplasmic flavin-trafficking protein

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Deka, Ranjit K.; Brautigam, Chad A.; Liu, Wei Z.; Tomchick, Diana R.; Norgard, Michael V.

    2015-05-05

    The syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum is an important human pathogen but a highly enigmatic bacterium that cannot be cultivated in vitro. T. pallidum lacks many biosynthetic pathways and therefore has evolved the capability to exploit host-derived metabolites via its periplasmic lipoprotein repertoire. We recently reported a flavin-trafficking protein in T. pallidum (Ftp_Tp; TP0796) as the first bacterial metal-dependent flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) pyrophosphatase that hydrolyzes FAD into AMP and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) in the spirochete’s periplasm. However, orthologs of Ftp_Tp from other bacteria appear to lack this hydrolytic activity; rather, they bind and flavinylate subunits of a cytoplasmic membrane redoxmore » system (Nqr/Rnf). To further explore this dichotomy, biochemical analyses, protein crystallography, and structure-based mutagenesis were used to show that a single amino acid change (N55Y) in Ftp_Tp converts it from an Mg²⁺-dependent FAD pyrophosphatase to an FAD-binding protein. We also demonstrated that Ftp_Tp has a second enzymatic activity (Mg²⁺-FMN transferase); it flavinylates protein(s) covalently with FMN on a threonine side chain of an appropriate sequence motif using FAD as the substrate. Moreover, mutation of a metal-binding residue (D284A) eliminates Ftp_Tp’s dual activities, thereby underscoring the role of Mg²⁺ in the enzyme-catalyzed reactions. The posttranslational flavinylation activity that can target a periplasmic lipoprotein (TP0171) has not previously been described. The observed activities reveal the catalytic flexibility of a treponemal protein to perform multiple functions. Together, these findings imply mechanisms by which a dynamic pool of flavin cofactor is maintained and how flavoproteins are generated by Ftp_Tp locally in the T. pallidum periplasm.« less

  5. BioChem Cover story

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    present on earth and virtually all of the carbohydrate which lies at the base of all food chains. Photosystem II is a protein complex that captures light and begins the first...

  6. Biochemical & Thermochemical High Throughput Characterization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    20 40 60 80 100 120 140 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 Frequency Corn Stover Corn Cob Miscanthus Wheat...

  7. Biochemically enhanced hybrid anaerobic reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Stover, E.L.

    1993-07-20

    A process is described for treatment of highly contaminated industrial waste waters, comprising: introducing influent wastewater into a lower suspended growth zone of a digestion vessel wherein anaerobic digestion commences; receiving up-flow of digestion product through a middle fixed film zone of the digestion vessel to effect solids/liquids/gas separation; drawing off waste solids from the floor of the digester vessel at a predetermined rate of removal; receiving liquids/gas up-flow through an upper quiescent zone of the digestion vessel; drawing off treated effluent from said quiescent zone; selecting a portion of treated effluent for conduction via recycle line back to said point of introduction for mixture with said influent wastewater; and injecting selected ones of plural process enhancement chemicals in predetermined amounts into said recycle line, which plurality includes preselected amounts of Mg(OH)[sub 2] and iron chloride to effect cleaning of the biogas.

  8. Effect of the combination of metformin hydrochloride and melatonin on oxidative stress before and during pregnancy, and biochemical and histopathological analysis of the livers of rats after treatment for polycystic ovary syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Lemos, Ana Janaina Jeanine M.; Peixoto, Christina A.; Teixeira, Álvaro Aguiar C.; Luna, Rayana Leal A.; Rocha, Sura Wanessa S.; Santos, Hilda Michelly P.; Silva, Amanda Karolina S.; Nunes, Ana Karolina S.; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valéria

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of a combination of metformin hydrochloride and melatonin on oxidative stress together with a biochemical and histopathological analysis of the livers of Wistar rats induced with PCOS. The results indicated that a combination of the drugs was more effective in the reduction of plasmatic levels of liver enzyme alanine aminotransferase, nitric oxide and total glutathione, and decreased the inflammatory response and histopathological damage, producing results that were significantly similar to animals from the control group. A mixture of the drugs produced more effective results against liver toxicity caused by PCOS, encouraging the normalization of biochemical parameters. During pregnancy, there was reduced oxidative stress compared to monotherapeutic use of these drugs. Interestingly, the combination of the drugs caused a physiological reaction similar to responses identified in healthy rats without induction of the PCOS control group. However, the clinical and physiological effectiveness of the combination should be further explored, especially with respect to the possible side effects on offspring. - Highlights: • Studies have documented increased oxidative stress in patients with PCOS. • It has been noted that women with PCOS have a high prevalence of liver alterations. • Liver disease in pregnancy may be pre-existing increasing the newborn mortality. • Metformin/melatonin associated reduced oxidative stress in liver in pregnant rats. • Association of metformin/melatonin normalizes hepatic biochemical parameters.

  9. Biochemical and Structural Characterization of Two Dictyostelium Cellobiohydrolases from the Amoebozoa Kingdom Reveal a High Level of Conservation Between Distant Phylogenetic Trees of Life

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Hobdey, Sarah E.; Knott, Brandon C.; Momeni, Majid Haddad; Taylor, II, Larry E.; Borisova, Anna S.; Podkaminer, Kara K.; VanderWall, Todd A.; Himmel, Michael E.; Decker, Stephen R.; Beckham, Gregg T.; et al

    2016-06-01

    Glycoside Hydrolase Family 7 (GH7) cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) are commonly employed enzymes in plant cell wall degradation across eukaryotic kingdoms of life, as they provide significant hydrolytic potential in cellulose turnover. To date, many fungal GH7 CBHs have been examined, yet many questions remain regarding structure-activity relationships in these important natural and commercial enzymes. Here, we present crystal structures and biochemical analysis of two GH7 CBHs from social amoeba: Dictyostelium discoideum and Dictyostelium purpureum (DdiCel7A and DpuCel7A, respectively). DdiCel7A and DpuCel7A natively consist of a catalytic domain and do not exhibit a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM). The structures, resolved to 2.1 Amore » (DdiCel7A), and 2.7 A (DpuCel7A), are homologous to other GH7 CBHs with an enclosed active site tunnel. Two primary differences between the Dictyostelium CBHs and the archetypal model GH7 CBH from Trichoderma reesei Cel7A (TreCel7A) occur near the hydrolytic active site and the product binding sites. To compare the activity of these enzymes with TreCel7A, the Family 1 TreCel7A CBM and linker was added to the C-terminus of the Dictyostelium enzymes, DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM, which were recombinantly expressed in T. reesei. DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM hydrolyze Avicel, pretreated corn stover, and phosphoric acid swollen cellulose as efficiently as TreCel7A when compared at their temperature optima. The Ki of cellobiose is significantly higher for DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM than for TreCel7A: 205, 130, and 29 uM, respectively. Taken together, the present study highlights the remarkable conservation in the activity of these key natural and industrial enzymes across quite distant phylogenetic trees of life.« less

  10. Biochemical and structural characterizations of two Dictyostelium cellobiohydrolases from the amoebozoa kingdom reveal a high level of conservation between distant phylogenetic trees of life

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Hobdey, Sarah E.; Knott, Brandon C.; Momeni, Majid Haddad; Taylor, II, Larry E.; Borisova, Anna S.; Podkaminer, Kara K.; VanderWall, Todd A.; Himmel, Michael E.; Decker, Stephen R.; Beckham, Gregg T.; et al

    2016-04-01

    Glycoside hydrolase family 7 (GH7) cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) are enzymes often employed in plant cell wall degradation across eukaryotic kingdoms of life, as they provide significant hydrolytic potential in cellulose turnover. To date, many fungal GH7 CBHs have been examined, yet many questions regarding structure-activity relationships in these important natural and commercial enzymes remain. Here, we present the crystal structures and a biochemical analysis of two GH7 CBHs from social amoeba: Dictyostelium discoideum Cel7A (DdiCel7A) and Dictyostelium purpureum Cel7A (DpuCel7A). DdiCel7A and DpuCel7A natively consist of a catalytic domain and do not exhibit a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM). The structures of DdiCel7Amore » and DpuCel7A, resolved to 2.1 Å and 2.7 Å, respectively, are homologous to those of other GH7 CBHs with an enclosed active-site tunnel. Two primary differences between the Dictyostelium CBHs and the archetypal model GH7 CBH, Trichoderma reesei Cel7A (TreCel7A), occur near the hydrolytic active site and the product-binding sites. To compare the activities of these enzymes with the activity of TreCel7A, the family 1 TreCel7A CBM and linker were added to the C terminus of each of the Dictyostelium enzymes, creating DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM, which were recombinantly expressed in T. reesei. DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM hydrolyzed Avicel, pretreated corn stover, and phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose as efficiently as TreCel7A when hydrolysis was compared at their temperature optima. The Ki of cellobiose was significantly higher for DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM than for TreCel7A: 205, 130, and 29 μM, respectively. Finally, taken together, the present study highlights the remarkable degree of conservation of the activity of these key natural and industrial enzymes across quite distant phylogenetic trees of life.« less

  11. Brachytherapy Improves Biochemical Failure–Free Survival in Low- and Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer Compared With Conventionally Fractionated External Beam Radiation Therapy: A Propensity Score Matched Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Graham D.; Pickles, Tom; Crook, Juanita; Martin, Andre-Guy; Vigneault, Eric; Cury, Fabio L.; Morris, Jim; Catton, Charles; Lukka, Himu; Warner, Andrew; Yang, Ying; Rodrigues, George

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To compare, in a retrospective study, biochemical failure-free survival (bFFS) and overall survival (OS) in low-risk and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients who received brachytherapy (BT) (either low-dose-rate brachytherapy [LDR-BT] or high-dose-rate brachytherapy with external beam radiation therapy [HDR-BT+EBRT]) versus external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) alone. Methods and Materials: Patient data were obtained from the ProCaRS database, which contains 7974 prostate cancer patients treated with primary radiation therapy at four Canadian cancer institutions from 1994 to 2010. Propensity score matching was used to obtain the following 3 matched cohorts with balanced baseline prognostic factors: (1) low-risk LDR-BT versus EBRT; (2) intermediate-risk LDR-BT versus EBRT; and (3) intermediate-risk HDR-BT+EBRT versus EBRT. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to compare differences in bFFS (primary endpoint) and OS in the 3 matched groups. Results: Propensity score matching created acceptable balance in the baseline prognostic factors in all matches. Final matches included 2 1:1 matches in the intermediate-risk cohorts, LDR-BT versus EBRT (total n=254) and HDR-BT+EBRT versus EBRT (total n=388), and one 4:1 match in the low-risk cohort (LDR-BT:EBRT, total n=400). Median follow-up ranged from 2.7 to 7.3 years for the 3 matched cohorts. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that all BT treatment options were associated with statistically significant improvements in bFFS when compared with EBRT in all cohorts (intermediate-risk EBRT vs LDR-BT hazard ratio [HR] 4.58, P=.001; intermediate-risk EBRT vs HDR-BT+EBRT HR 2.08, P=.007; low-risk EBRT vs LDR-BT HR 2.90, P=.004). No significant difference in OS was found in all comparisons (intermediate-risk EBRT vs LDR-BT HR 1.27, P=.687; intermediate-risk EBRT vs HDR-BT+EBRT HR 1.55, P=.470; low-risk LDR-BT vs EBRT HR 1.41, P=.500). Conclusions: Propensity score matched analysis showed that BT options led

  12. U-022: Apple QuickTime Multiple Vulnerabilities

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    A remote user can create a file that, when loaded by the target user, will execute arbitrary code on the target user's system.

  13. Property:Incentive/ApplDsc | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    (Vermont) + Commercial +, Industrial + 4 401 Certification (Vermont) + Industrial +, Utility + A AEP (Central and North) - CitySmart Program (Texas) + Commercial +, Industrial...

  14. AMR Power Private Ltd APPL | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India Zip: 560 034 Sector: Hydro Product: Hyderabad-based small hydro project developer. Coordinates: 17.6726, 77.5971 Show Map Loading map......

  15. Crunching Solar Numbers: The Big Apple Uses Big Data

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The City University of New York (CUNY) and its partners developed an analytics-based approach that makes it easier to spot key solar market indicators such as new permit applications and...

  16. Westinghouse, DOE see apples, oranges in IG staffing report

    SciTech Connect

    Lobsenz, G.

    1994-03-01

    The operator of the Energy Department's Savannah River weapons plant has at least 1,800 more employees than it needs, and could save $400 million over a five-year period by cutting its staff accordingly, a DOE inspector general study says. Most of the boat - 1,206 employees - was attributed to excessive numbers of managers, with the inspector general concluding that Westinghouse Savannah River Co. had roughly twice as many layers of management than two other DOE weapons contractors. The study also concluded that Westinghouse in fiscal year 1992 significantly understated its actual staffing levels in reports to DOE, failing to disclose 1,765 full-time employees or the equivalent hours worked. Through such underreporting Westinghouse was able to [open quotes]circumvent staffing ceilings established by the department,[close quotes] the study added. Overall, DOE Inspector General John Layton said Westinghouse's staff levels substantially exceeded those needed for efficient operation of the South Carolina nuclear weapons facility. Layton based his analysis on efficiency standards attained by other DOE weapons plant contractors, such as Martin Marietta Energy Systems at DOE's Oak Ridge, Tenn., plant and EG G Rocky Flats, as well as widely utilized worker performance requirements used by the Navy and private sector companies that perform work similar to that done at Savannah River.

  17. U-202: Apple QuickTime Multiple Stack Overflow Vulnerabilities

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Visiting a maliciously crafted website may lead to an unexpected application termination or arbitrary code execution.

  18. Backed apple? Metropolitan New York in the greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D.

    1997-12-31

    Steps to mitigate global climate change are being negotiated internationally, but it is on the local level that its effects will be felt and actions are taken. Like many midlatitude coastal cities, metropolitan New York could expect serious consequences from global warming: killing hot spells, worsened ozone pollution, uncertain water supply, and inundation of its waterfront from higher sea level and violent storms. Seen at the local level, the opportunities and limitations of measures to mitigate or adapt to climate change become explicit. Indirect local effects from changes elsewhere in the world must also be considered.

  19. From: Nicholas Ammann [mailto:nammann@apple.com

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    on Evaluating New Products for the Battery Chargers and External Power Supply ... for the effective date of the DOE battery charger efficiency regulation and the ...

  20. Innovative Hydropower Technology Now Powering an Apple Data Center...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    bypass extra flow, and the newly-constructed plant intake structure (background) routes water into the penstock and on to the hydroEngine. Image courtesy of Natel Energy. The...

  1. ENERGY COMMISSION APPL.lCATION FOR SOURCE MATERIAL LICENSE

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... MATERIAL LICENSE . Pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, and Title 10, Code of ... specified in Section 183 of the Atotic Energy Act of 1954 and is subject to all ...

  2. Apples with apples: accounting for fuel price risk in comparisons of gas-fired and renewable generation

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2003-12-18

    For better or worse, natural gas has become the fuel of choice for new power plants being built across the United States. According to the US Energy Information Administration (EIA), natural gas combined-cycle and combustion turbine power plants accounted for 96% of the total generating capacity added in the US between 1999 and 2002--138 GW out of a total of 144 GW. Looking ahead, the EIA expects that gas-fired technology will account for 61% of the 355 GW new generating capacity projected to come on-line in the US up to 2025, increasing the nationwide market share of gas-fired generation from 18% in 2002 to 22% in 2025. While the data are specific to the US, natural gas-fired generation is making similar advances in other countries as well. Regardless of the explanation for (or interpretation of) the empirical findings, however, the basic implications remain the same: one should not blindly rely on gas price forecasts when comparing fixed-price renewable with variable-price gas-fired generation contracts. If there is a cost to hedging, gas price forecasts do not capture and account for it. Alternatively, if the forecasts are at risk of being biased or out of tune with the market, then one certainly would not want to use them as the basis for resource comparisons or investment decisions if a more certain source of data (forwards) existed. Accordingly, assuming that long-term price stability is valued, the most appropriate way to compare the levelized cost of these resources in both cases would be to use forward natural gas price data--i.e. prices that can be locked in to create price certainty--as opposed to uncertain natural gas price forecasts. This article suggests that had utilities and analysts in the US done so over the sample period from November 2000 to November 2003, they would have found gas-fired generation to be at least 0.3-0.6 cents/kWh more expensive (on a levelized cost basis) than otherwise thought. With some renewable resources, in particular wind power, now largely competitive with gas-fired generation in the US (including the impact of the federal production tax credit and current high gas prices), a margin of 0.3-0.6 cents/kWh may in some cases be enough to sway resource decisions in favor of renewables.

  3. Evidence for posttranslational protein flavinylation in the syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum: Structural and biochemical insights from the catalytic core of a periplasmic flavin-trafficking protein

    SciTech Connect

    Deka, Ranjit K.; Brautigam, Chad A.; Liu, Wei Z.; Tomchick, Diana R.; Norgard, Michael V.

