National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for albania bulgaria cambodia

  1. Prospects for improvement in Albania`s energy sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-06-01

    The Chairman of the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee asked the authors to provide information on (1) the trends in and problems related to Albania`s energy production, imports, exports, and use; (2) the plans Albania has to address its energy problems; (3) the role of foreign trade and investment in Albania`s energy sector and the factors that discourage them; and (4) the efforts of the US government and international organizations to assist Albania`s energy sector and improve Albania`s business climate. This paper describes the methodology and summarizes the results of the study.

  2. Exploration potential of Albania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silverman, M.R. )

    1991-08-01

    Albania is rich in natural resources, especially crude oil and natural gas. It has far greater petroleum reserves for its size than any other country in Eastern Europe. The nation consists of three principal geologic provinces. Strongly folded upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata comprise the Sub-Pelagonian and Pelagonian massifs in the northeast Albania. The search for oil and gas in the future is likely to be concentrated in the coastal basins and offshore in the relatively shallow waters of the Adriatic Sea. Hydrocarbons have been trapped onshore in anticlines and tilted fault blocks, primarily in lenticular upper Miocene sandstones and in Helvetian limestones. Exploration for stratigraphic and other nonstructural traps may represent the best potential for future discoveries onshore. Albania's greatest oil and gas potential is probably in the Albanian shelf of the Durres basin, offshore. No wells have ever been drilled offshore, and exploration is confined to a limited, nearshore seismic survey. Recent access to Albanian data suggests most published regional interpretations are many years out of date. Albania's offshore potential includes several zones of hydrocarbon generation in Mesozoic to Paleogene strata. Potential reservoirs include Neogene flysch sandstones and Mesozoic platform carbonates. Albania has recently invited foreign oil companies to apply for offshore exploration rights. As Albania is opened to foreign investment in the petroleum sector, there is little doubt that modern seismic techniques and the deliberate search for subtle traps may be expected to lead to substantial new discoveries.

  3. Bulgaria | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Bulgaria NNSA and Bulgaria partner to complete nuclear detection architecture Fixed and mobile detection systems will prevent smuggling of dangerous radioactive materials Sofia, Bulgaria - Representatives of the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA), the U.S. Embassy in Sofia, Bulgaria, and the Bulgarian government this week

  4. Albania: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovring, M. )

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that Albanian oil production totaled 14.6 MMbbl in 1990, compared with 15.54 MMbbl in 1989, a decrease of 6%. Due to wastage and insufficient exploration, Albania is unable to make efficient use of its 14.8-MMbbl refining capacity. Albania last year sought help from Western oil companies to explore its underdeveloped oil fields. This is a radical change from the authorities' previous rejection of outside assistance. Ramiz Alia, the president and head of the ruling Albanian Party of Labor, seems to be adopting a more flexible economic policy due to the growing shortages of food, consumer goods and spare parts.

  5. Albania-USAID Climate Activities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    friendly sustainable development in Albania. USAID and its partners and collaborators will assist Albania's current and future efforts in mitigating the effects of...

  6. Cambodia-UNEP Risoe Technology Needs Assessment Program | Open...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Cambodia-UNEP Risoe Technology Needs Assessment Program Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Cambodia-UNEP Risoe-Technology Needs Assessment Program Name Cambodia-UNEP...

  7. Albania, offshore subscribed, offering EOR opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-20

    This paper reports that Albania is starting a campaign to offer field development/enhanced recovery projects to foreign companies. The fields chosen for EOR projects and their producing lithologies are: Patos-Marinza, sandstone. Kucova-Arrza, sandstone. Gorisht-Kocul, limestone. Ballsh-Hekal, limestone. Cakran-Mollaj, limestone. Visoka, limestone. Delvina, limestone. Field locations mostly lie along Albania's Adriatic Sea coast. Oil production began in Albania in 1929, peaked at about 60,000 b/d in 1975 and has steadily fallen.

  8. Albania: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Country Profile Name Albania Population 2,821,977 GDP 14,000,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.11 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code AL 3-letter ISO code ALB Numeric ISO...

  9. Oil production history in Albania oil fields and their perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marko, D.; Moci, A.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper we will make a general presentation for oil fields in Albania, actual state, and their perspective.

  10. NNSA and Bulgaria partner to complete nuclear detection architecture...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Library Press Releases NNSA and Bulgaria partner to complete nuclear detection ... Sofia, Bulgaria - Representatives of the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security ...

  11. Office Director, Department of Energy, Sophia, Bulgaria | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Director, Department of Energy, Sophia, Bulgaria | National Nuclear Security ... Office Director, Department of Energy, Sophia, Bulgaria Riaz Awan Riaz Awan Role: Office ...

  12. Cambodia-Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Cambodia-Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR) Name Cambodia-Pilot Program for Climate...

  13. Bulgaria: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Country Profile Name Bulgaria Population 7,364,570 GDP 57,596,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.83 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code BG 3-letter ISO code BGR Numeric ISO...

  14. NNSA and Bulgaria partner to complete nuclear detection architecture |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Library / Press Releases NNSA and Bulgaria partner to complete nuclear detection architecture October 04, 2016 Fixed and mobile detection systems will prevent smuggling of dangerous radioactive materials Sofia, Bulgaria - Representatives of the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA), the U.S. Embassy in Sofia, Bulgaria, and the Bulgarian government this week celebrated the completion of Bulgaria's nuclear

  15. Cambodia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Country Profile Name Cambodia Population 13,388,910 GDP 17,250,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.07 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code KH 3-letter ISO code KHM Numeric ISO...

  16. Albania has active but difficult drilling program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shehu, F. ); Johnston, D. )

    1991-11-18

    The technical and economic performance of drilling operations in Albania has improved during the past few years, though it has not reached a high level. The low performance results from geological complications and the use of old equipment with low capacities. Most of the rigs do not have adequate hydraulic or kinematic systems. Low quality spare parts, a lack of imported material, and infrequent maintenance cause downtime from mechanical failures. The average time spent drilling is only 25-40% of the time on location, and the average drilling rate is about 4-5 m/hr. This paper reviews production drilling statistics for oil and gas wells in Albanies.

  17. Total All Countries Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Destination Exports by Destination Destination: Total All Countries Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andora Angola Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Bahama Islands Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma Bermuda Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cayman Islands Chad Chile China Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Congo (Brazzaville) Congo (Kinshasa) Costa Rica Croatia

  18. Rehabilitation of four hydropower stations in Albania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celo, D.; Orucevic, E.; Daci, G.

    1998-12-31

    Hydro power stations are the essential economic resources of Albania. It is therefore the objective of KESH (Albanian Power Corporation), based on a limited budget from the European Community, to increase the output of electricity, to make supply more reliable, and to help to enhance the country`s export potential, as in the past electricity exports were a major source of foreign currency revenues. It is the objective of the rehabilitation project to: (1) increase production, efficiency and availability of electricity generation by replacing antiquated and unreliable electrical and mechanical equipment by modern technology; (2) extend the life expectancy of the plants and their equipment; (3) enhance the reliability and quality of electricity supply by installing modern control and monitoring systems; (4) provide all necessary equipment to connect the plants to the SCADA-Network on the UCPTE basis; and (5) improve safety and stability of the dams and their appurtenant structures, also reducing health risks for working personnel.

  19. Poland, Albania place acreage on auction block

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-20

    Poland and Albania, respectively the first and last European countries to emerge from Communist rule, have unveiled bidding rounds for oil and gas projects. This paper reports that the goal is to encourage foreign investment in exploration and development. Poland's ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry, Warsaw, announced the schedule for its first bidding round for coalbed methane exploration licenses. Site is the Upper Silesian coal basin. Oil and gas companies were invited to submit proposals by Oct. 1 to develop what the ministry says is one of the world's most commercially viable coalbed methane resource. Five data packages are available covering 11 blocks. Packages cost $20,000 each or in combinations as much as $70,000 for all five. They include geological data, maps, gas transmission infrastructure details, drilling data, and results of coalbed methane studies. A bid is eligible only if the bidder has bought the relevant data package.

  20. Cambodia-Sub National Planning for Climate Change (cities, states...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Climate Change (cities, states, districts) Jump to: navigation, search Name Cambodia-Sub National Planning for Climate Change (cities, states, districts) AgencyCompany...

  1. Cambodia-Green Growth Planning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    search Name Cambodia-Green Growth Planning AgencyCompany Organization Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) Partner Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA)...

  2. CCAP-REDD+ Design in Cambodia, Indonesia, and Mexico: Lessons...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    REDD+ Design in Cambodia, Indonesia, and Mexico: Lessons to Inform International REDD+ Policy Development Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: CCAP-REDD+...

  3. Total Net Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products into the U.S.

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Net Imports by Country Country: Total All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Gabon Indonesia Iran Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Afghanistan Albania Andora Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cayman

  4. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    We welcome your feedback and insights on this article. Country United States Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Angola Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas, The Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma (Myanmar) Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia

  5. Stump the Scientist Question Form | GE Global Research

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Please Help Us Stump the Scientist Ask Your Question *Required fields Name* Email* School/Company* Twitter Handle Country* Select Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Andorra Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad

  6. Passive solar systems performance under conditions in Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekov, A.B.; Balcomb, J.D.

    1989-12-01

    This paper presents energy performance of 12 passive solar systems for three climatically different zones of Bulgaria. The results are compared with a base-case residential house that has a design typical for these areas. The different passive solar systems are compared on the basis of the percentage of solar savings and the yield, which is the annual net benefit of adding the passive solar system. The analyses are provided based on monthly meteorological data, and the method used for calculations is the Solar Load Ratio. Recommendations for Bulgarian conditions are given. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Scenarios of energy demand and efficiency potential for Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tzvetanov, P.; Ruicheva, M.; Denisiev, M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents aggregated results on macroeconomic and final energy demand scenarios developed within the Bulgarian Country Study on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation, supported by US Country Studies Program. The studies in this area cover 5 main stages: (1) {open_quotes}Baseline{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Energy Efficiency{close_quotes} socioeconomic and energy policy philosophy; (2) Modeling of macroeconomic and sectoral development till 2020; (3) Expert assessments on the technological options for energy efficiency increase and GHG mitigation in the Production, Transport and Households and Services Sectors; (4) Bottom-up modeling of final energy demand; and (5) Sectoral and overall energy efficiency potential and policy. Within the Bulgarian Country Study, the presented results have served as a basis for the final integration stage {open_quotes}Assessment of the Mitigation Policy and Measures in the Energy System of Bulgaria{close_quotes}.

  8. Energy Technology Systems Analysis Program (MARKAL) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Switzerland, Albania, Australia, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Colombia, Croatia, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, New Zealand, China, Philippines,...

  9. Fresh and Spent Nuclear Fuel Repatriation from the IRT-2000 Research Reactor Facility, Sofia, Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. J. Allen; T. G. Apostolov; I. S. Dimitrov

    2009-03-01

    The IRT 2000 research reactor, operated by the Bulgarian Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), safely shipped all of their Russian-origin nuclear fuel from the Republic of Bulgaria to the Russian Federation beginning in 2003 and completing in 2008. These fresh and spent fuel shipments removed all highly enriched uranium (HEU) from Bulgaria. The fresh fuel was shipped by air in December 2003 using trucks and a commercial cargo aircraft. One combined spent fuel shipment of HEU and low enriched uranium (LEU) was completed in July 2008 using high capacity VPVR/M casks transported by truck, barge, and rail. The HEU shipments were assisted by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) and the LEU spent fuel shipment was funded by Bulgaria. This report describes the work, approvals, organizations, equipment, and agreements required to complete these shipments and concludes with several major lessons learned.

  10. Assessment of the mitigation options in the energy system in Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christov, C.; Vassilev, C.; Simenova, K.

