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Clouds of Venus

Journal Article:

Abstract

The current state of knowledge of the Venusian clouds is reviewed. The visible clouds of Venus are shown to be quite similar to low level terrestrial hazes of strong anthropogenic influence. Possible nucleation and particle growth mechanisms are presented. The Pioneer Venus experiments that emphasize cloud measurements are described and their expected findings are discussed in detail. The results of these experiments should define the cloud particle composition, microphysics, thermal and radiative heat budget, rough dynamical features and horizontal and vertical variations in these and other parameters. This information should be sufficient to initialize cloud models which can be used to explain the cloud formation, decay, and particle life cycle.
Authors:
Knollenberg, R G; [1]  Hansen, J; [2]  Ragent, B; [3]  Martonchik, J; [4]  Tomasko, M [5] 
  1. Particle Measuring Systems, Inc., 1855 South 57th Court, Boulder, Colorado 80301, U.S.A.
  2. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York (USA). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies
  3. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Moffett Field, Calif. (USA). Ames Research Center
  4. Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, Calif. (USA)
  5. Arizona Univ., Tucson (USA)
Publication Date:
May 01, 1977
Product Type:
Journal Article
Reference Number:
AIX-08-341990; ERA-03-022305; EDB-78-047346
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Space Sci. Rev.; (Netherlands); Journal Volume: 20:3
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; VENUS PLANET; CLOUDS; ABSORPTION; AEROSOLS; CHEMICAL COMPOSITION; DENSITY; DIFFRACTION; DROPLETS; EARTH ATMOSPHERE; NUCLEATION; OPACITY; PARTICLE SIZE; PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES; POLARIMETERS; POLARIZATION; SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION; SPECTROMETERS; SULFUR; SULFURIC ACID; ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION; VAPOR CONDENSATION; VARIATIONS; WATER VAPOR; ATMOSPHERES; COHERENT SCATTERING; COLLOIDS; DISPERSIONS; DISTRIBUTION; ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION; ELEMENTS; FLUIDS; GASES; HYDROGEN COMPOUNDS; INORGANIC ACIDS; MEASURING INSTRUMENTS; NONMETALS; OPTICAL PROPERTIES; PARTICLES; PHYSICAL PROPERTIES; PLANETS; RADIATIONS; SCATTERING; SIZE; SOLS; VAPORS; 640107* - Astrophysics & Cosmology- Planetary Phenomena
OSTI ID:
5176523
Country of Origin:
Netherlands
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Journal ID: CODEN: SPSRA
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
Pages: 329-354
Announcement Date:
Dec 01, 1977

Journal Article:

Citation Formats

Knollenberg, R G, Hansen, J, Ragent, B, Martonchik, J, and Tomasko, M. Clouds of Venus. Netherlands: N. p., 1977. Web.
Knollenberg, R G, Hansen, J, Ragent, B, Martonchik, J, & Tomasko, M. Clouds of Venus. Netherlands.
Knollenberg, R G, Hansen, J, Ragent, B, Martonchik, J, and Tomasko, M. 1977. "Clouds of Venus." Netherlands.
@misc{etde_5176523,
title = {Clouds of Venus}
author = {Knollenberg, R G, Hansen, J, Ragent, B, Martonchik, J, and Tomasko, M}
abstractNote = {The current state of knowledge of the Venusian clouds is reviewed. The visible clouds of Venus are shown to be quite similar to low level terrestrial hazes of strong anthropogenic influence. Possible nucleation and particle growth mechanisms are presented. The Pioneer Venus experiments that emphasize cloud measurements are described and their expected findings are discussed in detail. The results of these experiments should define the cloud particle composition, microphysics, thermal and radiative heat budget, rough dynamical features and horizontal and vertical variations in these and other parameters. This information should be sufficient to initialize cloud models which can be used to explain the cloud formation, decay, and particle life cycle.}
journal = {Space Sci. Rev.; (Netherlands)}
volume = {20:3}
journal type = {AC}
place = {Netherlands}
year = {1977}
month = {May}
}