    2015-05-05

    The syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum is an important human pathogen but a highly enigmatic bacterium that cannot be cultivated in vitro. T. pallidum lacks many biosynthetic pathways and therefore has evolved the capability to exploit host-derived metabolites via its periplasmic lipoprotein repertoire. We recently reported a flavin-trafficking protein in T. pallidum (Ftp_Tp; TP0796) as the first bacterial metal-dependent flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) pyrophosphatase that hydrolyzes FAD into AMP and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) in the spirochete’s periplasm. However, orthologs of Ftp_Tp from other bacteria appear to lack this hydrolytic activity; rather, they bind and flavinylate subunits of a cytoplasmic membrane redox system (Nqr/Rnf). To further explore this dichotomy, biochemical analyses, protein crystallography, and structure-based mutagenesis were used to show that a single amino acid change (N55Y) in Ftp_Tp converts it from an Mg²⁺-dependent FAD pyrophosphatase to an FAD-binding protein. We also demonstrated that Ftp_Tp has a second enzymatic activity (Mg²⁺-FMN transferase); it flavinylates protein(s) covalently with FMN on a threonine side chain of an appropriate sequence motif using FAD as the substrate. Moreover, mutation of a metal-binding residue (D284A) eliminates Ftp_Tp’s dual activities, thereby underscoring the role of Mg²⁺ in the enzyme-catalyzed reactions. The posttranslational flavinylation activity that can target a periplasmic lipoprotein (TP0171) has not previously been described. The observed activities reveal the catalytic flexibility of a treponemal protein to perform multiple functions. Together, these findings imply mechanisms by which a dynamic pool of flavin cofactor is maintained and how flavoproteins are generated by Ftp_Tp locally in the T. pallidum periplasm.

  4. Biochemical Lithography - Templating of supported lipid bilayers...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Abstract not provided. Authors: Paxton, Walter F ; Nogan, John ; Montano, Gabriel A. ; Adams, Peter G. ; Swingle, Kirtsi K. ; Lamoureux, L. ; Firestone, Millicent A. ; Mukundan,...

  5. Biochemical Process Improvements & Synthetic Biology Validation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Process Improvements & Synthetic Biology Validation Projects This presentation ... Develop efficient, inexpensive synthetic biology methods and tools to convert biomass into ...

  6. Transcriptome and Biochemical Analyses of Fungal Degradation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Because fungi are the only known microbes capable of circumventing the lignin barrier, knowledge of the enzyme they use is of great potential for biofuel processing. Nature has ...

  7. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

  8. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

    1994-03-29

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. 62 figures.

  9. Crystal Structure and Biochemical Characterization of Chlamydomonas...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 128; Journal Issue: 1; Related Information: Photosynthesis Research; Journal ID: ISSN 0166-8595 Publisher: Springer Research Org: ...

  10. Specificity and completion time distributions of biochemical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Specificity and completion time distributions of ... Using the Laplace transform of the corresponding chemical master equation, we obtain an analytical solution for the ...

  11. Specificity and completion time distributions of biochemical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Journal of Chemical Physics ... Language: English Subject: 37; ANALYTICAL SOLUTION; DETECTION; DISTRIBUTION; DNA ...

  12. RESEARCH ARTICLE

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... SB, Keasling JD. 2012. Mi- crobial engineering for the production of advanced biofuels. ... production of isoprenol and prenol as next generation of biofuels. Biotechnol. ...

  13. Biochemical Feedstock Interface Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Feedstock Interface BETO 2015 Project Peer Review March 23, 2015 Washington D.C. Nick Nagle Allison Ray Garold Gresham National Renewable Energy Laboratory Idaho National Laboratory This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information WBS 2.2.1.100, 2.2.1.101, & 2.2.1.102 2 | Bioenergy Technologies Office Goal Statement Goal: * Understand the impact of feedstock logistics & preprocessing on blend conversion performance Relevance to BETO

  14. Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  15. Biochemical Mechanisms and Energy Strategies of Geobacter Sulfurreducens

    SciTech Connect

    Tien, Ming; Brantley, Susan L.

    2013-10-28

    To provide the scientific understanding required to allow DOE sites to incorporate relevant biological, chemical, and physical processes into decisions concerning environmental remediation, a fundamental understanding of the controls on micro-organism growth in the subsurface is necessary. Specifically, mobility of metals in the environment, including chromium, technetium and uranium, is greatly affected by the process of dissimilatory metal reduction (DMR), which has been shown to be an important biological activity controlling contaminant mobility in the subsurface at many DOE sites. Long-term maintenance of DMR at constant rates must rely upon steady fluxes of electron donors to provide the maintenance energy needed by organisms such as Geobacter sulfurreducens to maintain steady state populations in the subsurface.

  16. Biochemical Platform Analysis Presentation for BETO 2015 Project...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    ... SMR H 2 sourcing and alternative scenarios via in situ reforming of sugars or biomass gasification - 3-6X lower GHG emissions from conversion stage for alternative (internal) H ...

  17. Design and Optimization of a Biochemical Production Platform...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    MALONIC ACID Malonyl-CoA lies on the carbon superhighway in biology Pathway is ... Dietrich JA et al. ACS Synthetic Biology 2013 Large, diverse population Identify improved ...

  18. Structural and Biochemical Analysis of DNA Helix Invasion by...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Harvard-Med) ( Publication Date: 2013-07-26 OSTI Identifier: 1087764 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: J. Biol. Chem.; Journal Volume: ...

  19. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellul...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 09 BIOMASS FUELS; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; AGRICULTURAL WASTES; BIOMASS; CONTRACTORS; DESIGN; ECONOMICS; ...

  20. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellul...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    McAloon, A.J.; Yee, W.C.; Foglia, A.T. "A Process Model to Estimate Biodiesel Production Cost." Biores. Technol.; Vol. 97, 2006; pp. 671-678. 11. Laser, M.; Larson, E.; Dale, ...

  1. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellul...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... of its cost inputs were based), the Klein-Marcuschamer ... 1,000- 1,600 50-88 67-106 Hot water pretreatment, Cost of ... turbine with two extraction ports and a final condenser. ...

  2. NREL 2012 Achievement of Ethanol Cost Targets: Biochemical Ethanol...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, ... Key sustainability metrics associated with the 2012 SOT biorefinery ... used a staged addition policy in an attempt to achieve ...

  3. NREL 2012 Achievement of Ethanol Cost Targets: Biochemical Ethanol...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    flow rate. In the new design, the evaporator system, membrane reactor, and reverse osmosis system are scaled on hydraulic flow rate, while the anaerobic digester, aeration...

  4. Biochemical localization of a protein involved in Gluconacetobacter...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    States Language: English Subject: 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES biofuels (including algae and biomass), bio-inspired, membrane, carbon sequestration, materials and chemistry by...

  5. Biobased Chemicals Landscape in 2015: What's the Role of Biochemicals...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Ken Williams, Program LeaderPrincipal Chemical Engineer, Nature Works, LLC williamsbioenergy2015.pdf (1.09 MB) More Documents & Publications Methane and Methanotrophic Bacteria ...

  6. Application And Evaluation Of Biomagnetic And Biochemical Monitoring...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    work has shown that the trace metal concentrations of these leaves show promise as a bio-indicator of volcanic gas, aerosol and ash deposition on the flanks of Mt. Etna. For...

  7. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Biochemical Conversion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    All programs in the Department of Energy's Offce of Energy ... projects in applied research, development, and ... Project lists, abstracts, and presentations were provided to ...

  8. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellul...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid ...aspen-plus.cfm. 4. Tao, L.; Aden, A. "The Economics of Current and Future Biofuels." ...

  9. MHK Projects/Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    will provide an understanding of the relationships between discharge component design, OTEC performance and environmental changes, and will be used when designing an OTEC plant to...

  10. MBI Biorefinery: Corn to Biomass, Ethanol to Biochemicals and Biomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    2006-02-17

    The project is a continuation of DOE-funded work (FY02 and FY03) that has focused on the development of the ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) pretreatment technology, fermentation production of succinic acid and new processes and products to enhance dry mill profitability. The primary objective for work beginning in April 2004 and ending in November 2005 is focus on the key issues related to the: (1) design, costing and construction plan for a pilot AFEX pretreatment system, formation of a stakeholder development team to assist in the planning and design of a biorefinery pilot plant, continued evaluation of corn fractionation technologies, corn oil extraction, AFEX treatment of corn fiber/DDGs; (2) development of a process to fractionate AFEX-treated corn fiber and corn stover--cellulose and hemicellulose fractionation and sugar recovery; and (3) development of a scalable batch succinic acid production process at 500 L at or below $.42/lb, a laboratory scale fed-batch process for succinic acid production at or below $.40/lb, a recovery process for succinic acid that reduces the cost of succinic acid by $.02/lb and the development of an acid tolerant succinic acid production strain at lab scale (last objective not to be completed during this project time period).

  11. Biobased Chemicals Landscape in 2015: What's the Role of Biochemicals...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    with breadth across markets, geographies, and retail applications * World-scale plastics facility * 2002 Winner - Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge * DOE partner...

  12. Biochemical and Structural Insights into Xylan Utilization by...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Journal Name: Journal of Biological Chemistry; Journal Volume: 287; Journal Issue: (42) ; 10, 2012 Publisher: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular ...

  13. Biochemical and Structural Insights into the Preference of Nairoviral...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The enzymatic activities of vOTUs originating from the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Erve virus, and Nairobi sheep disease virus were tested against ISG15s from humans, ...

  14. Biochemical remediation of a TNT contaminated soil. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Young, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This research presents the first field evidence for the phytoremediation of a TNT contaminated soil by the emersed aquatic plant, Myriophyllum brasiliense. Commonly known as Parrotfeather, this plant features a nitroreductase enzyme capable of promoting the reduction of the nitro groups on TNT to the corresponding amino groups. The proposed reductive pathway takes the TNT through isomers of monoamino and diamino to the final triaminonitrotoluene (TNT) Once in the TAT form and in the presence of oxygen, the final oxidative step quickly yields ring opened products and complete phytoremediation of TNT.

  15. Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    ... pretreatment in ZipperClave and steam gun reactors ......both the ZipperClave (2-liter) and steam gun (4-liter) reactors at temperatures ranging ...

  16. Reliable estimation of biochemical parameters from C3 leafphotosynthe...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The new approach implemented theoretical parameter resolvability with numerical procedures that maximally use the information content of the data. It was tested with model ...

  17. A Microfluidic Microbial Fuel Cell as a Biochemical Oxygen Demand...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    emerged as a central technology in an attempt to produce electricity. In a BES, bacteria interact with electrodes using electrons, which are either removed or supplied...

  18. T-654: Apple QuickTime Multiple Bugs Let Remote Users Execute Arbitrary

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    A remote user can create a specially crafted file that, when loaded by the target user, will execute arbitrary code on the target system. The code will run with the privileges of the target user.

  19. T-529: Apple Mac OS PackageKit Distribution Script Remote Code Execution Vulnerability

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    A format string issue exists in PackageKit's handling of distribution scripts. A man-in-the-middle attacker may be able to cause an unexpected application termination or arbitrary code execution when Software Update checks for new updates. This issue is addressed through improved validation of distribution scripts. This issue does not affect systems prior to Mac OS X v10.6.

  20. U-036: Apple iOS Bugs Let Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    A remote user can create content that, when loaded by the target user, will execute arbitrary code on or obtain potentially sensitive information from the target user's system.

  1. U-170: Apple QuickTime Multiple Flaws Let Remote Users Execute...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    overflow CVE-2012-0670. A specially crafted '.pict' file can trigger a memory corruption error CVE-2012-0671. Impact: A remote user can create a file that, when loaded by...

  2. V-171: Apple Safari Bugs Let Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    specially crafted HTML that, when loaded by the target user, will trigger a memory corruption error and execute arbitrary code on the target system CVE-2013-1009,...

  3. V-164: Apple QuickTime Multiple Flaws Let Remote Users Execute...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    1) An unspecified error when handling TeXML files can be exploited to cause memory corruption. 2) A boundary error when handling H.263 encoded movie files can be exploited to...

  4. T-673: Apple Safari Multiple Flaws Let Remote Users Execute Arbitrary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    specially crafted HTML that, when loaded by the target user, will trigger a memory corruption error and execute arbitrary code on the target system - CVE-2010-1823,...

  5. U-222: Apple Safari Bugs Let Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    specially crafted HTML that, when loaded by the target user, will trigger a memory corruption error and execute arbitrary code on the target system CVE-2011-3016, CVE-2011-3021,...

  6. U-165: Apple iOS Bugs Let Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code...

    Energy Saver

    iOS. A remote user can cause arbitrary code to be executed on the target user's system. ... A remote user can create a specially crafted file that, when loaded by the target user, ...

  7. The case for the iCar: Why an Apple car isn't crazy > EMC2 News...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    was ever a time for someone to make a car, it's absolutely now." Big advancements in big data One reason that self-driving technology is suddenly heading mainstream is that one of ...

  8. Comment on 'A planar refractive x-ray lens made of nanocrystalline diamond'[J. Appl. Phys. 108, 123107 (2010)

    SciTech Connect

    Kroon, R. E.

    2013-05-28

    The material LuAG (lutetium aluminium garnet) has been confused with LAG (lanthanum aluminium garnet). In general, aluminium garnet phases only occur for the smaller trivalent metal cations and LAG is not known to have been synthesized.

  9. Comment on “Diffusion of n-type dopants in germanium” [Appl. Phys. Rev. 1, 011301 (2014)

    SciTech Connect

    Cowern, N. E. B. Simdyankin, S.; Goss, J. P.; Napolitani, E.; De Salvador, D.; Bruno, E.; Mirabella, S.; Ahn, C.; Bennett, N. S.

    2015-09-15

    The authors of the above paper call into question recent evidence on the properties of self-interstitials, I, in Ge [Cowern et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 155501 (2013)]. We show that this judgment stems from invalid model assumptions during analysis of data on B marker-layer diffusion during proton irradiation, and that a corrected analysis fully supports the reported evidence. As previously stated, I-mediated self-diffusion in Ge exhibits two distinct regimes of temperature, T: high-T, dominated by amorphous-like mono-interstitial clusters—i-morphs—with self-diffusion entropy ≈30 k, and low-T, where transport is dominated by simple self-interstitials. In a transitional range centered on 475 °C both mechanisms contribute. The experimental I migration energy of 1.84 ± 0.26 eV reported by the Münster group based on measurements of self-diffusion during irradiation at 550 °C < T < 680 °C further establishes our proposed i-morph mechanism.

  10. Bite the apple, get driven out of the garden: A risky story telling at the ASME town meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, K.C.

    1994-11-01

    Risk, the all-encompassing four-letter word became a widely used household cliche and an institutional mantra in the nineties. Risk analysis models from the Garden of Eden to the Capitol Hill lawn have made a number of sharp paradigm shifts to evolve itself as a decision-making tool from individual risk perception to societal risk-based regulatory media. Risk always coexists with benefit and is arbitrated by costs. Risk-benefit analysis has been in use in business and industry in economic ventures for a long time. Only recently risk management in its current state of development, evolved as a regulatory tool for controlling large technological systems that have potential impacts on the health and safety of the public and on the sustainability of the ecology and the environment. This paper summarizes the evolution of the risk management concepts and models in industry and the regulatory agencies in the US over the last three decades. It also discusses the benefits and limitations of this evolving discipline as it is applied to high-risk technologies from the nuclear power plant and petrochemical industry, etc. to nuclear weapons technology.

  11. Biochemical & Thermochemical High Throughput Characterization of Feedstocks for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    20 40 60 80 100 120 140 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 Frequency Corn Stover Corn Cob Miscanthus Wheat

  12. Biochemical, Mechanistic, and Spectroscopic Characterization of Metallo-β-lactamase VIM-2

    SciTech Connect

    Aitha, Mahesh; Marts, Amy R.; Bergstrom, Alex; Møller, Abraham Jon; Moritz, Lindsay; Turner, Lucien; Nix, Jay C.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Page, Richard C.; Tierney, David L.; Crowder, Michael W.

    2014-11-25

    Our study examines metal binding to metallo-β-lactamase VIM-2, demonstrating the first successful preparation of a Co(II)-substituted VIM-2 analogue. Spectroscopic studies of the half- and fully metal loaded enzymes show that both Zn(II) and Co(II) bind cooperatively, where the major species present, regardless of stoichiometry, are apo- and di-Zn (or di-Co) enzymes. We also determined the di-Zn VIM-2 structure to a resolution of 1.55 Å, and this structure supports results from spectroscopic studies. Kinetics, both steady-state and pre-steady-state, show that VIM-2 utilizes a mechanism that proceeds through a very short-lived anionic intermediate when chromacef is used as the substrate. Comparison with other B1 enzymes shows that those that bind Zn(II) cooperatively are better poised to protonate the intermediate on its formation, compared to those that bind Zn(II) non-cooperatively, which uniformly build up substantial amounts of the intermediate.

  13. Techno-Economic Analysis of Biochemical Scenarios for Production of Cellulosic Ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Kazi, F. K.; Fortman, J.; Anex, R.; Kothandaraman, G.; Hsu, D.; Aden, A.; Dutta, A.

    2010-06-01

    A techno-economic analysis on the production of cellulosic ethanol by fermentation was conducted to understand the viability of liquid biofuel production processes within the next 5-8 years. Initially, 35 technologies were reviewed, then a two-step down selection was performed to choose scenarios to be evaluated in a more detailed economic analysis. The lignocellulosic ethanol process was selected because it is well studied and portions of the process have been tested at pilot scales. Seven process variations were selected and examined in detail. Process designs were constrained to public data published in 2007 or earlier, without projecting for future process improvements. Economic analysis was performed for an 'nth plant' (mature technology) to obtain total investment and product value (PV). Sensitivity analysis was performed on PV to assess the impact of variations in process and economic parameters. Results show that the modeled dilute acid pretreatment process without any downstream process variation had the lowest PV of $3.40/gal of ethanol ($5.15/gallon of gasoline equivalent) in 2007 dollars. Sensitivity analysis shows that PV is most sensitive to feedstock and enzyme costs.