    1996-12-31

    Bulgaria signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the UNCEP in Rio in June 1992. The parliament ratified the Convention in March 1995. In compliance with the commitments arising under the Convention, Bulgaria elaborates climate change polity. The underlying principles in this policy are Bulgaria to joint the international efforts towards solving climate change problems to the extent that is adequate to both the possibilities of national economy and the options to attract foreign investments. All policies and measures implemented should be as cost-effective as possible. The Bulgarian GHG emission profile reveals the energy sector as the most significant emission source and also as an area where the great potential for GHG emissions reduction exists. This potential could be achieved in many cases by relatively low cost or even no-cost options. Mitigation analysis incorporates options in energy demand and energy supply within the period 1992-2020.

  11. Monitoring of Occupational Exposures in Albania Using TLD-100 cards (2003-2007)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafmolla, Luan; Hoxhaj, Enver

    2010-01-21

    In our paper is described the monitoring of occupational staff that works in ionising radiation field of the diagnostic centres in Albania for 2003-2007, and is analysed and discussed the mean annual dose rate recorded for above-mentioned period. The monitoring was based in TLD-100 dosimetric cards and the control was performed all over the country on bimonthly basis covering main and important cities like: Tirana, Durresi, Shkodra, Fieri, Vlora, Korca etj. The Department of Human and Environment Protection, at the Centre of Applied Nuclear Physics, through the dosimetric service carried out the monitoring for around 350 radiation workers.

  12. RUSSIAN-ORIGIN HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL SHIPMENT FROM BULGARIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly Cummins; Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Tihomir Apostolov; Ivaylo Dimitrov

    2009-07-01

    In July 2008, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative and the IRT 2000 research reactor in Sofia, Bulgaria, operated by the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), safely shipped 6.4 kilograms of Russian origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to the Russian Federation. The shipment, which resulted in the removal of all HEU from Bulgaria, was conducted by truck, barge, and rail modes of transport across two transit countries before reaching the final destination at the Production Association Mayak facility in Chelyabinsk, Russia. This paper describes the work, equipment, organizations, and approvals that were required to complete the spent fuel shipment and provides lessons learned that might assist other research reactor operators with their own spent nuclear fuel shipments.

  13. Online Monitoring And Determination Of Environmental Dose Rate, Using Radiological Network In Albania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Telhaj, Ervis; Deda, Antoneta

    2010-01-21

    From May 2004, in the Institute of Nuclear Physics is installed Albanian Radiological Monitoring Network, in the framework of emergency monitoring in the territory of Albania. In this network, this is unique monitoring on-line system in our country. are included 5(five) monitoring stations, respectively in Tirane, Shkoder, Kukes, Korce and Vlore. The last four stations are near Albanian borders The network performs measures of ambient dose rate in a range from 5 nSv/h up to 10 Sv/h. For measurements are used detector of type VACUTEC 70045 A, which are calibrated in the Centre of Applied Nuclear Physics, University of Tirana, using standard radiation source Cs-137. This monitoring help to warn in real time the relative authorities, in case of radiological accidents of 5th degree (for example accidents in nuclear power plants, near Albanian territory).

  14. Safety Assessment for the Kozloduy National Disposal Facility in Bulgaria - 13507

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biurrun, E.; Haverkamp, B.; Lazaro, A.; Miralles, A.; Stefanova, I.

    2013-07-01

    Due to the early decommissioning of four Water-Water Energy Reactors (WWER) 440-V230 reactors at the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) near the city of Kozloduy in Bulgaria, large amounts of low and intermediate radioactive waste will arise much earlier than initially scheduled. In or-der to manage the radioactive waste from the early decommissioning, Bulgaria has intensified its efforts to provide a near surface disposal facility at Radiana with the required capacity. To this end, a project was launched and assigned in international competition to a German-Spanish consortium to provide the complete technical planning including the preparation of the Intermediate Safety Assessment Report. Preliminary results of operational and long-term safety show compliance with the Bulgarian regulatory requirements. The long-term calculations carried out for the Radiana site are also a good example of how analysis of safety assessment results can be used for iterative improvements of the assessment by pointing out uncertainties and areas of future investigations to reduce such uncertainties in regard to the potential radiological impact. The computer model used to estimate the long-term evolution of the future repository at Radiana predicted a maximum total annual dose for members of the critical group, which is carried to approximately 80 % by C-14 for a specific ingestion pathway. Based on this result and the outcome of the sensitivity analysis, existing uncertainties were evaluated and areas for reasonable future investigations to reduce these uncertainties were identified. (authors)

  15. Neurobehavioral effects of arsenic exposure among secondary school children in the Kandal Province, Cambodia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vibol, Sao; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Sarmani, Sukiman

    2015-02-15

    The research was carried out at 3 study sites with varying groundwater arsenic (As) levels in the Kandal Province of Cambodia. Kampong Kong Commune was chosen as a highly contaminated site (300–500 μg/L), Svay Romiet Commune was chosen as a moderately contaminated site (50–300 μg/L) and Anlong Romiet Commune was chosen as a control site. Neurobehavioral tests on the 3 exposure groups were conducted using a modified WHO neurobehavioral core test battery. Seven neurobehavioral tests including digit symbol, digit span, Santa Ana manual dexterity, Benton visual retention, pursuit aiming, trail making and simple reaction time were applied. Children's hair samples were also collected to investigate the influence of hair As levels on the neurobehavioral test scores. The results from the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses of hair samples showed that hair As levels at the 3 study sites were significantly different (p<0.001), whereby hair samples from the highly contaminated site (n=157) had a median hair As level of 0.93 μg/g, while the moderately contaminated site (n=151) had a median hair As level of 0.22 μg/g, and the control site (n=214) had a median hair As level of 0.08 μg/g. There were significant differences among the 3 study sites for all the neurobehavioral tests scores, except for digit span (backward) test. Multiple linear regression clearly shows a positive significant influence of hair As levels on all the neurobehavioral test scores, except for digit span (backward) test, after controlling for hair lead (Pb), manganese (Mn) and cadmium (Cd). Children with high hair As levels experienced 1.57–4.67 times greater risk of having lower neurobehavioral test scores compared to those with low hair As levels, after adjusting for hair Pb, Mn and Cd levels and BMI status. In conclusion, arsenic-exposed school children from the Kandal Province of Cambodia with a median hair As level of 0.93 µg/g among those from the highly

  16. Application of the Neo-Deterministic Seismic Microzonation Procedure in Bulgaria and Validation of the Seismic Input Against Eurocode 8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanka, Paskaleva; Mihaela, Kouteva; Franco, Vaccari; Panza, Giuliano F.

    2008-07-08

    The earthquake record and the Code for design and construction in seismic regions in Bulgaria have shown that the territory of the Republic of Bulgaria is exposed to a high seismic risk due to local shallow and regional strong intermediate-depth seismic sources. The available strong motion database is quite limited, and therefore not representative at all of the real hazard. The application of the neo-deterministic seismic hazard assessment procedure for two main Bulgarian cities has been capable to supply a significant database of synthetic strong motions for the target sites, applicable for earthquake engineering purposes. The main advantage of the applied deterministic procedure is the possibility to take simultaneously and correctly into consideration the contribution to the earthquake ground motion at the target sites of the seismic source and of the seismic wave propagation in the crossed media. We discuss in this study the result of some recent applications of the neo-deterministic seismic microzonation procedure to the cities of Sofia and Russe. The validation of the theoretically modeled seismic input against Eurocode 8 and the few available records at these sites is discussed.

  17. The model of the oil-gas bearing molasse reservoirs in the Peri-Adriatic depression, Albania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hysen, K.N.; Skender, T.G.

    1996-12-31

    The Peri-Adriatic Depression (PAD) represents the eastern extension of the Cenozoic Adriatic basin into onshore Albania. Several oil, gas condensate, dry gas fields have been discovered in this basin. Dry gas fields occur mainly in the western sector of the basin, whereas the oil fields are found in the eastern one. Reservoir rocks are well sorted to poorly, fine grained to pebbly sandstones and silstones of Miocene (Serravalian) to Pliocene age, deposited in deep water (turbidite), deltaic and littoral environments. Reservoir beds range in thickness from I to 40 in and are generally regionally distributed. The porosity varies from 3 to 37%, the permeability ranges from low values up to 2200-2500 mD. The minimal value of the porosity measured from oil flowing reservoirs varies from 12% to 16% and for the dry gas 12-21%. Geothermal gradient range from 1.4-2 C/100m. The dimensions of the reservoirs are very different and its geometric shape differs from beds to irregular shape. The types of the traps are also different : lithologo-stratigraphic, lithologic, structural-lithologic ones, etc. The upper part of the Pliocene basin belongs to the delta deposits. The deltaic sandstones are coarse grain to conglomeratic ones, of barriers type, saturated with fresh water and have vast distribution.

  18. The model of the oil-gas bearing molasse reservoirs in the Peri-Adriatic depression, Albania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hysen, K.N.; Skender, T.G. )

    1996-01-01

    The Peri-Adriatic Depression (PAD) represents the eastern extension of the Cenozoic Adriatic basin into onshore Albania. Several oil, gas condensate, dry gas fields have been discovered in this basin. Dry gas fields occur mainly in the western sector of the basin, whereas the oil fields are found in the eastern one. Reservoir rocks are well sorted to poorly, fine grained to pebbly sandstones and silstones of Miocene (Serravalian) to Pliocene age, deposited in deep water (turbidite), deltaic and littoral environments. Reservoir beds range in thickness from I to 40 in and are generally regionally distributed. The porosity varies from 3 to 37%, the permeability ranges from low values up to 2200-2500 mD. The minimal value of the porosity measured from oil flowing reservoirs varies from 12% to 16% and for the dry gas 12-21%. Geothermal gradient range from 1.4-2 C/100m. The dimensions of the reservoirs are very different and its geometric shape differs from beds to irregular shape. The types of the traps are also different : lithologo-stratigraphic, lithologic, structural-lithologic ones, etc. The upper part of the Pliocene basin belongs to the delta deposits. The deltaic sandstones are coarse grain to conglomeratic ones, of barriers type, saturated with fresh water and have vast distribution.

  19. 105(scaled land 215%)7-22-05

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cntrl African Rep. Chad Chile China Colombia Dem. Rep. Congo Costa Rica Cote d'Ivoire Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. Denmark ...

  20. Simulation of Canopy CO2/H2O Fluxes for a Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis) Plantation in Central Cambodia: The Effect of the Regular Spacing of Planted Trees

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Mudd, Ryan; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Liu, Wen; Giambelluca, Thomas; Kobayashi, N.; Lim, Tiva Khan; Jomura, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Huang, Maoyi; Chen, Qi; Ziegler, Alan; Yin, Song

    2013-09-10

    We developed a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model applicable to simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes from the canopies of rubber plantations, which are characterized by distinct canopy clumping produced by regular spacing of plantation trees. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Mll. Arg.) plantations, which are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially change the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with traditional land covers it is replacing. Describing the biosphere-atmosphere exchange in rubber plantations via SVAT modeling is therefore essential to understanding the impacts on environmental processes. The regular spacing of plantation trees creates a peculiar canopy structure that is not well represented in most SVAT models, which generally assumes a non-uniform spacing of vegetation. Herein we develop a SVAT model applicable to rubber plantation and an evaluation method for its canopy structure, and examine how the peculiar canopy structure of rubber plantations affects canopy CO2 and H2O exchanges. Model results are compared with measurements collected at a field site in central Cambodia. Our findings suggest that it is crucial to account for intensive canopy clumping in order to reproduce observed rubber plantation fluxes. These results suggest a potentially optimal spacing of rubber trees to produce high productivity and water use efficiency.

  1. FSU/Eastern Europe: Russia spearheads small upturn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    The paper discusses the political and legal scene in Russia, domestic restructuring, exploration, drilling, development by Western companies and by Russian companies, and production. Exploration and development in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Serbia are also discussed.

