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Chemistry of the Estonian oil-shale kukersite

Journal Article:

Abstract

Estonian oil shale is one of the oldest and richest oil shales in the world. The deposits occur in the Middle-Ordovician strata having a total thickness of 2.2 meters. The ultimate composition of the kerogen varied within the following limits: carbon 76.5 to 76.7 percent, hydrogen 9.1 to 9.2 percent, nitrogen 0.2 to 0.4 percent, sulfur 1.6 to 2.2 percent, chlorine 0.5 to 0.7 percent, and oxygen (by difference) 11.2 to 12.2 percent. The composition of kukersite kerogen corresponds nearly to the empirical formula (C/sub 8/H/sub 11/O)n. One of the most significant differences between kukersite, coal, and lignite is the amount of alkali-soluble substances present. Kukersite has almost no humic acids. Samples of kukersite were brominated and chlorinated. The halogenated shales showed a solubility in absolute alcohol of 26 percent compared to only 0.31 percent for untreated shale. Enriched shale (4.5 percent ash) did not react with chlorine as much as did raw shale. Apparently the mineral matter acted catalytically during chlorination. The amount of soluble extract obtained by solvent treatment of kukersite ranged from 0.22 percent with chloroform to 2.20 percent with tetrachloroethane. Heat was the most effective agent for the depolymerization of kukersite kerogen. The percentage loss of  More>>
Authors:
Publication Date:
Jan 01, 1931
Product Type:
Journal Article
Reference Number:
EDB-77-144295
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Arch. Naturkd. Liv-, Est-, Kurlands; (USSR); Journal Volume: 10
Subject:
04 OIL SHALES AND TAR SANDS; OIL SHALES; CHEMICAL PROPERTIES; CARBON SULFIDES; CHEMICAL COMPOSITION; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; HEATING; HIGH TEMPERATURE; KEROGEN; MOLECULAR STRUCTURE; OIL SHALE DEPOSITS; RESINS; SOLVENT EXTRACTION; USSR; BITUMINOUS MATERIALS; CARBON COMPOUNDS; CARBONACEOUS MATERIALS; CHALCOGENIDES; ENERGY SOURCES; EUROPE; EXTRACTION; FOSSIL FUELS; FUELS; GEOLOGIC DEPOSITS; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; ORGANIC POLYMERS; PETROCHEMICALS; PETROLEUM PRODUCTS; POLYMERS; RESOURCES; SEPARATION PROCESSES; SULFIDES; SULFUR COMPOUNDS; 040500* - Oil Shales & Tar Sands- Properties & Composition
OSTI ID:
7092980
Country of Origin:
USSR
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Journal ID: CODEN: ANLKB
Submitting Site:
TIC
Size:
Pages: 6-27, 37-47, 66-68, 73-75, 82-85
Announcement Date:

Journal Article:

Citation Formats

Kogerman, P N. Chemistry of the Estonian oil-shale kukersite. USSR: N. p., 1931. Web.
Kogerman, P N. Chemistry of the Estonian oil-shale kukersite. USSR.
Kogerman, P N. 1931. "Chemistry of the Estonian oil-shale kukersite." USSR.
@misc{etde_7092980,
title = {Chemistry of the Estonian oil-shale kukersite}
author = {Kogerman, P N}
abstractNote = {Estonian oil shale is one of the oldest and richest oil shales in the world. The deposits occur in the Middle-Ordovician strata having a total thickness of 2.2 meters. The ultimate composition of the kerogen varied within the following limits: carbon 76.5 to 76.7 percent, hydrogen 9.1 to 9.2 percent, nitrogen 0.2 to 0.4 percent, sulfur 1.6 to 2.2 percent, chlorine 0.5 to 0.7 percent, and oxygen (by difference) 11.2 to 12.2 percent. The composition of kukersite kerogen corresponds nearly to the empirical formula (C/sub 8/H/sub 11/O)n. One of the most significant differences between kukersite, coal, and lignite is the amount of alkali-soluble substances present. Kukersite has almost no humic acids. Samples of kukersite were brominated and chlorinated. The halogenated shales showed a solubility in absolute alcohol of 26 percent compared to only 0.31 percent for untreated shale. Enriched shale (4.5 percent ash) did not react with chlorine as much as did raw shale. Apparently the mineral matter acted catalytically during chlorination. The amount of soluble extract obtained by solvent treatment of kukersite ranged from 0.22 percent with chloroform to 2.20 percent with tetrachloroethane. Heat was the most effective agent for the depolymerization of kukersite kerogen. The percentage loss of weight due to drying in air was much less than in the presence of carbon dioxide. The results indicated that on drying in air, the powdered shale loses water and a volatile substance, probably the oxides of carbon, up to 80/sup 0/C. Carbon dioxide was also found to be present in the gases eliminated at the temperature of initial decomposition. Pulverized shale, heated for 6 hours at 220/sup 0/C, lost 2.6 percent of its weight; its solubility in carbon disulfide was 2.11 percent. Kukersite kerogen was formed from compounds that were resistent to bacteriological decomposition, such as waxes and resins, plus decomposition products of proteins, cellulose, and putrefaction products of undigested organisms.}
journal = {Arch. Naturkd. Liv-, Est-, Kurlands; (USSR)}
volume = {10}
journal type = {AC}
place = {USSR}
year = {1931}
month = {Jan}
}