  14. Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.

    1994-11-22

    A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed, The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts, For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates.

  15. Method for identifying biochemical and chemical reactions and micromechanical processes using nanomechanical and electronic signal identification

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F.; Siekhaus, Wigbert J.

    1997-01-01

    A scanning probe microscope, such as an atomic force microscope (AFM) or a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), is operated in a stationary mode on a site where an activity of interest occurs to measure and identify characteristic time-varying micromotions caused by biological, chemical, mechanical, electrical, optical, or physical processes. The tip and cantilever assembly of an AFM is used as a micromechanical detector of characteristic micromotions transmitted either directly by a site of interest or indirectly through the surrounding medium. Alternatively, the exponential dependence of the tunneling current on the size of the gap in the STM is used to detect micromechanical movement. The stationary mode of operation can be used to observe dynamic biological processes in real time and in a natural environment, such as polymerase processing of DNA for determining the sequence of a DNA molecule.

  16. Biochemical characterization of GDP-L-fucose de novo synthesis pathway in fungus Mortierella alpina

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Yan; Perepelov, Andrei V.; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Hao; Knirel, Yuriy A.; Wang, Lei; Chen, Wei

    2010-01-22

    Mortierella alpina is a filamentous fungus commonly found in soil, which is able to produce large amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids. L-Fucose is an important sugar found in a diverse range of organisms, playing a variety of biological roles. In this study, we characterized the de novo biosynthetic pathway of GDP-L-fucose (the nucleotide-activated form of L-fucose) in M. alpina. Genes encoding GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase (GMD) and GDP-keto-6-deoxymannose 3,5-epimerase/4-reductase (GMER) were expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzymes were produced as His-tagged fusion proteins. Conversion of GDP-mannose to GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy mannose by GMD and GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy mannose to GDP-L-fucose by GMER were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis, electro-spray ionization-mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The k{sub m} values of GMD for GDP-mannose and GMER for GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy mannose were determined to be 0.77 mM and 1.047 mM, respectively. Both NADH and NADPH may be used by GMER as the coenzyme. The optimum temperature and pH were determined to be 37 {sup o}C and pH 9.0 (GMD) or pH 7.0 (GMER). Divalent cations are not required for GMD and GMER activity, and the activities of both enzymes may be enhanced by DTT. To our knowledge this is the first report on the characterization of GDP-L-fucose biosynthetic pathway in fungi.

  17. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    2011-05-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes the production of ethanol and other liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in the program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) investigates the production economics of these fuels.

  18. Grid-based methods for biochemical ab initio quantum chemical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Colvin, M.E.; Nelson, J.S.; Mori, E.

    1997-01-01

    A initio quantum chemical methods are seeing increased application in a large variety of real-world problems including biomedical applications ranging from drug design to the understanding of environmental mutagens. The vast majority of these quantum chemical methods are {open_quotes}spectral{close_quotes}, that is they describe the charge distribution around the nuclear framework in terms of a fixed analytic basis set. Despite the additional complexity they bring, methods involving grid representations of the electron or solvent charge can provide more efficient schemes for evaluating spectral operators, inexpensive methods for calculating electron correlation, and methods for treating the electrostatic energy of salvation in polar solvents. The advantage of mixed or {open_quotes}pseudospectral{close_quotes} methods is that they allow individual non-linear operators in the partial differential equations, such as coulomb operators, to be calculated in the most appropriate regime. Moreover, these molecular grids can be used to integrate empirical functionals of the electron density. These so-called density functional methods (DFT) are an extremely promising alternative to conventional post-Hartree Fock quantum chemical methods. The introduction of a grid at the molecular solvent-accessible surface allows a very sophisticated treatment of a polarizable continuum solvent model (PCM). Where most PCM approaches use a truncated expansion of the solute`s electric multipole expansion, e.g. net charge (Born model) or dipole moment (Onsager model), such a grid-based boundary-element method (BEM) yields a nearly exact treatment of the solute`s electric field. This report describes the use of both DFT and BEM methods in several biomedical chemical applications.

  19. Statistical Data Analyses of Trace Chemical, Biochemical, and Physical Analytical Signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Udey, Ruth Norma

    2013-01-01

    Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry measurement results are most meaningful when interpreted using rigorous statistical treatments of the data. The same data set may provide many dimensions of information depending on the questions asked through the applied statistical methods. Three principal projects illustrated the wealth of information gained through the application of statistical data analyses to diverse problems.

  20. Method for identifying biochemical and chemical reactions and micromechanical processes using nanomechanical and electronic signal identification

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Siekhaus, W.J.

    1997-04-15

    A scanning probe microscope, such as an atomic force microscope (AFM) or a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), is operated in a stationary mode on a site where an activity of interest occurs to measure and identify characteristic time-varying micromotions caused by biological, chemical, mechanical, electrical, optical, or physical processes. The tip and cantilever assembly of an AFM is used as a micromechanical detector of characteristic micromotions transmitted either directly by a site of interest or indirectly through the surrounding medium. Alternatively, the exponential dependence of the tunneling current on the size of the gap in the STM is used to detect micromechanical movement. The stationary mode of operation can be used to observe dynamic biological processes in real time and in a natural environment, such as polymerase processing of DNA for determining the sequence of a DNA molecule. 6 figs.

  1. .sup.123m Te-Labeled biochemicals and method of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1980-01-01

    A novel class of .sup.123m Te-labeled steroids and amino acids is provided by the method of reacting a .sup.123m Te symmetric diorgano ditelluride with a hydride reducing agent and a source of alkali metal ions to form an alkali metal organo telluride. The alkali metal organo telluride is reacted with a primary halogenated steroidal side chain, amino acid, or amino acid precursor such as hydantoin. The novel compounds are useful as biological tracers and as organal imaging agents.

  2. Reliable estimation of biochemical parameters from C3 leaf photosynthesis-intercellular carbon dioxide response curves

    SciTech Connect

    Wullschleger, Stan D; Gu, Lianhong; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Tu, Kevin; Law, Beverly E.

    2010-01-01

    The Farquhar-von Caemmerer-Berry (FvCB) model of photosynthesis is a change-point model and structurally overparameterized for interpreting the response of leaf net assimilation (A) to intercellular CO{sub 2} concentration (Ci). The use of conventional fitting methods may lead not only to incorrect parameters but also several previously unrecognized consequences. For example, the relationships between key parameters may be fixed computationally and certain fits may be produced in which the estimated parameters result in contradictory identification of the limitation states of the data. Here we describe a new approach that is better suited to the FvCB model characteristics. It consists of four main steps: (1) enumeration of all possible distributions of limitation states; (2) fitting the FvCB model to each limitation state distribution by minimizing a distribution-wise cost function that has desirable properties for parameter estimation; (3) identification and correction of inadmissible fits; and (4) selection of the best fit from all possible limitation state distributions. The new approach implemented theoretical parameter resolvability with numerical procedures that maximally use the information content of the data. It was tested with model simulations, sampled A/Ci curves, and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements of different tree species. The new approach is accessible through the automated website leafweb.ornl.gov.

  3. Fabrication of nanoporous membranes for tuning microbial interactions and biochemical reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Shankles, Peter G.; Timm, Andrea C.; Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Retterer, Scott T.

    2015-10-21

    Here we describe how new strategies for combining conventional photo- and soft- lithographic techniques with high-resolution patterning and etching strategies are needed in order to produce multi-scale fluidic platforms that address the full range of functional scales seen in complex biological and chemical systems. The smallest resolution required for an application often dictates the fabrication method used. Micromachining and micro-powder blasting yield higher throughput, but lack the resolution needed to fully address biological and chemical systems at the cellular and molecular scales. In contrast, techniques such as electron beam lithography or nanoimprinting allow nanoscale resolution, but are traditionally considered costly and slow. Other techniques such as photolithography or soft lithography have characteristics between these extremes. Combining these techniques to fabricate multi-scale or hybrid fluidics allows fundamental biological and chemical questions can be answered. In this study, a combination of photolithography and electron beam lithography are used to produce two multi-scale fluidic devices that incorporate porous membranes into complex fluidic networks to control the flow of energy, information, and materials in chemical form. In the first device, materials and energy were used to support chemical reactions. A nanoporous membrane fabricated with e-beam lithography separates two parallel, serpentine channels. Photolithography was used to write microfluidic channels around the membrane. The pores were written at 150nm and reduced in size with silicon dioxide deposition from plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD). Using this method, the molecular weight cutoff (MWCO) of the membrane can be adapted to the system of interest. In the second approach, photolithography was used to fabricate 200nm thin pores. The pores confined microbes and allowed energy replenishment from a media perfusion channel. The same device can be used for study of intercellular communication via the secretion and uptake of signal molecules. Pore size was tested with 750nm fluorescent polystyrene beads and fluorescein dye. The 200nm PDMS pores were shown to be robust enough to hold 750nm beads while under pressure, but allow fluorescein to diffuse across the barrier. Further testing showed that extended culture of bacteria within the chambers was possible. Finally, these two examples show how lithographically defined porous membranes can be adapted to two unique situations and used to tune the flow of chemical energy, materials, and information within a microfluidic network.

  4. Zymomonas mobilis as a model system for production of biofuels and biochemicals

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Yang, Shihui; Fei, Qiang; Zhang, Yaoping; Contreras, Lydia M.; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Brown, Steven D.; Himmel, Michael E.; Zhang, Min

    2016-09-15

    Zymomonas mobilis is a natural ethanologen with many desirable industrial biocatalyst characteristics. In this review, we will discuss work to develop Z. mobilis as a model system for biofuel production from the perspectives of substrate utilization, development for industrial robustness, potential product spectrum, strain evaluation and fermentation strategies. Lastly, this review also encompasses perspectives related to classical genetic tools and emerging technologies in this context.

  5. Fabrication of nanoporous membranes for tuning microbial interactions and biochemical reactions

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Shankles, Peter G.; Timm, Andrea C.; Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Retterer, Scott T.

    2015-10-21

    Here we describe how new strategies for combining conventional photo- and soft- lithographic techniques with high-resolution patterning and etching strategies are needed in order to produce multi-scale fluidic platforms that address the full range of functional scales seen in complex biological and chemical systems. The smallest resolution required for an application often dictates the fabrication method used. Micromachining and micro-powder blasting yield higher throughput, but lack the resolution needed to fully address biological and chemical systems at the cellular and molecular scales. In contrast, techniques such as electron beam lithography or nanoimprinting allow nanoscale resolution, but are traditionally considered costlymore » and slow. Other techniques such as photolithography or soft lithography have characteristics between these extremes. Combining these techniques to fabricate multi-scale or hybrid fluidics allows fundamental biological and chemical questions can be answered. In this study, a combination of photolithography and electron beam lithography are used to produce two multi-scale fluidic devices that incorporate porous membranes into complex fluidic networks to control the flow of energy, information, and materials in chemical form. In the first device, materials and energy were used to support chemical reactions. A nanoporous membrane fabricated with e-beam lithography separates two parallel, serpentine channels. Photolithography was used to write microfluidic channels around the membrane. The pores were written at 150nm and reduced in size with silicon dioxide deposition from plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD). Using this method, the molecular weight cutoff (MWCO) of the membrane can be adapted to the system of interest. In the second approach, photolithography was used to fabricate 200nm thin pores. The pores confined microbes and allowed energy replenishment from a media perfusion channel. The same device can be used for study of intercellular communication via the secretion and uptake of signal molecules. Pore size was tested with 750nm fluorescent polystyrene beads and fluorescein dye. The 200nm PDMS pores were shown to be robust enough to hold 750nm beads while under pressure, but allow fluorescein to diffuse across the barrier. Further testing showed that extended culture of bacteria within the chambers was possible. Finally, these two examples show how lithographically defined porous membranes can be adapted to two unique situations and used to tune the flow of chemical energy, materials, and information within a microfluidic network.« less

  6. Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1994-11-22

    A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed. The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts. For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates. 54 figs.

  7. Frontiers, Opportunities, and Challenges in Biochemical and Chemical Catalysis of CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, Aaron M.; Bercaw, John E.; Bocarsly, Andrew B.; Dobbek, Holger; DuBois, Daniel L.; Dupuis, Michel; Ferry, James G.; Fujita, Etsuko; Hille, Russ; Kenis, Paul; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.; Morris, Robert H.; Peden, Charles HF; Portis, Archie; Ragsdale, Steve; Rauchfuss, Thomas B.; Reek, Joost; Seefeldt, Lance C.; Thauer, Rudolf K.; Waldrop, Grover L.

    2013-08-14

    Our central premise is that catalytic scientists can learn by studying how these important metabolic processes occur in nature. Complementarily, biochemists can learn by studying how catalytic scientists view these same chemical transformations promoted by synthetic catalysts. From these studies, hypotheses can be developed and tested through manipulation of enzyme structure and by synthesizing simple molecular catalysts to incorporate different structural features of the enzymes. It is hoped that these studies will lead to new and useful concepts in catalyst design for fuel production and utilization. This paper describes the results of a workshop held to explore these concepts in regard to the development of new and more efficient catalytic processes for the conversion of CO2 to a variety of carbon-based fuels. The organization of this overview/review is as follows: 1) The first section briefly explores how interactions between the catalysis and biological communities have been fruitful in developing new catalysts for the reduction of protons to hydrogen, the simplest fuel generation reaction. 2) The second section assesses the state of the art in both biological and chemical reduction of CO2 by two electrons to form either carbon monoxide (CO) or formate (HCOO-). It also attempts to identify common principles between biological and synthetic catalysts and productive areas for future research. 3) The third section explores both biological and chemical processes that result in the reduction of CO2 beyond the level of CO and formate, again seeking to identify common principles and productive areas of future research. 4) The fourth section explores the formation of carbon-carbon bonds in biological and chemical systems in the same vein as the other sections. 5) A fifth section addresses the role of non-redox reactions of CO2 in biological systems and their role in carbon metabolism, with a parallel discussion of chemical systems. 6) In section 6, the topics of electrode modification, photochemical systems, and tandem catalysis are briefly discussed. These areas may be important for developing practical systems for CO2 reduction, and they share the common theme of coupling chemical reactions. 7) Section 7 describes some of the crosscutting activities that are critical for advancing the science underpinning catalyst development. 8) The last section attempts to summarize common issues in biological and chemical catalysis and to identify challenges that must be addressed to achieve practical catalysts that are suitable for the reduction of CO2 to fuels.

  8. Structural and Biochemical Studies of Actin in Complex with Synthetic Macrolide Tail Analogues

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Pereira, Jose H.; Petchprayoon, Chutima; Hoepker, Alexander C.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Fink, Sarah J.; Cecere, Giuseppe; Paterson, Ian; Adams, Paul D.; Marriott, Gerard

    2014-07-22

    The actin filament-binding and filament-severing activities of the aplyronine, kabiramide, and reidispongiolide families of marine macrolides are located within the hydrophobic tail region of the molecule. Two synthetic tail analogues of aplyronine C (SF-01 and GC-04) are shown to bind to G-actin with dissociation constants of (285±33) and (132±13) nM, respectively. The crystal structures of actin complexes with GC-04, SF-01, and kabiramide C reveal a conserved mode of tail binding within the cleft that forms between subdomains (SD) 1 and 3. Our studies support the view that filament severing is brought about by specific binding of the tail region tomore » the SD1/SD3 cleft on the upper protomer, which displaces loop-D from the lower protomer on the same half-filament. With previous studies showing that the GC-04 analogue can sever actin filaments, it is argued that the shorter complex lifetime of tail analogues with F-actin would make them more effective at severing filaments compared with plasma gelsolin. In conclusion, structure-based analyses are used to suggest more reactive or targetable forms of GC-04 and SF-01, which may serve to boost the capacity of the serum actin scavenging system, to generate antibody conjugates against tumor cell antigens, and to decrease sputum viscosity in children with cystic fibrosis.« less

  9. 9.5.1.9: Hydrocyclone Separation of Targeted Biochemical Intermediates...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... May 2013 1.2 Adsorbent Separation Approach Unique synthesis process: magnetic nanoparticles (NP) X Colloidal method - Solid-state reaction Assembly of magnetic NP - ...

  10. More Mac software and connections

    SciTech Connect

    Busbey, A.B.

    1988-11-01

    This column briefly reviews several geologic software packaged designed for Apple Macintosh. In addition, it discusses methods of networking Apple Macintosh computers.

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: Working with Sandia: Just in Time...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Just in Time Contracts Commodity Descriptions of Commodity Items APPLE COMPUTERS APPLE COMPUTERS (MAC) AUTO PARTS ELECTRICALMECH AUTOEQUIP PARTS (RESTRICTED) BOOKS INFORMATIONAL...

  12. Open-field host specificity test of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanaceae) in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Gandolfo, D.; McKay, F.; Medal, J.C.; Cuda, J.P.

