Eleven pieces of ancient Chinese pottery (4770 B.C. - 2960 B.C.) of Yangshao Culture Period collected from the Xi'an area have been studied by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy. The samples were refired up to 1100/sup 0/C in steps of 100/sup 0/C for 2 h in air. The highest temperature up to which the Moessbauer pattern remains basically unchanged can be identified with the original firing temperature. The result indicates that the firing temperatures for most of the sherds were between 900-1000/sup 0/C. The function of the grit contained in the pottery has been discussed. The crimson and reddish painted materials on the surface of sherds have been studied, respectively. The first appearance of pottery can probably be traced back to an even earlier period.