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Carbon dioxide and climate: an astrophysical perspective

Abstract

In this survey the earth is viewed from the astrophysical perspective, i.e. using global mean values of environmental parameters. The role of carbon dioxide is described in the processes of energy transfer from the earth's surface to space, which determine global climate as measured by the mean surface temperature. Analogies and differences between the problems of the terrestrial atmosphere and those of the solar and stellar atmospheres are examined, both in the computation of model atmospheres and in remote sensing of atmospheric temperature and composition. Subsequently, the temporal astrophysical perspective, with a review of the evolution of CO/sub 2/ abundance and climate on astrophysical or geological time scales, on earth as an Venus (the runaway greenhouse) and on Mars is introduced. Variation of CO/sub 2/ may have been critical to the maintenance of an environment in which life could originate and evolve, and may itself have been affected by life. On human time scales, the recent and continuing increase in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ raises new problems, which are briefly surveyed. It is argued, that the differential greenhouse effect of increased CO/sub 2/ in the earth's atmosphere is essentially identifical to the blanketing effect of spectral lines on the temperature structure  More>>
Authors:
Publication Date:
Jan 01, 1979
Product Type:
Journal Article
Reference Number:
EDB-80-124450
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environ. Int.; (United Kingdom); Journal Volume: 2
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; CARBON DIOXIDE; ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS; CLIMATES; ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY; ASTROPHYSICS; BIOSPHERE; ENVIRONMENT; MAN; MATHEMATICAL MODELS; MATHEMATICS; PLANETARY EVOLUTION; PLANETS; STELLAR ATMOSPHERES; TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE; TEMPERATURE EFFECTS; TIME DEPENDENCE; ANIMALS; ATMOSPHERES; CARBON COMPOUNDS; CARBON OXIDES; CHALCOGENIDES; CHEMISTRY; MAMMALS; OXIDES; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; PRIMATES; SOLAR SYSTEM EVOLUTION; VERTEBRATES; 500100* - Environment, Atmospheric- Basic Studies- (-1989)
OSTI ID:
5010060
Research Organizations:
Observatoire de Paris, France
Country of Origin:
United Kingdom
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Journal ID: CODEN: ENVID
Submitting Site:
TIC
Size:
Pages: 335-350
Announcement Date:
Dec 01, 1980

Citation Formats

Kandel, R S. Carbon dioxide and climate: an astrophysical perspective. United Kingdom: N. p., 1979. Web. doi:10.1016/0160-4120(79)90008-4.
Kandel, R S. Carbon dioxide and climate: an astrophysical perspective. United Kingdom. doi:10.1016/0160-4120(79)90008-4.
Kandel, R S. 1979. "Carbon dioxide and climate: an astrophysical perspective." United Kingdom. doi:10.1016/0160-4120(79)90008-4. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/10.1016/0160-4120(79)90008-4.
@misc{etde_5010060,
title = {Carbon dioxide and climate: an astrophysical perspective}
author = {Kandel, R S}
abstractNote = {In this survey the earth is viewed from the astrophysical perspective, i.e. using global mean values of environmental parameters. The role of carbon dioxide is described in the processes of energy transfer from the earth's surface to space, which determine global climate as measured by the mean surface temperature. Analogies and differences between the problems of the terrestrial atmosphere and those of the solar and stellar atmospheres are examined, both in the computation of model atmospheres and in remote sensing of atmospheric temperature and composition. Subsequently, the temporal astrophysical perspective, with a review of the evolution of CO/sub 2/ abundance and climate on astrophysical or geological time scales, on earth as an Venus (the runaway greenhouse) and on Mars is introduced. Variation of CO/sub 2/ may have been critical to the maintenance of an environment in which life could originate and evolve, and may itself have been affected by life. On human time scales, the recent and continuing increase in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ raises new problems, which are briefly surveyed. It is argued, that the differential greenhouse effect of increased CO/sub 2/ in the earth's atmosphere is essentially identifical to the blanketing effect of spectral lines on the temperature structure of stellar atmospheres. The methods used by astrophysicists in such studies are reviewed and compared with those used to evaluate the differential greenhouse effect of CO/sub 2/ in radiative-convective models of the earth's atmosphere. The latter methods remain relatively crude, but recent results by different authors are in reasonably good agreement; however, the astrophysical perspective, i.e. the use of one-dimensional global mean models, remains a gross simplification of the real complexity of the earth's climate system, which is also true in stellar atmospheres.}
doi = {10.1016/0160-4120(79)90008-4}
journal = {Environ. Int.; (United Kingdom)}
volume = {2}
journal type = {AC}
place = {United Kingdom}
year = {1979}
month = {Jan}
}