    2007-03-15

    An open-field experiment was conducted to assess the suitability of the South American leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth for biological control of Solanum viarum Dunal in the USA. An open-field test with eggplant, Solanum melongena L., was conducted on the campus of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and a S. viarum control plot was established 40 km from the campus. One hundred adult beetles were released in each plot at the beginning of the experiment during the vegetative stage of the plants, and forty additional beetles were released in the S. melongena plot at the flowering stage. All the plants in each plot were checked twice a week and the number of adults, immatures, and eggs recorded. Results showed almost a complete rejection of eggplant by G. boliviana. No noticeable feeding damage was ever recorded on eggplant. The experiment was ended when the eggplants started to senesce or were severely damaged by whiteflies and spider mites. The results of this open-field experiment corroborate previous quarantine/laboratory host-specificity tests indicating that a host range expansion of G. boliviana to include eggplant is highly unlikely. Gratiana boliviana was approved for field release in May 2003 in the USA. To date, no non-target effects have been observed either on eggplant or native species of Solanum. (author) [Spanish] Una prueba de campo fue conducida para evaluar la especificidad del escarabajo suramericano defoliador Gratiana boliviana Spaeth para control biologico de Solanum viarum Dunal en los Estados Unidos. La prueba con berenjena se realizo en el campo experimental de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, y una parcela control con S. viarum fue establecida a 40 km. Cien escarabajos adultos fueron liberados en cada parcela al inicio del experimento durante la fase vegetativa, y cuarenta escarabajos adicionales fueron liberados en la parcela de berenjena durante la floracion. Todas las plantas en cada parcela fueron inspeccionadas dos veces a la semana y el numero de adultos, larvas, y posturas fueron registrados. Resultados indicaron un casi completo rechazo de la berenjena por G. boliviana. Ningun dano visible de defoliacion en la berenjena fue detectado. Las pruebas concluyeron cuando las plantas de berenjena alcazaron su madurez o fueron severamente danadas por mosca blanca y acaros. Resultados corroboran previas pruebas de especificidad en laboratorio/cuarentena que indican que la berenjena no es un hospedero de G. boliviana y que la posibilidad de llegar a ser una plaga de este cultivo es muy remota. Gratiana boliviana fue aprobado para ser liberado en el campo en mayo del 2003. Ningun dano ha sido observado hasta la fecha a plantas no blanco. (author)

  13. MOBILE4. 1: Highway-vehicle mobile-source emission-factor model (Apple MacIntosh version) (for microcomputers). Model-Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    MOBILE4.1 is the latest revision to EPA's highway vehicle mobile source emission factor model. Relative to MOBILE4, it contains numerous revisions and provides the user with additional options for modeling highway vehicle emission factors. it will calculate emission factors for hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide, (CO), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from highway motor vehicles. It calculates emission factors for eight individual vehicle types, in two regions of the country (low and high altitude). The emission factors depend on various conditions such as ambient temperature, fuel volatility, speed, and mileage accrual rates. It will estimate emission factors for any calendar year between 1960 and 2020 inclusive. The 25 most recent model years are considered in operation in each calendar year. EPA is requiring that states and others preparing emission inventories for nonattainment areas for CO and ozone to use MOBILE4.1 in the development of the base year 1990 emission inventories required under the Clean Air Act of 1990.

  14. A Combined Genetic, Biochemical, and Biophysical Analysis of the A1 Phylloquinone Binding Site of Photosystem I from Green Algae

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin E. Redding

    2011-12-17

    This project has resulted in the increase in our understanding of how proteins interact with and influence the properties of bound cofactors. This information is important for several reasons, including providing essential information for the re-engineering of biological molecules, such as proteins, for either improved function or entirely new ones. In particular, we have found that a molecule, such as the phylloquinone used in Photosystem I (PS1), can be made a stronger electron donor by placing it in a hydrophobic environment surrounded by negative charges. In addition, the protein is constrained in its interactions with the phylloqinone, in that it must bind the cofactor tightly, but not in such a way that would stabilize the reduced (negatively-charged) version of the molecule. We have used a combination of molecular genetics, in order to make specific mutations in the region of the phylloquinone, and an advanced form of spectroscopy capable of monitoring the transfer of electrons within PS1 using living cells as the material. This approach turned out to produce a significant savings in time and supplies, as it allowed us to focus quickly on the mutants that produced interesting effects, without having to go through laborious purification of the affected proteins. We followed up selected mutants using other spectroscopic techniques in order to gain more specialized information. In addition to the main project funded by this work, this grant supported several related side-projects that also increased our understanding about related issues.

  15. Molecular sled is an eleven-amino acid vehicle facilitating biochemical interactions via sliding components along DNA

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Mangel, Walter F.; McGrath, William J.; Xiong, Kan; Graziano, Vito; Blainey, Paul C.

    2016-02-02

    Recently, we showed the adenovirus proteinase interacts productively with its protein substrates in vitro and in vivo in nascent virus particles via one-dimensional diffusion along the viral DNA. The mechanism by which this occurs has heretofore been unknown. We show sliding of these proteins along DNA occurs on a new vehicle in molecular biology, a ‘molecular sled’ named pVIc. This 11-amino acid viral peptide binds to DNA independent of sequence. pVIc slides on DNA, exhibiting the fastest one-dimensional diffusion constant, 26±1.8 × 106 (bp)2 s−1. pVIc is a ‘molecular sled,’ because it can slide heterologous cargos along DNA, for example, amore » streptavidin tetramer. Similar peptides, for example, from the C terminus of β-actin or NLSIII of the p53 protein, slide along DNA. Finally, characteristics of the ‘molecular sled’ in its milieu (virion, nucleus) have implications for how proteins in the nucleus of cells interact and imply a new form of biochemistry, one-dimensional biochemistry.« less

  16. Miniaturized reaction vessel system, method for performing site-specific biochemical reactions and affinity fractionation for use in DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Mirzabekov, Andrei Darievich; Lysov, Yuri Petrovich; Dubley, Svetlana A.

    2000-01-01

    A method for fractionating and sequencing DNA via affinity interaction is provided comprising contacting cleaved DNA to a first array of oligonucleotide molecules to facilitate hybridization between said cleaved DNA and the molecules; extracting the hybridized DNA from the molecules; contacting said extracted hybridized DNA with a second array of oligonucleotide molecules, wherein the oligonucleotide molecules in the second array have specified base sequences that are complementary to said extracted hybridized DNA; and attaching labeled DNA to the second array of oligonucleotide molecules, wherein the labeled re-hybridized DNA have sequences that are complementary to the oligomers. The invention further provides a method for performing multi-step conversions of the chemical structure of compounds comprising supplying an array of polyacrylamide vessels separated by hydrophobic surfaces; immobilizing a plurality of reactants, such as enzymes, in the vessels so that each vessel contains one reactant; contacting the compounds to each of the vessels in a predetermined sequence and for a sufficient time to convert the compounds to a desired state; and isolating the converted compounds from said array.

  17. Biochemical and histological responses in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.B.; Evans, R.E.; Lockhart, W.L.; Delorme, P.D.; Ward, F.J.; Muir, D.C.G.

    1998-01-01

    Rainbow trout were given an intraperitoneal injection of corn oil containing 0 or 8.8 nmol (3 {micro}g) [{sup 14}C]2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (P{sub 5}CDF)/kg and were then held on a light cycle that induced spawning 10 months later. At 5- to 6-week intervals, blood samples were collected to monitor plasma levels of 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}), testosterone (T), thyroxine (T{sub 4}), 3,5,3{prime}-triiodo-L-thyronine (T{sub 3}), and calcium; packed cell volume (PCV); and differential blood cell counts. Fish were sacrificed after spawning to examine tissue P{sub 5}CDF concentration, liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), liver vitamins (retinoids and tocopherol), histology (liver, thyroid), and growth parameters. The P{sub 5}CDF injections produced tissue 2,3.7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalent concentrations comparable to those reported in salmonids from contaminated areas. Highest P{sub 5}CDF concentrations occurred in gut and liver, but muscle accounted for the greatest proportion of the dose. Plasma hormone and calcium concentrations followed predicted seasonal patterns in both control and exposed fish. PCV was unchanged by repeated blood sampling but differential blood cell counts showed adaptive responses to blood removal. The P{sub 5}CDF exposure caused transient reductions in circulating lymphocytes and elevated EROD. Additionally, P{sub 5}CDF increased liver size and depleted retinoid stores in male fish. Liver histology, somatic growth, and gonadal development were unaltered by P{sub 5}CDF during the first reproductive cycle after exposure.

  18. Cell envelope of Bordetella pertussis: immunological and biochemical analyses and characterization of a major outer membrane porin protein

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    Surface molecules of Bordetella pertussis which may be important in metabolism, pathogenesis, and immunity to whooping cough were examined using cell fractionation and /sup 125/I cell surface labeling. Antigenic envelope proteins were examined by immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting procedures using monoclonal antibodies and convalescent sera. A surface protein with a high M/sub r/, missing in a mutant lacking the filamentous hemagglutinin, was identified in virulent Bordetella pertussis but was absent in virulent B. pertussis strains. At least three envelope proteins were found only in virulent B. pertussis strains and were absent or diminished in avirulent and most phenotypically modulated strains. Transposon-induced mutants unable to produce hemolysin, dermonecrotic toxin, pertussis toxin, and filamentous hemagglutinin also lacked these three envelope proteins, confirming that virulence-associated envelope proteins were genetically regulated with other virulence-associated traits. Two dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed at least five heat modifiable proteins which migrated as higher or lower M/sub r/ moieties if solubilized at 25/sup 0/C instead of 100/sup 0/C.

  19. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of the Salicylyl-acyltranferase SsfX3 from a Tetracycline Biosynthetic Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Pickens, Lauren B.; Sawaya, Michael R.; Rasool, Huma; Pashkov, Inna; Yeates, Todd O.; Tang, Yi

    2012-03-14

    SsfX3 is a GDSL family acyltransferase that transfers salicylate to the C-4 hydroxyl of a tetracycline intermediate in the penultimate step during biosynthesis of the anticancer natural product SF2575. The C-4 salicylate takes the place of the more common C-4 dimethylamine functionality, making SsfX3 the first acyltransferase identified to act on a tetracycline substrate. The crystal structure of SsfX3 was determined at 2.5 {angstrom}, revealing two distinct domains as follows: an N-terminal {beta}-sandwich domain that resembles a carbohydrate-binding module, and a C-terminal catalytic domain that contains the atypical {alpha}/{beta}-hydrolase fold found in the GDSL hydrolase family of enzymes. The active site lies at one end of a large open binding pocket, which is spatially defined by structural elements from both the N- and C-terminal domains. Mutational analysis in the putative substrate binding pocket identified residues from both domains that are important for binding the acyl donor and acceptor. Furthermore, removal of the N-terminal carbohydrate-binding module-like domain rendered the stand-alone {alpha}/{beta}-hydrolase domain inactive. The additional noncatalytic module is therefore proposed to be required to define the binding pocket and provide sufficient interactions with the spatially extended tetracyclic substrate. SsfX3 was also demonstrated to accept a variety of non-native acyl groups. This relaxed substrate specificity toward the acyl donor allowed the chemoenzymatic biosynthesis of C-4-modified analogs of the immediate precursor to the bioactive SF2575; these were used to assay the structure activity relationships at the C-4 position.

  20. Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies; Proposed Rule Making- Ex Parte Communication

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Apple Inc. met with DOE to discuss the notice of proposed rule making the Department sent out regarding battery chargers and external power supplies.  Below is a list of topics that Apple discussed...

  1. Comment on A case study on the scaling of 1/f noise: La{sub 2?3}Sr{sub 1?3}MnO{sub 3} thin films [J. Appl. Phys. 113, 094901 (2013)

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, C. Pagano, S.; Mchin, L.; Guillet, B.; Routoure, J.-M.

    2014-03-21

    The problem of non-standard scaling of the 1/f noise in thin manganite films was revisited in the above paper, suggesting the quantum theory of fundamental flicker noise for the interpretation of the unusual dependence of the normalized Hooge parameter on the sample volume. Experimental evidence has been reported, showing that in these materials such volume dependence is, instead, an artifact of extrinsic noise sources, e.g., contact noise. Moreover, the proposed theoretical model implies a linear temperature dependence of the Hooge parameter, which is against the experimental data reported here. Based on these arguments, it is possible to conclude that the quantum theory of fundamental flicker noise cannot be applied to the case of La{sub 2?3}Sr{sub 1?3}MnO{sub 3} thin films.

  2. Comment on “Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations” [J. Appl. Phys. 115, 094501 (2014)

    SciTech Connect

    Abenante, L.

    2015-01-14

    In the above paper, an analytical approach including a new solution to the differential diffusion equation in illuminated quasi-neutral regions (QNR) is exploited to calculate the short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}), open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}), fill factor (FF), and efficiency (η) of light-trapping (LT) c-Si solar cells with a given structure. Comparisons with numerical results calculated by the Silvaco ATLAS device simulator in the same LT cells show that the analytical results are systematically overestimated. According to the authors, the inaccuracies in J{sub sc}, V{sub oc}, and η are due to the fact that assuming ideal collection from space-charge region (SCR) and using the superposition approximation introduce systematic errors into analytical models. In this comment, an analytical approach using reported solutions to the transport equations in QNR and SCR, where ideal collection from SCR is assumed and the superposition approximation is used, is shown to agree with both the Silvaco and PC1d numerical approaches in calculating J{sub sc}, V{sub oc}, and η, in the same LT devices as considered in the commented paper. Reasons for the inaccuracies detected in the commented paper are suggested.

  3. Biochemical and biophysical characterization of the major outer surface protein, OSP-A from North American and European isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, B.C.; Dunn, J.J.; France, L.L.; Jaing, W.; Polin, D.; Gorgone, G.; Luft, B.; Dykhuizen, D.

    1995-12-31

    Lyme borreliosis, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most common vector-borne disease in North America and Western Europe. As the major delayed immune response in humans, a better understanding of the major outer surface lipoproteins OspA and OspB are of much interest. These proteins have been shown to exhibit three distinct phylogenetic genotypes based on their DNA sequences. This paper describes the cloning of genomic DNA for each variant and amplification of PCR. DNA sequence data was used to derive computer driven phylogenetic analysis and deduced amino acid sequences. Overproduction of variant OspAs was carried out in E. coli using a T7-based expression system. Circular dichroism and fluorescence studies was carried out on the recombinant B31 PspA yielding evidence supporting a B31 protein containing 11% alpha-helix, 34% antiparallel beta-sheet, 12% parallel beta sheet.

  4. Crystal Structure and Biochemical Characterization of Chlamydomonas FDX2 Reveal Two Residues that, When Mutated, Partially Confer FDX2 the Redox Potential and Catalytic Properties of FDX1

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, Marko; Alahuhta, Markus; Mulder, David W.; Peden, Erin A.; Long, Hai; Brunecky, Roman; Lunin, Vladimir V.; King, Paul W.; Ghirardi, Maria L.; Dubini, Alexandra

    2015-11-03

    The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains six plastidic [2Fe2S]-cluster ferredoxins (FDXs), with FDX1 as the predominant isoform under photoautotrophic growth. FDX2 is highly similar to FDX1 and has been shown to interact with specific enzymes (such as nitrite reductase), as well as to share interactors with FDX1, such as the hydrogenases (HYDA), ferredoxin:NAD(P) reductase I (FNR1), and pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFR1), albeit performing at low catalytic rates. Here we report the FDX2 crystal structure solved at 1.18 Å resolution. Based on differences between the Chlorella fusca FDX1 and C. reinhardtii FDX2 structures, we generated and purified point-mutated versions of the FDX2 protein and assayed them in vitro for their ability to catalyze hydrogen and NADPH photo-production. The data show that structural differences at two amino acid positions contribute to functional differences between FDX1 and FDX2, suggesting that FDX2 might have evolved from FDX1 toward a different physiological role in the cell. Moreover, we demonstrate that the mutations affect both the midpoint potentials of the FDX and kinetics of the FNR reaction, possibly due to altered binding between FDX and FNR. An effect on H2 photo-production rates was also observed, although the kinetics of the reaction were not further characterized.

  5. Metabolic Engineering of Light and Dark Biochemical Pathways in Wild-Type and Mutant Strains of Synechocystis PCC 6803 for Maximal, 24-Hour Production of Hydrogen Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ely, Roger L.; Chaplen, Frank W.R.

    2014-03-11

    This project used the cyanobacterial species Synechocystis PCC 6803 to pursue two lines of inquiry, with each line addressing one of the two main factors affecting hydrogen (H2) production in Synechocystis PCC 6803: NADPH availability and O2 sensitivity. H2 production in Synechocystis PCC 6803 requires a very high NADPH:NADP+ ratio, that is, the NADP pool must be highly reduced, which can be problematic because several metabolic pathways potentially can act to raise or lower NADPH levels. Also, though the [NiFe]-hydrogenase in PCC 6803 is constitutively expressed, it is reversibly inactivated at very low O2 concentrations. Largely because of this O2 sensitivity and the requirement for high NADPH levels, a major portion of overall H2 production occurs under anoxic conditions in the dark, supported by breakdown of glycogen or other organic substrates accumulated during photosynthesis. Also, other factors, such as N or S limitation, pH changes, presence of other substances, or deletion of particular respiratory components, can affect light or dark H2 production. Therefore, in the first line of inquiry, under a number of culture conditions with wild type (WT) Synechocystis PCC 6803 cells and a mutant with impaired type I NADPH-dehydrogenase (NDH-1) function, we used H2 production profiling and metabolic flux analysis, with and without specific inhibitors, to examine systematically the pathways involved in light and dark H2 production. Results from this work provided rational bases for metabolic engineering to maximize photobiological H2 production on a 24-hour basis. In the second line of inquiry, we used site-directed mutagenesis to create mutants with hydrogenase enzymes exhibiting greater O2 tolerance. The research addressed the following four tasks: 1. Evaluate the effects of various culture conditions (N, S, or P limitation; light/dark; pH; exogenous organic carbon) on H2 production profiles of WT cells and an NDH-1 mutant; 2. Conduct metabolic flux analyses for enhanced H2 production profiles using selected culture conditions and inhibitors of specific pathways in WT cells and an NDH-1 mutant; 3. Create Synechocystis PCC 6803 mutant strains with modified hydrogenases exhibiting increased O2 tolerance and greater H2 production; and 4. Integrate enhanced hydrogenase mutants and culture and metabolic factor studies to maximize 24-hour H2 production.

