National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for alvey district wood

  1. EA-1891: Alvey-Fairview Transmission Line Rebuild Project, Oregon

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to rebuild DOE’s Bonneville Power Administration’s Alvey-Fairview No. 1 230-kV transmission line located between Eugene, Oregon, and Coquille, Oregon.

  2. Particulate matter emissions from combustion of wood in district heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafghazi, S.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Melin, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    The utilization of wood biomass to generate district heat and power in communities that have access to this energy source is increasing. In this paper the effect of wood fuel properties, combustion condition, and flue gas cleaning system on variation in the amount and formation of particles in the flue gas of typical district heating wood boilers are discussed based on the literature survey. Direct measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood boilers with district heating applications are reviewed and presented. Finally, recommendations are given regarding the selection of wood fuel, combustion system condition, and flue gas cleaning system in district heating systems in order to meet stringent air quality standards. It is concluded that utilization of high quality wood fuel, such as wood pellets produced from natural, uncontaminated stem wood, would generate the least PM emissions compared to other wood fuel types. Particulate matter emissions from grate burners equipped with electrostatic precipitators when using wood pellets can be well below stringent regulatory emission limit such as particulate emission limit of Metro Vancouver, Canada.

  3. Microsoft Word - CX-AlveyDistWoodPoles_FY13_WEB.docx

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    engineered organisms, synthetic biology, governmentally designated noxious weeds, or invasive species, unless the proposed activity would be contained or confined in a manner...

  4. CX-005965: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Alvey District Wood Poles: Eugene-Lane Number 1, Eugene-Alvey Number 2, and Hawkins-Alvey Number 1CX(s) Applied: B1.3Date: 05/20/2011Location(s): Lane County, OregonOffice(s): Bonneville Power Administration

  5. CX-008715: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 Alvey District Wood Pole Replacement Projects CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 05/21/2012 Location(s): Oregon, Oregon Offices(s): Bonneville Power Administration

  6. CX-010344: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Alvey District Wood Poles CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 05/09/2013 Location(s): Oregon, Oregon, Oregon Offices(s): Bonneville Power Administration

  7. CX-012005: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    2014 Alvey District Wood Pole Replacement Projects CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 04/28/2014 Location(s): Oregon, Oregon, Oregon Offices(s): Bonneville Power Administration

  8. CX-013644: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    2015 Alvey District Wood Pole Replacement Projects CX(s) Applied: B1.3Date: 04/09/2015 Location(s): OregonOffices(s): Bonneville Power Administration

  9. Fort Yukon Wood Energy Program: Wood Boiler Deployment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    By: Karonhiakta'tie Bryan Maracle and Bill Wall - Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments (CATG) - Consortia of 10 Tribal Governments of Interior Alaska - Gwitchyaa Zhee Corporation (GZ Corp) - Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act Village Corporation - Alaska Village Initiatives (AVI) - Rural Alaska economic development organization - First off grid, off road system biomass CHP in the world - 8 miles north of the Arctic Circle - New Power House - Wood Chip Boiler - District Heating loop

  10. Mission Woods, Kansas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Mission Woods is a city in Johnson County, Kansas. It falls under Kansas's 3rd congressional district.12 References...

  11. Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

  12. Wood pellet production

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.W.

    1983-08-01

    Southern Energy Limited's wood pellet refinery, Bristol, Florida, produces wood pellets for fuel from scrap wood from a nearby sawmill and other hog fuel delivered to the plant from nearby forest lands. The refinery will provide 50,000 tons of pellets per year to the Florida State Hospital at Chattahoochee to fire recently converted boilers in the central power plant. The pellets are densified wood, having a moisture content of about 10% and a heating value of 8000 Btu/lb. They are 0.5 inches in diameter and 2 to 3 inches in length.

  13. Wood energy system design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This handbook, Wood Energy System Design, was prepared with the support of the Council of Great Lakes Governors and the US Department of Energy. It contains: wood fuel properties; procurement; receiving, handling, and storage; combustion; gasification; emission control; electric power generation and cogeneration; and case studies. (JF)

  14. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.; Trojanowski, R.; Wei, G.

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  15. STEO October 2012 - wood

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    More U.S. households burning wood this winter to stay warm, reversing two-decade decline Burning wood as the primary heating source in U.S. households has risen over the last 10 years, reversing the decline seen in the 1980s and 1990s. About 2.6 million households out of 115 million will rely on wood as the main way to warm their homes this winter. That's up 3 percent from last year, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration's new winter fuels forecast. The West will have the most

  16. Generating power with waste wood

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, R.S.

    1995-02-01

    Among the biomass renewables, waste wood has great potential with environmental and economic benefits highlighting its resume. The topics of this article include alternate waste wood fuel streams; combustion benefits; waste wood comparisons; waste wood ash; pilot scale tests; full-scale test data; permitting difficulties; and future needs.

  17. James F. Wood

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    James F. Wood is currently Deputy Assistant Secretary for Clean Coal in the Office of Fossil Energy (FE). In this position, he is responsible for the management and direction of the Office's...

  18. Transportation fuels from wood

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.; Stevens, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    The various methods of producing transportation fuels from wood are evaluated in this paper. These methods include direct liquefaction schemes such as hydrolysis/fermentation, pyrolysis, and thermochemical liquefaction. Indirect liquefaction techniques involve gasification followed by liquid fuels synthesis such as methanol synthesis or the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The cost of transportation fuels produced by the various methods are compared. In addition, three ongoing programs at Pacific Northwest Laboratory dealing with liquid fuels from wood are described.

  19. District of Columbia Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    " Hydro Conventional","-","-" " Solar","-","-" " Wind","-","-" " WoodWood ... " Hydro Conventional","-","-" " Solar","-","-" " Wind","-","-" " WoodWood ...

  20. Characterization of selected application of biomass energy technologies and a solar district heating and cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    D'Alessio, Dr., Gregory J.; Blaunstein, Robert P.

    1980-09-01

    The following systems are discussed: energy self-sufficient farms, wood gasification, energy from high-yield silviculture farms, and solar district heating and cooling. System descriptions and environmental data are included for each one. (MHR)

  1. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  2. Wood pellet market and trade: a global perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Chun Sheng Goh; Martin Junginger; Maurizio Cocchi; Didier Marchal; Daniela Thran; Christiane Hennig; Jussi Heinimo; Lars Nikolaisen; Peter-Paul Schouwenberg; Douglas Bradley; J. Richard Hess; Jacob J. Jacobson; Leslie Ovard; Michael Deutmeyer

    2001-01-01

    This perspective provides an overview of wood pellet markets in a number of countries of high significance, together with an inventory of market factors and relevant past or existing policies. In 2010, the estimated global wood pellet production and consumption were close to 14.3 Mt (million metric tonnes) and 13.5 Mt, respectively, while the global installed production capacity had reached over 28 Mt. Two types of pellets are mainly traded (i) for residential heating and (ii) for large-scale district heating or co-fi ring installations. The EU was the primary market, responsible for nearly 61% and 85% of global production and consumption, respectively in 2010. EU markets were divided according to end use: (i) residential and district heating, (ii) power plants driven market, (iii) mixed market, and (iv) export-driven countries. North America basically serves as an exporter, but also with signifi cant domestic consumption in USA. East Asia is predicted to become the second-largest consumer after the EU in the near future. The development perspective in Latin America remains unclear. Five factors that determine the market characteristics are: (i) the existence of coal-based power plants, (ii) the development of heating systems, (iii) feedstock availability, (iv) interactions with wood industry, and (v) logistics factor. Furthermore, intervention policies play a pivotal role in market development. The perspective of wood pellets industry was also analyzed from four major aspects: (i) supply potential, (ii) logistics issues, (iii) sustainability considerations, and (iv) technology development.

  3. CX-008714: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wood Pole Replacements on the Alvey-Fairview No. 1 230 Kilovolt (kV), Alvey- Martin Creek 115-kV, and Martin Creek-Drain #1 115-kV Transmission Line Rights-of-way CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 05/21/2012 Location(s): Oregon, Oregon Offices(s): Bonneville Power Administration

  4. Elko County School District District Heating Low Temperature...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Elko County School District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Elko County School District District Heating Low Temperature...

  5. Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  6. Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  7. Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low...

  8. Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  9. Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  10. Feasibility for Wood Heat - Collaborative Integrated Wood Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    for Wood Heat * Non-Profit Consortium of Ten Tribal ... Forestry, Fire Management, Self- Governance, ... coordination's across organizations 2 boilers and one ...

  11. Daniel Wood | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Daniel Wood About Us Daniel Wood - Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Daniel Wood Daniel Wood is the Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist in the Office of Public Affairs at the Department of Energy. He develops creative and interactive ways of viewing the Energy Department's vast array of data. You can check out some of his work here. Prior to joining the Energy.gov team, Daniel worked at a large PR firm in Washington, D.C, doing web development

  12. Wood3 Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Wood3 Resources Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wood3 Resources Place: Houston, Texas Zip: 77056-2409 Product: Wood3 Resources is an energy project development firm run by former...

  13. Assessment of superheated steam drying of wood waste

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, B.G.; Nguyen, Y.; Bruce, S.

    1994-12-31

    A 5 MW co-generation facility using wood waste is described which will supply power to Ontario Hydro, steam to the sawmill for process heating, and hot water for district heating customers in the town. The use of superheated steam for drying the wood was investigated to determine the impact on boiler performance, the environmental impact and the economic feasibility. The main benefit with superheated steam drying is the reduction in VOC emissions. The capital cost is currently higher with superheated steam drying, but further investigation is warranted to determine if the cost reductions which could be achieved by manufacturing the major components in North America are sufficient to make the technology cost competitive.

  14. Fort Yukon Wood Energy Program: Wood Boiler Deployment

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Oil cost per year for school 210,000 Fuel cost for electrical generation 1.4 M Cord Wood 275 - 300 per cord Kwh 0.77 (rate increase coming) Propane 203.89 per 100 ...

  15. Fort Yukon Wood Energy Program: Wood Boiler Deployment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Fort Yukon Wood Energy Program: Wood Boiler Deployment Department of Energy Tribal Program Review Golden, Colorado March 26, 2014 Presented by: Kelda Britton CATG Department of Natural Resources Please contact me for a full list of citations. kelda@catg.org CATG is a consortium of 10 Gwich'in and Koyukon Athabascan tribes located throughout the Yukon Flats. Arctic Village, Beaver, Birch Creek, Canyon Village, Chalkyitsik, Circle, Fort Yukon, Rampart, Stevens Village and Venetie are the remote

  16. Stanford - Woods Institute for the Environment | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Stanford - Woods Institute for the Environment Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Stanford- Woods Institute for the Environment Name: Stanford- Woods Institute for the Environment...

  17. Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments - Wood Energy Program...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    - Diesel Biomass - Wood diesel hybrid power plant CHP - still dreaming for 200-700 Kwh technology Wood Harvest Company * Harvests wood from GZ lands summer and winter - start ...

  18. Wood and Pellet Heating Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Saver

    Wood-burning and pellet fuel appliances use biomass or waste resources to heat homes or ... Modern, centralized wood heaters use wood gasification technology that burns both the wood ...

  19. Marcia A. Wood | Argonne National Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Marcia A. Wood Group Leader, Information Solutions and Technology Assurance B.S. Computer Science, University of St. Francis Telephone 630.252.4656 Fax 630.252.6866 E-mail wood@anl.gov

  20. Wood To Fuel LLC | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    To Fuel LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wood To Fuel LLC Place: Lackawana, New York Zip: 14208 Product: Wood fuelproduct supplier. Coordinates: 41.401932, -75.637848...

  1. Processes change the look of wood fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Zerbe, J.I.

    1980-06-01

    The various forms of wood-derived fuels are reviewed, these include briquetted and pelleted wood products. Charcoal, obtained by pyrolysis has a heating value one and a half times the equivalent weight of the dry wood from which it was made. By process modifications, more oil and gas may be produced instead of charcoal. At Albany, Oregon two barrels of oil are produced daily by hydrogenation of one ton of dry wood chips. It is stated that methanol can be synthesized from solid wood - by wood gasification - with a 38% energy efficiency while ethanol can also be made from wood. The use of wood fuels for electric power generation and cogeneration are also mentioned.

  2. Processes change the look of wood fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Zerbe, J.I.

    1980-06-01

    The various forms of wood-derived fuels are reviewed; these include briquetted and pelleted wood products. Charcoal, obtained by pyrolysis has a heating value one and a half times the equivalent weight of the dry wood from which it was made. By process modifications, more oil and gas may be produced instead of charcoal. At Albany, Oregon two barrels of oil are produced daily by hydrogenation of one ton of dry wood chips. It is stated that methanol can be synthesized from solid wood - by wood gasification - with a 38% energy efficiency while ethanol can also be made from wood. The use of wood fuels for electric power generation and cogeneration are also mentioned.

  3. Wanda Woods | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Wanda Woods Budget & Resource Administrator Wanda Woods Argonne National Laboratory 9700 South Cass Avenue Building 240 - Wkstn. 1C9 Argonne, IL 60439 630-252-1353 wwoods@alcf.anl.gov

  4. Duffield Wood Pellets | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Duffield Wood Pellets Jump to: navigation, search Name: Duffield Wood Pellets Place: North Yorkshire, United Kingdom Zip: HG4 5JB Product: A Yorkshire-based, family-run producer of...

  5. Kenneth L. Wood | Argonne National Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Kenneth L. Wood Senior Engineering Specialist Telephone (630) 252-3971 E-mail klw@hep.anl

  6. Category:Congressional Districts | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    19th congressional district California's 1st congressional district California's 20th congressional district California's 21st congressional district California's 22nd...

  7. Techno-economic analysis of renewable energy source options for a district heating project

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafghazi, S.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Melin, Staffan

    2009-09-01

    With the increased interest in exploiting renewable energy sources for district heating applications, the economic comparison of viable options has been considered as an important step in making a sound decision. In this paper, the economic performance of several energy options for a district heating system in Vancouver, British Columbia, is studied. The considered district heating system includes a 10 MW peaking/ backup natural gas boiler to provide about 40% of the annual energy requirement and a 2.5 MW base-load system. The energy options for the base-load system include: wood pellet, sewer heat, and geothermal heat. Present values of initial and operating costs of each system were calculated over 25-year service life of the systems, considering depreciation and salvage as a negative cost item. It was shown that the wood pellet heat producing technologies provided less expensive energy followed by the sewer heat recovery, geothermal and natural gas systems. Among wood pellet technologies, the grate burner was a less expensive option than powder and gasifier technologies. It was found that using natural gas as a fuel source for the peaking/backup system accounted for more than 40% of the heat production cost for the considered district heating center. This is mainly due to the high natural gas prices which cause high operating costs over the service life of the district heating system. Variations in several economic inputs did not change the ranking of the technology options in the sensitivity analysis. However, it was found that the results were more sensitive to changes in operating costs of the system than changes in initial investment. It is economical to utilize wood pellet boilers to provide the base-load energy requirement of district heating systems Moreover, the current business approach to use natural gas systems for peaking and backup in district heating systems could increase the cost of heat production significantly.

  8. Wood and Pellet Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Heat & Cool » Home Heating Systems » Wood and Pellet Heating Wood and Pellet Heating A wood stove on a stone hearth. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/King_Louie A wood stove on a stone hearth. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/King_Louie Today you can choose from a new generation of wood- and pellet-burning appliances that are cleaner burning, more efficient, and powerful enough to heat many average-sized, modern homes. Pellet fuel appliances burn small pellets that measure 3/8 to 1

  9. Missouri Clean Energy District

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    In July 2010 Missouri enacted the Property Assessed Clean Energy Act, which led to the creation of the statewide Missouri Clean Energy District (MCED) in January 2011.

  10. District cooling gets hot

    SciTech Connect

    Seeley, R.S.

    1996-07-01

    Utilities across the country are adopting cool storage methods, such as ice-storage and chilled-water tanks, as an economical and environmentally safe way to provide cooling for cities and towns. The use of district cooling, in which cold water or steam is pumped to absorption chillers and then to buildings via a central community chiller plant, is growing strongly in the US. In Chicago, San Diego, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, and elsewhere, independent district-energy companies and utilities are refurbishing neglected district-heating systems and adding district cooling, a technology first developed approximately 35 years ago.

  11. Life cycle assessment of base-load heat sources for district heating system options

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafghazi, Saeed; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Melin, Staffan

    2011-03-01

    Purpose There has been an increased interest in utilizing renewable energy sources in district heating systems. District heating systems are centralized systems that provide heat for residential and commercial buildings in a community. While various renewable and conventional energy sources can be used in such systems, many stakeholders are interested in choosing the feasible option with the least environmental impacts. This paper evaluates and compares environmental burdens of alternative energy source options for the base load of a district heating center in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) using the life cycle assessment method. The considered energy sources include natural gas, wood pellet, sewer heat, and ground heat. Methods The life cycle stages considered in the LCA model cover all stages from fuel production, fuel transmission/transportation, construction, operation, and finally demolition of the district heating system. The impact categories were analyzed based on the IMPACT 2002+ method. Results and discussion On a life-cycle basis, the global warming effect of renewable energy options were at least 200 kgeqCO2 less than that of the natural gas option per MWh of heat produced by the base load system. It was concluded that less than 25% of the upstream global warming impact associated with the wood pellet energy source option was due to transportation activities and about 50% of that was resulted from wood pellet production processes. In comparison with other energy options, the wood pellets option has higher impacts on respiratory of inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification, and nutrification categories. Among renewable options, the global warming impact of heat pump options in the studied case in Vancouver, BC, were lower than the wood pellet option due to BC's low carbon electricity generation profile. Ozone layer depletion and mineral extraction were the highest for the heat pump options due to extensive construction required for these

  12. Densified fuels from wood waste

    SciTech Connect

    Pickering, W.H.

    1995-11-01

    Wood compressed to a specific gravity of about 1.2 constitutes an excellent clean burning fuel. {open_quotes}Prestologs{close_quotes} were marketed before 1940, but in the past ten years a much larger and growing market is densified pellet fuel has developed. The market for pellet fuel is about 90% residential, using special pellet burning stoves. Initial sales were almost entirely in the northwest, but sales in other parts of the country are now growing rapidly. Approximately 300,000 stoves are in use. Note that this industry developed from the private sector with little or no support from federal or state governments. Densified fuel is manufactured by drying and compressing sawdust feedstock. Combustion is different than that of normal wood. For example, wood pellets require ample supplies of air. They then burn with a hot flame and very low particulate emissions. Volatile organic compounds are burned almost completely and carbon monoxide can also be kept very low. Stoves burning pellets easily meet EPA standards. This paper discusses technical and economic factors associated with densified fuel and considers the future of the industry.

  13. District of Columbia - Compare - U.S. Energy Information Administration

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (EIA) District of Columbia District of Columbia

  14. District of Columbia - Rankings - U.S. Energy Information Administration

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (EIA) District of Columbia District of Columbia

  15. District of Columbia - Search - U.S. Energy Information Administration

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (EIA) District of Columbia District of Columbia

  16. Table N5.2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... for any table cell, multiply the cell's" "corresponding RSE column and RSE row factors. ... "Table N5.2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: ...

