You need JavaScript to view this

Isotope production

Abstract

Some 2 0% of patients using radiopharmaceuticals receive injections of materials produced by cyclotrons. There are over 200 cyclotrons worldwide; around 35 are operated by commercial companies solely for the production of radio-pharmaceuticals with another 25 accelerators producing medically useful isotopes. These neutron-deficient isotopes are usually produced by proton bombardment. All commonly used medical isotopes can be generated by 'compact' cyclotrons with energies up to 40 MeV and beam intensities in the range 50 to 400 microamps. Specially designed target systems contain gram-quantities of highly enriched stable isotopes as starting materials. The targets can accommodate the high power densities of the proton beams and are designed for automated remote handling. The complete manufacturing cycle includes large-scale target production, isotope generation by cyclotron beam bombardment, radio-chemical extraction, pharmaceutical dispensing, raw material recovery, and labelling/packaging prior to the rapid delivery of these short-lived products. All these manufacturing steps adhere to the pharmaceutical industry standards of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). Unlike research accelerators, commercial cyclotrons are customized 'compact' machines usually supplied by specialist companies such as IBA (Belgium), EBCO (Canada) or Scanditronix (Sweden). The design criteria for these commercial cyclotrons are - small magnet dimensions, power-efficient operation of magnet and radiofrequency systems, high  More>>
Authors:
Publication Date:
Jul 15, 1995
Product Type:
Journal Article
Report Number:
INIS-XC-16A0197
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: CERN Courier; Journal Volume: 35; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Subject:
43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; CYCLOTRONS; ISOTOPE PRODUCTION; NEUTRON-DEFICIENT ISOTOPES; PROTON BEAMS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS; REMOTE HANDLING; RF SYSTEMS; STABLE ISOTOPES
OSTI ID:
22556047
Country of Origin:
CERN
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Journal ID: ISSN 0304-288X; CODEN: CECOA2; TRN: XC16A0197127206
Availability:
Available on-line: http://cds.cern.ch/record/1732411/files/vol35-issue5-p002-e.pdf
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 2-4
Announcement Date:
Jan 07, 2017

Citation Formats

Lewis, Dewi M. Isotope production. CERN: N. p., 1995. Web.
Lewis, Dewi M. Isotope production. CERN.
Lewis, Dewi M. 1995. "Isotope production." CERN.
@misc{etde_22556047,
title = {Isotope production}
author = {Lewis, Dewi M.}
abstractNote = {Some 2 0% of patients using radiopharmaceuticals receive injections of materials produced by cyclotrons. There are over 200 cyclotrons worldwide; around 35 are operated by commercial companies solely for the production of radio-pharmaceuticals with another 25 accelerators producing medically useful isotopes. These neutron-deficient isotopes are usually produced by proton bombardment. All commonly used medical isotopes can be generated by 'compact' cyclotrons with energies up to 40 MeV and beam intensities in the range 50 to 400 microamps. Specially designed target systems contain gram-quantities of highly enriched stable isotopes as starting materials. The targets can accommodate the high power densities of the proton beams and are designed for automated remote handling. The complete manufacturing cycle includes large-scale target production, isotope generation by cyclotron beam bombardment, radio-chemical extraction, pharmaceutical dispensing, raw material recovery, and labelling/packaging prior to the rapid delivery of these short-lived products. All these manufacturing steps adhere to the pharmaceutical industry standards of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). Unlike research accelerators, commercial cyclotrons are customized 'compact' machines usually supplied by specialist companies such as IBA (Belgium), EBCO (Canada) or Scanditronix (Sweden). The design criteria for these commercial cyclotrons are - small magnet dimensions, power-efficient operation of magnet and radiofrequency systems, high intensity extracted proton beams, well defined beam size and automated computer control. Performance requirements include rapid startup and shutdown, high reliability to support the daily production of short-lived isotopes and low maintenance to minimize the radiation dose to personnel. In 1987 a major step forward in meeting these exacting industrial requirements came when IBA, together with the University of Louvain-La-Neuve in Belgium, developed the Cyclone-30 cyclotron. This was the first model to produce reliable, high intensity, extracted beam above 300 microamps; the first unit was installed at Amersham Medi-Physics in the USA.}
journal = {CERN Courier}
issue = {5}
volume = {35}
journal type = {AC}
place = {CERN}
year = {1995}
month = {Jul}
}