  6. Microvesicles released constitutively from prostate cancer cells differ biochemically and functionally to stimulated microvesicles released through sublytic C5b-9

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, Dan; Moore, Colin; Antwi-Baffour, Samuel; Lange, Sigrun; Inal, Jameel

    2015-05-08

    We have classified microvesicles into two subtypes: larger MVs released upon stimulation of prostate cancer cells, sMVs, and smaller cMVs, released constitutively. cMVs are released as part of cell metabolism and sMVs, released at 10-fold higher levels, produced upon activation, including sublytic C5b-9. From electron microscopy, nanosight tracking analysis, dynamic light scattering and flow cytometry, cMVs (194–210 nm in diameter) are smaller than sMVs (333–385 nm). Furthermore, using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance measuring changes in resonant frequency (Δf) that equate to mass deposited on a sensor, an sMV and a cMV are estimated at 0.267 and 0.241 pg, respectively. sMVs carry more calcium and protein, express higher levels of lipid rafts, GPI-anchored CD55 and phosphatidylserine including deposited C5b-9 compared to cMVs. This may allude to biological differences such as increased bound C4BP on sMVs inhibiting complement more effectively. - Highlights: • Prostate cells release microvesicles constitutively (cMVs) or upon stimulus (sMVs). • sMVs are larger than cMVs and carry more protein, lipid rafts and surface PstSer. • sMVs inhibit complement more effectively than cMVs.

  7. Asymptomatic and late-onset ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency caused by a A208T mutation: Clinical, biochemical and DNA analyses in a four-generation family

    SciTech Connect

    Ausems, M.G.E.M.; Bakker, E.; Kneppers, A.L.J.

    1997-01-20

    We describe a 4-generation family in which a previously healthy 10-year-old boy died of late-onset ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency. Pedigree analysis and allopurinol loading tests in female relatives were not informative. A missense mutation (A208T) in the OTC gene was detected in the deceased patient and in several clinically healthy male and female relatives, the oldest male being 97 years old. OTC deficiency was established in autopsy liver tissue of the propositus and liver biopsy samples of his sister, mother, and a maternal uncle. The males had 4% and 6% residual activity, respectively, the females 58% and 67%, respectively. The observed relation between the mutation and the decreased OTC activity in liver tissue of these subjects suggests that the mutation is a deleterious one. Late-onset, {open_quotes}mild{close_quotes} OTC deficiency can have a fatal or a favorable outcome. The disease can segregate undetected in families. 16 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Biochemical bases for the biogeography of C3/C4 grasses and implications for changing distributions since the last glacial maximum

    SciTech Connect

    Collatz, G.J.; Berry, J.A.

    1995-06-01

    Differential distributions of C3 and C4 grass taxa correlate with geographic and climatic factors. A simple model based on the temperature dependence of the photosynthetic quantum yield of C3 plants and the lack of response of the C4 quantum yield to temperature is used to predict the global distribution of C4 grasses at current atmospheric CO2 concentrations and climate. The model predicts a cross over temperature at which the quantum yield responses intersect; at temperatures above the cross over point C4 grasses are favored over C3. The cross over temperature is about 22{degrees}C at current atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Using this criterion an accurate 1x1 degree map of C4 grass dominance over C3 grasses is produced from climatological mean monthly temperatures. Accuracy is improved by considering the co-occurrence of sufficient rainfall for growth during the months warm enough for C4 dominance. Rising temperatures and CO2 concentrations since the last glacial maximum (LGM) are expected to have an impact on past C4 grass distributions. We have used climate generated by the NCAR CCM to predict the extent of climatic regions favoring C4 over C3 since the LGM. Though low temperatures favor C3 photosynthesis, the low CO2 concentrations in the past more than off-set this effect. The extent of C4 favorable climates are predicted to have been greater during the LGM and have shrunk since then. The model does not take into account important biotic factors such as competition for light and herbivory or abiotic factors such as fire frequency that can affect the dominance of grasslands over other vegetation types.

  9. Crystal Structure and Biochemical Characterization of Chlamydomonas FDX2 Reveal Two Residues that, When Mutated, Partially Confer FDX2 the Redox Potential and Catalytic Properties of FDX1

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Boehm, Marko; Alahuhta, Markus; Mulder, David W.; Peden, Erin A.; Long, Hai; Brunecky, Roman; Lunin, Vladimir V.; King, Paul W.; Ghirardi, Maria L.; Dubini, Alexandra

    2015-11-03

    The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains six plastidic [2Fe2S]-cluster ferredoxins (FDXs), with FDX1 as the predominant isoform under photoautotrophic growth. FDX2 is highly similar to FDX1 and has been shown to interact with specific enzymes (such as nitrite reductase), as well as to share interactors with FDX1, such as the hydrogenases (HYDA), ferredoxin:NAD(P) reductase I (FNR1), and pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFR1), albeit performing at low catalytic rates. Here we report the FDX2 crystal structure solved at 1.18 Å resolution. Based on differences between the Chlorella fusca FDX1 and C. reinhardtii FDX2 structures, we generated and purified point-mutated versions of the FDX2more » protein and assayed them in vitro for their ability to catalyze hydrogen and NADPH photo-production. The data show that structural differences at two amino acid positions contribute to functional differences between FDX1 and FDX2, suggesting that FDX2 might have evolved from FDX1 toward a different physiological role in the cell. Moreover, we demonstrate that the mutations affect both the midpoint potentials of the FDX and kinetics of the FNR reaction, possibly due to altered binding between FDX and FNR. An effect on H2 photo-production rates was also observed, although the kinetics of the reaction were not further characterized.« less

  10. Structural and biochemical insights into 2′-O-methylation at the 3′-terminal nucleotide of RNA by Hen1

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Chio Mui; Zhou, Chun; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Huang, Raven H.

    2010-01-28

    Small RNAs of {approx}20-30 nt have diverse and important biological roles in eukaryotic organisms. After being generated by Dicer or Piwi proteins, all small RNAs in plants and a subset of small RNAs in animals are further modified at their 3'-terminal nucleotides via 2'-O-methylation, carried out by the S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase (MTase) Hen1. Methylation at the 3' terminus is vital for biological functions of these small RNAs. Here, we report four crystal structures of the MTase domain of a bacterial homolog of Hen1 from Clostridium thermocellum and Anabaena variabilis, which are enzymatically indistinguishable from the eukaryotic Hen1 in their ability to methylate small single-stranded RNAs. The structures reveal that, in addition to the core fold of the MTase domain shared by other RNA and DNA MTases, the MTase domain of Hen1 possesses a motif and a domain that are highly conserved and are unique to Hen1. The unique motif and domain are likely to be involved in RNA substrate recognition and catalysis. The structures allowed us to construct a docking model of an RNA substrate bound to the MTase domain of bacterial Hen1, which is likely similar to that of the eukaryotic counterpart. The model, supported by mutational studies, provides insight into RNA substrate specificity and catalytic mechanism of Hen1.

  11. Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Efficiency Specialists Energy Smart Home Performance Focus on Energy ... AppleBlossom Energy Inc. BKi Blue House Energy Blue Ridge EMC Build It ...

  12. BPA-2011-00753-FOIA Response

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ACT 1 Group Apple One 49269 8162010 8152011 AdminProfessional Automation & Control Strategies 44368 9212009 9202011 31 1 Engineering Adecco Engineering & Technical 44448...

  13. Missouri River Energy Services (23 Member Cooperatives)- Business Energy Efficiency Rebate

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rebates are offered for a variety of efficient technologies and measures including: compressed air system efficiency, HVAC, lighting, VFDs, cooking equipment, and custom projects.  Completed appl...

  14. untitled

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Equilibrium magnetic states in individual hemispherical permalloy caps. Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 132419 (2012). 34. Albrecht, M. et al. Magnetic multilayers on nanospheres. Nat. ...

  15. Desert Solar | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    search Name: Desert Solar Place: Apple Valley, California Zip: 92308 Sector: Renewable Energy, Solar Product: Selling and installing commercial renewable energy projects, mainly...

  16. DOE Notice of Proposed Rulemaking to Amend the External Power Supply Test Procedure; Docket No. EERE–2014–BT–TP–0043 / RIN 1904–AD36

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    On 12/19/2014, Apple Inc. met with DOE to discuss the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking to Amend the External Power Supply Test Procedure.

  17. Newsletter

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    the Apple App Store Los Alamos: The Secret City of the Manhattan Project; the ... District National Historical Park; Our top 10 science stories for 2016; a microscope ...

  18. Wayne County, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in Wayne County, Ohio Apple Creek, Ohio Burbank, Ohio Congress, Ohio Creston, Ohio Dalton, Ohio Doylestown, Ohio Fredericksburg, Ohio Marshallville, Ohio Mount Eaton, Ohio...

  19. San Bernardino County, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    2 Solar Power Plant Places in San Bernardino County, California Adelanto, California Apple Valley, California Barstow, California Big Bear City, California Big Bear Lake,...

  20. Sacramento Soleil Solar Project | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    EnXco Energy Purchaser Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) Address 13345 Apple Road Location Wilton, CA Coordinates 38.449383, -121.164657 Show Map Loading...

  1. Granite Wind LLC | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Wind, LLC Place: Redlands, California Zip: 92373 Sector: Wind energy Product: An Apple Valley, California based wind developer. Coordinates: 34.055282, -117.18258 Show...

  2. Wilcox County, Alabama: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Zone Subtype A. Places in Wilcox County, Alabama Camden, Alabama Oak Hill, Alabama Pine Apple, Alabama Pine Hill, Alabama Yellow Bluff, Alabama Retrieved from "http:...

  3. E X A M P L E E X A M P L E

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    to 09302010 MY COMPANY, LLC 2 Reporting Period: 7 Contract Completion Date: 4567 Apple Lane, Anywhere, USA Element Identification NATIONAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY COST...

  4. Dakota County, Minnesota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Landfill Biomass Facility Pine Bend Biomass Facility Places in Dakota County, Minnesota Apple Valley, Minnesota Burnsville, Minnesota Coates, Minnesota Eagan, Minnesota Farmington,...

  5. U-154: IBM Rational ClearQuest ActiveX Control Buffer Overflow...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    V-020: Apple QuickTime Multiple Flaws Let Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code U-126: Cisco Adaptive Security Appliances Port Forwarder ActiveX Control Buffer Overflow ...

  6. SciTech Connect:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. SLAC" Name Name ORCID Search Authors Type: All BookMonograph ConferenceEvent Journal Article Miscellaneous Patent Program Document Software...

  7. Jo Daviess County, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Informatio...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Zone Subtype A. Registered Energy Companies in Jo Daviess County, Illinois First Capitol Risk Management LLC Places in Jo Daviess County, Illinois Apple River, Illinois East...

  8. JC3 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Execute Arbitrary Code Apple QuickTime Multiple Vulnerabilities May 24, 2013 V-163: Red Hat Network Satellite Server Inter-Satellite Sync Remote Authentication Bypass The...

  9. JC3 Bulletin Archive | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Execute Arbitrary Code Apple QuickTime Multiple Vulnerabilities May 24, 2013 V-163: Red Hat Network Satellite Server Inter-Satellite Sync Remote Authentication Bypass The...

  10. NREL: Energy Sciences - Solid-State Theory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Printable Version Solid-State Theory Image showing a roughly spherical red shape that looks like an apple that is floating within a yellow hemispherical shell....

  11. Fermilab Today

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    - physicists have unearthed the taproots linking ever more disparate phenomena. With the law of universal gravitation, Isaac Newton wedded the fall of an apple to the orbits of...

  12. Inexpensive computer data-acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Galvin, J.E.; Brown, I.G.

    1985-10-01

    A system based on an Apple II+ personal computer is used for on-line monitoring of ion-beam characteristics in accelerator ion source development.

  13. Fermilab Today

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Technical Division picnic From Quantum Diaries: The Tesla experiment Photo of the Day: Apple picking From Quanta Magazine, Aug. 20, 2015: The case for complex dark matter Last...

  14. THANKSGIVING ACROSS, AMERICA

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    reserved) Salt and freshly ground pepper Stuffing (if desired; if not, use onion, apple and herbs for the cavity) Z tablespoons dark unsulfured molasses 2 tablespoons soy...

  15. Why the Macintosh. A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Bowler, J.

    1987-11-01

    The author presents arguments for why geologist considering their first personal computer should purchase Apple Macintosh computers. He also recommends Pascal as a beginning programming language.

  16. Distribution and Validation of Cloud Cover Derived from AVHRR...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... maps developed for the Cloud's and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Project. ... for the Cloud's and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Experiment. J. Appl. ...

  17. 2014 Publications | Argonne National Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Screening of Charge Transfer States in Organic Photovoltaic Cells," Nature ... of the Misfit-layered Oxide Thermoelectric Ca3Co4O9 from First Principles," Appl. ...

  18. liesvend-98.pdf

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    spring. J. Appl. Meteor., 34, 2076-2082. Twomey, S., 1977: Atmospheric Aerosols. Elsevier Scientific Publishing. Tsay, Si-Chee, and K. Jayaweera, 1984: Physical charac-...

  19. Washington County, Utah: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Number 3 Climate Zone Subtype B. Registered Energy Companies in Washington County, Utah Verdi Energy Group Places in Washington County, Utah Apple Valley, Utah Enterprise, Utah...

  20. MEMORANDUM To: United States Department of Energy From: Erica...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Cohen, DOE Celia Sher, DOE Erica Logan, ITI Chris Hankin, ITI Robert White, Dell Gary Verdun, Dell Mark Hollenbeck, HP Adrian Liga, Apple Jay Taylor, Schneider Electric Donna ...

  1. Expression, purification, crystallization, data collection and preliminary biochemical characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sar2028, an aspartate/tyrosine/phenylalanine pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Seetharamappa, Jaldappagari; Oke, Muse; Liu, Huanting; McMahon, Stephen A.; Johnson, Kenneth A.; Carter, Lester; Dorward, Mark; Zawadzki, Michal; Overton, Ian M.; Niekirk, C. A. Johannes van; Graham, Shirley; Botting, Catherine H.; Taylor, Garry L.; White, Malcolm F.; Barton, Geoffrey J.; Coote, Peter J.; Naismith, James H.

    2007-05-01

    As part of work on S. aureus, the crystallization of Sar2028, a protein that is upregulated in MRSA, is reported. Sar2028, an aspartate/tyrosine/phenylalanine pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase with a molecular weight of 48 168 Da, was overexpressed in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus compared with a methicillin-sensitive strain. The protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. The protein crystallized in a primitive orthorhombic Laue group with unit-cell parameters a = 83.6, b = 91.3, c = 106.0 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. Analysis of the systematic absences along the three principal axes indicated the space group to be P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. A complete data set was collected to 2.5 Å resolution.

  2. Structure-Guided Design and Optimization of Dipeptidyl Inhibitors of Norovirus 3CL Protease. Structure–Activity Relationships and Biochemical, X-ray Crystallographic, Cell-Based, and In Vivo Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Galasiti Kankanamalage, Anushka C.; Kim, Yunjeong; Weerawarna, Pathum M.; Uy, Roxanne Adeline Z.; Damalanka, Vishnu C.; Mandadapu, Sivakoteswara Rao; Alliston, Kevin R.; Mehzabeen, Nurjahan; Battaile, Kevin P.; Lovell, Scott; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Groutas, William C.

    2015-04-09

    Norovirus infection constitutes the primary cause of acute viral gastroenteritis. There are currently no vaccines or norovirus-specific antiviral therapeutics available for the management of norovirus infection. Norovirus 3C-like protease is essential for viral replication, consequently, inhibition of this enzyme is a fruitful avenue of investigation that may lead to the emergence of antinorovirus therapeutics. We describe herein the optimization of dipeptidyl inhibitors of norovirus 3C-like protease using iterative SAR, X-ray crystallographic, and enzyme and cell-based studies. We also demonstrate herein in vivo efficacy of an inhibitor using the murine model of norovirus infection.

  3. Lieve Laurens, Ph.D. | Bioenergy | NREL

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Interests Dynamic biochemical composition of bioenergy-relevant biomass Coproduct ... Dynamic Biochemical Composition of Bioenergy-Relevant Biomass In order to understand the ...

  4. New app takes Lab's volunteer efforts mobile

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    The Safety Cinema's iOS version is available through Apple's iTunes App Store, the Android version through the Google Play Store. The Woman Computers of Project Y app gives...

  5. Posters

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    underwater light fields. Appl. Opt. 32:7484-7504. Morel, A., and B. Gentili. 1991. Diffuse reflectance of oceanic water: Its dependence on sun angle as influenced by the...

  6. Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Function - Our Research

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Daniel J; and Kim, Seong H (2015) Does cellulose II exist in native alga cell walls? ... Appl. Plant Sci. 3(7): 1500023. DOI: 10.3732apps.1500023 McNamara, Joshua T; Morgan, ...

  7. Erratum: "'Water-cycle' mechanism for writing and erasingnanostructur...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Erratum: "'Water-cycle' mechanism for writing and erasing nanostructures at the LaAlO3SrTiO3 interface" Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 173110 (2010) Citation Details In-Document Search ...

