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Bio-oils and other bio fuels used in heat- and power generation; Flytande biobraenslen foer el- och vaermeproduktion

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to assemble and disseminate knowledge about bio-oils and other bio fuels which are used for heat- and power generation or liquid bio fuels/oils that may become interesting in the future. One aim of this study was to give an updated picture of the Swedish market for bio-oils and to provide an overview of practical experience on the usage of bio-oils in the Swedish heat and power industry. In order to show a green profile, bio-oils can be used in the heat and power generation. However, not all bio-oils can be viewed as climate friendly. Some production of bio-oils may actually - if a lifecycle perspective is considered - lead to increased emissions of greenhouse gases, and there are also ethical issues that need to be considered. The data collection was carried out in three different fields. The objective of the first part was to create an overview of the Swedish market for liquid bio fuels/oils for heat and power production. The second part of the study aimed to clarify the issues surrounding environmental and ethical issues associated with the use of different bio-oils. A selection of oil crops for a closer study was made  More>>
Publication Date:
May 15, 2010
Product Type:
Technical Report
Report Number:
VARMEFORSK-1132
Resource Relation:
Other Information: 80 refs., 5 tabs. 7 p. summary in English. Figures and tables with text in English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS; BIOFUELS; DISTRICT HEATING; COGENERATION; SWEDEN; TALL OIL; SOYBEAN OIL; PALM OIL; BRASSICA; GLYCEROL; SPECIFICATIONS; ETHICAL ASPECTS; ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS; VEGETABLE OILS; LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT; LIQUID FUELS; BY-PRODUCTS; WASTE PRODUCT UTILIZATION
OSTI ID:
981901
Research Organizations:
Vaermeforsk, Stockholm (Sweden)
Country of Origin:
Sweden
Language:
Swedish
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: Project Vaermeforsk-A08-830; ISSN 1653-1248; ISSN 1653-1248; TRN: SE1007133
Availability:
Also available from: http://www.varmeforsk.se; OSTI as DE00981901
Submitting Site:
SWD
Size:
94 p. pages
Announcement Date:
Jun 18, 2010

Citation Formats

Sandgren, Annamaria, Ekdahl, Emma, Sernhed, Kerstin, and Lindstroem, Erica. Bio-oils and other bio fuels used in heat- and power generation; Flytande biobraenslen foer el- och vaermeproduktion. Sweden: N. p., 2010. Web.
Sandgren, Annamaria, Ekdahl, Emma, Sernhed, Kerstin, & Lindstroem, Erica. Bio-oils and other bio fuels used in heat- and power generation; Flytande biobraenslen foer el- och vaermeproduktion. Sweden.
Sandgren, Annamaria, Ekdahl, Emma, Sernhed, Kerstin, and Lindstroem, Erica. 2010. "Bio-oils and other bio fuels used in heat- and power generation; Flytande biobraenslen foer el- och vaermeproduktion." Sweden.
@misc{etde_981901,
title = {Bio-oils and other bio fuels used in heat- and power generation; Flytande biobraenslen foer el- och vaermeproduktion}
author = {Sandgren, Annamaria, Ekdahl, Emma, Sernhed, Kerstin, and Lindstroem, Erica}
abstractNote = {The purpose of this study was to assemble and disseminate knowledge about bio-oils and other bio fuels which are used for heat- and power generation or liquid bio fuels/oils that may become interesting in the future. One aim of this study was to give an updated picture of the Swedish market for bio-oils and to provide an overview of practical experience on the usage of bio-oils in the Swedish heat and power industry. In order to show a green profile, bio-oils can be used in the heat and power generation. However, not all bio-oils can be viewed as climate friendly. Some production of bio-oils may actually - if a lifecycle perspective is considered - lead to increased emissions of greenhouse gases, and there are also ethical issues that need to be considered. The data collection was carried out in three different fields. The objective of the first part was to create an overview of the Swedish market for liquid bio fuels/oils for heat and power production. The second part of the study aimed to clarify the issues surrounding environmental and ethical issues associated with the use of different bio-oils. A selection of oil crops for a closer study was made based on production volume (soybean, palm oil and rapeseed) and expected future potential (jatropha). This part of the study was based on a literature review. In the third part of the study technical and practical experiences from using bio-oils in heat and power production were studied. The interviews made with purchasing managers in the second part gave valuable information on which utilities would be the most interesting to interview for the study of technical and practical experiences, where interviews were carried out with persons familiar with the daily operation of the plant. The use of liquid bio fuels was about 4.3 % of total fuel use in Swedish district heating production in 2007 (1.2 % pine oil and 3.0 % other bio-oil). In other words, it is mainly bio-oils that have been used and not other types of liquid bio fuels. The types of liquid bio fuels that have been studied are different qualities of bio-oils and glycerol that is a residual from biodiesel production. Vegetable bio-oils are the most commonly used in Swedish heat and power production amongst the liquid bio fuels. Vegetable oils can be extracted from a variety of different crops that grows all over the world. Due to today's fuel prices, the bio-oil that is used for heat and power production is mainly residue or by-products from industrial production of food, feed manufacturing, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. The most abundant bio-oils that have been encountered during the interview process have come from oil palm or rapeseed or a mix of different residues from which the biological origin is difficult to trace. Tall oil pitch, which is a by-product in the pulp industry, has held a non-negligible share in Swedish heat production. Experiments on combustion of glycerol have recently been carried out and these indicate that glycerol does have a potential. According to the district heating companies that were interviewed, they did not experience that lack of availability of bio-oils was a problem, although the quality of the bio-oils could vary greatly. Most district heating companies have developed specifications for the fuel to be purchased. All parties benefit from a good specification where the purchasing managers and the operational staff have consistent requirements. The liquid bio fuels used in Swedish heat production are, except for possibly the PFAD, not accepted products, but different types of residues or by-products. There is no commodity exchange where the products are traded and there are a variety of factors affecting the price formation, making the pricing very complex. The study discusses various aspects of the use of bio-oils with a focus on a few crops of particular interest. These are soybean, oil palm, rapeseed and jatropha. The first three are interesting because of their large production volume, but also because of the infective debates that have been going on about the environmental and social impacts of the increased demand for bio-oils. It is common knowledge that some initial problems occur when converting a plant from fossil oil to bio-oil. One of the interviewees summoned the situation with the words: 'It's been a process to learn where the problems are'. The different types of experiences that have been illuminated in the interviews are: - Key characteristics in the choice of fuel is considered to be ash content, the amount of alkali, the amount of glycerol, water content, viscosity, amount of particles and fuel price. - The quality of the bio-oils differ to a great extent, much more than the quality of fossil oil does. This makes it important to have well developed specifications for the procurement of bio-oil and a good strategy for the control of fuel quality.}
place = {Sweden}
year = {2010}
month = {May}
}