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Impact of wind turbines on birdlife

Technical Report:

Abstract

An overview of wind energy programmes is presented, as well as an analysis of recent studies on the title subject and data on the attitude of nature conservation organisations both from the USA and Europe. The studies were analyzed for legitimacy of assumptions and validity of the conclusions. Most of the wind energy programs and all European studies deal with bird kills and disturbance in coastal areas. The number of victims per turbine per year in this type of area appears to be acceptable. The disturbing effect of wind turbines on breeding birds appears to be negligible. The disturbance of resting and migrating birds by wind turbines however is reasonably clear. As a result of international concern several sites have been designated where siting of wind turbines is prohibited. Well known examples are wetlands of international importance (Ramsar-convention) and European Community Special Protection Areas. Major concern among conservationists is the location of many valuable and vulnerable environmental resources outside the protected areas. Negative attitudes towards wind energy projects are not particularly due to avian considerations, but rather to a general objective to protect landscapes and habitats, undisturbed by human infrastructures and disturbance. It is concluded that all new locations for  More>>
Authors:
Benner, J H.B.; Berkhuizen, J C; De Graaff, R J; Postma, A D; [1]  Hendriks, J H.W. [2] 
  1. Consultants on Energy and Environment CEA, Rotterdam (Netherlands)
  2. Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands)
Publication Date:
May 01, 1993
Product Type:
Technical Report
Report Number:
CEA-9247
Reference Number:
ECN-93-0E0838; EDB-93-155781
Subject:
17 WIND ENERGY; BIRDS; MORTALITY; DEMONSTRATION PROGRAMS; EVALUATION; WIND TURBINES; ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS; ACCIDENTS; ATTITUDES; COASTAL REGIONS; COMPILED DATA; EUROPE; MIGRATION; NATURE RESERVES; PUBLIC OPINION; SITE CHARACTERIZATION; USA; ANIMALS; DATA; DEVELOPED COUNTRIES; EQUIPMENT; INFORMATION; MACHINERY; NORTH AMERICA; NUMERICAL DATA; RESOURCES; TURBINES; TURBOMACHINERY; VERTEBRATES; 170500* - Wind Energy- Environmental Aspects
OSTI ID:
5807642
Research Organizations:
Communicatie- en Adviesbureau over Energie en Milieu (CEA), Rotterdam (Netherlands)
Country of Origin:
Netherlands
Language:
English
Availability:
Communicatie- En Adviesbureau over Energie en Milieu (CEA), Postbus 21421, 3001 AK Rotterdam (Netherlands)
Submitting Site:
ECN
Size:
Pages: (76 p)
Announcement Date:

Technical Report:

Citation Formats

Benner, J H.B., Berkhuizen, J C, De Graaff, R J, Postma, A D, and Hendriks, J H.W. Impact of wind turbines on birdlife. Netherlands: N. p., 1993. Web.
Benner, J H.B., Berkhuizen, J C, De Graaff, R J, Postma, A D, & Hendriks, J H.W. Impact of wind turbines on birdlife. Netherlands.
Benner, J H.B., Berkhuizen, J C, De Graaff, R J, Postma, A D, and Hendriks, J H.W. 1993. "Impact of wind turbines on birdlife." Netherlands.
@misc{etde_5807642,
title = {Impact of wind turbines on birdlife}
author = {Benner, J H.B., Berkhuizen, J C, De Graaff, R J, Postma, A D, and Hendriks, J H.W.}
abstractNote = {An overview of wind energy programmes is presented, as well as an analysis of recent studies on the title subject and data on the attitude of nature conservation organisations both from the USA and Europe. The studies were analyzed for legitimacy of assumptions and validity of the conclusions. Most of the wind energy programs and all European studies deal with bird kills and disturbance in coastal areas. The number of victims per turbine per year in this type of area appears to be acceptable. The disturbing effect of wind turbines on breeding birds appears to be negligible. The disturbance of resting and migrating birds by wind turbines however is reasonably clear. As a result of international concern several sites have been designated where siting of wind turbines is prohibited. Well known examples are wetlands of international importance (Ramsar-convention) and European Community Special Protection Areas. Major concern among conservationists is the location of many valuable and vulnerable environmental resources outside the protected areas. Negative attitudes towards wind energy projects are not particularly due to avian considerations, but rather to a general objective to protect landscapes and habitats, undisturbed by human infrastructures and disturbance. It is concluded that all new locations for wind energy projects should be weighed on the disturbance aspect. Reference data for such a weigh are available for coastal areas, although the impact on local migration between feeding grounds and high water refugee areas needs further research. Future research is also needed for application of wind energy both on off-shore locations, grasslands and farmlands. Wind energy developers and conservationists should have a close contact in order to establish consensus on how to deal with remaining uncertainties. 7 figs., 9 tabs., 5 appendices, 37 refs.}
place = {Netherlands}
year = {1993}
month = {May}
}