  2. How do rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations behave under seasonal water stress in northeastern Thailand and central Cambodia?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Mudd, Ryan G.; Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Kobayashi, Nakako; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Lim, Tiva Khan; Liu, Wen; Huang, Maoyi; Fox, Jefferson M.; Ziegler, Alan D.; Yin, Song; Mak, Sophea Veasna; Kasemsap, Poonpipope

    2015-11-01

    Plantation rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Mll. Arg.) is a viable economic resource for Southeast Asian countries. Consequently, rubber plantations are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially changing the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with the traditional land covers they are replacing. Delineating the characteristics of biosphere-atmosphere exchange in rubber plantations is therefore important to understanding the impacts of such land use change on environmental processes. We have conducted eddy flux measurements in two rubber plantation sites: (1) Som Sanuk (SS), located northern Thailand; and (2) Cambodian Rubber Research Institute (CRRI), central Cambodia. Both sites have a distinct dry season. Measurements were made over a 3-year period. We used combination of actual evapotranspiration (ET) flux measurements and an inversed version of a simple 2-layer ET model for estimating the mean canopy stomatal conductances (gs), which is among the most effective measures for describing water and energy exchanges and tree water use characteristics. A main novelty in this analysis is that the rubber canopy conductance can be extracted from total surface conductance (including the canopy and the vegetation floor effects) and hence environmental and biological controls on rubber tree gs are explicitly compared at each site in different seasons and years. It is demonstrated how each studied rubber plantation copes with each strong seasonal drought via tree water use strategies. Potential tree water use deficit (precipitation (P) potential evaporation (ET_POT)) for each season (i.e., December-February: DJF, March-May: MAM, June-August: JJA, and September-November: SON) revealed in which season and how the water use should be controlled. We found that in seasons when actual tree water use deficit (P E

  3. U.S. Imports from All Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Imports by Country of Origin Import Area: U.S. Period/Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Country: All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Gabon Indonesia Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Albania Argentina Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria

  4. Albania-Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    illustrates the U.S. perspective on LEDS: Integrated development goals and objectives, national greenhouse gas inventory, and economic and resource data Long-term projections of...

  5. ALBANIA: Thrust and backthrust systems of external Albanides: Examples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bega, Z.; Janopulli, V.

    1995-08-01

    External Albanides have proved as an oil/gas province in a certain limited area. Better understanding of thrusting and backthrusting systems and how both systems work, could improve objectives for exploration beyond actual discoveries. Backthrusting is not seen any more typical for Cenozoic sediments, where buried front of thrust faulted belts are very active. Mesozoic rocks, that are dominated by westward thrust propagation are also affected by backthrusting, thus leaving more space for other units accommodation. New concepts postulated are based on Deep Holes, Seismic Data, Outcrops and Spot Imagery. Among onshore examples, some of them cross existing fields.

  6. Power market analysis and potential revenues of new transmission lines in a deregulated environment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koritarov, V. S.; Veselka, T. D.; Trouille, B.

    2002-05-15

    This paper describes an approach that was developed to analyze the market potential for power transactions via proposed transmission lines among the electric power utilities of Macedonia, Bulgaria, and Albania. The approach uses an integrated modeling framework consisting of several computer models that estimate the financial and economic benefits of constructing new transmission lines. The integrated model simulates open power markets under several scenarios that include cases with and without the proposed interconnections. The approach estimates power transactions among the three Balkan utility systems and the benefits of coordinated or joint system operations, including short-term power sales agreements.

  7. Minerals yearbook: Mineral industries of Europe and the USSR. Volume 3. 1990 international review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The section of the Minerals Yearbook reviews the minerals industries of 29 countries: the 12 nations of the European Community (Belgium, France, the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), Italy, Greece, the Netherlands, Denmark/Greenland, Spain, Portugal, Luxembourg, The United Kingdom, and Ireland); 6 of the 7 nations of the European Free Trade Association (Sweden, Norway, Finland, Iceland, Austria, and Switzerland); Malta; the 8 Centrally Planned Economies of Eastern Europe (the German Democratic Republic (GDR), Poland, Yugoslavia, Albania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Bulgaria); and the USSR.

  8. Industry turns its attention south

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marhefka, D.

    1997-08-01

    The paper discusses the outlook for the gas and oil industries in the Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Significant foreign investment continues to elude Russia`s oil and gas industry, so the Caspian nations of Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan are picking up the slack, welcoming the flow of foreign capital to their energy projects. Separate evaluations are given for Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Moldova, Tajikstan, Uzbekistan, Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Serbia.

  9. World frontiers beckon oil finders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This paper discusses the international aspects of the petroleum industry. Most who work in the industry agree that the possibilities for huge are found largely in international regions. Something that is helping fuel that possibility is the way countries are increasingly opening their doors to US oil industry involvement. Listed in this paper is a partial list of the reported projects now underway around the world involving US companies. It is not intended to be comprehensive, but rather an indication of how work continues despite a general lull atmosphere for the oil industry. These include Albania, Bulgaria, Congo, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Ireland, Malta, Madagascar, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Panama, Paraquay, and Senegal.

  10. Cambodia-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme (NAP...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  11. UNDP/GEF-Cambodia-Sustainable Forest Management | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    be carried out through community forestry activities to engage rural communities in nature conservation and create markets for sustainable bio-energy technologies to help curb...

  12. Cambodia-Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    in areas such as health, education, economic growth, poverty alleviation, agriculture, natural resource management, democracy, governance, human rights, and anti-trafficking in...

  13. Cambodia-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    for GHG reductions, Build and institutionalize technical capacity for economic valuation of forest ecosystem services and monitoring changes in forest carbon stocks, and...

  14. Cambodia-Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) Program | Open...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    the growth of greenhouse gas emissions. The LEAD program supports and enhances country-led development programs, plans, and policies, and complements efforts of other...

  15. Minerals yearbook: Mineral industries of Europe and central Eurasia. Volume 3. 1992 international review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Volume III, Minerals Yearbook -- International Review contains the latest available mineral data on more than 175 foreign countries and discusses the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations. Since the 1989 International Review, the volume has been presented as six reports. The report presents the Mineral Industries of Europe and Central Eurasia. The report incorporates location maps, industry structure tables, and an outlook section previously incorporated in the authors' Minerals Perspectives Series quinquennial regional books, which are being discontinued. This section of the Minerals Yearbook reviews the minerals industries of 45 countries: the 12 nations of the European Community (EC); 6 of the 7 nations of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA); Malta; the 11 Eastern European economies in transition (Albania, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, and Slovenia); and the countries of Central Eurasia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan).

  16. Exploration potential of Central Europe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krueger, W.C. )

    1991-03-01

    Because of governmental changes an entire region of Central Europe has received exploration scrutiny not possible during the past 40-50 years. This entire area - Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Albania, Poland, and East Germany - is tectonically related. Yugoslavia, although not under the same restrictions, is also considered in the same tectonic setting. Therefore, these countries can be expected to reflect some of the same stratigraphy, source rock, reservoir, trap and field types, and production history. Much of the region can be considered frontier while other parts mature. Production from all is about 55,000 T/D, 380,000 BO/D and 63.1 Bm{sup 3}/yr, 2,203 Bft{sup 3}/yr. Major source rocks have been identified as Tertiary-Oligocene, Miocene-Mesozoic, Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous. Carboniferous coal sequences are considered source for the Permian. The East European platform and Tethyian plates are the foundation of the Central Europe states. Plate collisions during the late Mesozoic and into the Tertiary affected the Carpathian, Balkans, Dinarides, and Helenide Mountain chains. Mesozoic and Tertiary foredeep deposits have been proven productive from normal-, thrust-, and wrench-faulted anticlinal structures. Paleozoic, Mesozoic erosional remnants, and Tertiary lacustrine and deltaic stratigraphic deposits are the major productive reservoirs in the Pannonian basin. Permian shelf and reefal deposits are found in such areas as the Permian Shelf in Eastern Germany and Poland. Reefal plays may be found in Bulgaria and Romania offshore.

  17. Cambodia-Low Carbon Asia Research Network (LoCARNet) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Energy, Land Focus Area Agriculture, Biomass, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Greenhouse Gas, Hydrogen, Industry, Land Use, People and...

  18. Eastern Europe: the move is towards gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-15

    Individual country reports on drilling, oil and gas production, and petroleum exploration and reserves are given for E. Europe. In the USSR, the center of oil production (once in the Volga-Urals) has shifted to W. Siberia, which will account for 52% of the 1980 output. Exploratory drilling prospects are outlined in W. Siberia, including smaller structural closures within troughs, nonstructural traps, and the deeper Jurassic of the Dydan Peninsula. Over one-half of the 42.6 million ft of development drilling in 1979 was in W. Siberia, including some secondary recovery techniques. Offshore activities show only moderate growth. In Romania, there is an oil/gas self-sufficiency program in effect with plans to intensify geologic research and to develop enhanced recovery methods. Yugoslavia's gas production is expected to increase from a present level of 193.5 mmcfd on shore by year's end, and 2 offshore fields should begin producing up to 290.3 mmcfd by 1985. Petroleum industry activity and production expectations also are briefly discussed for Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany, Albania, and Czechoslovakia.

  19. Nvision.Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    solar power plants in Bulgaria and currently has operations in Bulgaria, Kenya and Pakistan Phone number +442081448366 Website http:www.nvision.energy Coordinates...

  20. Elektra Holding | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    search Name: Elektra Holding Place: Sofia, Bulgaria Sector: Biomass, Hydro, Solar, Wind energy Product: A company owned by a group of Spanish families operating in Bulgaria,...

  1. Asian Development Outlook 2010 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, China, South Korea, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Laos, Vietnam,...

  2. Albanian Centre for Energy Regulation and Conservation - ACERC...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    the WBs & Albania. Its practices comprise specialize legal support, strategic business counsel as well as research project development and management. ACERC services...

  3. Property:Iso3166Alpha2 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Afghanistan + AF + Albania + AL + Algeria + DZ + American Samoa + AS + Andorra + AD + Angola + AO + Anguilla + AI + Antigua and Barbuda + AG + Argentina + AR + Armenia + AM +...

  4. Property:NumberOfPrograms | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    25) A Afghanistan + 5 + Albania + 5 + Algeria + 6 + American Samoa + 0 + Andorra + 0 + Angola + 1 + Anguilla + 1 + Antigua and Barbuda + 6 + Argentina + 12 + Armenia + 6 + Aruba +...

  5. Property:NumberOfDOELabPrograms | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    25) A Afghanistan + 3 + Albania + 0 + Algeria + 1 + American Samoa + 0 + Andorra + 0 + Angola + 0 + Anguilla + 1 + Antigua and Barbuda + 1 + Argentina + 1 + Armenia + 0 + Aruba + 1...

  6. Property:Iso3166Numeric | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    + 004 + Albania + 008 + Algeria + 012 + American Samoa + 016 + Andorra + 020 + Angola + 024 + Anguilla + 660 + Antigua and Barbuda + 028 + Argentina + 032 + Armenia + 051 +...

  7. Property:NumberOfLowCarbonPlanningPrograms | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    25) A Afghanistan + 0 + Albania + 1 + Algeria + 1 + American Samoa + 0 + Andorra + 0 + Angola + 1 + Anguilla + 0 + Antigua and Barbuda + 2 + Argentina + 5 + Armenia + 2 + Aruba + 0...

  8. Property:NumberOfResourceAssessmentsEnergy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    25) A Afghanistan + 1 + Albania + 0 + Algeria + 1 + American Samoa + 0 + Andorra + 0 + Angola + 0 + Anguilla + 0 + Antigua and Barbuda + 1 + Argentina + 0 + Armenia + 1 + Aruba + 0...

