The aim of the project is to determine what can be learned from a statistical analysis of data on energy consumption in the paper industry. Existing data were collected and analyzed at three different levels of aggregation: the country, the production site, and the individual machine. For each level, two types of analysis were made: inter-unit comparison, and a temporal comparison within a unit. The work was complemented by three detailed physical balances on paper-making machines, a procedure usually referred to as an energy analysis. Considerable success was achieved in identifying and quantifying the structural influences on energy consumption. In this respect the different analyses illuminate each other. Despite the fact that in some instances either data were not made available or it proved inadequate for good statistical reliability, several firm conclusions can be drawn, conclusions which are significant from the point-of-view of energy management, and several recommendations are made. These are summarized.