  17. Arbuthnott Wood Pellets Ltd | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Scotland, United Kingdom Zip: AB30 1PA Product: Wood pellet producer. Coordinates: 56.932781, -2.42531 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlema...

  18. Grant F. Wood | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Grant F. Wood Consultant - Project Management 9700 S. Cass Avenue Building 240 Wkstn. 3D18 Argonne, IL 60439 630-252-5315 gfwood

  19. Qualifying Wood Stove Deduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Total cost, exclusive of taxes, interest and other finance charges Summary This incentive allows Arizona taxpayers to deduct the cost of converting an existing wood fireplace to a ...

  20. Wood, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Wood, Wisconsin: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 43.568752, -90.330887 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice"...

  1. A multicriteria approach to evaluate district heating system options

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafghazi, Saeed; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Melin, Staffan

    2009-07-01

    District energy systems, in which renewable energy sources may be utilized, are centralized systems to provide energy to residential and commercial buildings. The aim of this paper is to evaluate and rank energy sources available for a case of district heating system in Vancouver, Canada, based on multiple criteria and the view points of different stakeholders, and to show how communication would affect the ranking of alternatives. The available energy sources are natural gas, biomass (wood pellets), sewer heat, and geothermal heat. The evaluation criteria include GHG emissions, particulate matter emissions, maturity of technology, traffic load, and local source. In order to rank the energy options the PROMETHEE method is used. In this paper, two different scenarios were developed to indicate how the communication between the stakeholders would affect their preferences about criteria weights and would change the ranking of alternatives. The result of this study shows that without communication the best energy source for the considered district energy system is different for different stakeholders. While, addressing concerns through efficient communication would result in a general consensus. In this case, wood pellet is the best energy alternative for all the stakeholders.

  2. Geothermal District Heating Economics

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    1995-07-12

    GEOCITY is a large-scale simulation model which combines both engineering and economic submodels to systematically calculate the cost of geothermal district heating systems for space heating, hot-water heating, and process heating based upon hydrothermal geothermal resources. The GEOCITY program simulates the entire production, distribution, and waste disposal process for geothermal district heating systems, but does not include the cost of radiators, convectors, or other in-house heating systems. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating basedmore » on the climate, population, and heat demand of the district; characteristics of the geothermal resource and distance from the distribution center; well-drilling costs; design of the distribution system; tax rates; and financial conditions.« less

  3. Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Trillion Btu. Wood Residues and Wood-Related Pulping Liquor Wood Byproducts and NAICS or Biomass Agricultural Harvested Directly from Mill Paper-Related Code(a) Subsector and Industry Black Liquor Total(b) Waste(c) from Trees(d) Processing(e) Refuse(f) Total United States 311 Food 0 44 43 * * 1 311221 Wet Corn Milling 0 1 1 0 0 0

  4. Rachel Woods-Robinson | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Rachel Woods-Robinson About Us Rachel Woods-Robinson - Guest Blogger, Cycle for Science Most Recent Rain or Shine: We Cycle for Science July 2 Mountains, and Teachers, and a Bear, Oh My! June 2 Sol-Cycle: Biking Across America for Science Education May

  5. Flash pyrolysis products from beech wood

    SciTech Connect

    Beaumont, O.

    1985-04-01

    Flash pyrolysis products from beech wood obtained in an original pyrolysis apparatus were analyzed. The analytical procedure is described, and the composition of pyrolytic oil presented with more than 50 compounds. Comparison of pyrolytic products of cellulose, hemicellulose, and wood indicates the origin of each product. 19 references.

  6. Lake of the Woods County, Minnesota: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in Lake of the Woods County, Minnesota Baudette, Minnesota Roosevelt, Minnesota Williams, Minnesota Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleLakeoftheWoodsC...

  7. Woods Hole Research Center Wind Turbine | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Hole Research Center Wind Turbine Jump to: navigation, search Name Woods Hole Research Center Wind Turbine Facility Woods Hole Research Center Wind Turbine Sector Wind energy...

  8. Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments - Wood Energy Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    0 November 2008 Gwitchyaa Zhee Corporation CATG - AWEA For-Profit Wood Energy Business Model Fort Yukon * Forest Management Service - CATG * For-Profit Wood Utility Company -...

  9. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Little Valley Area (Wood,...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Little Valley Area (Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Little Valley Area (Wood,...

  10. Alaska Wood Biomass Energy Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan Bolling

    2009-03-02

    The purpose of the Craig Wood Fired Boiler Project is to use waste wood from local sawmilling operations to provide heat to local public buildings, in an effort to reduce the cost of operating those buildings, and put to productive use a byproduct from the wood milling process that otherwise presents an expense to local mills. The scope of the project included the acquisition of a wood boiler and the delivery systems to feed wood fuel to it, the construction of a building to house the boiler and delivery systems, and connection of the boiler facility to three buildings that will benefit from heat generated by the boiler: the Craig Aquatic Center, the Craig Elementary School, and the Craig Middle School buildings.

  11. Public Utility District #1 Of Jefferson County

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Commissioners July 2,2008 Dana Roberts, District 1 M. Kelly Hays, District 2 Wayne G. King, District 3 Mark Gendron, Vice President Northwest Requirements Marketing James G....

  12. BLM Prineville District Office | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Prineville District Office Jump to: navigation, search Name: BLM Prineville District Office Place: Prineville, Oregon References: BLM Prineville District Office Directory1 This...

  13. BLM Vale District Office | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Vale District Office Jump to: navigation, search Name: BLM Vale District Office Place: Vale, Oregon ParentHolding Organization: BLM References: BLM Vale District Office...

  14. Westlands Water District | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Westlands Water District Jump to: navigation, search Name: Westlands Water District Place: California Sector: Solar Product: Water district in central California which administers...

  15. Southern Nevada Health District | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Health District Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Southern Nevada Health District Author Southern Nevada Health District Published...

  16. Solvolytic liquefaction of wood under mild conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.M.

    1982-04-01

    Conversion of wood to liquid products requires cleavage of bonds which crosslink the wood structure. This study examines a low-severity wood solubilization process utilizing a solvent medium consisting of a small amount of sulfuric acid and a potentially wood-derivable alcohol. In one half hour of reaction time at 250/sup 0/C under 15 psia starting nitrogen pressure, over 95% of the wood (maf) was rendered acetone-soluble. The product is a soft, black, bitumen-like solid at room temperature but readily softens at 140/sup 0/C. Between 25 and 50% of the original wood oxygen, depending on alcohol used, was removed as water. Approximately 2 to 17% of the alcohols were retained in the product. Gel permeation chromatography showed that the product's median molecular weight is around 300. Based on experimental and literature results, a mechanism for wood solubilization is proposed. This involves protonation of the etheric oxygen atoms, leading to subsequent bond scission to form carbonium ions which are stabilized by solvent alkoxylation. At severe conditions, polymerization and condensation reactions result in acetone-insoluble materials.

  17. Wood fuel in fluidized bed boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Virr, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Development of fluidized bed fire-tube and water-tube boilers for the burning of wood, gas, and refuse-derived fuel will be reviewed. Experience gained in already installed plants will be outlined. Research experiments results on the use of various forms of wood and other biomass fuels, such as wood chips, pellets, peach pits, nut shells and kernels and refuse-derived fuels, will be described for small and medium sized fire-tube boilers, and for larger water-tube boilers for co-generation. (Refs. 4).

  18. Metro Wastewater Reclamation District Biomass Facility | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Wastewater Reclamation District Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Metro Wastewater Reclamation District Biomass Facility Facility Metro Wastewater Reclamation...

  19. From the Woods to the Refinery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    the Woods to the Refinery CORRIM Life Cycle Analyses of Woody Feedstocks Dr. Steve Kelley ... composition, sugar types, residue fuel value * TC models are sensitive to MC, much less ...

  20. Wood Fuel LP | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    77034 Region: Texas Area Sector: Biomass Product: Wood by-products consulting and marketing Website: www.woodfuel.com Coordinates: 29.6221328, -95.1872605 Show Map Loading...

  1. Wood and Pellet Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    to avoid overheating, which wastes fuel and is one of the biggest causes of air pollution. ... urban and rural areas, smoke from wood burning is a major contributor to air pollution. ...

  2. Marin County- Wood Stove Replacement Rebate Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Homes in the San Geronimo Valley (Forest Knolls, Lagunitas, San Geronimo, and Woodacre) can receive a rebate of $1,500 for the removal and replacement of non-certified wood burning appliances with...

  3. Logs Wood Chips Straw Corn Switchgrass

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Clean energy can come from the sun. The energy in wind can make electricity. Bioenergy comes from plants we can turn into fuel. Logs Wood Chips Straw Corn Switchgrass We can use ...

  4. Wood Energy Ltd | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Energy Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wood Energy Ltd Place: Devon, United Kingdom Zip: EX16 9EU Product: Specialises in the design, installation and service of automatic...

  5. Minnesota wood energy scale-up project 1994 establishment cost data

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, M.; Pierce, R.; Kroll, T.

    1996-03-18

    The Minnesota Wood Energy Scale-up Project began in late 1993 with the first trees planted in the spring of 1994. The purpose of the project is to track and monitor economic costs of planting, maintaining and monitoring larger scale commercial plantings. For 15 years, smaller scale research plantings of hybrid poplar have been used to screen for promising, high-yielding poplar clones. In this project 1000 acres of hybrid poplar trees were planted on Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land near Alexandria, Minnesota in 1994. The fourteen landowners involved re-contracted with the CRP for five-year extensions of their existing 10-year contracts. These extended contracts will expire in 2001, when the plantings are 7 years old. The end use for the trees planted in the Minnesota Wood Energy Scale-up Project is undetermined. They will belong to the owner of the land on which they are planted. There are no current contracts in place for the wood these trees are projected to supply. The structure of the wood industry in the Minnesota has changed drastically over the past 5 years. Stumpage values for fiber have risen to more than $20 per cord in some areas raising the possibility that these trees could be used for fiber rather than energy. Several legislative mandates have forced the State of Minnesota to pursue renewable energy including biomass energy. These mandates, a potential need for an additional 1700 MW of power by 2008 by Northern States Power, and agricultural policies will all affect development of energy markets for wood produced much like agricultural crops. There has been a tremendous amount of local and international interest in the project. Contractual negotiations between area landowners, the CRP, a local Resource Conservation and Development District, the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and others are currently underway for additional planting of 1000 acres in spring 1995.

  6. International District Energy Association

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Since its formation in 1909, the International District Energy Association (IDEA) has served as a principal industry advocate and management resource for owners, operators, developers, and suppliers of district heating and cooling systems in cities, campuses, bases, and healthcare facilities. Today, with over 1,400 members in 26 countries, IDEA continues to organize high-quality technical conferences that inform, connect, and advance the industry toward higher energy efficiency and lower carbon emissions through innovation and investment in scalable sustainable solutions. With the support of DOE, IDEA performs industry research and market analysis to foster high impact projects and help transform the U.S. energy industry. IDEA was an active participant in the original Vision and Roadmap process and has continued to partner with DOE on combined heat and power (CHP) efforts across the country.

  7. District Technical Sergeant | Y-12 National Security Complex

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    District Technical Sergeant District Technical Sergeant A Manhattan Engineering District technical sergeant looks over nearly completed construction at Y-12.

  8. District of Columbia Renewable Electric Power Industry Statistics

    Annual Energy Outlook

    - - Hydro Conventional - - Solar - - Wind - - WoodWood Waste - - MSWLandfill Gas - ... Total Renewable Net Generation - - Geothermal - - Hydro Conventional - - Solar - - Wind - ...

  9. ,"Total District Heat Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"District...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Heat Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"District Heat Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  10. District of Columbia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    (District of Columbia) Glacial Energy Holdings (District of Columbia) Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. (District of Columbia) Integrys Energy Services, Inc. (District...

  11. International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.

  12. New England Wood Pellet LLC | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Pellet LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: New England Wood Pellet LLC Place: Jaffrey, New Hampshire Zip: NH 03452 Product: New England Wood Pellet LLC is a manufacturer and...

  13. Method of predicting mechanical properties of decayed wood

    DOEpatents

    Kelley, Stephen S.

    2003-07-15

    A method for determining the mechanical properties of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms, comprising: a) illuminating a surface of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms with wavelengths from visible and near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectra; b) analyzing the surface of the decayed wood using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra region; and c) using a multivariate analysis to predict mechanical properties of decayed wood by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra obtained from a reference decay wood, the second spectral data being correlated with a known mechanical property analytical result obtained from the reference decayed wood.

  14. Genomics of wood-degrading fungi (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Genomics of wood-degrading fungi Prev Next Title: Genomics of wood-degrading fungi Authors: Ohm, Robin A. ; Riley, Robert ; Salamov, Asaf ; Min, Byoungnam ; Choi, In-Geol ; ...

  15. City of Wood River, Nebraska (Utility Company) | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    City of Wood River, Nebraska (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wood River Municipal Power Place: Nebraska Phone Number: 308.583-2515; 308-583-2066 Website:...

  16. Wood County Electric Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Wood County Electric Coop, Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wood County Electric Coop, Inc Place: Texas Phone Number: 1-866-415-2951 Website: www.wcec.org Facebook: https:...

  17. BLM Burns District Office | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Burns District Office Jump to: navigation, search Name: BLM Burns District Office Place: Hines, Oregon References: BLM Burns District Office1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  18. BLM Elko District Office | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Elko District Office Jump to: navigation, search Name: BLM Elko District Office Place: Elko, Nevada References: BLM Elko District Office Website1 This article is a stub. You can...

  19. Compare All CBECS Activities: District Heat Use

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    District Heat Use Compare Activities by ... District Heat Use Total District Heat Consumption by Building Type Commercial buildings in the U.S. used a total of approximately 433...

  20. Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2002

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,"S e l e c t e d","W o o d","a n d","W o o d -","R e l a t e d","P r o d u c t s" ,,,,,"B i o m a s s" ,,,,,,"Wood Residues" ,,,,,,"and","Wood-Related" " ","

  1. Fast Curing of Composite Wood Products

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2006-04-26

    The overall objective of this program is to develop low temperature curing technologies for UF and PF resins. This will be accomplished by: • Identifying the rate limiting UF and PF curing reactions for current market resins; • Developing new catalysts to accelerate curing reactions at reduced press temperatures and times. In summary, these new curing technologies will improve the strength properties of the composite wood products and minimize the detrimental effects of wood extractives on the final product while significantly reducing energy costs for wood composites. This study is related to the accelerated curing of resins for wood composites such as medium density fiberboard (MDF), particle board (PB) and oriented strandboard (OSB). The latter is frequently manufactured with a phenol-formaldehyde resin whereas ureaformaldehyde (UF) resins are usually used in for the former two grades of composite wood products. One of the reasons that hinder wider use of these resins in the manufacturing of wood composites is the slow curing speed as well as inferior bondability of UF resin. The fast curing of UP and PF resins has been identified as an attractive process development that would allow wood to be bonded at higher moisture contents and at lower press temperatures that currently employed. Several differing additives have been developed to enhance cure rates of PF resins including the use of organic esters, lactones and organic carbonates. A model compound study by Conner, Lorenz and Hirth (2002) employed 2- and 4-hydroxymethylphenol with organic esters to examine the chemical basis for the reported enhanced reactivity. Their studies suggested that the enhance curing in the presence of esters could be due to enhanced quinone methide formation or enhanced intermolecular SN2 reactions. In either case the esters do not function as true catalysts as they are consumed in the reaction and were not found to be incorporated in the polymerized resin product. An

  2. Wood and Wood Waste - Energy Explained, Your Guide To Understanding Energy

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    - Energy Information Administration Wood and Wood Waste Energy Explained - Home What Is Energy? Forms of Energy Sources of Energy Laws of Energy Units and Calculators Energy Conversion Calculators British Thermal Units (Btu) Degree-Days U.S. Energy Facts State and U.S. Territory Data Use of Energy In Industry For Transportation In Homes In Commercial Buildings Efficiency and Conservation Energy and the Environment Greenhouse Gases Effect on the Climate Where Greenhouse Gases Come From

  3. Litchfield Correctional Center District Heating Low Temperature...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Litchfield Correctional Center District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Litchfield Correctional Center District Heating Low Temperature...

  4. Merced Irrigation District | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Irrigation District Place: California Website: mercedid.com Twitter: @MercedID Facebook: https:www.facebook.comMercedIrrigationDistrict Outage Hotline: 209-722-3041...

  5. Twin Falls District | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    District Jump to: navigation, search Name: BML Twin Falls District Office Address: 2536 Kimberly Road Place: Twin Falls, ID Zip: 83301 Phone Number: 208-736-2350 Website:...

  6. BLM Boise District Office | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Boise District Office Jump to: navigation, search Name: BLM Boise District Office Abbreviation: Boise Place: Boise, Idaho ParentHolding Organization: BLM Idaho State Office...

  7. BLM Winnemucca District Office | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Winnemucca District Office Jump to: navigation, search Name: BLM Winnemucca District Office Abbreviation: Winnemucca Address: 5100 E. Winnemucca Blvd. Place: Winnemucca, Nevada...

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Metropolitan Utilities District...

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Metropolitan Utilities District Fuels Vehicles With Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Metropolitan Utilities District Fuels Vehicles With ...

  9. District Energy Technologies | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    through the centralized system. District energy systems often operate with combined heat and power (CHP) and waste heat recovery technologies. Learn more about district energy...

  10. California's 43rd congressional district: Energy Resources |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    can help OpenEI by expanding it. This page represents a congressional district in California. Registered Energy Companies in California's 43rd congressional district Ecosystem...

  11. California's 21st congressional district: Energy Resources |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    can help OpenEI by expanding it. This page represents a congressional district in California. Registered Energy Companies in California's 21st congressional district Agrimass...

  12. California's 41st congressional district: Energy Resources |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    can help OpenEI by expanding it. This page represents a congressional district in California. Registered Energy Companies in California's 41st congressional district BCL...

  13. California's 18th congressional district: Energy Resources |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    can help OpenEI by expanding it. This page represents a congressional district in California. Registered Energy Companies in California's 18th congressional district 1st Light...

  14. California's 38th congressional district: Energy Resources |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    can help OpenEI by expanding it. This page represents a congressional district in California. Registered Energy Companies in California's 38th congressional district California...

  15. California's 45th congressional district: Energy Resources |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    can help OpenEI by expanding it. This page represents a congressional district in California. Registered Energy Companies in California's 45th congressional district Chuckawalla...

  16. Pascoag Utility District | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    search Name: Pascoag Utility District Place: Rhode Island Website: www.pud-ri.org Twitter: @PascoagUtility Facebook: https:www.facebook.comPascoagUtilityDistrict Outage...

  17. California's 42nd congressional district: Energy Resources |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    district Inland Empire Utilities Agency IEUA Scheuten Solar USA Inc US South Coast Air Quality Management District SCAQMD Western Ethanol Company LLC Utility Companies in...