  9. Property:NumberOfResourceAssessmentsLand | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    25) A Afghanistan + 0 + Albania + 0 + Algeria + 0 + American Samoa + 0 + Andorra + 0 + Angola + 0 + Anguilla + 0 + Antigua and Barbuda + 0 + Argentina + 0 + Armenia + 0 + Aruba + 0...

  10. Property:NumberOfLowCarbonPrograms | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    25) A Afghanistan + 0 + Albania + 0 + Algeria + 0 + American Samoa + 0 + Andorra + 0 + Angola + 0 + Anguilla + 0 + Antigua and Barbuda + 0 + Argentina + 0 + Armenia + 0 + Aruba + 0...

  11. Property:NumberOfCLEANPrograms | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    25) A Afghanistan + 0 + Albania + 0 + Algeria + 0 + American Samoa + 0 + Andorra + 0 + Angola + 0 + Anguilla + 0 + Antigua and Barbuda + 0 + Argentina + 0 + Armenia + 0 + Aruba + 0...

  12. Property:AdvancedEconomy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    false + Albania + false + Algeria + false + American Samoa + false + Andorra + false + Angola + false + Anguilla + false + Antigua and Barbuda + false + Argentina + false + Armenia...

  13. Property:NumberOfLowCarbonPlanningProgramsAgriculture | Open...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    25) A Afghanistan + 0 + Albania + 0 + Algeria + 0 + American Samoa + 0 + Andorra + 0 + Angola + 1 + Anguilla + 0 + Antigua and Barbuda + 1 + Argentina + 4 + Armenia + 2 + Aruba + 0...

  14. Property:Iso3166Alpha3 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    + AFG + Albania + ALB + Algeria + DZA + American Samoa + ASM + Andorra + AND + Angola + AGO + Anguilla + AIA + Antigua and Barbuda + ATG + Argentina + ARG + Armenia + ARM +...

  15. Property:NumberOfSolarResources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    25) A Afghanistan + 1 + Albania + 0 + Algeria + 1 + American Samoa + 0 + Andorra + 0 + Angola + 0 + Anguilla + 0 + Antigua and Barbuda + 0 + Argentina + 1 + Armenia + 0 + Aruba + 0...

  16. Appendix A: Reference case

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. 3 Other Europe and Eurasia Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan,...

  17. Ecofys-Country Fact Sheets | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Country: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Colombia, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, European Union,...

  18. 1

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    K. Ivanova Department of Meteorology Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania and Institute of Electronics Bulgarian Academy Sciences Sofia, Bulgaria...

  19. Microsoft Word - TOC Section I Conformed thru Mod 274.docx

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Nicaragua, or Singapore); (3) A least developed country (Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Central African...

  20. File:NREL-asia-tilt.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Countries Bhutan, China, Nepal, Mongolia, India, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Philippines, Bangladesh UN Region Southern Asia, Eastern Asia,...

  1. File:NREL-asia-dir.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Countries Bhutan, China, Nepal, Mongolia, India, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Philippines, Bangladesh UN Region Southern Asia, Eastern Asia,...

  2. File:NREL-asia-glo.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Countries Bhutan, China, Nepal, Mongolia, India, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Philippines, Bangladesh UN Region Southern Asia, Eastern Asia,...

  3. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros Congo (Brazzaville) Congo (Kinshasa) Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote...

  4. Nuclear Smuggling Detection and Deterrence Program | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration Nuclear Smuggling Detection and Deterrence Program NNSA and Bulgaria partner to complete nuclear detection architecture Fixed and mobile detection systems will prevent smuggling of dangerous radioactive materials Sofia, Bulgaria - Representatives of the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA), the U.S. Embassy in Sofia, Bulgaria, and the Bulgarian government this week... NNSA program strengthens national security from afar The

  5. Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration Nuclear Nonproliferation NNSA and Bulgaria partner to complete nuclear detection architecture Fixed and mobile detection systems will prevent smuggling of dangerous radioactive materials Sofia, Bulgaria - Representatives of the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA), the U.S. Embassy in Sofia, Bulgaria, and the Bulgarian government this week... Nuclear forensics, explained: NNSA analytic chemists help keep the world safe One of the gravest

  6. nuclear smuggling | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    nuclear smuggling NNSA and Bulgaria partner to complete nuclear detection architecture Fixed and mobile detection systems will prevent smuggling of dangerous radioactive materials Sofia, Bulgaria - Representatives of the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA), the U.S. Embassy in Sofia, Bulgaria, and the Bulgarian government this week... NNSA Deputy Administrator Creedon Travels to China In March, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Principal

  7. Energy Solutions S A | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Solutions S.A. Place: PERNIK, Bulgaria Zip: 2304 Sector: Solar Product: produces photovoltaic modules using mono- and poly-crystalline Si solar cells. Crystalline Si...

  8. Fermilab | Newsroom | Press Releases | April 22, 2015: ICARUS...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain,...

  9. Press Pass - Press Release - The CMS Tracking Detector's Midnight...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden,...

  10. GNEP Ministerial Attendees

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Republic of Bulgaria to the United Nations China Chen Deming, Vice Chairman, National Development and Reform Commission France Alain ...

  11. Status of U.S. Nuclear Outages - U.S. Energy Information Administratio...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Bahamas, The Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma (Myanmar) ...

  12. International - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Bahamas, The Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma (Myanmar) ...

  13. Eia.gov BETA - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) ...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Bahamas, The Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma (Myanmar) ...

  14. Nobesol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Nobesol Jump to: navigation, search Name: Nobesol Place: Paterna, Spain Zip: 46980 Product: PV project developer headquartered in Spain with activities in Bulgaria. Coordinates:...

  15. International Stationary Fuel Cell Demonstration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    * Plug Power (US)Plug Power (Netherlands) * PEMEAS E-TEK USPEMEAS (Germany) * Vaillant (Germany) * Domel (Slovenia) * Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Bulgaria) * Gaia ...

  16. Zlatia M | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Zlatia M Jump to: navigation, search Name: Zlatia M Place: Bulgaria Sector: Solar Product: Bulgarian company which has stated an interest to develop solar projects. References:...

  17. Krass Capital Group AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Krass Capital Group AG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Krass Capital Group AG Place: Grfelfing, Bulgaria Zip: 82166 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Grafelfing-based firm...

  18. Apex Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Name: Apex Solar Place: Sofia, Bulgaria Zip: 1616 Sector: Solar Product: Bulgarian PV and solar thermal project developer and installer. References: Apex Solar1 This article is a...

  19. ORISE: Multiple research appointments available through Agricultural...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    Other countries with above-average stay rates include Iran, Romania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia. Thailand, Jordan, Brazil, South Africa, Chile, New Zealand and Indonesia all have the ...

  20. Total Crude Oil and Products Imports from All Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Argentina Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burma Cameroon Canada Chad ...

  1. Dei Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Place: Bulgaria Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Bulgarian utility engaged in renewable energy project development. References: Dei Energy1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  2. Hydroenergy Company Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Hydroenergy Company Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hydroenergy Company Ltd Place: 2700 Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria Sector: Hydro, Renewable Energy, Solar Product: Invests in,...

  3. Press Pass - Press Release - The CMS Tracking Detector's Midnight...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    States are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain,...

  4. Press Pass - Press Releases

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    States are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain,...

  5. Fermilab | Newsroom | Press Releases | July 19, 2013: Discovery...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    States are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,...

  6. Fermilab | Newsroom | Press Releases | June 3, 2015: U.S. joins...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    States are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,...

  7. Press Pass - Press Releases - March 30, 2010 - Physics Begins...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    States are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain,...

  8. Press Pass - Press Release - U.S. scientists join in "cosmic...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    States are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain,...

  9. Press Pass - Press Releases

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    states are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, the Slovak...

  10. Fermilab | Newsroom | Press Releases | April 5, 2015: U.S. scientists...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    States are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,...

  11. Press Pass - Press Release - LHC First Beam

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    States are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain,...

  12. Press Pass - Press Release - CDF B_s

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    States are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain,...

  13. Press Pass - Press Release - LHC Restart

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    States are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain,...

  14. Fermilab | Newsroom | Press Releases | May 13, 2015: Two Large...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    States are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,...

  15. Fermilab | Newsroom | Press Releases | March 19, 2014: International...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

    states are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,...

  16. Running Greener: E-Mobility at SAP

    Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... of 48 months At SAP charge 100% renewable energy CO 2 neutral Reduce consumption of ... E-Car initiatives planned: Austria, Vienna Bulgaria, Sofia France, Paris Hungary, ...

  17. Clean Development Mechanism | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    Fri, 19 Jun 2015 00:00:00 +0000 10086: Hydropower station Murdhari 1&2 (Hydroelectric Power Station Murdhari in Albania)

    Period for requesting review ...

  18. VALUE OF COOPERATIVE RELATIONSHIPS FOR SECURITY OF A SAFER WORLD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malollari, Dr. Ilirjan; Civici, Dr. Nikolla; Hirsch, Kristin; Randolph, John David

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cooperation of countries for improving security of radioactive and nuclear assets is clearly the key to success in establishing a more safe and secure world. Over the past few years the United States Department of Energy s Global Threat Reduction Initiatives (GTRI) program has been actively engaged with many countries of the world to identify, account for, and support enhancements to security and accounting measures for these materials. The Republic of Albania has demonstrated its willingness and desire to work closely with the United States to achieve and implement the GTRI goals for security of their assets. The GTRI program has assisted the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in development on a variety of subject areas related to security of sources and nuclear materials. . Albania, a Member State of the IAEA, received training and information support from the agency. The leadership of the Albanian nuclear program has changed but the commitment of Albania to work closely with GTRI continues. The GTRI/Albania global partnership made significant accomplishments in security and safe storage of Albania s nuclear assets. This paper will describe a brief history of the Albanian program and the achievements resulting from the cooperative program with GTRI, which have resulted in a more secure Albania.

  19. Benefits of Tropical Forest Management Under the New Climate...

    Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

    of Tropical Forest Management Under the New Climate Change Agreement-A Case Study in Cambodia Jump to: navigation, search Name Benefits of Tropical Forest Management Under the New...

  20. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    1,104 - 1,104 Bulgaria 82 - 82 Egypt 518 - 518 Italy 115 - 115 Netherlands 56 83 139 Spain 412 84 496 Turkey 581 - 581 United Kingdom 654 - 654 Kentucky 2,130 - 2,130 Canada 920...

    1. file://C:\\Documents%20and%20Settings\\ICR\\My%20Documents\\Coal...

      U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

      Bulgaria 75 - 75 Egypt 363 - 363 Germany 71 - 71 Italy 61 - 61 Netherlands 219 - 219 Spain 415 - 415 Turkey 362 - 362 United Kingdom 282 - 282 Kentucky 1,404 - 1,404 Canada 433...

    2. JPRS report: Nuclear developments, [June 21, 1988

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      1988-06-21

      This report contains information concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: Canada, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Argentina, Brazil, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Soviet Union, Belgium, France, Turkey, and the United Kingdom.

    3. JPRS report: Arms control, [April 28, 1988

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      1988-04-28

      This report contains information concerning arms control of the following countries: (1) China, (2) Japan, (3) Bulgaria, (4) Czechoslovakia, (5) German Democratic Republic, (6) Poland, (7) Soviet Union, (8) Austria, (9) Federal Republic of Germany, and (10) United Kingdom.

    4. JPRS report, nuclear developments

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      1991-03-28

      This report contains articles concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China; (2) Japan, North Korea, South Korea; (3) Bulgaria; (4) Argentina, Brazil, Honduras; (5) India, Iran, Pakistan, Syria; (6) Soviet Union; and (7) France, Germany, Turkey.

