National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for adjusted emissions factor

  1. Effects of uncertainty in SAPRC90 rate constants and selected product yields on reactivity adjustment factors for alternative fuel vehicle emissions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bergin, M.S.; Russell, A.G.; Yang, Y.J.; Milford, J.B.; Kirchner, F.; Stockwell, W.R.

    1996-07-01

    Tropospheric ozone is formed in the atmosphere by a series of reactions involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). While NOx emissions are primarily composed of only two compounds, nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), there are hundreds of different VOCs being emitted. In general, VOCs promote ozone formation, however, the rate and extent of ozone produced by the individual VOCs varies considerably. For example, it is widely acknowledged that formaldehyde (HCHO) is a very reactive VOC, and produces ozone rapidly and efficiently under most conditions. On the other hand, VOCs such as methane, ethane, propane, and methanol do not react as quickly, and are likely to form less urban ozone than a comparable mass of HCHO. The difference in ozone forming potential is one of the bases for the use of alternative fuels. The fuels considered in this study included compressed natural gas, LPG, mixtures of methanol and gasoline, ethanol and gasoline, and a reformulated gasoline.

  2. IPCC Emission Factor Database | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Emission Factor Database Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: IPCC Emission Factor Database AgencyCompany Organization: World Meteorological Organization,...

  3. Emission Factors (EMFAC) | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    The EMission FACtors (EMFAC) model is used to calculate emission rates from all motor vehicles, such as passenger cars to heavy-duty trucks, operating on highways, freeways...

  4. Module: Emission Factors for Deforestation | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    www.leafasia.orgtoolstechnical-guidance-series-emission-factors-defo Cost: Free Language: English Module: Emission Factors for Deforestation Screenshot Logo: Module: Emission...

  5. Preferred emission factor techniques for army emission inventories

    SciTech Connect

    Polyak, L.M.; Robinson, D.L.; Alden, S.A.; Hopp, P.L.; Ruff, T.E.

    1997-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA-90) present an unprecedented regulatory challenge to the Department of the Army and the entire US business community. Unlike previous legislation, which focused heavily on the substantive or emission control aspects of air quality management, this round of Amendments focused equal attention on the administrative aspects of air pollution control. Specifically, each new Title of the CAAA-90 is underpinned, either explicitly or implicitly, with the need to perform an emission inventory. The emission inventory is an implied prerequisite for determining the applicability of any of the emission control requirements of the 1990 Amendments, and it is the explicit center piece of the Title 5 operating permit program. Although the emission inventory is little more than a formal accounting of the number and type of emission sources and their associated air emissions, the resource requirements for preparing and maintaining the inventory can be substantial. The average contractor cost for preparing an initial emission inventory at an Army installation was over $100,000. Record keeping to support the inventory, and the annual inventory updates required for the Title 5 permit program will only expand these costs. In an effort to assist the Army community with the ongoing obligation to prepare these emission inventories, the US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (USACHPPM) has compiled a list of preferred emission inventory techniques for the various emission sources found at Army installations. The USACHPPM guidance identifies emission sources most likely to be found at an Army installation, as well as the most effective and preferred emission factors associated with these sources. This guidance is designed to be widely disseminated, and may have relevant applications in the non-military community.

  6. Development of adjustment factors for the EPA city and highway MPG values

    SciTech Connect

    Hellman, K.H.; Murrell, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the development of adjustment factors applicable to the EPA City and Highway MPG values. The paper discusses the data bases used, and the analytical methods employed to arrive at adjustment factors of 0.90 for the EPA City MPG value and 0.78 for the EPA Highway MPG value.

  7. Development of the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Russia...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Russia Jump to: navigation, search Name Development of the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Russia AgencyCompany Organization European Bank for Reconstruction and...

  8. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal

    Reports and Publications

    1994-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

  9. Effect of Environmental Factors on Sulfur Gas Emissions from Drywall

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena, Randy

    2011-08-20

    Problem drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC) investigation of problem drywall incorporates three parallel tracks: (1) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and reported health symptoms; (2) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and electrical and fire safety issues in affected homes; and (3) tracing the origin and the distribution of the drywall. To assess the potential impact on human health and to support testing for electrical and fire safety, the CPSC has initiated a series of laboratory tests that provide elemental characterization of drywall, characterization of chemical emissions, and in-home air sampling. The chemical emission testing was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The LBNL study consisted of two phases. In Phase 1 of this study, LBNL tested thirty drywall samples provided by CPSC and reported standard emission factors for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, reactive sulfur gases (RSGs) and volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). The standard emission factors were determined using small (10.75 liter) dynamic test chambers housed in a constant temperature environmental chamber. The tests were all run at 25 C, 50% relative humidity (RH) and with an area-specific ventilation rate of {approx}1.5 cubic meters per square meter of emitting surface per hour [m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}/h]. The thirty samples that were tested in Phase 1 included seventeen that were manufactured in China in 2005, 2006 and 2009, and thirteen that were manufactured in North America in 2009. The measured emission factors for VOCs and aldehydes were generally low and did not differ significantly between the Chinese and North American drywall. Eight of the samples tested had elevated emissions of volatile sulfur-containing compounds with total RSG emission factors between 32 and 258 micrograms per square meter

  10. On emission permit auction vs. allocation and the structural adjustment of incumbent power generators in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Simshauser, Paul

    2008-12-15

    A one-time partial allocation of permits would not impair the economic efficiency of the emissions trading scheme, would not have the effect of redirecting existing government expenditures, would minimize transaction costs, and most importantly, would help ensure power system stability throughout this major microeconomic reform. (author)

  11. Emission factors for leaks in refinery components in heavy liquid service

    SciTech Connect

    Taback, H.; Godec, M.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this program was to provide sufficient screening data so that EPA can develop an official set of emission factors (expressed in lb/hr/component) for refinery components (valves, flanged connectors, non-flanged connectors, pumps, open-ended lines, and other) in heavy liquid (BL) service. To accomplish this, 211,000 existing HL screening values from Southern California refineries were compiled and compared with 2,500 new HL screening measurements taken at two refineries in the state of Washington. Since Southern California is an area in extreme non-attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and therefore has tight emission control regulations, it was felt that its screening data may not be representative of refineries without tight emission controls. Thus, the Southern California screening data were compared to screening measurements at refineries in an area that is in attainment of the NAAQS and without emissions control, which is the case for those refineries in Washington. It was found that statistically there was no significant difference in emission factors between the two areas and, therefore, there appears to be no difference in emissions from heavy liquid components in areas with and without leak detection and repair (LDAR) programs. The new emission factors range from 1/7 to 1/3 times the current EPA emission factors. This program was sponsored by the American Petroleum Institute (API) and an API report will soon be released providing complete details.

  12. GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, Elena Trois, Cristina

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • GHG emission factors for local recycling of municipal waste are presented. • GHG emission factors for two composting technologies for garden waste are included. • Local GHG emission factors were compared to international ones and discussed. • Uncertainties and limitations are presented and areas for new research highlighted. - Abstract: GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from −290 kg CO{sub 2} e (glass) to −19 111 kg CO{sub 2} e (metals – Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard.

  13. Source Apportionment of Stack Emissions from Research and Development Facilities Using Positive Matrix Factorization

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Larson, Timothy V.

    2014-08-19

    Emissions from research and development (R&D) facilities are difficult to characterize due to the wide variety of processes used, changing nature of research, and large number of chemicals. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentrations measured in the main exhaust stacks of four different R&D buildings to identify the number and composition of major contributing sources. PMF identified from 9-11 source-related factors contributing to the stack emissions depending on the building. The factors that were similar between buildings were major contributors to trichloroethylene (TCE), acetone, and ethanol emissions. Several other factors had similar profiles for two or more buildings but not for all four. One factor for each building was a combination of p/m-xylene, o-xylene and ethylbenzene. At least one factor for each building was identified that contained a broad mix of many species and constraints were used in PMF to modify the factors to resemble more closely the off-shift concentration profiles. PMF accepted the constraints with little decrease in model fit. Although the PMF model predicted the profiles of the off-shift samples, the percent of total emissions was under-predicted by the model versus the measured data.

  14. Emission factors for several toxic air pollutants from fluidized-bed combustion of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.E.

    1986-03-01

    Clean coal technologies such as fluidized-bed combustion have the potential to emit the same trace elements as conventional combustors. Since the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is likely to promulgate National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for several trace elements, the feasibility of using fluidized-bed combustors to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may depend in part on the relative amounts of trace elements emitted by fluidized-bed and conventional combustors. Emissions of trace elements from both atmospheric and pressurized fluidized-bed combustors were compared with those from conventional combustors by developing fluidized-bed emission factors from information available in the literature and comparing them with the emission factors for conventional combustors recommended in a literature search conducted for EPA. The comparisons are based on the mass of emission per unit of heat input for antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, vanadium, and zinc. When inaccuracies in the data were taken into account, the trace element emissions from atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion seem to be somewhat higher than those from a conventional utility boiler burning pulverized coal and somewhat lower than those from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion.

  15. Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke particles

    SciTech Connect

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Sextro, Richard G.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2002-07-07

    Because size is a major controlling factor for indoor airborne particle behavior, human particle exposure assessments will benefit from improved knowledge of size-specific particle emissions. We report a method of inferring size-specific mass emission factors for indoor sources that makes use of an indoor aerosol dynamics model, measured particle concentration time series data, and an optimization routine. This approach provides--in addition to estimates of the emissions size distribution and integrated emission factors--estimates of deposition rate, an enhanced understanding of particle dynamics, and information about model performance. We applied the method to size-specific environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) particle concentrations measured every minute with an 8-channel optical particle counter (PMS-LASAIR; 0.1-2+ micrometer diameters) and every 10 or 30 min with a 34-channel differential mobility particle sizer (TSI-DMPS; 0.01-1+ micrometer diameters) after a single cigarette or cigar was machine-smoked inside a low air-exchange-rate 20 m{sup 3} chamber. The aerosol dynamics model provided good fits to observed concentrations when using optimized values of mass emission rate and deposition rate for each particle size range as input. Small discrepancies observed in the first 1-2 hours after smoking are likely due to the effect of particle evaporation, a process neglected by the model. Size-specific ETS particle emission factors were fit with log-normal distributions, yielding an average mass median diameter of 0.2 micrometers and an average geometric standard deviation of 2.3 with no systematic differences between cigars and cigarettes. The equivalent total particle emission rate, obtained integrating each size distribution, was 0.2-0.7 mg/min for cigars and 0.7-0.9 mg/min for cigarettes.

  16. Small-Chamber Measurements of Chemical-Specific Emission Factors for Drywall

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena, Randy; Russell, Marion; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-06-01

    Imported drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. To support an investigation of those building materials by the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) measured chemical-specific emission factors for 30 samples of drywall materials. Emission factors are reported for 75 chemicals and 30 different drywall samples encompassing both domestic and imported stock and incorporating natural, synthetic, or mixed gypsum core material. CPSC supplied all drywall materials. First the drywall samples were isolated and conditioned in dedicated chambers, then they were transferred to small chambers where emission testing was performed. Four sampling and analysis methods were utilized to assess (1) volatile organic compounds, (2) low molecular weight carbonyls, (3) volatile sulfur compounds, and (4) reactive sulfur gases. LBNL developed a new method that combines the use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) with small emission chambers to measure the reactive sulfur gases, then extended that technique to measure the full suite of volatile sulfur compounds. The testing procedure and analysis methods are described in detail herein. Emission factors were measured under a single set of controlled environmental conditions. The results are compared graphically for each method and in detailed tables for use in estimating indoor exposure concentrations.

  17. Estimating carbon dioxide emission factors for the California electric power sector

    SciTech Connect

    Marnay, Chris; Fisher, Diane; Murtishaw, Scott; Phadke, Amol; Price, Lynn; Sathaye, Jayant

    2002-08-01

    The California Climate Action Registry (''Registry'') was initially established in 2000 under Senate Bill 1771, and clarifying legislation (Senate Bill 527) was passed in September 2001. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has been asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (CEC) in establishing methods for calculating average and marginal electricity emissions factors, both historic and current, as well as statewide and for sub-regions. This study is exploratory in nature. It illustrates the use of three possible approaches and is not a rigorous estimation of actual emissions factors. While the Registry will ultimately cover emissions of all greenhouse gases (GHGs), presently it is focusing on carbon dioxide (CO2). Thus, this study only considers CO2, which is by far the largest GHG emitted in the power sector. Associating CO2 emissions with electricity consumption encounters three major complications. First, electricity can be generated from a number of different primary energy sources, many of which are large sources of CO2 emissions (e.g., coal combustion) while others result in virtually no CO{sub 2} emissions (e.g., hydro). Second, the mix of generation resources used to meet loads may vary at different times of day or in different seasons. Third, electrical energy is transported over long distances by complex transmission and distribution systems, so the generation sources related to electricity usage can be difficult to trace and may occur far from the jurisdiction in which that energy is consumed. In other words, the emissions resulting from electricity consumption vary considerably depending on when and where it is used since this affects the generation sources providing the power. There is no practical way to identify where or how all the electricity used by a certain customer was generated, but by reviewing public sources of data the total emission burden of a customer's electricity

  18. Research on impacts of population-related factors on carbon emissions in Beijing from 1984 to 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yayun; Zhao, Tao; Wang, Yanan Shi, Zhaohui

    2015-11-15

    Carbon emissions related to population factors have aroused great attention around the world. A multitude of literature mainly focused on single demographic impacts on environmental issues at the national level, and comprehensive studies concerning population-related factors at a city level are rare. This paper employed STIRPAT (Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology) model incorporating PLS (Partial least squares) regression method to examine the influence of population-related factors on carbon emissions in Beijing from 1984 to 2012. Empirically results manifest that urbanization is the paramount driver. Changes in population age structure have significantly positive impacts on carbon emissions, and shrinking young population, continuous expansion of working age population and aging population will keep on increasing environmental pressures. Meanwhile, shrinking household size and expanding floating population boost the discharge of carbon emissions. Besides, per capita consumption is an important contributor of carbon emissions, while industry energy intensity is the main inhibitory factor. Based upon these findings and the specific circumstances of Beijing, policies such as promoting clean and renewable energy, improving population quality and advocating low carbon lifestyles should be enhanced to achieve targeted emissions reductions. - Highlights: • We employed the STIRPAT model to identify population-related factors of carbon emissions in Beijing. • Urbanization is the paramount driver of carbon emissions. • Changes in population age structure exert significantly positive impacts on carbon emissions. • Shrinking household size, expanding floating population and improving consumption level increase carbon emissions. • Industry energy intensity decreases carbon emissions.

  19. Electromagnetic vacuum of complex media: Dipole emission versus light propagation, vacuum energy, and local field factors

    SciTech Connect

    Donaire, M.

    2011-02-15

    We offer a unified approach to several phenomena related to the electromagnetic vacuum of a complex medium made of point electric dipoles. To this aim, we apply the linear response theory to the computation of the polarization field propagator and study the spectrum of vacuum fluctuations. The physical distinction among the local density of states which enter the spectra of light propagation, total dipole emission, coherent emission, total vacuum energy, and Schwinger-bulk energy is made clear. Analytical expressions for the spectrum of dipole emission and for the vacuum energy are derived. Their respective relations with the spectrum of external light and with the Schwinger-bulk energy are found. The light spectrum and the Schwinger-bulk energy are determined by the Dyson propagator. The emission spectrum and the total vacuum energy are determined by the polarization propagator. An exact relationship of proportionality between both propagators is found in terms of local field factors. A study of the nature of stimulated emission from a single dipole is carried out. Regarding coherent emission, it contains two components. A direct one which is transferred radiatively and directly from the emitter into the medium and whose spectrum is that of external light. And an indirect one which is radiated by induced dipoles. The induction is mediated by one (and only one) local field factor. Regarding the vacuum energy, we find that in addition to the Schwinger-bulk energy the vacuum energy of an effective medium contains local field contributions proportional to the resonant frequency and to the spectral line width.

  20. Linear regression analysis of emissions factors when firing fossil fuels and biofuels in a commercial water-tube boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Sharon Falcone Miller; Bruce G. Miller

    2007-12-15

    This paper compares the emissions factors for a suite of liquid biofuels (three animal fats, waste restaurant grease, pressed soybean oil, and a biodiesel produced from soybean oil) and four fossil fuels (i.e., natural gas, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 fuel oil, and pulverized coal) in Penn State's commercial water-tube boiler to assess their viability as fuels for green heat applications. The data were broken into two subsets, i.e., fossil fuels and biofuels. The regression model for the liquid biofuels (as a subset) did not perform well for all of the gases. In addition, the coefficient in the models showed the EPA method underestimating CO and NOx emissions. No relation could be studied for SO{sub 2} for the liquid biofuels as they contain no sulfur; however, the model showed a good relationship between the two methods for SO{sub 2} in the fossil fuels. AP-42 emissions factors for the fossil fuels were also compared to the mass balance emissions factors and EPA CFR Title 40 emissions factors. Overall, the AP-42 emissions factors for the fossil fuels did not compare well with the mass balance emissions factors or the EPA CFR Title 40 emissions factors. Regression analysis of the AP-42, EPA, and mass balance emissions factors for the fossil fuels showed a significant relationship only for CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}. However, the regression models underestimate the SO{sub 2} emissions by 33%. These tests illustrate the importance in performing material balances around boilers to obtain the most accurate emissions levels, especially when dealing with biofuels. The EPA emissions factors were very good at predicting the mass balance emissions factors for the fossil fuels and to a lesser degree the biofuels. While the AP-42 emissions factors and EPA CFR Title 40 emissions factors are easier to perform, especially in large, full-scale systems, this study illustrated the shortcomings of estimation techniques. 23 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic Compounds in FEMA Temporary Housing Units

    SciTech Connect

    Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L.; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-10-01

    Sixteen previously occupied temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess emissions of volatile organic compounds. The whole trailer emission factors wereevaluated for 36 VOCs including formaldehyde. Indoor sampling was carried out in the THUs located in Purvis staging yard in Mississippi, USA. Indoor temperature andrelative humidity (RH) were also measured in all the trailers during sampling. Indoor temperatures were varied (increased or decreased) in a selection of THUs using theheating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Indoor temperatures during sampling ranged from 14o C to 33o C, and relative humidity (RH) varied between 35percentand 74percent. Ventilation rates were increased in some trailers using bathroom fans and vents during some of the sampling events. Ventilation rates measured during some aselection of sampling events varied from 0.14 to 4.3 h-1. Steady state indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 10 mu g-m-3 to 1000 mu g-m-3. The formaldehyde concentrations in the trailers were of toxicological significance. The effects of temperature, humidity and ventilation rates were also studied. A linearregression model was built using log of percentage relative humidity, inverse of temperature (in K-1), and inverse log ACH as continuous independent variables, trailermanufacturer as a categorical independent variable, and log of the chemical emission factors as the dependent variable. The coefficients of inverse temperature, log relativehumidity, log inverse ACH with log emission factor were found to be statistically significant for all the samples at the 95percent confidence level. The regression model wasfound to explain about 84percent of the variation in the dependent variable. Most VOC concentrations measured indoors in the Purvis THUs were mostly found to be belowvalues reported in earlier studies by Maddalena et al.,1,2 Hodgson et al.,3 and Hippelein4. Emissions of TMPB-DIB (a plasticizer found in vinyl products) were found

  2. Developing an emission factor for hazardous air pollutants for an F-16 using JP-8 fuel. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Schaack, D.J.

    1994-09-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act amendments drastically changed the legislation of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) or air toxics. Title 3 of the act which specifically addresses HAPs now lists 189 substances which may require regulation as air toxics. Consequently, the reporting of HAP emissions from all Air Force operations will be required in the future. However, the Department of Defense (DoD) does not have methods available to report this information. This thesis develops emission factors for selected HAPs from an F-16 CD aircraft/F110 engine operating on JP-8 fuel. The methodology included: determining which HAPs should be selected, using past aircraft emission studies to estimate HAP concentrations for the F110 engine using JP-8 fuel selecting an emission factor formula to calculate emission factors for each HAP, testing the developed emission factors on an airfield operation. The estimated emission factors for each HAP for the F110 engine are low for all engine modes mainly because the F110 is a newer engine with high combustion efficiency. The resultant emission inventory shows that many HAPs would be classified as major sources under current Title 3 legislation. Thus, it is important to assess airfield operations to ensure they remain in compliance with the upcoming Title 3 legislation.

  3. Updated greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant emission factors and their probability distribution functions for electricity generating units

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, H.; Wang, M.; Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.

    2012-07-06

    Greenhouse gas (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, hereinafter GHG) and criteria air pollutant (CO, NO{sub x}, VOC, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub x}, hereinafter CAP) emission factors for various types of power plants burning various fuels with different technologies are important upstream parameters for estimating life-cycle emissions associated with alternative vehicle/fuel systems in the transportation sector, especially electric vehicles. The emission factors are typically expressed in grams of GHG or CAP per kWh of electricity generated by a specific power generation technology. This document describes our approach for updating and expanding GHG and CAP emission factors in the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (see Wang 1999 and the GREET website at http://greet.es.anl.gov/main) for various power generation technologies. These GHG and CAP emissions are used to estimate the impact of electricity use by stationary and transportation applications on their fuel-cycle emissions. The electricity generation mixes and the fuel shares attributable to various combustion technologies at the national, regional and state levels are also updated in this document. The energy conversion efficiencies of electric generating units (EGUs) by fuel type and combustion technology are calculated on the basis of the lower heating values of each fuel, to be consistent with the basis used in GREET for transportation fuels. On the basis of the updated GHG and CAP emission factors and energy efficiencies of EGUs, the probability distribution functions (PDFs), which are functions that describe the relative likelihood for the emission factors and energy efficiencies as random variables to take on a given value by the integral of their own probability distributions, are updated using best-fit statistical curves to characterize the uncertainties associated with GHG and CAP emissions in life

  4. Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation: Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors (Transportation Energy Futures Series)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    DEMAND Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation: Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors TRANSPORTATION ENERGY FUTURES SERIES: Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation: Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors A Study Sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy March 2013 Prepared by CAMBRIDGE SYSTEMATICS Cambridge, MA 02140 under subcontract DGJ-1-11857-01 Technical monitoring performed by NATIONAL

  5. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  6. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, H.H.

    1988-03-11

    Abstract and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus. 3 figs.

  7. Sensitive fast electron spectrometer in adjustable triode configuration with pulsed tunable laser for research on photo-induced field emission cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Mingels, S. Porshyn, V.; Bornmann, B.; Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Müller, G.

    2015-04-15

    We have completed an ultra-high vacuum system for sensitive fast electron spectroscopy from cold cathodes in triode configuration under high electric fields E (<100 MV/m) and pulsed tunable laser illumination (3.5 ns, 10 Hz, hν = 0.5-5.9 eV, and 0.3-17 mJ). The cathodes are prepared and inserted under clean room conditions and can be precisely 3D-positioned, cooled or heated (77-400 K). Commissioning results with the upgraded system are presented. Field emission measurements with a W tip yielded an energy resolution of 14 meV at 4 eV pass energy and a precise determination of the emitter work function, size, and temperature. Photoemission spectroscopy of short electron bunches from a virgin and laser-ablated S-GaP crystal and quantum efficiency measurements revealed surface states, energy relaxation, and band structure effects. In conclusion, this novel system is ready now for the development and characterization of photo-induced field emission cathodes.

  8. GHG emission factors developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, Elena; Trois, Cristina

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► An average GHG emission factor for the collection and transport of municipal solid waste in South Africa is calculated. ► A range of GHG emission factors for different types of landfills (including dumps) in South Africa are calculated. ► These factors are compared internationally and their implications for South Africa and developing countries are discussed . ► Areas for new research are highlighted. - Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors are used with increased frequency for the accounting and reporting of GHG from waste management. However, these factors have been calculated for developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere and are lacking for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South Africa. As such it presents a model on how international results and methodology can be adapted and used to calculate country-specific GHG emission factors from waste. For the collection and transport of municipal waste in South Africa, the average diesel consumption is around 5 dm{sup 3} (litres) per tonne of wet waste and the associated GHG emissions are about 15 kg CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2} e). Depending on the type of landfill, the GHG emissions from the landfilling of waste have been calculated to range from −145 to 1016 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when taking into account carbon storage, and from 441 to 2532 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when carbon storage is left out. The highest emission factor per unit of wet waste is for landfill sites without landfill gas collection and these are the dominant waste disposal facilities in South Africa. However, cash strapped municipalities in Africa and the developing world will not be able to significantly upgrade these sites and reduce their GHG burdens if there is no equivalent replacement of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) resulting from the Kyoto agreement

  9. Black Carbon Concentrations and Diesel Vehicle Emission FactorsDerived from Coefficient of Haze Measurements in California:1967-2003

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Aguiar, Jeffery; Tonse, Shaheen; Novakov, T.

    2007-10-01

    We have derived ambient black carbon (BC) concentrations and estimated emission factors for on-road diesel vehicles from archived Coefficient of Haze (COH) data that was routinely collected beginning in 1967 at 11 locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. COH values are a measure of the attenuation of light by particles collected on a white filter, and available data indicate they are proportional to BC concentrations measured using the conventional aethalometer. Monthly averaged BC concentrations are up to five times greater in winter than summer, and, consequently, so is the population's exposure to BC. The seasonal cycle in BC concentrations is similar for all Bay Area sites, most likely due to area-wide decreased pollutant dispersion during wintertime. A strong weekly cycle is also evident, with weekend concentrations significantly lower than weekday concentrations, consistent with decreased diesel traffic volume on weekends. The weekly cycle suggests that, in the Bay Area, diesel vehicle emissions are the dominant source of BC aerosol. Despite the continuous increase in diesel fuel consumption in California, annual Bay Area average BC concentrations decreased by a factor of {approx}3 from the late 1960s to the early 2000s. Based on estimated annual BC concentrations, on-road diesel fuel consumption, and recent measurements of on-road diesel vehicle BC emissions, diesel BC emission factors decreased by an order of magnitude over the study period. Reductions in the BC emission factor reflect improved engine technology, emission controls and changes in diesel fuel composition. A new BC monitoring network is needed to continue tracking ambient BC trends because the network of COH monitors has recently been retired.

  10. Black Carbon Concentrations and Diesel Vehicle Emission Factors Derived from Coefficient of Haze Measurements in California: 1967-2003

    SciTech Connect

    Tast, CynthiaL; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Aguiar, Jeffery; Tonse, Shaheen; Novakov, T.; Fairley, David

    2007-11-09

    We have derived ambient black carbon (BC) concentrations and estimated emission factors for on-road diesel vehicles from archived Coefficient of Haze (COH) data that was routinely collected beginning in 1967 at 11 locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. COH values are a measure of the attenuation of light by particles collected on a white filter, and available data indicate they are proportional to BC concentrations measured using the conventional aethalometer. Monthly averaged BC concentrations are up to five times greater in winter than summer, and, consequently, so is the population?s exposure to BC. The seasonal cycle in BC concentrations is similar for all Bay Area sites, most likely due to area-wide decreased pollutant dispersion during wintertime. A strong weekly cycle is also evident, with weekend concentrations significantly lower than weekday concentrations, consistent with decreased diesel traffic volume on weekends. The weekly cycle suggests that, in the Bay Area, diesel vehicle emissions are the dominant source of BC aerosol. Despite the continuous increase in diesel fuel consumption in California, annual Bay Area average BC concentrations decreased by a factor of ~;;3 from the late 1960s to the early 2000s. Based on estimated annual BC concentrations, on-road diesel fuel consumption, and recent measurements of on-road diesel vehicle BC emissions, diesel BC emission factors decreased by an order of magnitude over the study period. Reductions in the BC emission factor reflect improved engine technology, emission controls and changes in diesel fuel composition. A new BC monitoring network is needed to continue tracking ambient BC trends because the network of COH monitors has recently been retired.

  11. State-level Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors for Electricity Generation, Updated

    Reports and Publications

    2001-01-01

    To assist reporters in estimating emissions and emission reductions, The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has made available in the instructions to Forms EIA-1605 and EIA-1605EZ emission coefficients for most commonly used fossil fuels and electricity. These coefficients were based on 1992 emissions and generation data. In 1999, updated coefficients were prepared based on the most recent data (1998) then available; however, the updated coefficients were not included in the instructions for the 1999 data year. This year, they have been updated again, but based on three years worth of data (1997, 1998, and 1999) rather than a single year.

  12. Emission factors for domestic use of L.P. gas in the metropolitan area of Mexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Molina, M.M.; Schifter, I.; Ontiveros, L.E.; Salinas, A.; Moreno, S.; Melgarejo, L.A.; Molina, R.; Krueger, B.