  8. Microsoft Word - FST15-119_OpticsRecycleLoop_Final_Paper.docx

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    NGUYEN, D. COOKE, S. ELHADJ, AND S. YANG, "Laser smoothing of sub-micron grooves in hydroxyl-rich fused silica," Appl. Surf. Sci. 256, 4031-4037 (2010). 86. S. ELHADJ, M....

  9. Microsoft Word - SRI2008_VLSPGM_final.doc

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... A 266, 544-549 (1988). 6 M. Krumrey, E. Tegeler, J. Barth, M. Krisch, F. Schaefers, and R. Wolf, Appl. Opt. 27, 4336 (1988). 8 Figure 1 Optimization of the spherical mirror ...

  10. NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Hao-Chih Yuan

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Yuan, "Multi-scale surface texture to improve blue response of nanoporous black silicon solar cells," to appear in Appl. Phys. Lett. J. Oh, T.G. Deutsch, H.-C. Yuan, and H.M....

  11. Microsoft PowerPoint - Benson EM Webinar Engr Barrier Perf

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... Hydraulic Conductivity - 10 -5 cms independent of initial K 9 10 -8 Albany Altamont Apple Valley Monticello Omaha Underwood In-Ser ydraulic C ? initial K s 10 -10 10 -9 10 9 8 7 6 ...

  12. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Fermi Surface And Quasiparticle Excitations of Sr2RhO4 Baumberger, F. ; Ingle, N.J.C. ; Meevasana, W. ; Shen, K.M. ; Lu, D.H. ; Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. SLAC, SSRL ; Perry, ...

  13. 2015 Peer-Reviewed Publications | Argonne National Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    A. Kinaci, M. K. Y. Chan, and J. P. Greeley, "First-Principles Analysis of Defect Thermodynamics and Ion Transport in Inorganic SEI Compounds: LiF and NaF," Appl. Mater....

  14. US5324914.pdf

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    For High Conductiv roup A, P S' 3' ity, Copper-Beryllium Alloy Cl7510", IEEE Publica Appl. ... Such alloys include but are not limited to nickel, alumi num, and copper dominated metals, ...

  15. Microsoft Word - mountain building lesson-new.doc

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Cut the apple in half across the core. Explain that the skin represents the crust, the heart represents the mantle, the seed coat represents the outer core and the seed represents ...

  16. Erratum: "Impact of symmetry on the ferroelectric properties...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Impact of symmetry on the ferroelectric properties of CaTiO3 thin films" Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 162904 (2015) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Erratum: "Impact of ...

  17. Beamline 6-ID-B,C Publications

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    of electron doped manganites," S. Middey, M. Kareev, D. Meyers, X. Liu, Y. Cao, S. Tripathi, D. Yazici, M.B. Maple, P.J. Ryan, J.W. Freeland, J. Chakhalian, Appl. Phys. Lett....

  18. Dielectric Resonator Metamasurfaces: Optical Magnetism Emission...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Laboratories Phase-locked Time Domain Spectroscopy 35s, 1350 nm 90s, 1550 nm Gate: 15s, 1050 nm Fiber Laser Svster AOM Lock-in Amplifier Sampling Oscilloscope WP Appl. Phys. ...

  19. Microsoft Word - Maeder et al.doc

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... molecular nitrogen (Bomar and Knoll 1985; Lobo and Zinder 1988). 73 They also adapt to ... Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 7: 293-299. 494 Lobo, A.L. and S.H. Zinder. 1988. Diazotrophy and ...

  20. CX-008195: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Minnesota City-Apple Valley CX(s) Applied: B1.32, B2.5, B5.1 Date: 04/10/2012 Location(s): Minnesota Offices(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

  1. Manhattan Project National Historical Park

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    The app is currently downloadable on Apple products, but an android version will be out shortly. To start your confidential journey, click here. Read more about the app in the ...

  2. Energy Saver Guide | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The guide is available as a PDF, EPUB, or MOBI file. To read the e-book on an Apple or Android device, download the EPUB file. For Amazon Kindle, download the MOBI file and add it...

  3. Identifying new sources of turbulence in spherical tokamaks ...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    the mushroom-like design of conventional tokamaks that are more widely used. The cored-apple shape provides some distinct characteristics for the behavior of the plasma inside....

  4. Syndicated Content and Social Bookmarking | Advanced Photon Source

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    an iCalendar file using calendar software (such as Google Calendar, Microsoft Outlook, Apple iCal, or Mozilla Thunderbird with the Lightning add-on), and events will automatically...

  5. DOE - NNSA/NSO -- SiteLines Web Edition

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bilby Crater, Area 5 Low-level Radioactive Waste Management Site, Apple II houses. ... Scientists shock or impact a tiny piece of plutonium-housed in this container-with a very ...

  6. Jet spoiler arrangement for wind turbine (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report Number(s): US 4504192 Resource Type: Patent Resource Relation: Patent File Date: Filed date 15 Sep 1983; Other Information: PAT-APPL-532430 Country of Publication: United ...

  7. Approaches to Safe Nanotechnology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... Conhaim RL, Eaton A, Staub NC, Heath TD 1988. Equivalent pore estimate for the alveolar-airway barrier in isolated dog lung. J Appl Physiol 64(3):1134-1142. Driscoll KE, Costa ...

  8. O S T I

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    by the University of California for the United States Department of Energy under contract W-7405-ENG-36 Life-Cycl e Assessment ( L C A ) Method01 ogy Appl ied t o Energetic ...

  9. Yuankun Cai

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Lett., 89 (2006) 263512. 6 R. Meerheim, R. Nitsche, K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett., 93 (2008) 043310. 7 A. Dodabalapur, L.J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, J. ...

  10. Formation mechanical properties and the sonic log

    SciTech Connect

    Elphick, R.Y.

    1988-11-01

    A program is presented that calculates the mechanical properties of reservoir rocks from sonic logs. The program was written in Microsoft BASIC and the source code for MS-DOS, Apple Macintosh, and Amiga personal computers is given.

  11. V-203: HP LoadRunner Multiple Bugs Let Remote Users Deny Service...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    V-171: Apple Safari Bugs Let Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code and Conduct Cross-Site Scripting Attacks V-110: Adobe Flash Player Bugs Let Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code...

  12. Recent Refereed Journal Articles

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    M.R. Warren, "Photocrystallography - design and methodology for the use of a light-emitting diode device," J. Appl. Crystallogr. 43, 337-340 (2010). 11.3.1 Buechele, A.C., C....

  13. ye-99.PDF

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... of convective systems over the tropical Pacific Ocean. J. Appl. Meteor., 35, 1921-1947. Petersen, W. A., S. A. Rutledge, and R. E. Orville, 1996: Cloud-to-ground lightning ...

  14. Special Workshop: Building Location Aware Apps on the iPhone

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    build and run an app: 1. A modern Apple computer with wifi running the xCode program (free download), 2. An iPhone with a charging cable. However, these items are not required....

  15. Los Alamos National Laboratory launches 70th anniversary app...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory launches 70th anniversary app for iPhone, iPads The free application is available from the Apple Store (search for Los Alamos National Lab)....

  16. Explosive Creativity: Stoking the Birth of Ideas | Argonne Leadership...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    it was Apple, but it was in fact Kramer who first conceived the idea of downloading music, data and video through telephone lines in 1979, when he was 23. His co-inventor was...

  17. RSS and Podcast News Feeds | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Apple's iTunes exit federal site software (PC and Mac), jPodder exit federal site (PC), and Juice exit federal site (PC, Mac, and Linux) are available as a free download, and to ...

  18. Identification of phases, symmetries and defects through local...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... important reactions, such as propane (amm)oxidation29. In this system, the ... mixtures of the Mo-V-Nb-Te-oxide system in propane and propene ammoxidation. Appl. ...

  19. A numerical study of crack initiation in a bcc iron system based...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    direct numerical results to the dynamic bifurcation theory R. Haberman, SIAM J. Appl. Math. 37, 69-106 (1979). Authors: Li, Xiantao, E-mail: xli@math.psu.edu 1 + Show Author...

  20. X:\\ARM_19~1\\P113-137.WPD

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    A critical review, Appl. Opt., 29, 451-462. Grund, C. J. 1995. The NOAA 2 m coherent Doppler lidar: Optical remote sensing of the atmosphere, Opt. Soc. Am., Technical Digest...

  1. ARM - Blog Article

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Monty Apple (team lead), Mike Alsop (AMF1 chief technician), Tom Muirhead, and Clif Meyer. We also have a couple of new faces in Paul Ortega (technical operations manager for...

  2. Ultrafast Terahertz-Induced Response of GeSbTe Phase-Change Materials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Ultrafast Terahertz-Induced Response of GeSbTe Phase-Change Materials ... Resource Relation: Journal Name: Appl. Phys. Lett.; Journal Volume: 104; Journal Issue: 25 Research ...

  3. Biologically produced acid precipitable polymeric lignin

    DOEpatents

    Crawford, Don L.; Pometto, III, Anthony L.

    1984-01-01

    A water soluble, acid precipitable polymeric degraded lignin (APPL), having a molecular weight of at least 12,000 daltons, and comprising, by percentage of total weight, at least three times the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups and carboxylic acid groups present in native lignin. The APPL may be modified by chemical oxidation and reduction to increase its phenolic hydroxyl content and reduce the number of its antioxidant inhibitory side chains, thereby improving antioxidant properties.

  4. National Bioenergy Center Sugar Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update #15, April - June 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.

    2007-07-01

    July quarterly update for the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Processing Platform Integration Project.

  5. Seonah Kim, Ph.D. | Bioenergy | NREL

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Fatty Acid Decarboxylase Engineering for Continuous Hydrocarbon Fuel Production (PI) Computational Pyrolysis Consortium - Zeolite Chemistry (subtask leader) Biochemical Process ...

  6. 2013 DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    - Decrease delivered feedstock cost - Achieve biomass feedstock performance requirements Goal Statement Biopower Biochem Gasification Pyrolysis 3 | Bioenergy Technologies Office ...

  7. Precursor-Directed Combinatorial Biosynthesis of Cinnamoyl,Dihydrocin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Biological synthesis of pharmaceuticals and biochemicals offers an environmentally friendly alternative to conventional chemical synthesis. ...

  8. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature ... barriers and key research needs have been ... 2013 Peer Review Presentations-Biochemical Conversion

  9. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... to leverage experience in biochemical processing, specifically cellulose and ... in downstream biological conversion and improving overall process integration. ...

  10. NREL: Biomass Research - Thermochemical Conversion Capabilities

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    and commercialization of biomass gasification is the integration of the gasifier with downstream syngas processing. ... Biomass Characterization Biochemical Conversion Thermochemical ...

  11. SweetWater Energy | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    company creating concentrated feedstocks for biofuels and biochemical refineries using a liquid feedstock from the cellulosic portion of sorghum. References:...

  12. EERE Success Story-California: Cutting-Edge Biofuels Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... viable processes for advanced biofuels and biochemical production from grasses, algae, wood, gases, and agriculturalindustrialmunicipal waste leading to efficient biorefineries. ...

  13. Research Advances Cellulosic Ethanol, NREL Leads the Way (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-03-01

    This brochure highlights NREL's recent advances in cellulosic ethanol production. Research at NREL addresses both biochemical and thermochemical processes.

  14. Sandia National Laboratories:

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    March 03, 2016 Articles WeaselBoard is a PLC backplane analysis system. WeaselBoard Detection of gravitational waves called one of the century's great science breakthroughs A new era of astronomy begins Always there The apple doesn't fall far: Sandia innovator named Most Promising Asian American Engineer The apple doesn't fall far Service-driven women 'You know you're an engineer when' winners named Channeling the inner geek New ways of looking at glass-to-metal seals Sealing the deal Algae

  15. SNLSimMagic v 2.0

    SciTech Connect

    2015-10-21

    This software is an iOS (Apple) Augmented Reality (AR) application that runs on the iPhone and iPad. It is designed to scan in a photograph or graphic and “play” an associated video. This release, SNLSimMagic, was built using Wikitude Augmented Reality (AR) software development kit (SDK) integrated into Apple iOS SDK application and the Cordova libraries. These codes enable the generation of runtime targets using cloud recognition and developer-defined target features which are then accessed by means of a custom application.

  16. SNLSimMagic v 2.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    2015-10-21

    This software is an iOS (Apple) Augmented Reality (AR) application that runs on the iPhone and iPad. It is designed to scan in a photograph or graphic and “play” an associated video. This release, SNLSimMagic, was built using Wikitude Augmented Reality (AR) software development kit (SDK) integrated into Apple iOS SDK application and the Cordova libraries. These codes enable the generation of runtime targets using cloud recognition and developer-defined target features which are then accessedmore » by means of a custom application.« less

  17. News > EMC2 News > The Energy Materials Center at Cornell

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    In This Section EMC2 News Upcoming Events Calendar of Research Meetings Archived News RSS & Calender Feeds News As Tesla Grows Up, It Give Up on Free Charging Thumb As Tesla Grows Up, It Give Up on Free Charging November 7, 2016 › Supercharging soon to come at a price. The case for the iCar: Why an Apple car isn't crazy Thumb The case for the iCar: Why an Apple car isn't crazy October 7, 2016 › A deep dive into why it's a great time to become a car company. Samsung battery bust shows

  18. Undulators for the BESSY SASE-FEL Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bahrdt, J.; Frentrup, W.; Gaupp, A.; Kuske, B.; Meseck, A.; Scheer, M.

    2004-05-12

    BESSY plans to build a SASE-FEL facility for the energy range from 20 eV to 1000 eV. The energy range will be covered by three APPLE II type undulators with a magnetic length of about 60 m each. This paper summarizes the basic parameters of the FEL-undulators. The magnetic design will be presented. A modified APPLE II design will be discussed which provides higher fields at the expense of reduced horizontal access. GENESIS simulations give an estimate on the tolerances for the beam wander and for gap errors.

  19. Energy Saver Guide | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Guide Energy Saver Guide This guide shows you how easy it is to cut your energy use at home and also on the road. The guide is available as a PDF, EPUB, or MOBI file. To read the e-book on an Apple or Android device, download the EPUB file. For Amazon Kindle, download the MOBI file and add it to your device. Energy Saver Guide: Tips on Saving Money and Energy at Home (PDF) (2.18 MB) Download this file for use on an Amazon device or application. (9.14 MB) Download this file for use on an Apple,

  20. Microtubule-based nanomaterials: Exploiting nature's dynamic biopolymers.

    SciTech Connect

    Bachand, George D.; Stevens, Mark J.; Spoerke, Erik David

    2015-04-09

    For more than a decade now, biomolecular systems have served as an inspiration for the development of synthetic nanomaterials and systems that are capable of reproducing many of unique and emergent behaviors of living systems. In addition, one intriguing element of such systems may be found in a specialized class of proteins known as biomolecular motors that are capable of performing useful work across multiple length scales through the efficient conversion of chemical energy. Microtubule (MT) filaments may be considered within this context as their dynamic assembly and disassembly dissipate energy, and perform work within the cell. MTs are one of three cytoskeletal filaments in eukaryotic cells, and play critical roles in a range of cellular processes including mitosis and vesicular trafficking. Based on their function, physical attributes, and unique dynamics, MTs also serve as a powerful archetype of a supramolecular filament that underlies and drives multiscale emergent behaviors. In this review, we briefly summarize recent efforts to generate hybrid and composite nanomaterials using MTs as biomolecular scaffolds, as well as computational and synthetic approaches to develop synthetic one-dimensional nanostructures that display the enviable attributes of the natural filaments. Biotechnol. Bioeng.

  1. Direct Conversion of Plant Biomass to Ethanol by Engineered Caldicellulosiruptor bescii

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Daehwan; Cha, Minseok; Guss, Adam M; Westpheling, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol is the most widely used renewable transportation biofuel in the United States, with the production of 13.3 billion gallons in 2012 [John UM (2013) Contribution of the Ethanol Industry to the Economy of the United States]. Despite considerable effort to produce fuels from lignocellulosic biomass, chemical pretreatment and the addition of saccharolytic enzymes before microbial bioconversion remain economic barriers to industrial deployment [Lynd LR, et al. (2008) Nat Biotechnol 26(2):169-172]. We began with the thermophilic, anaerobic, cellulolytic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor bescii, which efficiently uses unpretreated biomass, and engineered it to produce ethanol. Here we report the direct conversion of switchgrass, a nonfood, renewable feedstock, to ethanol without conventional pretreatment of the biomass. This process was accomplished by deletion of lactate dehydrogenase and heterologous expression of a Clostridium thermocellum bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase. Whereas wild-type C. bescii lacks the ability to make ethanol, 70% of the fermentation products in the engineered strain were ethanol [12.8 mM ethanol directly from 2% (wt/vol) switchgrass, a real-world substrate] with decreased production of acetate by 38% compared with wild-type. Direct conversion of biomass to ethanol represents a new paradigm for consolidated bioprocessing, offering the potential for carbon neutral, cost-effective, sustainable fuel production.

  2. An Improved Understanding of the Natural Resonances of Moonpools...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    doi:10.1017S0022112082000263 Evans, D.V., 1978. The Oscillating Water Column Wave-energy Device. IMA J. Appl. Math. 22, 423-433. doi:10.1093imamat22.4.423 Falco, A.F.O.,...

