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Destructive distillation of coals

Patent:

Abstract

To obtain light oils and ammonia from coals having volatile and oxygen contents, the crushed material is mixed with 5 percent of ground amorphous calcium carbonate and distilled slowly in a cast iron retort to remove the water and light oils, the ammonia being synthesized at a later stage. The crushed residue is gasified in a producer by a blast of air and superheated steam at about 950/sup 0/C. The steam and air are passed very slowly at low pressure through the fuel to cause the dissociation of the atmospheric nitrogen molecules into atoms. The gases are then passed to a heater, having a temperature of 500/sup 0/C, and thence to a continuously working externally-heated retort charged with fuel, such as the hard retort residues, maintained below 850/sup 0/C. The water vapor in the gases is dissociated by the incandescent fuel, the oxygen combining with the carbon, and the lime present in the fuel causes the hydrogen to combine with the free nitrogen atoms, thus forming ammonia. The gases after leaving the retort are cooled down to 85 to 95/sup 0/C and the ammonia may be recovered by conversion into ammonium sulphate. The resultant cooled gases may again be charged  More>>
Authors:
Publication Date:
Aug 23, 1918
Product Type:
Patent
Report Number:
AU 8436
Reference Number:
EDB-81-096318
Subject:
01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; COAL; DESTRUCTIVE DISTILLATION; AMMONIA; AMMONIUM SULFATES; BY-PRODUCTS; CALCIUM CARBONATES; CAST IRON; CRUSHING; OILS; RECOVERY; RETORTS; SUPERHEATING; SYNTHESIS; UNITED KINGDOM; ALKALINE EARTH METAL COMPOUNDS; ALLOYS; AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS; CALCIUM COMPOUNDS; CARBIDES; CARBON COMPOUNDS; CARBONACEOUS MATERIALS; CARBONATES; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; CHEMICAL REACTORS; COMMINUTION; DECOMPOSITION; DISTILLATION; DISTILLATION EQUIPMENT; ENERGY SOURCES; EQUIPMENT; EUROPE; FOSSIL FUELS; FUELS; HEATING; HYDRIDES; HYDROGEN COMPOUNDS; IRON ALLOYS; IRON BASE ALLOYS; IRON CARBIDES; IRON COMPOUNDS; MATERIALS; NITROGEN COMPOUNDS; NITROGEN HYDRIDES; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; OTHER ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; SEPARATION PROCESSES; SULFATES; SULFUR COMPOUNDS; TRANSITION ELEMENT COMPOUNDS; WESTERN EUROPE; 010406* - Coal & Coal Products- Pyrolysis & Cracking- (-1987)
OSTI ID:
7204834
Country of Origin:
Australia
Language:
English
Submitting Site:
TIC
Size:
Pages: v
Announcement Date:
Sep 01, 1981

Patent:

Citation Formats

Rollason, A. Destructive distillation of coals. Australia: N. p., 1918. Web.
Rollason, A. Destructive distillation of coals. Australia.
Rollason, A. 1918. "Destructive distillation of coals." Australia.
@misc{etde_7204834,
title = {Destructive distillation of coals}
author = {Rollason, A}
abstractNote = {To obtain light oils and ammonia from coals having volatile and oxygen contents, the crushed material is mixed with 5 percent of ground amorphous calcium carbonate and distilled slowly in a cast iron retort to remove the water and light oils, the ammonia being synthesized at a later stage. The crushed residue is gasified in a producer by a blast of air and superheated steam at about 950/sup 0/C. The steam and air are passed very slowly at low pressure through the fuel to cause the dissociation of the atmospheric nitrogen molecules into atoms. The gases are then passed to a heater, having a temperature of 500/sup 0/C, and thence to a continuously working externally-heated retort charged with fuel, such as the hard retort residues, maintained below 850/sup 0/C. The water vapor in the gases is dissociated by the incandescent fuel, the oxygen combining with the carbon, and the lime present in the fuel causes the hydrogen to combine with the free nitrogen atoms, thus forming ammonia. The gases after leaving the retort are cooled down to 85 to 95/sup 0/C and the ammonia may be recovered by conversion into ammonium sulphate. The resultant cooled gases may again be charged with superheated steam and utilized again in the heater and retort.}
place = {Australia}
year = {1918}
month = {Aug}
}