    1998-12-31

    One of the main problems found in air pollution in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is the presence of high concentrations of ozone at ground level in the atmosphere. The official Mexican standard for ozone concentration in the air (0.11 ppm, one hour, once every 3 years) has been exceeded more than 300 days per year. Ozone is formed due to the emissions of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons originated from either combustion processes or vapors emanating from fuel handling operations. The results of an evaluation of several domestic devices like stoves and water heaters with L.P. gas as fuel are presented. A method for the evaluation of hydrocarbon emission was developed. A prototype of domestic installation was constructed. The prototype includes L.P. gas tank, domestic stove, water heater, piping and instrumentation. Several combinations of stoves and water heaters were evaluated. The sampling and analysis of hydrocarbons were performed using laboratory equipment originally designed for the evaluation of combustion and evaporative emissions in automobiles: a SHED camera (sealed room equipped with an hydrocarbon analyzer) was used to measure leaks in the prototype of domestic installation and a Constant Volume Sampler (CVS) for the measurement of incomplete combustion emissions. Emission factors were developed for each domestic installation.

  13. Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ban-Weiss, George A.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Harley, Robert A.

    2009-04-10

    Average particle number concentrations and size distributions from {approx}61,000 light-duty (LD) vehicles and {approx}2500 medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) trucks were measured during the summer of 2006 in a San Francisco Bay area traffic tunnel. One of the traffic bores contained only LD vehicles, and the other contained mixed traffic, allowing pollutants to be apportioned between LD vehicles and diesel trucks. Particle number emission factors (particle diameter D{sub p} > 3 nm) were found to be (3.9 {+-} 1.4) x 10{sup 14} and (3.3 {+-} 1.3) x 10{sup 15} kg{sup -1} fuel burned for LD vehicles and diesel trucks, respectively. Size distribution measurements showed that diesel trucks emitted at least an order of magnitude more particles for all measured sizes (10 < D{sub p} < 290 nm) per unit mass of fuel burned. The relative importance of LD vehicles as a source of particles increased as D{sub p} decreased. Comparing the results from this study to previous measurements at the same site showed that particle number emission factors have decreased for both LD vehicles and diesel trucks since 1997. Integrating size distributions with a volume weighting showed that diesel trucks emitted 28 {+-} 11 times more particles by volume than LD vehicles, consistent with the diesel/gasoline emission factor ratio for PM{sub 2.5} mass measured using gravimetric analysis of Teflon filters, reported in a companion paper.

  14. MOBILE4. 1: Highway-vehicle mobile-source emission-factor model (Apple MacIntosh version) (for microcomputers). Model-Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    MOBILE4.1 is the latest revision to EPA's highway vehicle mobile source emission factor model. Relative to MOBILE4, it contains numerous revisions and provides the user with additional options for modeling highway vehicle emission factors. it will calculate emission factors for hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide, (CO), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from highway motor vehicles. It calculates emission factors for eight individual vehicle types, in two regions of the country (low and high altitude). The emission factors depend on various conditions such as ambient temperature, fuel volatility, speed, and mileage accrual rates. It will estimate emission factors for any calendar year between 1960 and 2020 inclusive. The 25 most recent model years are considered in operation in each calendar year. EPA is requiring that states and others preparing emission inventories for nonattainment areas for CO and ozone to use MOBILE4.1 in the development of the base year 1990 emission inventories required under the Clean Air Act of 1990.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn England; Oliver Chang; Stephanie Wien

    2002-02-14

    This report provides results from the second year of this three-year project to develop dilution measurement technology for characterizing PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers) and precursor emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil, gas and power generation operation. Detailed emission rate and chemical speciation tests results for a gas turbine, a process heater, and a commercial oil/gas fired boiler are presented. Tests were performed using a research dilution sampling apparatus and traditional EPA methods. A series of pilot tests were conducted to identify the constraints to reduce the size of current research dilution sampler for future stack emission tests. Based on the test results, a bench prototype compact dilution sampler developed and characterized in GE EER in August 2002.

  16. Compilation of air-pollutant emission factors. Volume 1. Stationary-point and area sources, Fourth Edition. Supplement A

    SciTech Connect

    Joyner, W.M.

    1986-10-01

    In the supplement to the Fourth Edition of AP-42, new or revised emissions data are presented for Bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion; Anthracite coal combustion; Fuel oil combustion; Natural gas combustion; Wood waste combustion in boilers; Lignite combustion; Sodium carbonate; Primary aluminum production; Coke production; Primary copper smelting; Ferroalloy production; Iron and steel production; Primary lead smelting; Zinc smelting; Secondary aluminum operations; Gray iron foundries; Secondary lead smelting; Asphaltic concrete plants; Bricks and related clay products; Portland cement manufacturing; Concrete batching; Glass manufacturing; Lime manufacturing; Construction aggregate processing; Taconite ore processing; Western surface coal mining; Chemical wood pulping; Appendix C.1, Particle-size distribution data and sized emission factors for selected sources; and Appendix C.2, Generalized particle size distributions.

  17. Subsea adjustable choke valves

    SciTech Connect

    Cyvas, M.K. )

    1989-08-01

    With emphasis on deepwater wells and marginal offshore fields growing, the search for reliable subsea production systems has become a high priority. A reliable subsea adjustable choke is essential to the realization of such a system, and recent advances are producing the degree of reliability required. Technological developments have been primarily in (1) trim material (including polycrystalline diamond), (2) trim configuration, (3) computer programs for trim sizing, (4) component materials, and (5) diver/remote-operated-vehicle (ROV) interfaces. These five facets are overviewed and progress to date is reported. A 15- to 20-year service life for adjustable subsea chokes is now a reality. Another factor vital to efficient use of these technological developments is to involve the choke manufacturer and ROV/diver personnel in initial system conceptualization. In this manner, maximum benefit can be derived from the latest technology. Major areas of development still required and under way are listed, and the paper closes with a tabulation of successful subsea choke installations in recent years.

  18. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation: Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; Dunphy, R. T.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  19. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation. Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; Dunphy, R. T.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-15

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  20. ADJUSTABLE DOUBLE PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gratian, J.W.; Gratian, A.C.

    1961-08-01

    >A modulator pulse source having adjustable pulse width and adjustable pulse spacing is described. The generator consists of a cross coupled multivibrator having adjustable time constant circuitry in each leg, an adjustable differentiating circuit in the output of each leg, a mixing and rectifying circuit for combining the differentiated pulses and generating in its output a resultant sequence of negative pulses, and a final amplifying circuit for inverting and square-topping the pulses. (AEC)

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS-FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn C. England

    2004-10-20

    ambient air to dilute the stack gas sample followed by 80-90 seconds residence time to allow aerosol formation and growth to stabilize prior to sample collection and analysis. More accurate and complete emissions data generated using the methods developed in this program will enable more accurate source-receptor and source apportionment analysis for PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) implementation and streamline the environmental assessment of oil, gas and power production facilities. The overall goals of this program were to: (1) Develop improved dilution sampling technology and test methods for PM2.5 mass emissions and speciation measurements, and compare results obtained with dilution and traditional stationary source sampling methods. (2) Develop emission factors and speciation profiles for emissions of fine particulate matter, especially organic aerosols, for use in source-receptor and source apportionment analyses. (3) Identify and characterize PM2.5 precursor compound emissions that can be used in source-receptor and source apportionment analyses.

  2. An integrated analytical framework for quantifying the LCOE of waste-to-energy facilities for a range of greenhouse gas emissions policy and technical factors

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, Aaron K.; Webber, Michael E.

    2012-07-15

    This study presents a novel integrated method for considering the economics of waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities with priced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based upon technical and economic characteristics of the WTE facility, MSW stream, landfill alternative, and GHG emissions policy. The study demonstrates use of the formulation for six different policy scenarios and explores sensitivity of the results to ranges of certain technical parameters as found in existing literature. The study shows that details of the GHG emissions regulations have large impact on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of WTE and that GHG regulations can either increase or decrease the LCOE of WTE depending on policy choices regarding biogenic fractions from combusted waste and emissions from landfills. Important policy considerations are the fraction of the carbon emissions that are priced (i.e. all emissions versus only non-biogenic emissions), whether emissions credits are allowed due to reducing fugitive landfill gas emissions, whether biogenic carbon sequestration in landfills is credited against landfill emissions, and the effectiveness of the landfill gas recovery system where waste would otherwise have been buried. The default landfill gas recovery system effectiveness assumed by much of the industry yields GHG offsets that are very close to the direct non-biogenic GHG emissions from a WTE facility, meaning that small changes in the recovery effectiveness cause relatively larger changes in the emissions factor of the WTE facility. Finally, the economics of WTE are dependent on the MSW stream composition, with paper and wood being advantageous, metal and glass being disadvantageous, and plastics, food, and yard waste being either advantageous or disadvantageous depending upon the avoided tipping fee and the GHG emissions price.

  3. Land and Water Use, CO2 Emissions, and Worker Radiological Exposure Factors for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Brett W Carlsen; Brent W Dixon; Urairisa Pathanapirom; Eric Schneider; Bethany L. Smith; Timothy M. AUlt; Allen G. Croff; Steven L. Krahn

    2013-08-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Fuel Cycle Technologies program is preparing to evaluate several proposed nuclear fuel cycle options to help guide and prioritize Fuel Cycle Technology research and development. Metrics are being developed to assess performance against nine evaluation criteria that will be used to assess relevant impacts resulting from all phases of the fuel cycle. This report focuses on four specific environmental metrics. • land use • water use • CO2 emissions • radiological Dose to workers Impacts associated with the processes in the front-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, mining through enrichment and deconversion of DUF6 are summarized from FCRD-FCO-2012-000124, Revision 1. Impact estimates are developed within this report for the remaining phases of the nuclear fuel cycle. These phases include fuel fabrication, reactor construction and operations, fuel reprocessing, and storage, transport, and disposal of associated used fuel and radioactive wastes. Impact estimates for each of the phases of the nuclear fuel cycle are given as impact factors normalized per unit process throughput or output. These impact factors can then be re-scaled against the appropriate mass flows to provide estimates for a wide range of potential fuel cycles. A companion report, FCRD-FCO-2013-000213, applies the impact factors to estimate and provide a comparative evaluation of 40 fuel cycles under consideration relative to these four environmental metrics.

  4. Coupling field and laboratory measurements to estimate the emission factors of identified and unidentified trace gases for prescribed fires

    SciTech Connect

    Yokelson, Robert J.; Burling, Ian R.; Gilman, Jessica; Warneke, Carsten; Stockwell, Chelsea E.; de Gouw, Joost A.; Akagi, Sheryl; Urbanski, Shawn; Veres, Patrick; Roberts, James M.; Kuster, W. C.; Reardon, James; Griffith, David WT; Johnson, Timothy J.; Hosseini, SeyedEhsan; Miller, J. Wayne; Cocker, David R.; Jung, H.; Weise, David

    2013-01-07

    Vegetative fuels commonly consumed in prescribed fires were collected from five locations in the southeastern and southwestern U.S. and burned in a series of 77 fires at the U.S. Forest Service Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions were measured by gravimetric filter sampling with subsequent analysis for elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and 38 elements. The trace gas emissions were measured with a large suite of state-of-the-art instrumentation including an open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP FTIR) spectrometer, proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), proton-transfer ion-trap mass spectrometry (PIT-MS), negative-ion proton-transfer chemical-ionization mass spectrometry (NI-PT-CIMS), and gas chromatography with MS detection (GC-MS). 204 trace gas species (mostly non-methane organic compounds (NMOC)) were identified and quantified with the above instruments. An additional 152 significant peaks in the unit mass resolution mass spectra were quantified, but either could not be identified or most of the signal at that molecular mass was unaccounted for by identifiable species. As phase II of this study, we conducted airborne and ground-based sampling of the emissions from real prescribed fires mostly in the same land management units where the fuels for the lab fires were collected. A broad variety, but smaller number of species (21 trace gas species and PM2.5) was measured on 14 fires in chaparral and oak savanna in the southwestern US, as well as pine forest understory in the southeastern US and Sierra Nevada mountains of California. These extensive field measurements of emission factors (EF) for temperate biomass burning are useful both for modeling and to examine the representativeness of our lab fire EF. The lab/field EF ratio for the pine understory fuels was not statistically different from one, on average. However, our lab EF for smoldering compounds emitted by burning the semi

  5. SLIT ADJUSTMENT CLAMP

    DOEpatents

    McKenzie, K.R.

    1959-07-01

    An electrode support which permits accurate alignment and adjustment of the electrode in a plurality of planes and about a plurality of axes in a calutron is described. The support will align the slits in the electrode with the slits of an ionizing chamber so as to provide for the egress of ions. The support comprises an insulator, a leveling plate carried by the insulator and having diametrically opposed attaching screws screwed to the plate and the insulator and diametrically opposed adjusting screws for bearing against the insulator, and an electrode associated with the plate for adjustment therewith.

  6. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Emission...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Emission Factors Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Emission Factors and Global Warming Potentials The greenhouse gas emission factors and global warming potentials ...

  7. Methane emissions from rice fields: The effects of climatic and agricultural factors. Final report, March 1, 1994--April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, M.A.K.; Rasmussen, R.A.

    1997-10-01

    The work reported was performed for the purpose of refining estimates of methane emissions from rice fields. Research performed included methane flux measurements, evaluation of variables affecting emissions, compilation of a data base, and continental background measurements in China. The key findings are briefly described in this report. Total methane emissions, seasonal patterns, and spatial variability were measured for a 7-year periods. Temperature was found to be the most important variable studies affecting methane emissions. The data archives for the research are included in the report. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Self adjusting inclinometer

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    An inclinometer utilizing synchronous demodulation for high resolution and electronic offset adjustment provides a wide dynamic range without any moving components. A device encompassing a tiltmeter and accompanying electronic circuitry provides quasi-leveled tilt sensors that detect highly resolved tilt change without signal saturation.

  9. Automatic temperature adjustment apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Chaplin, James E.

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus for increasing the efficiency of a conventional central space heating system is disclosed. The temperature of a fluid heating medium is adjusted based on a measurement of the external temperature, and a system parameter. The system parameter is periodically modified based on a closed loop process that monitors the operation of the heating system. This closed loop process provides a heating medium temperature value that is very near the optimum for energy efficiency.

  10. Precision adjustable stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A stage center block is mounted on each of two opposite sides by a pair of spaced ball bearing tracks which provide stability as well as simplicity. The use of the spaced ball bearing pairs in conjunction with an adjustment screw which also provides support eliminates extraneous stabilization components and permits maximization of the area of the center block laser transmission hole.

  11. Adjustable vane windmills

    SciTech Connect

    Ducker, W.L.

    1980-01-15

    A system of rotatably and pivotally mounted radially extended bent supports for radially extending windmill rotor vanes in combination with axially movable radially extended control struts connected to the vanes with semi-automatic and automatic torque and other sensing and servo units provide automatic adjustment of the windmill vanes relative to their axes of rotation to produce mechanical output at constant torque or at constant speed or electrical quantities dependent thereon.

  12. Adjustable vane windmills

    SciTech Connect

    Ducker, W.L.

    1982-09-07

    A system of rotatably and pivotally mounted radially extended bent supports for radially extending windmill rotor vanes in combination with axially movable radially extended control struts connected to the vanes with semi-automatic and automatic torque and other sensing and servo units provide automatic adjustment of the windmill vanes relative to their axes of rotation to produce mechanical output at constant torque or at constant speed or electrical quantities dependent thereon.

  13. Adjustable vane windmills

    SciTech Connect

    Ducker, W.L.

    1982-09-14

    A system of rotatably and pivotally mounted radially extended bent supports for radially extending windmill rotor vanes in combination with axially movable radially extended control struts connected to the vanes with semi-automatic and automatic torque and other sensing and servo units provide automatic adjustment of the windmill vanes relative to their axes of rotation to produce mechanical output at constant torque or at constant speed or electrical quantities dependent thereon.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF FINE PARTICULATE EMISSION FACTORS AND SPECIATION PROFILES FOR OIL AND GAS-FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn C. England; Stephanie Wien; Mingchih O. Chang

    2002-08-01

    This report provides results from the first year of this three-year project to develop dilution measurement technology for characterizing PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 micrometers) and precursor emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil, gas and power generation operations. Detailed emission rate and chemical speciation test results for a refinery gas-fired process heater and plans for cogeneration gas turbine tests and pilot-scale tests are presented. Tests were performed using a research dilution sampling apparatus and traditional EPA methods to compare PM2.5 mass and chemical speciation. Test plans are presented for a gas turbine facility that will be tested in the fourth quarter of 2002. A preliminary approach for pilot-scale tests is presented that will help define design constraints for a new dilution sampler design that is smaller, lighter, and less costly to use.

  15. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions 2.1. Total carbon dioxide emissions Annual U.S. carbon dioxide emissions fell by 419 million metric tons in 2009 (7.1 percent), to 5,447 million metric tons (Figure 9 and Table 6). The annual decrease-the largest over the 19-year period beginning with the 1990 baseline-puts 2009 emissions 608 million metric tons below the 2005 level, which is the Obama Administration's benchmark year for its goal of reducing U.S. emissions by 17 percent by 2020. The key factors

  16. NOx Emission Reduction and its Effects on Ozone during the 2008 Olympic Games

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Qing; Wang, Yuhang; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Zhen; Gustafson, William I.; Shao, Min

    2011-07-15

    We applied a daily-assimilated inversion method to estimate NOx (NO+NO2) emissions for June-September 2007 and 2008 on the basis of the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and model simulations using the Regional chEmistry and trAnsport Model (REAM). Over urban Beijing, rural Beijing, and the Huabei Plain, OMI column NO2 reductions are approximately 45%, 33%, and 14%, respectively, while the corresponding anthropogenic NOx emission reductions are only 28%, 24%, and 6%, during the full emission control period (July 20 – Sep 20, 2008). The emission reduction began in early July and was in full force by July 20, corresponding to the scheduled implementation of emission controls over Beijing. The emissions did not appear to recover after the emission control period. Meteorological change from summer 2007 to 2008 is the main factor contributing to the column NO2 decreases not accounted for by the emission reduction. Model simulations suggest that the effect of emission reduction on ozone concentrations over Beijing is relatively minor using a standard VOC emission inventory in China. With an adjustment of the model emissions to reflect in situ observations of VOCs in Beijing, the model simulation suggests a larger effect of the emission reduction.

  17. The Use of Positive Matrix Factorization with Conditional Probability Functions in Air Quality Studies: An Application to Hydrocarbon Emissions in Houston, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, YuLong; Berkowitz, Carl M.

    2006-06-01

    As part of a study to identify groups of compounds (source categories) associated with different processing facilities, a multivariate receptor model called Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was applied to hourly average concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured at five Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) located near the Ship Channel in Houston, Texas. The observations were made between June and October, 2003, and limited to nighttime measurements (21:00 pm 6:00 am) in order to remove the complexity of photochemical processing and associated changes in the concentrations of primary and secondary VOCs. Six to eight volatile organic compounds source categories were identified for the five Ship Channel sites. The dominant source categories were found to be those associated with petrochemical, chemical industries and fuel evaporation. In contrast, source categories associated with on-road vehicles were found to be relatively insignificant. Although evidence of biogenic emissions was found at almost all the sites, this broad category was significant only at the Wallisville site, which was also the site furthest away from the Ship Channels area and closest to the northeast forest of Texas. Natural gas, accumulation and fuel evaporation sources were found to contribute most to the ambient VOCs, followed by the petrochemical emission of highly reactive ethene and propylene. Solvent / paint industry and fuel evaporation and emission from refineries were next in importance while the on-road vehicle exhaust generally contributed less than 10% of the total ambient VOCs. Specific geographic areas associated with each source category were identified through the use of a Conditional Probability Function (CPF) analysis that related elevated concentrations of key VOCs in each category to a network of grids superimposed on the source inventories of the VOCs.

  18. Adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Layton C.

    1997-01-01

    An adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems. The adjustable link is a low-cost, passive device that provides backlash-free adjustment along its single constraint direction and flexural freedom in all other directions. The adjustable link comprises two spheres, two sockets in which the spheres are adjustable retain, and a connection link threadly connected at each end to the spheres, to provide a single direction of restraint and to adjust the length or distance between the sockets. Six such adjustable links provide for six degrees of freedom for mounting an instrument on a support. The adjustable link has applications in any machine or instrument requiring precision adjustment in six degrees of freedom, isolation from deformations of the supporting platform, and/or additional structural damping. The damping is accomplished by using a hollow connection link that contains an inner rod and a viscoelastic separation layer between the two.

  19. Adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems

    DOEpatents

    Hale, L.C.

    1997-07-01

    An adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems is disclosed. The adjustable link is a low-cost, passive device that provides backlash-free adjustment along its single constraint direction and flexural freedom in all other directions. The adjustable link comprises two spheres, two sockets in which the spheres are adjustable retain, and a connection link threadly connected at each end to the spheres, to provide a single direction of restraint and to adjust the length or distance between the sockets. Six such adjustable links provide for six degrees of freedom for mounting an instrument on a support. The adjustable link has applications in any machine or instrument requiring precision adjustment in six degrees of freedom, isolation from deformations of the supporting platform, and/or additional structural damping. The damping is accomplished by using a hollow connection link that contains an inner rod and a viscoelastic separation layer between the two. 3 figs.

  20. Russian anthropogenic black carbon: Emission reconstruction and Arctic black carbon simulation

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; Storey, John M.; Romanov, Alexander; Hodson, Elke L.; Cresko, Joe; Morozova, Irina; Ignatieva, Yulia; Cabaniss, John

    2015-10-02

    Development of reliable source emission inventories is needed to advance the understanding of the origin of Arctic haze using chemical transport modeling. This paper develops a regional anthropogenic black carbon (BC) emission inventory for the Russian Federation, the largest country by land area in the Arctic Council. Activity data from combination of local Russia information and international resources, emission factors based on either Russian documents or adjusted values for local conditions, and other emission source data are used to approximate the BC emissions. Emissions are gridded at a resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° and developed into a monthly temporal profile.more » Total anthropogenic BC emission of Russia in 2010 is estimated to be around 224 Gg. Gas flaring, a commonly ignored black carbon source, contributes a significant fraction of 36.2% to Russia's total anthropogenic BC emissions. Other sectors, i.e., residential, transportation, industry, and power plants, contribute 25.0%, 20.3%, 13.1%, and 5.4%, respectively. Three major BC hot spot regions are identified: the European part of Russia, the southern central part of Russia where human population densities are relatively high, and the Urals Federal District where Russia's major oil and gas fields are located but with sparse human population. BC simulations are conducted using the hemispheric version of Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model with emission inputs from a global emission database EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research)-HTAPv2 (Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution) and EDGAR-HTAPv2 with its Russian part replaced by the newly developed Russian BC emissions, respectively. The simulation using the new Russian BC emission inventory could improve 30–65% of absorption aerosol optical depth measured at the AERONET sites in Russia throughout the whole year as compared to that using the default HTAPv2 emissions. At the four ground monitoring sites (Zeppelin, Barrow, Alert

  1. Russian anthropogenic black carbon: Emission reconstruction and Arctic black carbon simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; Storey, John M.; Romanov, Alexander; Hodson, Elke L.; Cresko, Joe; Ignatieva, Yulia; Cabaniss, John

    2015-10-02

    Development of reliable source emission inventories is needed to advance the understanding of the origin of Arctic haze using chemical transport modeling. This paper develops a regional anthropogenic black carbon (BC) emission inventory for the Russian Federation, the largest country by land area in the Arctic Council. Activity data from combination of local Russia information and international resources, emission factors based on either Russian documents or adjusted values for local conditions, and other emission source data are used to approximate the BC emissions. Emissions are gridded at a resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° and developed into a monthly temporal profile. Total anthropogenic BC emission of Russia in 2010 is estimated to be around 224 Gg. Gas flaring, a commonly ignored black carbon source, contributes a significant fraction of 36.2% to Russia's total anthropogenic BC emissions. Other sectors, i.e., residential, transportation, industry, and power plants, contribute 25.0%, 20.3%, 13.1%, and 5.4%, respectively. Three major BC hot spot regions are identified: the European part of Russia, the southern central part of Russia where human population densities are relatively high, and the Urals Federal District where Russia's major oil and gas fields are located but with sparse human population. BC simulations are conducted using the hemispheric version of Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model with emission inputs from a global emission database EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research)-HTAPv2 (Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution) and EDGAR-HTAPv2 with its Russian part replaced by the newly developed Russian BC emissions, respectively. The simulation using the new Russian BC emission inventory could improve 30–65% of absorption aerosol optical depth measured at the AERONET sites in Russia throughout the whole year as compared to that using the default HTAPv2 emissions. At the four ground monitoring sites (Zeppelin, Barrow, Alert, and

  2. Adjustable Speed Pumping Applications | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Pumping Applications Adjustable Speed Pumping Applications This tip sheet provides practical tips on the application of adjustable speed drives in industrial pumping systems. PUMPING SYSTEMS TIP SHEET #11 Adjustable Speed Pumping Applications (January 2007) (276.35 KB) More Documents & Publications Control Strategies for Centrifugal Pumps with Variable Flow Rate Requirements Adjustable Speed Drive Part-Load Efficiency Improving Pumping System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry - Second

  3. ELECTRON EMISSION REGULATING MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Brenholdt, I.R.

    1957-11-19

    >An electronic regulating system is described for controlling the electron emission of a cathode, for example, the cathode in a mass spectrometer. The system incorporates a transformer having a first secondary winding for the above-mentioned cathode and a second secondary winding for the above-mentioned cathode and a second secondary winding load by grid controlled vacuum tubes. A portion of the electron current emitted by the cathode is passed through a network which develops a feedback signal. The system arrangement is completed by using the feedback signal to control the vacuum tubes in the second secondary winding through a regulator tube. When a change in cathode emission occurs, the feedback signal acts to correct this change by adjusting the load on the transformer.

  4. Ergonomic evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard

    SciTech Connect

    Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Shih, M.; Rempel, D.

    1994-05-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard based on subjective preference and observed joint angles during typing. Thirty five keyboard users were asked to use the Apple adjustable keyboard for 7--14 days and rate the various characteristics of the keyboard. Our findings suggest that the most preferred opening angles range from 11--20{degree}. The mean ulnar deviation on the Apple Adjustable keyboard is 11{degree}, compared to 16{degree} on the standard keyboard. The mean extension was decreased from 24{degree} to 16{degree} when using the adjustable keyboard. When asked to subjectively rate the adjustable keyboard in comparison to the standard, the average subject felt that the Apple Adjustable Keyboard was more comfortable and easier to use than the standard flat keyboard.

  5. Florida Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Florida Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion ... Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments Florida Dry Natural Gas Proved ...

  6. West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments ... Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Proved Reserves Dry ...

  7. Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion ... Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments Virginia Dry Natural Gas Proved ...

  8. Kansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Kansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion ... Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments Kansas Dry Natural Gas Proved ...

  9. New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) New York Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion ... Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments New York Dry Natural Gas Proved ...

  10. New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion ... Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments New Mexico Dry Natural Gas Proved ...

  11. North Dakota Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) North Dakota Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments ... Referring Pages: Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments North Dakota Dry Natural Gas Proved ...

  12. ARM - Evaluation Product - Sonde-Adjust

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsSonde-Adjust ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Documentation Use the Data File Inventory tool to view data availability at the file level. Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Sonde-Adjust The sonde-adjust VAP produces data that corrects documented biases in radiosonde humidity measurements. Unique fields contained within this datastream include smoothed original relative humidity, dry bias corrected relative

  13. Adjustable Speed Drive Part-Load Efficiency

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    An adjustable speed drive (ASD) is a device that controls the rotational speed of motor-driven equipment. Variable frequency drives (VFDs), the most common type of ASDs, efficiently meet varying process requirements by adjusting the frequency and voltage of the power supplied to an AC motor to enable it to operate over a wide speed range. External sensors monitor flow, liquid levels, or pressure and then transmit a signal to a controller that adjusts the frequency and speed to match process requirements.

  14. Adjusted Estimates of Texas Natural Gas Production

    Reports and Publications

    2005-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is adjusting its estimates of natural gas production in Texas for 2004 and 2005 to correctly account for carbon dioxide (CO2) production.