    5. JPRS report: Arms control, [August 18, 1988

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      1988-08-18

      This report contains information concerning arms control of the following countries: (1) Bulgaria, (2) Intrabloc, (3) German Democratic Republic, (4) Turkey, (5) Poland, (6) Soviet Union, and (7) Federal Republic of Germany.

    6. JPRS report: Arms control, [December 22, 1988

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      1988-12-22

      This report contains information concerning arms control of the following countries: (1) Hungary, (2) Yugoslavia, (3) Bulgaria, (4) Czechoslovakia, (5) German Democratic Republic, (6) Poland, (7) Soviet Union, (8) Austria, (9) Federal Republic of Germany, and (10) India.

    7. Solar Hold | Open Energy Information

      Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

      Hold Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar-Hold Place: Sofia, Bulgaria Sector: Solar Product: Bulgarian solar project developer; as of September 2007, seeking permit for 10x5MW...

    8. Kaolin AD | Open Energy Information

      Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

      Kaolin AD Jump to: navigation, search Name: Kaolin AD Place: Senovo, Bulgaria Zip: 7038 Sector: Solar Product: Kaolin is Europe's fourth largest producer of silica sands and owns a...

    9. McCup | Open Energy Information

      Open Energy Information (Open El) [EERE & EIA]

      search Name: McCup Place: Sofia, Bulgaria Zip: 1680 Sector: Renewable Energy, Solar, Wind energy Product: String representation "McCUP is an inv ... Energy Society." is too...

    10. Soviet oil production begins to falter

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Fueg, J.C

      1989-08-01

      Soviet industry managers are warning that a new oil production slump may be on the way, especially in the crucial West Siberian industry. The USSR's global energy balance will depend on accelerating natural gas development. In the rest of Eastern Europe, Albania, Poland, Romania and Yugoslavia all showed significant declines in oil production.

    11. International Services | Jefferson Lab

      U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

      Projects published on Beta are not final and may contain programming errors. They are for public testing and comment only. We welcome your feedback. For final products, please visit www.eia.gov. Read our feedback policy. Project Feedback Rea Give Us Your Feedback We welcome your feedback and insights on this project. Your Country: United States Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Angola Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas, The

    12. Eia.gov BETA - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - U.S. Energy

      U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

      Information Administration (EIA) Projects published on Beta are not final and may contain programming errors. They are for public testing and comment only. We welcome your feedback. For final products, please visit www.eia.gov. Read our feedback policy. Project Feedback Rea Give Us Your Feedback We welcome your feedback and insights on this project. Your Country: United States Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Angola Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia

    13. Eight Projects Selected for NERSC's Data Intensive Computing Pilot Program

      U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

      Information Administration (EIA) Projects published on Beta are not final and may contain programming errors. They are for public testing and comment only. We welcome your feedback. For final products, please visit www.eia.gov. Read our feedback policy. Project Feedback Rea Give Us Your Feedback We welcome your feedback and insights on this project. Your Country: United States Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Angola Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia

    14. International - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

      U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

      Projects published on Beta are not final and may contain programming errors. They are for public testing and comment only. We welcome your feedback. For final products, please visit www.eia.gov. Read our feedback policy. Project Feedback Rea Give Us Your Feedback We welcome your feedback and insights on this project. Your Country: United States Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Angola Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas, The

    15. JPRS report proliferation issues

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      1991-11-18

      This report contains foreign media information on issues related to worldwide proliferation and transfer activities in nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons, including delivery systems and the transfer of weapons relevant technologies. The following locations are included: (1) China; (2) Indonesia; (3) Bulgaria; (4) Brazil, Cuba; (5) Egypt, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Pakistan; (6) Soviet Union; and (7) France, Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, Norway.

    16. JPRS report: Nuclear developments, [June 1, 1989

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      1989-06-01

      This report contains information concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China, (2) Japan, (3) East Europe; Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, German Democratic Republic, Poland, Hungary, (5) Brazil, (6) Near East and South Asia; India, Israel, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia (7) Soviet Union, and (8) Federal Republic of Germany.

    17. JPRS report: Arms control, [July 15, 1991

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      1991-07-15

      This report contains information concerning arms control of the following countries: (1) China, (2) Australia, (3) North Korea, (4) South Korea, (5) New Zealand, (6) Bulgaria, (7) Czechoslovakia, (8) Hungary, (9) Poland, (10) Iran, (11) Soviet Union, (12) France, and (13) Germany.

    18. JPRS report, nuclear developments

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      1991-02-25

      This report contains articles concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: (1) China; (2) Indonesia, North Korea, South Korea, Thailand; (3) Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary; (4) Argentina, Brazil, El Salvador, Nicaragua; (5) India, Iran, Bangladesh, Israel, Egypt, Jordan, Pakistan; (6) Soviet Union; (7) France, Germany, Austria, United Kingdom; and (8) South Africa.

    19. Fact #608: February 1, 2010 Changes in Greenhouse Gas Emissions...

      Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

      Changes in GHG Emissions, 1990 to 2007 Country Percent Change, 1990-2007 Latvia -54.7 Ukraine -52.9 Lithuania -49.6 Estonia -47.5 Romania -44.8 Bulgaria -43.3 Belarus -38.0 ...

    20. SREL Reprint #3284

      U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

      4 Hot-Water-Soluble Organic Compounds Related to Hydrophobicity in Sandy Soils Irena D. Atanassova1,2, Stefan H. Doerr3, and Gary L. Mills2 1N. Poushkarov Institute of Soil Science, Agrotechnology and Plant Protection, 7 Shosse Bankya, Sofia 1080, Bulgaria 2Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, The University of Georgia, Aiken, SC 29802, USA 3Institute of Environmental Sustainability, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK Abstract: Soil water repellency (WR) reduces mineralization

    1. Local Correlations and Multi-Fractal Behaviour in Marine Boundary Layer Cloud Dynamics

      U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

      Local Correlations and Multi-Fractal Behaviour in Marine Boundary Layer Cloud Dynamics N. Kitova and M. A. Mikhalev Institute of Electronics Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Sofia 1784, Bulgaria K. Ivanova Department of Meteorology Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania M. Ausloos Institute of Physics University of Liège Liège, Belgium T. P. Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction The marine boundary layer (MBL) cloud dynamics is

    2. Development of models for exchange of electronic documents

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Glavev, Victor

      2014-11-18

      The report presents a model for exchange of electronic documents between different government administrations. It defines electronic messages that are transmitted between them and the way that messages should be processed by software systems. The proposed approach is sufficiently general and allows use of the best applicable information technologies such as data presentation structures and communication protocols. Within the study, a simple implementation of the model is implemented and deployed in various government administrations in Republic of Bulgaria.

    3. Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation | National Nuclear Security Administration

      National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

      Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Meet a Machine: RPMs keep watch 24/7 to strengthen global nuclear security Ensuring that nuclear materials are not being illicitly moved is part of NNSA's core mission to reduce nuclear and radiological threats. However, since traditional security tools - such as metal detectors, X-ray scanners, and sniffer dogs - cannot measure radiation, frontline... NNSA and Bulgaria partner to complete nuclear detection architecture Fixed and mobile detection systems will

    4. dnn | National Nuclear Security Administration

      National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

      dnn Meet a Machine: RPMs keep watch 24/7 to strengthen global nuclear security Ensuring that nuclear materials are not being illicitly moved is part of NNSA's core mission to reduce nuclear and radiological threats. However, since traditional security tools - such as metal detectors, X-ray scanners, and sniffer dogs - cannot measure radiation, frontline... NNSA and Bulgaria partner to complete nuclear detection architecture Fixed and mobile detection systems will prevent smuggling of dangerous

    5. radiation detection | National Nuclear Security Administration

      National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

      radiation detection Meet a Machine: RPMs keep watch 24/7 to strengthen global nuclear security Ensuring that nuclear materials are not being illicitly moved is part of NNSA's core mission to reduce nuclear and radiological threats. However, since traditional security tools - such as metal detectors, X-ray scanners, and sniffer dogs - cannot measure radiation, frontline... NNSA and Bulgaria partner to complete nuclear detection architecture Fixed and mobile detection systems will prevent

    6. Evaluation audit report. Bulgarian petroleum refinery, Neftochim, Bourgas. A selective refinery analysis for operation, energy use, environmental impacts, and improvement opportunities, May 1992. Export trade information

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Adams, N.

      1992-05-01

      The objective of the report is to present opportunities for energy improvement and reduction of emissions for the Neftochim refinery in Bourgas, Bulgaria. Other defined and specified goals include a consideration of refinery operating flexibility, an observation of the plants general condition, and comments on maintenance practices for their effect on operations. It is a further objective to characterize modifications for achieving expected benefits in accordance with the magnitude of effort and capital requirements anticipated. The report details the results of an Evaluation and Audit Study performed on selected process units. The conclusions of the study are a series of recommendations.

    7. Characterization report. Bulgarian petroleum refining sector. A sector overview of capability, energy consumption, environmental impacts, May 1992. Export trade information

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Adams, N.

      1992-05-01

      The objective of the report is to provide data that will serve as a basis for the modernization and optimization of the economic performance of the petroleum refining industry of Bulgaria. It addresses the current status of the petroleum refining industry so that recommendations providing low cost economies to improve energy efficiency and environmental control at each refinery can be prepared. Both short and long term improvement possibilities were established and given to the second round team for detailed evaluation. Following the collection of data on operating variables, equipment and refinery impact on the environment, a data base was prepared reflecting refinery characteristics and is the subject of a separate report.

    8. Eastern European risk management

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Honey, J.A. )

      1992-01-01

      Here the authors assess Eastern European risk management practices through the evaluation of the nuclear power plants in the region. This evaluation is limited to the Soviet-designed and -built VVER-440 pressurized water reactors (PWRs) that are currently operating in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Russia, and the Ukraine and until recently operated at Greifswald in the former East Germany. This evaluation is based on the basic design of the plants, a safety evaluation of the Greifswald facility by representatives from the Federal Republic of Germany and personal visits by the author to Greifswald and Loviisa.

    9. Pfutzner_1987.pdf

      U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all webpages (Extended Search)

      163,868 182,222 184,167 191,219 197,491 196,482 1981-2015 Albania 165 220 467 267 2012-2015 Algeria 0 0 0 2001-2012 Angola 0 2001-2011 Argentina 0 412 1 1 201 3 1993-2015 Aruba 0 2014-2014 Australia 3,167 3,229 2,841 2,715 2,560 2,466 1993-2015 Austria 1995-2007 Azerbaijan 0 5 2 2010-2015 Bangladesh 0 2014-2014 Bahama Islands 0 2000-2010 Bahrain 116 713 299 563 0 1993-2014 Barbados 33 169 179 121 163 158 2007-2015 Belarus 2004-2004 Belgium 3,295 3,337 2,463 2,098 2,572 1,957 1993-2015 Belize 4 2

    10. Petroleum Coke Exports by Destination

      U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

      163,868 182,222 184,167 191,219 197,491 196,482 1981-2015 Albania 165 220 467 267 2012-2015 Algeria 0 0 0 2001-2012 Angola 0 2001-2011 Argentina 0 412 1 1 201 3 1993-2015 Aruba 0 2014-2014 Australia 3,167 3,229 2,841 2,715 2,560 2,466 1993-2015 Austria 1995-2007 Azerbaijan 0 5 2 2010-2015 Bangladesh 0 2014-2014 Bahama Islands 0 2000-2010 Bahrain 116 713 299 563 0 1993-2014 Barbados 33 169 179 121 163 158 2007-2015 Belarus 2004-2004 Belgium 3,295 3,337 2,463 2,098 2,572 1,957 1993-2015 Belize 4 2

    11. Tar sands

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Wennekers, J.H.N.

