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Rapid Methods of Determining Internal Radioactive Contamination; Methodes Rapides Permettant d'Evaluer la Contamination Radioactive Interne; 0411 042b 0414 ; Metodos Rapidos para Determinar la Contaminacion Radiactiva Interna

Conference:

Abstract

Methods designed for use in accidents and emergencies must be sufficiently rapid and sensitive to yield results within the time limits required for successful remedial action to be taken on overexposed individuals. Acceptable time limits will depend, in part, on the number of individuals exposed. If meaningful results can be obtained within a few hours, the primary function of rapid body-burden measurements, to assist in minimizing damage due to internally deposited radionuclides, can be realized. The following methods are considered for the emergency assessment of internal contamination: in vivo gamma- and X-ray counting, gamma- and X-ray counting of excretion and blood samples without sample preparation, and radiochemical separations on excretion and blood samples followed by counting. The applicability, limitations, sensitivity, and time requirements of each method are discussed for specific radionuclides, including the actinide elements, the common fission products, low-energy beta emitters, and others. The preferred methods are indicated. A method is considered adequate when it can detect, in a few hours, an intake equivalent to the smallest continuous permissible body burden specified by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Although such sensitivity is not always necessary, it should always be sufficient and can usually be obtained. The alpha emitters  More>>
Authors:
Sedlet, J.; Fairman, W. D.; Robinson, J. J. [1] 
  1. Industrial Hygiene and Safety Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Jun 15, 1965
Product Type:
Conference
Report Number:
IAEA-SM-56/8
Resource Relation:
Conference: Symposium on Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation, Vienna (Austria), 8-12 Mar 1965; Other Information: 41 refs., 4 tabs.; Related Information: In: Personnel Dosimetry for Radiation Accidents. Proceedings of a Symposium on Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation| 732 p.
Subject:
61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ACCIDENTS; BLOOD; BODY BURDEN; CONTAMINATION; EXCRETION; FISSION PRODUCTS; IN VIVO; INTAKE; PERSONNEL MONITORING; RADIATION MONITORING; RADIATION PROTECTION; RADIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS; RADIOCHEMISTRY; RADIOISOTOPES; RADIONUCLIDE KINETICS; RADIOSENSITIVITY; REMEDIAL ACTION; SAMPLE PREPARATION; SKELETON
OSTI ID:
22202938
Research Organizations:
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland)
Country of Origin:
IAEA
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: ISSN 0074-1884; TRN: XA13M3628023849
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 395-411
Announcement Date:
Mar 06, 2014

Conference:

