The authors defined the usefulness of the fluorescein angiography of the retina and choroid in the early stage diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy in children comparing its results to the traditional ophthalmoscopy. Examination involved 50 children from 4 to 18 (30 boys and 20 girls) on insulin treatment. The duration of the disease was 1 to 14 years (average 7.36 years). Ophthalmoscopy showed pathological changes in 24% of the children. The fluorescein angiography visualized more microaneurysms compared to ophthalmoscopy and showed them sometimes in the eyes where they had not been found in eye fundus studies. By means of angiography the early and advanced stages of vascular complications were found in 64% of patients. Comparing to ophthalmoscopy a 40% increase was noted. Fluorescein angiography can lead to the decrease in the number of patients with markedly impaired visual acuity and cases of blindness in the diabetic population.