  18. Dawson Power District | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Dawson Power District Jump to: navigation, search Name: Dawson Power District Place: Nebraska Phone Number: 308-324-2386 Website: dawsonpower.com Twitter: @DawsonPower Facebook:...

  19. Montana Association of Conservation Districts Webpage | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Districts Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Association of Conservation Districts Webpage Abstract Homepage of...

  20. Massachusetts's 2nd congressional district: Energy Resources...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    can help OpenEI by expanding it. This page represents a congressional district in Massachusetts. Registered Energy Companies in Massachusetts's 2nd congressional district Alyra...

  1. Manzanita Estates District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Manzanita Estates District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Manzanita Estates District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  2. Connecticut's 3rd congressional district: Energy Resources |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    can help OpenEI by expanding it. This page represents a congressional district in Connecticut. Registered Energy Companies in Connecticut's 3rd congressional district Avalence...

  3. Connecticut's 2nd congressional district: Energy Resources |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    can help OpenEI by expanding it. This page represents a congressional district in Connecticut. US Recovery Act Smart Grid Projects in Connecticut's 2nd congressional district...

  4. Effect of species and wood to bark ratio on pelleting of southern woods

    SciTech Connect

    Bradfield, J.; Levi, M.P.

    1984-01-01

    Six common southern hardwoods and loblolly pine were pelleted in a laboratory pellet mill. The pellet furnishes were blended to test the effect of different wood to bark ratios on pellet durability and production rate. Included was a ratio chosen to simulate the wood to bark ratio found in whole-tree chips. This furnish produced good quality pellets for all species tested. Pelleting of the pure wood of hardwoods was not successful; furnish routinely blocked the pellet mill dies. Pure pine wood, however, did produce acceptable pellets. It was noted that, as lignin and extractive content increased above a threshold level, the precentage of fines produced in a pellet durability test increased. Thus, all pine and tupelo wood/bark mixes produces high fines. This reduces the desirability of the pellets in the marketplace. Further research is necessary to confirm this relationship. This study suggests that both tree species and wood/bark ratio affect the durability of pellets and the rate with which they can be produced in a laboratory pellet mill. 9 references.

  5. Wood Energy Scenarios and Southern Markets

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    WOOD ENERGY SCENARIOS AND SOUTHERN MARKETS PRAKASH NEPAL 1 , KAREN ABT 2 , KEN SKOG 3 , ROBERT ABT 1 1 DEPARTMENT OF FORESTRY & ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES, NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY 2 USDA FOREST SERVICE, SOUTHERN RESEARCH STATION, RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK 3 USDA FOREST SERVICE, FOREST PRODUCTS LABORATORY, MADISON, WI (RETIRED) Photo: Juergen Henkelmann, Alamy Photo: conserve-energy-future.com Photo: Duke University BACKGROUND  Previous billion ton reports did not explicitly consider

  6. 2016 ASI Annual Review UTK Wood Final

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Annual Review Meeting Development and Demonstration of a Model Based Assessment Process for Qualification of Embedded Digital Devices in Nuclear Power Applications Richard Wood The University of Tennessee NEET Project No.: 15-8097 October 12-13, 2016 2 Project Overview nProject Goal Develop an effective approach to resolve concerns about common-cause failure (CCF) vulnerabilities in embedded digital devices (EDDs) nFocus Address the challenge of establishing high levels of safety and reliability

  7. Boise geothermal district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  8. Turlock Irrigation District- PV Rebate

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Turlock Irrigation District (TID) offers an incentive program to their customers who install solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. In keeping with the terms of the California Solar Initiative, the inc...

  9. Missouri School District Charges Up

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Missouri's Lee's Summit R-7 school district's distribution fleet was tired. Many of the vehicles had racked up more than 300,000 miles and made frequent trips to the shop to repair the 20 plus-year-old parts.

  10. Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten, Jr., Carl Frederick

    2010-04-20

    A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

  11. Massachusetts Schools Switch to Wood Pellets | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Massachusetts Schools Switch to Wood Pellets Massachusetts Schools Switch to Wood Pellets August 20, 2015 - 5:22pm Addthis Art created by a student at John Briggs Elementary School as part of their recent Green Ceremony. John Briggs Elementary is one of the Massachusetts schools switching their heating fuel source from petroleum based fuels to wood pellets. Art created by a student at John Briggs Elementary School as part of their recent Green Ceremony. John Briggs Elementary is one of the

  12. From the Woods to the Refinery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    From the Woods to the Refinery From the Woods to the Refinery Breakout Session 2D-Building Market Confidence and Understanding II: Carbon Accounting and Woody Biofuels From the Woods to the Refinery Stephen S. Kelley, Principal and Department Head, Department of Forest Biomaterials, North Carolina State University kelley_biomass_2014.pdf (1.77 MB) More Documents & Publications GREET Bioenergy Life Cycle Analysis and Key Issues for Woody Feedstocks Biomass Program Peer Review Sustainability

  13. Wood Energy Scenarios and Southern Markets | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Wood Energy Scenarios and Southern Markets Wood Energy Scenarios and Southern Markets Breakout Session 1A: Assessing America's Biomass Potential (2016 Billion-Ton Report) Wood Energy Scenarios and Southern Markets Prakash Nepal, Research Assistant Professor, U.S. Department of Agriculture and North Carolina State University nepal_bioenergy_2016.pdf (1.96 MB) More Documents & Publications Bioenergy Demand in a Market Driven Forest Economy (U.S. South) U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply

  14. BLM Battle Mountain District Office | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Mountain District Office Jump to: navigation, search Logo: BLM Battle Mountain District Office Name: BLM Battle Mountain District Office Abbreviation: Battle Mountain Address: 50...

  15. PP-174 Imperial Irrigation District | Department of Energy

    Energy Saver

    4 Imperial Irrigation District PP-174 Imperial Irrigation District Presidential permit authorizing Imperial Irrigation District to construct, operate, and maintain electric ...

  16. Okaloosa Gas District Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical...

    Energy Saver

    Okaloosa Gas District (The District) an Independent Special District of the State of Florida is appreciative of the opportunity to submit for your consideration the following ...

  17. Bureau Valley School District Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Valley School District Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Bureau Valley School District Wind Farm Facility Bureau Valley School District Sector Wind energy Facility Type...

  18. Table 5a. Total District Heat Consumption per Effective Occupied...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    a. Total District Heat Consumption per Effective Occupied Square Foot, 1992 Building Characteristics All Buildings Using District Heat (thousand) Total District Heat Consumption...

  19. Wood-Burning Heating System Deduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    State Alabama Program Type Rebate Amount 100% Summary This statute allows individual taxpayers a deduction for the purchase and installation of a wood-burning heating system. The...

  20. Building America Case Study: Retrofit Measure for Embedded Wood...

    Energy Saver

    Existing Homes Building America Case Study Retrofit Measures for Embedded Wood Members in Insulated Mass Masonry Walls Lawrence, Massachusetts PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: The...

  1. Thermal Pretreatment of Wood for Cogasification/cofiring of Biomass...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ...cofiring of Biomass and Coal Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal Pretreatment of Wood for Cogasificationcofiring of Biomass and Coal Utilization of biomass as a ...

  2. Water Sampling At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Wood, 2002) ...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details...

  3. Water Sampling At Little Valley Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Little Valley Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  4. Water Sampling At Alvord Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Alvord Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  5. Water Sampling At Beowawe Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Beowawe Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details...

  6. Water Sampling At Salton Sea Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Salton Sea Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Salton...

  7. Water Sampling At Mccredie Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Mccredie Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details...

  8. Water Sampling At Umpqua Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Umpqua Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  9. Water Sampling At Zim's Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Wood, 2002...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Zim's Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity...

  10. Water Sampling At Heber Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Heber Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Heber Area...

  11. Water Sampling At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) ...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details...

  12. Water Sampling At Crane Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Crane Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  13. Water Sampling At Mickey Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Mickey Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  14. Title: Ames Blue Alert- Wood Cabinet Falls Apart

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Ames Blue Alert- Wood Cabinet Falls Apart Lessons Learned Statement- Cumulative damage can cause a loss of structural integrity. When furnishings are repeatedly exposed to water,...

  15. Energy and environmental innovations for chemically-preserved wood wastes

    SciTech Connect

    NREL

    2000-04-10

    This report is a fact sheet written for the Inventions and Innovation Program about a new method of disposing of chemically treated wood wastes.

  16. International WoodFuels LLC | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Maine Zip: 4101 Product: Maine-based pellet producer and installer of commercial wood pellet heating systems. Coordinates: 45.511795, -122.675629 Show Map Loading map......

  17. Wood Pulp Digetster Wall Corrosion Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, GE

    2003-09-18

    The modeling of the flow in a wood pulp digester is but one component of the investigation of the corrosion of digesters. This report describes the development of a Near-Wall-Model (NWM) that is intended to couple with a CFD model that determines the flow, heat, and chemical species transport and reaction within the bulk flow of a digester. Lubrication theory approximations were chosen from which to develop a model that could determine the flow conditions within a thin layer near the vessel wall using information from the interior conditions provided by a CFD calculation of the complete digester. The other conditions will be determined by coupled solutions of the wood chip, heat, and chemical species transport and chemical reactions. The NWM was to couple with a digester performance code in an iterative fashion to provide more detailed information about the conditions within the NW region. Process Simulations, Ltd (PSL) is developing the digester performance code. This more detailed (and perhaps more accurate) information from the NWM was to provide an estimate of the conditions that could aggravate the corrosion at the wall. It is intended that this combined tool (NWM-PSL) could be used to understand conditions at/near the wall in order to develop methods to reduce the corrosion. However, development and testing of the NWM flow model took longer than anticipated and the other developments (energy and species transport, chemical reactions and linking with the PSL code) were not completed. The development and testing of the NWM are described in this report. In addition, the investigation of the potential effects of a clear layer (layer reduced in concentration of wood chips) near the wall is reported in Appendix D. The existence of a clear layer was found to enhance the flow near the wall.

  18. California Local Air Districts | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    by District Phone Number: Varies by local district Website: www.arb.ca.govcapcoaroster.h This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. References Retrieved from...

  19. Fuels for Schools Program Uses Leftover Wood to Warm Buildings

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    In parts of this country, wood seems like the outsider in the biomass family. New ethanol plants that grind down millions of bushels of corn in the Midwest and breakthroughs in algae along the coasts always garner the most attention. But in states like Montana, a place with over 70 million acres of forest, wood is the biofuel of choice.

  20. Massachusetts's 7th congressional district: Energy Resources...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Networking Organizations in Massachusetts's 7th congressional district Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships, Inc Registered Energy Companies in Massachusetts's 7th...

  1. Designs for maximum utilization of district heating systems ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AND UTILIZATION; DISTRICT HEATING; DESIGN; ECONOMIC ANALYSIS; GEOTHERMAL DISTRICT HEATING; COST; EFFICIENCY; SENSITIVITY; ECONOMICS; GEOTHERMAL HEATING; HEATING Geothermal ...

  2. Wood fuel technologies and group-oriented Timber Stand Improvement Program: model for waste wood utilization and resource renewal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following: educating and assisting landowners in the most efficient and profitable use of wood resources; developing local timber resources as energy alternatives by representing collective interests to Consumers Power, the woodchip industry, firewood retailers, country residents, and woodlot owners; and providing public information on the economics and methods of wood heat as a supplemental energy source. (MHR)

  3. Multipass comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2014-05-27

    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction one or more times through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel.

  4. Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

    2007-09-07

    Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal

  5. Feasibility for Wood Heat - Collaborative Integrated Wood Energy Program for Yukon Flats Villages

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    for Wood Heat * Non-Profit Consortium of Ten Tribal Governments within the Yukon Flats. * CATG Administers several Tribal Programs on behalf of the Tribes. * CATG also applies for and administers several other grants. - IHS, Regional Clinic (Fort Yukon), Health Aids in Each Village, drug and alcohol programs, and other health related programs. - Natural Resources, EPA/IGAP, ANA (Traditional Land use Planning and Mapping), GIS, USDA RC&D, Contracts/Compacts with the USF&W (first tribal

  6. Dynamics of Wood Chip Storage: Task I

    SciTech Connect

    Sworden, P. G.

    1982-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to document Dow Corning's decision making process in establishing a fuelwood supply and procurement system with emphasis on how this relates to private forest landowners. The report will provide background on the decision to investigate wood energy systems and key management questions in that decision process. Information used to answer the key management questions will be high-lighted and its usefulness documented, including resource assessment and requirements. The report will discuss the development and implementation of the landowner assistance program and supplier-producer program. At the end of the report, Dow Corning's experiences will be summarized and some conclusions drawn concerning the success of the program.

  7. Wood chips: an exploration of problems and opportunities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report evaluates the current use of and potential market for wood chips as a fuel in the Northeast. This study covers the residential, commercial, and light industrial sectors and addresses cost, reliability, marketing systems, and technology improvements. A review of the available equipment for wood chip harvesting, processing, handling, drying, and transport is included. Three representative strategic business guides for different chip suppliers are presented. There is also a recommended action plan for future programs with initiatives that could facilitate the development of the wood chip market. 25 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Wood-Polymer composites obtained by gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gago, J.; Lopez, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Santiago, J.; Acevedo, M.

    2007-10-26

    In this work we impregnate three Peruvian woods (Calycophy spruceanum Be, Aniba amazonica Meiz and Hura crepitans L) with styrene-polyester resin and methyl methacrylate. The polymerization of the system was promoted by gamma radiation and the experimental optimal condition was obtained with styrene-polyester 1:1 and 15 kGy. The obtained composites show reduced water absorption and better mechanical properties compared to the original wood. The structure of the wood-polymer composites was studied by light microscopy. Water absorption and hardness were also obtained.

  9. An economical and market analysis of Canadian wood pellets.

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, J.

    2010-08-01

    This study systematically examined the current and future wood pellet market, estimated the cost of Canadian torrefied pellets, and compared the torrefied pellets with the conventional pellets based on literature and industrial data. The results showed that the wood pellet industry has been gaining significant momentum due to the European bioenergy incentives and the rising oil and natural gas prices. With the new bioenergy incentives in USA, the future pellets market may shift to North America, and Canada can potentially become the largest pellet production centre, supported by the abundant wood residues and mountain pine beetle (MPB) infested trees.

  10. Method for lowering the VOCS emitted during drying of wood products

    DOEpatents

    Banerjee, Sujit (1832 Jacksons Creek Point, Marietta, GA 30068); Boerner, James Robert (154 Junedale Rd., Cincinnati, OH 45218); Su, Wei (2262 Orleans Ave., Marietta, GA 30062)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for removal of VOCs from wood products prior to drying the wood products. The method of the invention includes the steps of providing a chamber having an opening for receiving wood and loading the chamber with green wood. The wood is loaded to an extent sufficient to provide a limited headspace in the chamber. The chamber is then closed and the wood is heated in the chamber for a time and at a temperature sufficient to saturate the headspace with moisture and to substantially transfer VOCs from the wood product to the moisture in the headspace.

  11. Huntington Woods, Michigan: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Huntington Woods is a city in Oakland County, Michigan. It falls under Michigan's 12th...

  12. Laguna Woods, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Laguna Woods is a city in Orange County, California. It falls under California's 48th...

  13. Study of emissions from small woods - fired boiler systems

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This short article announces a testing project RFP to determine the air emissions produced by small wood-chip fired combustion systems and to determine associated health risks if any.

  14. Improving combustion in residential size wood chip fireboxes

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, E.R.

    1982-12-01

    In a small experimental wood chip firebox with separate control of grate and overfire air, combustion intensity was increased with reduction in flyash and carbon monoxide by reducing air through the grate to a small fraction of stoichiometric air.

  15. Community Based Wood Heat System for Fort Yukon

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    80,000 acres in one month Proposed Rural Wood Fuel Supply System *Capital costs for system capable of producing 7,000 TPY: 600,000 Key Obstacles to Overcome Development...

  16. Wood Dale, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Wood Dale is a city in DuPage County, Illinois. It falls under Illinois' 6th congressional...

  17. Wood County, West Virginia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Wood County is a county in West Virginia. Its FIPS County Code is 107. It is classified as...

  18. Wood County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Wood County is a county in Texas. Its FIPS County Code is 499. It is classified as ASHRAE...

  19. Wood Village, Oregon: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Wood Village is a city in Multnomah County, Oregon. It falls under Oregon's 3rd...

  20. Wood-Ridge, New Jersey: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Wood-Ridge, New Jersey: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 40.8456555, -74.0879195 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappin...

  1. Wood-Composites Industry Benefits from ALS Research

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    that wood-composite development is something that will bolster the U.S. economy, matches the funding from the WBC. "People in this industry are always looking for ways to...

  2. How Much Wood Would a North Country School Chip

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    North Country School in Lake Placid, New York, recently installed a high-efficiency wood chip boiler using Recovery Act funds from the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. Using wood sourced from their sustainably managed woodlot and local forests, the school will be able to cut energy costs by $38,970 annually and reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 184 tons per year.

  3. Genomics of wood-degrading fungi (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Genomics of wood-degrading fungi Title: Genomics of wood-degrading fungi Authors: Ohm, Robin A. ; Riley, Robert ; Salamov, Asaf ; Min, Byoungnam ; Choi, In-Geol ; Grigoriev, Igor V. Publication Date: 2014-11-01 OSTI Identifier: 1222394 Grant/Contract Number: AC02-05CH11231 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Fungal Genetics and Biology (Print) Additional Journal Information: Journal Name: Fungal Genetics and Biology (Print); Journal Volume: 72; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN

  4. Evaluation of processes for producing gasoline from wood. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    Three processes for producing gasoline from wood by pyrolysis have been investigated. Technical and economic comparisons among the processes have been made, based on a hypothetical common plant size of 2000 tons per day green wood chip feedstock. In order to consider the entire fuel production process, the energy and cost inputs for producing and delivering the feedstock were included in the analysis. In addition, perspective has been provided by comparisons of the wood-to-gasoline technologies with other similar systems, including coal-to-methanol and various biomass-to-alcohol systems. Based on several assumptions that were required because of the candidate processes' information gaps, comparisons of energy efficiency were made. Several descriptors of energy efficiency were used, but all showed that methanol production from wood, with or without subsequent processing by the Mobil route to gasoline, appears most promising. It must be emphasized, however, that the critical wood-to-methanol system remains conceptual. Another observation was that the ethanol production systems appear inferior to the wood-to-gasoline processes. Each of the processes investigated requires further research and development to answer the questions about their potential contributions confidently. The processes each have so many unknowns that it appears unwise to pursue any one while abandoning the others.

  5. Central Lincoln People's Utility District - Residential Energy...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    electric Program Info Sector Name Utility Administrator Central Lincoln People(tm)s Utility District Website http:clpud.orgrebate-information State Oregon Program Type...

  6. Truckee Donner Public Utility District - Energy Conservation...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    rebates 10,000 Program Info Sector Name Utility Administrator Truckee Donner Public Utility District Website http:www.tdpud.org State California Program Type Rebate...