  15. A Community Emissions Data System (CEDS) for Historical Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Zhou, Yuyu; Kyle, G. Page; Wang, Hailong; Yu, Hongbin

    2015-04-21

    Historical emission estimates for anthropogenic aerosol and precursor compounds are key data needed for Earth system models, climate models, and atmospheric chemistry and transport models; both for general analysis and assessment and also for model validation through comparisons with observations. Current global emission data sets have a number of shortcomings, including timeliness and transparency. Satellite and other earth-system data are increasingly available in near real-time, but global emission estimates lag by 5-10 years. The CEDS project will construct a data-driven, open source framework to produce annually updated emission estimates. The basic methodologies to be used for this system have been used for SO2 (Smith et al. 2011, Klimont, Smith and Cofala 2013), and are designed to complement existing inventory efforts. The goal of this system is to consistently extend current emission estimates both forward in time to recent years and also back over the entire industrial era. The project will produce improved datasets for global and (potentially) regional model, allow analysis of trends across time, countries, and sectors of emissions and emission factors, and facilitate improved scientific analysis in general. Consistent estimation of uncertainty will be an integral part of this system. This effort will facilitate community evaluation of emissions and further emission-related research more generally.

  16. Magnetic bearing element with adjustable stiffness

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F

    2013-11-12

    A compact magnetic bearing element is provided which is made of permanent magnet discs configured to be capable of the adjustment of the bearing stiffness and levitation force over a wide range.

  17. Adjustable Portable Tensile Testing Machine | Princeton Plasma...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Adjustable Portable Tensile Testing Machine Thise invention describes a load-testing device that allows users to apply a load or force to any item. Additionally, this device allows...

  18. Emissions-critical charge cooling using an organic rankine cycle

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-07-15

    The disclosure provides a system including a Rankine power cycle cooling subsystem providing emissions-critical charge cooling of an input charge flow. The system includes a boiler fluidly coupled to the input charge flow, an energy conversion device fluidly coupled to the boiler, a condenser fluidly coupled to the energy conversion device, a pump fluidly coupled to the condenser and the boiler, an adjuster that adjusts at least one parameter of the Rankine power cycle subsystem to change a temperature of the input charge exiting the boiler, and a sensor adapted to sense a temperature characteristic of the vaporized input charge. The system includes a controller that can determine a target temperature of the input charge sufficient to meet or exceed predetermined target emissions and cause the adjuster to adjust at least one parameter of the Rankine power cycle to achieve the predetermined target emissions.

  19. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G. A.; O'Donoughue, P.; Vorum, M.

    2012-04-01

    This systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessments (LCAs) of utility-scale coal-fired electricity generation systems focuses on reducing variability and clarifying central tendencies in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening 270 references for quality LCA methods, transparency, and completeness yielded 53 that reported 164 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. These estimates for subcritical pulverized, integrated gasification combined cycle, fluidized bed, and supercritical pulverized coal combustion technologies vary from 675 to 1,689 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh) (interquartile range [IQR]= 890-1,130 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh; median = 1,001) leading to confusion over reasonable estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from coal-fired electricity generation. By adjusting published estimates to common gross system boundaries and consistent values for key operational input parameters (most importantly, combustion carbon dioxide emission factor [CEF]), the meta-analytical process called harmonization clarifies the existing literature in ways useful for decision makers and analysts by significantly reducing the variability of estimates ({approx}53% in IQR magnitude) while maintaining a nearly constant central tendency ({approx}2.2% in median). Life cycle GHG emissions of a specific power plant depend on many factors and can differ from the generic estimates generated by the harmonization approach, but the tightness of distribution of harmonized estimates across several key coal combustion technologies implies, for some purposes, first-order estimates of life cycle GHG emissions could be based on knowledge of the technology type, coal mine emissions, thermal efficiency, and CEF alone without requiring full LCAs. Areas where new research is necessary to ensure accuracy are also discussed.

  20. Quantifying the impact of sub-grid surface wind variability on sea salt and dust emissions in CAM5

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Chun; Wan, Hui; Qian, Yun; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Sakaguchi, Koichi; Liu, Xiaohong

    2016-02-12

    default model. By tuning the globally constant dust emission scale factor, the global annual mean dust emission, aerosol optical depth, and top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes can be adjusted to the level of the default model, but the frequency distribution of dust emission changes, with more contribution from weaker wind events and less contribution from stronger wind events. Lastly, in Africa and Asia, the overall frequencies of occurrence of dust emissions increase, and the seasonal variations are enhanced, while the geographical patterns of the emission frequency show little change.« less

  1. Methods for automatic trigger threshold adjustment

    DOEpatents

    Welch, Benjamin J; Partridge, Michael E

    2014-03-18

    Methods are presented for adjusting trigger threshold values to compensate for drift in the quiescent level of a signal monitored for initiating a data recording event, thereby avoiding false triggering conditions. Initial threshold values are periodically adjusted by re-measuring the quiescent signal level, and adjusting the threshold values by an offset computation based upon the measured quiescent signal level drift. Re-computation of the trigger threshold values can be implemented on time based or counter based criteria. Additionally, a qualification width counter can be utilized to implement a requirement that a trigger threshold criterion be met a given number of times prior to initiating a data recording event, further reducing the possibility of a false triggering situation.

  2. Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training Grant Program (TAACCCT) Energy and Manufacturing Awards and Topics List Trade Adjustment Assistance Community ...

  3. ,"Florida Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Florida Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments ... 10:36:44 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Florida Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments ...

  4. U.S. Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion ... Release Date: 11192015 Next Release Date: 12312016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane ...

  5. SEP Request for Approval Form 4 - Alternative Adjustment Model...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Adjustment Model Application Methodology SEP Request for Approval Form 4 - Alternative Adjustment Model Application Methodology SEP-Request-for-Approval-Form-4Alternati...

  6. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Methane Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    3. Methane Emissions 3.1. Total emissions The major sources of U.S. methane emissions are energy production, distribution, and use; agriculture; and waste management (Figure 17). U.S. methane emissions in 2009 totaled 731 MMTCO2e, 0.9 percent higher than the 2008 total of 724 MMTCO2e (Table 17). Methane emissions declined steadily from 1990 to 2001, as emissions from coal mining and landfills fell, then rose from 2002 to 2009 as a result of moderate increases in emissions related to energy,

  7. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    4. Nitrous Oxide Emissions 4.1 Total emissions U.S. nitrous oxide emissions in 2009 were 4 MMTCO2e (1.7 percent) below their 2008 total (Table 22). Sources of U.S. nitrous oxide emissions include agriculture, energy use, industrial processes, and waste management (Figure 22). The largest source is agriculture (73 percent), and the majority of agricultural emissions result from nitrogen fertilization of agricultural soils (87 percent of the agriculture total) and management of animal waste (13

  8. Article mounting and position adjustment stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved adjustment and mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A ring sensor holder has locating pins on a first side thereof which are positioned within a linear keyway in a surrounding housing for permitting reciprocal movement of the ring along the keyway. A rotatable ring gear is positioned within the housing on the other side of the ring from the linear keyway and includes an oval keyway which drives the ring along the linear keyway upon rotation of the gear. Motor-driven single-stage and dual (x, y) stage adjustment systems are disclosed which are of compact construction and include a large laser transmission hole.

  9. Article mounting and position adjustment stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, R.W.; Silva, L.L.

    1988-05-10

    An improved adjustment and mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A ring sensor holder has locating pins on a first side thereof which are positioned within a linear keyway in a surrounding housing for permitting reciprocal movement of the ring along the keyway. A rotatable ring gear is positioned within the housing on the other side of the ring from the linear keyway and includes an oval keyway which drives the ring along the linear keyway upon rotation of the gear. Motor-driven single-stage and dual (x, y) stage adjustment systems are disclosed which are of compact construction and include a large laser transmission hole. 6 figs.

  10. SEP Request for Approval Form 4 - Alternative Adjustment Model Application

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Methodology | Department of Energy 4 - Alternative Adjustment Model Application Methodology SEP Request for Approval Form 4 - Alternative Adjustment Model Application Methodology SEP-Request-for-Approval-Form-4_Alternative-Adjustment-Model-Application-Methodology.docx (35.81 KB) More Documents & Publications SEP Request for Approval Form 7 - Other Situations for Consumption Adjustment SEP Request for Approval Form 6 - Non-Routine Adjustments

  11. Fuel-based motor vehicle emission inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, B.C.; Harley, R.A.

    1996-06-01

    A fuel-based methodology for calculating motor vehicle emission inventories is presented. In the fuel-based method, emission factors are normalized to fuel consumption and expressed as grams of pollutant emitted per gallon of gasoline burned. Fleet-average emission factors are calculated from the measured on-road emissions of a large, random sample of vehicles. Using this method, a fuel-based motor vehicle CO inventory was calculated for the South Coast Air Basin in California for summer 1991. Emission factors were calculated from remote sensing measurements of more than 70,000 in-use vehicles. Results of the study are presented and a conclusion is provided. 40 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Remote control for anode-cathode adjustment

    DOEpatents

    Roose, Lars D.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely adjusting the anode-cathode gap in a pulse power machine has an electric motor located within a hollow cathode inside the vacuum chamber of the pulse power machine. Input information for controlling the motor for adjusting the anode-cathode gap is fed into the apparatus using optical waveguides. The motor, controlled by the input information, drives a worm gear that moves a cathode tip. When the motor drives in one rotational direction, the cathode is moved toward the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is diminished. When the motor drives in the other direction, the cathode is moved away from the anode and the size of the anode-cathode gap is increased. The motor is powered by batteries housed in the hollow cathode. The batteries may be rechargeable, and they may be recharged by a photovoltaic cell in combination with an optical waveguide that receives recharging energy from outside the hollow cathode. Alternatively, the anode-cathode gap can be remotely adjusted by a manually-turned handle connected to mechanical linkage which is connected to a jack assembly. The jack assembly converts rotational motion of the handle and mechanical linkage to linear motion of the cathode moving toward or away from the anode.

  13. Adjustments to the ICVGT scale of INRIM

    SciTech Connect

    Steur, P. P. M.; Giraudi, D.

    2013-09-11

    At the 8{sup th} Temperature Symposium the results have been presented for the Interpolating Constant Volume Gas thermometer at INRIM (then IMGC), featuring a cryogenic pressure transducer, with an expanded uncertainty of less then 1.5 mK. However, for its fixed points this scale still relied on a NPL calibration as carried by rhodium-iron thermometer 232324. After the clarification, in 2005, by the Consultative Committee on Thermometry (CCT) of the definition of the equilibrium hydrogen (e-H2) triple point this scale was due to be adjusted for the isotopic content in the e-H2 fixed point cell. Only when this thermometer was re-calibrated in 2010 at INRIM at the three fixed points of the ICVGT was this adjustment performed, being the isotopic composition of the hydrogen cell known. With the start of the Neon Project in 2005, it became clear that a second adjustment would soon be needed, once the CCT will have decided on the way to deal with the isotopic composition of neon. The paper presents the experimental data of 2010, discusses the stability of the thermometer, and the size of the correction at the hydrogen point and of the likely correction (and its uncertainty) to be applied to the neon point, the isotopic composition of this cell being known as well.

  14. Adjustable speed drives: Applications and R&D needs

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanovic, V.R.

    1995-09-01

    The largest opportunity for the growth of adjustable speed drives (ASDs) during the next 5-6 years is in pump, fan and compressor (PFC) applications where a constant, fixed speed operation is converted to adjustable speed in order to realize energy savings. Inverter supplied induction motors are and will continue to be predominately used in these applications. Over the long term (10-15 years), the greatest ASD growth is expected in large volume consumer applications: first in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs) and in residential heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC). Both induction and a variety of AC Permanent Magnet motors are expected to be the dominant technology in this new field. The traditional ASD applications in industries which require adjustable speed (such as machine tools, robotics, steel rolling, extruders, paper mill finishing lines, etc.) offer a relatively limited potential for above average ASD growth since most of these applications have already converted to electronic speed control. As a result, ASD growth in this sector will essentially track the growth of the corresponding industries. If realized, both short and long term ASD growth opportunities will result in significant advancements of ASD technology, which will then substantially affect all other, more fragmented, ASD applications. In fact, any single large volume ASD application will serve as a catalyst for improving ASD characteristics in all other ASD applications with the same voltage rating. ASD cost and reliability (defined in the context of application compatibility) are the two most important factors which will determine whether the ASD growth opportunities are realized. Conversely, any technological improvement which carries a cost increase will be restricted to niche applications, at best. Consequently, future R & D efforts should be directed to secure reduction in ASD cost and improvement in ASD reliability. A specific action plan is outlined in this report.

  15. Elliptically polarizing adjustable phase insertion device

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Roger

    1995-01-01

    An insertion device for extracting polarized electromagnetic energy from a beam of particles is disclosed. The insertion device includes four linear arrays of magnets which are aligned with the particle beam. The magnetic field strength to which the particles are subjected is adjusted by altering the relative alignment of the arrays in a direction parallel to that of the particle beam. Both the energy and polarization of the extracted energy may be varied by moving the relevant arrays parallel to the beam direction. The present invention requires a substantially simpler and more economical superstructure than insertion devices in which the magnetic field strength is altered by changing the gap between arrays of magnets.

  16. Adjustable expandable cryogenic piston and ring

    DOEpatents

    Mazur, Peter O.; Pallaver, Carl B.

    1980-01-01

    The operation of a reciprocating expansion engine for cryogenic refrigeration is improved by changing the pistons and rings so that the piston can be operated from outside the engine to vary the groove in which the piston ring is located. This causes the ring, which is of a flexible material, to be squeezed so that its contact with the wall is subject to external control. This control may be made manually or it may be made automatically in response to instruments that sense the amount of blow-by of the cryogenic fluid and adjust for an optimum blow-by.

  17. Time dependent particle emission from fission products (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Time dependent particle emission from fission products Decay heating following nuclear fission is an important factor in the design of nuclear facilities; impacting a ...

  18. Self-adjusting magnetic bearing systems

    DOEpatents

    Post, R.F.

    1998-07-21

    A self-adjusting magnetic bearing automatically adjusts the parameters of an axially unstable magnetic bearing such that its force balance is maintained near the point of metastable equilibrium. Complete stabilization can be obtained with the application of weak restoring forces either from a mechanical bearing (running at near-zero load, thus with reduced wear) or from the action of residual eddy currents in a snubber bearing. In one embodiment, a torque is generated by the approach of a slotted pole to a conducting plate. The torque actuates an assembly which varies the position of a magnetic shunt to change the force exerted by the bearing. Another embodiment achieves axial stabilization by sensing vertical displacements in a suspended bearing element, and using this information in an electrical servo system. In a third embodiment, as a rotating eddy current exciter approaches a stationary bearing, it heats a thermostat which actuates an assembly to weaken the attractive force between the two bearing elements. An improved version of an electromechanical battery utilizing the designs of the various embodiments is described. 7 figs.

  19. Adjustable electronic load-alarm relay

    DOEpatents

    Mason, Charles H.; Sitton, Roy S.

    1976-01-01

    This invention is an improved electronic alarm relay for monitoring the current drawn by an AC motor or other electrical load. The circuit is designed to measure the load with high accuracy and to have excellent alarm repeatability. Chattering and arcing of the relay contacts are minimal. The operator can adjust the set point easily and can re-set both the high and the low alarm points by means of one simple adjustment. The relay includes means for generating a signal voltage proportional to the motor current. In a preferred form of the invention a first operational amplifier is provided to generate a first constant reference voltage which is higher than a preselected value of the signal voltage. A second operational amplifier is provided to generate a second constant reference voltage which is lower than the aforementioned preselected value of the signal voltage. A circuit comprising a first resistor serially connected to a second resistor is connected across the outputs of the first and second amplifiers, and the junction of the two resistors is connected to the inverting terminal of the second amplifier. Means are provided to compare the aforementioned signal voltage with both the first and second reference voltages and to actuate an alarm if the signal voltage is higher than the first reference voltage or lower than the second reference voltage.

  20. Self-adjusting magnetic bearing systems

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    1998-01-01

    A self-adjusting magnetic bearing automatically adjusts the parameters of an axially unstable magnetic bearing such that its force balance is maintained near the point of metastable equilibrium. Complete stabilization can be obtained with the application of weak restoring forces either from a mechanical bearing (running at near-zero load, thus with reduced wear) or from the action of residual eddy currents in a snubber bearing. In one embodiment, a torque is generated by the approach of a slotted pole to a conducting plate. The torque actuates an assembly which varies the position of a magnetic shunt to change the force exerted by the bearing. Another embodiment achieves axial stabilization by sensing vertical displacements in a suspended bearing element, and using this information in an electrical servo system. In a third embodiment, as a rotating eddy current exciter approaches a stationary bearing, it heats a thermostat which actuates an assembly to weaken the attractive force between the two bearing elements. An improved version of an electromechanical battery utilizing the designs of the various embodiments is described.

  1. Radiation phantom with humanoid shape and adjustable thickness

    DOEpatents

    Lehmann, Joerg; Levy, Joshua; Stern, Robin L.; Siantar, Christine Hartmann; Goldberg, Zelanna

    2006-12-19

    A radiation phantom comprising a body with a general humanoid shape and at least a portion having an adjustable thickness. In one embodiment, the portion with an adjustable thickness comprises at least one tissue-equivalent slice.

  2. Field Emission and Nanostructure of Carbon Films

    SciTech Connect

    Merkulov, V.I.; Lowndes, D.H.; Baylor, L.R.

    1999-11-29

    The results of field emission measurements of various forms of carbon films are reported. It is shown that the films nanostructure is a crucial factor determining the field emission properties. In particular, smooth, pulsed-laser deposited amorphous carbon films with both high and low sp3 contents are poor field emitters. This is similar to the results obtained for smooth nanocrystalline, sp2-bonded carbon films. In contrast, carbon films prepared by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HE-CVD) exhibit very good field emission properties, including low emission turn-on fields, high emission site density, and excellent durability. HF-CVD carbon films were found to be predominantly sp2-bonded. However, surface morphology studies show that these films are thoroughly nanostructured, which is believed to be responsible for their promising field emission properties.

  3. Adjustable Speed Pumping Applications - Pumping Systems Tip Sheet #11

    SciTech Connect

    2007-01-01

    This two-page tip sheet provides practical tips on application of Adjustable Speed Drives in industrial settings.

  4. Nebraska Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Million Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) Nebraska Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) No Data Available For This Series - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments

  5. Diesel Emission Control Review

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reviews regulatory requirements and technology approaches for diesel emission control for heavy and light duty applications

  6. Vehicle Emissions Review- 2012

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reviews vehicle emission control highlighting representative studies that illustrate the state-of-the-art

  7. Permanent-magnet multipole with adjustable strength

    DOEpatents

    Halbach, K.

    1982-09-20

    Two or more magnetically soft pole pieces are symmetrically positioned along a longitudinal axis to provide a magnetic field within a space defined by the pole pieces. Two or more permanent magnets are mounted to an external magnetically-soft cylindrical sleeve which rotates to bring the permanent magnets into closer coupling with the pole pieces and thereby adjustably control the field strength of the magnetic field produced in the space defined by the pole pieces. The permanent magnets are preferably formed of rare earth cobalt (REC) material which has a high remanent magnetic field and a strong coercive force. The pole pieces and the permanent magnets have corresponding cylindrical surfaces which are positionable with respect to each other to vary the coupling there between. Auxiliary permanent magnets are provided between the pole pieces to provide additional magnetic flux to the magnetic field without saturating the pole pieces.

  8. Elliptically polarizing adjustable phase insertion device

    DOEpatents

    Carr, R.

    1995-01-17

    An insertion device for extracting polarized electromagnetic energy from a beam of particles is disclosed. The insertion device includes four linear arrays of magnets which are aligned with the particle beam. The magnetic field strength to which the particles are subjected is adjusted by altering the relative alignment of the arrays in a direction parallel to that of the particle beam. Both the energy and polarization of the extracted energy may be varied by moving the relevant arrays parallel to the beam direction. The present invention requires a substantially simpler and more economical superstructure than insertion devices in which the magnetic field strength is altered by changing the gap between arrays of magnets. 3 figures.

  9. Permanent magnet multipole with adjustable strength

    DOEpatents

    Halbach, Klaus

    1985-01-01

    Two or more magnetically soft pole pieces are symmetrically positioned along a longitudinal axis to provide a magnetic field within a space defined by the pole pieces. Two or more permanent magnets are mounted to an external magnetically-soft cylindrical sleeve which rotates to bring the permanent magnets into closer coupling with the pole pieces and thereby adjustably control the field strength of the magnetic field produced in the space defined by the pole pieces. The permanent magnets are preferably formed of rare earth cobalt (REC) material which has a high remanent magnetic field and a strong coercive force. The pole pieces and the permanent magnets have corresponding cylindrical surfaces which are positionable with respect to each other to vary the coupling therebetween. Auxiliary permanent magnets are provided between the pole pieces to provide additional magnetic flux to the magnetic field without saturating the pole pieces.

  10. Compact high precision adjustable beam defining aperture

    DOEpatents

    Morton, Simon A; Dickert, Jeffrey

    2013-07-02

    The present invention provides an adjustable aperture for limiting the dimension of a beam of energy. In an exemplary embodiment, the aperture includes (1) at least one piezoelectric bender, where a fixed end of the bender is attached to a common support structure via a first attachment and where a movable end of the bender is movable in response to an actuating voltage applied to the bender and (2) at least one blade attached to the movable end of the bender via a second attachment such that the blade is capable of impinging upon the beam. In an exemplary embodiment, the beam of energy is electromagnetic radiation. In an exemplary embodiment, the beam of energy is X-rays.

  11. Adjustable shear stress erosion and transport flume

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Jepsen, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring the total erosion rate and downstream transport of suspended and bedload sediments using an adjustable shear stress erosion and transport (ASSET) flume with a variable-depth sediment core sample. Water is forced past a variable-depth sediment core sample in a closed channel, eroding sediments, and introducing suspended and bedload sediments into the flow stream. The core sample is continuously pushed into the flow stream, while keeping the surface level with the bottom of the channel. Eroded bedload sediments are transported downstream and then gravitationally separated from the flow stream into one or more quiescent traps. The captured bedload sediments (particles and aggregates) are weighed and compared to the total mass of sediment eroded, and also to the concentration of sediments suspended in the flow stream.

  12. Remote adjustable focus Raman spectroscopy probe

    DOEpatents

    Schmucker, John E.; Blasi, Raymond J.; Archer, William B.

    1999-01-01

    A remote adjustable focus Raman spectroscopy probe allows for analyzing Raman scattered light from a point of interest external probe. An environmental barrier including at least one window separates the probe from the point of interest. An optical tube is disposed adjacent to the environmental barrier and includes a long working length compound lens objective next to the window. A beam splitter and a mirror are at the other end. A mechanical means is used to translated the prove body in the X, Y, and Z directions resulting in a variable focus optical apparatus. Laser light is reflected by the beam splitter and directed toward the compound lens objective, then through the window and focused on the point of interest. Raman scattered light is then collected by the compound lens objective and directed through the beam splitter to a mirror. A device for analyzing the light, such as a monochrometer, is coupled to the mirror.

  13. Scheme for rapid adjustment of network impedance

    DOEpatents

    Vithayathil, John J.

    1991-01-01

    A static controlled reactance device is inserted in series with an AC electric power transmission line to adjust its transfer impedance. An inductor (reactor) is serially connected with two back-to-back connected thyristors which control the conduction period and hence the effective reactance of the inductor. Additional reactive elements are provided in parallel with the thyristor controlled reactor to filter harmonics and to obtain required range of variable reactance. Alternatively, the static controlled reactance device discussed above may be connected to the secondary winding of a series transformer having its primary winding connected in series to the transmission line. In a three phase transmission system, the controlled reactance device may be connected in delta configuration on the secondary side of the series transformer to eliminate triplen harmonics.

  14. Adjustable flow rate controller for polymer solutions

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Kenneth M.

    1981-01-01

    An adjustable device for controlling the flow rate of polymer solutions which results in only little shearing of the polymer molecules, said device comprising an inlet manifold, an outlet manifold, a plurality of tubes capable of providing communication between said inlet and outlet manifolds, said tubes each having an internal diameter that is smaller than that of the inlet manifold and large enough to insure that viscosity of the polymer solution passing through each said tube will not be reduced more than about 25 percent, and a valve associated with each tube, said valve being capable of opening or closing communication in that tube between the inlet and outlet manifolds, each said valve when fully open having a diameter that is substantially at least as great as that of the tube with which it is associated.

  15. Active Diesel Emission Control Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conferencen Presentation: RYPOS Active Diesel Emission Control Systems

  16. Exhaust emission control and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, Christopher John; Upadhyay, Devesh

    2006-11-14

    A diesel engine emission control system uses an upstream oxidation catalyst and a downstream SCR catalyst to reduce NOx in a lean exhaust gas environment. The engine and upstream oxidation catalyst are configured to provide approximately a 1:1 ratio of NO to NO2 entering the downstream catalyst. In this way, the downstream catalyst is insensitive to sulfur contamination, and also has improved overall catalyst NOx conversion efficiency. Degradation of the system is determined when the ratio provided is no longer near the desired 1:1 ratio. This condition is detected using measurements of engine operating conditions such as from a NOx sensor located downstream of the catalysts. Finally, control action to adjust an injected amount of reductant in the exhaust gas based on the actual NO to NO2 ratio upstream of the SCR catalyst and downstream of the oxidation catalyst.

  17. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Utility-Scale Wind Power: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, S. L.; Heath, G. A.

    2012-04-01

    A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale wind power systems was performed to determine the causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening of approximately 240 LCAs of onshore and offshore systems yielded 72 references meeting minimum thresholds for quality, transparency, and relevance. Of those, 49 references provided 126 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. Published estimates ranged from 1.7 to 81 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), with median and interquartile range (IQR) both at 12 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh. After adjusting the published estimates to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the total range was reduced by 47% to 3.0 to 45 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh and the IQR was reduced by 14% to 10 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, while the median remained relatively constant (11 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh). Harmonization of capacity factor resulted in the largest reduction in variability in life cycle GHG emission estimates. This study concludes that the large number of previously published life cycle GHG emission estimates of wind power systems and their tight distribution suggest that new process-based LCAs of similar wind turbine technologies are unlikely to differ greatly. However, additional consequential LCAs would enhance the understanding of true life cycle GHG emissions of wind power (e.g., changes to other generators operations when wind electricity is added to the grid), although even those are unlikely to fundamentally change the comparison of wind to other electricity generation sources.

  18. Emissions from US waste collection vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Maimoun, Mousa A.; Reinhart, Debra R.; Gammoh, Fatina T.; McCauley Bush, Pamela

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Life-cycle emissions for alternative fuel technologies. ► Fuel consumption of alternative fuels for waste collection vehicles. ► Actual driving cycle of waste collection vehicles. ► Diesel-fueled waste collection vehicle emissions. - Abstract: This research is an in-depth environmental analysis of potential alternative fuel technologies for waste collection vehicles. Life-cycle emissions, cost, fuel and energy consumption were evaluated for a wide range of fossil and bio-fuel technologies. Emission factors were calculated for a typical waste collection driving cycle as well as constant speed. In brief, natural gas waste collection vehicles (compressed and liquid) fueled with North-American natural gas had 6–10% higher well-to-wheel (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to diesel-fueled vehicles; however the pump-to-wheel (PTW) GHG emissions of natural gas waste collection vehicles averaged 6% less than diesel-fueled vehicles. Landfill gas had about 80% lower WTW GHG emissions relative to diesel. Biodiesel waste collection vehicles had between 12% and 75% lower WTW GHG emissions relative to diesel depending on the fuel source and the blend. In 2011, natural gas waste collection vehicles had the lowest fuel cost per collection vehicle kilometer travel. Finally, the actual driving cycle of waste collection vehicles consists of repetitive stops and starts during waste collection; this generates more emissions than constant speed driving.

  19. Resonance Parameter Adjustment Based on Integral Experiments

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Sobes, Vladimir; Leal, Luiz; Arbanas, Goran; Forget, Benoit

    2016-06-02

    Our project seeks to allow coupling of differential and integral data evaluation in a continuous-energy framework and to use the generalized linear least-squares (GLLS) methodology in the TSURFER module of the SCALE code package to update the parameters of a resolved resonance region evaluation. We recognize that the GLLS methodology in TSURFER is identical to the mathematical description of a Bayesian update in SAMMY, the SAMINT code was created to use the mathematical machinery of SAMMY to update resolved resonance parameters based on integral data. Traditionally, SAMMY used differential experimental data to adjust nuclear data parameters. Integral experimental data, suchmore » as in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments Project, remain a tool for validation of completed nuclear data evaluations. SAMINT extracts information from integral benchmarks to aid the nuclear data evaluation process. Later, integral data can be used to resolve any remaining ambiguity between differential data sets, highlight troublesome energy regions, determine key nuclear data parameters for integral benchmark calculations, and improve the nuclear data covariance matrix evaluation. Moreover, SAMINT is not intended to bias nuclear data toward specific integral experiments but should be used to supplement the evaluation of differential experimental data. Using GLLS ensures proper weight is given to the differential data.« less

  20. Carbon Emissions: Food Industry

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Food Industry Carbon Emissions in the Food Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 20) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 24.4 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct....

