Compressed air containing dirt and aggressive substances may cause damage in pipelines and pneumatic tools, equipment and systems. In consequence, operating costs can be greatly reduced by cleaning and recirculation of compressed air. Compressed-air driers are among the most common systems used for this purpose. Most of these driers are refrigeration driers; adsorption driers are less common. Refrigeration driers consist of a heat exchanger system, a separation system, and a power-controlled refrigerator. The water vapour concentration is proportional to the air temperature; for this reason, the pressure dew point should be as low as possible, i.e. about 1.5/sup 0/C.