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Personnel Dosimeters with Radiation Elements; Dosimetres Individuels Comportant des Elements Emetteurs; 0418 041d 0414 0418 0412 0418 0414 ; Dosimetros Individuales Provistos de Elementos Emisores

Conference:

Abstract

The radiation element is a vacuum diode, the electrodes of which emit a different charge of electrons per unit of irradiation. Since the electrons ejected leave one electrode with a high energy, the other electrode will be charged to proportionally high voltages without any auxiliary power. Accordingly these direct reading systems are called radiation elements. When measuring X- and y-rays, one electrode consists of lead, the other of carbon. The wavelength independence with regard to the r-unit was obtained by the electron-filtering method. The sensitivity is approximately 0.5 V/r {+-} 8% within the range from 80 keV to 1.25 MeV. (Full scale 200-2000 r either linear or quasi logarithm. ) When measuring slow and fast neutrons, the induced {beta}-activity of the electrodes charge the built-in electrometer. It is possible to measure both gamma radiation and neutrons in rem units with one instrument. The neutron sensitivity of a gamma element can be made definitely zero, but the gamma sensitivity of a neutron element presents some difficulties. The outstanding advantages of these instruments are: (1) Self-powered systems, always ready to function, unlimited storing time, no batteries or charging units; (2) Extremely low fading because of the use of vacuum and quartz for  More>>
Authors:
Hosemann, R.; Warrikhoff, H. F.H. [1] 
  1. Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin-Dahlem, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)
Publication Date:
Jun 15, 1965
Product Type:
Conference
Report Number:
IAEA-SM-56/22
Resource Relation:
Conference: Symposium on Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation, Vienna (Austria), 8-12 Mar 1965; Other Information: 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.; Related Information: In: Personnel Dosimetry for Radiation Accidents. Proceedings of a Symposium on Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation| 732 p.
Subject:
61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; APPROXIMATIONS; DOSE RATES; DOSEMETERS; ELECTRIC CONTACTS; ELECTRIC POTENTIAL; ELECTRODES; ELECTROMETERS; FAST NEUTRONS; GAMMA RADIATION; PERSONNEL DOSIMETRY; PERSONNEL MONITORING; QUARTZ; RADIOSENSITIVITY; SPHERICAL CONFIGURATION
OSTI ID:
22202925
Research Organizations:
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland)
Country of Origin:
IAEA
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
Other: ISSN 0074-1884; TRN: XA13M3615023836
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 189-197
Announcement Date:
Mar 06, 2014

Conference:

Citation Formats

Hosemann, R., and Warrikhoff, H. F.H. Personnel Dosimeters with Radiation Elements; Dosimetres Individuels Comportant des Elements Emetteurs; 0418 041d 0414 0418 0412 0418 0414 ; Dosimetros Individuales Provistos de Elementos Emisores. IAEA: N. p., 1965. Web.
Hosemann, R., & Warrikhoff, H. F.H. Personnel Dosimeters with Radiation Elements; Dosimetres Individuels Comportant des Elements Emetteurs; 0418 041d 0414 0418 0412 0418 0414 ; Dosimetros Individuales Provistos de Elementos Emisores. IAEA.
Hosemann, R., and Warrikhoff, H. F.H. 1965. "Personnel Dosimeters with Radiation Elements; Dosimetres Individuels Comportant des Elements Emetteurs; 0418 041d 0414 0418 0412 0418 0414 ; Dosimetros Individuales Provistos de Elementos Emisores." IAEA.
@misc{etde_22202925,
title = {Personnel Dosimeters with Radiation Elements; Dosimetres Individuels Comportant des Elements Emetteurs; 0418 041d 0414 0418 0412 0418 0414 ; Dosimetros Individuales Provistos de Elementos Emisores}
author = {Hosemann, R., and Warrikhoff, H. F.H.}
abstractNote = {The radiation element is a vacuum diode, the electrodes of which emit a different charge of electrons per unit of irradiation. Since the electrons ejected leave one electrode with a high energy, the other electrode will be charged to proportionally high voltages without any auxiliary power. Accordingly these direct reading systems are called radiation elements. When measuring X- and y-rays, one electrode consists of lead, the other of carbon. The wavelength independence with regard to the r-unit was obtained by the electron-filtering method. The sensitivity is approximately 0.5 V/r {+-} 8% within the range from 80 keV to 1.25 MeV. (Full scale 200-2000 r either linear or quasi logarithm. ) When measuring slow and fast neutrons, the induced {beta}-activity of the electrodes charge the built-in electrometer. It is possible to measure both gamma radiation and neutrons in rem units with one instrument. The neutron sensitivity of a gamma element can be made definitely zero, but the gamma sensitivity of a neutron element presents some difficulties. The outstanding advantages of these instruments are: (1) Self-powered systems, always ready to function, unlimited storing time, no batteries or charging units; (2) Extremely low fading because of the use of vacuum and quartz for isolation; (3) Quantitative measurement of the highest attainable dose rates because of no recombination effects (vacuum) ; and (4) Either direct or indirect systems. The direct reading instrument contains the radiation element and the electrometer in the same vacuum vessel. There are no electrical contacts outside the instrument. Cylindrical and spherical designs of the element are preferable to other geometries. The outer dimensions of the instrument will be the same as those of the commonly used pen-type dosimeters. Each system contains a discharge switch and a control unit. (author) [French] L'element emetteur est constitue par une diode a vide dont les electrodes emettent des flux d'electrons differents par unite d'irradiation. Etant donne que l'une des electrodes emet des electrons ayant une energie elevee, on peut obtenir a l'autre electrode des tensions proportionnelles sans faire appel a une source d'energie auxiliaire. En raison de cette propriete, ces appareils a lecture directe ont recu le nom d'elements emetteurs. Pour mesurer les rayons X ou y, il faut que l'une des electrodes soit en plomb et l'autre en carbone. En vue de rendre l'unite de mesure en roentgen independante de la longueur d'onde, on a utilise la methode des electrons filtres. La sensibilite est de l'ordre de 0, 5 V/r {+-} 8% entre 80 keV et 1, 25 MeV. (L'echelle complete de 200 a 2000 r est soit lineaire, soit quasi-logarithmique.) Pour la mesure des neutrons lents et rapides, l'electrometre incorpore est charge par l'activite 6 induite des electrodes. Il est possible de mesurer les rayons y et les neutrons en rem a l'aide d'un seul instrument. La sensibilite d'un element y aux neutrons peut etre pratiquement reduite a zero, mais celle d'un element neutronique aux rayons y suscite certaines difficultes. Les principaux avantages de ces instruments sont les suivants : 1. Sources d'energie autonomes, toujours pretes a fonctionner, duree d'entreposage illimitee, absence de piles electriques ou autres sources d'alimentation; 2. Evanouissement tres faible du fait que l'fsolement est assure par le vide et le quartz; 3. Mesure quantitative des debits de dose les plus eleves, en raison de l'absence de tout effet de recombinaison (vide) ; 4. Lecture directe ou indirecte, selon les modeles. Dans l'instrument a lecture directe, l'element emetteur et l'electrometre se trouvent dans la meme chambre a vide. L'instrument ne comporte aucun contact