  1. Louisiana--South Onshore Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana--South Onshore Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 0 2 91 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  2. Michigan Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Michigan Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -167 2010's 305 31 -98 -74 -41 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  3. Mississippi (with State off) Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Cubic Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Mississippi (with State off) Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 21 23 -26 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  4. Montana Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 11 -30 17 10 -3 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Reserves Adjustments

  5. Montana Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 8 2010's 40 14 -7 -4 196 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  6. New Mexico Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -9 2010's 261 -170 56 41 701 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Reserves Adjustments

  7. Arkansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 1 0 0 0 1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Reserves Adjustments

  8. Arkansas Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 2 2010's 63 655 -754 7 -21 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  9. California (with State off) Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Cubic Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) California (with State off) Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 1 1 -1 -710 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  10. Colorado Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 106 73 181 75 66 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Reserves Adjustments

  11. Wyoming Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -4 2010's 329 98 -32 -84 -50 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Reserves Adjustments

  12. New Mexico Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 10 2010's 3 69 45 18 113 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  13. North Dakota Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) North Dakota Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 101 2010's 235 20 253 -72 719 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  14. Ohio Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Ohio Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 0 16 53 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  15. Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1 2010's 27 27 764 -200 160 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Reserves Adjustments

  16. Oklahoma Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1 2010's 713 216 393 -253 1,619 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  17. Pennsylvania Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's -1 1 120 68 8 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Reserves Adjustments

  18. Pennsylvania Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 450 2010's 235 253 -63 953 3,760 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  19. Utah Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 8 9 7 -3 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Reserves Adjustments

  20. Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 1 26 49 -12 341 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Reserves Adjustments

  1. Virginia Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's -1 3 14 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  2. Colorado Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1 2010's -1 0 31 49 3,649 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  3. Kansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Kansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -3 2010's -22 -6 53 -35 -24 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Reserves Adjustments

  4. Kansas Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Kansas Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 0 0 8 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  5. Kentucky Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Kentucky Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 6 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Reserves Adjustments

  6. Kentucky Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Kentucky Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -1 2010's -1 0 0 0 2 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  7. Wyoming Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1 2010's -1 0 0 1,167 -645 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  8. 2007-2009 Power Rate Adjustments (pbl/rates)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Function Review (PFR) Firstgov FY 2007 2009 Power Rate Adjustments BPA's 2007-2009 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions (GRSPs) took effect on...

  9. Future Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Pitcher, Hugh M.; Wigley, Tom M.

    2005-12-01

    The importance of sulfur dioxide emissions for climate change is now established, although substantial uncertainties remain. This paper presents projections for future sulfur dioxide emissions using the MiniCAM integrated assessment model. A new income-based parameterization for future sulfur dioxide emissions controls is developed based on purchasing power parity (PPP) income estimates and historical trends related to the implementation of sulfur emissions limitations. This parameterization is then used to produce sulfur dioxide emissions trajectories for the set of scenarios developed for the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). We use the SRES methodology to produce harmonized SRES scenarios using the latest version of the MiniCAM model. The implications, and requirements, for IA modeling of sulfur dioxide emissions are discussed. We find that sulfur emissions eventually decline over the next century under a wide set of assumptions. These emission reductions result from a combination of emission controls, the adoption of advanced electric technologies, and a shift away from the direct end use of coal with increasing income levels. Only under a scenario where incomes in developing regions increase slowly do global emission levels remain at close to present levels over the next century. Under a climate policy that limits emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide emissions fall in a relatively narrow range. In all cases, the relative climatic effect of sulfur dioxide emissions decreases dramatically to a point where sulfur dioxide is only a minor component of climate forcing by the end of the century. Ecological effects of sulfur dioxide, however, could be significant in some developing regions for many decades to come.

  10. Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    M. Aslam K. Khalil

    2009-07-16

    This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small

  11. Many-Group Cross-Section Adjustment Techniques for Boiling Water Reactor Adaptive Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Jessee, Matthew Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Computational capability has been developed to adjust multigroup neutron cross sections, including self-shielding correction factors, to improve the fidelity of boiling water reactor (BWR) core modeling and simulation. The method involves propagating multigroup neutron cross-section uncertainties through various BWR computational models to evaluate uncertainties in key core attributes such as core k{sub eff}, nodal power distributions, thermal margins, and in-core detector readings. Uncertainty-based inverse theory methods are then employed to adjust multigroup cross sections to minimize the disagreement between BWR core modeling predictions and observed (i.e., measured) plant data. For this paper, observed plant data are virtually simulated in the form of perturbed three-dimensional nodal power distributions with the perturbations sized to represent actual discrepancies between predictions and real plant data. The major focus of this work is to efficiently propagate multigroup neutron cross-section uncertainty through BWR lattice physics and core simulator calculations. The data adjustment equations are developed using a subspace approach that exploits the ill-conditioning of the multigroup cross-section covariance matrix to minimize computation and storage burden. Tikhonov regularization is also employed to improve the conditioning of the data adjustment equations. Expressions are also provided for posterior covariance matrices of both the multigroup cross-section and core attributes uncertainties.

  12. Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC) for the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF)

    SciTech Connect

    BATES, J.A.

    2000-05-01

    This NOC application is provided to update the description of amounts of material handled, and to update the calculation of potential for emissions and resultant calculation of offsite TEDE. This NOC also includes an updated description of the various emission units at WSCF, including use of portable tanks to receive and remove liquid waste contaminated with low levels of radioactive contamination. The resultant, adjusted estimate for TEDE to the hypothetical MEI due to all combined unabated emissions from WSCF is 1.4 E-02 millirem per year. The total adjusted estimate for all combined abated emissions is 2.8 E-03 millirem per year. No single emission unit at the WSCF Complex exceeds a potential (unabated) offsite dose of 2.7 E-03 millirem per year.

  13. Vehicle Emissions Review- 2011

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reviews regulatory requirements and general technology approaches for heavy- and light-duty vehicle emissions control - filter technology, new catalysts, NOx control, diesel oxidation catalysts, gasoline particulate filters

  14. Carbon Emissions: Paper Industry

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Btu Renewable Energy Sources (no net emissions): -- Pulping liquor: 882 trillion Btu -- Wood chips and bark: 389 trillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994...

  15. Biological Air Emissions Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Air quality standards are becoming more stringent for the U.S. wood products industry. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) (including methanol,...

  16. Field emission chemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Panitz, J.A.

    1983-11-22

    A field emission chemical sensor for specific detection of a chemical entity in a sample includes a closed chamber enclosing two field emission electrode sets, each field emission electrode set comprising (a) an electron emitter electrode from which field emission electrons can be emitted when an effective voltage is connected to the electrode set; and (b) a collector electrode which will capture said electrons emitted from said emitter electrode. One of the electrode sets is passive to the chemical entity and the other is active thereto and has an active emitter electrode which will bind the chemical entity when contacted therewith.

  17. Secondary Emission Calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, David Roberts

    2015-03-24

    This report describes R&D on a new type of calorimeter using secondary emission to measure the energy of radiation, particularly high energy particles.

  18. U.S. Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1,690 2010's 7,579 1,584 526 4,855 12,113 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  19. Louisiana--North Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana--North Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 131 2010's 2,347 -172 241 70 57 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  20. Lower 48 States Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Lower 48 States Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -14 2010's 784 -15 1,327 -309 1,796 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Reserves Adjustments

  1. Michigan Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Million Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) Michigan Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -1 2010's 0 0 1 -11 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments

  2. Miscellaneous States Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Cubic Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1 2010's 2 3 -2 13 -12 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Reserves Adjustments

  3. Miscellaneous States Shale Gas Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Shale Gas Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 23 2010's 0 49 5 0 119 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  4. Montana Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Million Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) Montana Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 0 0 2 -1 1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments

  5. Alabama (with State Offshore) Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Alabama (with State Offshore) Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 61 -45 21 -166 641 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Reserves Adjustments

  6. Arkansas Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Million Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) Arkansas Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 1 0 -1 -1 1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments

  7. Colorado Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Million Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) Colorado Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 4 -1 1 -2 -67 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments

  8. Wyoming Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Million Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) Wyoming Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 7 2010's 8 -6 -2 0 2 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments

  9. Oklahoma Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Million Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) Oklahoma Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 14 -8 -11 -11 -5 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments

  10. Texas (with State Offshore) Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas (with State Offshore) Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 0 0 92 -16 -37 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Reserves Adjustments

  11. Texas (with State Offshore) Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Cubic Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas (with State Offshore) Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 990 2010's 2,940 450 446 1,694 518 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  12. Utah Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Million Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) Utah Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 2 2010's 3 -3 2 -19 -3 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments

  13. West Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 0 -1 1 0 -2 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Reserves Adjustments

  14. West Virginia Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 140 2010's 701 -2 13 1,257 2,638 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  15. Florida Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Million Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) Florida Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 1 -1 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments

  16. Kansas Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Million Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) Kansas Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 0 0 0 -1 -1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments

  17. Kentucky Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Million Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) Kentucky Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -1 2010's 0 1 -1 0 -1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments

  18. Louisiana (with State Offshore) Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Cubic Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana (with State Offshore) Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 131 2010's 2,347 -172 241 72 148 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  19. Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zohner, Steven K

    2000-05-01

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  20. UAI-96R Rate Adjustment (rates/ratecases)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    adjustment was to correct the level of the UAI to reflect the development of a robust wholesale power market and its associated price volatility. After final approval by the...

  1. Support assembly having three dimension position adjustment capabilities

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; House, F. Allen

    1987-01-01

    An assembly for supporting an apparatus such as a microscope or laser to and against a planar surface is disclosed herein. This apparatus includes three specific arrangements for adjusting the positions of three segments of the apparatus so as to adjust the position of the overall apparatus with respect to the planar surface in the x-, y-and z-directions, where the x-direction and the y-direction are both parallel with the planar surface and perpendicular to one another and where the z-direction is perpendicular to the planar surface and the x-and y-directions. Each of two of the three arrangements includes its own means for providing x-, y- and z-adjustments (which includes rotation in the x, y plane) while it is only necessary for the third arrangement to provide adjustments in the z-direction.

  2. Support assembly having three dimension position adjustment capabilities

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, R.W.; House, F.A.

    1985-11-08

    An assembly for supporting an apparatus such as a microscope or laser to and against a planer surface is disclosed herein. This apparatus includes three specific arrangements for adjusting the positions of three segments of the apparatus so as to adjust the position of the overall apparatus with respect to the planer surface in the x-, y- and z-directions, where the x-direction and the y-direction are both parallel with the planer surface and perpendicular to one another and where the z-direction is perpendicular to the planer surface and the x- and y-directions. Each of two of the three arrangements includes its own means for providing x-, y- and z-adjustments (which includes rotation in the x, y plane) while it is only necessary for the third arrangement to provide adjustments in the z-direction.

  3. FPS-96R Rate Adjustment (rates/ratecases)

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Final Firm Power Products and Services (FPS-96R) Rate Adjustment In August 1999, BPA proposed to correct errors in the Firm Power Products and Services rate schedule (FPS-96), and...

  4. Apparatus for a compact adjustable passive compliant mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Salisbury, Curt Michael

    2015-03-17

    Various technologies described herein pertain to an adjustable compliance apparatus. The adjustable compliance apparatus includes a shaft, a sleeve element, and a torsion spring. The sleeve element includes a bore there through, where the shaft is positioned through the bore of the sleeve element. Further, the torsion spring includes a plurality of coils, where the shaft is positioned through the plurality of coils. Moreover, the sleeve element is slidable in an axial direction along the shaft between the torsion spring and the shaft. Accordingly, compliance of the adjustable compliance apparatus is adjustable based on a number of the plurality of coils in contact with the sleeve element as positioned along the shaft within the torsion spring.

  5. Methane emissions from MBT landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Heyer, K.-U. Hupe, K.; Stegmann, R.

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Compilation of methane generation potential of mechanical biological treated (MBT) municipal solid waste. • Impacts and kinetics of landfill gas production of MBT landfills, approach with differentiated half-lives. • Methane oxidation in the waste itself and in soil covers. • Estimation of methane emissions from MBT landfills in Germany. - Abstract: Within the scope of an investigation for the German Federal Environment Agency (“Umweltbundesamt”), the basics for the estimation of the methane emissions from the landfilling of mechanically and biologically treated waste (MBT) were developed. For this purpose, topical research including monitoring results regarding the gas balance at MBT landfills was evaluated. For waste treated to the required German standards, a methane formation potential of approximately 18–24 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/t of total dry solids may be expected. Monitoring results from MBT landfills show that a three-phase model with differentiated half-lives describes the degradation kinetics in the best way. This is due to the fact that during the first years of disposal, the anaerobic degradation processes still proceed relatively intensively. In addition in the long term (decades), a residual gas production at a low level is still to be expected. Most of the soils used in recultivation layer systems at German landfills show a relatively high methane oxidation capacity up to 5 l CH{sub 4}/(m{sup 2} h). However, measurements at MBT disposal sites indicate that the majority of the landfill gas (in particular at non-covered areas), leaves the landfill body via preferred gas emission zones (hot spots) without significant methane oxidation. Therefore, rather low methane oxidation factors are recommended for open and temporarily covered MBT landfills. Higher methane oxidation rates can be achieved when the soil/recultivation layer is adequately designed and operated. Based on the elaborated default values, the First Order Decay (FOD

  6. Advanced Instrumentation for Positron Emission Tomography [PET

    DOE R&D Accomplishments

    Derenzo, S. E.; Budinger, T. F.

    1985-04-01

    This paper summarizes the physical processes and medical science goals that underlay modern instrumentation design for Positron Emission Tomography. The paper discusses design factors such as detector material, crystalphototube coupling, shielding geometry, sampling motion, electronics design, time-of-flight, and the interrelationships with quantitative accuracy, spatial resolution, temporal resolution, maximum data rates, and cost.

  7. Magnetically Coupled Adjustable Speed Motor Drives | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Magnetically Coupled Adjustable Speed Motor Drives Magnetically Coupled Adjustable Speed Motor Drives Alternating current electric motors rotate at a nearly constant speed that is determined by motor design and line frequency. Energy savings of 50% or more may be available when fixed speed systems are modified to allow the motor speed to match variable load requirements of a centrifugal fan or pump. This tip sheet describes the advantages of magnetically coupled ASDs and provides suggested

  8. Method for preparing membranes with adjustable separation performance

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Eric S.; Orme, Christopher J.; Stone, Mark L.

    1995-01-01

    Methods for adjustable separation of solutes and solvents involve the combination of the use of a maximally swollen membrane and subsequent vacuum depressurization exerted on the permeate side of that membrane. By adjusting the extent of depressurization it is possible to separate solvent from solutes and solutes from each other. Improved control of separation parameters as well as improved flux rates characterize the present invention.

  9. Method for preparing membranes with adjustable separation performance

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, E.S.; Orme, C.J.; Stone, M.L.

    1995-01-31

    Methods for adjustable separation of solutes and solvents involve the combination of the use of a maximally swollen membrane and subsequent vacuum depressurization exerted on the permeate side of that membrane. By adjusting the extent of depressurization it is possible to separate solvent from solutes and solutes from each other. Improved control of separation parameters as well as improved flux rates characterize the present invention. 2 figs.

  10. Louisiana--North Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Reserves Adjustments

  11. Montana Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Million Barrels) Montana Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 21 2010's -4 3 -7 -10 -1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

  12. Alabama (with State Offshore) Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Cubic Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  13. Alabama Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Million Barrels) Alabama Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 1 2010's 12 2 6 -12 11 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

  14. Alaska (with Total Offshore) Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Cubic Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  15. Alaska Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Million Barrels) Alaska Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 0 1 -1 1 1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

  16. Wyoming Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Million Barrels) Wyoming Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 19 2010's 25 21 -18 -10 109 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

  17. Ohio Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Reserves Adjustments

  18. Ohio Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Million Barrels) Ohio Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 8 2010's 22 3 -8 -14 -21 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

  19. Texas Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Million Barrels) Texas Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 21 2010's -72 145 239 -51 173 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

  20. Texas--State Offshore Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  1. Utah Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Million Barrels) Utah Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 2 2010's 13 -16 36 -17 -10 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

  2. Minimize Adverse Motor and Adjustable Speed Drive Interactions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Minimize Adverse Motor and Adjustable Speed Drive Interactions Electronic adjustable speed drives (ASDs) are extremely effcient and valuable assets to motor systems. They allow precise process control and provide energy savings within systems that do not need to operate continuously at full output. The most common ASD design sold today is the pulse-width-modulated (PWM) variable frequency drive (VFD) with a fast-rise-time insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) to reduce switching losses and

  3. Florida Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Million Barrels) Florida Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -1 2010's 2 -2 2 -1 -1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

  4. Indiana Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Million Barrels) Indiana Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -7 2010's 1 0 3 -4 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

  5. Kansas Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Million Barrels) Kansas Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 20 2010's 61 22 7 -35 -5 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

  6. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  7. On the impact of CO{sub 2} emission-trading on power generation emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Chappin, E.J.L.; Dijkema, G.P.J.

    2009-03-15

    In Europe one of the main policy instruments to meet the Kyoto reduction targets is CO{sub 2} emission-trading (CET), which was implemented as of January 2005. In this system, companies active in specific sectors must be in the possession of CO{sub 2} emission rights to an amount equal to their CO{sub 2} emission. In Europe, electricity generation accounts for one-third of CO{sub 2} emissions. Since the power generation sector has been liberalized, reregulated and privatized in the last decade, around Europe autonomous companies determine the sectors' CO{sub 2} emission. Short-term they adjust their operation, long-term they decide on (dis) investment in power generation facilities and technology selection. An agent-based model is presented to elucidate the effect of CET on the decisions of power companies in an oligopolistic market. Simulations over an extensive scenario-space show that there CET does have an impact. A long-term portfolio shift towards less-CO{sub 2} intensive power generation is observed. However, the effect of CET is relatively small and materializes late. The absolute emissions from power generation rise under most scenarios. This corresponds to the dominant character of current capacity expansion planned in the Netherlands (50%) and in Germany (68%), where companies have announced many new coal based power plants. Coal is the most CO{sub 2} intensive option available and it seems surprising that even after the introduction of CET these capacity expansion plans indicate a preference for coal. Apparently in power generation the economic effect of CO{sub 2} emission-trading is not sufficient to outweigh the economic incentives to choose for coal.

  8. Comparison of AB2588 multipathway risk factors for California fossil-fuel power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Gratt, L.B.; Levin, L.

    1997-12-31

    Substances released from power plants may travel through various exposure pathways resulting in human health and environmental risks. The stack air emission`s primary pathway is inhalation from the ambient air. Multipathway factors (adjustment factors to the inhalation risk) are used to evaluate the importance of non-inhalation pathways (such as ingestion and dermal contact). The multipathway factor for a specific substance is the health risk by all pathways divided by the inhalation health risk for that substance. These factors are compared for fossil fuel power stations that submitted regulatory risk assessments in compliance with California Toxic Hot Spots Act (AB2588). Substances representing the largest contributions to the cancer risk are of primary concern: arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium (+6), formaldehyde, nickel, lead, selenium, and PAHs. Comparisons of the chemical-specific multipathway factors show the impacts of regulatory policy decisions on the estimated health risk for trace substances. As an example, point estimates of the soil mixing depth, varying from 1 cm to 15 cm, relate to the relative importance of the pathway. For the deeper mixing depths, the root-zone uptake by homegrown tomato plants (for assumed consumption rate of 15% for San Diego) may result in high multipathway factors for several trace metals. For shallower mixing depths, soil ingestion may become the dominant non-inhalation pathway. These differences may lead to significantly different risk estimates for similar facilities located at different California locations such as to be under local regulatory authorities. The overall multipathway factor for the total cancer risk is about 2, much smaller than some of the chemical-specific factors. Science-based multipathway analysis should reduce much of the concern that may be due to policy-based decisions on pathway selection and high-value point-estimates of the parameters.

  9. MOBILE6 Vehicle Emission Modeling Software | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    tools User Interface: Desktop Application Website: www.epa.govomsm6.htm Cost: Free References: http:www.epa.govomsm6.htm MOBILE6 is an emission factor model for...

  10. Emission Abatement System

    DOEpatents

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander

    2003-05-13

    Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

  11. Progress Update: Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Update: Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits Progress Update: Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference ...

  12. The California Climate Action Registry: Development of methodologies for calculating greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Marnay, Chris; Sathaye, Jayant; Muritshaw, Scott; Fisher, Diane; Phadke, Amol; Franco, Guido

    2002-08-01

    The California Climate Action Registry, which will begin operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for California businesses and organizations to record annual greenhouse gas emissions. Reporting of emissions in the Registry by a participant involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and ''indirect'' emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is considered to be an indirect emission and must be included in the entity's report. Published electricity emissions factors for the State of California vary considerably due to differences in whether utility-owned out-of-state generation, non-utility generation, and electricity imports from other states are included. This paper describes the development of three methods for estimating electricity emissions factors for calculating the combined net carbon dioxide emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to Californians. We find that use of a statewide average electricity emissions factor could drastically under- or over-estimate an entity's emissions due to the differences in generating resources among the utility service areas and seasonal variations. In addition, differentiating between marginal and average emissions is essential to accurately estimate the carbon dioxide savings from reducing electricity use. Results of this work will be taken into consideration by the Registry when finalizing its guidance for use of electricity emissions factors in calculating an entity's greenhouse gas emissions.

  13. Photon enhanced thermionic emission

    DOEpatents

    Schwede, Jared; Melosh, Nicholas; Shen, Zhixun

    2014-10-07

    Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE) is exploited to provide improved efficiency for radiant energy conversion. A hot (greater than 200.degree. C.) semiconductor cathode is illuminated such that it emits electrons. Because the cathode is hot, significantly more electrons are emitted than would be emitted from a room temperature (or colder) cathode under the same illumination conditions. As a result of this increased electron emission, the energy conversion efficiency can be significantly increased relative to a conventional photovoltaic device. In PETE, the cathode electrons can be (and typically are) thermalized with respect to the cathode. As a result, PETE does not rely on emission of non-thermalized electrons, and is significantly easier to implement than hot-carrier emission approaches.

  14. Field emission electron source

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter; Cohen, Marvin Lou

    2000-01-01

    A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

  15. Combustion and Emissions Modeling

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion and Emissions Modeling This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. - Computational Fluid Dynamics Project Leader Background Modern transportation engines are designed to use the available fuel resources efficiently and minimize harmful emissions. Optimization of these designs is based on a wealth of practical design, construction and operating experiences, and use of modern testing facilities and sophisticated analyses of the combustion

  16. Study of Engine Operating Parameter Effects on GDI Engine Particle-Number Emissions

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Results show that fuel-injection timing is the dominant factor contributing to PN emissions from this wall-guided GDI engine.

  17. Concurrently adjusting interrelated control parameters to achieve optimal engine performance

    DOEpatents

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Methods and systems for real-time engine control optimization are provided. A value of an engine performance variable is determined, a value of a first operating condition and a value of a second operating condition of a vehicle engine are detected, and initial values for a first engine control parameter and a second engine control parameter are determined based on the detected first operating condition and the detected second operating condition. The initial values for the first engine control parameter and the second engine control parameter are adjusted based on the determined value of the engine performance variable to cause the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. In order to cause the engine performance variable to approach the target engine performance variable, adjusting the initial value for the first engine control parameter necessitates a corresponding adjustment of the initial value for the second engine control parameter.

  18. Performance of An Adjustable Strength Permanent Magnet Quadrupole

    SciTech Connect

    Gottschalk, S.C.; DeHart, T.E.; Kangas, K.W.; Spencer, C.M.; Volk, J.T.; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    An adjustable strength permanent magnet quadrupole suitable for use in Next Linear Collider has been built and tested. The pole length is 42cm, aperture diameter 13mm, peak pole tip strength 1.03Tesla and peak integrated gradient * length (GL) is 68.7 Tesla. This paper describes measurements of strength, magnetic CL and field quality made using an air bearing rotating coil system. The magnetic CL stability during -20% strength adjustment proposed for beam based alignment was < 0.2 microns. Strength hysteresis was negligible. Thermal expansion of quadrupole and measurement parts caused a repeatable and easily compensated change in the vertical magnetic CL. Calibration procedures as well as CL measurements made over a wider tuning range of 100% to 20% in strength useful for a wide range of applications will be described. The impact of eddy currents in the steel poles on the magnetic field during strength adjustments will be reported.

  19. Influence of emission threshold of explosive emission cathodes on current waveform in foilless diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, P.; Liu, G. Z.; Huo, S. F.; Sun, J.; Chen, C. H.

    2015-08-15

    The emission threshold of explosive emission cathodes (EECs) is an important factor for beam quality. It can affect the explosive emission delay time, the plasma expansion process on the cathode surface, and even the current amplitude when the current is not fully space-charge-limited. This paper researches the influence of the emission threshold of an annular EEC on the current waveform in a foilless diode when the current is measured by a Rogowski coil. The particle-in-cell simulation which is performed under some tolerable and necessary simplifications shows that the long explosive emission delay time of high-threshold cathodes may leave an apparent peak of displacement current on the rise edge of the current waveform, and this will occur only when the electron emission starts after this peak. The experimental researches, which are performed under a diode voltage of 1 MV and a repetitive frequency of 20 Hz, demonstrate that the graphite cathode has a lower emission threshold and a longer lifetime than the stainless steel cathode according to the variation of the peak of displacement current on the rise edge of the current waveform.

  20. Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Andres, Robert; Conception , Elvira; Lurz, Joshua

    2004-01-25

    A global, self-consistent estimate of sulfur dioxide emissions over the last one and a half century were estimated by using a combination of bottom-up and best available inventory methods including all anthropogenic sources. We find that global sulfur dioxide emissions peaked about 1980 and have generally declined since this time. Emissions were extrapolated to a 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} grid for the time period 1850-2000 at annual resolution with two emission height levels and by season. Emissions are somewhat higher in the recent past in this new work as compared with some comprehensive estimates. This difference is largely due to our use of emissions factors that vary with time to account for sulfur removals from fossil fuels and industrial smelting processes.

  1. Nonferrous industry particulate emissions: source category report. Final report, June 1983-August 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, M.; Minden, A.

    1986-12-01

    The report gives results of the development of particulate-emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the nonferrous industry. After a review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from nonferrous plants, the data were summarized and rated in terms of reliability. Size-specific emission factors were developed from these data for the major processes used in the manufacture of nonferrous metals. A detailed process description is presented with emphasis on factors affecting the generation of emissions. There were replacements for Sections 7.1 (Primary Aluminum Production), 7.3 (Primary Copper Smelting), 7.6 (Primary Lead Smelting), 7.7 (Primary Zinc Smelting), and 7.11 (Secondary Lead Smelting) of EPA report AP-42. A Compilation of Air Pollutant Emissions Factors, was prepared, containing the size-specific emission factors developed during the program.