  7. Pennsylvania's 14th congressional district: Energy Resources...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    district Alcoa BPL Global Enerlogics Networks IBACOS Kurt J Lesker Company PNC Financial Services Plextronics Plextronics Inc Propel IT Inc. Siemens Westinghouse Power...

  8. Connecticut's 5th congressional district: Energy Resources |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in Connecticut. Registered Energy Companies in Connecticut's 5th congressional district Efficiency Lighting & Maintenance Inc Electro Energy Inc FuelCell Energy Inc FuelCell...

  9. Photovoltaic System in Philadelphia Center City District

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    This photograph features a 3-kilowatt photovoltaic (PV) installation on the roof of a building in the Center City District of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

  10. Douglas County School District Success Story

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    district in the state, had mounting maintenance needs and failing infrastructure with aging buildings. This was compounded by a budget already stretched to the limit, declining...

  11. California's 19th congressional district: Energy Resources |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Chowchilla Biomass Facility Fresno Biomass Facility Madera Biomass Facility SPI Sonora Biomass Facility Utility Companies in California's 19th congressional district Modesto...

  12. California's 46th congressional district: Energy Resources |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in California's 46th congressional district 808 Investments LLC All Valley Solar Allegro Biodiesel Corporation Altra Inc American Elements Amonix Inc Assured Power and...

  13. Empire District Electric- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Empire District Electric Company offers rebates for customers who construct highly efficient homes and purchase efficient central air conditioners. Eligible customers include residential...

  14. California's 47th congressional district: Energy Resources |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    US Recovery Act Smart Grid Projects in California's 47th congressional district City of Anaheim Smart Grid Project Registered Energy Companies in California's 47th...

  15. California's 40th congressional district: Energy Resources |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    US Recovery Act Smart Grid Projects in California's 40th congressional district City of Anaheim Smart Grid Project Registered Energy Companies in California's 40th...

  16. Massachusetts's 10th congressional district: Energy Resources...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Registered Energy Companies in Massachusetts's 10th congressional district AXI LLC BioEnergy International LLC Bluestone Energy Services Ltd Eco Power Solutions Heliotronics...

  17. California's 20th congressional district: Energy Resources |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    California. Registered Energy Companies in California's 20th congressional district BioEnergy Solutions BES Castle Cooke Inc Great Valley Ethanol LLC Mt Poso Cogeneration Pacific...

  18. California's 22nd congressional district: Energy Resources |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    22nd congressional district Advanced Conservation Systems Bill Robinson (Train2Build) BioEnergy Solutions BES California Sunrise Alternative Energy Development LLC Castle Cooke Inc...

  19. Connecticut's 1st congressional district: Energy Resources |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    1st congressional district Aztech Engineers Connecticut Light and Power Infinity Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Inc LiquidPiston Inc Nxegen SmartPower United Technologies Corp...

  20. Turlock Irrigation District | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    @TurlockID Facebook: https:www.facebook.compagesTurlock-Irrigation-District112344728820408 Outage Hotline: 209-883-8301 or (209) 892-4936 (from Patterson) Outage Map:...

  1. Pennsylvania's 1st congressional district: Energy Resources ...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in Pennsylvania's 1st congressional district PECO Energy Co Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titlePennsylvania%27s1stcongressionaldistrict&oldid198299...

  2. Pennsylvania's 13th congressional district: Energy Resources...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in Pennsylvania's 13th congressional district PECO Energy Co Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titlePennsylvania%27s13thcongressionaldistrict&oldid198281...

  3. California's 28th congressional district: Energy Resources |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in California's 28th congressional district Angeleno Group Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCalifornia%27s28thcongressionaldistrict&oldid181514...

  4. California's 37th congressional district: Energy Resources |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    37th congressional district Angeleno Group Hydrogen Ventures Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCalifornia%27s37thcongressionaldistrict&oldid181534...

  5. Pennsylvania's 8th congressional district: Energy Resources ...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in Pennsylvania's 8th congressional district PECO Energy Co Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titlePennsylvania%27s8thcongressionaldistrict&oldid198313...

  6. California's 26th congressional district: Energy Resources |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in California's 26th congressional district Angeleno Group Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCalifornia%27s26thcongressionaldistrict&oldid181511...

  7. California's 35th congressional district: Energy Resources |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in California's 35th congressional district Angeleno Group Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCalifornia%27s35thcongressionaldistrict&oldid181530...

  8. California's 33rd congressional district: Energy Resources |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in California's 33rd congressional district Angeleno Group Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCalifornia%27s33rdcongressionaldistrict&oldid181527...

  9. California's 32nd congressional district: Energy Resources |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in California's 32nd congressional district Angeleno Group Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCalifornia%27s32ndcongressionaldistrict&oldid181525...

  10. California's 31st congressional district: Energy Resources |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in California's 31st congressional district Angeleno Group Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCalifornia%27s31stcongressionaldistrict&oldid181523...

  11. California's 34th congressional district: Energy Resources |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in California's 34th congressional district Angeleno Group Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCalifornia%27s34thcongressionaldistrict&oldid181528...

  12. California's 23rd congressional district: Energy Resources |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    23rd congressional district NGEN Partners LLC (Southern California) Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCalifornia%27s23rdcongressionaldistrict&oldid181505...

  13. California's 36th congressional district: Energy Resources |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in California's 36th congressional district Angeleno Group Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCalifornia%27s36thcongressionaldistrict&oldid181532...

  14. California's 39th congressional district: Energy Resources |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    39th congressional district Angeleno Group Hydrogen Ventures Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCalifornia%27s39thcongressionaldistrict&oldid181537...

  15. Pennsylvania's 9th congressional district: Energy Resources ...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Registered Energy Companies in Pennsylvania's 9th congressional district Energex Pellet Fuel Inc Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titlePennsylvania%27s9thc...

  16. Pennsylvania's 19th congressional district: Energy Resources...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Registered Energy Companies in Pennsylvania's 19th congressional district Carlisle Construction Materials Enginuity Energy, LLC Keystone Biofuels PaceControls LLC Soy Energy...

  17. Nevada Irrigation District | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    search Name: Nevada Irrigation District Place: California Website: nidwater.com Outage Hotline: (530) 273-6185 References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 -...

  18. TWDB Groundwater Conservation Districts website | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    TWDB Groundwater Conservation Districts website Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: TWDB Groundwater Conservation...

  19. Korea District Heating Corporation | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Korea (Republic) Zip: 463 908 Product: Korea-based organisation seeking to promote energy conservation and improve living standards through the efficient use of district...

  20. Pennsylvania's 17th congressional district: Energy Resources...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Registered Energy Companies in Pennsylvania's 17th congressional district Agra Bio Fuels Independence Biofuels Inc Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection DEP...

  1. Putnam District, Connecticut: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Putnam District, Connecticut: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 41.9257629, -71.9104934 Show Map Loading map......

  2. Pennsylvania's 5th congressional district: Energy Resources ...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Solarity Energy Generation Facilities in Pennsylvania's 5th congressional district Montgomery Biomass Facility Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titlePennsylvania...

  3. Moisture Distribution and Flow During Drying of Wood and Fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Zink-Sharp, Audrey; Hanna, Robert B.

    2001-12-28

    New understanding, theories, and techniques for moisture flow and distribution were developed in this research on wood and wood fiber. Improved understanding of the mechanisms of flake drying has been provided. Observations of flake drying and drying rate curves revealed that rate of moisture loss consisted of two falling rate periods and no constant rate drying period was observed. Convective heat transfer controls the first period, and bound water diffusion controls the second period. Influence of lower drying temperatures on bending properties of wood flakes was investigated. Drying temperature was found to have a significant influence on bending stiffness and strength. A worksheet for calculation of the energy required to dry a single strandboard flake was developed but has not been tested in an industrial setting yet. A more complete understanding of anisotropic transverse shrinkage of wood is proposed based on test results and statistical analysis. A simplified mod el of a wood cell's cross-section was drawn for calculating differential transverse shrinkage. The model utilizes cell wall thickness and microfibrillar packing density and orientation. In spite of some phenomena of cell wall structure not yet understood completely, the results might explain anisotropic transverse shrinkage to a major extent. Boundary layer theory was found useful for evaluating external moisture resistance during drying. Simulated moisture gradients were quire comparable to the actual gradients in dried wood. A mathematical procedure for determining diffusion and surface emission coefficients was also developed. Thermal conductivity models of wood derived from its anatomical structure were created and tested against experimental values. Model estimations provide insights into changes in heat transfer parameters during drying. Two new techniques for measuring moisture gradients created in wood during drying were developed. A new technique that utilizes optical properties of cobalt

  4. Property:ManagingDistrictOffice | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    ManagingDistrictOffice Jump to: navigation, search Property Name ManagingDistrictOffice Property Type Page Pages using the property "ManagingDistrictOffice" Showing 25 pages using...

  5. Buckeye Water C&D District | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Buckeye Water C&D District (Redirected from Buckeye Irrigation District) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Buckeye Water C&D District Place: Arizona Phone Number: 623-386-2196...

  6. LBNL: Architecture 2030 District Program and Small Commercial Toolkit |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy LBNL: Architecture 2030 District Program and Small Commercial Toolkit LBNL: Architecture 2030 District Program and Small Commercial Toolkit LBNL: Architecture 2030 District Program and Small Commercial Toolkit Lead Performer: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - Berkeley, CA Partners: - Architecture 2030 - Santa Fe, NM - Cleveland 2030 District - Cleveland, OH - Green Building Alliance/Pittsburgh 2030 District - Pittsburgh, PA - Seattle 2030 District - Seattle, WA -

  7. Cofiring Wood and Coal to Stoker Boilers in Pittsburgh

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T., Jr.; Elder, W.W.

    1997-07-01

    The prime objective of the University of Pittsburgh's overall wood/coal cofiring program is the successful introduction of commercial cofiring of urban wood wastes into the stoker boilers of western Pennsylvania. Central to this objective is the demonstration test at the Pittsburgh Brewing Company. In this test the project team is working to show that two commercially-available clean wood wastes - tub-ground pallet waste and chipped clearance wood - can be included in the fuel fed daily to an industrial stoker boiler. Irrespective of its economic outcome, the technical success of the demonstration at the brewery will allow the local air quality regulation agency to permit a parametric test at the Bellefield Boiler Plant. The objective of this test is to obtain comprehensive data on all key parameters of this operational boiler while firing wood with coal. The data would then be used for thorough generic technical and economic analyses. The technical analysis would be added to the open literature for the general planning and operational guidance for boiler owners and operators. The economic analysis would gage the potential for providing this stoker fuel commercially in an urban setting and for purchasing it regularly for combustion in an urban stoker boiler.

  8. Decision-maker's guide to wood fuel for small industrial energy users. Final report. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, M. P.; O'Grady, M. J.

    1980-02-01

    The technology and economics of various wood energy systems available to the small industrial and commercial energy user are considered. This book is designed to help a plant manager, engineer, or others in a decision-making role to become more familiar with wood fuel systems and make informed decisions about switching to wood as a fuel. The following subjects are discussed: wood combustion, pelletized wood, fuel storage, fuel handling and preparation, combustion equipment, retrofitting fossil-fueled boilers, cogeneration, pollution abatement, and economic considerations of wood fuel use. (MHR)

  9. Boulder Valley School District (Colorado) Power Purchase Agreement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Boulder Valley School District (Colorado) Power Purchase Agreement Case Study Boulder Valley School District (Colorado) Power Purchase Agreement Case Study Boulder Valley School ...

  10. Texas's 6th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    by expanding it. This page represents a congressional district in Texas. Registered Energy Companies in Texas's 6th congressional district Corsicana Chemical Company Demilec...

  11. Warren Estates District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Warren Estates District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warren Estates District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  12. Idaho Capitol Mall District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Idaho Capitol Mall District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Idaho Capitol Mall District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  13. Fort Boise Veteran's Hospital District Heating Low Temperature...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Fort Boise Veteran's Hospital District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Fort Boise Veteran's Hospital District Heating Low Temperature...

  14. New Jersey's 2nd congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    district in New Jersey. Registered Energy Companies in New Jersey's 2nd congressional district Bartholomew Heating and Cooling Fishermen s Energy Fishermen s Energy of New...

  15. Maine's 2nd congressional district: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    You can help OpenEI by expanding it. This page represents a congressional district in Maine. Registered Energy Companies in Maine's 2nd congressional district Evergreen Wind...

  16. Washington Gas Energy Services (District of Columbia) | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Washington Gas Energy Services (District of Columbia) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Washington Gas Energy Services Place: District of Columbia References: EIA Form EIA-861...

  17. BLM California Desert District Office | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    California Desert District Office Jump to: navigation, search Name: California Desert District Office Address: 22835 Calle San Juan De Los Lagos Place: Moreno Valley, CA Zip: 92553...

  18. BLM Central California District Office | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Central California District Office Jump to: navigation, search Name: BLM Central California District Office Address: 2800 Cottage Way, Suite W-1623 Place: Sacramento, CA Zip: 95825...

  19. Texas's 19th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    district in Texas. Registered Energy Companies in Texas's 19th congressional district Big Daddy s Biodiesel Inc Cratech Inc Horn Wind Lauren Engineers amp Constructors Levelland...

  20. Iowa's 2nd congressional district: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    district in Iowa. Registered Energy Companies in Iowa's 2nd congressional district Big River Resources LLC EnerGenetics International First BTU Iowa Renewable Energy LLC...

  1. Valley Center Municipal Water District | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Valley Center Municipal Water District Jump to: navigation, search Name: Valley Center Municipal Water District Place: Valley Center, California Zip: 92082 Product: VCMWD is the...

  2. Washington's 3rd congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    can help OpenEI by expanding it. This page represents a congressional district in Washington. Registered Research Institutions in Washington's 3rd congressional district WSU...

  3. Yuliangwan Hydropower of Hongjiang District Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Yuliangwan Hydropower of Hongjiang District Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Yuliangwan Hydropower of Hongjiang District Co Ltd Place: Huaihua, Hunan Province, China Zip:...

  4. Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. (District of Columbia...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. (District of Columbia) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hess Retail Natural Gas and Elec. Acctg. Place: District of Columbia References:...

  5. North Carolina's 6th congressional district: Energy Resources...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    You can help OpenEI by expanding it. This page represents a congressional district in North Carolina. Registered Energy Companies in North Carolina's 6th congressional district...

  6. North Carolina's 3rd congressional district: Energy Resources...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    You can help OpenEI by expanding it. This page represents a congressional district in North Carolina. Registered Energy Companies in North Carolina's 3rd congressional district...

  7. Ground Water Management District Rules | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Water Management District Rules Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Ground Water Management District Rules Abstract This webpage provides...

  8. Washington's 8th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Energy Companies in Washington's 8th congressional district GreenFoot Technologies Prometheus Energy Sunreps Utility Companies in Washington's 8th congressional district Alder...

  9. Sacramento Municipal Utility District Solar Array | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Municipal Utility District Solar Array Sector Solar Facility Type Ground-mounted fixed tilt Owner EnXco Developer EnXco Energy Purchaser Sacramento Municipal Utility District...

  10. Noble Americas Energy Solutions LLC (District of Columbia) |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    District of Columbia) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Noble Americas Energy Solutions LLC Place: District of Columbia References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 -...

  11. Virginia's 3rd congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    You can help OpenEI by expanding it. This page represents a congressional district in Virginia. Registered Energy Companies in Virginia's 3rd congressional district Enviva...

  12. Virginia's 9th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    You can help OpenEI by expanding it. This page represents a congressional district in Virginia. Registered Energy Companies in Virginia's 9th congressional district Evatran LLC...

  13. Virginia's 7th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    You can help OpenEI by expanding it. This page represents a congressional district in Virginia. Registered Energy Companies in Virginia's 7th congressional district Enviva...

  14. Louisiana's 5th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Act Smart Grid Projects in Louisiana's 5th congressional district Cleco Power LLC Smart Grid Project Registered Energy Companies in Louisiana's 5th congressional district...

  15. Louisiana's 7th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Projects in Louisiana's 7th congressional district Lafayette Consolidated Government, LA Smart Grid Project Energy Generation Facilities in Louisiana's 7th congressional district...

  16. Arkansas's 1st congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Act Smart Grid Projects in Arkansas's 1st congressional district Woodruff Electric Smart Grid Project Utility Companies in Arkansas's 1st congressional district City Water...

  17. Tennessee's 9th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Projects in Tennessee's 9th congressional district Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Smart Grid Project Registered Energy Companies in Tennessee's 9th congressional district...

  18. New Hampshire's 2nd congressional district: Energy Resources...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    You can help OpenEI by expanding it. This page represents a congressional district in New Hampshire. Registered Energy Companies in New Hampshire's 2nd congressional district...

  19. US South Coast Air Quality Management District SCAQMD | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    South Coast Air Quality Management District SCAQMD Jump to: navigation, search Name: US South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Place: Diamond Bar, California Zip: CA...

  20. Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems...

    Energy Saver

    Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumpsand Ground Source Water Loops Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and...

  1. Virginia's 1st congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Virginia's 1st congressional district Delta T Corporation E85 Inc Virginia Biodiesel Refinery Utility Companies in Virginia's 1st congressional district Rappahannock Electric Coop...

  2. California's 5th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    5th congressional district Sacramento Municipal Utility District Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCalifornia%27s5thcongressionaldistrict&oldid181571...

  3. Washington's 2nd congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Biofuels LLC Energy Generation Facilities in Washington's 2nd congressional district S.P. Everett Biomass Facility Utility Companies in Washington's 2nd congressional district...

  4. Hawaii Conservation District Use Application (DLNR CDUA Form...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Conservation District Use Application (DLNR CDUA Form) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Hawaii Conservation District Use Application (DLNR...

  5. Kings River Conservation District (KRCD) Solar Farm Solar Power...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    River Conservation District (KRCD) Solar Farm Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Kings River Conservation District (KRCD) Solar Farm Solar Power Plant Facility...

  6. Texas's 12th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    You can help OpenEI by expanding it. This page represents a congressional district in Texas. Registered Energy Companies in Texas's 12th congressional district Aecom Government...

  7. School District Success Story-A Performance Contracting Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    School District Success Story-A Performance Contracting Program School District Success Story-A Performance Contracting Program Provides an overview case study of Douglas County,...

  8. Prices by Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Type, PAD District, and Selected States 224 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1997 Table 39. No. 2 Distillate a Prices by Sales Type, PAD District, and...

  9. Prices by Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Type, PAD District, and Selected States 224 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1996 Table 39. No. 2 Distillate a Prices by Sales Type, PAD District, and...

  10. Devonshire Energy, LLC (District of Columbia) | Open Energy Informatio...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Devonshire Energy, LLC (District of Columbia) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Devonshire Energy, LLC Place: District of Columbia References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for...

  11. BLM Color Country District Office | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Color Country District Office Jump to: navigation, search Name: BLM Color Country District Office Place: Cedar City, Utah ParentHolding Organization: BLM References: BLM Color...

  12. Utah's 3rd congressional district: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    district in Utah. Registered Energy Companies in Utah's 3rd congressional district Better Biodiesel Composite Tower Solutions Domestic Energy Partners Evergreen Clean Energy FT...

  13. Kansas's 3rd congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    You can help OpenEI by expanding it. This page represents a congressional district in Kansas. Registered Energy Companies in Kansas's 3rd congressional district Clean Energy...