Citation Formats

Sedlet, J., Fairman, W. D., and Robinson, J. J. Rapid Methods of Determining Internal Radioactive Contamination; Methodes Rapides Permettant d'Evaluer la Contamination Radioactive Interne; 0411 042b 0414 ; Metodos Rapidos para Determinar la Contaminacion Radiactiva Interna. IAEA: N. p., 1965. Web.
Sedlet, J., Fairman, W. D., & Robinson, J. J. Rapid Methods of Determining Internal Radioactive Contamination; Methodes Rapides Permettant d'Evaluer la Contamination Radioactive Interne; 0411 042b 0414 ; Metodos Rapidos para Determinar la Contaminacion Radiactiva Interna. IAEA.
Sedlet, J., Fairman, W. D., and Robinson, J. J. 1965. "Rapid Methods of Determining Internal Radioactive Contamination; Methodes Rapides Permettant d'Evaluer la Contamination Radioactive Interne; 0411 042b 0414 ; Metodos Rapidos para Determinar la Contaminacion Radiactiva Interna." IAEA.
@misc{etde_22202938,
title = {Rapid Methods of Determining Internal Radioactive Contamination; Methodes Rapides Permettant d'Evaluer la Contamination Radioactive Interne; 0411 042b 0414 ; Metodos Rapidos para Determinar la Contaminacion Radiactiva Interna}
author = {Sedlet, J., Fairman, W. D., and Robinson, J. J.}
abstractNote = {Methods designed for use in accidents and emergencies must be sufficiently rapid and sensitive to yield results within the time limits required for successful remedial action to be taken on overexposed individuals. Acceptable time limits will depend, in part, on the number of individuals exposed. If meaningful results can be obtained within a few hours, the primary function of rapid body-burden measurements, to assist in minimizing damage due to internally deposited radionuclides, can be realized. The following methods are considered for the emergency assessment of internal contamination: in vivo gamma- and X-ray counting, gamma- and X-ray counting of excretion and blood samples without sample preparation, and radiochemical separations on excretion and blood samples followed by counting. The applicability, limitations, sensitivity, and time requirements of each method are discussed for specific radionuclides, including the actinide elements, the common fission products, low-energy beta emitters, and others. The preferred methods are indicated. A method is considered adequate when it can detect, in a few hours, an intake equivalent to the smallest continuous permissible body burden specified by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Although such sensitivity is not always necessary, it should always be sufficient and can usually be obtained. The alpha emitters and the low-energy pure beta emitters present the greatest difficulty since body burdens of these nuclides must ordinarily be determined through radiochemical analysis of blood or excreta. The radiochemical separations developed and used at Argonne National Laboratory for the rapid determination of such emitters are presented. Some of the problems that arise in obtaining body burdens from excretion rates shortly after intake are also discussed. During this period the excretion pattern changes rapidly and, for many nuclides of interest, at an unknown rate. At very high and very low intakes accurate body-burden measurements are not immediately necessary. However, for each radionuclide there is an intermediate intake level at which a reasonably accurate body-burden determination is needed early to decide if treatment is warranted. The properties and factors that make the bone-seeking elements particularly difficult to handle in emergencies are discussed. (author) [French] Les methodes a utiliser en cas d'accident ou dans les situations exceptionnelles doivent etre suffisamment rapides et sensibles pour fournir des resultats dans des delais permettant de traiter efficacement les personnes sur - exposees. Les delais - qui doivent etre raisonnables - dependent en partie du nombre des personnes exposees aux rayonnements. S*il est possible d'arriver en quelques heures a des resultats interessants, on effectuera rapidement les mesures anthroporadiametriques, ce qui contribuera a reduire au minimum les dommages dus aux radionucleides introduits dans l'organisme. Pour evaluer la contamination interne en cas d'accident, on propose les methodes ci-apres: comptage gamma et comptage des rayons X in vivo; comptage des rayons gamma et des rayons X sur des echantillons d*exqreta et de sang non prepares* enfin, separation radiochimique operee sur des echantillons d'excreta et de sang, suivie de comptage. Les auteurs examinent le champ d'application, les limitations et la sensibilite de chaque methode ainsi que le temps qu'elle necessite pour des radionucleides determines, y compris les actinides, les produits de fission courants, les emetteurs beta de faible energie, etc. Ils indiquent les methodes qu*ils preferent. Une methode est juge satisfaisante si elle permet de detecter en quelques heures une dose absorbee equivalente a la plus petite charge corporelle continue admissible specifiee par la Commission internationale de protection radiologique. Bien qu'une telle sensibilite ne soit pas toujours necessaire, elle devrait toujours etre suffisante et, d'une maniere generale, il est possible de l'atteindre. Les emetteurs alpha et les emetteurs beta purs de faible energie presentent la plus grande difficulte du fait que les charges corporelles de ces nucleides doivent ordinairement etre evaluees par une analyse radiochimique du sang ou des excreta. Les auteurs decrivent les separations radiochimiques qui ont ete mises au point et appliquees au Laboratoire national d*Argonne pour doser rapidement ces emetteurs. Le memoire examine d'autre part certains problemes que pose l'obtention de charges corporelles a partir des taux d'excretion, peu apres l'absorption. Pendant ce laps de temps, l'excretion se modifie rapidement et, pour beaucoup de nucleides importants en l'occurrence, a un taux inconnu. Pour les taux d'absorption tres eleves ou tres bas, il n'est pas necessaire de connaitre immediatement la mesure precise des charges corporelles. Cependant, il existe pour chaque