  2. Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 732 960 97 438 860 913 1990's 97 -112 903 997 878 248 1,081 -495 -712 1,379 2000's -1,036 658 765 1,289 674 561 835 227 140 745 2010's 985 144 104 880 72 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release

  3. Pennsylvania Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1 67 689 1980's -589 226 60 517 -551 -111 -36 164 488 -367 1990's 191 41 28 190 -19 -240 139 60 -9 -9 2000's -194 3 206 314 -188 186 -117 181 -201 65 2010's -373 -224 -240 664 1,266 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

  4. Louisiana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 205 127 156 517 328 1990's -15 -47 -273 579 557 -285 626 203 -261 509 2000's -107 322 72 281 -11 130 86 192 -71 319 2010's -612 178 605 -42 487 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date:

  5. Michigan Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Michigan Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's -1 153 -182 1980's 297 -191 23 205 -106 -26 -32 35 -124 55 1990's 3 240 95 94 155 327 581 177 105 12 2000's 217 653 82 65 -97 1 112 -45 -48 -279 2010's 243 8 -104 -62 -47 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  6. Mississippi Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Mississippi Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 9 104 -18 1980's 29 399 24 11 7 8 51 5 -1 17 1990's 82 106 -102 68 -1 31 13 -16 -19 34 2000's -20 53 81 -26 20 5 -26 37 12 26 2010's 1 109 65 29 -15 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release

  7. Montana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1 -91 -74 1980's 573 30 -448 75 -74 56 -61 -25 83 -106 1990's 29 -27 58 -154 142 -4 16 33 -12 42 2000's 13 51 58 -28 -56 3 13 9 -3 135 2010's -19 -59 38 3 39 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next

  8. Ohio Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Ohio Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's -3 121 615 1980's -56 -676 268 1,075 -363 -77 264 -260 302 142 1990's 42 88 89 36 87 40 101 -71 -179 -75 2000's 1 31 148 97 -138 -78 129 138 210 70 2010's 127 -99 -41 -328 -426 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  9. Oklahoma Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 36 615 -138 1980's -1,099 1,017 891 -323 -337 -500 835 559 203 202 1990's 838 -451 -121 -94 374 -67 122 82 106 -1,233 2000's 424 196 904 226 -113 297 -149 13 99 984 2010's -394 -368 -686 -622 816 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company

  10. Louisiana - South Onshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Million Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) Louisiana - South Onshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 4 2010's 13 -6 16 -1 16 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserve

  11. Louisiana - South Onshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Cubic Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana - South Onshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1 294 -555 1980's 656 64 -127 20 421 176 -14 -121 359 107 1990's 30 -83 -111 265 419 -407 486 157 -145 104 2000's -154 267 1 154 60 32 135 110 -39 159 2010's 3 -36 270 -160 370 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  12. Louisiana Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) Louisiana Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -1 2010's 7 -8 44 6 24 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

  13. Louisiana State Offshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Million Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) Louisiana State Offshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -1 2010's 1 -3 16 -7 -5 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved

  14. Louisiana State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Cubic Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 5 -41 290 -12 57 1990's -137 103 -121 229 38 -24 -1 40 -85 183 2000's 67 6 -19 32 -59 29 -22 12 4 -7 2010's -228 0 213 -83 -51 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next

  15. Lower 48 States Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) Lower 48 States Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 46 2010's 188 206 138 -596 439 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

  16. Michigan Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) Michigan Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -13 2010's 10 0 -2 -1 -6 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

  17. Miscellaneous States Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Million Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) Miscellaneous States Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -1 2010's 13 2 4 3 -14 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

  18. Miscellaneous States Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0 4 21 1980's 22 -6 8 14 -10 3 62 -78 29 -10 1990's -8 8 -15 5 0 9 -3 -16 -17 28 2000's -22 10 3 3 -2 24 -6 1 -13 69 2010's -84 72 -111 -7 -1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015

  19. Mississippi Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) Mississippi Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -1 2010's 25 12 40 -20 12 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

  20. Nebraska Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) Nebraska Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 4 4 1 -1 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

  1. New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Million Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 4 2010's 0 -25 -28 -9 34 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

  2. New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Million Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -1 2010's -2 -1 -2 -3 -2 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

  3. Alabama Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Alabama Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 7 -12 -27 1980's 30 42 1990's 197 605 159 -644 27 -45 -44 -31 5 -17 2000's -56 36 72 -36 34 -27 -11 12 -71 46 2010's 32 -49 112 -274 502 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016

  4. Alaska Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Alaska Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1 -17 -62 1980's 38 -213 11 1 4 -359 -298 202 176 16 1990's -320 -7 289 57 49 -393 145 19 -172 133 2000's 23 -11 35 1 -1 -2 -46 1 -3 3 2010's 1 -1 -2 -5 -21 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release

  5. Arkansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's -1 22 -2 1980's -7 39 93 -15 90 -127 55 26 124 -46 1990's 94 110 183 -62 95 64 33 -21 -1 -48 2000's -3 28 27 21 13 8 -26 -27 -64 5 2010's -34 728 -743 -78 -3 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next

  6. California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0 74 -150 1980's 11 63 -69 5 -24 1990's -40 139 -24 95 -80 6 -114 19 -88 111 2000's -72 36 29 -52 19 78 -74 33 -6 11 2010's 10 923 -563 -72 34 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date:

  7. Arkansas Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) Arkansas Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 2 2010's 3 -2 15 -22 23 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

  8. California - Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0 30 25 1980's -44 23 41 -4 -68 -5 -3 -14 -5 2 1990's 5 16 6 -20 4 -13 8 18 -42 -11 2000's 30 2 2 5 -3 72 -62 3 0 2 2010's 1 13 1 -11 13 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

  9. California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1 -71 9 1980's 8 -13 -57 22 49 9 -21 9 -1 -11 1990's -29 21 -13 6 -1 6 -3 21 -10 -1 2000's -7 6 0 3 1 1 0 0 2 5 2010's 5 7 11 -9 9 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

  10. California - San Joaquin Basin Onshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) California - San Joaquin Basin Onshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's -1 54 -183 1980's 46 66 -31 37 43 -136 66 -63 3 -14 1990's 11 103 -20 104 -82 11 -119 -31 -44 125 2000's -79 28 29 -60 26 5 -12 31 -8 2 2010's 4 902 -574 -55 10 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  11. California Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) California Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -17 2010's 14 32 8 -52 31 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

  12. California Federal Offshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Cubic Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) California Federal Offshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0 -1 4 1980's -2 -103 163 -8 -10 1990's 8 2 -2 -4 -17 -5 24 -69 -10 9 2000's 15 1 -1 -1 0 -1 2 -7 -1 0 2010's 0 -1 -50 8 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next

  13. California State Offshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Million Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) California State Offshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 2 2010's -2 0 0 0 5 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

  14. California State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Cubic Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) California State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0 61 -1 1980's 1 21 -1 8 -1 1990's -27 -1 3 5 -1 2 0 11 8 -2 2000's -16 0 -2 0 -5 0 0 -1 0 2 2010's 0 1 -1 3 2 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date:

  15. Colorado Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) Colorado Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -9 2010's 25 -1 23 -44 51 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

  16. Utah Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0 44 -35 1980's -22 44 307 4 -44 -65 -68 -45 -424 260 1990's 8 126 136 43 -82 -63 44 -40 97 -56 2000's 4 135 13 40 113 65 -11 17 -4 1 2010's -80 134 289 -582 -20 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next

  17. Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's -3 53 -284 1980's 918 -1,083 10 -206 -37 -331 -93 38 -285 160 1990's -629 445 568 -113 -31 -38 -122 207 -76 171 2000's -20 306 164 132 50 115 36 -6 27 1,158 2010's 521 -209 692 2,058 -1,877 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

  18. New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 3 2010's -2 -26 -30 -12 32 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

  19. North Dakota Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) North Dakota Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 12 2010's -8 9 33 -44 -68 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

  20. Oklahoma Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) Oklahoma Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -18 2010's 10 22 -79 -11 -48 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

  1. Pennsylvania Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) Pennsylvania Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -1 2010's 37 -7 6 -13 8 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

  2. Texas - RRC District 1 Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Million Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) Texas - RRC District 1 Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -3 2010's -20 7 -19 -60 83 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved

  3. Texas - RRC District 10 Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Million Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) Texas - RRC District 10 Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -3 2010's -12 -3 10 -14 25 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved

  4. Texas - RRC District 2 Onshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 2 Onshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0 10 287 1980's -382 320 -79 58 -38 -61 -30 320 -133 -67 1990's 114 -186 37 83 95 -98 127 102 -97 203 2000's 262 -231 21 200 3 156 207 -167 31 -90 2010's -10 178 -19 -219 -84 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  5. Texas - RRC District 3 Onshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 3 Onshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's -198 248 -99 1980's 10 -6 315 402 305 -329 27 -5 148 -61 1990's -132 -63 -67 310 52 -79 290 -310 -250 220 2000's -102 54 43 45 175 62 -5 56 104 -124 2010's 82 -95 164 49 -191 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  6. Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 24 61 164 1980's 188 -139 161 31 -58 -5 172 5 -84 401 1990's 235 -29 294 249 9 9 94 57 -353 94 2000's 122 228 91 325 43 55 250 53 -19 -127 2010's 3 358 635 225 82 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of

  7. Texas - RRC District 5 Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Million Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) Texas - RRC District 5 Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -4 2010's 1 5 1 5 4 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

  8. Texas - RRC District 6 Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Million Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) Texas - RRC District 6 Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 3 2010's 3 16 18 -37 19 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Res

  9. Texas - RRC District 8 Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Million Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) Texas - RRC District 8 Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 10 2010's -93 75 69 33 -16 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserv

  10. Texas - RRC District 9 Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Million Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) Texas - RRC District 9 Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -24 2010's 13 -18 -7 37 20 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved

  11. Texas State Offshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Million Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) Texas State Offshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -2 2010's 0 -2 1 -1 1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

  12. Texas State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas State Offshore Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's -2 48 -36 -23 -28 22 1990's -109 102 -63 -3 -41 85 -14 22 22 34 2000's 6 26 -2 55 4 18 13 -25 17 -29 2010's 11 -25 16 -13 -3 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date:

  13. Kentucky Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Kentucky Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1 64 -66 1980's 67 -20 -4 6 55 -126 7 68 16 14 1990's -31 97 -107 -34 40 43 -55 321 -93 34 2000's -4 158 -24 49 -40 65 -22 37 81 97 2010's -58 -34 -282 103 -9 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next

  14. West Virginia Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) West Virginia Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -1 2010's -3 1 -14 13 1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

  15. Role of Experiment Covariance in Cross Section Adjustments

    SciTech Connect

    Giuseppe Palmiotti; M. Salvatores

    2014-06-01

    This paper is dedicated to the memory of R. D. McKnight, which gave a seminal contribution in establishing methodology and rigorous approach in the evaluation of the covariance of reactor physics integral experiments. His original assessment of the ZPPR experiment uncertainties and correlations has made nuclear data adjustments, based on these experiments, much more robust and reliable. In the present paper it has been shown with some numerical examples the actual impact on an adjustment of accounting for or neglecting such correlations.

  16. Illinois Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) Illinois Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 3 2010's 10 -10 -8 -6 -8 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

  17. Kentucky Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) Kentucky Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 4 2010's -11 1 -10 8 -1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

  18. Louisiana - North Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Million Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) Louisiana - North Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -4 2010's -7 1 12 14 13 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

  19. Louisiana - North Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana - North Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's -6 101 -305 1980's 331 136 15 95 -322 265 182 -13 170 164 1990's 92 -67 -41 85 100 146 141 6 -31 222 2000's -20 49 90 95 -12 69 -27 70 -36 167 2010's -387 214 122 201 168 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release

  20. Emissions Tool Estimates the Impact of Emissions on Smart Grid

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Infrastructure Investments | Department of Energy Emissions Tool Estimates the Impact of Emissions on Smart Grid Infrastructure Investments Emissions Tool Estimates the Impact of Emissions on Smart Grid Infrastructure Investments July 28, 2016 - 2:59pm Addthis In the face of extreme weather events, states, utilities, and other companies are increasingly seeking ways to boost resiliency while reducing their carbon footprint. The Emissions Quantification Tool (EQT), which was conceived of and

  1. SEP Request for Approval Form 6 - Non-Routine Adjustments | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Forms SEP Request for Approval Form 7 - Other Situations for Consumption Adjustment SEP Request for Approval Form 4 - Alternative Adjustment Model Application Methodology

  2. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    ‹ Environment Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U. S. Release Date: March 31, 2011 | Next Release Date: Report Discontinued | Report Number: DOE/EIA-0573(2009) Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview Diagram Notes [a] CO2 emissions related to petroleum consumption (includes 64 MMTCO2 of non-fuel-related emissions). [b] CO2 emissions related to coal consumption (includes 0.3 MMTCO2 of non-fuel-related emissions). [c] CO2 emissions related to natural gas consumption (includes 13 MMTCO2 of

  3. Sensitivity of health risk estimates to air quality adjustment procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Whitfield, R.G.

    1997-06-30

    This letter is a summary of risk results associated with exposure estimates using two-parameter Weibull and quadratic air quality adjustment procedures (AQAPs). New exposure estimates were developed for children and child-occurrences, six urban areas, and five alternative air quality scenarios. In all cases, the Weibull and quadratic results are compared to previous results, which are based on a proportional AQAP.

  4. Ultrasonic testing device having an adjustable water column

    DOEpatents

    Roach, Dennis P.; Neidigk, Stephen O.; Rackow, Kirk A.; Duvall, Randy L.

    2015-09-01

    An ultrasonic testing device having a variable fluid column height is disclosed. An operator is able to adjust the fluid column height in real time during an inspection to to produce optimum ultrasonic focus and separate extraneous, unwanted UT signals from those stemming from the area of interest.

  5. Minimize Adverse Motor and Adjustable Speed Drive Interactions

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Electronic adjustable speed drives (ASDs) are extremely efficient and valuable assets to motor systems. They allow precise process control and provide energy savings within systems that do not need to operate continuously at full output. This tip sheet discusses design considerations to take into account when considering ASDs and offers suggested actions.

  6. Advanced CIDI Emission Control System Development

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Christine

    2006-05-31

    Ford Motor Company, with ExxonMobil and FEV, participated in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuels Program with the goal to develop an innovative emission control system for light-duty diesel vehicles. The focus on diesel engine emissions was a direct result of the improved volumetric fuel economy (up to 50%) and lower CO2 emissions (up to 25%) over comparable gasoline engines shown in Europe. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) with aqueous urea as the NOx reductant and a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF) were chosen as the primary emission control system components. The program expected to demonstrate more than 90% durable reduction in particulate matter (PM) and NOx emissions on a light-duty truck application, based on the FTP-75 drive cycle. Very low sulfur diesel fuel (<15 ppm-wt) enabled lower PM emissions, reduced fuel economy penalty due to the emission control system and improved long-term system durability. Significant progress was made toward a durable system to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 emission standards on a 6000 lbs light-duty truck. A 40% reduction in engine-out NOx emissions was achieved with a mid-size prototype diesel engine through engine recalibration and increased exhaust gas recirculation. Use of a rapid warm-up strategy and urea SCR provided over 90% further NOx reduction while the CDPF reduced tailpipe PM to gasoline vehicle levels. Development work was conducted to separately improve urea SCR and CDPF system durability, as well as improved oxidation catalyst function. Exhaust gas NOx and ammonia sensors were also developed further. While the final emission control system did not meet Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx after 120k mi of aging on the dynamometer, it did meet the standards for HC, NMOG, and PM, and an improved SCR catalyst was shown to have potential to meet the NOx standard, assuming the DOC durability could be improved further. Models of DOC and SCR function were developed to guide the study of several key design

  7. Antenna factorization in strongly ordered limits

    SciTech Connect

    Kosower, David A.

    2005-02-15

    When energies or angles of gluons emitted in a gauge-theory process are small and strongly ordered, the emission factorizes in a simple way to all orders in perturbation theory. I show how to unify the various strongly ordered soft, mixed soft-collinear, and collinear limits using antenna factorization amplitudes, which are generalizations of the Catani-Seymour dipole factorization function.

  8. Magnetic field adjustment structure and method for a tapered wiggler

    DOEpatents

    Halbach, Klaus

    1988-01-01

    An improved method and structure is disclosed for adjusting the magnetic field generated by a group of electromagnet poles spaced along the path of a charged particle beam to compensate for energy losses in the charged particles which comprises providing more than one winding on at least some of the electromagnet poles; connecting one respective winding on each of several consecutive adjacent electromagnet poles to a first power supply, and the other respective winding on the electromagnet pole to a different power supply in staggered order; and independently adjusting one power supply to independently vary the current in one winding on each electromagnet pole in a group whereby the magnetic field strength of each of a group of electromagnet poles may be changed in smaller increments.

  9. Adjustable ratio roller rocker for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, K.A.

    1987-04-07

    This patent describes an adjustable ratio roller rocker for internal combustion engines, comprising: a body; a sliding pushrod seat received in the body; a bolt received in the sliding pushrod seat; a pushrod received in the sliding pushrod seat and the sliding pushrod seat includes a threaded opening that receives the bolt; and the rotation of the bolt causes the sliding pushrod seat to traverse a recessed opening in the body.

  10. PHOTOSPHERIC EMISSION FROM STRATIFIED JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Hirotaka; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Ono, Masaomi; Lee, Shiu-Hang; Mao, Jirong; Yamada, Shoichi; Pe'er, Asaf; Mizuta, Akira; Harikae, Seiji

    2013-11-01

    We explore photospheric emissions from stratified two-component jets, wherein a highly relativistic spine outflow is surrounded by a wider and less relativistic sheath outflow. Thermal photons are injected in regions of high optical depth and propagated until the photons escape at the photosphere. Because of the presence of shear in velocity (Lorentz factor) at the boundary of the spine and sheath region, a fraction of the injected photons are accelerated using a Fermi-like acceleration mechanism such that a high-energy power-law tail is formed in the resultant spectrum. We show, in particular, that if a velocity shear with a considerable variance in the bulk Lorentz factor is present, the high-energy part of observed gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) photon spectrum can be explained by this photon acceleration mechanism. We also show that the accelerated photons might also account for the origin of the extra-hard power-law component above the bump of the thermal-like peak seen in some peculiar bursts (e.g., GRB 090510, 090902B, 090926A). We demonstrate that time-integrated spectra can also reproduce the low-energy spectrum of GRBs consistently using a multi-temperature effect when time evolution of the outflow is considered. Last, we show that the empirical E{sub p}-L{sub p} relation can be explained by differences in the outflow properties of individual sources.

  11. Energy, Carbon-emission and Financial Savings from Thermostat Control

    SciTech Connect

    Blasing, T J; Schroeder, Dana

    2013-08-01

    Among the easiest approaches to energy, and cost, savings for most people is the adjustment of thermostats to save energy. Here we estimate savings of energy, carbon, and money in the United States of America (USA) that would result from adjusting thermostats in residential and commercial buildings by about half a degree Celsius downward during the heating season and upward during the cooling season. To obtain as small a unit as possible, and therefore the least likely to be noticeable by most people, we selected an adjustment of one degree Fahrenheit (0.56 degree Celsius) which is the gradation used almost exclusively on thermostats in the USA and is the smallest unit of temperature that has been used historically. Heating and/or cooling of interior building space for personal comfort is sometimes referred to as space conditioning, a term we will use for convenience throughout this work without consideration of humidity. Thermostat adjustment, as we use the term here, applies to thermostats that control the indoor temperature, and not to other thermostats such as those on water heaters. We track emissions of carbon only, rather than of carbon dioxide, because carbon atoms change atomic partners as they move through the carbon cycle, from atmosphere to biosphere or ocean and, on longer time scales, through the rock cycle. To convert a mass of carbon to an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide (thereby including the mass of the 2 oxygen atoms in each molecule) simply multiply by 3.67.

  12. Low emissions diesel fuel

    DOEpatents

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Dorsey, G.F.; West, B.H.

    1998-05-05

    A method and matter of composition for controlling NO{sub x} emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO{sub x} produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

  13. Low emissions diesel fuel

    DOEpatents

    Compere, Alicia L.; Griffith, William L.; Dorsey, George F.; West, Brian H.

    1998-01-01

    A method and matter of composition for controlling NO.sub.x emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO.sub.x produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

  14. GBTL Workshop GHG Emissions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    natural gas as a feedstock for conversion into liquid hydrocarbons (GTL). * Co-conversion of natural gas with biomass (GBTL) has the potential of increasing yield of liquid product while also having lower greenhouse gas emissions relative to petroleum. * DOE is interested in further understanding how the use of natural gas and biomass may be optimized and integrated into a conversion process to produce liquid fuels. - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy - Office of Fossil Energy -

  15. Power plant emissions reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy

    2015-10-20

    A system for improved emissions performance of a power plant generally includes an exhaust gas recirculation system having an exhaust gas compressor disposed downstream from the combustor, a condensation collection system at least partially disposed upstream from the exhaust gas compressor, and a mixing chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust gas compressor and the condensation collection system, where the mixing chamber is in fluid communication with the combustor.

  16. Acoustic emission monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    Romrell, Delwin M.

    1977-07-05

    Methods and apparatus for identifying the source location of acoustic emissions generated within an acoustically conductive medium. A plurality of acoustic receivers are communicably coupled to the surface of the medium at a corresponding number of spaced locations. The differences in the reception time of the respective sensors in response to a given acoustic event are measured among various sensor combinations prescribed by the monitoring mode employed. Acoustic reception response encountered subsequent to the reception by a predetermined number of the prescribed sensor combinations are inhibited from being communicated to the processing circuitry, while the time measurements obtained from the prescribed sensor combinations are translated into a position measurement representative of the location on the surface most proximate the source of the emission. The apparatus is programmable to function in six separate and five distinct operating modes employing either two, three or four sensory locations. In its preferred arrangement the apparatus of this invention will re-initiate a monitoring interval if the predetermined number of sensors do not respond to a particular emission within a given time period.

  17. Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Manufacturing

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Energy Energy-Related Carbon Emissions Detailed Energy-Related Carbon Emissions All Industry Groups 1994 emissions Selected Industries Petroleum refining Chemicals Iron & Steel...

  18. GBTL Workshop GHG Emissions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    GHG Emissions GBTL Workshop GHG Emissions EERE Presentation of Greenhouse Gas EmissionsResource Potential gbtlworkshopghgemissions.pdf (1.37 MB) More Documents & Publications ...

  19. NREL: Transportation Research - NREL Study Predicts Fuel and Emissions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Impact of Automated Mobility District Study Predicts Fuel and Emissions Impact of Automated Mobility District January 21, 2016 With emerging technologies, travel behavior may shift from personal vehicles to automated transit systems. An NREL study shows that a campus-sized -- ranging from four to 10 square miles -- automated mobility district (AMD) has the potential to reduce fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions by 4% to 14% depending on various operating and ridership factors.

  20. CURVATURE-DRIFT INSTABILITY FAILS TO GENERATE PULSAR RADIO EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Kaganovich, Alexander; Lyubarsky, Yuri

    2010-10-01

    The curvature-drift instability has long been considered as a viable mechanism for pulsar radio emission. We reconsidered this mechanism by finding an explicit solution describing the propagation of short electromagnetic waves in a plasma flow along curved magnetic field lines. We show that even though the waves could be amplified, the amplification factor remains very close to unity; therefore, this mechanism is unable to generate high brightness temperature emission from initial weak fluctuations.

  1. Air-pollutant emissions from kerosene space heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Leaderer, B.P.

    1982-12-10

    Air pollutant emissions from portable convective and radiant kerosene space heaters were measured in an environmental chamber. Emission factors for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen depletion are presented. The data suggest that the use of such heaters in residences can result in exposures to air pollutants in excess of ambient air quality standards and in some cases in excess of occupational health standards.

  2. Development of methodologies for calculating greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation for the California climate action registry

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Marnay, Chris; Sathaye, Jayant; Murtishaw, Scott; Fisher, Diane; Phadke, Amol; Franco, Guido

    2002-04-01

    The California Climate Action Registry, which will begin operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for California businesses and organizations to record annual greenhouse gas emissions. Reporting of emissions in the Registry by a participant involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and ''indirect'' emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is considered to be an indirect emission and must be included in the entity's report. Published electricity emissions factors for the State of California vary considerably due to differences in whether utility-owned out-of-state generation, non-utility generation, and electricity imports from other states are included. This paper describes the development of three methods for estimating electricity emissions factors for calculating the combined net carbon dioxide emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to Californians. We fi nd that use of a statewide average electricity emissions factor could drastically under- or over-estimate an entity's emissions due to the differences in generating resources among the utility service areas and seasonal variations. In addition, differentiating between marginal and average emissions is essential to accurately estimate the carbon dioxide savings from reducing electricity use. Results of this work will be taken into consideration by the Registry when finalizing its guidance for use of electricity emissions factors in calculating an entity's greenhouse gas emissions.

  3. Particle and gas emissions from a simulated coal-burning household fire pit

    SciTech Connect

    Linwei Tian; Donald Lucas; Susan L. Fischer; S. C. Lee; S. Katharine Hammond; Catherine P. Koshland

    2008-04-01

    An open fire was assembled with firebricks to simulate the household fire pit used in rural China, and 15 different coals from this area were burned to measure the gaseous and particulate emissions. Particle size distribution was studied with a microorifice uniform-deposit impactor (MOUDI). Over 90% of the particulate mass was attributed to sub-micrometer particles. The carbon balance method was used to calculate the emission factors. Emission factors for four pollutants (particulate matter, CO{sub 2}, total hydrocarbons, and NOx) were 2-4 times higher for bituminous coals than for anthracites. In past inventories of carbonaceous emissions used for climate modeling, these two types of coal were not treated separately. The dramatic emission factor difference between the two types of coal warrants attention in the future development of emission inventories. 25 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Sonde Adjust Value-Added Product Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Troyan, D

    2012-01-09

    The Sonde Adjust (SONDEADJUST) value-added product (VAP) creates a file that includes all fields from original Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ARM Facility) radiosonde files and contains several value-added fields that provide adjustments related to well-known humidity issues. SONDEADJUST produces data that correct documented biases in radiosonde humidity measurements. Previous efforts towards applying some of these corrections are available via the discontinued PI product sgpsondecorr1miloC1. Unique fields contained within this datastream include smoothed original relative humidity, dry bias corrected relative humidity, and final corrected relative humidity. The smoothed RH field refines the relative humidity from integers-the resolution of the instrument-to fractions of a percent. This profile is then used to calculate the dry bias corrected field. The final correction fixes the time-lag problem and uses the dry-bias field as input into the algorithm. In addition to dry bias, solar heating is another correction that is encompassed in the final corrected RH field. Output from SONDEADJUST differs from the previous RH-corrected datastreams in important ways. First, all three types of ARM radiosondes-Vaisala RS-80, RS-90, and RS-92-are corrected using dedicated procedures and/or parameters. Second, the output variables include all of those found in the original radiosonde file: dry bulb temperature, dewpoint temperature, wind speed, wind direction, eastward wind component, northward wind component, wind status (a Vaisala-produced field used in conjunction with the Loran system), ascent rate, and original relative humidity. Additional humidity fields are smoothed relative humidity, dry biased corrected relative humidity, final ambient relative humidity, and scaled adjusted relative humidity. Third, quality control (QC) flags of the fields from the original radiosonde datastream are brought into the SONDEADJUST output file. Additional QC

  5. Engine control system having fuel-based adjustment

    DOEpatents

    Willi, Martin L.; Fiveland, Scott B.; Montgomery, David T.; Gong, Weidong

    2011-03-15

    A control system for an engine having a cylinder is disclosed having an engine valve configured to affect a fluid flow of the cylinder, an actuator configured to move the engine valve, and an in-cylinder sensor configured to generate a signal indicative of a characteristic of fuel entering the cylinder. The control system also has a controller in communication with the actuator and the sensor. The controller is configured to determine the characteristic of the fuel based on the signal and selectively regulate the actuator to adjust a timing of the engine valve based on the characteristic of the fuel.

  6. Dynamically adjustable annular laser trapping based on axicons

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Bing; Esener, Sadik C.; Nascimento, Jaclyn M.; Botvinick, Elliot L.; Berns, Michael W

    2006-09-01

    To study the chemotactic response of sperm to an egg and to characterize sperm motility, an annular laser trap based on axicons is designed, simulated with the ray-tracing tool, and implemented. The diameter of the trapping ring can be adjusted dynamically for a range of over 400 {mu}m by simply translating one axicon along the optical axis. Trapping experiments with microspheres and dog sperm demonstrate the feasibility of the system,and the power requirement agrees with theoretical expectation. This new type of laser trapping could provide a prototype of a parallel, objective, and quantitative tool for animal fertility and biotropism study.

  7. Development of the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Ukraine...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Organization European Bank for Reconstruction and Development Sector Energy Topics GHG inventory, Policiesdeployment programs, Co-benefits assessment, Pathways analysis...

  8. Handbook of Emission Factors for Road Transport (HBEFA) | Open...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Occidental, Inuktitut, Inupiaq, Iranian languages, Irish, Iroquoian languages, Italian, Japanese, Javanese, Judeo-Arabic, Judeo-Persian, Kabardian, Kabyle, Kachin; Jingpho,...

  9. "1. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Stationary Combustion1...

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    ... composition for 2006 reported in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2006 MSW Characterization Data Tables, http:www.epa.govepaoswernon-hwmuncplpubs06data.pdf. " "8 ...

  10. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    DOE R&D Accomplishments

    Welch, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET.

  11. Acoustic emission intrusion detector

    DOEpatents

    Carver, Donald W.; Whittaker, Jerry W.

    1980-01-01

    An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal.

  12. Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    & Publications Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from Advanced Technologies...

  13. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Positron Scanning

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Positron Scanning Resources with Additional Information Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scanner Courtesy Lawrence Berkeley National ...

  14. Electrochemical sharpening of field emission tips

    DOEpatents

    Bernhardt, A.F.

    1999-04-06

    A method is disclosed for sharpening field emitter tips by electroetching/polishing. In gated field emitters, it is very important to initiate electron emission at the lowest possible voltage and thus the composition of the emitter and the gate, as well as the emitter-gate structure, are important factors. This method of sharpening the emitter tips uses the grid as a counter electrode in electroetching of the emitters, which can produce extremely sharp emitter tips as well as remove asperities and other imperfections in the emitters, each in relation to the specific grid hole in which it resides. This has the effect of making emission more uniform among the emitters as well as lowering the turn-on voltage. 3 figs.

  15. Electrochemical sharpening of field emission tips

    DOEpatents

    Bernhardt, Anthony F.

    1999-01-01

    A method for sharpening field emitter tips by electroetching/polishing. In gated field emitters, it is very important to initiate electron emission at the lowest possible voltage and thus the composition of the emitter and the gate, as well as the emitter-gate structure, are important factors. This method of sharpening the emitter tips uses the grid as a counter electrode in electroetching of the emitters, which can produce extremely sharp emitter tips as well as remove asperities and other imperfections in the emitters, each in relation to the specific grid hole in which it resides. This has the effect of making emission more uniform among the emitters as well as lowering the turn-on voltage.

