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Criteria for the Evaluation and Selection of Radiation-Induced Metabolic Changes as Biochemical Indicators of Radiation Damage

Conference:

Abstract

There are several reasons which prompt a search for suitable biochemical indicators of radiation damage in man. Perhaps the most compelling of these reasons is the urgent need for estimates of exposure doses in cases of accidental exposures of human subjects to ionizing radiations under conditions which preclude a reliable assessment of the exposure dose by the usual physical means. At worst, a biochemical estimate of the dose would provide an independent means of obtaining information otherwise based solely on physical considerations and assumptions. In addition, a biochemical estimate of radiation injury may also, under ideal circumstances, serve as a guide to the attending physician in chosing the type of therapy most efficacious and least likely to lead to complications in the near as well as more distant future. The availability of biochemical indicators capable of revealing with some degree of accuracy the impairment of function of a particular organ would be a helpful adjunct in making decisions concerning the therapeutic approach to be adopted. The latter aspect would be of considerable interest in acute, accidental radiation exposures since under these circumstances radiation exposures are frequently of the partial-body type. An estimate of radiation injury by means of biochemical indicators  More>>
Authors:
Altman, K. I. [1] 
  1. Departments of Experimental Radiology, Radiation Biology, Biophysics and Biochemistry, University of Rochester, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Mar 15, 1971
Product Type:
Conference
Report Number:
IAEA-PL-409/1
Resource Relation:
Conference: Scientific Meeting on Biochemical Indicators of Radiation Injury in Man, Paris (France), 22-26 Jun 1970; Other Information: 6 refs., 2 figs.; Related Information: In: Biochemical Indicators of Radiation Injury in Man. Proceedings of a Scientific Meeting| 334 p.
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGANISMS AND BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS; BIOLOGICAL INDICATORS; BIOLOGICAL RECOVERY; BIOPSY; CHRONIC EXPOSURE; HORMONES; NEOPLASMS; ORGANS; PARTIAL BODY IRRADIATION; PATIENTS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIATION INJURIES; THERAPY
OSTI ID:
22192486
Research Organizations:
International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland)
Country of Origin:
IAEA
Language:
English
Other Identifying Numbers:
TRN: XA14M0723016975
Submitting Site:
INIS
Size:
page(s) 1-9
Announcement Date:
Feb 20, 2014

Conference:

Citation Formats

Altman, K. I. Criteria for the Evaluation and Selection of Radiation-Induced Metabolic Changes as Biochemical Indicators of Radiation Damage. IAEA: N. p., 1971. Web.
Altman, K. I. Criteria for the Evaluation and Selection of Radiation-Induced Metabolic Changes as Biochemical Indicators of Radiation Damage. IAEA.
Altman, K. I. 1971. "Criteria for the Evaluation and Selection of Radiation-Induced Metabolic Changes as Biochemical Indicators of Radiation Damage." IAEA.
@misc{etde_22192486,
title = {Criteria for the Evaluation and Selection of Radiation-Induced Metabolic Changes as Biochemical Indicators of Radiation Damage}
author = {Altman, K. I.}
abstractNote = {There are several reasons which prompt a search for suitable biochemical indicators of radiation damage in man. Perhaps the most compelling of these reasons is the urgent need for estimates of exposure doses in cases of accidental exposures of human subjects to ionizing radiations under conditions which preclude a reliable assessment of the exposure dose by the usual physical means. At worst, a biochemical estimate of the dose would provide an independent means of obtaining information otherwise based solely on physical considerations and assumptions. In addition, a biochemical estimate of radiation injury may also, under ideal circumstances, serve as a guide to the attending physician in chosing the type of therapy most efficacious and least likely to lead to complications in the near as well as more distant future. The availability of biochemical indicators capable of revealing with some degree of accuracy the impairment of function of a particular organ would be a helpful adjunct in making decisions concerning the therapeutic approach to be adopted. The latter aspect would be of considerable interest in acute, accidental radiation exposures since under these circumstances radiation exposures are frequently of the partial-body type. An estimate of radiation injury by means of biochemical indicators should also prove useful in cases of protracted or chronic exposures to radiation, the source of which may be either external or internal. The use of biochemical indicators under these conditions of radiation exposure may, in general, aid 'case-finding' efforts and, in a more specific way, may help in pin-pointing discrete organ dysfunctions. In evaluating the suitability of radiation-induced metabolic changes for application as biochemical indicators of radiation damage, the following general criteria may be set forth: (1) the biochemical response to irradiation must be dose-dependent within a certain, sufficiently wide range in order to be useful; (2) the sensitivity of the indicator should be high in terms of units of response per R exposed to; (3) the detectability of the biochemical response in relation to the time of exposure should, under ideal conditions, be maximal at a single time point during the post-irradiation period and this time point should not vary with the radiation dose; (4) the biochemical procedure for detecting the radiation response should be rapid, simple, and capable of execution in clinical laboratories not necessarily equipped with sophisticated apparatus; (5) the sample to be examined should be readily biopsied without endangering the recovery of the patient (the preferred method is the one which can be repeated several times, i.e. with which samples from the same patient can be obtained repeatedly with impunity); (6) the indicator selected should not suffer from interference by metabolic changes which are related to disease processes not related to the sequelae of exposure to ionizing radiations, e.g. malignancies, intercurrent infections, etc. Since many of the conceivable biochemical indicators depend upon contributions by various organs and thus possess little organ specificity and since other possible indicator systems represent indirect effects mediated by adrenal, pituitary, and other hormones, it seems realistic to assume that no single biochemical indicator will be satisfory in any one situation, but that, instead, multiple biochemical indicators will need to be resorted to in order to explore all possible aspects of radiation damage. Thus, indicators will be needed which are applicable at various dose levels and times after exposure. Furthermore, the ideal indicator system should be applicable after total- as well as partial-body irradiation, a special case of which would be a completely organ-specific indicator. (author)}
place = {IAEA}
year = {1971}
month = {Mar}
}