You need JavaScript to view this

Micromagnetic sensors and Dirac fermions in HgTe heterostructures

Abstract

Within the scope of this thesis two main topics have been investigated: the examination of micromagnetic sensors and transport of massive and massless Dirac fermions in HgTe quantum wells. For the investigation of localized, inhomogeneous magnetic fields, the fabrication and characterization of two different non-invasive and ultra sensitive sensors has been established at the chair ''Experimentelle Physik'' of the University of Wuerzburg. The first sensor is based on the young technique named micro-Hall magnetometry. The necessary semiconductor devices (Hall cross structures) were fabricated by high-resolution electron beam lithography based on two different two dimensional electron gases (2DEGs), namely InAs/(Al,Ga)Sb- and HgTe/(Hg,Cd)Te-heterostructures. The characteristics have been examined in two different ways. Measurements in homogeneous magnetic fields served for characterization of the sensors, whereas the investigation of artificially produced sub-{mu}m magnets substantiates the suitability of the devices for the study of novel nanoscale magnetic materials (e.g. nanowires). Systematic experiments with various magnets are in accordance with the theory of single-domain particles and anisotropic behavior due to shapes with high aspect ratio. The highest sensitivity for strongly localized fields was obtained at T=4.2 K for a (200.200) nm{sup 2} Hall cross - made from shallow, high mobility HgTe 2DEG. Although the field resolution  More>>
Publication Date:
Aug 06, 2012
Product Type:
Thesis/Dissertation
Report Number:
INIS-DE-1503
Resource Relation:
Other Information: Diss. (Dr.rer.nat.)
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; CADMIUM TELLURIDES; CHARGE TRANSPORT; ELECTRIC CONDUCTIVITY; FERMIONS; HALL EFFECT; HETEROJUNCTIONS; INHOMOGENEOUS FIELDS; MAGNETIC DIPOLE MOMENTS; MAGNETIC FIELDS; MAGNETOMETERS; MASSLESS PARTICLES; MERCURY TELLURIDES; QUANTUM WELLS; RESOLUTION; REST MASS; SENSITIVITY; SQUID DEVICES; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0000-0013 K; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0013-0065 K; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0065-0273 K
OSTI ID:
22203080
Research Organizations:
Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie
Country of Origin:
Germany
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
TRN: DE14F0582023992
Availability:
Available from INIS in electronic form
Submitting Site:
DE
Size:
178 page(s)
Announcement Date:
Mar 06, 2014

Citation Formats

Buettner, Bastian. Micromagnetic sensors and Dirac fermions in HgTe heterostructures. Germany: N. p., 2012. Web.
Buettner, Bastian. Micromagnetic sensors and Dirac fermions in HgTe heterostructures. Germany.
Buettner, Bastian. 2012. "Micromagnetic sensors and Dirac fermions in HgTe heterostructures." Germany.
@misc{etde_22203080,
title = {Micromagnetic sensors and Dirac fermions in HgTe heterostructures}
author = {Buettner, Bastian}
abstractNote = {Within the scope of this thesis two main topics have been investigated: the examination of micromagnetic sensors and transport of massive and massless Dirac fermions in HgTe quantum wells. For the investigation of localized, inhomogeneous magnetic fields, the fabrication and characterization of two different non-invasive and ultra sensitive sensors has been established at the chair ''Experimentelle Physik'' of the University of Wuerzburg. The first sensor is based on the young technique named micro-Hall magnetometry. The necessary semiconductor devices (Hall cross structures) were fabricated by high-resolution electron beam lithography based on two different two dimensional electron gases (2DEGs), namely InAs/(Al,Ga)Sb- and HgTe/(Hg,Cd)Te-heterostructures. The characteristics have been examined in two different ways. Measurements in homogeneous magnetic fields served for characterization of the sensors, whereas the investigation of artificially produced sub-{mu}m magnets substantiates the suitability of the devices for the study of novel nanoscale magnetic materials (e.g. nanowires). Systematic experiments with various magnets are in accordance with the theory of single-domain particles and anisotropic behavior due to shapes with high aspect ratio. The highest sensitivity for strongly localized fields was obtained at T=4.2 K for a (200.200) nm{sup 2} Hall cross - made from shallow, high mobility HgTe 2DEG. Although the field resolution was merely {delta}B{approx}100 {mu}T, the nanoscale sensor size yields an outstanding flux resolution of {delta}{Phi}=2.10{sup -3} {Phi}{sub 0}, where {Phi}{sub 0}=h/2e is the flux quantum. Translating this result in terms of magnetic moment, the sensitivity allows for the detection of magnetization changes of a particle centered on top of the sensor as low as {delta}M{approx}10{sup 2} {mu}{sub B}, with the magnetic moment of a single electron {mu}{sub B}, the Bohr magneton. The further examination of a permalloy nanomagnet with a cross-section of (100.20) nm{sup 2} confirms the expected resolution ability, extracted from the noise of the sensor. The observed high signal-to-noise ratio validates the detection limit of this sensor in terms of geometry. This would be reached for a magnet (same material) with quadratic crosssection for an edge length of 3.3 nm. Moreover, the feasibility of this sensor for operation in a wide temperature range (T=mK..>200 K) and high magnetic fields has been confirmed. The second micromagnetic sensor is the micro-SQUID (micro-Superconducting-QUantum-Interference-Device) based on niobium. The typical sensor area of the devices built in this work was (1.0.1.0) {mu}m{sup 2}, with constrictions of about 20 nm. The characterization of this device demonstrates an amazing field sensitivity (regarding its size) of {delta}B<1 {mu}T. Even though the sensor was 25 times larger than the best micro-Hall sensor, it provided an excellent flux resolution in the order of {delta}{Phi}{approx}5.10{sup -4} {Phi}{sub 0} and a similar magnetic moment resolution of {delta}M{approx}10{sup 2} {mu}{sub B}. Furthermore, the introduction of an ellipsoidal permalloy magnet (axes: 200 nm and 400 nm, thickness 30 nm) substantiates the suitability for the detection of minuscule, localized magnetic fields. The second part of the thesis deals with the peculiar transport properties of HgTe quantum wells. These rely on the linear contribution to the band structure inherent to the heterostructure. Therefore the system can be described by an effective Dirac Hamiltonian, whose Dirac mass is tunable by the variation of the quantum well thickness. By fabrication and characterization of a systematical series of substrates, a system with vanishing Dirac mass (zero energy gap) has been confirmed. This heterostructure therefore resembles graphene (a monolayer of graphite), with the difference of exhibiting only one valley in the energy dispersion of the Brillouin zone. Thus parasitical intervalley scattering cannot occur. The existence of this system has been proven by the agreement of theoretical predictions, based on widely accepted band structure calculations with the experiment (Landau level dispersion, conductivity). Furthermore, another particularity of the band structure - the transition from linear to parabolic character - has been illustrated by the widths of the plateaus in the quantum Hall effect. Finally, the transport of ''massive'' Dirac fermions (with finite Dirac mass) is investigated. In particular the describing Dirac Hamiltonian induces weak localization effects depending on the Dirac mass. This mechanism has not been observed to date, and survives in higher temperatures compared to typical localization mechanisms.}
place = {Germany}
year = {2012}
month = {Aug}
}