radionucleide une dose d'absorption intermediaire pour laquelle il faut pouvoir -determiner sans trop tarder la charge corporelle avec une precision relative, ce qui permet de decider ou non le traitement. Les auteurs examinent les proprietes et les facteurs qui rendent le dosage des elements osteotropes particulierement difficile dans les cas d'accident. (author) [Spanish] Los metodos aplicables en casos de accidente o en situaciones excepcionales tienen que ser suficientemente rapidos y sensibles para proporcionar resultados en plazos que faciliten el tratamiento eficaz de las personas sobreexpuestas. Los plazos disponibles dependeran, en parte, del numero de individuos irradiados. Si se logra obtener en pocas horas resultados utiles, se habra cumplido la funcion primaria de las mediciones rapidas de la carga corporal, que es la de contribuir en toda la medida de lo posible a reducir los danos debidos .a radionuclidos depositados internamente. Los metodos que se citan a continuacion pueden servir para evaluar la contaminacion interna en casos de accidente: recuento gamma y de rayos X in vivo, recuento gamma y de rayos X en muestras de excreta y de sangre no preparadas, y separacion radioquimica de la muestras de excreta y de la sangre, seguidas de recuento. Los autores examinan el campo de aplicacion, las restricciones y la sensibilidad de cada metodo, asi como el tiempo requerido para determinados radionuclidos, incluyendo actfnidos, productos de fision corrientes y emisores beta de baja energia. Indican los metodos aplicados con prioridad; un metodo se considera adecuado cuando permite detectar en algunas horas una dosis absorbida equivalente a la menor carga corporal admisible que especifica la Comision Internacional de Proteccion Radiologica. Aunque esta sensibilidad no es necesaria en todos los casos, deberia ser siempre suficiente y, en general, puede alcanzarse. Las mayores dificultades se encuentran con los emisores alfa y los emisores beta puros de baja energia ya que, en general, la carga corporal en estos nuclidos debe determinarse por analisis radioquimico de la sangre y los excreta. La memoria describe los procedimientos de separacion radioquimica desarrollados y utilizados en el Laboratorio Nacional de Argonne para la determinacion rapida de estos nuclidos. Por otra parte, la memoria examina algunos de los problemas que se plantean para calcular las cargas corporales poco despues de la absorcion a partir de los indices de excrecion. Durante este periodo, las concentraciones varian rapidamente y en forma desconocida para muchos nuclidos importantes. Cuando la absorcion ha sido muy elevada o muy reducida, no es necesario determinar inmediata y exactamente las cargas corporales. No obstante, existe para cada radionuclido un grado intermedio de absorcion que exige determinar rapidamente y con exactitud suficiente la carga corporal para decidir si es necesario proceder a un tratamiento. La memoria discute las propiedades y los factores que dificultan la valoracion de los elementos osteofilos en caso de accidente. (author) [Russian] Metody opredelenija vnutrennego radioaktivnogo zagrjaznenija, prednaznachennye dlja ispol'zovanija vo vremja avarij i neschastnyh sluchaev, dolzhny byt' dostatochno bystrymi i chuvstvitel'nymi, chtoby v techenie ogranichennogo vremeni poluchit' trebuemye rezul'taty dlja uspeshnyh meroprijatij po spaseniju postradavshih ot sverhobluchenija. Priemlemye sroki budut zaviset', v chastnosti, ot chisla obluchennyh lic. Esli mozhno poluchit' znachitel'nye rezul'taty v techenie neskol'kih chasov, to mozhno osushhestvit' pervichnuju funkciju bystrogo izmerenija radioaktivnosti organizma s cel'ju okazanija pomoshhi pri svedenii k minimumu ushherba, nanosimogo organizmu otlozhivshimisja vnutri radioizotopami. Dlja avarijnoj ocenki vnutrennego zagrjaznenija rassmatrivajutsja sledujushhie metody: schet gamma- i rentgenovskih luchej in vivo, schet gamma- i rentgenovskih luchej v obrazcah vydelenij i krovi bez obrabotki obrazcov, radiohimicheskie razdelenija obrazcov vydelenij i krovi posle scheta. Voprosy primenimosti, ogranichenij, chuvstvitel'nosti i predelov vremeni kazhdogo metoda obsuzhdajutsja dlja opredelennyh radioizotopov, v tom chisle aktinidov, obshhih produktov delenija, beta-izluchatelej nizkoj jenergii i drugih. Ukazyvajutsja predpochitaemye metody. Metod schitaetsja otvechajushhim trebovanijam, esli v techenie neskol'kih chasov mozhno obnaruzhit' pogloshhenie, jekvivalentnoe naimen'shej velichine postojannogo dopustimogo soderzhanija radioaktivnosti v organizme cheloveka, ustanovlennoj Mezhdunarodnoj komissiej po radiologicheskoj zashhite. Hotja takaja chuvstvitel'nost' ne vsegda javljaetsja neobhodimoj, ona vsegda dolzhna byt' dostatochnoj, i ee mozhno obychno poluchit'. Ispol'zovanie al'fa-izluchatelej i chistyh beta-izluchatelej nizkoj 3Heprnn predstavljaet naibol'shie trudnosti, poskol'ku soderzhanie jetih izotopov v organizme cheloveka obychno nuzhno opredeljat' putem radiohimicheskogo analiza krovi ili vydelenij. Predstavljajutsja metody radiohimicheskogo razdelenija, razrabotannye Argonnskoj nacional'noj laboratoriej dlja bystrogo opredelenija takih izluchatelej. Obsuzhdajutsja takzhe nekotorye iz problem, kotorye voznikajut pri opredelenii skorosti vyvedenija radioaktivnyh izotopov iz organizma cheloveka posle pogloshhenija. V techenie jetogo perioda process vyvedenija ochen' bystro menjaetsja, i skorost' vyvedenija mnogih predstavljajushhih interes izotopov neizvestna. Pri ochen' bol'shom ili ochen' malom pogloshhenii net neobhodimosti nemedlenno provodit' izmerenie soderzhanija radioaktivnosti v organizme. Odnako dlja kazhdogo radioizotopa imeetsja promezhutochnyj uroven' pogloshhenija, na kotorom neobhodimo provesti skorejshee opredelenie soderzhanija radioaktivnosti v organizme ,s razumnoj tochnost'ju v celjah reshenija voprosa, celesoobrazno li provodit' lechenie. Obsuzhdajutsja svojstva i faktory, kotorye osobenno zatrudnjajut pri neschastnyh sluchajah obrabotku otlagajushhihsja v kostjah jelementov. (author)}
place = {IAEA}
year = {1965}
month = {Jun}
}