  16. UPDATING THE FREIGHT TRUCK STOCK ADJUSTMENT MODEL: 1997 VEHICLE INVENTORY AND USE SURVEY DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.C.

    2000-11-16

    The Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Freight Truck Stock Adjustment Model (FTSAM) was created in 1995 relying heavily on input data from the 1992 Economic Census, Truck Inventory and Use Survey (TIUS). The FTSAM is part of the NEMS Transportation Sector Model, which provides baseline energy projections and analyzes the impacts of various technology scenarios on consumption, efficiency, and carbon emissions. The base data for the FTSAM can be updated every five years as new Economic Census information is released. Because of expertise in using the TIUS database, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was asked to assist the EIA when the new Economic Census data were available. ORNL provided the necessary base data from the 1997 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS) and other sources to update the FTSAM. The next Economic Census will be in the year 2002. When those data become available, the EIA will again want to update the FTSAM using the VIUS. This report, which details the methodology of estimating and extracting data from the 1997 VIUS Microdata File, should be used as a guide for generating the data from the next VIUS so that the new data will be as compatible as possible with the data in the model.

  17. National symposium for EPA and industry - fugitive emissions: Streamlining implementation and compliance

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The proceedings of the National Symposium for EPA and Industry on Fugitive Emissions: Streamlining Implementation and Compliance are presented. The Conference was held January 11-12, 1996 in New Orleans, LA. Information is presented on negotiated rules for equipment leaks; the Clean Air Act Title V operating permit program; legal issues related to fugitive emissions; maximum achievable control technology; leak detection and repair inspections; technical, monitoring, and modeling considerations; Title V and the mining industry; streamlining implementation and compliance; practical experience with Title V: controlling workplace emissions; post Title V: Maintaining compliance; factors that affect the accuracy of Method 21; estimating fugitive emissions; and fugitive emissions measurement techniques.

  18. Elastic emission polishing

    SciTech Connect

    Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.

  19. Zero emission coal

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

    2000-08-01

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  20. PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gas/fly...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gasfly ash Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gasfly ash A...

  1. Method and apparatus for rapid adjustment of process gas inventory in gaseous diffusion cascades

    DOEpatents

    Dyer, Robert H.; Fowler, Andrew H.; Vanstrum, Paul R.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved method and system for making relatively large and rapid adjustments in the process gas

  2. Calif--San Joaquin Basin onsh Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Cubic Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Calif--San Joaquin Basin onsh Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) No Data Available For This Series - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  3. Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Electricity suppliers and electricity companies must also provide a fuel mix report to customers twice annually, within the June and December billing cycles. Emissions information must be disclos...

  4. Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fuel Disclosure: Virginia’s 1999 electric industry restructuring law requires the state's electricity providers to disclose -- "to the extent feasible" -- fuel mix and emissions data regarding...

  5. Biodiesel and Pollutant Emissions (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, R.; Williams, A.; Ireland, J.; Hayes, B.

    2006-09-28

    Presents the results from three methods of testing--engine, chassis, and PEM--for testing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from B20.

  6. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Farthing

    2001-02-06

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses), and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

  7. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    G. A. Farthing; G. T. Amrhein; G. A. Kudlac; D. A. Yurchison; D. K. McDonald; M. G. Milobowski

    2001-03-31

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. This objective is being met by identifying ways to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (fabric filters), and wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

  8. Fugitive Emissions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Fugitive emissions refers to the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from pressurized ... substitutes for high-impact fugitive greenhouse gases (GHGs) among the DOE sites. ...

  9. Programmable Differential Delay Circuit With Fine Delay Adjustment

    DOEpatents

    DeRyckere, John F.; Jenkins, Philip Nord; Cornett, Frank Nolan

    2002-07-09

    Circuitry that provides additional delay to early arriving signals such that all data signals arrive at a receiving latch with same path delay. The delay of a forwarded clock reference is also controlled such that the capturing clock edge will be optimally positioned near quadrature (depending on latch setup/hold requirements). The circuitry continuously adapts to data and clock path delay changes and digital filtering of phase measurements reduce errors brought on by jittering data edges. The circuitry utilizes only the minimum amount of delay necessary to achieve objective thereby limiting any unintended jitter. Particularly, this programmable differential delay circuit with fine delay adjustment is designed to allow the skew between ASICS to be minimized. This includes skew between data bits, between data bits and clocks as well as minimizing the overall skew in a channel between ASICS.

  10. Explosive Products EOS: Adjustment for detonation speed and energy release

    SciTech Connect

    Menikoff, Ralph

    2014-09-05

    Propagating detonation waves exhibit a curvature effect in which the detonation speed decreases with increasing front curvature. The curvature effect is due to the width of the wave profile. Numerically, the wave profile depends on resolution. With coarse resolution, the wave width is too large and results in a curvature effect that is too large. Consequently, the detonation speed decreases as the cell size is increased. We propose a modification to the products equation of state (EOS) to compensate for the effect of numerical resolution; i.e., to increase the CJ pressure in order that a simulation propagates a detonation wave with a speed that is on average correct. The EOS modification also adjusts the release isentrope to correct the energy release.

  11. Regulated Emissions from Biodiesel Tested in Heavy-Duty Engines Meeting 2004 Emission Standards

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, R. L.; Tennant, C. J.; Hayes, R. R.; Black, S.; Ireland, J.; McDaniel, T.; Williams, A.; Frailey, M.; Sharp, C. A.

    2005-11-01

    Biodiesel produced from soybean oil, canola oil, yellow grease, and beef tallow was tested in two heavy-duty engines. The biodiesels were tested neat and as 20% by volume blends with a 15 ppm sulfur petroleum-derived diesel fuel. The test engines were the following: 2002 Cummins ISB and 2003 DDC Series 60. Both engines met the 2004 U.S. emission standard of 2.5 g/bhp-h NO{sub x}+HC (3.35 g/kW-h) and utilized exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All emission tests employed the heavy-duty transient procedure as specified in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. Reduction in PM emissions and increase in NO{sub x} emissions were observed for all biodiesels in all engines, confirming observations made in older engines. On average PM was reduced by 25% and NO{sub x} increased by 3% for the two engines tested for a variety of B20 blends. These changes are slightly larger in magnitude, but in the same range as observed in older engines. The cetane improver 2-ethyl hexyl nitrate was shown to have no measurable effect on NO{sub x} emissions from B20 in these engines, in contrast to observations reported for older engines. The effect of intake air humidity on NO{sub x} emissions from the Cummins ISB was quantified. The CFR NO{sub x}/humidity correction factor was shown to be valid for an engine equipped with EGR, operating at 1700 m above sea level, and operating on conventional or biodiesel.

  12. Mobile source emission control cost-effectiveness: Issues, uncertainties, and results

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.Q.

    1994-12-01

    Emissions from mobile sources undoubtedly contribute to US urban air pollution problems. Consequently, mobile source control measures, ranging from vehicle emission standards to reducing vehicle travel, have been adopted or proposed to help attain air quality standards. To rank various mobile source control measures, various government agencies and private organizations calculate cost-effectiveness in dollars per ton of emissions reduced. Arguments for or against certain control measures are often made on the basis of the calculated cost-effectiveness. Yet, different studies may yield significantly different cost-effectiveness results, because of the various methodologies used and assumptions regarding the values of costs and emission reductions. Because of the methodological differences, the cost-effectiveness results may not be comparable between studies. Use of incomparable cost-effectiveness results may result in adoption of ineffective control measures. This paper first discusses some important methodological issues involved in cost-effectiveness calculation for mobile sources and proposes appropriate, systematic methods for dealing with these issues. Various studies have been completed recently to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of mobile source emission control measures. These studies resulted in wide variations in the cost-effectiveness for same control measures. Methodological assumptions used in each study are presented and, based on the proposed methods for cost-effectiveness calculation, adjustments are applied to the original estimates in each study to correct inappropriate methodological assumptions and to make the studies comparable. Finally, mobile source control measures are ranked on the basis of the adjusted cost-effectiveness estimates.

  13. Optimally enhanced optical emission in laser-induced air plasma by femtosecond double-pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Anmin; Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 ; Li, Suyu; Li, Shuchang; Jiang, Yuanfei; Ding, Dajun; Shao, Junfeng; Wang, Tingfeng; Huang, Xuri; Jin, Mingxing; State Key Laboratory of Laser Interaction with Matter, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033

    2013-10-15

    In laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, a femtosecond double-pulse laser was used to induce air plasma. The plasma spectroscopy was observed to lead to significant increase of the intensity and reproducibility of the optical emission signal compared to femtosecond single-pulse laser. In particular, the optical emission intensity can be optimized by adjusting the delay time of femtosecond double-pulse. An appropriate pulse-to-pulse delay was selected, that was typically about 50 ps. This effect can be especially advantageous in the context of femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, plasma channel, and so on.

  14. Mitigation options for methane emissions from rice fields in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Lantin, R.S.; Buendia, L.V.; Wassmann, R.

    1996-12-31

    The contribution of Philippine rice production to global methane emission and breakthroughs in methane emission studies conducted in the country are presented in this paper. A significant impact in the reduction of GHG emissions from agriculture can be achieved if methane emissions from ricefields can be abated. This study presents the contribution of Philippine rice cultivation to global methane emission and breakthroughs in methane emission studies in the country which address the issue of mitigation. Using the derived emission factors from local measurements, rice cultivation contributes 566.6 Gg of methane emission in the Philippines. This value is 62% of the total methane emitted from the agriculture sector. The emission factors employed which are 78% of the IPCC value for irrigated rice and 95% for rainfed rice were derived from measurements with an automatic system taken during the growth duration in the respective ecosystems. Plots drained for 2 weeks at midtillering and before harvest gave a significant reduction in methane emission as opposed to continuously flooded plots and plots drained before harvest. The cultivar Magat reduced methane emission by 50% as compared to the check variety IR72. The application of ammonium sulfate instead of urea reduced methane emission by 10% to 34%. Addition of 6 t ha{sup {minus}1} phosphogypsum in combination with urea reduced emission by 74% as opposed to plots applied with urea alone. It is also from the results of such measurements that abatement strategies are based as regards to modifying treatments such as water management, fertilization, and choice of rice variety. It is not easy to identify and recommend mitigation strategies that will fit a particular cropping system. However, the identified mitigation options provide focus for the abatement of methane emission from ricefields.

  15. Generalized local emission tomography

    DOEpatents

    Katsevich, Alexander J.

    1998-01-01

    Emission tomography enables locations and values of internal isotope density distributions to be determined from radiation emitted from the whole object. In the method for locating the values of discontinuities, the intensities of radiation emitted from either the whole object or a region of the object containing the discontinuities are inputted to a local tomography function .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) to define the location S of the isotope density discontinuity. The asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) is determined in a neighborhood of S, and the value for the discontinuity is estimated from the asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) knowing pointwise values of the attenuation coefficient within the object. In the method for determining the location of the discontinuity, the intensities of radiation emitted from an object are inputted to a local tomography function .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) to define the location S of the density discontinuity and the location .GAMMA. of the attenuation coefficient discontinuity. Pointwise values of the attenuation coefficient within the object need not be known in this case.

  16. Capacitor charging FET switcher with controller to adjust pulse width

    DOEpatents

    Mihalka, Alex M.

    1986-01-01

    A switching power supply includes an FET full bridge, a controller to drive the FETs, a programmable controller to dynamically control final output current by adjusting pulse width, and a variety of protective systems, including an overcurrent latch for current control. Power MOSFETS are switched at a variable frequency from 20-50 kHz to charge a capacitor load from 0 to 6 kV. A ferrite transformer steps up the DC input. The transformer primary is a full bridge configuration with the FET switches and the secondary is fed into a high voltage full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The peak current is held constant by varying the pulse width using predetermined timing resistors and counting pulses. The pulse width is increased as the capacitor charges to maintain peak current. A digital ripple counter counts pulses, and after the desired number is reached, an up-counter is clocked. The up-counter output is decoded to choose among different resistors used to discharge a timing capacitor, thereby determining the pulse width. A current latch shuts down the supply on overcurrent due to either excessive pulse width causing transformer saturation or a major bridge fault, i.e., FET or transformer failure, or failure of the drive circuitry.

  17. Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES)

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, Daniel; Costantini, Maria; Van Erp, Annemoon; Shaikh, Rashid; Bailey, Brent; Tennant, Chris; Khalek, Imad; Mauderly, Joe; McDonald, Jacob; Zielinska, Barbara; Bemis, Jeffrey; Storey, John; Hallberg, Lance; Clark, Nigel

    2013-12-31

    The objective of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) was to determine before widespread commercial deployment whether or not the new, energy-efficient, heavy duty diesel engines (2007 and 2010 EPA Emissions Standards Compliant) may generate anticipated toxic emissions that could adversely affect the environment and human health. ACES was planned to take place in three phases. In Phase 1, extensive emissions characterization of four production-intent prototype engine and control systems designed to meet 2007 standards for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was conducted at an existing emissions characterization facility: Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). One of the tested engines was selected (at random, after careful comparison of results) for health testing in Phase 3. In Phase 2, extensive emission characterization of three production-intent prototype engine and control systems meeting the 2010 standards (including more advanced NOx controls to meet the more stringent 2010 NOx standards) was conducted at the same test facility. In Phase 3, one engine/aftertreatment system selected from Phase 1 was further characterized during health effects studies (at an existing inhalation toxicology laboratory: Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, [LRRI]) to form the basis of the ACES safety assessment. The Department of Energy (DOE) award provided funding for emissions characterization in Phases 1 and 2 as well as exposure characterization in Phase 3. The main health analyses in Phase 3 were funded separately and are not reported here.

  18. Emissions Tool Estimates the Impact of Emissions on Smart Grid...

    Energy Saver

    The free, web-based calculator aims to estimate the impact of NOx, SO2 and CO2 emissions on smart grid infrastructure investments, taking into account specific context and project ...

  19. Metal tritides helium emission

    SciTech Connect

    Beavis, L.C.

    1980-02-01

    Over the past several years, we have been measuring the release of helium from metal tritides (primarily erbium tritide). We find that qualitatively all tritides of interest to us behave the same. When they are first formed, the helium is released at a low rate that appears to be related to the amount of surface area which has access to the outside of the material (either film or bulk). For example, erbium tritide films initially release about 0.3% of the helium generated. Most tritide films emit helium at about this rate initially. At some later time, which depends upon the amount of helium generated, the parent occluding element and the degree of tritium saturation of the dihydride phase the helium emission changes to a new mode in which it is released at approximately the rate at which it is generated (for example, we measure this value to be approx. = .31 He/Er for ErT/sub 1/./sub 9/ films). If erbium ditritide is saturated beyond 1.9 T/Er, the critical helium/metal ratio decreases. For example, in bulk powders ErT/sub 2/./sub 15/ reaches critical release concentration at approx. = 0.03. Moderate elevation of temperature above room temperature has little impact on the helium release rate. It appears that the process may have approx. = 2 kcal/mol activation energy. The first helium formed is well bound. As the tritide ages, the helium is found in higher energy sites. Similar but less extensive measurements on scandium, titanium, and zirconium tritides are also described. Finally, the thermal desorption of erbium tritides of various ages from 50 days to 3154 days is discussed. Significant helium is desorbed along with the tritium in all but the youngest samples during thermodesorption.

  20. Diesel Passenger Car Technology for Low Emissions and CO2 Compliance

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cost effective reduction of legislated emissions (including CO2) is a major issue. NOx control must not be a limiting factor to the long term success of Diesel engines.

  1. Diesel Passenger Car Technology for Low Emissions and CO2 Compliance...

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Cost effective reduction of legislated emissions (including CO2) is a major issue. NOx control must not be a limiting factor to the long term success of Diesel engines. ...

  2. Trading Emissions PLC | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Trading Emissions PLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Trading Emissions PLC Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: EC2N 4AW Product: Trading Emissions PLC is an investment fund...

  3. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Z.; Guan, D.; Wei, W.; Davis, S.; Ciais, P.; Bai, J; Peng, S.; Zhang, Q.; Hubacek, K.; Marland, Gregg; Andres, Robert Joseph; Crawford-Brown, D.; Lin, J.; Zhao, H.; Hong, C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Feng, K.; Peters, Glen P.; Xi, F.; Liu, J.; Li, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Zeng, Ning; He, K.

    2015-08-19

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China’s total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China’s carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption and clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000–2012 than the value reported by China’s national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China’s cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China’s CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = ±7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China’s cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China’s emissions in 2000–2013 may be larger than China’s estimated total forest sink in 1990–2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China’s land carbon sink in 2000–2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).

  4. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    DOE PAGES [OSTI]

    Liu, Z.; Guan, D.; Wei, W.; Davis, S.; Ciais, P.; Bai, J; Peng, S.; Zhang, Q.; Hubacek, K.; Marland, Gregg; et al

    2015-08-19

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China’s total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China’s carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption andmore » clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000–2012 than the value reported by China’s national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China’s cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China’s CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = ±7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China’s cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China’s emissions in 2000–2013 may be larger than China’s estimated total forest sink in 1990–2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China’s land carbon sink in 2000–2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).« less

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    Ethanol Vehicle Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle Emissions on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Vehicle

  6. COMPILATION OF REGIONAL TO GLOBAL INVENTORIES OF ANTHROPOGENIC EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    BENKOVITZ,C.M.

    2002-11-01

    The mathematical modeling of the transport and transformation of trace species in the atmosphere is one of the scientific tools currently used to assess atmospheric chemistry, air quality, and climatic conditions. From the scientific but also from the management perspectives accurate inventories of emissions of the trace species at the appropriate spatial, temporal, and species resolution are required. There are two general methodologies used to estimate regional to global emissions: bottom-up and top-down (also known as inverse modeling). Bottom-up methodologies to estimate industrial emissions are based on activity data, emission factors (amount of emissions per unit activity), and for some inventories additional parameters (such as sulfur content of fuels). Generally these emissions estimates must be given finer sectoral, spatial (usually gridded), temporal, and for some inventories species resolution. Temporal and spatial resolution are obtained via the use of surrogate information, such as population, land use, traffic counts, etc. which already exists in or can directly be converted to gridded form. Speciation factors have been and are being developed to speciate inventories of NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and hydrocarbons. Top-down (inverse modeling) methodologies directly invert air quality measurements in terms of poorly known but critical parameters to constrain the emissions needed to explain these measurements; values of these parameters are usually computed using atmospheric transport models. Currently there are several strong limitations of inverse modeling, but the continued evolution of top-down estimates will be facilitated by the development of denser monitoring networks and by the massive amounts of data from satellite observations.

  7. Observation of CH4 and other Non-CO2 Green House Gas Emissions from California

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Marc L.; Zhao, Chuanfeng; Riley, William J.; Andrews, Arlyn C.

    2009-01-09

    In 2006, California passed the landmark assembly bill AB-32 to reduce California's emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that contribute to global climate change. AB-32 commits California to reduce total GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, a reduction of 25 percent from current levels. To verify that GHG emission reductions are actually taking place, it will be necessary to measure emissions. We describe atmospheric inverse model estimates of GHG emissions obtained from the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) project. In collaboration with NOAA, we are measuring the dominant long-lived GHGs at two tall-towers in central California. Here, we present estimates of CH{sub 4} emissions obtained by statistical comparison of measured and predicted atmospheric mixing ratios. The predicted mixing ratios are calculated using spatially resolved a priori CH{sub 4} emissions and surface footprints, that provide a proportional relationship between the surface emissions and the mixing ratio signal at tower locations. The footprints are computed using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) coupled to the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model. Integral to the inverse estimates, we perform a quantitative analysis of errors in atmospheric transport and other factors to provide quantitative uncertainties in estimated emissions. Regressions of modeled and measured mixing ratios suggest that total CH{sub 4} emissions are within 25% of the inventory estimates. A Bayesian source sector analysis obtains posterior scaling factors for CH{sub 4} emissions, indicating that emissions from several of the sources (e.g., landfills, natural gas use, petroleum production, crops, and wetlands) are roughly consistent with inventory estimates, but livestock emissions are significantly higher than the inventory. A Bayesian 'region' analysis is used to identify spatial variations in CH{sub 4} emissions from 13 sub-regions within California. Although, only

  8. Steinbeis Technology Transfer Centre for Emissions Trading |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Steinbeis Technology Transfer Centre for Emissions Trading Jump to: navigation, search Name: Steinbeis Technology Transfer Centre for Emissions Trading Place: Augsburg, Bavaria,...

  9. Diesel Emission Control Technology in Review

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Review of light- and heavy-duty diesel emission regulations and state-of-the-art emission control technologies and strategies to meet them.

  10. IGES GHG Emissions Data | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    GHG inventory Resource Type: Dataset Website: www.iges.or.jpencdmreportkyoto.html References: IGES GHG Emissions Data1 Summary "IGES GHG Emissions Data is aimed at...

  11. Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance of In-Use Diesel Retrofit Technologies from the National Clean Diesel Campaign Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction ...

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Vehicle Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel ...

  13. Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Manufacturing

    Reports and Publications

    2000-01-01

    Energy-related carbon emissions in manufacturing analysis and issues related to the energy use, energy efficiency, and carbon emission indicators.

  14. Dielectric Resonator Metamasurfaces: Optical Magnetism Emission...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Optical Magnetism Emission and Optical Devices. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dielectric Resonator Metamasurfaces: Optical Magnetism Emission and Optical Devices. ...

  15. DIesel Emission Control Technology Developments | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    DIesel Emission Control Technology Developments DIesel Emission Control Technology Developments 2005deerandreoni.pdf (249.21 KB) More Documents & Publications Cleaning Up Diesel ...

  16. Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from Advanced Technologies Measurement and Characterization ...

  17. Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) Program - Bangladesh ...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) Program - Bangladesh Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) Program Retrieved from...

  18. Zero Emissions Leasing LLC | Open Energy Information

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Zero Emissions Leasing LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Zero Emissions Leasing LLC Place: Honolulu, Hawaii Zip: 96822 Sector: Solar Product: Honolulu-based developer of solar...

  19. How the Carbon Emissions Were Estimated

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    dioxide emissions are the main component of greenhouse gas emissions caused by human activity. Carbon dioxide is emitted mostly as a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels...

  20. Diesel Emission Control in Review

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

  1. Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    ACES is a cooperative multi-party effort to characterize emissions and possible health effects of new, advanced heavy duty engine and control systems and fuels in the market 2007 - 2010.

  2. emissions | OpenEI Community

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    cities CO2 emissions OpenEI suburbs US New research from the University of California-Berkeley shows that those who live in cities in the United States have significantly smaller...

  3. Acoustic emission linear pulse holography

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H.D.; Busse, L.J.; Lemon, D.K.

    1983-10-25

    This device relates to the concept of and means for performing Acoustic Emission Linear Pulse Holography, which combines the advantages of linear holographic imaging and Acoustic Emission into a single non-destructive inspection system. This unique system produces a chronological, linear holographic image of a flaw by utilizing the acoustic energy emitted during crack growth. The innovation is the concept of utilizing the crack-generated acoustic emission energy to generate a chronological series of images of a growing crack by applying linear, pulse holographic processing to the acoustic emission data. The process is implemented by placing on a structure an array of piezoelectric sensors (typically 16 or 32 of them) near the defect location. A reference sensor is placed between the defect and the array.

  4. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  5. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Annual Energy Outlook

    grasslands 34 Net carbon dioxide sequestration in U.S. urban trees, yard trimmings, and food scraps 35 Emissions of carbon dioxide from biofuelbioenergy use by sector and fuel

  6. New Mexico--East Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico--East Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 10 2010's 3 66 28 7 106 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  7. New Mexico--West Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico--West Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 0 3 17 11 7 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  8. Adjustable Speed Drive Part-Load Efficiency - Motor Tip Sheet #11

    SciTech Connect

    2008-07-01

    An adjustable speed drive (ASD) is a device that controls the rotational speed of motor-driven equipment. Variable frequency drives (VFDs), the most common type of ASDs, efficiently meet varying process requirements by adjusting the frequency and voltage of the power supplied to an AC motor to enable it to operate over a wide speed range. External sensors monitor flow, liquid levels, or pressure and then transmit a signal to a controller that adjusts the frequency and speed to match process requirements.

  9. Texas--RRC District 8A Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas--RRC District 8A Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 0 0 123 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  10. Outstanding field emission properties of wet-processed titanium dioxide coated carbon nanotube based field emission devices

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jinzhuo; Ou-Yang, Wei Chen, Xiaohong; Guo, Pingsheng; Piao, Xianqing; Sun, Zhuo; Xu, Peng; Wang, Miao; Li, Jun

    2015-02-16

    Field emission devices using a wet-processed composite cathode of carbon nanotube films coated with titanium dioxide exhibit outstanding field emission characteristics, including ultralow turn on field of 0.383 V μm{sup −1} and threshold field of 0.657 V μm{sup −1} corresponding with a very high field enhancement factor of 20 000, exceptional current stability, and excellent emission uniformity. The improved field emission properties are attributed to the enhanced edge effect simultaneously with the reduced screening effect, and the lowered work function of the composite cathode. In addition, the highly stable electron emission is found due to the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the carbon nanotubes, which prohibits the cathode from the influence of ions and free radical created in the emission process as well as residual oxygen gas in the device. The high-performance solution-processed composite cathode demonstrates great potential application in vacuum electronic devices.

  11. Portable mass spectrometer with one or more mechanically adjustable electrostatic sectors and a mechanically adjustable magnetic sector all mounted in a vacuum chamber

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, B.D.; Eckels, J.D.; Kimmons, J.F.; Martin, W.H.; Myers, D.W.; Keville, R.F.

    1992-10-06

    A portable mass spectrometer is described having one or more electrostatic focusing sectors and a magnetic focusing sector, all of which are positioned inside a vacuum chamber, and all of which may be adjusted via adjustment means accessible from outside the vacuum chamber. Mounting of the magnetic sector entirely within the vacuum chamber permits smaller magnets to be used, thus permitting reductions in both weight and bulk. 13 figs.

  12. Portable mass spectrometer with one or more mechanically adjustable electrostatic sectors and a mechanically adjustable magnetic sector all mounted in a vacuum chamber

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, Brian D.; Eckels, Joel D.; Kimmons, James F.; Martin, Walter H.; Myers, David W.; Keville, Robert F.

    1992-01-01

    A portable mass spectrometer is described having one or more electrostatic focusing sectors and a magnetic focusing sector, all of which are positioned inside a vacuum chamber, and all of which may be adjusted via adjustment means accessible from outside the vacuum chamber. Mounting of the magnetic sector entirely within the vacuum chamber permits smaller magnets to be used, thus permitting reductions in both weight and bulk.

  13. Adjusting External Doses from the ORNL and Y-12 Facilities for...

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Adjusting External Doses from the ORNL and Y-12 Facilities for the Oak Ridge Nuclear Facilities Mortality Study A Supplemental Report to Data Collection, Validation, and ...

  14. Function point count adjustment by means of scaling touched function points

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, M.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the use of scaling touched function points to adjust function point analysis in determine the usefullness, productivity, and quality of software.

  15. QA procedures and emissions from nonstandard sources in AQUIS, a PC-based emission inventory and air permit manager

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.E.; Tschanz, J.; Monarch, M.

    1996-05-01

    The Air Quality Utility Information System (AQUIS) is a database management system that operates under dBASE IV. It runs on an IBM-compatible personal computer (PC) with MS DOS 5.0 or later, 4 megabytes of memory, and 30 megabytes of disk space. AQUIS calculates emissions for both traditional and toxic pollutants and reports emissions in user-defined formats. The system was originally designed for use at 7 facilities of the Air Force Materiel Command, and now more than 50 facilities use it. Within the last two years, the system has been used in support of Title V permit applications at Department of Defense facilities. Growth in the user community, changes and additions to reference emission factor data, and changing regulatory requirements have demanded additions and enhancements to the system. These changes have ranged from adding or updating an emission factor to restructuring databases and adding new capabilities. Quality assurance (QA) procedures have been developed to ensure that emission calculations are correct even when databases are reconfigured and major changes in calculation procedures are implemented. This paper describes these QA and updating procedures. Some user facilities include light industrial operations associated with aircraft maintenance. These facilities have operations such as fiberglass and composite layup and plating operations for which standard emission factors are not available or are inadequate. In addition, generally applied procedures such as material balances may need special treatment to work in an automated environment, for example, in the use of oils and greases and when materials such as polyurethane paints react chemically during application. Some techniques used in these situations are highlighted here. To provide a framework for the main discussions, this paper begins with a description of AQUIS.

