Summary Gamma irradiation and ethanol stress treatments redirected pollen development to an embryo formation pathway in Brassica napus. Less than 0.01% of microspores developed into embryos at 25°C compared to approximately 2% at 32°C. However, subsequent to gamma irradiation and ethanol treatments up to 1% and 0.7% of microspores formed embryos at 25°C, respectively. Gamma irradiation also enhanced embryogenesis at 32°C. The possible importance of these findings is discussed in relation to microspore embryogenesis.