  14. Integrating district cooling with cogeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Spurr, M.

    1996-11-01

    Chillers can be driven with cogenerated thermal energy, thereby offering the potential to increase utilization of cogeneration throughout the year. However, cogeneration decreases electric output compared to condensing power generation in power plants using a steam cycle (steam turbine or gas turbine combined cycle plants). The foregone electric production increases with increasing temperature of heat recovery. Given a range of conditions for key variables (such as cogeneration utilization, chiller utilization, cost of fuel, value of electricity, value of heat and temperature of heat recovered), how do technology alternatives for combining district cooling with cogeneration compare? This paper summarizes key findings from a report recently published by the International Energy Agency which examines the energy efficiency and economics of alternatives for combining cogeneration technology options (gas turbine simple cycle, diesel engine, steam turbine, gas turbine combined cycle) with chiller options (electric centrifugal, steam turbine centrifugal one-stage steam absorption, two-stage steam absorption, hot water absorption).

  15. Comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, James H.; Lanning, David N.

    2015-06-23

    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, wherein W.sub.C>L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (T.sub.D), and wherein at least one of L.sub.C, W.sub.C, and H.sub.C is less than T.sub.D.

  16. Comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-08-13

    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (T.sub.D), and wherein at least one of L.sub.C, W.sub.C, and H.sub.C is greater than T.sub.D.

  17. Gas pollution control apparatus and method and wood drying system employing same

    SciTech Connect

    Eatherton, J.R.

    1984-02-14

    Pollution control apparatus and method are disclosed in which hot exhaust gas containing pollutants including solid particles and hydrocarbon vapors is treated by transmitting such exhaust gas through a container containing wood members, such as wood chips, which serve as a filter media for filtering out such pollutants by causing such solids to deposit and such hydrocarbon vapors to condense upon the surface of the wood members. The contaminated wood chips are discharged from the filter and further processed into chip board or other commercial wood products thereby disposing of the pollutants. Lumber may be used as the wood members of the filter in a lumber kiln by deposition of solid particles on the rough surface of such lumber. The contaminated surfaces of the lumber are removed by a planer which produces a smooth finished lumber and contaminated wood chips that may be processed into chip board or other commercial wood products. A wood drying system employing such pollution control apparatus and method includes a hot air dryer for wood or other organic material, such as a wood chip rotary dryer or a wood veneer dryer, which produces hot exhaust gases containing pollutants including hydrocarbon vapors and solid particles. This hot exhaust air is transmitted through a lumber kiln to dry lumber thereby conserving heat energy and causing solid particle pollutants to deposit on the surface of the lumber. The kiln exhaust air containing solid and hydrocarbon vapor pollutants is then transmitted up through a filter stack of wood chips.

  18. Wood energy in Georgia: a five-year progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    An increasing number of industrial plants and public and residential facilities in Georgia are using wood, Georgia's greatest renewable energy source, to replace gas, oil, coal, and electricity. All wood systems described in this report are or will soon be in operation in schools, prisons, hospitals, and other state facilities, and are producing substantial financial savings. The economic values from increased markets and jobs are important in all areas of the state, with total benefits projected at $2.9 million a year for state taxpayers. 2 figures.

  19. 01-02-2008 - Wood Cabinet Falls Apart | The Ames Laboratory

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    8 - Wood Cabinet Falls Apart Document Number: NA Effective Date: 012008 File (public): PDF icon 01-02-2008blue...

  20. Effect of wood chip size on update gasifier-combustor operation

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, F.A.; Dunlap, J.L.; Caussanel, P.

    1984-01-01

    Three wood chip sizes were tested in a 0.3 GJ/h updraft gasifier-combustor. Thermal output did not vary significantly between wood chips. Pressure and temperature profiles were measured in the gasifier bed. Channeling occurred with the small wood chips. Efficiency of the combustor was determined by a mass and energy balance and an enthalpy technique.

  1. Engineering methods for the design and employment of wood cribs

    SciTech Connect

    Barczak, T.M. ); Gearhart, D.F. )

    1993-01-01

    Wood cribs are used extensively by the mining industry to stabilize mine openings. While the cost per crib is relatively low, their extensive use can result in annual mine costs of over $1 million. In an effort to improve the utilization of these supports and to reduce ground control hazards, the US Bureau of Mines has developed engineering methods to assist mine operators in wood-crib design and employment. Design and employment criteria are established based on the strength, stiffness, and stability of the crib structure in relation to the load conditions imposed by the mine environment. Models have been developed based on full-scale tests in the USBM's Mine Roof Simulator that compute the capacity of wood cribs of various configurations and material constructions as a function of displacement of the crib structure due to roof-and-floor convergence. These models permit the comparison of the loading characteristics and cost of employment of different crib designs, and in conjunction with roof behavior models, provide a means to determine the optimum design and employment strategy. In eastern coal mines, wood cribs generally are constructed from hardwood timbers, while softwood timbers generally are used in western coal mines. 11 refs., 27 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOEpatents

    Hill, Richard C.

    1982-01-01

    A stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel includes a vertical feed combustion chamber (15) for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack. A major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprises a water jacket (14) for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid for convection circulation of the fluid. The locus (31) of wood fuel combustion is thereby confined to the refractory base of the combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel (34) extending laterally from the base of the chamber affords delayed travel time in a high temperature refractory environment sufficient to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air prior to extraction of heat in heat exchanger (16). Induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion chamber and refractory high temperature zone to the heat exchanger and flue. Also included are active sources of forced air and induced draft, multiple circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  3. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOEpatents

    Hill, Richard C.

    1984-01-01

    A new and improved stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel including a vertical feed combustion chamber for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack, a major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprising a water jacket for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid and for convection circulation of the fluid for confining the locus of wood fuel combustion to the bottom of the vertical gravity feed combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel extending from the laterally directed draft outlet affords delayed travel time in a high temperature environment to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air as an actively induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion and high temperature zone. Active sources of forced air and induced draft are included, multiple use and circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  4. Production of chemical feedstock by the methanolysis of wood

    DOEpatents

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.

    1983-06-01

    A process is discussed for the production of ethylene, benzene and carbon monoxide from particulated biomass such as wood by reaction with methane at a temperature of from 700/sup 0/C to 1200/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from 20 psi to 100 psi for a period of from 0.2 to 10 seconds.

  5. Production of chemical feedstock by the methanolysis of wood

    DOEpatents

    Steinberg, Meyer; Fallon, Peter

    1984-07-31

    A process for the production of ethylene, benzene and carbon monoxide from particulated biomass such as wood by reaction with methane at a temperature of from 700.degree. C. to 1200.degree. C., at a pressure of from 20 psi to 100 psi for a period of from 0.2 to 10 seconds.

  6. Measure Guideline. Wood Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  7. Tonopah Irrigation District | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    District Place: Arizona Phone Number: (480) 610-8741 Website: www.krsaline.comtidtid.html Outage Hotline: 480.610.8741 References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 -...

  8. Butler Public Power District | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Nebraska Phone Number: 402-367-3081 or 402-367-3082 Website: www.butlerppd.com Facebook: https:www.facebook.compagesButler-Public-Power-District176407425708968 Outage...

  9. Merced Irrigation District- PV Buydown Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Merced Irrigation District (MID) offers its residential, commercial and non-profit customers a rebate for installing solar electric photovoltaic (PV) systems on their homes and offices. For 2015,...

  10. Pennsylvania's 12th congressional district: Energy Resources...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    th congressional district: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. This page represents a...

  11. The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    SW Washington, DC 20585-0121 QERcomments@hq.doe.gov Comments on the Department of Energy's Quadrennial Energy Review: Water-Energy Nexus The Metropolitan Water District of Southern ...

  12. Imperial Irrigation District | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    District Place: California Phone Number: 800-303-7756 Website: www.iid.com Facebook: https:www.facebook.comIIDEnergy Outage Hotline: (800) 303-7756 References: EIA...

  13. Butler Public Power District | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Butler County Rural P P D) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Butler Public Power District Place: Nebraska Phone Number: 402-367-3081 or 402-367-3082 Website: www.butlerppd.com...

  14. Applied Solutions Webinar: Insights Into District Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Local governments and their communities that inhabit dense locations can take advantage of district heating and/or cooling systems as a way to increase energy efficiency and reliability while...

  15. Using recycled wood waste as a fuel in the northeast: A handbook for prospective urban wood waste producers, suppliers and consumers

    SciTech Connect

    Prast, W.G.; Donovan, C.T.

    1988-03-01

    This report provides a comprehensive analysis of existing and future markets for recycled wood wastes in the eleven-state northeast region. The purpose of the report is to estimate the availability of wood and woody materials in the solid waste stream and to determine the technical and economic viability of separating and recycling them for other uses. The topics discussed include: current and future markets for recycled wood wastes; key components of successful wood waste processing facilities; decisionmaking process used to determine technical and economic viability of a proposed processing facility; environmental regulations and the permitting process required for recycled wood waste processors and users; case studies and annotated listings of existing wood waste processors and uses; detailed assessments of market opportunities in three metropolitan areas including Boston, New York, and Philadelphia; and a proposed action plan to stimulate and facilitate future market development.

  16. Okaloosa Gas District Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Challenges to Smart Grid Implementation | Department of Energy Okaloosa Gas District Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges to Smart Grid Implementation Okaloosa Gas District Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges to Smart Grid Implementation Okaloosa Gas District (The District) an Independent Special District of the State of Florida is appreciative of the opportunity to submit for your consideration the following comments in response to the U.S.

  17. Washington School District Makes the Grade in Energy Efficiency |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Department of Energy Washington School District Makes the Grade in Energy Efficiency Washington School District Makes the Grade in Energy Efficiency September 2, 2015 - 10:01am Addthis As part of the Better Buildings Challenge, Camas School District in Washington not only surpassed its energy efficiency goals, but did so five years early. | Photo courtesy of Camas School District. As part of the Better Buildings Challenge, Camas School District in Washington not only surpassed its energy

  18. Size, shape and flow characterization of ground wood chip and ground wood pellet particles

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Rezaei, Hamid; Lim, C. Jim; Lau, Anthony; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2016-07-11

    Size, shape and density of biomass particles influence their transportation, fluidization, rates of drying and thermal decomposition. Pelleting wood particles increases the particle density and reduces the variability of physical properties among biomass particles. In this study, pine chips prepared for pulping and commercially produced pine pellets were ground in a hammer mill using grinder screens of 3.2, 6.3, 12.7 and 25.4mmperforations. Pellets consumed about 7 times lower specific grinding energy than chips to produce the same size of particles. Grinding pellets produced the smaller particles with narrower size distribution than grinding chips. Derived shape factors in digital image analysismore » showed that chip particles were rectangular and had the aspect ratios about one third of pellet particles. Pellet particles were more circular shape. The mechanical sieving underestimated the actual particle size and did not represent the size of particles correctly. Instead, digital imaging is preferred. Angle of repose and compressibility tests represented the flow properties of ground particles. Pellet particles made a less compacted bulk, had lower cohesion and did flow easier in a pile of particles. In conclusion, particle shape affected the flow properties more than particle size« less

  19. District heating strategy model: community manual

    SciTech Connect

    Hrabak, R. A.; Kron, Jr., N. F.; Pferdehirt, W. P.

    1981-10-01

    The US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) cosponsor a program aimed at increasing the number of district heating and cooling systems. Twenty-eight communities have received HUD cooperative agreements to aid in a national feasibility assessment of district heating and cooling systems. The HUD/DOE program includes technical assistance provided by Argonne National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Part of this assistance is a computer program, called the district heating strategy model, that performs preliminary calculations to analyze potential district heating and cooling systems. The model uses information about a community's physical characteristics, current electricity-supply systems, and local economic conditions to calculate heat demands, heat supplies from existing power plants and a new boiler, system construction costs, basic financial forecasts, and changes in air-pollutant emissions resulting from installation of a district heating and cooling system. This report explains the operation of the district heating strategy model, provides simplified forms for organizing the input data required, and describes and illustrates the model's output data. The report is written for three groups of people: (1) those in the HUD/DOE-sponsored communities who will be collecting input data, and studying output data, to assess the potential for district heating and cooling applications in their communiites; (2) those in any other communities who may wish to use the model for the same purpose; and (3) technical-support people assigned by the national laboratories to explain to community personnel how the model is used.

  20. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE NIOSH BOILER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb Jr.

    2005-02-10

    Phase I of this project began by obtaining R&D variances for permits at the NIOSH boilerplant (NBP), Emery Tree Service (ETS) and the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC) for their portions of the project. Wood for the test burn was obtained from the JARC inventory (pallets), Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation (construction wood), and the Arlington Heights Housing Project (demolition wood). The wood was ground at ETS and JARC, delivered to the Three Rivers Terminal and blended with coal. Three one-day tests using wood/coal blends of 33% wood by volume (both construction wood and demolition wood) were conducted at the NBP. Blends using hammermilled wood were operationally successful. Emissions of SO{sub 2} and NOx decreased and that of CO increased when compared with combusting coal alone. Mercury emissions were measured and evaluated. During the first year of Phase II the principal work focused upon searching for a replacement boilerplant and developing a commercial supply of demolition wood. The NBP withdrew from the project and a search began for another stoker boilerplant in Pennsylvania to replace it on the project. Three potential commercial demolition wood providers were contacted. Two were not be able to supply wood. At the end of the first year of Phase II, discussions were continuing with the third one, a commercial demolition wood provider from northern New Jersey. During the two-and-a-third years of the contract extension it was determined that the demolition wood from northern New Jersey was impractical for use in Pittsburgh, in another power plant in central New Jersey, and in a new wood gasifier being planned in Philadelphia. However, the project team did identify sufficient wood from other sources for the gasifier project. The Principal Investigator of this project assisted a feasibility study of wood gasification in Clarion County, Pennsylvania. As a result of the study, an independent power producer in the county has initiated a small wood

  1. Kinetics of fluidized bed combustion of wood pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Leckner, B.; Hansson, K.M.; Tullin, C.; Borodulya, A.V.; Dikalenko, V.I.; Palchonok, G.I.

    1999-07-01

    Devolatilization and char combustion of a single wood pellet in a fluidized bed has been studied. The effect of operation parameters (bed temperature, bed particle size, oxygen concentration) and pellet characteristics has been investigated. A simplified analytical model of heat-transfer controlled pyrolysis has been developed to interpret the measured volatiles release time. The model predictions are in a good agreement with the experimental data, provided that the initial physical properties of the pellet are used. The model can be used to estimate the devolatilization times in other combustion systems. Kinetic parameters of char combustion are obtained, based on the measured burnout times and simple model considerations. The physical properties of wood pellets need further study.

  2. Incorporation of metal nanoparticles into wood substrate and methods

    DOEpatents

    Rector, Kirk D; Lucas, Marcel

    2015-11-04

    Metal nanoparticles were incorporated into wood. Ionic liquids were used to expand the wood cell wall structure for nanoparticle incorporation into the cell wall structure. Nanoparticles of elemental gold or silver were found to be effective surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) imaging contrast or sensing agents. Nanoparticles of elemental iron were found to be efficient microwave absorbers and caused localized heating for disrupting the integrity of the lignocellulosic matrix. Controls suggest that the localized heating around the iron nanoparticles reduces losses of cellulose in the form of water, volatiles and CO.sub.2. The ionic liquid is needed during the incorporation process at room temperature. The use of small amounts of ionic liquid combined with the absence of an ionic liquid purification step and a lower energy and water use are expected to reduce costs in an up-scaled pretreatment process.

  3. ART ICHMI DOE Review Oct2015 Wood-1.pptx

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Technologies- Instrumentation, Control, and Human- Machine Interface (ICHMI) Technology Area Overview Richard Wood Oak Ridge National Laboratory Presented during 2015 Nuclear Energy I&C Review U.S. Department of Energy - Webinar October 28, 2015 2 ICHMI Technology Area Focus is on Achieving Goals and Resolving Challenges for Advanced Reactors * DOE-NE R&D Objective #2 [Develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors...] establishes the primary goal for ART ICHMI research -

  4. Quality of Wood Pellets Produced in British Columbia for Export

    SciTech Connect

    J. S. Tumuluru; S. Sokhansanj; C. J. Lim; T. Bi; A. Lau; S. Melin; T. Sowlati; E. Oveisi

    2010-11-01

    Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

  5. QUALITY OF WOOD PELLETS PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR EXPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Tumuluru, J.S.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Lim, C. Jim; Bi, X.T.; Lau, A.K.; Melin, Staffan; Oveisi, E.; Sowlati, T.

    2010-11-01

    Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

  6. Mechanics of compression drying solid wood cubes and chip mats

    SciTech Connect

    Haygreen, J.G.

    1982-10-01

    Wood cubes and chip mats were compressed in a cell under ram face pressures to 13,000 psi. The amount of water removed was determined for a range of species of various specific gravities and at several green moisture contents (MCs). The time dependence of the process was also studied. The purpose of this work was to describe the mechanics of compression drying which must be considered in designing commercial equipment. Green MC of wood chip mats was reduced to 45 to 50 percent MC (31% to 33% MC, wet basis) at pressures of 13,000 psi. At low pressures of 1,000 to 2,000 psi, moisture was reduced to 60 to 75 percent MC (38% to 43% MC, wet basis). There was a significantly greater moisture reduction at these low pressures if the pressure is maintained for up to 2 minutes rather than releasing it immediately once the target pressure is obtained. Water can be removed from high density species but pressures required are higher by a factor of 2 to 3. The chip mat is reduced to about one-sixth of its original volume at 2,000 psi and one-seventh at 6,000 psi. When pressing cubes of high green MC, about 7,000 foot-pounds of work (equivalent to 9 Btu) applied to the wood will remove up to 1 pound of water. (Refs. 9).

  7. 2030 District Program and Small Commercial Toolkit

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    30 District Program and Small Commercial Toolkit 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Cindy Regnier, CMRegnier@lbl.gov Lawrence Berkeley National Lab Project Summary (New Project) Timeline: Start date: October 1, 2013 Planned end date: March 30, 2016 Key Milestones 1. Develop program resources and tools, 9/30/14 2. Complete demonstrations, 9/30/15 3. Deployment to other 2030 Districts, 3/30/16 Budget: Total DOE $ to date: $2M (for program and toolkit, no dollars are applied to retrofits

  8. 2030 District Program and Small Commercial Toolkit

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Cindy Regnier, CMRegnier@lbl.gov Lawrence Berkeley National Lab Vincent Martinez, martinez@architecture2030.org Architecture 2030 2030 District Program and Small Commercial Toolkit 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review 2 Project Summary Timeline: Start date: October 1, 2013 Planned end date: March 30, 2016 Key Milestones 1. Develop program resources and tools, 9/30/14 2. Complete demonstrations, 9/30/15 3. Deployment to other 2030 Districts, 3/30/16 Budget: Total DOE $ to date: $2M (for

  9. Buckeye Water C&D District | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Buckeye Water C&D District Jump to: navigation, search Name: Buckeye Water C&D District Place: Arizona Phone Number: 623-386-2196 Website: www.bwcdd.com Outage Hotline: Upper...

