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9-12% Cr heat resistant steels. Alloy design, TEM characterisation of microstructure evolution and creep response at 650 C

Abstract

This work was carried out aiming to design and characterise 9-12% Cr steels with tailormade microstructures for applications in fossil fuel fired power plants. The investigations concentrated in the design and characterisation of heat resistant steels for applications in high oxidising atmospheres (12% Cr) and 9% Cr alloys for components such as rotors (P91). ThermoCalc calculations showed to be a reliable tool for alloy development. The modeling also provided valuable information for the adjustment of the processing parameters (austenisation and tempering temperatures). Two 12% Cr heat resistant steels with a fine dispersion of nano precipitates were designed and produced supported by thermodynamic modeling (ThermoCalc). A detailed characterisation of the microstructure evolution at different creep times (100 MPa / 650 C / 8000 h) was carried out by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The results of the microstructure analysis were correlated with the mechanical properties in order to investigate the influence of different precipitates (especially M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides) on the creep strength of the alloys. Precipitation of Laves phase and Z-phase was observed after several hundred hours creep time. Very few Z-phase of the type Cr(V,Ta)N nucleating from existing (V,Ta)(C,N) was observed. Both alloys show growth and coarsening of Laves  More>>
Publication Date:
Mar 21, 2011
Product Type:
Thesis/Dissertation
Resource Relation:
Other Information: Diss. (Dr.-Ing.)
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; CARBIDES; CHEMICAL COMPOSITION; CHROMIUM STEELS; COBALT ALLOYS; CREEP; MICROSTRUCTURE; OPTIMIZATION; PRECIPITATION; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0400-1000 K; TEMPERING; THERMODYNAMIC MODEL; TITANIUM ADDITIONS; TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; TUNGSTEN ALLOYS; VANADIUM ADDITIONS
OSTI ID:
22440215
Research Organizations:
Bochum Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Maschinenbau
Country of Origin:
Germany
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
TRN: DE16F0030009756
Availability:
Available from: http://www-brs.ub.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/netahtml/HSS/Diss/RojasJaraDavid/diss.pdf
Submitting Site:
DE
Size:
133 page(s)
Announcement Date:
Mar 11, 2016

Citation Formats

Rojas Jara, David. 9-12% Cr heat resistant steels. Alloy design, TEM characterisation of microstructure evolution and creep response at 650 C. Germany: N. p., 2011. Web.
Rojas Jara, David. 9-12% Cr heat resistant steels. Alloy design, TEM characterisation of microstructure evolution and creep response at 650 C. Germany.
Rojas Jara, David. 2011. "9-12% Cr heat resistant steels. Alloy design, TEM characterisation of microstructure evolution and creep response at 650 C." Germany.
@misc{etde_22440215,
title = {9-12% Cr heat resistant steels. Alloy design, TEM characterisation of microstructure evolution and creep response at 650 C}
author = {Rojas Jara, David}
abstractNote = {This work was carried out aiming to design and characterise 9-12% Cr steels with tailormade microstructures for applications in fossil fuel fired power plants. The investigations concentrated in the design and characterisation of heat resistant steels for applications in high oxidising atmospheres (12% Cr) and 9% Cr alloys for components such as rotors (P91). ThermoCalc calculations showed to be a reliable tool for alloy development. The modeling also provided valuable information for the adjustment of the processing parameters (austenisation and tempering temperatures). Two 12% Cr heat resistant steels with a fine dispersion of nano precipitates were designed and produced supported by thermodynamic modeling (ThermoCalc). A detailed characterisation of the microstructure evolution at different creep times (100 MPa / 650 C / 8000 h) was carried out by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The results of the microstructure analysis were correlated with the mechanical properties in order to investigate the influence of different precipitates (especially M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides) on the creep strength of the alloys. Precipitation of Laves phase and Z-phase was observed after several hundred hours creep time. Very few Z-phase of the type Cr(V,Ta)N nucleating from existing (V,Ta)(C,N) was observed. Both alloys show growth and coarsening of Laves phase, meanwhile the MX carbonitrides present a very slow growth and coarsening rate. Alloys containing Laves phase, MX and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} precipitates show best creep properties. The influence of hot-deformation and tempering temperature on the microstructure evolution on one of the designed 12% Cr alloys was studied during short-term creep at 80-250 MPa and 650 C. Quantitative determination of dislocation density and sub-grain size in the initial microstructure and after creep was investigated by STEM combined with the high-angle annular dark-field detector (HAADF). A correlation between microstructure evolution and creep response was established. All crept samples showed a significant increase of sub-grain size and a reduction of the dislocation density. Hot deformed samples showed better creep strength than non hot-deformed samples, due to homogenisation of the microstructure. The tempering temperature affected the dislocation density and the sub-grain sizes, influencing the creep behaviour. 9% Cr alloys were designed supported by ThermoCalc. Two sets of alloys were produced: 9% Cr alloys with 0.1 % C and 0.05% C and 9% Cr alloys containing ∝ 0.03% Ti again with 0.1% C and 0.05% C (always wt%). Microstructure investigations showed good agreement with the predicted phases of the thermodynamic modeling. The volume fraction of precipitated M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides is directly related to the carbon content of the alloys. Hardening of the Ti-containing alloys by precipitation of fine dispersed Ti-based MX particles was achieved. The precipitation of these carbides was limited to the austenisation and tempering treatment used. The microstructure evolution (sub-grain and particle size) during creep at 650 C / 100MPa was investigated by STEM-HAADF. The sub-grain size evolution and the coarsening of precipitates (MX carbonitrides, M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and Laves phase) were more pronounced for Ti-containing alloys. 9Cr alloys without Ti and with low carbon content presented the highest creep strength of all investigated alloys.}
place = {Germany}
year = {2011}
month = {Mar}
}