The author views ecological problems from the perspective of both the pollution of industrialized countries and the ecological damage to underdeveloped countries and concludes that the environmental deterioration must be seen as inseparable. Present production methods, in shifting the burden of environmental damage to dependent societies, have retarded economic development in many areas. Urbanization in the Third World is intensifying, but, given the destruction that accompanies industrialization, he sees poverty in these countries as an inevitable outcome. The idea that economic growth is humanity's first priority is a conceit that accepts environmental destruction as a necessary sacrifice. As an alternative, the author recommends a conscientious community of free men be nurtured--one that can reconstruct a new social and economic order based on solidarity and the substitution of permanent for expedient policies.