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Basics of Low-temperature Refrigeration

Abstract

This chapter gives an overview of the principles of low temperature refrigeration and the thermodynamics behind it. Basic cryogenic processes - Joule-Thomoson process, Brayton process as well as Claude process - are described and compared. A typical helium laboratory refrigerator based on Claude process is used as a typical example of a low-temperature refrigeration system. A description of the hardware components for helium liquefaction is an important part of this paper, because the design of the main hardware components (compressors, turbines, heat exchangers, pumps, adsorbers, etc.) provides the input for cost calculation, as well as enables to estimate the reliability of the plant and the maintenance expenses. All these numbers are necessary to calculate the economics of a low temperature application.
Authors:
Alekseev, A [1] 
  1. Linde AG, Munich (Germany)
Publication Date:
Jul 01, 2014
Product Type:
Conference
Report Number:
CERN-2014/005
Resource Relation:
Conference: CAS - CERN Accelerator School: Course on Superconductivity for Accelerators, Erice (Italy), 24 Apr - 4 May 2013; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); DOI: 10.5170/CERN-2014-005.111; Copyright (c) 2014 CERN; This is an open access publication distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.; Related Information: In: Proceedings of CAS - CERN Accelerator School: Course on Superconductivity for Accelerators| by Bailey, R (ed.) [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)]| CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)| 592 p.
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; CARNOT CYCLE; HEAT EXCHANGERS; HELIUM; HELIUM DILUTION REFRIGERATORS; REFRIGERATION; STORAGE RINGS; THERMODYNAMICS
OSTI ID:
22548678
Research Organizations:
CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)
Country of Origin:
CERN
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: ISSN 0007-8328; ISBN 978-92-9083-405-2; TRN: XC16A0454119734
Availability:
Available on-line: http://cds.cern.ch/record/1974048/files/arXiv:1501.07392.pdf; Available on-line: http://cds.cern.ch/record/1507630/files/CERN-2014-005.pdf
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 111-139
Announcement Date:
Dec 17, 2016

Citation Formats

Alekseev, A. Basics of Low-temperature Refrigeration. CERN: N. p., 2014. Web.
Alekseev, A. Basics of Low-temperature Refrigeration. CERN.
Alekseev, A. 2014. "Basics of Low-temperature Refrigeration." CERN.
@misc{etde_22548678,
title = {Basics of Low-temperature Refrigeration}
author = {Alekseev, A}
abstractNote = {This chapter gives an overview of the principles of low temperature refrigeration and the thermodynamics behind it. Basic cryogenic processes - Joule-Thomoson process, Brayton process as well as Claude process - are described and compared. A typical helium laboratory refrigerator based on Claude process is used as a typical example of a low-temperature refrigeration system. A description of the hardware components for helium liquefaction is an important part of this paper, because the design of the main hardware components (compressors, turbines, heat exchangers, pumps, adsorbers, etc.) provides the input for cost calculation, as well as enables to estimate the reliability of the plant and the maintenance expenses. All these numbers are necessary to calculate the economics of a low temperature application.}
place = {CERN}
year = {2014}
month = {Jul}
}