  16. Experimental study on NOx emission and unburnt carbon of a radial biased swirl burner for coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Shan Xue; Shi'en Hui; Qulan Zhou; Tongmo Xu

    2009-07-15

    Pilot tests were carried out on a 1 MW thermal pulverized coal fired testing furnace. Symmetrical combustion was implemented by use of two whirl burners with dual air adjustment. The burnout air device was installed in various places at the top of the main burner, which consists of a primary air pipe with a varying cross-section and an impact ring. In the primary air pipe, the air pulverized coal (PC) stream was separated into a whirling stream that was thick inside and thin outside, thus realizing the thin-thick distribution at the burner nozzle in the radial direction. From the comparative combustion tests of three coals with relatively great characteristic differences, Shaanbei Shenhua high rank bituminous coal (SH coal), Shanxi Hejin low rank bituminous coal (HJ coal), and Shanxi Changzhi meager coal (CZ coal), were obtained such test results as the primary air ratio, inner secondary air ratio, outer secondary air ratio, impact of the change of outer secondary air, change of the relative position for the layout of burnout air, change of the swirling intensity of the primary air and secondary air, etc., on the NOx emission, and unburnt carbon content in fly ash (CFA). At the same time, the relationship between the NOx emission and burnout ratio and affecting factors of the corresponding test items on the combustion stability and economic results were also acquired. The results may provide a vital guiding significance to engineering designs and practical applications. According to the experimental results, the influence of each individual parameter on NOx formation and unburned carbon in fly ash agrees well with the existing literature. In this study, the influences of various combinations of these parameters are also examined, thus providing some reference for the design of the radial biased swirl burner, the configuration of the furnace, and the distribution of the air. 23 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Comparative emissions from natural gas and diesel buses

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, N.N.; Gadapati, C.J.; Lyons, D.W.; Wang, W.; Gautam, M.; Bata, R.M.; Kelly, K.; White, C.L.

    1995-12-31

    Data has been gathered using the West Virginia University Heavy Duty Transportable Emissions Laboratories from buses operating on diesel and a variety of alternate fuels in the field. Emissions data are acquired from buses using the Central Business District cycle reported in SAE Standard J1376; this cycle has 14 ramps with 20 mph (32.2 km/h) peaks, separated by idle periods. During the three years of testing, a significant fraction of emissions data was acquired from buses with Cummins L-10 engines designed to operate on either CNG or diesel. The CNG lean burn engines were spark ignited and throttled. Early CNG engines, which were pre-certification demonstration models, have provided the bulk of the data, but data from 9 buses with more advanced technology were also available. It has been found that carbon monoxide (CO) levels from early Cummins L-10 CNG powered buses varied greatly from bus to bus, with the higher values ascribed to either faulty catalytic converters or a rich idle situation, while the later model CNG L-10 engines offered CO levels considerably lower than those typical of diesel engines. The NO{sub x} emissions were on par with those from diesel L-10 buses. Those natural gas buses with engines adjusted correctly for air-fuel ratio, returned very low emissions data. CNG bus hydrocarbon emissions are not readily compared with diesel engine levels since only the non-methane organic gases (NMOG) are of interest. Data show that NMOG levels are low for the CNG buses. Significant reduction was observed in the particulate matter emitted by the CNG powered buses compared to the diesel buses, in most cases the quantity captured was vanishingly small. Major conclusions are that engine maintenance is crucial if emissions are to remain at design levels and that the later generation CNG engines show marked improvement over the earlier models. One may project for the long term that closed loop stoichiometry control is desirable even in lean burn applications.

  18. Locating and estimating air emissions from sources of arsenic and arsenic compounds. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    This document describes the properties of arsenic and arsenic compounds as air pollutants, defines production and use patterns, identifies source categories of air emissions, and provides emission factors. Arsenic is emitted as an air pollutant from external combustion boilers, municipal and hazardous waste incineration, primary copper and zinc smelting, glass manufacturing, copper ore mining, and primary and secondary lead smelting. Emissions of arsenic from these activities are due to the presence of trace amounts of arsenic in fuels and materials being processed. In such cases, the emissions may be quite variable because the trace presence of arsenic is not constant. Arsenic emissions also occur from agricultural chemical production and application, and also from metal processing due to the use of arsenic in these activities. In addition to the arsenic source information, information is provided that specifies how individual sources of arsenic may be tested to quantify air emissions.

  19. Effects of Headspace and Oxygen Level on Off-gas Emissions from Wood Pellets in Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Kuang, Xingya; Shankar, T.S.; Lim, C. Jim; Bi, X.T.; Melin, Staffan

    2009-10-01

    Few papers have been published in the open literature on the emissions from biomass fuels, including wood pellets, during the storage and transportation and their potential health impacts. The purpose of this study is to provide data on the concentrations, emission factors, and emission rate factors of CO2, CO, and CH4 from wood pellets stored with different headspace to container volume ratios with different initial oxygen levels, in order to develop methods to reduce the toxic off-gas emissions and accumulation in storage spaces. Metal containers (45 l, 305 mm diameter by 610 mm long) were used to study the effect of headspace and oxygen levels on the off-gas emissions from wood pellets. Concentrations of CO2, CO, and CH4 in the headspace were measured using a gas chromatograph as a function of storage time. The results showed that the ratio of the headspace ratios and initial oxygen levels in the storage space significantly affected the off-gas emissions from wood pellets stored in a sealed container. Higher peak emission factors and higher emission rates are associated with higher headspace ratios. Lower emissions of CO2 and CO were generated at room temperature under lower oxygen levels, whereas CH4 emission is insensitive to the oxygen level. Replacing oxygen with inert gases in the storage space is thus a potentially effective method to reduce the biomass degradation and toxic off-gas emissions. The proper ventilation of the storage space can also be used to maintain a high oxygen level and low concentrations of toxic off-gassing compounds in the storage space, which is especially useful during the loading and unloading operations to control the hazards associated with the storage and transportation of wood pellets.

  20. Douglas Factors

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Merit Systems Protection Board in its landmark decision, Douglas vs. Veterans Administration, 5 MSPR 280, established criteria that supervisors must consider in determining an appropriate penalty to impose for an act of employee misconduct. These twelve factors are commonly referred to as “Douglas Factors” and have been incorporated into the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Personnel Management System and various FAA Labor Agreements.

  1. PHEV Engine Cold Start Emissions Management

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    Coordination of engine and powertrain supervisory control strategies to minimize cold start emissions

  2. The Prompt and High Energy Emission of Gamma Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Meszaros, P.

    2009-05-25

    I discuss some recent developments concerning the prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts, in particular the jet properties and radiation mechanisms, as exemplified by the naked-eye burst GRB 080319b, and the prompt X-ray emission of XRB080109/SN2008d, where the progenitor has, for the first time, been shown to contribute to the prompt emission. I discuss then some recent theoretical calculations of the GeV/TeV spectrum of GRB in the context of both leptonic SSC models and hadronic models. The recent observations by the Fermi satellite of GRB 080916C are then reviewed, and their implications for such models are discussed, together with its interesting determination of a bulk Lorentz factor, and the highest lower limit on the quantum gravity energy scale so far.

  3. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in motor vehicle fuels and exhaust emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, L.C.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Harley, R.A.; Hammond, S.K.; Miguel, A.H.; Hering, S.V.

    1999-09-15

    Motor vehicles are a significant source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions. Improved understanding of the relationship between fuel composition and PAH emissions is needed to determine whether fuel reformulation is a viable approach for reducing PAH emissions. PAH concentrations were quantified in gasoline and diesel fuel samples collected in summer 1997 in northern California. Naphthalene was the predominant PAH in both fuels, with concentrations of up to 2,600 mg L{sup {minus}1} in gasoline and 1,600 mg L{sup {minus}1} in diesel fuel. Particle-phase PAH size distributions and exhaust emission factors were measured in two bores of a roadway tunnel. Emission factors were determined separately for light-duty vehicles and for heavy-duty diesel trucks, based on measurements of PAHs, CO, and CO{sub 2}. Particle-phase emission factors, expressed per unit mass of fuel burned, ranged up to 21 {micro}g kg{sup {minus}1} for benzo[ghi]perylene for light-duty vehicles and up to {approximately} 1,000 {micro}g kg{sup {minus}1} for pyrene for heavy-duty diesel vehicles. Light-duty vehicles were found to be a significant source of heavier (four- and five-ring) PAHs, whereas heavy-duty diesel engines were the dominant source of three-ring PAHs, such as fluoranthene and pyrene. While no correlation between heavy-duty diesel truck PAH emission factors and PAH concentrations in diesel fuel was found, light-duty vehicle PAH emission factors were found to be correlated with PAH concentrations in gasoline, suggesting that gasoline reformulation may be effective in reducing PAH emissions from motor vehicles.

  4. Advanced Emission Control Development Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.P.

    1997-12-31

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  5. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    A. P. Evans

    1998-12-03

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  6. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A P

    1998-12-03

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W's new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  7. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Holmes

    1998-12-03

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  8. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY ON FORMALDEHYDE EMISSIONS IN TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS

    SciTech Connect

    Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L.; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-04-01

    The effect of temperature and humidity on formaldehyde emissions from samples collected from temporary housing units (THUs) was studied. The THUs were supplied by the U.S Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) to families that lost their homes in Louisiana and Mississippi during the Hurricane Katrina and Rita disasters. Based on a previous study 1, 2, four of the composite wood surface materials that dominated contributions to indoor formaldehyde were selected to analyze the effects of temperature and humidity on the emission factors. Humidity equilibration experiments were carried out on two of the samples to determine how long the samples take to equilibrate with the surrounding environmental conditions. Small chamber experiments were then conducted to measure emission factors for the four surface materials at various temperature and humidity conditions. The samples were analyzed for formaldehyde via high performance liquid chromatography. The experiments showed that increases in temperature or humidity contributed to an increase in emission factors. A linear regression model was built using natural log of percentage relative humidity (RH) and inverse of temperature (in K) as predictor variables, and natural log of emission factors as the target variable. The coefficients of both inverse temperature and log relative humidity with log emission factor were found to be statistically significant for all the samples at the 95percent confidence level. This study should assist to retrospectively estimate indoor formaldehyde exposures of occupants of temporary housing units (THUs).

  9. Emission Market Opportunities for Federal Energy Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Vimmerstedt, L.; Shah, C.

    2005-06-01

    This document assists federal agencies in incorporating emissions market opportunities in their energy projects, including emission reduction credit markets and cap and trade. It looks at how potential emissions costs/revenues can be incorporated into project proposals, how groups can apply for emissions allowances, and how agencies can sell emissions allowances and receive the financial benefit. The fact sheet also outlines how FEMP can provide assistance throughout the process.

  10. Software solutions for emission monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    DeFriez, H.; Schillinger, S.; Seraji, H.

    1996-12-31

    Industry and state and federal environmental regulatory agencies are becoming ever more conciliatory due to the high cost of implementing the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) for the operation of Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems (CEMS). In many cases the modifications do nothing to reduce emissions or even to measure the pollution, but simply let the source owner or operator and the permitting authority agree on a monitoring method and/or program. The EPA methods and standards developed under the Code of Federal Regulations (CFRs) have proven to be extremely costly and burdensome. Now, the USEPA and state agencies are making efforts to assure that emissions data has a strong technical basis to demonstrate compliance with regulations such as Title V.

  11. Application of microturbines to control emissions from associated gas

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Darren D.

    2013-04-16

    A system for controlling the emission of associated gas produced from a reservoir. In an embodiment, the system comprises a gas compressor including a gas inlet in fluid communication with an associated gas source and a gas outlet. The gas compressor adjusts the pressure of the associated gas to produce a pressure-regulated associated gas. In addition, the system comprises a gas cleaner including a gas inlet in fluid communication with the outlet of the gas compressor, a fuel gas outlet, and a waste product outlet. The gas cleaner separates at least a portion of the sulfur and the water from the associated gas to produce a fuel gas. Further, the system comprises a gas turbine including a fuel gas inlet in fluid communication with the fuel gas outlet of the gas cleaner and an air inlet. Still further, the system comprises a choke in fluid communication with the air inlet.

  12. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1999 Emission Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zohner, S.K.

    2000-05-30

    This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  13. Air emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: 1994 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This report Presents the 1994 update of the Air Emission inventory for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of non-radionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEL, and provides non-radionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  14. Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory - Calendar Year 1998 Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Zohner

    1999-10-01

    This report presents the 1998 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradiological emissions estimates for stationary sources.

  15. Carbonyl Emissions from Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Destaillats, Hugo; Jakober, Chris A.; Robert, Michael A.; Riddle, Sarah G.; Destaillats, Hugo; Charles, M. Judith; Green, Peter G.; Kleeman, Michael J.

    2007-12-01

    Carbonyls from gasoline powered light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and heavy-duty diesel powered vehicles (HDDVs) operated on chassis dynamometers were measured using an annular denuder-quartz filter-polyurethane foam sampler with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine derivatization and chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Two internal standards were utilized based on carbonyl recovery, 4-fluorobenzaldehyde for_C8 compounds. Gas- and particle-phase emissions for 39 aliphatic and 20 aromatic carbonyls ranged from 0.1 ? 2000 ?g/L fuel for LDVs and 1.8 - 27000 mu g/L fuel for HDDVs. Gas-phase species accounted for 81-95percent of the total carbonyls from LDVs and 86-88percent from HDDVs. Particulate carbonyls emitted from a HDDV under realistic driving conditions were similar to concentrations measured in a diesel particulate matter (PM) standard reference material. Carbonyls accounted for 19percent of particulate organic carbon (POC) emissions from low-emission LDVs and 37percent of POC emissions from three-way catalyst equipped LDVs. This identifies carbonyls as one of the largest classes of compounds in LDV PM emissions. The carbonyl fraction of HDDV POC was lower, 3.3-3.9percent depending upon operational conditions. Partitioning analysis indicates the carbonyls had not achieved equilibrium between the gas- and particle-phase under the dilution factors of 126-584 used in the current study.

  16. Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory for Alternative Vehicles Emissions Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Nigel

    2012-01-31

    The overall objective of this project was to perform research to quantify and improve the energy efficiency and the exhaust emissions reduction from advanced technology vehicles using clean, renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicle and alternative fuel fleets were to be identified, and selected vehicles characterized for emissions and efficiency. Target vehicles were to include transit buses, school buses, vocational trucks, delivery trucks, and tractor-trailers. Gaseous species measured were to include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. An objective was to characterize particulate matter more deeply than by mass. Accurate characterization of efficiency and emissions was to be accomplished using a state-of-the-art portable emissions measurement system and an accompanying chassis dynamometer available at West Virginia University. These two units, combined, are termed the Transportable Laboratory. An objective was to load the vehicles in a real-world fashion, using coast down data to establish rolling resistance and wind drag, and to apply the coast down data to the dynamometer control. Test schedules created from actual vehicle operation were to be employed, and a specific objective of the research was to assess the effect of choosing a test schedule which the subject vehicle either cannot follow or can substantially outperform. In addition the vehicle loading objective was to be met better with an improved flywheel system.

  17. Low emission internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Karaba, Albert M.

    1979-01-01

    A low emission, internal combustion compression ignition engine having a cylinder, a piston movable in the cylinder and a pre-combustion chamber communicating with the cylinder near the top thereof and in which low emissions of NO.sub.x are achieved by constructing the pre-combustion chamber to have a volume of between 70% and 85% of the combined pre-chamber and main combustion chamber volume when the piston is at top dead center and by variably controlling the initiation of fuel injection into the pre-combustion chamber.

  18. Fiber optics spectrochemical emission sensors

    DOEpatents

    Griffin, J.W.; Olsen, K.B.

    1992-02-04

    A method is described of in situ monitoring of a body of a fluid stored in a tank or groundwater or vadose zone gases in a well for the presence of selected chemical species. The method uses a probe insertable into the well or tank via a cable and having an electrical apparatus for exciting selected chemical species in the body of fluid. The probe can have a pair of electrodes for initiating a spark or a plasma cell for maintaining a plasma to excite the selected chemical species. The probe also has an optical apparatus for receiving optical emissions emitted by the excited species and optically transmitting the emissions via the cable to an analysis location outside the well. The analysis includes detecting a selected wavelength in the emissions indicative of the presence of the selected chemical species. A plurality of probes can be suspended at an end of a respective cable, with the transmitting and analyzing steps for each probe being synchronized sequentially for one set of support equipment and instrumentation to monitor at multiple test points. The optical apparatus is arranged about the light guide axis so that the selected chemical species are excited in the fluid in alignment with the light guide axis. Optical emissions are received from the excited chemical species along such axis. 18 figs.

  19. Fiber optics spectrochemical emission sensors

    DOEpatents

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Olsen, Khris B.

    1992-01-01

    A method of in situ monitoring of a body of a fluid stored in a tank or groundwater or vadose zone gases in a well for the presence of selected chemical species uses a probe insertable into the well or tank via a cable and having electrical apparatus for exciting selected chemical species in the body of fluid. The probe can have a pair of electrodes for initiating a spark or a plasma cell for maintaining a plasma to excite the selected chemical species. The probe also has optical apparatus for receiving optical emissions emitted by the excited species and optically transmitting the emissions via the cable to an analysis location outside the well. The analysis includes detecting a selected wavelength in the emissions indicative of the presence of the selected chemical species. A plurality of probes can be suspended at an end of a respective cable, with the transmitting and analyzing steps for each probe being synchronized sequentially for one set of support equipment and instrumentation to monitor at multiple test points. The optical apparatus is arranged about the light guide axis so that the selected chemical species are excited the fluid in alignment with the light guide axis and optical emissions are received from the excited chemical species along such axis.

  20. Fission Particle Emission Multiplicity Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center

    2006-09-27

    Simulates discrete neutron and gamma-ray emission from the fission of heavy nuclei that is either spontaneous or neutron induced. This is a function library that encapsulates the fission physics and is intended to be called Monte Carlo transport code.

  1. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Qin, Yining

    2011-03-31

    Although China became the world's largest emitter of energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007, China does not publish annual estimates of CO{sub 2} emissions and most published estimates of China's emissions have been done by other international organizations. Undertaken at the request of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy, this study examines the feasibility of applying the EIA emissions inventory methodology to estimate China's emissions from published Chinese data. Besides serving as a proof of concept, this study also helps develop a consistent and transparent method for estimating China's CO{sub 2} emissions using an Excel model and identified China-specific data issues and areas for improvement. This study takes a core set of data from the energy balances published in the China Energy Statistical Yearbook 2009 and China Petrochemical Corporation Yearbook 2009 and applies the EIA's eight-step methodology to estimate China's 2008 CO{sub 2} emissions. First, China's primary and secondary fuel types and consumption by end use are determined with slight discrepancies identified between the two data sources and inconsistencies in product categorization with the EIA. Second, energy consumption data are adjusted to eliminate double counting in the four potential areas identified by EIA; consumption data from China's Special Administrative Regions are not included. Physical fuel units are then converted to energy equivalents using China's standard energy measure of coal equivalent (1 kilogram = 29.27 MJ) and IPCC carbon emissions coefficients are used to calculate each fuel's carbon content. Next, carbon sequestration is estimated following EIA conventions for other petroleum products and non-energy use of secondary fuels. Emissions from international bunker fuels are also subtracted under the 'reference' calculation of estimating apparent energy consumption by fuel type and the 'sectoral' calculation of summing emissions

  2. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000-2013

    Reports and Publications

    2015-01-01

    This analysis examines some of the factors that influence state-level carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of fossil fuels. These factors include: the fuel mix — especially in the generation of electricity; the state climate; the population density of the state; the industrial makeup of the state and whether the state is a net exporter or importer of electricity.

  3. U.S. Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Million Barrels) Adjustments (Million Barrels) U.S. Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 50 2010's 44 8 28 25 -76 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments

  4. New Mexico--East Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico--East Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 4 -3 0 -10 246 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Reserves Adjustments

  5. New Mexico--West Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico--West Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -9 2010's 257 -167 56 51 455 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Reserves Adjustments

  6. Texas--RRC District 1 Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas--RRC District 1 Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 5 2010's 8 0 47 315 129 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  7. Texas--RRC District 10 Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Cubic Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas--RRC District 10 Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 0 0 9 0 5 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Reserves Adjustments

  8. Texas--RRC District 10 Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas--RRC District 10 Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 0 -1 11 6 36 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  9. Texas--RRC District 2 onsh Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas--RRC District 2 onsh Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 0 0 1 1 -5 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Reserves Adjustments

  10. Texas--RRC District 2 onsh Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas--RRC District 2 onsh Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 6 237 494 40 79 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  11. Texas--RRC District 3 onsh Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    (Billion Cubic Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas--RRC District 3 onsh Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 0 0 81 -17 -37 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Coalbed Methane Reserves Adjustments

  12. Texas--RRC District 3 onsh Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas--RRC District 3 onsh Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 0 1 1 -3 35 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  13. Texas--RRC District 4 onsh Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas--RRC District 4 onsh Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 53 2010's 0 185 300 592 11 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  14. Texas--RRC District 5 Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas--RRC District 5 Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 657 2010's 105 233 -516 -70 261 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  15. Texas--RRC District 6 Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas--RRC District 6 Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 40 2010's 1,968 26 -225 564 -586 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  16. Texas--RRC District 7B Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas--RRC District 7B Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 56 2010's 267 -193 567 -106 -258 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  17. Texas--RRC District 7C Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas--RRC District 7C Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 0 -1 1 -1 231 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  18. Texas--RRC District 8 Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas--RRC District 8 Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -1 2010's 53 -79 249 -21 214 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  19. Texas--RRC District 9 Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas--RRC District 9 Shale Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 179 2010's 533 42 -483 378 243 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments

  20. Comparison of methodologies estimating emissions of aircraft pollutants, environmental impact assessment around airports

    SciTech Connect

    Kurniawan, Jermanto S. Khardi, S.

    2011-04-15

    Air transportation growth has increased continuously over the years. The rise in air transport activity has been accompanied by an increase in the amount of energy used to provide air transportation services. It is also assumed to increase environmental impacts, in particular pollutant emissions. Traditionally, the environmental impacts of atmospheric emissions from aircraft have been addressed in two separate ways; aircraft pollutant emissions occurring during the landing and take-off (LTO) phase (local pollutant emissions) which is the focus of this study, and the non-LTO phase (global/regional pollutant emissions). Aircraft pollutant emissions are an important source of pollution and directly or indirectly harmfully affect human health, ecosystems and cultural heritage. There are many methods to asses pollutant emissions used by various countries. However, using different and separate methodology will cause a variation in results, some lack of information and the use of certain methods will require justification and reliability that must be demonstrated and proven. In relation to this issue, this paper presents identification, comparison and reviews of some of the methodologies of aircraft pollutant assessment from the past, present and future expectations of some studies and projects focusing on emissions factors, fuel consumption, and uncertainty. This paper also provides reliable information on the impacts of aircraft pollutant emissions in short term and long term predictions.

  1. Junction-based field emission structure for field emission display

    DOEpatents

    Dinh, Long N.; Balooch, Mehdi; McLean, II, William; Schildbach, Marcus A.

    2002-01-01

    A junction-based field emission display, wherein the junctions are formed by depositing a semiconducting or dielectric, low work function, negative electron affinity (NEA) silicon-based compound film (SBCF) onto a metal or n-type semiconductor substrate. The SBCF can be doped to become a p-type semiconductor. A small forward bias voltage is applied across the junction so that electron transport is from the substrate into the SBCF region. Upon entering into this NEA region, many electrons are released into the vacuum level above the SBCF surface and accelerated toward a positively biased phosphor screen anode, hence lighting up the phosphor screen for display. To turn off, simply switch off the applied potential across the SBCF/substrate. May be used for field emission flat panel displays.

  2. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier2Adjustment...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    search This is a property of type Number. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:OpenEIUtilityRateDemandRateStructureTier2Adjustment&oldid539746...

  3. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier6Adjustment...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    search This is a property of type Number. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:OpenEIUtilityRateDemandRateStructureTier6Adjustment&oldid539759...

  4. Is the hourly data from the NREL PV Watts program adjusted for...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    it is stated, "No adjustments are made for leap years or daylight savings time." Hope this helps. Pgray on 1 July, 2014 - 07:04 Points: 0 Thank you. I appreciate the help....

  5. EIA Energy Efficiency-Table 3c. Capacity Adjusted Value of Production...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    c Page Last Modified: May 2010 Table 3c. Capacity Adjusted Value of Production 1 by Selected Industries, 1998, 2002, and 2006 (Current Billion Dollars) MECS Survey Years NAICS...

  6. EIA Energy Efficiency-Table 4c. Capacity Adjusted Value of Production...

    Annual Energy Outlook

    c Page Last Modified: May 2010 Table 4c. Capacity Adjusted Value of Production 1 by Selected Industries, 1998, 2002, and 2006 (Billion 2000 Dollars 2) MECS Survey Years NAICS...

  7. Minimize Adverse Motor and Adjustable Speed Drive Interactions - Motor Tip Sheet #15

    SciTech Connect

    2008-07-01

    Electronic adjustable speed drives (ASDs) are an extremely efficient and valuable asset to motor systems. They allow precise process control and provide energy savings within systems that do not need to continuously operate at full output.

  8. Constraint propagation of C{sup 2}-adjusted formulation: Another recipe for robust ADM evolution system

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchiya, Takuya; Yoneda, Gen; Shinkai, Hisa-aki [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Waseda University, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Faculty of Information Science and Technology, Osaka Institute of Technology, 1-79-1 Kitayama, Hirakata, Osaka 573-0196 (Japan) and Computational Astrophysics Laboratory, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    With a purpose of constructing a robust evolution system against numerical instability for integrating the Einstein equations, we propose a new formulation by adjusting the ADM evolution equations with constraints. We apply an adjusting method proposed by Fiske (2004) which uses the norm of the constraints, C{sup 2}. One of the advantages of this method is that the effective signature of adjusted terms (Lagrange multipliers) for constraint-damping evolution is predetermined. We demonstrate this fact by showing the eigenvalues of constraint propagation equations. We also perform numerical tests of this adjusted evolution system using polarized Gowdy-wave propagation, which show robust evolutions against the violation of the constraints than that of the standard ADM formulation.

  9. Is the hourly data I get from NREL's PV Watts program adjusted...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Is the hourly data I get from NREL's PV Watts program adjusted for daylight savings time. Home I take the hourly AC output numbers and apply them to a program I built that assigns...

  10. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier3Adjustment...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier3Adjustment Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  11. Permanent-Magnet Adjustable-Speed Motors John S . Hsu (Htsui...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nature and Measurements of Torque Ripple of Permanent-Magnet Adjustable-Speed Motors John ... motors can be classified into four types depending on the nature of their origin. ...

  12. Closed loop engine control for regulating NOx emissions, using a two-dimensional fuel-air curve

    DOEpatents

    Bourn, Gary D.; Smith, Jack A.; Gingrich, Jess W.

    2007-01-30

    An engine control strategy that ensures that NOx emissions from the engine will be maintained at an acceptable level. The control strategy is based on a two-dimensional fuel-air curve, in which air manifold pressure (AMP) is a function of fuel header pressure and engine speed. The control strategy provides for closed loop NOx adjustment to a base AMP value derived from the fuel-air curve.

  13. School Bus Emissions Study | Department of Energy

    Energy.gov [DOE] (indexed site)

    Investigation of the Effects of Fuels and Aftertreatment Devices on the Emission Profiles of Trucks and Buses ARB's Study of Emissions from Diesel and CNG Heavy-duty Transit Buses ...

  14. Volvo Penta 4.3 GL E15 Emissions and Durability Test

    SciTech Connect

    Zoubul, G.; Cahoon, M.; Kolb, R.

    2011-10-01

    A new Volvo Penta carbureted 4.3 GL engine underwent emissions and dynamometer durability testing from break-in to expected end of life using an accelerated ICOMIA marine emissions cycle and E15 fuel. Only ethanol content was controlled. All aging used splash-blended E15 fuel. Exhaust emissions, exhaust gas temperature, torque, power, barometric pressure, air temperature, and fuel flow were measured at five intervals using site-blended E15 aging fuel and certification fuel (E0). The durability test cycle showed no noticeable impact on mechanical durability or engine power. Emissions performance degraded beyond the certification limit for this engine family, mostly occurring by 28% of expected life. Such degradation is inconsistent with prior experience. Comparisons showed that E15 resulted in lower CO and HC, but increased NOX, as expected for non-feedback-controlled carbureted engines with increased oxygen in the fuel. Fuel consumption also increased with E15 compared with E0. Throughout testing, poor starting characteristics were exhibited on E15 fuel for hot re-start and cold-start. Cranking time to start and smooth idle was roughly doubled compared with typical E0 operation. The carburetor was factory-set for lean operation to ensure emissions compliance. Test protocols did not include carburetor adjustment to account for increased oxygen in the E15 fuel.