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Rio Rico Fire District Turns Grease...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Rio Rico Fire District Turns Grease Into Biodiesel to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Rio Rico Fire District Turns Grease Into Biodiesel on Facebook Tweet ...

  11. BLM Twin Falls District Office | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Falls District Office Jump to: navigation, search Name: BLM Twin Falls District Office Address: 2536 Kimberly Road Place: Twin Falls, ID Zip: 83301 Phone Number: 208-735-2060...

  12. BLM Las Cruces District Office | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Cruces District Office Jump to: navigation, search Name: BLM Las Cruces District Office Address: 1800 Marquess Street Place: Las Cruces, NM Zip: 88005 Phone Number: (575) 525-4300...

  13. BLM West Desert District Office | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    West Desert District Office Jump to: navigation, search Name: BLM West Desert District Office Place: Salt Lake City, Utah Phone Number: (801) 977-4300 ParentHolding Organization:...

  14. BLM Idaho Falls District Office | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Falls District Office Jump to: navigation, search Name: BLM Idaho Falls District Office Address: 1405 Hollipark Drive Place: Idaho Falls, ID Zip: 83401 Phone Number: 208-524-7500...

  15. Indiana's 3rd congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Companies in Indiana's 3rd congressional district NuFuels LLC Ultra Soy of America DBA USA Biofuels Utility Companies in Indiana's 3rd congressional district City of Auburn,...

  16. Alamo Power District No 3 | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Alamo Power District No 3 Jump to: navigation, search Name: Alamo Power District No 3 Place: Nevada Phone Number: (775) 725-3335 Outage Hotline: (775) 725-3335 References: EIA Form...

  17. Metropolitan Water District of S CA | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Metropolitan Water District of S CA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Metropolitan Water District of S CA Place: California Phone Number: (213) 217-6000 Website: www.mwdh2o.com...

  18. New York's 29th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    You can help OpenEI by expanding it. This page represents a congressional district in New York. Registered Energy Companies in New York's 29th congressional district Bell...

  19. New York's 3rd congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    You can help OpenEI by expanding it. This page represents a congressional district in New York. Registered Energy Companies in New York's 3rd congressional district Cemtrex Inc...

  20. New York's 24th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    You can help OpenEI by expanding it. This page represents a congressional district in New York. Registered Energy Companies in New York's 24th congressional district Ioxus Inc...

  1. Elec District No. 5 Maricopa C | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    District No. 5 Maricopa C Jump to: navigation, search Name: Elec District No. 5 Maricopa C Place: Arizona Phone Number: (480) 610-8741 Outage Hotline: (480) 610-8741 References:...

  2. Overton Power District No 5 | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Overton Power District No 5 Jump to: navigation, search Name: Overton Power District No 5 Place: Nevada Phone Number: (702) 397-2512 Website: ebill.opd5.comoscp Twitter: @OPD5...

  3. TCEQ - Map of Texas Groundwater Conservation Districts | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Map of Texas Groundwater Conservation Districts Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Map: TCEQ - Map of Texas Groundwater Conservation DistrictsInfo...

  4. Texas's 31st congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    You can help OpenEI by expanding it. This page represents a congressional district in Texas. Registered Energy Companies in Texas's 31st congressional district EEStor Global Flex...

  5. Making the Grade: Washington School District Invest in Energy Efficiency

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    A Washington State school district achieved 28% savings on its energy bills as part of its commitment to the Energy Departments Better Buildings Challenge. Camas School District committed one...

  6. New Mexico's 2nd congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    can help OpenEI by expanding it. This page represents a congressional district in New Mexico. US Recovery Act Smart Grid Projects in New Mexico's 2nd congressional district Ktech...

  7. New Mexico's 1st congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    can help OpenEI by expanding it. This page represents a congressional district in New Mexico. US Recovery Act Smart Grid Projects in New Mexico's 1st congressional district Ktech...

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: District of Columbia Transportation Data for

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Vehicles District of Columbia Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: District of Columbia Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: District of Columbia Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: District of Columbia Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and

  9. Minnesota's 7th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Registered Networking Organizations in Minnesota's 7th congressional district Indigenous Environmental Network Registered Energy Companies in Minnesota's 7th congressional...

  10. Foster-Glocester Regional School District (Rhode Island) - Financing Profile

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2008-12-01

    This document is an EnergySmart Schools Financing Profile of Foster-Glocester Regional School District in Rhode Island

  11. Oregon School District Benefits from Energy Improvements | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Energy Oregon School District Benefits from Energy Improvements Oregon School District Benefits from Energy Improvements February 29, 2016 - 2:53pm Addthis Before-and-after scenes of the energy-saving renovations at Oregon's Lowell School District in summer 2015. Upgrades included insulation of attics and exterior walls, roof replacements, and removal and replacement of asbestos siding. Before-and-after scenes of the energy-saving renovations at Oregon's Lowell School District in summer

  12. Response of the District of Columbia Public Service Commission | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Energy of the District of Columbia Public Service Commission Response of the District of Columbia Public Service Commission Docket No. EO-05-01: Response of the District of Columbia Public Service Commission ("DCPSC") to submissions made in this proceeding by Robert G. Burnley, Director of the Commonwealth of Virginia Department of Environmental Quality and the City of Alexandria. Response of the District of Columbia Public Service Commission (7.17 MB) More Documents &

  13. Indiana's 5th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Alliance Indianapolis Power Light National Renewables Cooperative Organization NRCO Simon Property Group Utility Companies in Indiana's 5th congressional district...

  14. Washington's 7th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    7th congressional district ARCH Venture Partners (Washington) Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center Washington Technology Center Registered Networking...

  15. Ground Source Geothermal District Heating and Cooling System (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Ground Source Geothermal District Heating and Cooling System Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ground Source Geothermal District Heating and Cooling System Ball State University converted its campus from a coal-fired steam boiler district heating system to a ground source heat pump geothermal district system that produces simultaneously hot water for heating and chilled water for cooling. This system will include the installation of 3,600

  16. Wood-fuel use in Papua New Guinea: an assessment of industrial combustion equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Mendis, M.S.

    1980-11-01

    This report presents the results of an engineering and economic assessment of new and retrofit industrial combustion equipment for wood-fuel use in Papua New Guinea. Existing industrial combustion equipment and practices in Papua New Guinea are appraised. Potential industrial wood-fuel systems that utilize wood, wood wastes, charcoal and pyrolytic oils and which are particularly applicable to Papua New Guinea are identified. An economic assessment of wood-fuel systems is conducted for eleven case studies which are representative of a cross-section of Papua New Guinea industry. Conclusions and recommendations are presented to aid both government and industry in Papua New Guinea in fostering the development of appropriate wood-fuel technologies and thereby help displace the consumption of imported petroleum.

  17. Method for predicting dry mechanical properties from wet wood and standing trees

    DOEpatents

    Meglen, Robert R.; Kelley, Stephen S.

    2003-08-12

    A method for determining the dry mechanical strength for a green wood comprising: illuminating a surface of the wood to be determined with light between 350-2,500 nm, the wood having a green moisture content; analyzing the surface using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data, and using a multivariate analysis to predict the dry mechanical strength of green wood when dry by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data obtained from a reference wood having a green moisture content, the second spectral data correlated with a known mechanical strength analytical result obtained from a reference wood when dried and having a dry moisture content.

  18. Local Power Empowers: CHP and District Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Local Power Empowers: CHP and District Energy Local Power Empowers: CHP and District Energy This webinar, held on Nov. 10, 2010, provides information on combined heat and power and district energy. Transcript Presentation (1.8 MB) More Documents & Publications Effective O&M Policy in Public Buildings Preparing for the Arrival of Electric Vehicle Quality Assurance for Residential Retrofit Programs

  19. Cool Trends in District Energy: A Survey of Thermal Energy Storage Use in District Energy Utility Applications, June 2005

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    A Survey of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Use In District Energy (DE) Utility Applications in June 2005

  20. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion: Final report: Norteast regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a resource document for the Northeastern states when pursuing the analysis of localized problems resulting from residential wood combustion. Specific tasks performed include assigning emission rates for total suspended particulates (TSP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from wood burning stoves, estimating the impact on ambient air quality from residential wood combustion and elucidating the policy options available to Northeastern states in their effort to limit any detrimental effects resulting from residential wood combustion. Ancillary tasks included providing a comprehensive review on the relevant health effects, indoor air pollution and toxic air pollutant studies. 77 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  1. Genomics of wood-degrading fungi (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on November 1, 2015 Title: Genomics of wood-degrading fungi Authors: Ohm, Robin A. ; Riley, Robert ;...

  2. Water Sampling At Hot Lake Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Hot Lake Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Hot Lake...

  3. Water Sampling At Belknap-Foley-Bigelow Hot Springs Area (Wood...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Belknap-Foley-Bigelow Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity...

  4. Techno-economic analysis of wood biomass boilers for the greenhouse industry

    SciTech Connect

    Chau, J.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Preto, F.; Melin, Staffan

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to perform a techno-economic analysis on a typical wood pellet and wood residue boiler for generation of heat to an average-sized greenhouse in British Columbia. The variables analyzed included greenhouse size and structure, boiler efficiency, fuel types, and source of carbon dioxide (CO2) for crop fertilization. The net present value (NPV) show that installing a wood pellet or a wood residue boiler to provide 40% of the annual heat demand is more economical than using a natural gas boiler to provide all the heat at a discount rate of 10%. For an assumed lifespan of 25 years, a wood pellet boiler system could generate NPV of C$259,311 without electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and C$74,695 with ESP, respectively. While, installing a wood residue boiler with or without an ESP could provide NPV of C$919,922 or C$1,104,538, respectively. Using a wood biomass boiler could also eliminate over 3000 tonne CO2 equivalents of greenhouse gases annually. Wood biomass combustion generates more particulate matters than natural gas combustion. However, an advanced emission control system could significantly reduce particulate matters emission from wood biomass combustion which would bring the particulate emission to a relatively similar level as for natural gas.

  5. New Methods for Investigating Wood Formation | U.S. DOE Office...

    Office of Science (SC)

    analyses of the evolution of genetic regulation and modifications relating to or ... transcription factor-DNA interactions associated with the regulation of wood formation. ...

  6. Life cycle assessment of an energy-system with a superheated steam dryer integrated in a local district heat and power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bjoerk, H.; Rasmuson, A.

    1999-07-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a method for analyzing and assessing the environmental impact of a material, product or service throughout the entire life cycle. In this study 100 GWh heat is to be demanded by a local heat district. A mixture of coal and wet biofuel is frequently used as fuel for steam generation (Case 1). A conversion of the mixed fuel to dried biofuel is proposed. In the district it is also estimated that it is possible for 4000 private houses to convert from oil to wood pellets. It is proposed that sustainable solution to the actual problem is to combine heat and power production together with an improvement in the quality of wood residues and manufacture of pellets. It is also proposed that a steam dryer is integrated to the system (Case 2). Most of the heat from the drying process is used by the municipal heating networks. In this study the environmental impact of the two cases is examined with LCA. Different valuation methods shows the Case 2 is an improvement over Case 1, but there is diversity in the magnitudes of environmental impact in the comparison of the cases. The differences depend particularly on how the emissions of CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and hydrocarbons are estimated. The impact of the organic compounds from the exhaust gas during the drying is estimated as low in all of the three used methods.

  7. Environmental characterization studies of a high-throughput wood gasifier

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.; Niemann, R.C.; Wilzbach, K.E.; Paisley, M.

    1983-01-01

    Potential environmental effects associated with thermochemical biomass gasification have been studied by Argonne National Laboratory in cooperation with Battelle Columbus Laboratories (BCL). A series of samples from the process research unit of an indirectly heated, high-throughput wood gasifier operated by BCL has been analyzed for potentially toxic organic compounds and trace elements. The results indicate that, under the test-run conditions, the gasification of both pine and hardwood is accompanied by the formation of some oil, the heavier fraction of which gives a positive response in the Ames assay for mutagenicity and contains numerous phenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, including some carcinogens. The implications of these observations are discussed.

  8. Catalysts for cleaner combustion of coal, wood and briquettes sulfur dioxide reduction options for low emission sources

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.V.

    1995-12-31

    Coal fired, low emission sources are a major factor in the air quality problems facing eastern European cities. These sources include: stoker-fired boilers which feed district heating systems and also meet local industrial steam demand, hand-fired boilers which provide heat for one building or a small group of buildings, and masonary tile stoves which heat individual rooms. Global Environmental Systems is marketing through Global Environmental Systems of Polane, Inc. catalysts to improve the combustion of coal, wood or fuel oils in these combustion systems. PCCL-II Combustion Catalysts promotes more complete combustion, reduces or eliminates slag formations, soot, corrosion and some air pollution emissions and is especially effective on high sulfur-high vanadium residual oils. Glo-Klen is a semi-dry powder continuous acting catalyst that is injected directly into the furnace of boilers by operating personnel. It is a multi-purpose catalyst that is a furnace combustion catalyst that saves fuel by increasing combustion efficiency, a cleaner of heat transfer surfaces that saves additional fuel by increasing the absorption of heat, a corrosion-inhibiting catalyst that reduces costly corrosion damage and an air pollution reducing catalyst that reduces air pollution type stack emissions. The reduction of sulfur dioxides from coal or oil-fired boilers of the hand fired stoker design and larger, can be controlled by the induction of the Glo-Klen combustion catalyst and either hydrated lime or pulverized limestone.

  9. Final Report. Montpelier District Energy Project

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Jessie; Motyka, Kurt; Aja, Joe; Garabedian, Harold T.

    2015-03-30

    The City of Montpelier, in collaboration with the State of Vermont, developed a central heat plant fueled with locally harvested wood-chips and a thermal energy distribution system. The project provides renewable energy to heat a complex of state buildings and a mix of commercial, private and municipal buildings in downtown Montpelier. The State of Vermont operates the central heat plant and the system to heat the connected state buildings. The City of Montpelier accepts energy from the central heat plant and operates a thermal utility to heat buildings in downtown Montpelier which elected to take heat from the system.

  10. Hygrothermal Performance of West Coast Wood Deck Roofing System

    SciTech Connect

    Pallin, Simon B; Kehrer, Manfred; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2014-02-01

    Simulations of roofing assemblies are necessary in order to understand and adequately predict actual the hygrothermal performance. At the request of GAF, simulations have been setup to verify the difference in performance between white and black roofing membrane colors in relation to critical moisture accumulation for traditional low slope wood deck roofing systems typically deployed in various western U.S. Climate Zones. The performance of these roof assemblies has been simulated in the hygrothermal calculation tool of WUFI, from which the result was evaluated based on a defined criterion for moisture safety. The criterion was defined as the maximum accepted water content for wood materials and the highest acceptable moisture accumulation rate in relation to the risk of rot. Based on the criterion, the roof assemblies were certified as being either safe, risky or assumed to fail. The roof assemblies were simulated in different western climates, with varying insulation thicknesses, two different types of wooden decking, applied with varying interior moisture load and with either a high or low solar absorptivity at the roof surface (black or white surface color). The results show that the performance of the studied roof assemblies differs with regard to all of the varying parameters, especially the climate and the indoor moisture load.

  11. Table 20. Coal Imports by Customs District

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    0. Coal Imports by Customs District (short tons) Year to Date Customs District April - June 2016 January - March 2016 April - June 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change Eastern Total 62,212 312,200 114,560 374,412 634,619 -41.0 Boston, MA 52,580 278,171 52,801 330,751 449,174 -26.4 Buffalo, NY 23 71 251 94 260 -63.8 New York City, NY 22 773 445 795 888 -10.5 Portland, ME - - 45,470 - 138,531 - Providence, RI 9,587 33,185 15,572 42,772 45,745 -6.5 St. Albans, VT - - 21 - 21 - Southern Total 1,925,772

  12. THE ROLE OF DEAD WOOD IN MAINTAINING ARTHROPOD DIVERSITY ON THE FOREST FLOOR.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Wade, Dale D.

    2006-08-01

    AbstractDead wood is a major component of forests and contributes to overall diversity, primarily by supporting insects that feed directly on or in it. Further, a variety of organisms benefit by feeding on those insects. What is not well known is how or whether dead wood influences the composition of the arthropod community that is not solely dependent on it as a food resource, or whether woody debris influences prey available to generalist predators. One group likely to be affected by dead wood is ground-dwelling arthropods. We studied the effect of adding large dead wood to unburned and frequently burned pine stands to determine if dead wood was used more when the litter and understory plant community are removed. We also studied the effect of annual removal of dead wood from large (10-ha) plots over a 5-year period on ground-dwelling arthropods. In related studies, we examined the relationships among an endangered woodpecker that forages for prey on live trees, its prey, and dead wood in the forest. The results of these and other studies show that dead wood can influence the abundance and diversity of the ground-dwelling arthropod community and of prey available to generalist predators not foraging directly on dead trees.

  13. Demonstration of wood/coal co-firing in a spreader stoker

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.; Elder, W.W.; Geiger, G.E.; Campus, N.J.; Miller, W.F.; Freeman, M.C.; McCreery, L.R.

    1999-07-01

    The Forest Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture is sponsoring a series of demonstrations of wood/coal co-firing in stoker boilers. The first demonstration was conducted in 1997 in an industrial traveling-grate stoker boiler and the second in May 1999 in a spreader stoker boiler operated by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) at the Bruceton Research Laboratory. The principal wood used in both demonstrations was tub-ground broken pallets. In the first phase of the NIOSH demonstration, four five-ton loads of wood/coal mixtures, varying from 3% to 12% wood (by Btu content), were combusted. The second phase of this demonstration was a 50-hour test using a 10% wood/coal blend delivered in two 20-ton loads. It has been concluded from both demonstrations that (1) a 10% wood/coal blend burns acceptably in the boiler, but (2) tub-ground urban wood is unacceptably difficult to feed through the grill above the delivery pit and through the spreader stokers. A method is being sought to acquire urban waste wood, having a more chip-like nature, to use in further testing and for commercialization.

  14. Relationships between dead wood and arthropods in the Southeastern United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Ulyshen, Michael, Darragh

    2009-05-01

    The importance of dead wood to maintaining forest diversity is now widely recognized. However, the habitat associations and sensitivities of many species associated with dead wood remain unknown, making it difficult to develop conservation plans for managed forests. The purpose of this research, conducted on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina, was to better understand the relationships between dead wood and arthropods in the southeastern United States. In a comparison of forest types, more beetle species emerged from logs collected in upland pine-dominated stands than in bottomland hardwood forests. This difference was most pronounced for Quercus nigra L., a species of tree uncommon in upland forests. In a comparison of wood postures, more beetle species emerged from logs than from snags, but a number of species appear to be dependent on snags including several canopy specialists. In a study of saproxylic beetle succession, species richness peaked within the first year of death and declined steadily thereafter. However, a number of species appear to be dependent on highly decayed logs, underscoring the importance of protecting wood at all stages of decay. In a study comparing litter-dwelling arthropod abundance at different distances from dead wood, arthropods were more abundant near dead wood than away from it. In another study, grounddwelling arthropods and saproxylic beetles were little affected by large-scale manipulations of dead wood in upland pine-dominated forests, possibly due to the suitability of the forests surrounding the plots.