  3. Sarah Wagoner | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Sarah Wagoner About Us Sarah Wagoner - Communications Specialist, Wind and Water Power Technologies Office Sarah Wagoner Most Recent Year in Review: Celebrating Wind Energy and Water Power December 22 Innovative Hydropower Technology Now Powering an Apple Data Center November 24 Joining Forces to Empower Veterans November 10

  4. NIF Target Shot Metrics

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    target shot metrics NIF Target Shot Metrics Exp Cap - Experimental Capability Natl Sec Appl - National Security Applications DS - Discovery Science ICF - Inertial Confinement Fusion HED - High Energy Density For internal LLNL firewall viewing - if the page is blank, please open www.google.com to flush out BCB

  5. A microcomputer-controlled linear heater

    SciTech Connect

    Schuck, V.; Rahimi, S. )

    1991-10-01

    In this note the circuits and principles of operation of a relatively simple and inexpensive linear temperature ramp generator are described. The upper-temperature limit and the heating rate are controlled by an Apple II microcomputer. The temperature versus time is displayed on the screen and may be plotted by an {ital x}-{ital y} plotter.

  6. Petrophysical corner - calculating water cut

    SciTech Connect

    Elphick, R.Y. )

    1990-02-01

    The problem of determining the amount of water cut that can be expected from a well is discussed in conjunction with a program for making this calculation. The program was written for Amiga, Apple Macintosh, and MS DOS personal computers and source code for the program is provided.

  7. Exotherm data acquisition in polyurethane foam formation using a microcomputer

    SciTech Connect

    Hebrard, M.J.; Leroux, J.

    1986-01-01

    An Apple microcomputer was used to collect exotherm data of the reactions leading to the formation of polyurethane foams, to differentiate the curves with respect to time and to measure the position and magnitude of the inflection points. Hardware, software, operations and reproducibility of this automated data acquisition system are described.

  8. Micropropagation. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning micropropagation of various plants. Topics examine micropropagation culture media, automation systems, use of growth stimulants and cytokinins, industrial micropropagation, and production of disease-free plants. Micropropagation of ornamental trees, potato, blueberry, apple, algae, citrus, grape, and gymnosperms are described. (Contains a minimum of 61 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. 2013 DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    2013 DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Project Peer Review Biochemical Processing Integration May 20, 2013 Biochemical Conversion Area Daniel Schell NREL This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential or otherwise restricted information 2 High-Level Project Goal Supports the mission of BETO and the Biochemical Conversion Technology Area to independently demonstrate integrated process performance and transfer this knowledge to industry, further facilitating BETO's mission

  10. Biofuel Conversion Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Biofuel Conversion Basics Biofuel Conversion Basics August 14, 2013 - 12:31pm Addthis The conversion of biomass solids into liquid or gaseous biofuels is a complex process. Today, the most common conversion processes are biochemical- and thermochemical-based. However, researchers are also exploring photobiological conversion processes. Biochemical Conversion Processes In biochemical conversion processes, enzymes and microorganisms are used as biocatalysts to convert biomass or biomass-derived

  11. LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, December 15, 2011-The American Association...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    and understanding the biochemical and biophysical processes of algae and other energy plants. John Gordon, Chemistry Division, for distinguished contributions to chemistries...

  12. Seven Los Alamos scientists earn AAAS honors

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    and understanding the biochemical and biophysical processes of algae and other energy plants. John Gordon, Chemistry Division, for distinguished contributions to chemistries...

  13. Department of Energy Delivers on R&D Targets around Cellulosic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Users Facility, where scientists led pilot-scale projects for two cellulosic ... Biochemical Waterfall Chart of Minimum Ethanol Selling Price (in 2007 dollars per gallon). ...

  14. Abengoa Bioenergy Biomass of Kansas, LLC

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Abengoa is completing a 70 tonday integrated demonstration scale process for the biochemical process in Spain. Currently in Award 1 until NEPA EIS is completed Construction Start: ...

  15. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research Centers Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), Canoga Park, CA (United ... RMI1-RMI2. Our structuralmore and biochemical analyses revealed an unexpected ...

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    Research Centers Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), Canoga Park, CA (United ... Recent genetic and biochemical studies showed that during phosphinothricin tripeptide ...

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    Research Centers Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), Canoga Park, CA (United ... Here, we present the characterization of this acetylation mechanism through biochemical ...

  18. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

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    Research Centers Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), Canoga Park, CA (United ... Structural, Biochemical, and Clinical Characterization of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor ...

  19. The Status of Clean Energy in the United States

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... Excess Oxygen Biochemical Pretreatment Fermentation Transesterification Ethanol Biodiesel Digestion CH 4 CO 2 23 Biomass Costs - Electric * Installed costs 1,900 - 5,500...

  20. Simplicity of first passage time distributions for common complex...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ... Subject: 59; BIOCHEMICAL REACTION KINETICS; BIOCHEMISTRY; TIME DEPENDENCE Word Cloud More ...

  1. Broin Companies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    A proposal from the Broin Companies that demonstrates the benefits of integrating an innovative corn waste to ethanol biochemical process into an existing dry corn mill ...

  2. Ryan Davis | Bioenergy | NREL

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol, NREL Technical Report (2011) "Pilot-Scale Gasification of Corn Stover, Switchgrass, ...

  3. Demonstration & Market Transformation

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    ... Iowa Algae Biochemical Active Frontline Bioenergy, LLC Ames, Iowa Woody Biomass, MSW, and Refuse- Derived Fuel Thermochemical- Gasification Active Mercurius Biorefining, Inc. ...

  4. Katy Christiansen | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Katy Christiansen. Specialization: Biology Focus at BETO: Biochemical conversion, renewable carbon fiber Prior Experience: Postdoctoral Fellowship at Joint BioEnergy Institute in ...

  5. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... (1) antibodies (1) beta decay radioisotopes (1) biochemical reaction kinetics (1) biology (1) biosynthesis (1) blood coagulation factors (1) cell cultures (1) chemistry (1) ...

  6. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

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    Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), Canoga ... Single-Spin Asymmetry in Deep-Inelastic Scattering from ... tool for simulating water temperature for biochemical ...

  7. Impacts of OTEC intakes on Aquatic Organisms | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters OTEC resource assessment OTEC Cold Water Pipe-Platfor...

  8. OPX Biotechnologies | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    OPX's technology is based on a synthetic biological approach to engineer microbes for biofuel and biochemical production. Coordinates: 42.74962, -109.714163 Show Map...

  9. Simplicity of first passage time distributions for common complex...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 59; BIOCHEMICAL REACTION KINETICS; BIOCHEMISTRY; TIME DEPENDENCE Word Cloud More Like This Full Text preview image ...

  10. Microfiber Fabrication Process | The Ames Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    are widely used due to their biocompatibility, tunable biochemical properties, and tissue-like water content. In contrast to hydrogels, microfibers have high mechanical...

  11. Microfluidically Produced Polymeric Microfibers | The Ames Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    are widely used due to their biocompatibility, tunable biochemical properties, and tissue-like water content. In contrast to hydrogels, microfibers have high mechanical...

  12. CCI Technical Projects | The Ames Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    are widely used due to their biocompatibility, tunable biochemical properties, and tissue-like water content. In contrast to hydrogels, microfibers have high mechanical...

  13. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within ... Technical barriers and key research needs that should be ... Review Presentations-Biochemical Conversion Process ...

  14. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Laboratory - Energy Data eXchange National Energy Technology Laboratory - In-house Research National Energy ... Thermochemical and biochemical methods have attracted the ...

  15. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

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    ... Laboratory - Energy Data eXchange National Energy Technology Laboratory - In-house Research National Energy ... PanK2 possessed similar biochemical properties, ...

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    ... Laboratory - Energy Data eXchange National Energy Technology Laboratory - In-house Research National Energy ... RapA by RNA Polymerase: BIOCHEMICAL AND STRUCTURAL STUDIES ...

  17. Unification of [FeFe]-Hydrogenases into Three Structural and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Recent biochemical data demonstrate new functional roles for these enzymes, including those ... Research Org: NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United ...

  18. Abengoa Bioenergy Biomass of Kansas, LLC

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project from a committed long-term player has the potential to demonstrate dual biochemical and thermochemical capabilities to convert lignocellulosic feedstocks to biofuels.

  19. Breaking the Biological Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol, June...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Ethanol, June 2006 Review of Recent Pilot Scale Cellulosic Ethanol Demonstration Biochemical Conversion: Using Hydrolysis, Fermentation, and Catalysis to Make Fuels and Chemicals

  20. June 2014 Most Viewed Documents for Biology And Medicine | OSTI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transport and Removal And Dose estimation Humphreys, S.L.; Miller, L.A.; Monroe, ... (2005) 11 NREL 2012 Achievement of Ethanol Cost Targets: Biochemical Ethanol Fermentation ...

  1. Ignoring mesophyll diffusion causes carbon cycle models to underestima...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... achieved via a parameter conversion function that was ... Biomass carbon residence time will need to be considered as ... about key biochemical processes of photosynthesis (13-14). ...

  2. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The area is identical to the 2011 biochemical ethanol design ... catalyst lifetimes and minimizing processing costs. ... will improve process integration and carbon efficiency ...

  3. NREL: Biomass Research - Daniel J. Schell

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    of the Bioprocess Integration R&D section of the ... Research Interests Integrated biomass processing High solids ... CO, 2005-2013 Senior Biochemical Engineer, NREL, Golden, ...

  4. Advanced Biofuels (and Bio-products) Process Demonstration Unit...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Biofuels (and Bio-products) Process Demonstration Unit Todd Pray, PhD, MBA March 25, 2015 Biochemical Conversion Area DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Project Peer Review ...

  5. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... States) Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Idaho Falls, ID (United States) Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, ... Our studies reveal critical biochemical mechanisms for Mps1 ...

  6. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... States) Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Idaho Falls, ID (United States) Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, ... Comprehensive Structural and Biochemical Analysis of the ...

  7. --No Title--

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Wednesday, November 4, 2009 2:00 pm Conference Center, 5200 (202-B) "Discrete Stochastic Simulation of Spatially Inhomogeneous Biochemical Systems" Linda Petzold University of...

  8. Biohydrogenesis in the Thermotogales (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    were identified within the Thermotogales through genomic and biochemical analysis. ... The microbial ecology of T. maritima was examined through functional genomics experiments. ...

  9. NREL: Biomass Research - Jonathan J. Stickel

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    of the fluid mechanics, mass transfer, and reaction kinetics of biomass undergoing biochemical conversion in order to improve overall conversion yields and process economics. ...

  10. NREL: Biomass Research - Glossary of Biomass Terms

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Enzymes are catalysts for many biochemical reactions. cellulase: A family of enzymes that break down cellulose into glucose molecules. cellulose: The carbohydrate that is the ...

  11. Glycos Biotechnologies | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Product: Glycos produces microorganisms capable of transforming organic products into useful biochemicals Coordinates: 29.76045, -95.369784 Show Map Loading map......

  12. Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Fossil...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Biochemical Science Division, ForensicsHuman Identity Project Team National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Functional ...

  13. 2013 DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Synthetic Biology and BETO May 20, 2013 Technology Area Review: Biochemical Conversion ... needed to have a definition of Synthetic Biology: "Synthetic biology" was generally ...

  14. PROSIG, Version 1.x

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    detection, as well as general biochemical research. Licensing Status: Available for Express Licensing (?). This software is open source. To download, please visit the PROSIG...

  15. Bioenergy Demonstration Project: Value-Added Products from Renewable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Bioenergy Demonstration Project: Value-Added Products from Renewable Fuels May 23, 2013 Technology Area Review: Biochemical Conversion Paul Blum University of Nebraska 2 Goal ...

  16. Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    * Biochemical: o PRINCE - Process Integration and Carbon Efficiencies - June 11-12, 2014 * Thermochemical: o GBTL - Natural Gas Biomass to Liquids - September 3, 2013 o Bio-oil ...

  17. George W

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    of Anellotech a biochemical company focused on commercializing, catalytic fast pyrolysis, a Technology developed in his research group. George has twice testified at...

  18. Weak and strong coupling equilibration in nonabelian gauge theories

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Keegan, Liam; Kurkela, Aleksi; Romatschke, Paul; van der Schee, Wilke; Zhu, Yan

    2016-04-06

    In this study, we present a direct comparison studying equilibration through kinetic theory at weak coupling and through holography at strong coupling in the same set-up. The set-up starts with a homogeneous thermal state, which then smoothly transitions through an out-of-equilibrium phase to an expanding system undergoing boost-invariant flow. This first apples-to-apples comparison of equilibration provides a benchmark for similar equilibration processes in heavy-ion collisions, where the equilibration mechanism is still under debate. We find that results at weak and strong coupling can be smoothly connected by simple, empirical power-laws for the viscosity, equilibration time and entropy production of themore » system.« less

  19. Using EnergyPlus for California Title-24 compliancecalculations

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Joe; Bourassa, Norman; Buhl, Fred; Erdem, Ender; Hitchcock, Rob

    2006-08-26

    For the past decade, the non-residential portion of California's Title-24 building energy standard has relied on DOE-2.1E as the reference computer simulation program for development as well as compliance. However, starting in 2004, the California Energy Commission has been evaluating the possible use of Energy Plus as the reference program in future revisions of Title-24. As part of this evaluation, the authors converted the Alternate Compliance Method (ACM) certification test suite of 150 DOE-2 files to Energy Plus, and made parallel DOE-2 and Energy Plus runs for this extensive set of test cases. A customized version of DOE-2.1E named doe2ep was developed to automate the conversion process. This paper describes this conversion process, including the difficulties in establishing an apples-to-apples comparison between the two programs, and summarizes how the DOE-2 and Energy Plus results compare for the ACM test cases.

  20. Response to Comment on "The National Ignition Facility Laser Performance Status"

    SciTech Connect

    Haynam, C A; Sacks, R A; Moses, E I; Manes, K; Haan, S; Spaeth, M L

    2007-12-11

    We appreciate Stephen Bodner's continuing interest in the performance of the NIF laser system. However, we find it necessary to disagree with the conclusions he reached in his comments [Appl. Opt. 47, XXX (2008)] on 'National Ignition Facility Laser Performance Status' [Appl. Opt. 46, 3276 (2007)]. In fact, repeated and ongoing tests of the NIF beamlines have demonstrated that NIF can be expected not only to meet or exceed its requirements as established in the mid-1990s in the document National Ignition Facility Functional Requirements and Primary Criteria [Revision 1.3, Report NIF-LLNL-93-058 (1994)], but also to have the flexibility that provides for successfully meeting an ever expanding range of mission goals, including those of ignition.

  1. Experimental study of multichromatic terahertz wave propagation through planar micro-channels

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Shin, Young-Min -Min; Northern Illinois Univ., Dekalb, IL; Fermi National Accelerator Lab.; Baig, Anisullah; Barchfeld, Robert; Gamzina, Diana; Barnett, Larry R.; Luhmann, Jr., Neville C.

    2012-04-10

    Previous theoretical and numerical studies [Y. M. Shin and L. R. Barnett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091501 (2008) and Y. M. Shin et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221504 (2008)] have reported that a planar micro-channel with an asymmetric corrugation array supports strongly confined propagation of broadband THz plasmonic waves. The highly broad spectral response is experimentally demonstrated in the near-THz regime of 0.19-0.265 THz. Signal reflection and transmission tests on the three designed micro-channels including directional couplers resulted in a full-width-half-maximum bandwidth of ~ 50-60GHz with an insertion loss of approximately -5 dB, which is in good agreement withmore » simulation data. As a result, these micro-structures can be utilized for free electron beam and electronic/optic integrated devices« less

  2. About | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC)

    Why Fungi Rule the World External link Boston University assistant professor Jennifer Talbot studies the surprising role that molds, mushrooms, and other dirt-dwellers play in climate change.Read More External linkage While many people associate fungi with mushrooms alone, those familiar stems and caps are merely the fruit, like an apple on a tree. Supercomputers' Pit Crews Smart, tough teams help scientists get the best performance from supercomputers to provide the insights needed to

  3. Manhattan Project National Historical Park

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    mobile application allows users to take virtual tour of Project Y of Manhattan Project National Historical Park June 7, 2016 LOS ALAMOS, N.M., June 7, 2016-A new, free mobile application titled "Los Alamos: The Secret City of the Manhattan Project," is now available for download from the Apple store. A collaboration of Los Alamos National Laboratory's VISIBLE team, the Bradbury Science Museum, and staff history specialists, the application allows users from any location around the

  4. Request for Information on Evaluating New Products for the Battery Chargers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    and External Power Supply Rulemaking - Ex Parte Communication | Department of Energy Evaluating New Products for the Battery Chargers and External Power Supply Rulemaking - Ex Parte Communication Request for Information on Evaluating New Products for the Battery Chargers and External Power Supply Rulemaking - Ex Parte Communication List of topics that Apple Inc. discussed with DOE RFI_Evaluating New Products_Battery Chargers & External Power Supply Rulemaking.pdf (12.69 KB) More

  5. FLUX ENHANCEMENT IN CROSSFLOW MEMBRANE FILTRATION: FOULING AND IT'S MINIMIZATION BY FLOW REVERSAL

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2005-01-25

    Fouling problems are perhaps the single most important reason for relatively slow acceptance of ultrafiltration in many areas of chemical and biological processing. To overcome the losses in permeate flux associated with concentration polarization and fouling in cross flow membrane filtration, we investigated the concept of flow reversal as a method to enhance membrane flux in ultrafiltration. Conceptually, flow reversal prevents the formation of stable hydrodynamic and concentration boundary layers at or near the membrane surface. Further more, periodic reversal of the flow direction of the feed stream at the membrane surface results in prevention and mitigation of membrane fouling. Consequently, these advantages are expected to enhance membrane flux significantly. A crossflow membrane filtration unit was designed and built to test the concept of periodic flow reversal for flux enhancement. The essential elements of the system include a crossflow hollow fiber membrane module integrated with a two-way valve to direct the feed flow directions. The two-way valve is controlled by a controller-timer for periodic reversal of flow of feed stream. Another important feature of the system is that with changing feed flow direction, the permeate flow direction is also changed to maintain countercurrent feed and permeate flows for enhanced mass transfer driving force (concentration difference). In this report, we report our application of Flow Reversal technique in clarification of apple juice containing pectin. The presence of pectin in apple juice makes the clarification process difficult and is believed to cause membrane fouling. Of all compounds found in apple juice, pectin is most often identified as the major hindrance to filtration performance. Based on our ultrafiltration experiments with apple juice, we conclude that under flow reversal conditions, the permeate flux is significantly enhanced when compared with the conventional unidirectional flow. Thus, flow reversal

