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The spatial distribution of forest damages in southeastern Finland

Abstract

Up to the present time scientists researching the causes of the vast areas of forest damages observed in Europe and North America have presented many different hypotheses. Among the first explanations was the damaging effect of acid rain. Some researchers claimed that of all air pollutants ozone was the most important damaging agent. The stress theory emphasizes the interaction of nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide with oxidants, hydrocarbons and heavy metals to be the main cause of toxic effects. In addition to above-mentioned theories, projects carried out by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) have revealed that under northern conditions coniferous forests have been damaged even in situations where the emissions consist of sulphur and nitrogen compounds occurring together. This theory postulates that the interaction of the above pollutants may be responsible by themselves for the effects on coniferous forests. The interaction is supposed to cause damages by two different mechanisms, namely, by causing direct toxic effects or through wintering failures. These mechanisms are indicated by the total nitrogen and sulphur concentration relationships of the needles. In the first case both sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides occur at such a high levels in the air that they cause direct damages, while  More>>
Authors:
Jokinen, J; Maekinen, E; Meinander, O; Haarala, S [1] 
  1. Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)
Publication Date:
Dec 31, 1995
Product Type:
Conference
Report Number:
NEI-FI-290-Vol.3; CONF-9505322-Vol.3
Reference Number:
SCA: 540120; 540220; PA: FI-96:003559; EDB-96:137179; SN: 96001645548
Resource Relation:
Conference: 10. world clean air congress, Espoo (Finland), 28 May - 2 Jun 1995; Other Information: DN: Sponsored by the International Union of Air Pollution Prevention and Environmental Protection Associations (UIAPPA) and hosted by the Finnish Air Pollution Prevention Society (FAPPS); PBD: 1995; Related Information: Is Part Of Proceedings of the 10th world clean air congress. Impacts and management; Kaemaeri, J.; Tolvanen, M.; Anttila, P.; Salonen, R.O. [eds.]; PB: 632 p.
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; AIR POLLUTION; BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS; FORESTS; PINES; SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION; NITROGEN OXIDES; SULFUR DIOXIDE
OSTI ID:
283464
Research Organizations:
Finnish Air Pollution Prevention Society, Helsinki (Finland)
Country of Origin:
Finland
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: ON: DE96777170; ISBN 952-90-6474-8; TRN: FI9603559
Availability:
OSTI as DE96777170
Submitting Site:
FI
Size:
pp. [4]
Announcement Date:

Citation Formats

Jokinen, J, Maekinen, E, Meinander, O, and Haarala, S. The spatial distribution of forest damages in southeastern Finland. Finland: N. p., 1995. Web.
Jokinen, J, Maekinen, E, Meinander, O, & Haarala, S. The spatial distribution of forest damages in southeastern Finland. Finland.
Jokinen, J, Maekinen, E, Meinander, O, and Haarala, S. 1995. "The spatial distribution of forest damages in southeastern Finland." Finland.
@misc{etde_283464,
title = {The spatial distribution of forest damages in southeastern Finland}
author = {Jokinen, J, Maekinen, E, Meinander, O, and Haarala, S}
abstractNote = {Up to the present time scientists researching the causes of the vast areas of forest damages observed in Europe and North America have presented many different hypotheses. Among the first explanations was the damaging effect of acid rain. Some researchers claimed that of all air pollutants ozone was the most important damaging agent. The stress theory emphasizes the interaction of nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide with oxidants, hydrocarbons and heavy metals to be the main cause of toxic effects. In addition to above-mentioned theories, projects carried out by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) have revealed that under northern conditions coniferous forests have been damaged even in situations where the emissions consist of sulphur and nitrogen compounds occurring together. This theory postulates that the interaction of the above pollutants may be responsible by themselves for the effects on coniferous forests. The interaction is supposed to cause damages by two different mechanisms, namely, by causing direct toxic effects or through wintering failures. These mechanisms are indicated by the total nitrogen and sulphur concentration relationships of the needles. In the first case both sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides occur at such a high levels in the air that they cause direct damages, while in the second case sulphur dioxide concentration, in particular, is lower and both compounds can then be used as nutrients causing nutrient imbalance and a loss of wintering hardiness of the needles. The study area in these projects was southeastern Finland, which is one of the most polluted areas in our country. Domestic emissions from the paper and pulp industry, as well as the Russian emissions (e g. from the Leningrad region) affect this area. The aim of this study was to test the sulphur-nitrogen hypothesis using data collected from the Kymi province, S.E. Finland. (author)}
place = {Finland}
year = {1995}
month = {Dec}
}