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Actinomycete enzymes and activities involved in straw saccharification

Technical Report:

Abstract

This research programme has been directed towards the analysis of actinomycete enzyme systems involved in the degradation of plant biomass (lignocellulose.) The programme was innovative in that a novel source of enzymes was systematically screened and wheat straw saccharifying activity was the test criterion. Over 200 actinomycete strains representing a broad taxonomic range were screened. A range of specific enzyme activities were involved and included cellulase, xylanase, arabinofuranosidase, acetylesterase, {beta}-xylosidase and {beta}-glucosidase. Since hemicellulose (arabinoxylan) was the primary source of sugar, xylanases were characterized. The xylan-degrading systems of actinomycetes were complex and nonuniform, with up to six separate endoxylanases identified in active strains. Except for microbispora bispora, actinomycetes were found to be a poor source of cellulase activity. Evidence for activity against the lignin fraction of straw was produced for a range of actinomycete strains. While modification reactions were common, cleavage of inter-monomer bonds, and utilization of complex polyphenolic compounds were restricted to two strains: Thermomonospora mesophila and Streptomyces badius. Crude enzyme preparations from actinomycetes can be used to generate sugar, particularly pentoses, directly from cereal straw. The potential for improvements in yield rests with the formulation to cooperative enzyme combinations from different strains. The stability properties of enzymes from  More>>
Authors:
McCarthy, A J; Ball, A S [1] 
  1. Liverpool Univ. (UK). Dept. of Genetics and Microbiology
Publication Date:
Jan 01, 1990
Product Type:
Technical Report
Report Number:
EUR-12929
Reference Number:
EDB-91-081435
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; ACTINOMYCES; ENZYME ACTIVITY; AGRICULTURAL WASTES; WASTE PRODUCT UTILIZATION; CELLULOSE; ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS; HEMICELLULOSE; LIGNIN; STRAW; SACCHARIFICATION; BIOCHEMICAL REACTION KINETICS; BIODEGRADATION; CELLULASE; DELIGNIFICATION; ENZYMES; EXPERIMENTAL DATA; THERMOPHILIC CONDITIONS; XYLANASE; BACTERIA; CARBOHYDRATES; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; DATA; DECOMPOSITION; GLYCOSYL HYDROLASES; HYDROLASES; HYDROLYSIS; INFORMATION; KINETICS; LYSIS; MICROORGANISMS; NUMERICAL DATA; O-GLYCOSYL HYDROLASES; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; ORGANIC WASTES; POLYSACCHARIDES; REACTION KINETICS; SACCHARIDES; SOLVOLYSIS; WASTES; 090900* - Biomass Fuels- Processing- (1990-); 550700 - Microbiology; 550200 - Biochemistry
Sponsoring Organizations:
CEC; Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium)
OSTI ID:
7796283
Research Organizations:
Commission of the European Communities, Luxembourg (Luxembourg). Directorate General Telecommunications, Information Industries and Innovation; Liverpool Univ. (UK). Dept. of Genetics and Microbiology
Country of Origin:
Luxembourg
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: ON: TI91012509; CNN: No. EN3B-0080-UK
Availability:
OSTI; NTIS (US Sales Only); Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2, rue Mercier, L-2985 Luxembourg
Submitting Site:
TIC
Size:
Pages: 32 p
Announcement Date:
Mar 14, 2013

Technical Report:

Citation Formats

McCarthy, A J, and Ball, A S. Actinomycete enzymes and activities involved in straw saccharification. Luxembourg: N. p., 1990. Web.
McCarthy, A J, & Ball, A S. Actinomycete enzymes and activities involved in straw saccharification. Luxembourg.
McCarthy, A J, and Ball, A S. 1990. "Actinomycete enzymes and activities involved in straw saccharification." Luxembourg.
@misc{etde_7796283,
title = {Actinomycete enzymes and activities involved in straw saccharification}
author = {McCarthy, A J, and Ball, A S}
abstractNote = {This research programme has been directed towards the analysis of actinomycete enzyme systems involved in the degradation of plant biomass (lignocellulose.) The programme was innovative in that a novel source of enzymes was systematically screened and wheat straw saccharifying activity was the test criterion. Over 200 actinomycete strains representing a broad taxonomic range were screened. A range of specific enzyme activities were involved and included cellulase, xylanase, arabinofuranosidase, acetylesterase, {beta}-xylosidase and {beta}-glucosidase. Since hemicellulose (arabinoxylan) was the primary source of sugar, xylanases were characterized. The xylan-degrading systems of actinomycetes were complex and nonuniform, with up to six separate endoxylanases identified in active strains. Except for microbispora bispora, actinomycetes were found to be a poor source of cellulase activity. Evidence for activity against the lignin fraction of straw was produced for a range of actinomycete strains. While modification reactions were common, cleavage of inter-monomer bonds, and utilization of complex polyphenolic compounds were restricted to two strains: Thermomonospora mesophila and Streptomyces badius. Crude enzyme preparations from actinomycetes can be used to generate sugar, particularly pentoses, directly from cereal straw. The potential for improvements in yield rests with the formulation to cooperative enzyme combinations from different strains. The stability properties of enzymes from thermophilic strains and the general neutral to alkali pH optima offer advantages in certain process situations. Actinomycetes are a particularly rich source of xylanases for commercial application and can rapidly solubilise a lignocarbohydrate fraction of straw which may have both product and pretreatment potential. 31 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.}
place = {Luxembourg}
year = {1990}
month = {Jan}
}