  6. FLUX ENHANCEMENT IN CROSSFLOW MEMBRANE FILTRATION: FOULING AND IT'S MINIMIZATION BY FLOW REVERSAL

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2004-06-14

    Fouling problems are perhaps the single most important reason for relatively slow acceptance of ultrafiltration in many areas of chemical and biological processing. To overcome the losses in permeate flux associated with concentration polarization and fouling in cross flow membrane filtration, we investigated the concept of flow reversal as a method to enhance membrane flux in ultrafiltration. Conceptually, flow reversal prevents the formation of stable hydrodynamic and concentration boundary layers at or near the membrane surface. Further more, periodic reversal of the flow direction of the feed stream at the membrane surface results in prevention and mitigation of membrane fouling. Consequently, these advantages are expected to enhance membrane flux significantly. A crossflow membrane filtration unit was designed and built to test the concept of periodic flow reversal for flux enhancement. The essential elements of the system include a crossflow hollow fiber membrane module integrated with a two-way valve to direct the feed flow directions. The two-way valve is controlled by a controller-timer for periodic reversal of flow of feed stream. Another important feature of the system is that with changing feed flow direction, the permeate flow direction is also changed to maintain countercurrent feed and permeate flows for enhanced mass transfer driving force (concentration difference). In our previous report, we reported our work on UF of BSA. In this report, we report our continuing application of Flow Reversal technique in clarification of apple juice containing pectin. The presence of pectin in apple juice makes the clarification process difficult and is believed to cause membrane fouling. Of all compounds found in apple juice, pectin is most often identified as the major hindrance to filtration performance. Laboratory-scale tests on a hollow-fiber ultrafiltration membrane module using pectin in apple juice as feed show that under flow reversal conditions, the

  7. Multibump solutions for quasilinear elliptic equations with critical growth

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jiaquan; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Wu, Xian

    2013-12-15

    The current paper is concerned with constructing multibump solutions for a class of quasilinear Schrdinger equations with critical growth. This extends the classical results of Coti Zelati and Rabinowitz [Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 45, 12171269 (1992)] for semilinear equations as well as recent work of Liu, Wang, and Guo [J. Funct. Anal. 262, 40404102 (2012)] for quasilinear problems with subcritical growth. The periodicity of the potentials is used to glue ground state solutions to construct multibump bound state solutions.

  8. Photo Gallery - Hanford Site

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    300 Area North The 300 Area north of Apple Street has been cleaned up. Search Search Search Filter: 300 Area North All Galleries 284 East Explosive Demolition Settlers B Reactor 100DX Groundwater Treatment Facility 100HX Groundwater Treatment Facility 200 West Groundwater Treatment Facility Construction 200 West Groundwater Treatment LEED Facility 200W Pump and Treat Event 2010 Fire Season 2013 Safety EXPO 209-E Critical Mass Laboratory Demolition 284 West Boiler Demolition 284 West Explosive

  9. Signatures of Majorana Fermions in Hybrid Superconductor-Topological

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Insulator Devices (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Signatures of Majorana Fermions in Hybrid Superconductor-Topological Insulator Devices Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Signatures of Majorana Fermions in Hybrid Superconductor-Topological Insulator Devices Authors: Williams, J.R. ; Bestwick, A.J. ; Gallagher, P. ; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. ; Hong, Seung Sae ; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. ; Cui, Y. ; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept. /SLAC ; Bleich, Andrew S. ; /Stanford U.,

  10. Vector processing enhancements for real-time image analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Shoaf, S.; APS Engineering Support Division

    2008-01-01

    A real-time image analysis system was developed for beam imaging diagnostics. An Apple Power Mac G5 with an Active Silicon LFG frame grabber was used to capture video images that were processed and analyzed. Software routines were created to utilize vector-processing hardware to reduce the time to process images as compared to conventional methods. These improvements allow for more advanced image processing diagnostics to be performed in real time.

  11. An integration doubleheader: exploration system's finder, an application or open-ended database architecture for sale and landmark graphics' openworks, an open opinion

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.E.

    1989-04-01

    Two software packages for the petroleum industry are reviewed. The first, Finder, is an integrated exploration and production system using the Oracle relational data base engine. It operates on a microVAX (DEC) platforms with the user interface on an Apple Macintosh. The second program, OpenWorks, will combine petroleum applications with data over existing ''industry standards'' including X-Windows for graphics, TCP/IP for the networking protocols, and some relation model which fits over existing data bases.

  12. Viscous Rayleigh-Taylor instability in spherical geometry

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Mikaelian, Karnig O.

    2016-02-08

    We consider viscous fluids in spherical geometry, a lighter fluid supporting a heavier one. Chandrasekhar [Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 8, 1 (1955)] analyzed this unstable configuration providing the equations needed to find, numerically, the exact growth rates for the ensuing Rayleigh-Taylor instability. He also derived an analytic but approximate solution. We point out a weakness in his approximate dispersion relation (DR) and offer one that is to some extent improved.

  13. Response of a fluid-immersed microcantilever close to a deformable body

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, R. J.; Lee, T. C.; Cater, J. E.; Bachtiar, V.; Minton, J.

    2015-03-07

    The importance of hydrodynamics upon the response of a microcantilever immersed in a viscous fluid has been well established [J. E. Sader, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 64 (1998); C. A. Eysden and J. E. Sader, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 044908 (2007)]. It has previously been shown that the presence of a nearby rigid planar surface can significantly alter a microcantilever's non-contact response, through microcantilever–surface hydrodynamic interactions [C. P. Green and J. E. Sader, Phys. Fluids 17, 073102 (2005); C. P. Green and J. E. Sader, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 114913 (2005); R. J. Clarke et al., J. Fluid Mech. 545, 397426 (2005); R. J. Clarke et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 050801 (2006).]. In cases where the nearby surface is a finite-sized deformable body, such as in noncontact microrheology measurements, we expect to see further changes in the microcantilever's response. Hence, we here compute the thermal spectra of several microcantilevers in the presence of different compliant samples that have the characteristics of soft biological fibres. Our findings demonstrate that the elastohydrodynamic regime can substantially dictate the extent to which the compliance of a given body is evident in the microcantilever's thermal spectra, and suggest that certain nondimensional quantities should lie within particular, ranges for this to be the case. We expect these findings to be of interest in areas such as Atomic Force Microscopy, microsensing, and non-contact microrheology.

  14. SNLSimMagic

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    2014-10-06

    This software is an iOS (Apple) Augmented Reality (AR) application that runs on the iPhone and iPad. It is designed to scan in a photograph or graphic and ?play? an associated video. This release, SNLMagicSIM, was built using Vuforia Augmented Reality (AR) software development kit (SDK) integrated into Apple iOS SDK application and the Unity Extension-based application. These SDK codes enable the generation of runtime targets using cloud recognition and developer-defined target features which aremorethen accessed by means of a custom application. This application is designed to scan in a photograph or graphic and ?play? an associated video in the device that it was scanned with. The purpose is to enhance print media; specifically for the 2014 HPC Annual Report and the National Laboratories booth at the Super Computing 2014 conference in November 2014. A user will use a QR code to download the application from the Apple Application Store. The application is designed to recognize identified graphics and ?play? associated videos on the same devise that is used to scan the graphic.less

  15. Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Technologies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Technologies Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Technologies These slides were used as a presentation by Dr. Blake Simmons on June 24, 2013, for the bimonthly BETO webinar. june2013_snl_webinar.pdf (4.32 MB) More Documents & Publications 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Biochemical Conversion Innovative Topics for Advanced Biofuels 2013 Peer Review Presentations-Biochemical Conversion

  16. A Key Enzyme to the Potency of an Anticancer Agent

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    that 5'-ClDA is a biosynthesis intermediate. SalL recombinant protein purified from E. coli organizes as a homotrimer (30 kDamonomer). Biochemical in vitro analyses showed it...

  17. 1 | Bioenergy Technologies Office

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... HC from SCO fermentation Front End as in Biochem 2011 Design Case 2,000 metric tonday corn stover S ludge Area 800 Combustor and Steam Turbine T 114 C P 62.2 atm W 340000 kgh T ...

  18. NREL Helps "Supersize" Butanol Production - News Feature | NREL

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Helps "Supersize" Butanol Production June 19, 2012 Photo of a man and woman sitting in a lab behind two vials of liquid. Enlarge image David Sievers, biochemical engineer and...

  19. Geothermal Energy Research and Development Program; Project Summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-01

    This is an internal DOE Geothermal Program document. This document contains summaries of projects related to exploration technology, reservoir technology, drilling technology, conversion technology, materials, biochemical processes, and direct heat applications. [DJE-2005

  20. NREL: Biomass Research - Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    The IBRF's 27,000-ft2, high-bay biochemical conversion pilot ... into end-to-end process integration and evaluation tests ... for staged feedstock pre-processing operations in one vessel ...

  1. DOE Announces $10 Million for Innovative Bioenergy Research and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    ... A successful outcome is a cost-effective process to a high-value biochemical that instead of producing carbon, incorporates it into the aspartic acid, and sequesters CO2. White Dog ...

  2. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY BIOENERGY TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    ... Biochemical Conversion Feedstock Supply Interface NREL Nick Nagle 1:55 p.m.-2:25 p.m. Determining the Impact of Municipal Solid Waste as a Feedstock Blending Agent on Pretreatment ...

  3. Biomass 2014: Growing the Future Bioeconomy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    FB definition) 5 Thermo-chemical (F-T and similar processes) Woody Biomass, Municipal solid waste Green diesel, Green gasoline, Aviation Fuel, F-T waxes 6 Biochemical (Enzymatic ...

  4. Project Finance and Investments

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    FB definition) 5 Thermo-chemical (F-T and similar processes) Woody Biomass, Municipal solid waste Green diesel, Green gasoline, Aviation Fuel, F-T waxes 6 Biochemical (Enzymatic ...

  5. CX-010216: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Design and Optimization of a Biochemical Production Platform with Biosensor-guided Synthetic Evolution CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 02/28/2013 Location(s): California Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  6. 2013 DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Development of Bio-Oil Commodity Fuel as a Refinery Feedstock from High Impact Algae Biomass May 23 rd , 2013 Bio-Oil Technology Area Review James R. Kastner BioChemical ...

  7. Medical treatments, fuel sources from studying elusive enzyme

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ... hydronium ion plays a key role in the transport of protons in these types of biochemical ... More about biofuels at Los Alamos Lab Algae science for biofuel production and other ...

  8. Conformal Postoperative Radiotherapy in Patients With Positive...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pre-RT PSA values >0.2 ngmL were significant for distant metastases. In multivariate analysis, risk factors for biochemical relapse were higher preoperative and pre-RT PSA values, ...

  9. Derek R. Vardon | Bioenergy | NREL

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Derek R. Vardon Derek R. Vardon Research Engineer, Biochemical Catalysis Derek.Vardon@nrel.gov | 303-384-7763 Research Interests Derek Vardon is a staff research engineer in the National Bioenergy Center's (NBC's) Biochemical Catalysis group at NREL. His main research focus is on catalyst design, materials characterization, and reaction engineering. Derek's research interests include: Catalytic conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals Integrated biological and chemo-catalytic processes

  10. Biological Upgrading of Sugars Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Upgrading of Sugars WBS 2.3.2.105 2015 DOE BioEnergy Technologies Office (BETO) Project Peer Review Date: March 25 th , 2015 Technology Area Review: Biochemical Conversion Principal Investigator: Gregg T. Beckham Organization: National Renewable Energy Laboratory This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 2 Goal Statement Goal: develop strains to produce fuels and co-products for the 2017 and 2022 Biochemical Conversion Platform cost

  11. Pilot Scale Integration Project Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Pilot Scale Integration Project March 25, 2015 Biochemical Conversion Area Daniel Schell NREL This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential or otherwise restricted information 2 High-Level Project Goal Support BETO's and the Biochemical Conversion Technology Area's mission to deploy cost-effective biofuels production technology. * Maintains pilot scale facility that is available for BETO and industry use * Generates process-relevant integrated performance data * Facilitates

  12. 2013 DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Biochemical Feedstock Supply Interface Garold Gresham, INL Nick Nagle, NREL May 20, 2013 2 | Bioenergy Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Goals: Support Biochemical Conversion Pathway: "reducing the cost of converting lignocellulosic biomass to sugars and other fuels intermediates." 1 - Facilitate establishment of pathway(s) toward optimization and cost-reduction; 2 - Develop tools & models to evaluate feedstock costs & quality for BC conversion process (biological, chemical,

  13. Cellulosic Biomass Sugars to Advantaged Jet Fuel Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    5 March, 2015 Technology Area Review: Biochemical Conversion Randy Cortright PhD Virent, Inc WBS: 2.4.1.200 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information © Virent 2015 Slide 2 Goal Statement Project Goal - Integrate Virent's Catalytic BioForming® Process with NREL's Biochemical deconstruction technology to efficiently produce cost effective "drop-in" fuels from corn stover with particular focus in maximizing jet fuel yields. 

  14. HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING A N N U A L R E P O R T

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    PERFORMANCE COMPUTING A N N U A L R E P O R T Scanning this code with an iPhone or iPad will provide access to SNLSimMagic; an augmented reality iOS application that can be downloaded to the device. You can also download directly onto your device from the Apple App store. Readers with the application can use their mobile devices to scan images in this document that show the Augmented Reality icon, and an associated movie clip will be played on their device. SNLSimMagic was developed at Sandia

  15. Public Meeting Attendees: Sustainable Design Standards for Federal Buildings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Last First Company Address City ST Zip Phone Fax Email Ames Mark American Society of Heating, and Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning 1828 L Street, NW, Suite 906 Washington DC 20036 202-833-1830 202-833-0118 mames@ashree.org Appel Margo Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington DC 20685 202-586-9495 202-586-4617 margo.appel@ee.doe.gov Apple Todd DuPont Government Marketing & Government Affairs 601 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Suite 325, North Building Washington DC 20004

  16. Quadrennial Technology Review 2015 Omnibus | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Last First Company Address City ST Zip Phone Fax Email Ames Mark American Society of Heating, and Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning 1828 L Street, NW, Suite 906 Washington DC 20036 202-833-1830 202-833-0118 mames@ashree.org Appel Margo Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington DC 20685 202-586-9495 202-586-4617 margo.appel@ee.doe.gov Apple Todd DuPont Government Marketing & Government Affairs 601 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Suite 325, North Building Washington DC 20004

  17. High-resolution methods for preserving the sum of mass fractions: improved ?-scheme and an alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Syamlal, Madhava; Benyahia, Sofiane

    2013-11-20

    When high resolution convection schemes are used for discretizing chemical species mass balance equations, the mass fractions are not guaranteed to add to one. We show that a proposed remedy called ?-scheme (Darwish and Moukalled, Comput.Methods Appl.Mech. Engrg. 192 (2003): 1711) will degrade to a diffusive first-order scheme when a chemical species vanishes from the mixture, for example, because of chemical reactions. We propose an improvement to the ?-scheme to overcome this problem. Furthermore, a computationally efficient alternative scheme is proposed and evaluated with several examples, to quantify the improvements in the accuracy and the computational time.

  18. Chemist Will Dichtel earns MacArthur 'Genius Award' > EMC2 News > The

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Materials Center at Cornell EMC2 News Latest News As Tesla Grows Up, It Give Up on Free Charging › The case for the iCar: Why an Apple car isn't crazy › Samsung battery bust shows pressure of innovation › In This Section EMC2 News Archived News Stories Chemist Will Dichtel earns MacArthur 'Genius Award' September 29th, 2015 › By Blaine Friedlander Heather Ainsworth Will Dichtel, associate professor of chemistry and biochemistry, works in his lab on Sept. 15. Will Dichtel,

  19. Nanobumps on silicon created with polystyrene spheres and 248 or 308 nm laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Piparia, Reema; Rothe, Erhard W.; Baird, R. J.

    2006-11-27

    Huang et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161911 (2005)] formed arrays of nanobumps on a silicon substrate. They applied a 248 nm laser pulse to a surface monolayer of 1-{mu}m-diameter polystyrene spheres. The authors first replicated their experiment with 248 nm light. But when 308 nm pulses were applied instead, the nanobumps had a different shape and composition. At 248 nm, much of the laser light is absorbed in the polystyrene, which serves to quickly distort, melt, and ablate the sphere. At 308 nm, very little light is absorbed. The nanobumps from 248 nm radiation are organic polymers, while those formed with 308 nm pulses are silicon based.

  20. Los Alamos National Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    70th anniversary app for iPhone, iPads June 5, 2013 LOS ALAMOS, N.M., June 4, 2013-Los Alamos National Laboratory has launched its first app for iPhones and iPads as part of the Laboratory's yearlong celebration of 70 years serving the nation. The free application is available from the Apple Store (search for Los Alamos National Lab). The app enables users to learn more about the Laboratory's national security mission, cutting edge research, unique history, top-flight scientists and the many