  15. Alternative institutional vehicles for geothermal district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Bressler, S.; Gardner, T.C.; King, D.; Nimmons, J.T.

    1980-06-01

    The attributes of various institutional entities which might participate in various phases of geothermal heating applications are described. Public entities considered include cities, counties, and special districts. Private entities discussed include cooperative organizations and non-member-owned private enterprises. The powers, authority and manner of operation of each of the institutional entities are reviewed. Some of the public utility regulatory implications which may affect choices among available alternatives are considered. (MHR)

  16. COLLOQUIUM: Princeton University's District Energy Approach and

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Implications for Improving Energy Efficiency | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab December 14, 2016, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium, PPPL (284 cap.) COLLOQUIUM: Princeton University's District Energy Approach and Implications for Improving Energy Efficiency Edward T. Borer Princeton University We will discuss how heating, cooling, and electrical energy is currently produced and delivered to Princeton's community of approximately 12,000 people and 180 buildings. What is the university's

  17. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE NIOSH BOILERPLANT

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Gene E. Geiger; William W. Elder III; Thomas Stickle; Jun Wang; Hongming Li; William P. Barry

    2002-06-13

    During the third quarter, the experimental portion of the project was carried out. Three one-day tests using wood/coal blends of 33% wood by volume (both construction wood and demolition wood) were conducted at the NIOSH Boiler Plant (NBP). Blends using hammer-milled wood were operationally successful and can form the basis of Phase II. Emissions of SO{sub 2} and NOx decreased and that of CO increased when compared with combusting coal alone. Mercury emissions were measured and the mathematical modeling of mercury speciation reactions continued, yielding many interesting results. Material and energy balances for the test periods at the NBP, as well as at the Bellefield Boiler Plant, were prepared. Steps were taken to remove severe constraints from the Pennsylvania Switchgrass Energy and Conservation Project and to organize the supplying of landfill gas to the Bruceton federal complex. Two presentations were made to meetings of the Electric Power Research Institute and the National Energy Technology Laboratory.

  18. Commercial Demonstration of Wood Recovery, Recycling, and Value Adding Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Auburn Machinery, Inc.

    2004-07-15

    This commercial demonstration project demonstrated the technical feasibility of converting low-value, underutilized and waste stream solid wood fiber material into higher valued products. With a growing need to increase product/production yield and reduce waste in most sawmills, few recovery operations and practically no data existed to support the viability of recovery operations. Prior to our efforts, most all in the forest products industry believed that recovery was difficult, extremely labor intensive, not cost effective, and that recovered products had low value and were difficult to sell. This project provided an opportunity for many within the industry to see through demonstration that converting waste stream material into higher valued products does in fact offer a solution. Our work, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, throughout the project aimed to demonstrate a reasonable approach to reducing the millions of recoverable solid wood fiber tons that are annually treated as and converted into low value chips, mulch and fuel. Consequently sawmills continue to suffer from reduced availability of forest resources, higher raw material costs, growing waste disposal problems, increased global competition, and more pressure to operate in an Environmentally Friendly manner. It is our belief (based upon the experience of this project) that the successful mainstreaming of the recovery concept would assist in alleviating this burden as well as provide for a realistically achievable economic benefit to those who would seriously pursue the concept and tap into the rapidly growing ''GREEN'' building marketplace. Ultimately, with participation and aggressive pursuit of the recovery concept, the public would benefit in that: (1) Landfill/disposal waste volume could be reduced adding greater life to existing municipal landfill sites thereby minimizing the need to prematurely license and open added facilities. Also, there would be a cost avoidance benefit associated

  19. Environmental-performance research priorities: Wood products. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-15

    This report describes a research plan to establish environmental, energy, and economic performance measures for renewable building materials, and to identify management and technology alternatives to improve environmental performance in a cost-effective manner. The research plan is designed to: (1) collect environmental and economic data on all life-cycle stages of the materials, (2) ensure that the data follows consistent definitions and collection procedures, and (3) develop analytical procedures for life-cycle analysis to address environmental performance questions. The research will be subdivided into a number of individual project modules. The five processing stages of wood used to organize the research plan are: (1) resource management and harvesting; (2) processing; (3) design and construction of structures; (4) use, maintenance, and disposal; and (5) waste recycling. Individual research module descriptions are provided in the report, as well as assessment techniques, research standards and protocol, and research management. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Ecological objectives can be achieved with wood-derived bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Marland, Gregg; Miner, Reid A.

    2015-08-01

    Renewable, biomass-based energy options can reduce the climate impacts of fossil fuels. However, calculating the effects of wood-derived bioenergy on greenhouse gases (GHGs), and thus on climate, is complicated (Miner et al. 2015). To clarify concerns and options about bioenergy, in November 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) produced a second draft of its Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions fromStationary Sources (http://1.usa.gov/1dikgHq), which considers the latest scientific information and input from stakeholders. Furthermore, the EPA is expected to make decisions soon about the use of woody biomass under the Clean Power Plan, which sets targets for carbon pollution from power plants.

  1. Ecological objectives can be achieved with wood-derived bioenergy

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Marland, Gregg; Miner, Reid A.

    2015-08-01

    Renewable, biomass-based energy options can reduce the climate impacts of fossil fuels. However, calculating the effects of wood-derived bioenergy on greenhouse gases (GHGs), and thus on climate, is complicated (Miner et al. 2015). To clarify concerns and options about bioenergy, in November 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) produced a second draft of its Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions fromStationary Sources (http://1.usa.gov/1dikgHq), which considers the latest scientific information and input from stakeholders. Furthermore, the EPA is expected to make decisions soon about the use of woody biomass under the Clean Power Plan, which sets targets for carbon pollutionmore » from power plants.« less

  2. Ecological objectives can be achieved with wood-derived bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Marland, Gregg; Miner, Reid A.

    2015-08-01

    Renewable, biomass-based energy options can reduce the climate impacts of fossil fuels. However, calculating the effects of wood-derived bioenergy on greenhouse gases (GHGs), and thus on climate, is complicated (Miner et al. 2015). To clarify concerns and options about bioenergy, in November 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) produced a second draft of its Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions fromStationary Sources (http://1.usa.gov/1dikgHq), which considers the latest scientific information and input from stakeholders. In addition, the EPA is expected to make decisions soon about the use of woody biomass under the Clean Power Plan, which sets targets for carbon pollution from power plants.

  3. Forest and wood products role in carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, R.N.

    1997-12-31

    An evaluation of the use of U.S. forests and forest products for carbon emission mitigation is presented. The current role of forests in carbon sequestration is described in terms of regional differences and forest management techniques. The potential for increasing carbon storage by converting marginal crop and pasture land, increasing timberland growth, reducing wildfire losses, and changing timber harvest methods is examined. Post-harvest carbon flows, environmental impacts of wood products, biomass energy crops, and increased use of energy-conserving trees are reviewed for their potential in reducing or offsetting carbon emissions. It is estimated that these techniques could offset 20 to 40 percent of the carbon emitted annually in the U.S. 39 refs., 5 tabs.

  4. Urban Wood-Based Bio-Energy Systems in Seattle

    SciTech Connect

    Stan Gent, Seattle Steam Company

    2010-10-25

    Seattle Steam Company provides thermal energy service (steam) to the majority of buildings and facilities in downtown Seattle, including major hospitals (Swedish and Virginia Mason) and The Northwest (Level I) Regional Trauma Center. Seattle Steam has been heating downtown businesses for 117 years, with an average length of service to its customers of 40 years. In 2008 and 2009 Seattle Steam developed a biomass-fueled renewable energy (bio-energy) system to replace one of its gas-fired boilers that will reduce greenhouse gases, pollutants and the amount of waste sent to landfills. This work in this sub-project included several distinct tasks associated with the biomass project development as follows: a. Engineering and Architecture: Engineering focused on development of system control strategies, development of manuals for start up and commissioning. b. Training: The project developer will train its current operating staff to operate equipment and facilities. c. Flue Gas Clean-Up Equipment Concept Design: The concept development of acid gas emissions control system strategies associated with the supply wood to the project. d. Fuel Supply Management Plan: Development of plans and specifications for the supply of wood. It will include potential fuel sampling analysis and development of contracts for delivery and management of fuel suppliers and handlers. e. Integrated Fuel Management System Development: Seattle Steam requires a biomass Fuel Management System to track and manage the delivery, testing, processing and invoicing of delivered fuel. This application will be web-based and accessed from a password-protected URL, restricting data access and privileges by user-level.

  5. Potential role of lignin in tomorrow's wood utilization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Glasser, W.G.

    1981-03-01

    Low-grade timber supplies and wood processing residues are presently converted into paper products, used for fuel, or remain totally unused. Competition for this resource will continue to mount, particularly when manufacturers of chemicals and liquid fuels enter the market with new technologies now under development. The type of technology that concentrates on depolymerization of carbohydrates will generate large quantities of lignin-rich residues. The potential of these lignins to contribute to the economic feasibility of new chemical wood process technologies may involve degradative depolymerization to phenols and benzene, or polymer conversion into a wide variety of dispersants, binders, reinforcing and antioxidizing agents, etc. Where lignin's fuel value lies around 3 to 4 cents/lb. (fall of 1979), its raw material value for phenol is reported to be almost 5 cents/lb., and the value of the polymeric materials is estimated to be between 6 and 20 cents/lb. At the lower end of this range of raw material values are ligninsulfonates, which contribute nearly 98 percent to the approximately 1.5 billion lb./yr. U.S. market for lignin products. Kraft lignins are located at the opposite end of this range. Novel bioconversion-type lignins are expected to be more similar in structure and properties to kraft than to sulfite lignins. Whereas application of the dispersant properties of ligninsulfonates in tertiary oil recovery operations is expected to constitute the most significant use of lignin in terms of volume, adhesive and resin applications hold the greatest promise in terms of value. Both utilization schemes seem to require pretreatments in the form of either polymeric fractionation or chemical modification. Potential savings from the use of polymeric lignins in material systems are great.

  6. The Pennsylvanian and Permian Oquirrh-Wood River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Geslin, J.K. . Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Strata of the Middle Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian Oquirrh-Wood River Basin (OWRB) lie unconformably above the Antler orogenic belt and flysch trough/starved basin in NW Utah, NE Nevada, and SC Idaho. Strata of the basin, now separated geographically by the Neogene Snake River Plain, show similar subsidence histories, identical mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentary fill, and identical chert pebble conglomerate beds supplied by one or more DesMoinesian uplifts containing Lower Paleozoic strata. This conglomerate, of the lower Sun Valley Group, Snaky Canyon Formation, and parts of the Oquirrh Formation, was reworked progressively southward, to at least the Idaho-Utah border. It is present in strata as young as Virgilian. Virgilian to Leonardian rocks are ubiquitously fine-grained mixed carbonate-siliciclastic turbidites. These rocks contain cratonal, well-sorbed subarkosic and quartzose sand and silt in part derived from the Canadian Shield. This siliciclastic fraction is intimately mixed with arenaceous micritized skeletal material and peloids derived from an eastern carbonate platform represented by the Snaky Canyon Formation in east-central Idaho, an eastern facies of the Eagle Creek Member, Wood River Formation in the Boulder Mountains, and the Oquirrh Formation in the Deep Creek Mountains. Subsidence of the OWRB may have been caused by two phases (DesMoinesian and Wolfcampian to Leonardian) of crustal loading by continental margin tectonism to the west. An elevated rim separated the OWRB from coeval volcanogenic basins to the west. Earlier, Antler-age structures may have been reactivated. A new pulse of tectonism occurred in Leonardian to Guadalupian time as in most places carbonatic and phosphatic strata of the Leonardian to Guadalupian Park City and Phosphoria Formation overlie OWRB strata, with different geographic arrangement of basinal, slope, and shelf depocenters.

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mesa Unified School District Reaps Economic

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    and Environmental Benefits with Propane Buses Mesa Unified School District Reaps Economic and Environmental Benefits with Propane Buses to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mesa Unified School District Reaps Economic and Environmental Benefits with Propane Buses on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mesa Unified School District Reaps Economic and Environmental Benefits with Propane Buses on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mesa Unified

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Minnesota School District Finds Cost

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Savings, Cold-Weather Reliability with Propane Buses Minnesota School District Finds Cost Savings, Cold-Weather Reliability with Propane Buses to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Minnesota School District Finds Cost Savings, Cold-Weather Reliability with Propane Buses on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Minnesota School District Finds Cost Savings, Cold-Weather Reliability with Propane Buses on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Minnesota

  9. Modesto Irrigation District- New Home Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Modesto Irrigation District's MPower New Home Program provides incentives to builders and homeowners for designing and building energy-efficient homes. Eligible homes must meet the guidelines for...

  10. Colorado's 4th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Program (Colorado) Fort Collins Utilities - Residential and Small Commercial Appliance Rebate Program (Colorado) Utility Companies in Colorado's 4th congressional district City...

  11. Colorado's 3rd congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Appliance Program (Colorado) Roaring Fork Valley - Energy Smart Colorado Renewable Energy Rebate Program (Colorado) Utility Companies in Colorado's 3rd congressional district Black...

  12. Florida's 10th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Energy Companies in Florida's 10th congressional district Fuel Cells Technology Transit Idea One Inc Jabil Circuit Inc SolarPower Restoration Systems Inc Stationary Power...

  13. Virginia's 6th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Registered Energy Companies in Virginia's 6th congressional district ADMMicro Inc Luna Innovations Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleVirginia%27s6thcon...

  14. Making the Grade: Washington School District Invest in Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    saved put the district's schools in the top 25% most energy efficient facilities in the nation, earning them EPA's ENERGY STAR certification, Better Buildings is an initiative...

  15. Ohio's 16th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Energy Companies in Ohio's 16th congressional district Four Seasons Windpower, LLC King Machine & Tool Co. Liquid Resources LLC Magnetech Industrial Services Morning Mist LLC...

  16. Michigan's 7th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Energy Companies in Michigan's 7th congressional district Astraeus Wind Energy Inc Biofuel Industries Group LLC Granger Electric Company Tecumseh Products Company Retrieved...

  17. Indiana's 2nd congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Indiana. Registered Energy Companies in Indiana's 2nd congressional district Heartland Biofuel Inovateus Solar Inovateus Solar LLC New Energy Corporation Retrieved from "http:...

  18. Virginia's 5th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Greenlight Biofuels Greenlight Energy Resources Inc GER Multitrade Biomass Holdings LLC Sol Sage Energy Energy Generation Facilities in Virginia's 5th congressional district...

  19. Utah's 1st congressional district: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Energy Companies in Utah's 1st congressional district Blue Source LLC Ciralight Emery Energy Company Eneco Inc EnergySolutions Inc Genifuel Green Joules GreenFire Energy...

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: California School District Creates

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    First-of-Its-Kind Zero-Emissions Bus California School District Creates First-of-Its-Kind Zero-Emissions Bus to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: California School District Creates First-of-Its-Kind Zero-Emissions Bus on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: California School District Creates First-of-Its-Kind Zero-Emissions Bus on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: California School District Creates First-of-Its-Kind Zero-Emissions Bus on

  1. Texas's 28th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Energy Companies in Texas's 28th congressional district GCK Technology Inc Green Energy Resources Inc formerly New York International Log Lumber Company Imagine Homes...

  2. Michigan's 4th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Energy Companies in Michigan's 4th congressional district Cone Drive Operations Inc Dow Chemical Co Dow Kokam Heritage Sustainable Energy LLC LXE Energy Generation Facilities in...

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    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Registered Energy Companies in Michigan's 1st congressional district AG Solutions Inc Dow Chemical Co Dow Kokam Energy Generation Facilities in Michigan's 1st congressional...

  4. Georgia's 6th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Grid Project Registered Energy Companies in Georgia's 6th congressional district Atlanta Chemical Engineering LLC Cellnet Legacy Environmental Solutions Prenova Inc formerly...

  5. Georgia's 11th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Grid Project Registered Energy Companies in Georgia's 11th congressional district Atlanta Chemical Engineering LLC Prenova Inc formerly Service Resources Inc Sriya Innovations Inc...

  6. Georgia's 13th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Grid Project Registered Energy Companies in Georgia's 13th congressional district Atlanta Chemical Engineering LLC Prenova Inc formerly Service Resources Inc Sriya Innovations Inc...

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    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    US Recovery Act Smart Grid Projects in Michigan's 13th congressional district Detroit Edison Company Smart Grid Project The Detroit Edison Company Smart Grid Demonstration...

  8. Maryland's 8th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    8th congressional district Arborview Capital Clean Currents Global Environment Fund GEF National Interest Security Company NISC Formerly Technology Management Services TMS Inc...

  9. Missouri's 3rd congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    congressional district A2Wind Limited Affinity Wind LLC Akermin Inc Armstrong Teasdale Future Energy Group Clean Power Design CleanTech Biofuels International Fuel Technology...

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    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    congressional district A2Wind Limited Affinity Wind LLC Akermin Inc Armstrong Teasdale Future Energy Group Clean Power Design CleanTech Biofuels Confluence Solar International...

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    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in Texas's 16th congressional district Acro Solar Lasers El Paso Electric EPE Global Alternative Fuels R Qubed Energy Inc Vertigro Global Green Solutions Valcent JV Utility...

  12. Ohio's 18th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Advanced Energy Registered Energy Companies in Ohio's 18th congressional district Alternative Liquid Fuels (ALF) Appalachian Advanced Energy Association Blight-to-Bright...

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    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Registered Energy Companies in Illinois' 11th congressional district State Farm Insurance Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleIllinois%2711thcongressiona...

  14. Red Cliffs Campground, Cedar City District, Utah | Department...

    Energy Saver

    This photograph shows the field station at Red Cliffs Campground in Utah's Cedar City District. Photovoltaic power systems allow the people working in these remote areas to have ...

  15. Nebraska's 3rd congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Nebraska. Registered Energy Companies in Nebraska's 3rd congressional district Chief Ethanol Fuels Chief Ethanol Fuels Inc Husker Ag LLC Kaapa Ethanol LLC Mid America Agri...

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    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Registered Energy Companies in Arkansas's 3rd congressional district Appro-Tec Renewable Energy Highline Hydrogen Hybrids Utility Companies in Arkansas's 3rd congressional...

  17. Michigan's 5th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in Michigan. Registered Energy Companies in Michigan's 5th congressional district 21st century Green Solutions LLC Kettering University Center for Fuel Cell Systems...

  18. Maryland's 2nd congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    US Recovery Act Smart Grid Projects in Maryland's 2nd congressional district Baltimore Gas and Electric Company Smart Grid Project Registered Energy Companies in...

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    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    US Recovery Act Smart Grid Projects in Maryland's 7th congressional district Baltimore Gas and Electric Company Smart Grid Project Registered Energy Companies in...