  15. Integrated Emissivity And Temperature Measurement

    DOEpatents

    Poulsen, Peter

    2005-11-08

    A multi-channel spectrometer and a light source are used to measure both the emitted and the reflected light from a surface which is at an elevated temperature relative to its environment. In a first method, the temperature of the surface and emissivity in each wavelength is calculated from a knowledge of the spectrum and the measurement of the incident and reflected light. In the second method, the reflected light is measured from a reference surface having a known reflectivity and the same geometry as the surface of interest and the emitted and the reflected light are measured for the surface of interest. These measurements permit the computation of the emissivity in each channel of the spectrometer and the temperature of the surface of interest.

  16. Effects of Biodiesel on NOx Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, R.

    2005-06-01

    A presentation about the effects of biodiesel on nitrogen oxide emissions presented at the ARB Biodiesel Workshop June 8, 2005.

  17. Vehicle Emission Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Emission Basics Vehicle Emission Basics November 22, 2013 - 2:07pm Addthis Vehicle emissions are the gases emitted by the tailpipes of vehicles that use internal combustion engines. These vehicles can run on gasoline, diesel, biofuels, natural gas, or propane. Vehicle emissions are composed of varying amounts of: water vapor carbon dioxide (CO2) nitrogen oxygen pollutants such as: carbon monoxide (CO) nitrogen oxides (NOx) unburned hydrocarbons (UHCs) volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

  18. Emissions Quantification Tool | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Services » Technology Development » Smart Grid » Emissions Quantification Tool Emissions Quantification Tool As part of its efforts to quantify benefits from the smart grid, the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability tasked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with developing a tool that can estimate the potential energy and emissions benefits that can result from the deployment of smart grid technologies. The Emissions Quantification Tool (EQT), which was developed

  19. Module: Estimating Historical Emissions from Deforestation |...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Website: www.leafasia.orgtoolstechnical-guidance-series-estimating-historical Cost: Free Language: English Module: Estimating Historical Emissions from Deforestation Screenshot...

  20. FUELS; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; RADIOACTIVE EFFLUENTS; EMISSION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SRP radioactive waste releases. Startup through 1959 Ashley, C. 05 NUCLEAR FUELS; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; RADIOACTIVE EFFLUENTS; EMISSION; ENVIRONMENTAL MATERIALS;...

  1. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

    Contacts This report, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2009, was prepared under the general direction of John Conti, Assistant Administrator for Energy Analysis, and Paul Holtberg, Team Leader, Analysis Integration Team. General questions concerning the content of this report may be directed to the Office of Communications at 202/586-8800. Technical information concerning the content of the report may be obtained from Perry Lindstrom at 202/586-0934 (email,

  2. Anisotropic Lyman-alpha emission

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Zheng; Wallace, Joshua

    2014-10-20

    As a result of resonant scatterings off hydrogen atoms, Lyα emission from star-forming galaxies provides a probe of the (hardly isotropic) neutral gas environment around them. We study the effect of the environmental anisotropy on the observed Lyα emission by performing radiative transfer calculations for models of neutral hydrogen clouds with prescriptions of spatial and kinematic anisotropies. The environmental anisotropy leads to corresponding anisotropy in the Lyα flux and spectral properties and induces correlations among them. The Lyα flux (or observed luminosity) depends on the viewing angle and shows an approximate correlation with the initial Lyα optical depth in the viewing direction relative to those in all other directions. The distribution of Lyα flux from a set of randomly oriented clouds is skewed to high values, providing a natural contribution to the Lyα equivalent width (EW) distribution seen in observation. A narrower EW distribution is found at a larger peak offset of the Lyα line, similar to the trend suggested in observation. The peak offset appears to correlate with the line shape (full width at half-maximum and asymmetry), pointing to a possibility of using Lyα line features alone to determine the systemic redshifts of galaxies. The study suggests that anisotropies in the spatial and kinematic distributions of neutral hydrogen can be an important ingredient in shaping the observed properties of Lyα emission from star-forming galaxies. We discuss the implications of using Lyα emission to probe the circumgalactic and intergalactic environments of galaxies.

  3. Emission

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - all webpages (Extended Search)

    Emily Duong About Us Emily Duong - National Director for Petrocon Corporation Emily Duong Emily Duong was the 2013 Pacific Miss Asian America representing the United States for Miss Asia World. She received degrees in Communications and Business Administration from George Mason University's School of Social Science and Humanities. Ms. Duong is the External Vice President of the Mid-Atlantic Union of Vietnamese Students Association (MAUVSA) highly involved in the national Asian-American

  4. Impact of Biodiesel on Modern Diesel Engine Emissions | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Modern Diesel Engine Emissions Impact of Biodiesel on Modern Diesel Engine Emissions 2011 ... Emission Performance of Modern Diesel Engines Fueled with Biodiesel DPF Performance with ...

  5. Impacts of Biodiesel on Emission Control Devices | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Biodiesel on Emission Control Devices Impacts of Biodiesel on Emission Control Devices Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) ...

  6. Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of Atmosphere...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of Atmosphere Composition and Health Responses to Inhaled Emissions 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference ...

  7. Retrofit Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl Retrofit Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference ...

  8. Perspectives Regarding Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction in the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Perspectives Regarding Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction in the Northeast Perspectives Regarding Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction in the Northeast 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions ...

  9. 2010 Emissions from an Electronics Perspective | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Emissions from an Electronics Perspective 2010 Emissions from an Electronics Perspective 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon ...

  10. Advanced Diesel Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission Legislation Advanced Diesel Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission Legislation 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction ...

  11. Reducing emissions to improve nuclear test detection | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Reducing emissions to improve nuclear test detection | National Nuclear Security ... Home NNSA Blog Reducing emissions to improve nuclear test detection Reducing emissions ...

  12. Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, by Industry, 1994

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Energy Efficiency Page > Energy Energy-Related Carbon Emissions > Total Table Total Energy-Related Carbon Emissions for Manufacturing Industries, 1994 Carbon Emissions (million...

  13. Combustion Targets for Low Emissions and High Efficiency | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Targets for Low Emissions and High Efficiency Combustion Targets for Low Emissions and High Efficiency 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and ...

  14. Catalyzing Cooperative Action for Low Emissions Development Agenda...

    OpenEI (Open Energy Information) [EERE & EIA]

    Emissions Development Agenda Jump to: navigation, search Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership Advancing climate-resilient, low-emission development around the...

  15. Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Emission Credit Brokers 2002deersloan.pdf (184.47 KB) ...

  16. Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions Characterized particulate emissions from U.S.-legal ...

  17. Comparison of emissions and efficiency of a turbocharged lean-burn natural gas and Hythane-fueled engine

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, J.F.; Wallace, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential for reduced exhaust emissions and improved efficiency, by way of lean-burn engine fueling with hydrogen supplemented natural gas (Hythane). The emissions and efficiency of the Hythane fuel (15% hydrogen, 85% natural gas by volume), were compared to the emissions and efficiency of pure natural gas using a turbocharged, spark ignition, 3.1 L, V-6 engine. The feasibility of heavy duty engine fueling with Hythane was assessed through testing conducted at engine speed and load combinations typical of heavy-duty engine operation. Comparison of the efficiency and emissions at MBT spark timing revealed that Hythane fueling of the test engine resulted in consistently lower brake specific energy consumption and emissions of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), at a given equivalence ratio. There was no clear trend with respect to MBT oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions. It was also discovered that an improved NO{sub x}-THC tradeoff resulted when Hythane was used to fuel the test engine. Consequently, Hythane engine operating parameters can be adjusted to achieve a concurrent reduction in NO{sub x} and THC emissions relative to natural gas fueling.

  18. Well-to-wheels analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Poch, L.; Wang, M.; Vyas, A.; Mahalik, M.; Rousseau, A.

    2010-06-14

    energy when the battery is depleted, while the series configuration was adopted for PHEVs with a 30- and 40-mile electric range because they rely mostly on electrical power for propulsion. Argonne researchers calculated the equivalent on-road (real-world) fuel economy on the basis of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency miles per gallon (mpg)-based formulas. The reduction in fuel economy attributable to the on-road adjustment formula was capped at 30% for advanced vehicle systems (e.g., PHEVs, fuel cell vehicles [FCVs], hybrid electric vehicles [HEVs], and battery-powered electric vehicles [BEVs]). Simulations for calendar year 2020 with model year 2015 mid-size vehicles were chosen for this analysis to address the implications of PHEVs within a reasonable timeframe after their likely introduction over the next few years. For the WTW analysis, Argonne assumed a PHEV market penetration of 10% by 2020 in order to examine the impact of significant PHEV loading on the utility power sector. Technological improvement with medium uncertainty for each vehicle was also assumed for the analysis. Argonne employed detailed dispatch models to simulate the electric power systems in four major regions of the US: the New England Independent System Operator, the New York Independent System Operator, the State of Illinois, and the Western Electric Coordinating Council. Argonne also evaluated the US average generation mix and renewable generation of electricity for PHEV and BEV recharging scenarios to show the effects of these generation mixes on PHEV WTW results. Argonne's GREET model was designed to examine the WTW energy use and GHG emissions for PHEVs and BEVs, as well as FCVs, regular HEVs, and conventional gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). WTW results are reported for charge-depleting (CD) operation of PHEVs under different recharging scenarios. The combined WTW results of CD and charge-sustaining (CS) PHEV operations (using the utility factor method) were also

  19. Evaluation of emission-control devices at waferboard plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vaught, C.C.

    1989-10-01

    The document discusses emissions from wood-chip dryers and the candidate control devices that should be considered in a best available control technology analysis. Specifically, the document characterizes wood-chip dryer effluents and presents a general description, pollutant removal efficiencies, factors affecting performance, and cost for the wet electrostatic precipitator and the electrified filter bed. The document also presents information on controlling formaldehyde emissions from the press vents.

  20. The impacts of population change on carbon emissions in China during 1978-2008

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Qin Peng Xizhe

    2012-09-15

    This study examines the impacts of population size, population structure, and consumption level on carbon emissions in China from 1978 to 2008. To this end, we expanded the stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence, and technology model and used the ridge regression method, which overcomes the negative influences of multicollinearity among independent variables under acceptable bias. Results reveal that changes in consumption level and population structure were the major impact factors, not changes in population size. Consumption level and carbon emissions were highly correlated. In terms of population structure, urbanization, population age, and household size had distinct effects on carbon emissions. Urbanization increased carbon emissions, while the effect of age acted primarily through the expansion of the labor force and consequent overall economic growth. Shrinking household size increased residential consumption, resulting in higher carbon emissions. Households, rather than individuals, are a more reasonable explanation for the demographic impact on carbon emissions. Potential social policies for low carbon development are also discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the impacts of population change on carbon emissions in China. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We expand the STIRPAT model by containing population structure factors in the model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The population structure includes age structure, urbanization level, and household size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ridge regression method is used to estimate the model with multicollinearity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The population structure plays a more important role compared with the population size.

  1. Assessment of Health Hazards of Repeated Inhalation of Diesel Emissions, with Comparisons to Other Source Emissions

    Energy.gov [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: National Environmental Respiratory Center

  2. 2009 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2010-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2009. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  3. 2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2011-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  4. 2008 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2009-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2008. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  5. QUANTIFICATION OF FUGITIVE REACTIVE ALKENE EMISSIONS FROM PETROCHEMICAL PLANTS WITH PERFLUOROCARBON TRACERS.

    SciTech Connect

    SENUM,G.I.; DIETZ,R.N.

    2004-06-30

    Recent studies demonstrate the impact of fugitive emissions of reactive alkenes on the atmospheric chemistry of the Houston Texas metropolitan area (1). Petrochemical plants located in and around the Houston area emit atmospheric alkenes, such as ethene, propene and 1,3-butadiene. The magnitude of emissions is a major uncertainty in assessing their effects. Even though the petrochemical industry reports that fugitive emissions of alkenes have been reduced to less than 0.1% of daily production, recent measurement data, obtained during the TexAQS 2000 experiment indicates that emissions are perhaps a factor of ten larger than estimated values. Industry figures for fugitive emissions are based on adding up estimated emission factors for every component in the plant to give a total estimated emission from the entire facility. The dramatic difference between estimated and measured rates indicates either that calculating emission fluxes by summing estimates for individual components is seriously flawed, possibly due to individual components leaking well beyond their estimated tolerances, that not all sources of emissions for a facility are being considered in emissions estimates, or that there are known sources of emissions that are not being reported. This experiment was designed to confirm estimates of reactive alkene emissions derived from analysis of the TexAQS 2000 data by releasing perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) at a known flux from a petrochemical plant and sampling both the perfluorocarbon tracer and reactive alkenes downwind using the Piper-Aztec research aircraft operated by Baylor University. PFTs have been extensively used to determine leaks in pipelines, air infiltration in buildings, and to characterize the transport and dispersion of air parcels in the atmosphere. Over 20 years of development by the Tracer Technology Center (TTC) has produced a range of analysis instruments, field samplers and PFT release equipment that have been successfully deployed in a

  6. Trends in anthropogenic mercury emissions in China from 1995 to 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Wu; Shuxiao Wang; David G. Streets; Jiming Hao; Melissa Chan; Jingkun Jiang

    2006-09-01

    We have developed multiple-year inventories of anthropogenic mercury emissions in China for 1995 through 2003. It is estimated that total Hg emissions from all anthropogenic sources increased at an average annual rate of 2.9% during the period 1995-2003, reaching 696 ({+-}307) t in 2003, with a speciation split of 395 t of Hg{sup 0}, 230 t of Hg{sup 2+}, and 70 t of particulate mercury, Hg{sup p}. Nonferrous metals smelting and coal combustion continue to be the two leading mercury sources in China, as nonferrous metals production and coal consumption keep increasing. Nonferrous metals smelting and coal combustion together contributed {approximately}80% of total Hg emissions during the past decade. Hg emissions from coal combustion increased from 202 t in 1995 to 257 t in 2003 at an average annual rate of 3.0%. Among all of the coal consumption sectors, the power sector is the leading one in Hg emissions growth, up by 5.9% annually. Hg emissions from nonferrous metals smelting increased from 230 t in 1995 to 321 t in 2003 at an average annual rate of 4.2%. Although Hg emissions related to gold smelting decreased since 1996, other nonferrous metals such as zinc, lead, and copper contributed significant Hg growth at annual rates of 8.5%, 13.0%, and 6.9%, respectively. At provincial level, the trends of Hg emissions show significant variation. The uncertainty level decreased from {+-}78% (95% confidence interval) in the estimate of total emissions in 1995, to {+-}44% in 2003. This is primarily attributed to the decreased emissions from those Hg sources with the largest uncertainty in both activity levels and emission factors, such as artisanal gold smelting, mercury mining, and battery/fluorescent lamp production. 36 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  8. Assessing historical global sulfur emission patterns for the period 1850--1990

    SciTech Connect

    Lefohn, A.S.; Husar, J.D.; Husar, R.B.; Brimblecombe, P.

    1996-07-19

    Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions from energy-producing and metal production activities have become an important factor in better understanding the relationship between humans and the environment. Concerns about (1) acid rain effects on the environment and (2) anthropogenic aerosols affecting possible global change have prompted interest in the transformation and fate of sulfur in the environment. One step in assessing the importance of sulfur emissions is the development of a reliable regional emission inventory of sulfur as a function of time. The objective of this research effort was to create a homogeneous database for historical sulfur emission estimates for the world. The time from 1850--1990 was selected to include the period of industrialization form the time the main production of fuels and minerals began until the most recent year for which complete production data exist. This research effort attempts to correct some of the deficiencies associated with previous global sulfur emission estimates by (1) identifying those production activities that resulted in sulfur emissions by country and (2) calculating historical emission trends by country across years. An important component of this study was the comparison of the sulfur emission results with those of previous studies.

  9. High-emission cold cathode

    DOEpatents

    Mancebo, L.

    1974-01-29

    A field-emission cathode having a multitude of field emission points for emitting a copious stream of electrons when subjected to a high field is described. The cathode is constructed by compressing a multitude of tungsten strips alternately arranged with molybdenum strips and copper ribbons or compressing alternately arranged copper plated tungsten and molybdenum strips, heating the arrangement to braze the tungsten and molybdenum strips together with the copper, machining and grinding the exposed strip edges of one side of the brazed arrangement to obtain a precisely planar surface, etching a portion of the molybdenum and copper to leave the edges of the tungsten strips protruding for electron emission, and subjecting the protruding edges of the tungsten strips to a high electric field to degas and roughen the surface to pnovide a large number of emitting points. The resulting structure is particularly useful as a cathode in a transversely excited gaseous laser where the cathode is mounted in a vacuum chamber for emitting electrons under the influence of a high electric field between the cathode and an extractor grid. The electrons pass through the extractor grid, a thin window in the wall of the laser chamber and into the laser chamber which is filled with a gaseous mixture of helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. A second grid is mounted on the gaseous side of the window. The electrons pass into the laser chamber under the influence of a second electric field between the second grid and an anode in the laser chamber to raise selected gas atoms of the gaseous mixture to appropriately excited states so that a subsequent coherent light beam passing through the mixture transversely to the electron stream through windows in opposite ends of the laser chamber stimulates the excited atoms to amplify the beam. (Official Gazette)

  10. Modeling of Lean Exhaust Emissions Control Systems | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Lean Exhaust Emissions Control Systems Modeling of Lean Exhaust Emissions Control Systems 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: National Renewable Energy Laboratory ...

  11. Emissions Technology Gives Company Clean Win as Energy Innovator

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Umpqua Energy produced an emission control system that can potentially reduce the emissions from vehicles by 90 percent.

  12. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors. An assessment of the current situation in the United States and forecast of future emissions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  13. COMPILATION AND ANALYSES OF EMISSIONS INVENTORIES FOR THE NOAA ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY PROJECT. PROGRESS REPORT, AUGUST 1997.

    SciTech Connect

    BENKOVITZ,C.M.

    1997-09-01

    emissions were given additional species resolution by allocating the 23 chemical categories to individual chemical species based on factors derived from the speciated emissions of NMVOCs in the U.S. from the U.S. EPA's 1990 Interim Inventory. Ongoing research activities for this project continue to address emissions of both NO{sub x} and NMVOCs. Future tasks include: (a) evaluation of more detailed regional emissions estimates and update of the default 1990 inventories with the appropriate estimates, (b) derivation of quantitative uncertainty estimates for the emission values, and (c) development of emissions estimates for 1995.

  14. Effects of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Operating Parameters on Particle Number Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    He, X.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Zigler, B. T.

    2012-04-19

    A single-cylinder, wall-guided, spark ignition direct injection engine was used to study the impact of engine operating parameters on engine-out particle number (PN) emissions. Experiments were conducted with certification gasoline and a splash blend of 20% fuel grade ethanol in gasoline (E20), at four steady-state engine operating conditions. Independent engine control parameter sweeps were conducted including start of injection, injection pressure, spark timing, exhaust cam phasing, intake cam phasing, and air-fuel ratio. The results show that fuel injection timing is the dominant factor impacting PN emissions from this wall-guided gasoline direct injection engine. The major factor causing high PN emissions is fuel liquid impingement on the piston bowl. By avoiding fuel impingement, more than an order of magnitude reduction in PN emission was observed. Increasing fuel injection pressure reduces PN emissions because of smaller fuel droplet size and faster fuel-air mixing. PN emissions are insensitive to cam phasing and spark timing, especially at high engine load. Cold engine conditions produce higher PN emissions than hot engine conditions due to slower fuel vaporization and thus less fuel-air homogeneity during the combustion process. E20 produces lower PN emissions at low and medium loads if fuel liquid impingement on piston bowl is avoided. At high load or if there is fuel liquid impingement on piston bowl and/or cylinder wall, E20 tends to produce higher PN emissions. This is probably a function of the higher heat of vaporization of ethanol, which slows the vaporization of other fuel components from surfaces and may create local fuel-rich combustion or even pool-fires.

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    Fuel Efficiency & Emissions » Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control The Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) supports research and development of aftertreatment technologies to control advanced combustion engine exhaust emissions. All engines that enter the vehicle market must comply with the Environmental Protection Agency's emissions regulations. Harmful pollutants in these emissions include: Carbon monoxide Nitrogen oxides Unburned

  16. SUMMARY GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS DATA WORKSHEET JANUARY 2015 | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) (indexed site)

    of Energy SUMMARY GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS DATA WORKSHEET JANUARY 2015 SUMMARY GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS DATA WORKSHEET JANUARY 2015 SUMMARY_GREENHOUSE_GAS_EMISSIONS_DATA_WORKSHEET_JANUARY_2015.xlsx (36.21 KB) More Documents & Publications Attachment C - Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL Attachment C Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL Amendment: Energy and Emissions Benefit Table (December 30, 2008)

  17. ARCADE 2 OBSERVATIONS OF GALACTIC RADIO EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Kogut, A.; Fixsen, D. J.; Mirel, P.; Wollack, E.; Levin, S. M.; Limon, M.; Seiffert, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Singal, J.; Villela, T.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2011-06-10

    We use absolutely calibrated data from the ARCADE 2 flight in 2006 July to model Galactic emission at frequencies 3, 8, and 10 GHz. The spatial structure in the data is consistent with a superposition of free-free and synchrotron emission. Emission with spatial morphology traced by the Haslam 408 MHz survey has spectral index {beta}{sub synch} = -2.5 {+-} 0.1, with free-free emission contributing 0.10 {+-} 0.01 of the total Galactic plane emission in the lowest ARCADE 2 band at 3.15 GHz. We estimate the total Galactic emission toward the polar caps using either a simple plane-parallel model with csc |b| dependence or a model of high-latitude radio emission traced by the COBE/FIRAS map of C II emission. Both methods are consistent with a single power law over the frequency range 22 MHz to 10 GHz, with total Galactic emission toward the north polar cap T{sub Gal} = 10.12 {+-} 0.90 K and spectral index {beta} = -2.55 {+-} 0.03 at reference frequency 0.31 GHz. Emission associated with the plane-parallel structure accounts for only 30% of the observed high-latitude sky temperature, with the residual in either a Galactic halo or an isotropic extragalactic background. The well-calibrated ARCADE 2 maps provide a new test for spinning dust emission, based on the integrated intensity of emission from the Galactic plane instead of cross-correlations with the thermal dust spatial morphology. The Galactic plane intensity measured by ARCADE 2 is fainter than predicted by models without spinning dust and is consistent with spinning dust contributing 0.4 {+-} 0.1 of the Galactic plane emission at 23 GHz.

  18. Reducing emissions from uranium dissolving

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Googin, J.M.

    1992-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the feasibility of decreasing NO[sub x] emissions from the current uranium alloy scrap tray dissolving facility. In the current process, uranium scrap is dissolved in boiling nitric acid in shallow stainless-steel trays. As scrap dissolves, more metal and more nitric acid are added to the tray by operating personnel. Safe geometry is assured by keeping liquid level at or below 5 cm, the depth of a safe infinite slab. The accountability batch control system provides additional protection against criticality. Both uranium and uranium alloys are dissolved. Nitric acid is recovered from the vapors for reuse. Metal nitrates are sent to uranium recovery. Brown NO[sub x] fumes evolved during dissolving have occasionally resulted in a visible plume from the trays. The fuming is most noticeable during startup and after addition of fresh acid to a tray. Present environmental regulations are expected to require control of brown NO[sub x] emissions. A detailed review of the literature, indicated the feasibility of slightly altering process chemistry to favor the production of NO[sub 2] which can be scrubbed and recycled as nitric acid. Methods for controlling the process to manage offgas product distribution and to minimize chemical reaction hazards were also considered.

  19. Reducing emissions from uranium dissolving

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Googin, J.M.

    1992-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the feasibility of decreasing NO{sub x} emissions from the current uranium alloy scrap tray dissolving facility. In the current process, uranium scrap is dissolved in boiling nitric acid in shallow stainless-steel trays. As scrap dissolves, more metal and more nitric acid are added to the tray by operating personnel. Safe geometry is assured by keeping liquid level at or below 5 cm, the depth of a safe infinite slab. The accountability batch control system provides additional protection against criticality. Both uranium and uranium alloys are dissolved. Nitric acid is recovered from the vapors for reuse. Metal nitrates are sent to uranium recovery. Brown NO{sub x} fumes evolved during dissolving have occasionally resulted in a visible plume from the trays. The fuming is most noticeable during startup and after addition of fresh acid to a tray. Present environmental regulations are expected to require control of brown NO{sub x} emissions. A detailed review of the literature, indicated the feasibility of slightly altering process chemistry to favor the production of NO{sub 2} which can be scrubbed and recycled as nitric acid. Methods for controlling the process to manage offgas product distribution and to minimize chemical reaction hazards were also considered.

  20. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills, 1980-2005

    SciTech Connect

    John E. Pinkerton

    2007-08-15

    Estimates of total SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills were developed from industry-wide surveys conducted at 5-yr intervals from 1980 to 2005. The following conclusions were drawn from these estimates: (1) Total SO{sub 2} emissions from pulp and paper mills were 340,000 t in 2005. Since 1980, SO{sub 2} emissions have decreased steadily. The decline over the 25-yr period was over 60%. Paper production increased by 50% over the same period. (2) Boilers burning coal and oil are the primary source of SO{sub 2} emissions, with minor contributions from black liquor combustion in kraft recovery furnaces and the burning of noncondensable gases in boilers at kraft pulp mills. Factors contributing to the decline in boiler SO{sub 2} emissions include large reductions in residual oil use, recent decreases in coal use, declines in the average sulfur content of residual oil and coal being burned, and increasing use of flue gas desulfurization systems.(3) NOx emissions from pulp and paper mills were 230,000 t in 2005. NOx emissions were fairly constant through 1995, but then declined by 12% in 2000 and an additional 17% between 2000 and 2005. (4) In 2005, boilers accounted for two-thirds of the NOx emissions, and kraft mill sources approximately 30%. Boiler NOx emissions exhibited very little change through 1995, but decreased by one third in the next 10 yr. The lower emissions resulted from declines in fossil fuel use, a reduction in the EPA emission factors for natural gas combustion in boilers without NOx controls, and more widespread use of combustion modifications and add-on NOx control technologies, particularly on coal-fired boilers subject to EPA's NOx SIP call. Total NOx emissions from kraft mill sources changed little over the 25-yr period. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. U.S. Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Million Barrels) U.S. Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 46 2010's 188 207 137 -595 440 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves

  2. New Mexico - East Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico - East Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 8 -54 195 1980's -302 196 15 -92 -54 26 -179 185 13 130 1990's 138 -17 79 69 -30 -105 -45 12 12 187 2000's -221 136 98 -14 80 37 56 82 -8 251 2010's -200 -124 59 -194 252 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release

  3. New Mexico - West Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico - West Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 5 34 -232 1980's 20 670 -794 -43 -24 105 3 -261 236 125 1990's 204 700 234 -193 -611 389 -61 -676 -60 207 2000's 239 -127 101 -90 46 7 35 54 2 274 2010's 111 197 94 -8 303 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release

  4. ,"Alabama Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alabama Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release Date:","12/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  5. ,"Alaska Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alaska Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release Date:","12/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  6. ,"Arkansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Arkansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release Date:","12/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  7. ,"California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release Date:","12/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  8. ,"Colorado Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Colorado Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release Date:","12/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  9. ,"Kansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Kansas Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release Date:","12/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  10. ,"Kentucky Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Kentucky Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release Date:","12/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  11. ,"Louisiana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release Date:","12/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  12. ,"Michigan Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Michigan Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release Date:","12/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  13. ,"Mississippi Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Mississippi Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release Date:","12/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  14. ,"Montana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Montana Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release Date:","12/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  15. ,"Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release Date:","12/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  16. ,"West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","West Virginia Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release Date:","12/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  17. ,"Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release Date:","12/31/2016" ,"Excel File

  18. Texas - RRC District 1 Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 1 Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 38 -5 78 1980's -14 281 -143 33 -206 160 -1 -7 22 314 1990's -216 146 37 -145 24 -49 -39 -85 138 -163 2000's 34 17 28 36 57 25 77 -18 99 -22 2010's -95 53 122 161 81 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

  19. Texas - RRC District 10 Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 10 Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's -9 -102 -293 1980's 162 117 381 71 -342 124 -45 -129 111 38 1990's -602 138 137 -159 125 212 -4 -142 141 279 2000's -273 82 -106 87 184 -2 95 -61 -55 188 2010's -172 -76 301 41 127 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  20. Texas - RRC District 5 Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic

    Energy Information Administration (EIA) (indexed site)

    Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 5 Dry Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's -22 144 -126 1980's -70 68 -66 18 -13 39 -55 31 23 21 1990's 44 66 51 159 103 -62 69 68 29 52 2000's -138 15 57 130 68 93 84 97 -61 96 2010's 27 674 -1,078 269 -119 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.