electrique a l'exterieur; il doit avoir de preference une forme cylindrique ou spherique. Les dimensions exterieures de l'instrument sont les memes que celles des stylo-dosimetres classiques. Chaque type d'instrument comporte un commutateur de decharge et un dispositif de commande. (author) [Spanish] El elemento emisor esta constituido por un diodo de vacfo, cuyos electrodos emiten diferentes cantidades de electrones por unidad de irradiacion. Como los electrones que emite uno de los electrodos estan animados de gran energia, es posible obtener en el otro electrodo tensiones proporcionalmente elevadas sin necesidad de fuente de tension auxiliar. En razon de esta propiedad, estos aparatos de lectura directa se donominan elementos emisores. Para medir rayos X y y se emplea un electrodo de plomo y otro de carbono. A fin de que la unidad de medida (r) sea independiente de la longitud de onda se aplico el metodo denominado de filtracion de electrones. La sensibilidad es del orden de 0,5 V /i {+-} 8% en el intervalo 80 keV - 1,25 MeV. (La escala completa abarca de 200 a 2000 r y puede ser lineal o cuasilogaritmica.) Para medir los neutrones lentos y rapidos el electrometro incorporado se carga mediante la actividad inducida en los electrodos por las particulas beta. Los rayos gamma y los neutrones se pueden medir en rem con el mismo instrumento. La sensibilidad a los neutrones de un elemento destinado a la medicion de rayos gamma puede reducirse practicamente a cero, pero la sensibilidad a los rayos gamma de un elemento neutronico suscita ciertas dificultades. Las ventajas mas notables de estos instrumentos son: 1. Se trata de aparatos autonomos, siempre listos para su empleo; se pueden guardar por tiempo indefinido, no necesitan pilas ni dispositivos de carga. 2. Debilitamiento sumamente pequeflo de la sefial, debido al aislamiento que proporcionan el vacfo y el cuarzo empleados. 3. Medicion cuantitativa de las intensidades de dosis mas elevadas en razon de la ausencia de efectos de recombinacion (vacfo). 4. Lectura directa o indirecta, segun los modelos. El instrumento de lectura directa contiene el elemento emisor y el electrometro en la misma camara de vacio. El instrumento carece de contactos electricos en su exterior. La construccion en forma eliptica o esferica del elemento es preferible a cualquier otra. Las dimensiones externas del instrumento son las mismas que las de los dosimetros tipo estilografica corrientemente utilizados. Cada aparato esta provisto de un conmutador de descarga y de un dispositivo de mando. (author) [Russian] Jelementom izluchenija javljaetsja vakuumnyj diod, jelektrody kotorogo izluchajut jelektrony razlichnogo zarjada na edinicu izluchenija. Poskol'ku ispuskaemye jelektrony pokidajut odin jelektrod s vysokoj jenergiej, to drugoj jelektrod mozhet zarjazhat'sja do proporcional'no vysokogo naprjazhenija bez dopolnitel'noj jenergii. V sootvetstvii s jetim svojstvom, jeti sistemy neposredstvennogo otscheta nazyvajutsja jelementami izluchenija. Dlja togo chtoby izmerit' rentgenovskie i gamma-luchi, odin jelektrod delaetsja iz svinca, a drugoj iz ugleroda. Nezavisimost' ot dliny volny po otnosheniju k edinice rentgena poluchena s pomoshh'ju tak nazyvaemogo metoda fil'tracii jelektrona. Chuvstvitel'nost' sostavljaet priblizitel'no 0,5 vol't/rentgen {+-} 8% v diapazone ot 80 kjev do 1,25 Mjev (polnyj masshtab 200 - 2000 rentgen, libo linejnyj kvazi-logarifm). Dlja izmerenija medlennyh i bystryh nejtronov vyzvannaja beta-aktivnost' jelektrodov zarjazhaet vstroennyj jelektron. Predstavljaetsja vozmozhnym izmerit' gamma-luchi, a takzhe i nejtrony v edinicah bjer s pomoshh'ju odnogo instrumenta. Nejtronnaja chuvstvitel'nost' gamma-jelementa mozhet byt' fakticheski nulevoj, odnako gamma-chuvstvitel'nost' nejtronnogo jelementa vyzovet nekotorye trudnosti. Harakternymi preimushhestvami jetih instrumentov javljajutsja: 1. SamOzarjazhajushhiesja sistemy, vsegda gotovye k dejstviju, neogranichennoe vremja hranenija, otsutstvie batarej ili zarjazhajushhih komponentov. 2. Chrezvychajno nizkoe zatuhanie, poskol'ku dlja izoljacii ispol'zujutsja vakuum i kvarc. 3. Kachestvennost' izmerenij naibolee vysokoj dozy vsledstvie otsutstvija vozdejstvija novyh soedinenij (vakuum). 4. Libo neposredstvennye, libo kosvennye sistemy. Pribor neposredstvennogo otscheta soderzhit jelement izluchenija i jelektrometr v tom zhe samom vakuumnom sosude. Otsutstvujut jelektroprovodimye kontakty vneshnej oblicovki pribora. Predpochtenie okazyvaetsja cilindricheskoj i sfericheskoj forme jelementa. Vneshnie razmery pribora ostanutsja temi zhe samymi, chto i u obychno ispol'zuemyh dozimetrov karandashnogo tipa. Kazhdaja sistema sostoit iz jelementnogo kommutatora i bloka upravlenija. (author)}
place = {IAEA}
year = {1965}
month = {Jun}
}