      1981-10-01

      The four largest oil sand deposits contain over 90% of the world's known heavy oil. The total heavy oil and bitumen in place, estimated at nearly 6 trillion barrels is almost entirely concentrated in western Canada, principally Alberta, and eastern Venezuela. The known tar sand resource in the United States consists of about 550 occurrences located in 22 states. The total oil in place in 39 of these occurrences is estimated to be between 23.7 billion and 32.7 billion barrels. At least 90% of this resource is located in Utah. Other significant deposits are in Texas, New Mexico, California, and Kentucky. Bituminous sand deposits and petroleum-impregnated rocks are found in Malagasy, Albania, Rumania, the USSR, and Trinidad. 4 figures, 2 tables. (DP)

    12. U.S. Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

      Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

      Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Total All Countries 155,073 154,624 175,388 157,194 161,473 158,545 1981-2016 Afghanistan 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997-2016 Albania 55 1998-2016 Algeria 0 221 331 349 0 1996-2016 Andora 2005-2015 Angola 0 0 1 0 1 0 1995-2016 Anguilla 0 0 0 1 0 0 2005-2016 Antigua and Barbuda 66 112 187 129 1 207 1995-2016 Argentina 1,203 2,112 2,723 4,089 1,868 1,663 1993-2016 Armenia 0 2005-2016 Aruba 1,615 758 678 285 850 1,113 2005-2016 Australia 1,041 515 614 633

    13. Total Crude Oil and Products Exports by Destination

      U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

      Mar-16 Apr-16 May-16 Jun-16 Jul-16 Aug-16 View History Total All Countries 155,073 154,624 175,388 157,194 161,473 158,545 1981-2016 Afghanistan 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997-2016 Albania 55 1998-2016 Algeria 0 221 331 349 0 1996-2016 Andora 2005-2015 Angola 0 0 1 0 1 0 1995-2016 Anguilla 0 0 0 1 0 0 2005-2016 Antigua and Barbuda 66 112 187 129 1 207 1995-2016 Argentina 1,203 2,112 2,723 4,089 1,868 1,663 1993-2016 Armenia 0 2005-2016 Aruba 1,615 758 678 285 850 1,113 2005-2016 Australia 1,041 515 614 633

    14. Uranium production in Eastern Europe and its environmental impact: A literature survey

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Norman, R.E.

      1993-04-01

      A survey of the unclassified literature was made to determine the location, technology, throughput, and environmental status of the uranium mines and mills that have historically made up uranium production capability in Eastern Europe. Included in that survey were the following countries: the former German Democratic Republic (GDR), now part of a reunited Germany, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Poland. Until recently, uranium was being produced in five of these six countries (Poland stopped production 20 years ago). The production began directly after World War II in support of weapons production in the Soviet Union. Eastern Europe has produced about two-thirds of the total Soviet uranium inventory historically, or about 330,000 metric tonnes of uranium (NM) [730 million pounds of uranium (MlbU)l out of a total of about 490,000 MTU (1090 NlbU).

    15. Least cost options for life extension

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Davis, F.; Bradaric, M.

      1995-12-01

      Rehabilitation of existing electric generating capacity offers one of the most cost-effective ways of meeting near-term power needs in many Eastern and Central European countries. In particular, the uncertainty associated with other supply sources and severe capital constraints tends to favor investments which maximize the utilization of existing fossil-fired equipment. However, it is critical that least-cost planning principles, including the consideration of environmental impacts, be applied to the economic analysis of rehabilitation options. This paper draws on Bechtel`s experience in applying least-cost planning to plant rehabilitation studies in Bulgaria, Romania and Slovakia. The examples provided illustrate the importance of least-cost planning and the effect of the value placed on environmental emissions.

    16. Engineering protection of reservoirs of hydropower developments from flooding and subirrigation

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Vasil'ev, Yu.S.; Khrisanov, N.I.

      1988-04-01

      Examples are given of current hydropower construction with the creation of systems of embanking lands for protecting them from flooding and subirrigation. The examples are drawn from hydropower developments in Canada, Ecuador, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, and the Soviet Union, and include tidal and nuclear plants as well. An analysis of the specific land-use intensity of different power stations showed that at present there is a tendency toward a reduction of the difference of this index for hydroelectric stations, on the one hand, and thermal power stations (nuclear power stations) on the other. For protection and conservation of lands and improvement of the ecological state of streams, reservoirs, and the lower pools of hydro developments, calculation methods (algorithms and programs) have been developed for optimizing the parameters of the embankment systems.

    17. The Use of Isotope Dilution Alpha Spectrometry and Liquid Scintillation Counting to Determine Radionuclides in Environmental Samples

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Bylyku, Elida

      2009-04-19

      In Albania in recent years it has been of increasing interest to determine various pollutants in the environment and their possible effects on human health. The radiochemical procedure used to identify Pu, Am, U, Th, and Sr radioisotopes in soil, sediment, water, coal, and milk samples is described. The analysis is carried out in the presence of respective tracer solutions and combines the procedure for Pu analysis based on anion exchange, the selective method for Sr isolation based on extraction chromatography using Sr-Spec resin, and the application of the TRU-Spec column for separation of Am fraction. An acid digestion method has been applied for the decomposition of samples. The radiochemical procedure involves the separation of Pu from Th, Am, and Sr by anion exchange, followed by the preconcentration of Am and Sr by coprecipitation with calcium oxalate. Am is separated from Sr by extraction chromatography. Uranium is separated from the bulk elements by liquid-liquid extraction using UTEVA registered resin. Thin sources for alpha spectrometric measurements are prepared by microprecipitation with NdF3. Two International Atomic Energy Agency reference materials were analyzed in parallel with the samples.

    18. Overthrusting and petroleum potential of the southwestern part of the Albanides

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Mezini, A.M.; Yzedin, S.S.

      1995-08-01

      The Albanides are the southern continuation of the Dinarides fold belt and represent a sector of Alpine thrust belt. Onshore and offshore seismic and geologic data indicate that thrusting is well developed in the Ionian basin in the southwestern part of the Albanides. Overthrusting is due to the collision of the north African plate with the East European plate. Cross section balancing indicates considerable deformation and displacement of rock units in the Ionian basin, as a result of strike-slip faults, normal faulting, overthrusts and back-thrusts. Most of the deformation and displacement occurred between the western flank of the structures and belts. The petroleum potential of Mesozoic carbonate deposits in the Ionian basin is closely connected to the occurrence of organic-rich source rock of Triassic-Jurassic age. Oil generation initiated in Early Miocene and coincides with the first stage of structure formation. The late tectonic and folding phases of Triassic-Jurassic age made possible the oil migration out of old traps and accumulation in newly formed traps. New fields were formed in sandstones which are directly in contact with the carbonates. The main trapping is structural. Other traps are of stratigraphic or/and combination. The thrust belt of western Albanides has favourable geological conditions for oil generation and accumulation. This area has the best petroleum potential in Albania.

    19. Heavy and tar sand oil deposits of Europe

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Cornelius, C.D.

      1984-09-01

      Several hundred heavy and extra-heavy oil and natural bitumen occurrences from 26 European countries (including European Turkey and the western borderlands of the USSR) were compiled. The definitions used for heavy crude oils and natural bitumens, as proposed by or prepared with the UNITAR/UNDP information center, were applied. Information on stratigraphy, lithology, and depth as well as on gravity, viscosity, and gas and water content, is given. Deposits are characteristically distributed along the flanks of the basins or within the separating uplifts. Nevertheless, they are found from the surface down to depths of 3000 m (9800 ft). Up to now, big accumulations have been exploited in Albania and Sicily, but they have been discovered also in the British North Sea, France, Spain, and West Germany. In carbonates, they were mostly encountered in fractures of synsedimentary or tectonic origin. The accumulations are the result of either intrusion of immature heavy oil from a source rock or of the immigration of mature oil, which was biodegraded afterward. In many cases, there have been at least two separate migration/accumulation events. In some cases paleoseepages did supply a source rock with asphaltic material or became an effective seal of a later hydrocarbon accumulation.

    20. New oil source rocks cut in Greek Ionian basin

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Karakitsios, V.; Rigakis, N.

      1996-02-12

      The Ionian zone of Northwest Greece (Epirus region) constitutes part of the most external zones of the Hellenides (Paxos zone, Ionian zone, Gavrovo Tripolitza zone). The rocks of the Ionian zone range from Triassic evaporites and associated breccias through a varied series of Jurassic through Upper Eocene carbonates and lesser cherts and shales followed by Oligocene flysch. The surface occurrences of petroleum in the Ionian zone are mainly attributed to Toarcian Lower Posidonia beds source rocks and lesser to late Callovian-Tithonian Upper Posidonia beds and to the Albian-Cenomanian Upper Siliceous zone or Vigla shales of the Vigla limestones. Oil that could not be attributed to the above source rocks is believed to have an origin from Triassic formations that contain potential source rocks in Albania and Italy. However, several samples of the shales of Triassic breccias from outcrops and drillholes were analyzed in the past, but the analytical results were not so promising since their hydrocarbon potential was low. In this article, the authors will present their analytical results of the Ioannina-1 well, where for the first time they identified some very rich source beds in the Triassic breccias formation of Northwest Greece.

    1. Total Crude Oil and Products Exports by Destination

      U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

      858,685 1,089,848 1,172,965 1,321,787 1,524,170 1,729,378 1981-2015 Afghanistan 4 3 7 3 1 1 1997-2015 Albania 0 0 166 276 467 267 1998-2015 Algeria 4 1,226 219 2,690 430 981 1996-2015 Andora 0 1 0 2005-2015 Angola 7 27 12 157 75 6 1995-2015 Anguilla 1 5 2 2 66 3 2005-2015 Antigua and Barbuda 146 231 634 10 254 6,166 1995-2015 Argentina 6,951 14,632 19,097 18,027 22,407 23,231 1993-2015 Armenia 0 0 0 0 0 2005-2015 Aruba 2,578 2,835 2,969 6,871 11,302 15,132 2005-2015 Australia 3,561 4,022 3,748

    2. NNSA / IAEA VVER reactor safety workshops. May 2002 - April 2003. Executive summary.

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Evans, M.; Petri, M. C.

      2003-07-29

      Over the past year, the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has sponsored four workshops to compare the probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) of Soviet-designed VVER power plants. The ''International Workshop on Safety of First-Generation VVER-440 Nuclear Power Plants'' was held on May 20-25, 2002, in Piestany, Slovakia. A short follow-on workshop was held in Bratislava, Slovakia, on November 5-6, 2002, to complete the work begun in May. Piestany was the location also for the ''International Workshop on Safety of Second-Generation VVER-440 Nuclear Power Plants'' (September 9-14, 2002) and the ''International Workshop on Safety of VVER-1000 Nuclear Power Plants'' (April 7-12, 2003). The four workshops were held in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Slovakia (UJD), the Center for Nuclear Safety in Central and Eastern Europe (CENS), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The objectives of the workshops were to identify the impact of the improvements on the core damage frequency; the contribution to the PRA results of different assumptions about events that can occur at the plants; and to understand, identify, and prioritize potential improvements in hardware and plant operation of VVER nuclear power plants. These objectives were achieved based on insights gained from recent PRAs completed by the plants and their technical support organizations. Nine first-generation VVER-440 plants (nominally of the VVER-440/230 design) are currently operating in Armenia, Bulgaria, Russia, and Slovakia. Sixteen VVER-440/213 plants are currently operating in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Russia, Slovakia, and Ukraine. Twenty-three VVER-1000 plants are currently operating in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Russia, and Ukraine. Eleven addition plants are in the advanced stages of construction in various parts of the world. The workshops reviewed the current configuration and safety status of each plant

    3. Petroleum potential and over-pressuring in the molassic deposits of the south-eastern part of the South Adriatic Basin

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Gjoka, M.; Dulaj, A.