  20. Arkansas's 4th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Biofuels Inc Utility Companies in Arkansas's 4th congressional district City of Hope, Arkansas (Utility Company) Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  1. District of Columbia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Area: District of Columbia Florida Georgia Maryland Michigan New Jersey New York Ohio Pennsylvania Virginia Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History ...

  2. Maryland's 6th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in Maryland's 6th congressional district Atlantic Biomass Conversions Inc BP Solar Freedom Energy Solutions LLC Solarex Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  3. Idaho's 2nd congressional district: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Institutions in Idaho's 2nd congressional district Boise State University, CAES Energy Efficiency Research Institute Idaho National Laboratory Registered Energy Companies in...

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    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    District of Columbia Recovery Act State Memo The American Recovery & Reinvestment Act (ARRA) is making a meaningful down payment on the nation's energy and environmental future. ...

  5. Colorado's 5th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Energy Companies in Colorado's 5th congressional district AC Solar Inc American Agri diesel LLC American Electric Vehicles Inc American Solar Technology BBI International Diamond...

  6. Empire District Electric- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Empire District Electric Company (EDEC) offers rebates to residential customers for energy audits, weatherization measures, central air conditioning systems, and energy efficient home appliances. ...

  7. Minnesota's 1st congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    1st congressional district Agra Resources Cooperative EXOL Agri Energy LLC Corn Plus High Country Energy Juhl Wind Inc MinnErgy LLC Minwind Energy LLC Next Generation...

  8. Maryland's 1st congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in Maryland. Registered Energy Companies in Maryland's 1st congressional district Gore Fuel Cell Technologies Maryland Biodiesel Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  9. Colorado's 7th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    congressional district Abengoa Solar Ampulse Ampulse Corporation Ascent Solar Blue Sun Biodiesel LLC CCBI, Inc. Colorado Fuel Cell Center CFCC Distributed Generation Systems Inc...

  10. Omaha Public Power District- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Omaha Public Power District (OPPD) offers incentives for commercial and industrial customers to install energy-efficient heat pumps and replace/retrofit existing lighting systems. The Commercial...

  11. Kansas's 2nd congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Inc Northeast Kansas Bioenergy LLC R3 Energy LLC University of Kansas Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation Utility Companies in Kansas's 2nd congressional district Westar...

  12. Illinois' 19th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Energy Companies in Illinois' 19th congressional district DarkStar VI Illinois Commerce Commission Mid America Biodiesel LLC MAB National Trail Biodiesel Retrieved from...

  13. Illinois' 12th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Registered Energy Companies in Illinois' 12th congressional district Coaltec Energy USA Inc DarkStar VI Heartland Biodiesel Inc Mid America Advanced Power Solutions Midwest...

  14. New Jersey's 5th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    5th congressional district BGA Engineering LLC Building Performance Equipment, Inc. HERA USA Inc formerly Ergenics Inc Pure Energy Corporation PEC Raven Biofuels International...

  15. Texas--RRC District 10 Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate,...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 10 Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 ...

  16. Florida's 24th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    congressional district Alternative Concepts and Technology Etatech Inc Florida Power Electronics Center FPEC Florida Solar Energy Center (Building America Partnership for Improved...

  17. Rhode Island's 2nd congressional district: Energy Resources ...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Registered Energy Companies in Rhode Island's 2nd congressional district Cookson Electronics Jefferson Renewable Energy Tomorrow BioFuels LLC Retrieved from "http:...

  18. Florida's 8th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    8th congressional district Alternative Concepts and Technology Florida Power Electronics Center FPEC Florida Solar Energy Center (Building America Partnership for Improved...

  19. Tennessee's 6th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Registered Energy Companies in Tennessee's 6th congressional district Energy Automation Systems Inc Murfreesboro Electric Department MED Spider Technologies Retrieved from...

  20. North Carolina's 1st congressional district: Energy Resources...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    You can help OpenEI by expanding it. This page represents a congressional district in North Carolina. Registered Policy Organizations in North Carolina's 1st congressional...

  1. Texas's 17th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Institutions in Texas's 17th congressional district Baylor University - Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center Registered Energy Companies in Texas's 17th congressional...

  2. Juneau School District Wind Project | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    - Yankton School District Wind Project

  3. Townsend School District Wind Project | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    - Yankton School District Wind Project

  4. Kodiak Island Borough School District | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    - Yankton School District Wind Project

  5. Yankton School District Wind Project | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    - Yankton School District Wind Project

  6. Ohio's 17th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Grid Project Registered Energy Companies in Ohio's 17th congressional district Akrong Machine Services Echogen Power Systems, Inc. FirstEnergy Green Energy Technologies Green...

  7. Ohio's 13th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    congressional district A.J. Rose Manufacturing Company Advanced Hydro Solutions Akrong Machine Services Castle Energy Services Echogen Power Systems, Inc. FirstEnergy Free Energy...

  8. Tennessee's 7th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Companies in Tennessee's 7th congressional district Agri Energy Inc Biofuels America Inc Eco Energy Inc Memphis Biofuels LLC Nashville Electric Service NES Ocean Motion...

  9. Michigan's 6th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Smart Grid Project Registered Energy Companies in Michigan's 6th congressional district Bauer Power Dynamic Engineering Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleMichi...

  10. Florida's 3rd congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Registered Networking Organizations in Florida's 3rd congressional district North Florida Global Warming Study Group Registered Energy Companies in Florida's 3rd congressional...

  11. Florida's 6th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Registered Networking Organizations in Florida's 6th congressional district North Florida Global Warming Study Group Registered Energy Companies in Florida's 6th congressional...

  12. Florida's 4th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Registered Networking Organizations in Florida's 4th congressional district North Florida Global Warming Study Group Registered Energy Companies in Florida's 4th congressional...

  13. Missouri's 5th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Kokam America Smith Electric Vehicles US SEV US Registered Financial Organizations in Missouri's 5th congressional district MRI Ventures Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  14. Washington's 9th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Weyerhaeuser Energy Generation Facilities in Washington's 9th congressional district Simpson Tacoma Biomass Facility Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWashin...

  15. Washington's 6th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Facilities in Washington's 6th congressional district Aberdeen Biomass Facility Simpson Tacoma Biomass Facility Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWashin...

  16. Ohio's 14th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in Ohio. US Recovery Act Smart Grid Projects in Ohio's 14th congressional district City of Painesville Smart Grid Demonstration Project Registered Energy Companies in Ohio's...

  17. Florida's 5th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in Florida. US Recovery Act Smart Grid Projects in Florida's 5th congressional district City of Leesburg, Florida Smart Grid Project Lakeland Electric Smart Grid Project...

  18. Washington's 4th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    4th congressional district Battelle Memorial Institute, Pacific Northwest Division Smart Grid Demonstration Project Registered Research Institutions in Washington's 4th...

  19. Gila Hot Springs District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Gila Hot Springs Sector Geothermal energy Type District Heating Location Gila Hot Springs, New Mexico Coordinates Show Map...

  20. Pepco and PJM Interconnection Comments on District of Columbia...

    Energy Saver

    Interconnection Comments on District of Columbia Public Service Commission, Docket No. EO-05-01 Comments and Answer to Requests for Rehearing Pepco and PJM Interconnection Comments ...

  1. Georgia's 8th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Georgia. Registered Energy Companies in Georgia's 8th congressional district Alterra Bioenergy Alterra Bioenergy LLC Biomass Energy Services Inc Middle Georgia Biofuels Retrieved...

  2. Indiana's 4th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Indianapolis Power Light Megawatt Energy Systems Simon Property Group Solarvest BioEnergy Utility Companies in Indiana's 4th congressional district Indianapolis Power & Light...

  3. Lassen Municipal Utility District- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lassen Municipal Utility District (LMUD) offers an incentive for residential customers who purchase and install energy efficient equipment. Contact LMUD for information regarding which local...

  4. Georgia's 9th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Resource Solutions ECO Solutions LLC Greenleaf Environmental Solutions Wilson and Dalton Utility Companies in Georgia's 9th congressional district Tri-State Electric Member...

  5. West Virginia's 1st congressional district: Energy Resources...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    You can help OpenEI by expanding it. This page represents a congressional district in West Virginia. Registered Research Institutions in West Virginia's 1st congressional...

  6. Cuming County Public Power District Smart Grid Project | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    devices for the Cuming County Public Power District (CCPPD) are being upgraded, enhancing demand response and peak load reduction capabilities.3 Equipment Distribution Automation...

  7. Florida's 16th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Registered Energy Companies in Florida's 16th congressional district Kitson Partners LPG Electrical, Inc SEPCO - Solar Electric Power Company Retrieved from "http:...

  8. Motion to Intervene and Comments of Public Utility District No...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    one held by the District and export authorizations to add a requirement that the permittees provide open access transmission services on their international transmission lines. ...

  9. Wisconsin's 4th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Wisconsin. Registered Energy Companies in Wisconsin's 4th congressional district A.O. Smith Johnson Controls Optima Batteries Oskosh Tech Laboratories Inc WE Energies Retrieved...

  10. Wisconsin's 5th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Project Registered Energy Companies in Wisconsin's 5th congressional district A.O. Smith Johnson Controls Magnatek Inc Optima Batteries Oskosh Tech Laboratories Inc WE...

  11. Texas's 21st congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Companies in Texas's 21st congressional district Texas General Land Office Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleTexas%27s21stcongressionaldistrict&oldid204390...

  12. Oregon's 5th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Lincoln People's Utility District Pacific Northwest Generating Coop Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleOregon%27s5thcongressionaldistrict&oldid197284...

  13. Ohio's 15th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in Ohio's 15th congressional district American Electric Power Co., Inc. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleOhio%27s15thcongressionaldistrict&oldid196993...

  14. Louisiana's 2nd congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in Louisiana's 2nd congressional district Entergy New Orleans Inc Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleLouisiana%27s2ndcongressionaldistrict&oldid192538...

  15. Florida's 20th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in Florida's 20th congressional district Florida Power & Light Co. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleFlorida%27s20thcongressionaldistrict&oldid182754...

  16. Ohio's 7th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in Ohio's 7th congressional district American Electric Power Co., Inc. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleOhio%27s7thcongressionaldistrict&oldid197003...

  17. Tennessee's 3rd congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Utility Companies in Tennessee's 3rd congressional district EPB Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleTennessee%27s3rdcongressionaldistrict&oldid204321...

  18. Texas's 25th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Companies in Texas's 25th congressional district Texas General Land Office Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleTexas%27s25thcongressionaldistrict&oldid204394...

  19. Oregon's 3rd congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in Oregon's 3rd congressional district Pacific Northwest Generating Coop Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleOregon%27s3rdcongressionaldistrict&oldid197282...

  20. Washington's 5th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    district Avista Corp City of Cheney, Washington (Utility Company) Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWashington%27s5thcongressionaldistrict&oldid189780...

  1. Maine's 1st congressional district: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Companies in Maine's 1st congressional district Central Maine Power Co Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleMaine%27s1stcongressionaldistrict&oldid192967...

  2. Louisiana's 1st congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in Louisiana's 1st congressional district Entergy New Orleans Inc Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleLouisiana%27s1stcongressionaldistrict&oldid192537...

  3. Washington's 1st congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in Washington's 1st congressional district Snohomish County PUD No 1 Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWashington%27s1stcongressionaldistrict&oldid189772...

  4. Tennessee's 2nd congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in Tennessee's 2nd congressional district Knoxville Utilities Board Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleTennessee%27s2ndcongressionaldistrict&oldid204320...

  5. Florida's 18th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Florida's 18th congressional district Biodiesel of South Florida LLC Biofuels Digest Cambridge Project Development Car Charging Group Inc Caribbean Energy Resources Corp ClimeCo...

  6. Florida's 17th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Florida's 17th congressional district Biodiesel of South Florida LLC Biofuels Digest Cambridge Project Development Caribbean Energy Resources Corp ClimeCo Corporation Electron...

  7. Florida's 21st congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Florida's 21st congressional district Biodiesel of South Florida LLC Biofuels Digest Cambridge Project Development Caribbean Energy Resources Corp ClimeCo Corporation Electron...

  8. Texas's 1st congressional district: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Energy Companies in Texas's 1st congressional district Eisenbach Consulting NM Invest Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleTexas%27s1stcongressionaldis...

  9. Illinois' 16th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Companies in Illinois' 16th congressional district Blackhawk Biofuels LLC First Capitol Risk Management LLC Illinois River Energy LLC Invensys Building System Retrieved from...

  10. Central Lincoln People's Utility District- Renewable Energy Incentive Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Central Lincoln People's Utility District provides financial incentives for its commercial and residential customers to install photovoltaic (PV), solar water heating, wind, and hydro electric...

  11. Central Lincoln People's Utility District- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Central Lincoln People's Municipal Utility District (CLPUD) offers a variety of energy efficiency programs for residential customers to save energy in eligible homes. Rebates are available for...

  12. South Dakota's At-large congressional district: Energy Resources...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    At-large congressional district Black Hills Corporation Broin Associates Broin Enterprises Capitaline Advisors LLC Dakota Ethanol Deadwood Biofuels LLC Kramer Energy Group...

  13. New York's 26th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Companies in New York's 26th congressional district Chemical Design Inc CDI Energy Enterprises Inc Innovative Energy Systems Western NY Energy LLC Western New York Energy LLC...

  14. New Jersey's 7th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    district Advanced Solar Products Alternity Power Climax Global Energy Conti Enterprises Inc DEK International MAK Technologies Quest Environmental Engineering Services Inc...

  15. Illinois' 10th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    10th congressional district Dewcon Instruments Inc Diversified Ethanol Future Energy Enterprises Gas Technology Institute (Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit) Greenview...

  16. Tennessee's 5th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Tennessee's 5th congressional district Agri Energy Inc Nashville Electric Service NES Universal Lighting Technologies Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleTenness...

  17. South Carolina's 3rd congressional district: Energy Resources...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Companies in South Carolina's 3rd congressional district Aiken Electric Cooperative Inc Verde Biofuels Inc Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleSouthCarolina%27s...

  18. EERE Success Story-Making the Grade: Washington School District...

    Energy Saver

    buildings in an effort to reduce energy usage 20% by 2020. Now, the district has ... in equipment, lighting, and control systems, and making necessary building improvements. ...

  19. District of Columbia Total Electric Power Industry Net Generation...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    District of Columbia" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Fossil",81,75,72,35,200 " Coal","-","-","-","-","-" " Petroleum",81,75,72,35,200 " Natural Gas","-","-","-","-","-" ...

  20. District of Columbia Total Electric Power Industry Net Summer...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    District of Columbia" "Energy Source",2006,2007,2008,2009,2010 "Fossil",806,806,790,790,790 " Coal","-","-","-","-","-" " Petroleum",806,806,790,790,790 " Natural ...

  1. Maryland's 4th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    congressional district Clean Currents National Interest Security Company NISC Formerly Technology Management Services TMS Inc Standard Solar Standard Solar Inc Retrieved from...

  2. Virginia's 10th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in Virginia's 10th congressional district Catch the Wind Ltd GreenBrilliance Renaissance Lighting Inc Virginia Center for Innovative Technology CIT Utility Companies in...

  3. Maryland's 5th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Energy Companies in Maryland's 5th congressional district University Park Community Solar LLC Zymetis Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleMaryland%27s5...

  4. South Carolina's 4th congressional district: Energy Resources...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Carolina. Registered Energy Companies in South Carolina's 4th congressional district Sky Energy Inc Verde Biofuels Inc Waste2Energy Holdings Retrieved from "http:...

  5. New York's 27th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Association Registered Energy Companies in New York's 27th congressional district Blue Sky Optimum Energy Conserval Systems Inc. ENrG Inc Electrosynthesis Company Inc Energy...

  6. New York's 28th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Association Registered Energy Companies in New York's 28th congressional district Blue Sky Optimum Energy Canrom Photovoltaics Inc Cerion Energy Inc Connected Energy Corp...

  7. Montana's At-large congressional district: Energy Resources ...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Registered Research Institutions in Montana's At-large congressional district Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Registered Energy Companies in Montana's At-large...

  8. Ohio's 3rd congressional district: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Institute Registered Energy Companies in Ohio's 3rd congressional district Edison Material Technology Center EMTEC JatroDiesel Miamisburg Mound Community Improvement Corp...

  9. Ohio's 1st congressional district: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    RBI Solar Inc SEMCO THOR Turner Hunt Ocean Renewable LLC The Utilities Group Inc Vision Energy Energy Generation Facilities in Ohio's 1st congressional district Melink Solar...

  10. Ohio's 2nd congressional district: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    LLC The Utilities Group Inc Ultimate Best Buy LLC Vinyl Kraft Windows and Doors Vision Energy Energy Generation Facilities in Ohio's 2nd congressional district Melink Solar...

  11. Ohio's 5th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Registered Energy Companies in Ohio's 5th congressional district American Ag Fuels LLC Bio Gas Technologies LTd Calyxo USA Solar Fields LLC Edison Solar & Wind Ltd GLASSTECH INC...

  12. Wisconsin's 3rd congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    district Able Energy Co. Biogas Direct LCC Coulee Area Renewable Energy Coulee Region Bio Fuels LLC Dairyland Power Cooperative INOV8 International Inc Polymer Technology Corp...

  13. Iowa's 1st congressional district: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in Iowa. Registered Energy Companies in Iowa's 1st congressional district Clinton County Bio Energy LLC Natural Solutions Waverly Light and Power Retrieved from "http:...

  14. Nevada's 3rd congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Energy Companies in Nevada's 3rd congressional district Algodyne Ethanol Energy Inc Bio Solutions Manufacturing Inc Innovative Energy Solutions Inc K2 Energy Solutions...

  15. Nevada's 1st congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Energy Companies in Nevada's 1st congressional district Algodyne Ethanol Energy Inc Bio Solutions Manufacturing Inc Innovative Energy Solutions Inc Li ion Motors Corp formerly...

  16. California's 6th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in California's 6th congressional district A10 Power Akuacom Alternative Energy Inc Bio Energy Systems LLC Bioil Energy Matters LLC Enphase Energy Inc Forecast Energy Geysers...

  17. New Hampshire's 1st congressional district: Energy Resources...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    New Hampshire. Registered Energy Companies in New Hampshire's 1st congressional district Bio Energy US New Hampshire Cate Street Capital Inc Environmental Power Corp Eolian...

  18. Kansas's 1st congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    district Conestoga Energy Partners LLC ESE Alcohol Gateway Ethanol LLC formerly Wildcat Bio Energy LLC Kansas Ethanol LLC Nesika Energy LLC Orion Ethanol Reeve Agri Energy Inc...

  19. Financing Energy Upgrades for K-12 School Districts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Financing Energy Upgrades for K-12 School Districts Page 2 Table of Contents ... 6 Chapter 1: Principles of Financing Energy Upgrades for Schools ...

  20. Arizona's 7th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    in Arizona's 7th congressional district Agenera, LLC Amereco Biofuels Corp Arizona Public Service Company APS Arizona Solar Tech EDGE Energy LLC EGreenIdeas Ecotality North...