The aim of this methodology handbook is to establish a conceptual framework to develop indicators for measuring energy efficiency in the manufacturing industry, and to use that framework to propose indicators for the most important sectors (from the energy perspective) of the manufacturing industry. Non-manufacturing industry is not included because of a relatively low share in total energy consumption and a lack of data. Energy efficiency indicators are proposed for the iron and steel industry, the aluminium industry, the cement industry, pulp and paper production, ammonia production, chlorine/alkali production, the petrochemical industry, refineries and the public electricity sector. For each sector relevant processes are described and the energy efficiency indicator pyramid is presented. Furthermore, structural aspects are identified. For each of the sectors required data, potential sources and methodological or data pitfalls are described. For each of the sectors some examples of the suggested indicators are presented. Each sectoral chapter contains a checklist of data required to make an international comparison of the energy efficiency. refs.