      1995-08-01

      The southeastern portion of the South Adriatic basin extends onshore in Albania and is filled with a sequence of interbedded clays, sandstones and siltstones of Cenozoic age accumulated under turbiditic, slope, shelf, deltaic and, rarely, continental depositional conditions. Geochemical data suggest a fairly uniform vertical and lateral distribution of organic matter, with TOC values ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 wt%. Average organic matter content is 0.28 wt%. Kerogen is predominantly gas-prone, Type IIIa (Huminite-Inertinite) and IIIb (Inertinite-Huminite), and is thermally immature to marginally mature, even at depths of 6000 m. Vitrinite reflectance (Ro) values range from 0.3 to 0.5; the average geothermal gradient of the region is about 16{degrees}C/100 m. Three main gas zones can be recognized in the Pliocene to Middle Miocene (Serravallian) sequence: (1) a biogenic gas zone at depths of 1200-1500 m; (2) a mixed biogenic-thermogenic zone between 1500 and 4500-W m, and, (3) a thermogenic gas zone below 4500-5000 m. Gas is indigenous and has migrated into the sandstone reservoirs from adjacent shales (syngenetic) or deeper sources (syngenetic-long migration). Gas fields discovered to date are associated with crestal culminations and with the eastern flank of structures. The normal hydrostatic gradient for the Neogene sediments is 0.437 Psi/ft, but overpressures have been encountered in numerous wells and are considered a regional phenomenon. The top of the overpressures crosses stratigraphic boundaries. The gradient is gradual and seem to increase in sequences with sandstone content of 15 to 20%. Steep pressure gradients are found on flanks and plunges of structures. Overpressuring is attributed to the very high sedimentation rate (760 m per million year) during the Neogene and resulting undercompacted shales.

    4. Regional prospectivity of Mesozoic and Tertiary in the eastern Adriatic and adjacent area

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Scott, J.; Dolan, P.; Lunn, G. )

      1988-08-01

      Post-Hercynian deposits in the eastern Adriatic and the adjacent external zones of the Dinarides and Albanian Hellenides may be subdivided into four facies groups. (1) Permian-Lower Triassic clastics and carbonates with some evaporites, (2) Middle Triassic-lower Tertiary carbonate platform facies with associated continental margin deeper marine sequences, (3) Upper Cretaceous-lower Tertiary flysch, and (4) middle Tertiary molasse and postorogenic Neogene sediments. The Permian to lower Tertiary section was deposited during the complex Alpine cycle, while the upper Tertiary section is the product of post-Alpine deposition. This depositional history during markedly different tectonic regimes creates two groups of petroleum plays in the eastern Adriatic: (1) Alpine cycle plays in the Permian to lower Tertiary in the thrust-faulted and folded foreland of Adria and (2) post-Alpine plays in upper Tertiary postorogenic or late synorogenic basins. Around the Adriatic, the post-Alpine plays have so far proved the most successful. Major production occurs in the onshore Po basin and its extension beneath the Adriatic. Some of this production is from deep Alpine-cycle reservoirs, but the bulk is from the upper Tertiary-Quaternary. Similar horizons produce onshore and offshore the central-southern Adriatic coast of Italy. Major Tertiary production also occurs to the northeast in the Pannonian basin of Yugoslavia and Hungary from Miocene and younger sequences. Onshore Albania produces significant quantities of hydrocarbons; although data are scarce, much of this production is presumably from upper Tertiary molasse or lower Tertiary flysch.

    5. Structural and stratigraphic analysis of the Dinaride thrust belt; A frontier exploration province in central-Southern Europe

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Tasker, D.R.; Weir, G.M.; Dale, R.C. )

      1993-09-01

      The Dinarides are a 200-300-km-wide southwest vergent fold and thrust belt extending along the eastern margin of the Adriatic Sea. The complex and varied structural and stratigraphic relationships can be used to define three major tectonic units: the internal, central, and external Dinarides. In the Internal Dinarides, platform sequences deposited in the Early and Middle Triassic underwent rapid subsidence and drowning in the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic along with rifting and subsequent formation of oceanic crust. Melange and flysch were deposited during the late Jurassic through Cretaceous as the developing thrust belt encroached upon the northeastern margin of the Dinaride carbonate platform. The Dinaride carbonate platform forms the cores of the central and external Dinarides and is composed primarily of Permian-Triassic clastics and evaporites overlain by Middle Triassic through early Eocene platform carbonates. The entire sequence is overlain by late Eocene and early Oligocene synorogenic flysch. In the central Dinarides, late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous unconformities suggest structural uplift prior to the onset of thrusting. Deformation involves Paleozoic basement and includes a major decollement in the Permian Triassic clastic and evaporite unit. Thrusting in the external Dinarides occurred in the late Eocene-early Oligocene and is restricted to Middle Triassic and younger units with major detachments forming near the base of the Ladinian and within a Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous evaporite. Important oil source and seal lithofacies occur within intraplatform basins and lagoons in the Mesozoic sequences of the central and external Dinarides. Widespread dolomitized units within the Mesozoic carbonate sequence are potential reservoir zones. The presence of surface hydrocarbon seeps and of existing production on trend to the Dinarides in the thrust belt of Italy and Albania suggest the potential for hydrocarbon discoveries in this underexplored area.

    6. Population structure in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon is highly correlated with flowering differences across broad geographic areas

      DOE PAGES-Beta [OSTI]

      Tyler, Ludmila; Lee, Scott J.; Young, Nelson D.; DeIulio, Gregory A.; Benavente, Elena; Reagon, Michael; Sysopha, Jessica; Baldini, Riccardo M.; Troia, Angelo; Hazen, Samuel P.; et al

      2016-04-29

      The small, annual grass Brachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv., a close relative of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), is a powerful model system for cereals and bioenergy grasses. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of natural variation can elucidate the genetic basis of complex traits but have been so far limited in B. distachyon by the lack of large numbers of well-characterized and sufficiently diverse accessions. Here, we report on genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) of 84 B. distachyon, seven B. hybridum, and three B. stacei accessions with diverse geographic origins including Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Italy, Spain, and Turkey. Over 90,000 high-qualitymore » single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed across the Bd21 reference genome were identified. Our results confirm the hybrid nature of the B. hybridum genome, which appears as a mosaic of B. distachyon-like and B. stacei-like sequences. Analysis of more than 50,000 SNPs for the B. distachyon accessions revealed three distinct, genetically defined populations. Surprisingly, these genomic profiles are associated with differences in flowering time rather than with broad geographic origin. High levels of differentiation in loci associated with floral development support the differences in flowering phenology between B. distachyon populations. Genome-wide association studies combining genotypic and phenotypic data also suggest the presence of one or more photoperiodism, circadian clock, and vernalization genes in loci associated with flowering time variation within B. distachyon populations. As a result, our characterization elucidates genes underlying population differences, expands the germplasm resources available for Brachypodium, and illustrates the feasibility and limitations of GWAS in this model grass.« less

    7. The current state of the Russian reduced enrichment research reactors program

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Aden, V.G.; Kartashov, E.F.; Lukichev, V.A.

      1997-08-01

      During the last year after the 16-th International Conference on Reducing Fuel Enrichment in Research Reactors held in October, 1993 in Oarai, Japan, the conclusive stage of the Program on reducing fuel enrichment (to 20% in U-235) in research reactors was finally made up in Russia. The Program was started late in 70th and the first stage of the Program was completed by 1986 which allowed to reduce fuel enrichment from 80-90% to 36%. The completion of the Program current stage, which is counted for 5-6 years, will exclude the use of the fuel enriched by more than 20% from RF to other countries such as: Poland, Czeck Republick, Hungary, Roumania, Bulgaria, Libya, Viet-Nam, North Korea, Egypt, Latvia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. In 1994 the Program, approved by RF Minatom authorities, has received the status of an inter-branch program since it was admitted by the RF Ministry for Science and Technical Policy. The Head of RF Minatom central administrative division N.I.Ermakov was nominated as the Head of the Russian Program, V.G.Aden, RDIPE Deputy Director, was nominated as the scientific leader. The Program was submitted to the Commission for Scientific, Technical and Economical Cooperation between USA and Russia headed by Vice-President A. Gore and Prime Minister V. Chemomyrdin and was given support also.

    8. Reversing the brain drain from Eastern European countries: the push' and pull' factors

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Vizi, E.S. Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY )

      1993-01-01

      A mass departure of intellectuals is going on in countries such as Poland, Russia, the Ukraine, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Romania. There is growing concern about the increasing number of intellectuals who have left, or are going to leave, these countries. The main problem is not that scientists and intellectuals are leaving to go abroad to work under better conditions - that is certainly beneficial for science as a whole. Rather, the problem occurs when they do not return. The migration of professionals, even if it is only temporary, only reflects the operation of an international market for specialized human capital. However, a minimum level of human capital is indispensable to a country's economic development. A loss of skilled human resources will ultimately have a grave impact on the economy and jeopardize development programs. There are several reasons for this migration. Top-level scientists have always been drawn to countries that offer greater attractions - facilities, salaries, career prospects, satisfaction, prestige. Drastic changes are needed in the official policy toward R D in Eastern European Countries. The atmosphere must be changed to make it more favorable for intellectual work. In addition, international agencies and governments of developed countries should help these poorer countries to reverse the brain drain. A program of Science and Technology for stability should be created in order to provide direct assistance to basic and applied scientific and technical research in these countries. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

    9. Comparison of the post-Chernobyl [sup 137]Cs contamination of mushrooms from eastern Europe, Sweden, and North America

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Smith, M.L.; Taylor, H.W.; Sharma, H.D. )

      1993-01-01

      A comparison was made of 134Cs and 137Cs contamination in fungi from eastern Europe and eastern North America. Mean activities of 25 Ukrainian, 6 Swedish, and 10 North American collections were 4,660, 9,750, and 205 Bq/kg (dry weight), respectively. Additional measurements were made on samples from the Moscow, southern Belarus, and Yugoslavia/Bulgaria regions. Activity values were found to vary by several orders of magnitude within all geographic areas, even for the same mushroom species. Significantly higher specific activities were observed in mycorrhizal species than in saprophytic and parasitic fungi. Unfortunately, many of the European mycorrhizal species considered as prized edibles contained unacceptably high levels of 137Cs (> 1,000 Bq/kg [dry weight]) and should be used sparingly as food. By contrast, no mushrooms collected in Ontario or northern Michigan exceeded 1,000 Bq of 137Cs per kg (dry weight). The excessive 137Cs contamination was evident in mushrooms from areas that had substantial fallout from the 1986 accident in reactor 4 at the Chernobyl nuclear power station. However, observations suggest that about 20% of the 137Cs in eastern Europe (Moscow area, Belarus, and Ukraine) is of non-Chernobyl origin.

    10. Evaluation of geological formations of Eastern Europe countries for raw disposal and elaboration of joint R&D programmes

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Khrushchov, D.P.; Nigmatullin, N.S.; Balla, Z.

      1995-12-01

      The development of national R&D programmes on RAW management in the countries of East Europe is inevitably due to the fact that some of them (Ukraine, Russia, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Romania), have rather developed nuclear power industries, whereas some others are planning their development (Poland, Byelarus, Lithuania, etc.). The majority of East European countries have their own R&D programmes. The territories of these countries are situated within the limits of the East European geological platforms. As to RAW disposal these geological areas and consequently, the geological regions of East European countries are in very different condition. However, all the countries making use of nuclear power and other industries producing RAW, are facing a need to solve the problem of RAW disposal and to develop their own national programmes. Thus, the different geological environments for RAW disposal, which are extremely unfavorable in some countries, may be considered as a reason for joint R&D programmes initiation. The aim of these programmes is a detailed evaluation of geological formations and geological structure of East European countries as to RAW isolation in order to unite the efforts and to increase the efficiency of national R&D programmes as well as to ground subsequent joint actions related to RAW disposal.

