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Combined strategies to control antinematicidal -resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants on organized farms in pakistan

Journal Article:

Abstract

Combined strategies to control antinematicidal -resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants on organized farms in Pakistan Antinematicidal resistance has been rooted on all the continents particularly in areas where ovine and caprine are being reared intensively due to frequent annual use of broad-spectrum dewormers. Farmers rely on mono-strategic scheme by using synthetic drugs to treat their livestock which is deemed the easier way to control gastrointestinal nematode infections as compared to the other strategies. On the other hand, recurrent employment of antinematicidal chemotherapeutics has conduced to development and prevalence of resistance among nematode populations. In this regard, other advocating strategies such as grazing management, rotation of antinematicidal drugs (although it is too late), amelioration of animal immunity, genetic approaches, biological control, nutritional supplementation, avoidance of mass treatment, improvement of management, eradication of concurrent diseases, and phytotherapy should be considered too. Although, by far there are no commercialized substantial alternatives to chemotherapy, but the current substitutes could decrease the parasitic burden, which, in turn, restrict indiscriminate use of synthetic drugs. The resistance is more rampant on organized farms as compared to non organized farms in rural areas in Asian, African and South Latin American countries because tamed animal raisers in those  More>>
Authors:
Hamad, K. K. [1] 
  1. University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Parasitology
Publication Date:
Mar 15, 2014
Product Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences; Journal Volume: 51; Journal Issue: 1
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; CHEMOTHERAPY; DOMESTIC ANIMALS; DRUGS; MEDICINAL PLANTS; NEMATODES; NUTRITION; PAKISTAN; RUMINANTS
OSTI ID:
22261471
Country of Origin:
Pakistan
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Journal ID: ISSN 0552-9034; TRN: PK1400754082687
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 241-249
Announcement Date:
Sep 06, 2014

Journal Article:

Citation Formats

Hamad, K. K. Combined strategies to control antinematicidal -resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants on organized farms in pakistan. Pakistan: N. p., 2014. Web.
Hamad, K. K. Combined strategies to control antinematicidal -resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants on organized farms in pakistan. Pakistan.
Hamad, K. K. 2014. "Combined strategies to control antinematicidal -resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants on organized farms in pakistan." Pakistan.
@misc{etde_22261471,
title = {Combined strategies to control antinematicidal -resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants on organized farms in pakistan}
author = {Hamad, K. K.}
abstractNote = {Combined strategies to control antinematicidal -resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants on organized farms in Pakistan Antinematicidal resistance has been rooted on all the continents particularly in areas where ovine and caprine are being reared intensively due to frequent annual use of broad-spectrum dewormers. Farmers rely on mono-strategic scheme by using synthetic drugs to treat their livestock which is deemed the easier way to control gastrointestinal nematode infections as compared to the other strategies. On the other hand, recurrent employment of antinematicidal chemotherapeutics has conduced to development and prevalence of resistance among nematode populations. In this regard, other advocating strategies such as grazing management, rotation of antinematicidal drugs (although it is too late), amelioration of animal immunity, genetic approaches, biological control, nutritional supplementation, avoidance of mass treatment, improvement of management, eradication of concurrent diseases, and phytotherapy should be considered too. Although, by far there are no commercialized substantial alternatives to chemotherapy, but the current substitutes could decrease the parasitic burden, which, in turn, restrict indiscriminate use of synthetic drugs. The resistance is more rampant on organized farms as compared to non organized farms in rural areas in Asian, African and South Latin American countries because tamed animal raisers in those areas depend on ethnobotanicals to treat parasitism due to high cost of allopathic drugs. Therefore, in this review, the different strategies to control the antinematicidal resistance on organized farms in Pakistan will be elaborated. (author)}
journal = {Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences}
issue = {1}
volume = {51}
journal type = {AC}
place = {Pakistan}
year = {2014}
month = {Mar}
}