Accelerating Science Discovery - Join the Discussion

Published by Brian O'Donnell

 

To celebrate 70 years of advancing scientific knowledge, OSTI is featuring some of the leading scientists and works particularly relevant to the formation of DOE, OSTI, and their predecessor organizations and is highlighting Nobel laureates and other important research figures in DOE’s history.  Their accomplishments were key to the evolution of the Department of Energy, and OSTI’s collections include many of their publications.

The 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded jointly to Robert F. Curl Jr., Richard E. Smalley, and Sir Harold W. Kroto for discovery of new forms of the element carbon – called fullerenes – in which the atoms are arranged in closed shells.  Fullerenes are formed when vaporized carbon condenses in an atmosphere of inert gas.  The gaseous carbon is obtained by directing an intense pulse of laser light at a carbon surface.  The released carbon atoms are mixed with a stream of helium gas and combine to form clusters of a few to hundreds of atoms.  The gas is then led into a vacuum chamber where it expands and is cooled to some degrees above absolute zero.  The carbon clusters can then be analyzed with mass spectrometry.

Robert Curl, Jr. and Richard Smalley

Published by Brian O'Donnell
John Pople, Photo courtesy of Northwestern University

To celebrate 70 years of advancing scientific knowledge, OSTI is featuring some of the leading scientists and works particularly relevant to the formation of DOE, OSTI, and their predecessor organizations and is highlighting Nobel laureates and other important research figures in DOE’s history.  Their accomplishments were key to the evolution of the Department of Energy, and OSTI’s collections include many of their publications.

John Pople was born on October 31, 1925, at Burnham-on-Sea, Somerset, England.  Although none of his family had attended university, Pople was able to attend Bristol Grammar School, where at the age of 12 he taught himself secondary level of calculus.  When the school learned of his brilliance, and with the support of his parents, he began intensive studies preparing for a mathematics scholarship to Cambridge.  After arriving at Trinity College in 1943, he completed his degree in two years, worked for an airplane company from 1945 to 1947, and returned to Cambridge and earned his doctoral degree in 1951.  He subsequently was a research fellow at Trinity College and then a lecturer in mathematics at Cambridge from 1954 to 1958.

Published by Brian O'Donnell

Edward Teller

To celebrate 70 years of advancing scientific knowledge, OSTI is featuring some of the leading scientists and works particularly relevant to the formation of DOE, OSTI, and their predecessor organizations and is highlighting Nobel laureates and other important research figures in DOE’s history.  Their accomplishments were key to the evolution of the Department of Energy, and OSTI’s collections include many of their publications.

Born in 1908 in Budapest, Hungary, Edward Teller moved to Germany in 1926, earned an undergraduate degree in Chemical Engineering at University of Karlsruhe, and in 1930 was awarded a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Leipzig.  His doctoral dissertation dealt with one of the first accurate quantum mechanical treatments of the hydrogen molecular ion.  He moved to the United States in 1935 and was a physics professor at George Washington University (GWU) until 1941, the same year he became a U.S. citizen. 

Teller’s career can be divided roughly into two overlapping phases.  The first, from 1928 to about 1952, was largely devoted to scientific research and university life.  In the second phase, which coincided with the discovery of fission in 1939, he focused on applying physics to defense and, later, on cofounding the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

Published by Peter Lincoln

Department of Energy PAGES Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science

To help get the word out to researchers funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) at DOE national laboratories and research universities around the country, the DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and the DOE Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have teamed up to produce a video about DOE PAGES, the DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy and Science.

DOE PAGES offers free public access to the best available full-text version of DOE-affiliated scholarly publications – either the peer-reviewed, accepted manuscript or the published scientific journal article – after an administrative interval of 12 months.  

Entitled “A Video Message about DOE PAGES for DOE-funded Authors of Scientific Publications,” the infographic video provides an introduction to the DOE portal to scholarly publications resulting from DOE research funding – and encourages DOE laboratory and grantee researchers to submit their accepted manuscripts to OSTI, which developed and maintains the repository for the Department. 

Published by Kathy Chambers

Harold C. Urey

Image credit: Energy.gov

To celebrate 70 years of advancing scientific knowledge, OSTI is featuring some of the leading scientists and works particularly relevant to the formation of DOE, OSTI, and their predecessor organizations and is highlighting Nobel laureates and other important research figures in DOE’s history.  Their accomplishments were key to the evolution of the Department of Energy, and OSTI’s collections include many of their publications. 

The pioneering work of American chemist and physicist Harold C. Urey on isotopes led to his discovery of deuterium in 1931 and earned him the 1934 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.  This discovery was one of his many contributions in several fields of science during his long and diverse career. 

By 1929, the theory of isotopes, or the idea that an individual element could consist of atoms with the same number of protons but with different masses, had been developed, and the less-abundant isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen had been discovered.  Urey, who at the time was an associate professor at Columbia University, believed that isotopes of hydrogen could be more important, so he devised an experiment to look for them.