    11. IPIRG-2 task 1 - pipe system experiments with circumferential cracks in straight-pipe locations. Final report, September 1991--November 1995

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Scott, P.; Olson, R.; Marschall, C.; Rudland, D.

      1997-02-01

      This report presents the results from Task 1 of the Second International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG-2) program. The IPIRG-2 program is an international group program managed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) and funded by a consortium of organizations from 15 nations including: Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, France, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Lithuania, Republic of China, Slovak Republic, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The objective of the program was to build on the results of the IPIRG-1 and other related programs by extending the state-of-the-art in pipe fracture technology through the development of data needed to verify engineering methods for assessing the integrity of nuclear power plant piping systems that contain defects. The IPIRG-2 program included five main tasks: Task 1 - Pipe System Experiments with Flaws in Straight Pipe and Welds Task 2 - Fracture of Flawed Fittings Task 3 - Cyclic and Dynamic Load Effects on Fracture Toughness Task 4 - Resolution of Issues From IPIRG-1 and Related Programs Task 5 - Information Exchange Seminars and Workshops, and Program Management. The scope of this report is to present the results from the experiments and analyses associated with Task 1 (Pipe System Experiments with Flaws in Straight Pipe and Welds). The rationale and objectives of this task are discussed after a brief review of experimental data which existed after the IPIRG-1 program.

    12. Design of a rural water provision system to decrease arsenic exposure in Bangladesh

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Mathieu, Johanna

      2009-01-09

      Researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have invented ARUBA (Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash) a material that effectively and affordably removes high concentrations of arsenic from contaminated groundwater. The technology is cost-effective because the substrate-bottom ash from coal fired power plants-is a waste material readily available in South Asia. During fieldwork in four sub-districts of Bangladesh, ARUBA reduced groundwater arsenic concentrations as high as 680 ppb to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. Key results from three trips in Bangladesh and one trip to Cambodia include (1) ARUBA removes more than half of the arsenic from contaminated water within the first five minutes of contact, and continues removing arsenic for 2-3 days; (2) ARUBA's arsenic removal efficiency can be improved through fractionated dosing (adding a given amount of ARUBA in fractions versus all at once); (3) allowing water to first stand for two to three days followed by treatment with ARUBA produced final arsenic concentrations ten times lower than treating water directly out of the well; and (4) the amount of arsenic removed per gram of ARUBA is linearly related to the initial arsenic concentration of the water. Through analysis of existing studies, observations, and informal interviews in Bangladesh, eight design strategies have been developed and used in the design of a low-cost, community-scale water treatment system that uses ARUBA to remove arsenic from drinking water. We have constructed, tested, and analyzed a scale version of the system. Experiments have shown that the system is capable of reducing high levels of arsenic (nearly 600 ppb) to below 50 ppb, while remaining affordable to people living on less than $2 per day. The system could be sustainably implemented as a public-private partnership in rural Bangladesh.

    13. Strategic planning -- task 7.1. Topical report, February 1994--June 1995

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Daly, D.J.

      1996-01-01

      The nations of East Central Europe regained their political and economic freedom in 1989, ending nearly a half century of centrally planned economies under the hegemony of the former Soviet Union (FSU). These nations are now emerging from economic conditions marked by price distortions and a focus on heavy industry, isolation from world markets, and a lack of occupational health and environmental safeguards. Economic recovery, environmental restoration, and political stability, as well as eventual entrance into the European Community (EC), require a reordering of policies and priorities, including those bearing on energy and the environment. This report, prepared as a background document for the Second International Conference on Energy and Environment to be held in Prague in November 1994, is composed of a summary table and supporting text and is intended to provide a concise review of issues related to energy and the environment for the Czech and Slovak Republics, Hungary, Poland, and Bulgaria. Organized by subject and country, Table 1 contains country profiles (Row A), information on the economy (Row B), primary energy consumption, environmental priorities, energy resources, production, and utilization (Rows C, D, F, G, H, and 1), electrical generation and transmission (Rows J and K), district heating (Row L), briquettes (Row M), and environmental regulations (Row N). Pertinent policy goals, issues, and trends are noted. The reports is based largely on a review of documents published by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), as well as selected sources obtained from the countries of the region. Reference citations are keyed to information presented in Table 1.

    14. Summary of the contractor information exchange meeting for improving the safety of Soviet-Designed Nuclear Power Plants, February 19, 1997

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      1997-04-01

      This report summarizes a meeting held on February 19, 1997, in Washington, D.C. The meeting was held primarily to exchange information among the contractors involved in the U.S. Department of Energy`s efforts to improve the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear power plants. Previous meetings have been held on December 5-6, 1995, and May 22, 1996. The meetings are sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and coordinated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The U.S. Department of Energy works with countries to increase the level of safety at 63 Soviet-designed nuclear reactors operating in Armenia, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Russia, Slovakia, and Ukraine. The work is implemented largely by commercial companies and individuals who provide technologies and services to the countries with Soviet-designed nuclear power plants. Attending the meeting were 71 representatives of commercial contractors, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of State, national laboratories, and other federal agencies. The presentations and discussions that occurred during the exchange are summarized in this report. While this report captures the general presentation and discussion points covered at the meeting, it is not a verbatim, inclusive record. To make the report useful, information presented at the meeting has been expanded to clarify issues, respond to attendees` requests, or place discussion points in a broader programmatic context. Appendixes A through F contain the meeting agenda, list of attendees, copies of presentation visuals and handouts, the Strategy Document discussed at the meeting, and a summary of attendees` post-meeting evaluation comments. As with past information exchanges, the participants found this meeting valuable and useful. In response to the participant`s requests, a fourth information exchange will be held later in 1997.

    15. [Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal]: Task 7.1, Strategic planning. Topical report, February 1, 1994--June 30, 1995

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      1996-01-01

      The nations of East Central Europe regained their political and economic freedom in 1989, ending nearly a half century of centrally planned economies under the hegemony of the former Soviet Union (FSU). These nations are now emerging from economic conditions marked by price distortions and a focus on heavy industry, isolation from world markets, and a lack of occupational health and environmental safeguards. Economic recovery, environmental restoration, and political stability, as well as eventual entrance into the European Community (EC), require a reordering of policies and priorities, including those bearing on energy and the environment. This report, prepared as a background document for the Second International Conference on Energy and Environment to be held in Prague in November 1994, is composed of a summary table (Table 1) and supporting text and is intended to provide a concise review of issues related to energy and the environment for the Czech and Slovak Republics, Hungary, Poland, and Bulgaria. Organized by subject and country, Table 1 contains country profiles (Row A), information on the economy (Row B), primary energy consumption, environmental priorities, energy resources, production, and utilization (Rows C, D, F, G, H, and I), electrical generation and transmission (Rows J and K), district heating (Row L), briquettes (Row M), and environmental regulations (Row N). Pertinent policy goals, issues, and trends are noted. The reports is based largely on a review of documents published by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), as well as selected sources obtained from the countries of the region. Reference citations are keyed to information presented in Table 1.

    16. War, peace, and international politics. Fourth edition

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Ziegler, D.W. )

      1987-01-01

      We must conclude that war remains a major problem in the last quarter of the twentieth century. My intention in this book is to introduce you to international relations by focusing on this problem. War is not the only problem of international relations, and so this book does not exhaust the field. But war is a central problem, and the possibility of resort to war affects other aspects of international relations. Whatever else we may look at, we cannot avoid looking at war. In fact, in looking at war, we will touch on most of the other subjects important in international relations. War is conflict among states carried on by their armed forces. To distinguish war from border skirmishes and other minor incidents we usually say it must reach a certain magnitude (for example, at least 1,000 soldiers killed in battle over a year). It would be ideal if we could systematically study all the wars in the last hundred years, but such an exhaustive study would be out of place here. At the same time we cannot discuss such subjects as the cause of war or proposals for preventing it without some knowledge about actual wars. We must test theories against historical facts. What follows in Part I is a somewhat detailed history of seven wars (or groups of wars) fought in the last hundred years. These include the most destructive of the wars World War I (1914-1918), World War II (1939-1945), and the Korean War (1950-1953). By way of background to World War I, we will look at the wars of German unification (1864-1871), which preceded and in some ways prepared the way for it. To balance our account, we will also look at several recent wars India and Pakistan (1971), Uganda and Tanzania (1978-1979), and Cambodia, Vietnam, and China (1978-1980). After looking at some of the major wars of the last hundred years, we will look at what people have the about the causes of war in general.

    17. Romania: Brand-New Engineering Solutions

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Ken Allen; Lucian Biro; Nicolae Zamfir; Madalina Budu

      2011-01-01

      The HEU spent nuclear fuel transport from Romania was a pilot project in the framework of the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), being the first fully certified spent nuclear fuel shipment by air. The successful implementation of the Romanian shipment also brought various new technology in the program, further used by other participating countries. Until 2009, the RRRFR program repatriated to the Russian Federation HEU spent nuclear fuel of Russian origin from many countries, like Uzbekistan, Czech Republic, Latvia, Hungary, Kazakhstan and Bulgaria. The means of transport used were various; from specialized TK-5 train for the carriage of Russian TUK-19 transport casks, to platform trains for 20 ft freight ISO containers carrying Czech Skoda VPVR/M casks; from river barge on the Danube, to vessel on the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean. Initially, in 2005, the transport plan of the HEU spent nuclear fuel from the National Institute for R&D in Nuclear Physics and Nuclear Engineering 'Horia Hulubei' in Magurele, Romania considered a similar scheme, using the specialized TK-5 train transiting Ukraine to the destination point in the Russian Federation, or, as an alternative, using the means and route of the spent nuclear fuel periodically shipped from the Bulgarian nuclear power plant Kosloduy (by barge on the Danube, and by train through Ukraine to the Russian Federation). Due to impossibility to reach an agreement in due time with the transit country, in February 2007 the US, Russian and Romanian project partners decided to adopt the air shipment of the spent nuclear fuel as prime option, eliminating the need for agreements with any transit countries. By this time the spent nuclear fuel inspections were completed, proving the compliance of the burn-up parameters with the international requirements for air shipments of radioactive materials. The short air route avoiding overflying of any other countries except the country of origin and the

    18. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Brown, S

      2001-05-22

      A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFOTM exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages. This database includes ten ARC/INFO exported integer grid files (five with the pixel size 3.75 km x 3.75 km and five with the pixel size 0.25 degree longitude x 0.25 degree latitude) and 27 ASCII files. The first ASCII file contains the documentation associated with this database. Twenty-four of the ASCII files were generated by means of the ARC/INFO GRIDASCII command and can be used by most raster-based GIS software packages. The 24 files can be subdivided into two groups of 12 files each. These files contain real data values representing actual carbon and potential carbon density in Mg C/ha (1 megagram = 10{sup 6} grams) and integer-coded values for country name, Weck's Climatic Index, ecofloristic zone, elevation, forest or non-forest designation, population density, mean annual precipitation, slope, soil texture, and vegetation classification. One set of 12 files contains these data at a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, whereas the other

    19. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Brown, S.

      2002-02-07

      A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFO{trademark} exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages. This database includes ten ARC/INFO exported integer grid files (five with the pixel size 3.75 km x 3.75 km and five with the pixel size 0.25 degree longitude x 0.25 degree latitude) and 27 ASCII files. The first ASCII file contains the documentation associated with this database. Twenty-four of the ASCII files were generated by means of the ARC/INFO GRIDASCII command and can be used by most raster-based GIS software packages. The 24 files can be subdivided into two groups of 12 files each. These files contain real data values representing actual carbon and potential carbon density in Mg C/ha (1 megagram = 10{sup 6} grams) and integer- coded values for country name, Weck's Climatic Index, ecofloristic zone, elevation, forest or non-forest designation, population density, mean annual precipitation, slope, soil texture, and vegetation classification. One set of 12 files contains these data at a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, whereas